WorldWideScience

Sample records for country case studies

  1. Cost of dengue outbreaks: literature review and country case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Hans-Christian; Butenschoen, Vicki Marie; Tran, Hien Tinh; Gozzer, Ernesto; Skewes, Ronald; Mahendradhata, Yodi; Runge-Ranzinger, Silvia; Kroeger, Axel; Farlow, Andrew

    2013-11-06

    Dengue disease surveillance and vector surveillance are presumed to detect dengue outbreaks at an early stage and to save--through early response activities--resources, and reduce the social and economic impact of outbreaks on individuals, health systems and economies. The aim of this study is to unveil evidence on the cost of dengue outbreaks. Economic evidence on dengue outbreaks was gathered by conducting a literature review and collecting information on the costs of recent dengue outbreaks in 4 countries: Peru, Dominican Republic, Vietnam, and Indonesia. The literature review distinguished between costs of dengue illness including cost of dengue outbreaks, cost of interventions and cost-effectiveness of interventions. Seventeen publications on cost of dengue showed a large range of costs from 0.2 Million US$ in Venezuela to 135.2 Million US$ in Brazil. However, these figures were not standardized to make them comparable. Furthermore, dengue outbreak costs are calculated differently across the publications, and cost of dengue illness is used interchangeably with cost of dengue outbreaks. Only one paper from Australia analysed the resources saved through active dengue surveillance. Costs of vector control interventions have been reported in 4 studies, indicating that the costs of such interventions are lower than those of actual outbreaks. Nine papers focussed on the cost-effectiveness of dengue vaccines or dengue vector control; they do not provide any direct information on cost of dengue outbreaks, but their modelling methodologies could guide future research on cost-effectiveness of national surveillance systems.The country case studies--conducted in very different geographic and health system settings - unveiled rough estimates for 2011 outbreak costs of: 12 million US$ in Vietnam, 6.75 million US$ in Indonesia, 4.5 million US$ in Peru and 2.8 million US$ in Dominican Republic (all in 2012 US$). The proportions of the different cost components (vector control

  2. Cost of dengue outbreaks: literature review and country case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dengue disease surveillance and vector surveillance are presumed to detect dengue outbreaks at an early stage and to save – through early response activities – resources, and reduce the social and economic impact of outbreaks on individuals, health systems and economies. The aim of this study is to unveil evidence on the cost of dengue outbreaks. Methods Economic evidence on dengue outbreaks was gathered by conducting a literature review and collecting information on the costs of recent dengue outbreaks in 4 countries: Peru, Dominican Republic, Vietnam, and Indonesia. The literature review distinguished between costs of dengue illness including cost of dengue outbreaks, cost of interventions and cost-effectiveness of interventions. Results Seventeen publications on cost of dengue showed a large range of costs from 0.2 Million US$ in Venezuela to 135.2 Million US$ in Brazil. However, these figures were not standardized to make them comparable. Furthermore, dengue outbreak costs are calculated differently across the publications, and cost of dengue illness is used interchangeably with cost of dengue outbreaks. Only one paper from Australia analysed the resources saved through active dengue surveillance. Costs of vector control interventions have been reported in 4 studies, indicating that the costs of such interventions are lower than those of actual outbreaks. Nine papers focussed on the cost-effectiveness of dengue vaccines or dengue vector control; they do not provide any direct information on cost of dengue outbreaks, but their modelling methodologies could guide future research on cost-effectiveness of national surveillance systems. The country case studies – conducted in very different geographic and health system settings - unveiled rough estimates for 2011 outbreak costs of: 12 million US$ in Vietnam, 6.75 million US$ in Indonesia, 4.5 million US$ in Peru and 2.8 million US$ in Dominican Republic (all in 2012 US$). The proportions of the

  3. Evaluating Decoupling Process in OECD Countries: Case Study of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Nazan; Şengün Ucal, Meltem; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is at the top of the present and future problems facing humanity. Climate change is now largely attributed to human activities and economic activities are the source of human activities that cause climate change by creating pressure on the environment. Providing the sustainability of resources for the future seems possible by reducing the pressure of these economic activities on the environment. Given the increasing population pressure and growth-focused economies, it is possible to say that achieving decoupling is not so easy on a global basis. It is known that there are some problems in developing countries especially in terms of accessing reliable data in transition and implementation process of decoupling. Developed countries' decoupling practices and proper calculation methods can also be a guide for developing countries. In this study, we tried to calculate the comparative decoupling index for OECD countries and Turkey in terms of data suitability, and we showed the differences between them. We tried to indicate the level of decoupling (weak, stable, strong) for each country. We think that the comparison of Turkey can be an example in terms of developing countries. Acknowledgement: This research has been supported by Bogazici University Research Fund Grant Number 12220.

  4. Software Development Offshoring Competitiveness: A Case Study of ASEAN Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Minh Q.

    2011-01-01

    With the success of offshoring within the American software industry, corporate executives are moving their software developments overseas. The member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have become a preferred destination. However, there is a lack of published studies on the region's software competitiveness in…

  5. Developing countries and incipient industrialization: a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Botswana's small and large towns offer good examples of incipient industrialization and enterprise clustering in a developing economy. Using data from Lobatse, a small industrial centre in Botswana, this brief paper shows that clustering in developing countries does not necessarily induce high inter-firm relationships as is ...

  6. Gas pricing in developing countries: A case study of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, H.M.; Abid, M.S.; Ansari, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    Pakistan, a developing country, has gone through various phases of formulating gas pricing policies during its 40-year history of natural gas production and consumption. This paper identifies critical factors that influenced gas pricing policies in Pakistan and adverse effects experienced when any of these factors was not given proper consideration. For instance, on the producer's side, discounted pricing formulas discouraged further exploration and development, leaving high-potential areas unexplored and discovered fields dormant for more than a decade. On the consumer's side, subsidized gas prices encouraged consumption to rise steeply without new discoveries to offset additional surplus consumption. The paper also discusses various short- and long-term variables that should go into a gas pricing policy for developing countries. References to recent policies are also given, indicating how these variables were incorporated in real terms. The conclusions and recommendations, based on Pakistan's long experience with the gas industry, should be useful for other oil-importing countries rich in indigenous gas resources

  7. Contextualising case studies in entrepreneurship: A tandem approach to conducting a longitudinal cross-country case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chetty, S. K.; Partanen, J.; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager

    2014-01-01

    Using predictive and effectuation logics as a framework, this research note explains how case study research was conducted to demonstrate rigour and relevance. The study involves a longitudinal cross-country case study on small and medium-sized firm growth and networks undertaken by research teams...... in three countries (Finland, Denmark and New Zealand) involving 33 firms. This research note outlines the implications of this research and provides valuable guidance and reflections upon opportunities for future research regarding the conduct of contextual studies in entrepreneurship without compromising...

  8. Multiple case study in seven European countries regarding culture-sensitive classroom quality assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Slot, P.L.; Cadima, Joana; Salminen, Jenni; Pastori, Giulia; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a multiple case study, conducted in seven European countries to examine common and culturally differing aspects of curriculum, pedagogy, and quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) provisions in Europe. This multiple case study involved intensive data collection on structural characteristics, process quality, implemented curricula and pedagogical approaches in four ECEC centers in each of the seven countries that were considered examples of ‘g...

  9. Coastal Vulnerability to Erosion Processes: Study Cases from Different Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anfuso, Giorgio; Martinez Del Pozo, Jose Angel; Rangel-Buitrago, Nelson

    2010-05-01

    When natural processes affect or threaten human activities or infrastructures they become a natural hazard. In order to prevent the natural hazards impact and the associated economic and human losses, coastal managers need to know the intrinsic vulnerability of the littoral, using information on the physical and ecological coastal features, human occupation and present and future shoreline trends. The prediction of future coastline positions can be based on the study of coastal changes which have occurred over recent decades. Vertical aerial photographs, satellite imagery and maps are very useful data sources for the reconstruction of coast line changes at long (>60 years) and medium (between 60 and 10 years) temporal and spatial scales. Vulnerability maps have been obtained for several coastal sectors around the world through the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS), computer-assisted multivariate analysis and numerical models. In the USA, "Flood Insurance Rate Maps" have been created by the government and "Coastal Zone Hazard Maps" have been prepared for coastal stretches affected by hurricane Hugo. In Spain, the vulnerability of the Ebro and an Andalusia coastal sector were investigated over different time scales. McLaughlin et al., (2002) developed a GIS based coastal vulnerability index for the Northern Ireland littoral that took into account socio-economic activities and coastal resistance to erosion and energetic characteristics. Lizárraga et al., (2001) combined beach reduction at Rosario (Mexico) with the probability of damage to landward structures, obtaining a vulnerability matrix. In this work several coastal vulnerability maps have also been created by comparing data on coastal erosion/accretion and land use along different coastal sectors in Italy, Morocco and Colombia. Keywords: Hazard, Vulnerability, Coastal Erosion, Italy, Morocco, Colombia.

  10. Female entrepreneurship in developing countries,  Barriers and Motivation : Case Study, Egypt and Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Moustafa, Gihan; Santos, Ajoqué

    2016-01-01

    Entrepreneurship accounted by women has become important all over the world, especially in developing countries where it plays not only an economic role but a social role as well, changing communities and consequently, the whole society. The purpose of this paper is to identify the main motivation and barriers faced by women in developing countries, especially concerning the case study, namely Brazil and Egypt. In order to accomplish that, a deep literature review has been done and ten cases ...

  11. Multiple case study in seven European countries regarding culture-sensitive classroom quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, P.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328192694; Cadima, Joana; Salminen, Jenni; Pastori, Giulia; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina

    This report presents the findings of a multiple case study, conducted in seven European countries to examine common and culturally differing aspects of curriculum, pedagogy, and quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) provisions in Europe. This multiple case study involved intensive

  12. Capacity Building for Women in African Countries: A Case Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Capacity Building for Women in African Countries: A Case Study of Sierra Leone. ... In the case of women this has further inured from histories of discrimination most of which stems from socio-cultural factors and forces. Ongoing ... The paper is informed by conceptual analysis of existing literature and official documentation.

  13. Brand Launching and Sustainingin a developing country : The case study of Honda on Vietnam Motorcycle Market

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thi Bich Ngoc; Nguyen, Thi Xuan Thu

    2009-01-01

      Abstract Date May 29th, 2009 Course Master Thesis EFO705, International Marketing Tutor Daniel Tolstoy Authors Thi Bich Ngoc Nguyen Thi Xuan Thu Nguyen Title Brand Launching and Sustaining in a Developing CountryPurpose The project is to investigate the Brand Launching and Sustaining in a The Case Study of Honda on Vietnam Motorcycle Market developing country through the study on how Honda has successfully launched and sustained its Brand on the Motorcycle Market of Vietnam. Problems Hond...

  14. Implementing maternal death surveillance and response: a review of lessons from country case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Helen; Ameh, Charles; Roos, Natalie; Mathai, Matthews; Broek, Nynke van den

    2017-07-17

    Maternal Death Surveillance and Response (MDSR) implementation is monitored globally, but not much is known about what works well, where and why in scaling up. We reviewed a series of country case studies in order to determine whether and to what extent these countries have implemented the four essential components of MDSR and identify lessons for improving implementation. A secondary analysis of ten case studies from countries at different stages of MDSR implementation, using a policy analysis framework to draw out lessons learnt and opportunities for improvement. We identify the consistent drivers of success in countries with well-established systems for MDSR, and common barriers in countries were Maternal Death Review (MDR) systems have been less successful. MDR is accepted and ongoing at subnational level in many countries, but it is not adequately institutionalised and the shift from facility based MDR to continuous MDSR that informs the wider health system still needs to be made. Our secondary analysis of country experiences highlights the need for a) social and team processes at facility level, for example the existence of a 'no shame, no blame' culture, and the ability to reflect on practice and manage change as a team for recommendations to be acted upon, b) health system inputs including adequate funding and reliable health information systems to enable identification and analysis of cases c) national level coordination of dissemination, and monitoring implementation of recommendations at all levels and d) mandatory notification of maternal deaths (and enforcement of this) and a professional requirement to participate in MDRs. Case studies from countries with established MDSR systems can provide valuable guidance on ways to set up the processes and overcome some of the barriers; but the challenge, as with many health system interventions, is to find a way to provide catalytic assistance and strengthen capacity for MDSR such that this becomes embedded in

  15. The Somalia Country Case Study. Mid-Decade Review of Progress towards Education for All.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennaars, Gerard A.; Seif, Huda A.; Mwangi, Doris

    In 1995, the International Consultative Forum on Education for All commissioned case studies in developing countries as part of a mid-decade review of progress in expanding access to basic education. This paper examines the situation in Somalia, where civil war has completely destroyed the infrastructure of education. Part 1 summarizes Somalia's…

  16. Impact of China on sub-Saharan Africa : Country Case Studies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Impact of China on sub-Saharan Africa : Country Case Studies. China is emerging as a major power in the global economy. The broad-based nature of its industrial development has generated a sustained and high demand for oil and raw materials, a significant reason for the current strength of oil and other commodity ...

  17. 16 case studies on the deployment of photovoltaic technologies in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme presents 16 Case Studies on the deployment of photovoltaic technologies in developing countries. This guide provides information for all decision-makers in developing countries involved in the process of developing a PV project. These decision-makers can be found in institutions and host governments and also include PV project developers and sponsors, PV producers and suppliers, entrepreneurs, and NGOs. The case studies presented can help such decision-makers learn from past experience gained in the deployment of PV systems. They include experience gained in PV-related projects in various countries, including electrification, water desalination and solar home systems. Financing issues are, of course, also addressed.

  18. Case studies on employment-related health inequalities in countries representing different types of labor markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Ho; Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo; Benach, Joan

    2010-01-01

    The authors selected nine case studies, one country from each cluster of their labor market inequalities typology, to outline the macro-political and economic roots of employment relations and their impacts on health. These countries illustrate variations in labor markets and health, categorized into a global empirical typology. The case studies illustrated that workers' health is significantly connected with labor market characteristics and the welfare system. For a core country, the labor market is characterized by a formal sector. The labor institutions of Sweden traditionally have high union density and collective bargaining coverage and a universal health care system, which correlate closely with positive health, in comparison with Spain and the United States. For a semi-periphery country, the labor market is delineated by a growing informal economy. Although South Korea, Venezuela, and El Salvador provide some social welfare benefits, a high proportion of irregular and informal workers are excluded from these benefits and experience hazardous working conditions that adversely affect their health. Lastly, several countries in the global periphery--China, Nigeria, and Haiti--represent informal work and severe labor market insecurity. In the absence of labor market regulations, the majority of their workers toil in the informal sector in unsafe conditions with inadequate health care.

  19. Economic burden of torture for a refugee host country: development of a model and presentation of a country case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpinga EK

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Emmanuel Kabengele Mpinga,1,* Conrad Frey,2,* Philippe Chastonay1,*1Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; 2Psychiatric Clinic, Obwalden Cantonal Hospital, Sarnen, Switzerland*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Torture is an important social and political problem worldwide that affects millions of people. Many host countries give victims of torture the status of refugee and take care of them as far as basic needs; health care, professional reinsertion, and education. Little is known about the costs of torture. However, this knowledge could serve as an additional argument for the prevention and social mobilization to fight against torture and to provide a powerful basis of advocacy for rehabilitation programs and judiciary claims.Objectives: Development of a model for estimating the economic costs of torture and applying the model to a specific country.Methods: The estimation of the possible prevalence of victims of torture was based on a review of the literature. The identification of the socioeconomic factors to be considered was done by analogy with various health problems. The estimation of the loss of the productivity and of the economic burden of disease related to torture was done through the human capital approach and the component technique analysis.Case study: The model was applied to the situation in Switzerland of estimated torture victims Switzerland is confronted with.Results: When applied to the case study, the direct costs – such as housing, food, and clothing – represent roughly 130 million Swiss francs (CHF per year; whereas, health care costs amount to 16 million CHF per year, and the costs related to education of young people to 34 million CHF per year. Indirect costs, namely those costs related to the loss of the productivity of direct survivors of torture, have been estimated to one-third of 1 billion CHF per year. This jumps to

  20. The impact of nation branding campaigns on country image. Case Study: Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Anca-Georgiana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze how a nation branding campaign can influence the image of a country and to highlight its positive or negative impact on industries such as tourism and on people’s perception. In order to accomplish this objective, Romania was taken as a case study. Five of the most important nation branding campaigns in Romania, after 1989, were examined in comparison, analyzing the same indicators. In the end, the paper shows that if nation branding campaigns do not follow a long-term strategy with all actors involved in the process, its impact in country image may be rather negative.

  1. Adoption of the HPV vaccine: a case study of three emerging countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro Martínez, Araceli; Espín Balbino, Jaime; Lemgruber, Alexandre; Martín Ruiz, Eva; Olry de Labry Lima, Antonio; García-Mochón, Leticia; Lessa, Fernanda

    2017-05-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has recently attracted considerable attention in emerging countries, due to its potential to reduce the impact of HPV-related diseases. This case study sheds new light about the variety of HTA arrangements, methods and processes involved in the adoption and use of HPV vaccines in a selected sample of central, eastern and southern Europe and Latin America and the Caribbean, all of them emerging in the use of HTA. A multi-country case study was designed. Mixed methods, document review, semi-structured surveys and personal communication with experts, were used for data collection and triangulation. This study shows that common elements of good practice exist in the processes and methods used, with all countries arriving at the same appraisal recommendations. However, the influence of socio-politico-economic factors appears to be determinant on the final decisions and restrictions to access made. This case study intends to draw useful lessons for policymakers in emerging settings interested in the adoption of the HPV vaccine supported by evidence-informed processes, such as those offered by institutionalized HTA. Future studies are also recommended to elucidate the specific roles that social values and uncertainties play in vaccine decision-making across different societies.

  2. Case Study for Effectiveness Analysis on Nuclear Regulatory Infrastructure Support for Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. E.; Byeon, M. J.; Yoo, J. W.; Lee, J. M.; Lim, J. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The donor countries need to make decisions on various steps such as whether to fully accept newcomers’ requests, the depth of support, and how the supportive action will be carried out. Such is not an easy task due to limited time, resources, manpower, etc. Thus, creating an infrastructure to support emerging nuclear energy countries is needed. This paper suggests the resource portfolio concept used in business management and aims to analyze the validity of supporting the new entrants’ development of regulatory infrastructure as a case study. This study tries to develop a very simple Excel-based tool for assessing the supporting strategy quantitatively and screening the activities that is projected to be less effective and attractive. There are many countries, so called newcomers, which have expressed interests in developing their own nuclear power program. It has been recognized by the international community that every country considering embarking upon their own nuclear power program should establish their nuclear safety infrastructure to sustain a high level of nuclear safety. The newcomers have requested for considerable assistance from the IAEA and they already have bilateral cooperation programs with the advanced countries with matured nuclear regulatory programs. Currently, the regulatory bodies that provide support are confronted with two responsibilities as follows; the primary objective of the regulatory bodies is to ensure that the operator fulfills the responsibility to protect human health.

  3. Case Study for Effectiveness Analysis on Nuclear Regulatory Infrastructure Support for Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. E.; Byeon, M. J.; Yoo, J. W.; Lee, J. M.; Lim, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    The donor countries need to make decisions on various steps such as whether to fully accept newcomers’ requests, the depth of support, and how the supportive action will be carried out. Such is not an easy task due to limited time, resources, manpower, etc. Thus, creating an infrastructure to support emerging nuclear energy countries is needed. This paper suggests the resource portfolio concept used in business management and aims to analyze the validity of supporting the new entrants’ development of regulatory infrastructure as a case study. This study tries to develop a very simple Excel-based tool for assessing the supporting strategy quantitatively and screening the activities that is projected to be less effective and attractive. There are many countries, so called newcomers, which have expressed interests in developing their own nuclear power program. It has been recognized by the international community that every country considering embarking upon their own nuclear power program should establish their nuclear safety infrastructure to sustain a high level of nuclear safety. The newcomers have requested for considerable assistance from the IAEA and they already have bilateral cooperation programs with the advanced countries with matured nuclear regulatory programs. Currently, the regulatory bodies that provide support are confronted with two responsibilities as follows; the primary objective of the regulatory bodies is to ensure that the operator fulfills the responsibility to protect human health

  4. Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

    2015-04-04

    Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A case study of polypharmacy management in nine European countries: Implications for change management and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Jennifer; Alonso, Albert; MacLure, Katie; Stewart, Derek; Kempen, Thomas; Mair, Alpana; Castel-Branco, Margarida; Codina, Carles; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando; Fleming, Glenda; Gennimata, Dimitra; Gillespie, Ulrika; Harrison, Cathy; Illario, Maddalena; Junius-Walker, Ulrike; Kampolis, Christos F; Kardas, Przemyslaw; Lewek, Pawel; Malva, João; Menditto, Enrica; Scullin, Claire; Wiese, Birgitt

    2018-01-01

    Multimorbidity and its associated polypharmacy contribute to an increase in adverse drug events, hospitalizations, and healthcare spending. This study aimed to address: what exists regarding polypharmacy management in the European Union (EU); why programs were, or were not, developed; and, how identified initiatives were developed, implemented, and sustained. Change management principles (Kotter) and normalization process theory (NPT) informed data collection and analysis. Nine case studies were conducted in eight EU countries: Germany (Lower Saxony), Greece, Italy (Campania), Poland, Portugal, Spain (Catalonia), Sweden (Uppsala), and the United Kingdom (Northern Ireland and Scotland). The workflow included a review of country/region specific polypharmacy policies, key informant interviews with stakeholders involved in policy development and implementation and, focus groups of clinicians and managers. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis of individual cases and framework analysis across cases. Polypharmacy initiatives were identified in five regions (Catalonia, Lower Saxony, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Uppsala) and included all care settings. There was agreement, even in cases without initiatives, that polypharmacy is a significant issue to address. Common themes regarding the development and implementation of polypharmacy management initiatives were: locally adapted solutions, organizational culture supporting innovation and teamwork, adequate workforce training, multidisciplinary teams, changes in workflow, redefinition of roles and responsibilities of professionals, policies and legislation supporting the initiative, and data management and information and communication systems to assist development and implementation. Depending on the setting, these were considered either facilitators or barriers to implementation. Within the studied EU countries, polypharmacy management was not widely addressed. These results highlight the importance of change

  6. The Study Of Fiscal Sustainability For The Case Of Overindebted European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea STOIAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims in analysing the fiscal sustainability for the case of European countries most affected by the economic downturn and sovereign debt: Portugal, Ireland, Italy, Greece and Spain. For that purpose, we apply fiscal reaction function which indicates the speed and the size of government response to shocks on public debt. We use annual data ranged on 1995-2013. The results show that only for the cases of Italy and Portugal governments managed to fulfil the conditions for a sustainable fiscal policy. For these countries, the response is positive and immediate. On contrary, for Ireland we detect a negative reaction in the sense of a decreasing primary surplus to the increase of public debt by 1 p.p.. For the cases of Greece and Spain, the results are not statistically significant and we cannot conclude whether fiscal policy is sustainable or not. But we can emphasize a positive reaction to the increase of public debt cost in the case of Spain.

  7. Experience in Modelling Nuclear Energy Systems with MESSAGE: Country Case Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    Member States have recognized the increasing need to model future nuclear power scenarios in order to develop strategies for sustainable nuclear energy systems. The IAEA model for energy supply strategy alternatives and their general environmental impacts (MESSAGE) code is a tool that supports energy analysis and planning in Member States. This publication documents the experience gained on modelling and scenario analysis of nuclear energy systems (NES) using the MESSAGE code through various case studies performed by the participating Member States on evaluation and planning for nuclear energy sustainability at the regional or national level. The publication also elaborates on experience gained in modelling of global nuclear energy systems with a focus on specific aspects of collaboration among technology holder and technology user countries and the introduction of innovative nuclear technologies. It presents country case studies covering a variety of nuclear energy systems based on a once-through fuel cycle and a closed fuel cycle for thermal reactors, fast reactors and advanced systems. The feedback from case studies proves the analytical capabilities of the MESSAGE model and highlight the path forward for further advancements in the MESSAGE code and NES modelling.

  8. Using information technology for an improved pharmaceutical care delivery in developing countries. Study case: Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edoh, Thierry Oscar; Teege, Gunnar

    2011-10-01

    One of the problems in health care in developing countries is the bad accessibility of medicine in pharmacies for patients. Since this is mainly due to a lack of organization and information, it should be possible to improve the situation by introducing information and communication technology. However, for several reasons, standard solutions are not applicable here. In this paper, we describe a case study in Benin, a West African developing country. We identify the problem and the existing obstacles for applying standard ECommerce solutions. We develop an adapted system approach and describe a practical test which has shown that the approach has the potential of actually improving the pharmaceutical care delivery. Finally, we consider the security aspects of the system and propose an organizational solution for some specific security problems.

  9. Implementation of e-commerce in developing countries: impact and its limitations-Albanian Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genti Çela

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of Electronic Commerce (hereinafter referred to as "e-Commerce" in developed countries has been proven as an indisputable potential to ameliorate the efficiency and productivity in different areas, therefore, its implementation is attracting significant attention in developing countries. Despite its opportunities established in developed countries, there were many doubts about the e-commerce implementation in developing countries. That reluctance is heightened by the limited number of studies on e-commerce and the lack of legislation. This paper aims to contribute on filling the research gap by highlighting the e-commerce implementation in Albania as a developing country, its importance, the level of trust, its benefits, its positive or negative impacts and its limitations. This study will be continuously and accordingly updated with new evidence based on research results, along with future developments of Albania’s economic, political, social and demographic environment. This is because different areas represent different infrastructure and different social and economic characteristics, different levels of trust on transactions, different attitudes towards institutions. We have also take into consideration that different communities have different attitudes toward the acceptance and developments of e-Commerce system. In this paper, we present a comprehensive approach to e-commerce, concentrating specifically on Albanian case. Firstly we analyze the current situation of e-Commerce. Secondly we pay attention to the benefits and legal strategies for its implementation. The third step consists in presenting the relevant objectives. We believe and insist that the development of e-commerce in developing nations, - including Albania, has a positive perspective, if the government, companies and the public can better understand and implement e-Commerce.

  10. A case study of an ESL Student learning English in an English Speaking Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Taufiq

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Different students who learn English as the second language has various problems and strategies to overcome. A case study on an international student who learns English as a second language in an English speaking country raised some problems he had and offered some strategies he used during the process of learning. The progress of learning from the first time coming and studying at a college in Australia was mainly the core data collected on this study. The data copes from his formal academic learning experience and also from informal situation that he met at his everyday life. This study applied qualitative research method and use interview and recording as the instruments. The data were analized through three stages: data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing. The results of the study show that the learner experiences a range of English learning problems which happened after his coming to Australia and some strategies he used to overcome.

  11. Factors Influencing Adaptive Marine Governance in a Developing Country Context: a Case Study of Southern Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa S. Evans

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive governance can be conceptualized as distinct phases of: 1 understanding environmental change; 2 using this understanding to inform decision making; and 3 acting on decisions in a manner that sustains resilience of desirable system states. Using this analytical framework, we explore governance in practice in two case studies in Kenya, that reflect the "messiness" of contemporary coastal governance in many developing country contexts. Findings suggest that adaptive marine governance is unlikely to be a smooth process of learning, knowledge sharing, and responding. There are institutional, sociocultural, and political factors, past and present, that influence each phase of both local and state decision making. New local institutions related to fisher associations and Beach Management Units influence learning and knowledge sharing in ways contrary to those expected of institutions that enable collaborative fisheries management. Similarly, state decision making is relatively uninformed by the diverse knowledge systems available in the coastal zone, despite the rhetoric of participation. Historical relations and modes of working continue to play a significant role in mediating the potential for adaptive governance in the future. The case studies are illustrative and point to a number of institutional and political issues that would need to be addressed in processes of governance reform towards more adaptive management in developing country contexts.

  12. Waste management barriers in developing country hospitals: Case study and AHP analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmonico, Diego V de Godoy; Santos, Hugo H Dos; Pinheiro, Marco Ap; de Castro, Rosani; de Souza, Regiane M

    2018-01-01

    Healthcare waste management is an essential field for both researchers and practitioners. Although there have been few studies using statistical methods for its evaluation, it has been the subject of several studies in different contexts. Furthermore, the known precarious practices for waste management in developing countries raise questions about its potential barriers. This study aims to investigate the barriers in healthcare waste management and their relevance. For this purpose, this paper analyses waste management practices in two Brazilian hospitals by using case study and the Analytic Hierarchy Process method. The barriers were organized into three categories - human factors, management, and infrastructure, and the main findings suggest that cost and employee awareness were the most significant barriers. These results highlight the main barriers to more sustainable waste management, and provide an empirical basis for multi-criteria evaluation of the literature.

  13. Corporate carbon footprint for country Climate Change mitigation: A case study of a tannery in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, Eylem; Puig, Rita; Zengin, Gökhan; Zengin, Candaş Adıgüzel; Fullana-I-Palmer, Pere

    2018-09-01

    Assessment of carbon emissions and environmental impact of production is indispensable to achieve a sustainable industrial production in Turkey, especially for those companies willing to compete in new international green markets. In this case study, corporate carbon footprint of a representative Turkish tanning company was analyzed. Inventory and impact data are presented to help in the environmental decision-making process. The results indicate that significant environmental impacts were caused during the landfilling of solid wastes as well as the production of the electricity and fuel required in the tannery. Turkish tannery inventory data presented here for the first time will be useful for leather tanning company managers to calculate sustainability key indicators. Improving alternatives at country level were identified (increasing the renewable sources on electricity production and promote energy recovery in landfills) which would be useful not only to decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of tanning sector but also of other industries requiring electricity and producing organic wastes. Considering the substantial contribution of industrial processes to the Turkish carbon emissions (15.7%) (TUIK, 2013), work done on those areas would provide a sound improvement in environmental profile of Turkey. The importance to promote a national strategy to reduce GHG emissions in Turkey was discussed here, as well as its relation to corporate carbon footprint assessments. One of the significant points revealed from the case study is the lack of published country specific emission factors for Turkey, which is a fundamental prerequisite to promote corporate carbon footprint assessment within the country. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Release criteria from hospitals of 131I thyrotoxicosis therapy patients in developing countries - case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, W.; Faaruq, S.; Matiullah; Hussain, A.; Khan, A. A.

    2006-01-01

    The current release limit, recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (1), from hospitals of patients undergoing 131 I thyrotoxicosis therapy is ∼1100 MBq (∼30 mCi). Owing to the difference in socio-economic conditions, literacy rate, family system, etc., this release limit may not be applicable in most of the developing countries like Pakistan. Therefore, the prime objective of this case study was to re-evaluate the release criteria for 131 I thyrotoxicosis therapy patients by taking into account their lifestyle, economic conditions and other facilities such as availability of private/public transport, etc. In this context, systematic studies were carried out and 50 patients (i.e. 35 outpatients and 15 inpatients) at the Nuclear Medicine Oncology and Radiotherapy Inst. (NORI), Islamabad, were studied. Exposure rate at the surface of the body and at a distance of 1 m from the standing patient was measured. Results obtained from this study showed that the dose equivalent delivered by these patients to their family members (particularly children) and general public was higher than annual dose limits recommended by the International Commission for Radiation Protection in their report ICRP Publication 60 (2). In the light of this study, it is recommended that the release activity limit of ∼370 MBq (or dose rate level of ∼10 μSv h -1 at 1 m from the patient) be adopted instead of ∼1100 MBq in developing countries like Pakistan. (authors)

  15. An international labour migration to developing countries in Asia: a case study of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J K

    1996-12-01

    This study is based on a random sample of 431 temporary migrant workers from developing countries in Korea. Interviews were conducted from mid-October 1995 to mid-March 1996 with 105 Pakistanis, 77 Filipinos, 71 Sri Lankans, 67 Bangladeshi, 40 Indonesians, 26 individuals from Myanmar, 22 Chinese, 16 Nepalese, 2 Iranians, 2 Kazakstanians, 1 Malaysian, 1 Vietnamese, and 1 Ghanaian. Migration follows legal and illegal patterns. Legal trainee migrants leave before their contract time due to low pay, inadequate living conditions, forced overtime work, and lack of freedom. Trainees tend to be ethnic Koreans born in China and Chinese nationals. The number of illegal migrants is increasing. Foreign workers gain entry illegally through smuggling networks and legally through industrial work or tourist visas. Sample data reveal that the average age ranged from 26 to 32 years. Almost 70% were unmarried, and most were males. Filipinos tended to be older and show gender and marital balance. Age, marital status, religion, and education varied widely by ethnic group. Indonesians and Sri Lankans had lower household income than Pakistanis and Filipinos. Pakistanis tended to come from larger families. Total travel costs ranged from $3000 to $5000. Korea is one of four rapidly developing countries that shifted from being a major exporter of labor to a major importer of workers. Shortages of workers accompanied the shift. This case study illustrates that the traditional structural paradigm does not explain some unique features of international labor migration (ILM) in Asia, including the encouragement of illegal migration. The clandestine networks are different from those in developed countries. State policies mediate the flow of ILM.

  16. Implications of Public External Debt for Social Spending: A Case Study of Selected Asian Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Sadia Shabbir; Hafiz M. Yasin

    2015-01-01

    For developing countries with budgetary and balance-of-payments gaps to meet, maintaining large stakes of external debt is not free of cost. Highly indebted countries have to set aside a sizeable fraction of their scarce resources to service their debt, which naturally affects their development spending in general and allocations for the social sector in particular. This study examines the behavior of seven developing Asian countries and analyzes the impact of public external debt on social s...

  17. Malaria control in Bhutan: case study of a country embarking on elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangzom Thinley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bhutan has achieved a major reduction in malaria incidence amid multiple challenges. This case study seeks to characterize the Bhutan malaria control programme over the last 10 years. Methods A review of the malaria epidemiology, control strategies, and elimination strategies employed in Bhutan was carried out through a literature review of peer-reviewed and grey national and international literature with the addition of reviewing the surveillance and vector control records of the Bhutan Vector-Borne Disease Control Programme (VDCP. Data triangulation was used to identify trends in epidemiology and key strategies and interventions through analysis of the VDCP surveillance and programme records and the literature review. Enabling and challenging factors were identified through analysis of socio-economic and health indicators, corroborated through a review of national and international reports and peer-review articles. Findings Confirmed malaria cases in Bhutan declined by 98.7% from 1994 to 2010. The majority of indigenous cases were due to Plasmodium vivax (59.9% and adult males are most at-risk of malaria. Imported cases, or those in foreign nationals, varied over the years, reaching 21.8% of all confirmed cases in 2006. Strategies implemented by the VDCP are likely to be related to the decline in cases over the last 10 years. Access to malaria diagnosis in treatment was expanded throughout the country and evidence-based case management, including the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT for P. falciparum, increasing coverage of high risk areas with Indoor Residual Spraying, insecticide-treated bed nets, and long-lasting insecticidal nets are likely to have contributed to the decline alongside enabling factors such as economic development and increasing access to health services. Conclusion Bhutan has made significant strides towards elimination and has adopted a goal of national elimination. A major

  18. Symposium on development and utilization of biomass energy resources in developing countries. Proceedings. V. 2: Country case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The present publication presents the results of three UNIDO-sponsored case studies, each with a separate abstract, concerned with perspectives of development and utilisation of biomass energy resources in Brazil, Philippines and Romania. Emphasis is put on identifying regional biomass energy resources. Policies and strategies governing as well as barriers limiting the development and utilization of biomass energy are discussed. Innovative technologies as well as technology transfer related to biomass energy utilisation are dealt with, together with economic and environmental issues

  19. An overview of the circular economy among SMEs in the Basque country: A multiple case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormazabal, M.; Prieto-Sandoval, V.; Jaca, C.; Santos, J.

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: This research analyzes the maturity of environmental management as well as the degree of to which the Circular Economy has been implemented in Basque SMEs. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 17 case studies were carried out in industrial SMEs companies in the Basque Country. Findings: The main results show that companies are limited to complying with the law and in many cases are worried about the image of the company, although they are not committed to environmental issues. There is still a lot to do in SMEs, as they are the companies that face the biggest challenges due to a lack of resources. Originality/value: Circular Economy aims to change a linear economy into promoting sustainability of the economy while also engaging in sustainable environmental protection. This research has focused on small and medium enterprises as they represent a 99% of companies in Europe and they are the ones that have the most difficulty reaching a stage of environmental excellence due to their limited resources.

  20. An overview of the circular economy among SMEs in the Basque country: A multiple case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormazabal, M.; Prieto-Sandoval, V.; Jaca, C.; Santos, J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This research analyzes the maturity of environmental management as well as the degree of to which the Circular Economy has been implemented in Basque SMEs. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 17 case studies were carried out in industrial SMEs companies in the Basque Country. Findings: The main results show that companies are limited to complying with the law and in many cases are worried about the image of the company, although they are not committed to environmental issues. There is still a lot to do in SMEs, as they are the companies that face the biggest challenges due to a lack of resources. Originality/value: Circular Economy aims to change a linear economy into promoting sustainability of the economy while also engaging in sustainable environmental protection. This research has focused on small and medium enterprises as they represent a 99% of companies in Europe and they are the ones that have the most difficulty reaching a stage of environmental excellence due to their limited resources.

  1. An overview of the circular economy among SMEs in the Basque country: A multiple case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ormazabal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This research analyzes the maturity of environmental management as well as the degree of to which the Circular Economy has been implemented in Basque SMEs. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 17 case studies were carried out in industrial SMEs companies in the Basque Country. Findings: The main results show that companies are limited to complying with the law and in many cases are worried about the image of the company, although they are not committed to environmental issues. There is still a lot to do in SMEs, as they are the companies that face the biggest challenges due to a lack of resources. Originality/value: Circular Economy aims to change a linear economy into promoting sustainability of the economy while also engaging in sustainable environmental protection. This research has focused on small and medium enterprises as they represent a 99% of companies in Europe and they are the ones that have the most difficulty reaching a stage of environmental excellence due to their limited resources.

  2. Climate variability as a threat for countries progressing towards malaria elimination: The case study of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousam, Aneela; Maggioni, Viviana; Quispe, Antonio; Aquila, Valentina

    2015-04-01

    Malaria cases reported by the Peruvian Ministry of Health demonstrate a 61% reduction of malaria in the last decade (2001- 2010). However, during the years 2011-14 malaria increased by ~2.7 folds in Peru and ~5 folds in Loreto, an Amazonian department that continues contributing over 90% of the malaria cases in Peru. Past studies have indicated that there is a strong association between climate variability and malaria rates. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that climate variables have played a key role in the recent increase of malaria cases in Peru. Climate data, such as precipitation, temperature, humidity and surface pressure simulated by the NASA MERRA model during a 10-year ling time series (2004-2013) are used to verify this hypothesis. Preliminary data analyses show large deviations from the 10-year mean (i.e., climatological anomalies) in humidity, surface pressure, and temperature during 2010 up to four times larger than previous and subsequent years. An increase of 8% in precipitation yearly averages is observed in 2010, which also corresponds with the following reverse of the downward trend of malaria incidence, particularly in Loreto. The sudden amplification of climatological anomalies in 2010 could have set the environmental conditions that caused the re-emergence of malaria in 2011. Investigation is underway to link weekly malaria data from different districts in Peru to the climate conditions at those locations during the past ten years. This will be crucial in understanding why some countries, despite all necessary efforts, are unable to completely eliminate malaria.

  3. Symposium on development and utilization of biomass energy resources in developing countries. Proceedings. V. 2: Country case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The present publication presents the results of three UNIDO-sponsored case studies, each with a separate abstract, concerned with perspectives of development and utilisation of biomass energy resources in Brazil, Philippines and Romania. Emphasis is put on identifying regional biomass energy resources. Policies and strategies governing as well as barriers limiting the development and utilization of biomass energy are discussed. Innovative technologies as well as technology transfer related to biomass energy utilisation are dealt with, together with economic and environmental issues Refs, figs, tabs

  4. Network Resilience Analysis: Review Of Concepts And A Country-Level. Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Kamola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the rationale behind performing an analysis of Internet resilience in the sense of maintaining a connection of autonomous systems in the presence of failures or attacks — on a level of a single country. Next, the graph of a network is constructed that represents interconnections between autonomous systems. The connectivity of the graph is examined for cases of link or node failure. Resilience metrics are proposed, focusing on a single autonomous system or on overall network reliability. The process of geographic location of networking infrastructure is presented, leading to an analysis of network resilience in the case of a joint failure of neighboring autonomous systems.

  5. Municipal solid waste management challenges in developing countries - Kenyan case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, Rotich K.; Zhao Yongsheng; Dong Jun

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the state of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) by local authorities in Kenya as a case study of a low-income developing country. Approaches of possible solutions that can be undertaken to improve municipal solid waste (MSW) services are discussed. Poor economic growth (1.1% in 1993) has resulted in an increase in the poverty level which presently stands at 56%. Migration from the rural areas to the urban areas has resulted in unplanned settlements in suburban areas accommodating about 60% of the urban population on only 5% urban land area. Political interference also hampers smooth running of local authorities. Vulnerability of pollution of surface and groundwater is high because local authorities rarely considered environmental impact in siting MSW disposal sites. Illegal dumping of MSW on the river banks or on the roadside poses environmental and economic threats on nearby properties. Poor servicing of MSW collection vehicles, poor state of infrastructure and the lack of adequate funding militate against optimization of MSW disposal service. The rural economy needs to be improved if rural-urban migration is to be managed. Involvement of stakeholders is important to achieve any meaningful and sustainable MSWM. The role of the informal sector through community-based organizations (CBOs), Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and the private sector in offering solutions towards improvement of MSWM also is explored

  6. Food waste quantification in primary production - The Nordic countries as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartikainen, Hanna; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Svanes, Erik; Franke, Ulrika

    2018-01-01

    Our understanding of food waste in the food supply chain has increased, but very few studies have been published on food waste in primary production. The overall aims of this study were to quantify the total amount of food waste in primary production in Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark, and to create a framework for how to define and quantify food waste in primary production. The quantification of food waste was based on case studies conducted in the present study and estimates published in scientific literature. The chosen scope of the study was to quantify the amount of edible food (excluding inedible parts like peels and bones) produced for human consumption that did not end up as food. As a result, the quantification was different from the existing guidelines. One of the main differences is that food that ends up as animal feed is included in the present study, whereas this is not the case for the recently launched food waste definition of the FUSIONS project. To distinguish the 'food waste' definition of the present study from the existing definitions and to avoid confusion with established usage of the term, a new term 'side flow' (SF) was introduced as a synonym for food waste in primary production. A rough estimate of the total amount of food waste in primary production in Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark was made using SF and 'FUSIONS Food Waste' (FFW) definitions. The SFs in primary production in the four Nordic countries were an estimated 800,000 tonnes per year with an additional 100,000 tonnes per year from the rearing phase of animals. The 900,000 tonnes per year of SF corresponds to 3.7% of the total production of 24,000,000 tonnes per year of edible primary products. When using the FFW definition proposed by the FUSIONS project, the FFW amount was estimated at 330,000 tonnes per year, or 1% of the total production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Child health and nutrition in Peru within an antipoverty political agenda: a Countdown to 2015 country case study

    OpenAIRE

    Huicho, L.; Segura, E.R.; Huayanay-Espinoza, C.A.; Niño de Guzman, J.; Restrepo-Méndez, M.C.; Tam, Y.; Barros, A.J.D.; Victora, C.G.; Hernández-Peña, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Peru is an upper-middle-income country with wide social and regional disparities. In recent years, sustained multisectoral antipoverty programmes involving governments, political parties, and civil society have included explicit health and nutrition goals and spending increased sharply. We did a country case study with the aim of documenting Peru's progress in reproductive, maternal, neonatal, and child health from 2000–13, and explored the potential determinants. Methods We examin...

  8. Participatory Research for Adaptive Water Management in a Transition Country - a Case Study from Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya Hirsch

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Participatory research has in recent years become a popular approach for problem-oriented scientific research that aims to tackle complex problems in a real management context. Within the European Union project NeWater, stakeholder processes were initiated in seven case studies to develop approaches for adaptive water management. The Uzbek part of the Amudarya River basin was one of the studied river basins. However, given the current political and cultural context in Uzbekistan, which provides little room for stakeholder participation, it was unclear to what extent participation could be realized there. In this paper, we present an evaluation of the participatory research carried out in the Amudarya case study with respect to (i the choice and application of different participatory methods and their adaptation to the given political, socioeconomic, and cultural environment, (ii their usefulness in improving system understanding and developing strategies and measures to improve water management and monitoring, and (iii their acceptance and suitability for enhancing policy-making processes in the Amudarya River basin context. The main lessons learned from the comparison of the different participatory methods were (1 the stakeholder process provided an opportunity for meetings and discussions among stakeholders from different organizational levels and thus promoted communication between different levels and organizations, and (2 in a context where most stakeholders are not generally involved in policy-making, there is a danger of raising expectations that a research project cannot meet, e.g., of transferring local interests to higher levels. Our experience shows that in order to choose participatory methods and adapt them to the Uzbek cultural and political setting (and most likely this applies to other post-Soviet transition countries as well, four aspects should be taken into account: the time required to prepare and apply the method, good

  9. Is it worth offering a routine laparoscopic cholecystectomy in developing countries? A Thailand case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerawattananon Yot

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The study aims to investigate whether laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC is a cost-effective strategy for managing gallbladder-stone disease compared to the conventional open cholecystectomy(OC in a Thai setting. Design and Setting Using a societal perspective a cost-utility analysis was employed to measure programme cost and effectiveness of each management strategy. The costs borne by the hospital and patients were collected from Chiang Rai regional hospital while the clinical outcomes were summarised from a published systematic review of international and national literature. Incremental cost per Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY derived from a decision tree model. Results The results reveal that at base-case scenario the incremental cost per QALY of moving from OC to LC is 134,000 Baht under government perspective and 89,000 Baht under a societal perspective. However, the probabilities that LC outweighed OC are not greater than 95% until the ceiling ratio reaches 190,000 and 270,000 Baht per QALY using societal and government perspective respectively. Conclusion The economic evaluation results of management options for gallstone disease in Thailand differ from comparable previous studies conducted in developed countries which indicated that LC was a cost-saving strategy. Differences were due mainly to hospital costs of post operative inpatient care and value of lost working time. The LC option would be considered a cost-effective option for Thailand at a threshold of three times per capita gross domestic product recommended by the committee on the Millennium Development Goals.

  10. Conflicts in developing countries: a case study from Rio de Janeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredariol, Celso Simoes; Magrini, Alessandra

    2003-01-01

    In developing countries, environmental conflicts are resolved mainly in the political arena. In the developed nations, approaches favoring structured negotiation support techniques are more common, with methodologies and studies designed especially for this purpose, deriving from Group Communications and Decision Theory. This paper analyzes an environmental dispute in the City of Rio de Janeiro, applying conflict analysis methods and simulating its settlement. It concludes that the use of these methodologies in the developing countries may be undertaken with adaptations, designed to train community groups in negotiating while fostering the democratization of the settlement of these disputes

  11. North Country Successes: Case Studies of Successful Entrepreneurs in the ANCA Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugh, Ram L.; Gandhi, Prem P.

    This study identifies the characteristics of both successful small businesses and their entrepreneurial owners in a 14-county area of the Adirondack North Country Association (ANCA). Of the 100 survey respondents representing successful small businesses, 50% had been in business for less than 14 years; 38% were in manufacturing; 48% employed more…

  12. The Experiences of Host Country Nationals in International Schools: A Case-Study from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been considerable research into expatriate children attending international schools, there has been little investigation into children who attend international schools within their own nation. Seeking to redress this imbalance, this article analyses interview data from a small-scale study of host country nationals attending an…

  13. Household food wastage in a developing country: A case study of Mamelodi Township in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramukhwatho, FR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In many developing countries, including those with food shortages a large portion of household waste is estimated to be food. This paper reports on findings of a research study conducted in one of South Africa’s largest townships (Mamelodi) within...

  14. Evolution of the radiological protection policy. Applications in developing countries. IPEN a case of study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, A.M.P.L.; Sordi, G.M.A. A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to show the radiological protection development in Brazil from the beginning, when President Joao Cafe Filho signed an agreement with the U.S.A. In this agreement, Brazil joined the 'Atoms for Peace' program established on August 3., 1955. Yet in 1955, Brazil participated as a foundation member in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). As a result, the Iea - 'Instituto de Energia Atomica'- was created on August 31., 1956 and a research reactor type swimming pool was installed to produce radioisotopes and prepare experts in the field of nuclear activities. This reactor is maintained in operation at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), former Iea. Having the Iea as a case of study, we analyze the radiological protection evolution during the fifty years of its life. We correlate this development with the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) Regulations. CNEN was also created in 1956. The first safety standard in Brazil was delivered in 1973. Therefore, this paper will focus the radiological protection development at national level. Both institutions followed the international radiological protection recommendations, under the difficulties imposed by the historical conditions of a developing country. In order to have an outline of the radiological protection development, we inform that it was started as a section of the Radiological Division at the Iea. At that time, the Iea had four divisions. The radiological protection was performed by four people, being two physicists and two technicians that accomplished all the duties. On that occasion, approximately 30 people operated the Iea. The work staff at IPEN increased, arriving to 1600 people in 1998, including 150 persons in the radiological protection activities. Nowadays, 1200 people, including 100 persons in the health physics duties operate the IPEN. (authors)

  15. Evolution of the radiological protection policy. Applications in developing countries. IPEN a case of study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, A.M.P.L.; Sordi, G.M.A. A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    This paper aims to show the radiological protection development in Brazil from the beginning, when President Joao Cafe Filho signed an agreement with the U.S.A. In this agreement, Brazil joined the 'Atoms for Peace' program established on August 3., 1955. Yet in 1955, Brazil participated as a foundation member in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). As a result, the Iea - 'Instituto de Energia Atomica'- was created on August 31., 1956 and a research reactor type swimming pool was installed to produce radioisotopes and prepare experts in the field of nuclear activities. This reactor is maintained in operation at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), former Iea. Having the Iea as a case of study, we analyze the radiological protection evolution during the fifty years of its life. We correlate this development with the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) Regulations. CNEN was also created in 1956. The first safety standard in Brazil was delivered in 1973. Therefore, this paper will focus the radiological protection development at national level. Both institutions followed the international radiological protection recommendations, under the difficulties imposed by the historical conditions of a developing country. In order to have an outline of the radiological protection development, we inform that it was started as a section of the Radiological Division at the Iea. At that time, the Iea had four divisions. The radiological protection was performed by four people, being two physicists and two technicians that accomplished all the duties. On that occasion, approximately 30 people operated the Iea. The work staff at IPEN increased, arriving to 1600 people in 1998, including 150 persons in the radiological protection activities. Nowadays, 1200 people, including 100 persons in the health physics duties operate the IPEN. (authors)

  16. The politico-economics of electricity planning in developing countries: A case study of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul-Salam, Yakubu; Phimister, Euan

    2016-01-01

    Off-grid technologies are increasingly being proposed as a way of ensuring cost efficient universal access to electricity in many developing countries. However, many un-electrified communities would prefer access to electricity via the national grid rather than off-grid technologies. Electricity planning based on cost efficiency alone could therefore be undermined by political pressure from discontented communities that are assigned off-grid technologies. Using a case study of un-electrified communities in Ghana, we develop an electricity planning algorithm based on hierarchical lexicographic programming and consider specifications where the priorities are adjusted to give weight to (1) cost efficiency and (2) political economy considerations so that communities with larger populations (and therefore votes) are given priority in terms of grid electrification. The results emphasise the need to incorporate the political economy considerations in the national planning of universal electrification, showing significant regional differences in terms of where grid extensions ought to be placed. Incorporating a political economy perspective in national planning also suggests that the most important policy trade-offs shift from considering the grid versus off-grid balance to focussing more on the effectiveness of grid investment in providing universal access. - Highlights: • There is a focus on grid and off-grid electricity planning based on economics. • However community preferences for grid introduces a political dimension to planning. • We develop an algorithm to examine the politico-economics of electricity planning. • We find different priorities yield significant regional differences in grid access. • We find that greater policy focus on the effectiveness of grid investment is needed.

  17. Does autonomy for public hospitals in developing countries increase performance? Evidence-based case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geyndt, Willy

    2017-04-01

    Governments in middle and low income countries have sought ways for the past decades to make their public hospitals more performing. The objectives of this assessment are to: (a) synthesize the experience of eleven countries at granting autonomy to their public hospitals and the obstacles encountered; (b) deduce which autonomy policies have or have not been effective documenting successes and failures; and (c) propose evidence-based recommendations to policy makers. Data for five countries are derived from the author's participation in the autonomy process augmented by current updates provided by national colleagues. Data for the other six countries are derived from publications available in the literature. Policies granting autonomy to public hospitals have had limited success. In all cases Boards of Directors have been created. Governance of autonomized hospitals by Boards however is obstructed by the resistance of central level entities to have their authority diminished. The Ministry of Finance tends to maintain control over revenues and expenditures. The Public Service Commission resists abdicating its role to hire, promote, transfer and dismiss government employees. The Ministry of Health attempts to keep its authority to appoint hospital staff, procure medical supplies and equipment; it may do so directly or indirectly by selecting and appointing Board members. Management information systems continue to collect activity measures to be aggregated at the national level for statistical purposes and do not provide financial and clinical data useful for decision making by the Boards and by senior management. Decentralizing decision making to the operational level has had limited success. Stakeholders at the central level devise strategies to maintain their power. Two main obstacles are delegating authority over human resources and finances that are sine qua non conditions for governing and increasing the performance of public hospitals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  18. Linking national and global population agendas: case studies from eight developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K; Walt, G

    1995-06-01

    This comparative study of the determinants of family planning policy initiation and implementation focuses on four pairs of countries: Zambia/Zimbabwe, Algeria/Tunisia, Pakistan/Bangladesh, and Philippines/Thailand. The conclusion is drawn that global efforts had an influence on national policy makers and on putting family planning issues on the policy agenda. Global impacts were affected by national economic and social conditions and the broader political and economic relations with Western countries. The absolute level of economic development was found to be unrelated to the timing of initiation of family planning on national policy agendas. Stronger national family planning programs occurred in countries where policy makers linked economic development at whatever level with the need to limit population growth. Pakistan and Thailand in the 1960s illustrated this commitment to family planning programs, and Zambia and Algeria illustrated the lack of connection between development and population growth at the policy level and the lack of family planning on the policy agenda. Affiliation with the West during the 1960s meant early initiation of family planning in Pakistan/Bangladesh and Philippines/Thailand. Stronger commitment to program implementation occurred only in Thailand during the 1970s and Zimbabwe during the 1980s. Commitment lessened in the Philippines and Pakistan. Program implementation and national support of family planning were viewed as also dependent upon domestic factors, such as sufficient resources. Algeria/Tunisia and Zambia/Zimbabwe were countries that promoted family planning only after national political ideology shifted and anti-imperialist sentiments subsided. The impact of the international Cairo conference on these countries was minimal in terms of policy change. Most of the countries however desired greater support from donors. Even objections from the Vatican and internal domestic pressures were insufficient to prevent countries such as

  19. Framework for energy policy and technology assessment in developing countries: a case study of Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mubayi, V.; Palmedo, P.F.; Doernberg, A.B.

    1979-12-01

    The potential of various energy sources and technology options in meeting national economic and social development goals in developing countries is assessed. The resource options that are of interest are the development of indigenous resources. In general, two categories of options can be considered: those which correspond to the accelerated implementation of existing elements of the energy system and those which correspond to the introduction of a new technology, such as solar electricity. The various resource and technology options that must be analyzed with respect to a number of criteria or payoff functions are: total demand and fuel mix; reduction of oil consumption; national social goals; total energy costs; and environmental quality. First, a view is constructed of the energy implications of current national economic development plans. A consistent description of the future energy system of the country, under the assumption of current trends and policies is constructed for certain reference years in the future. The values of the payoff functions selected are then calculated for that reference case. The major resource and technology options are identified and the rates at which they can be implemented are determined. Finally, the impact on the various payoff functions of the implementation of each option is calculated. The basic element of the framework is the Reference Energy System, discussed in Secton 3. The energy policy analysis for Peru is used as a reference case. 11 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  20. Strengthening care for injured persons in less developed countries: a case study of Ghana and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Charles; Arreola-Risa, Carlos; Quansah, Robert

    2003-01-01

    In all countries, the priority for reducing road traffic injuries should be prevention. Nonetheless, there are low-cost ways to strengthen the care of injured persons, that will help to lower the toll from road traffic. The purpose of this review was to elucidate ways to accomplish this goal in the context of less developed countries. Studies selected for this review were obtained by Medline review, selecting on key words such as trauma, injury, trauma care, essential health services, and developing country. Articles pertaining to any country and all available years were considered. In addition, the authors utilized articles from the gray literature and journals from Mexico and Ghana that are not Medline referenced. Studies surveyed point to road safety and other forms of injury prevention, as well as prehospital care, as likely priorities for developing countries. Nonetheless, hospital-based improvements can contribute to decreases in mortality and, especially, decreases in disability. For both prehospital and hospital based care, studies revealed several critical weak points to address in: (1) human resources (staffing and training); (2) physical resources (equipment, supplies, and infrastructure); and (3) administration and organization. The 'essential services' approach, which has contributed to progress in a variety of fields of international health, needs to be developed for the care of the injured. This would define the trauma treatment services that could realistically be made available to virtually every injured person. It would then address the inputs of human resources, physical resources, and administration necessary to assure these services optimally in the different geographic and socioeconomic environments worldwide. Finally, it would identify and target deficiencies in these inputs that need to be strengthened.

  1. A review of overseas financing mechanisms and incentives for commercial renewable energy projects. V. 2: Case study countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This second volume of a major study conducted for the United Kingdom Department of Trade and Industry aims to review financing mechanisms and incentives for the commercialisation of renewable energy projects. The countries included in this volume present case studies from countries identified as having particularly interesting current or past policies for the development and commercialisation of renewable energy technologies, namely Austria, Denmark, Germany, Greece, India, The Netherlands, Spain and two states in the United States of America. Data is presented on key facts, energy issues and organizations as well as energy and environmental policy for each country. The electricity supply industry, possibilities for renewable energy development, and incentive mechanisms in appropriate areas for development are also described for each country. (UK)

  2. Systematic mapping study of information communication technology research for agriculture (in case of developing Countries)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zewge, Amanuel; Dittrich, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Context: A rural community in a developing country is a socially complex and infrastructural weak environment that demands clear understanding of the social, economical, cultural, and political precondition before implementing information commutation technology (ICT) innovations. Objective: This ...... for an ongoing discourse to fill identified gaps from software engineering, computer science or information system research perspective. Keywords: design method, information system, development, agriculture.......: This work aims to conduct a Systematic Mapping Study (SMS) to get an in-depth understanding about ICT based researches for agriculture in developing countries. Method: A systematic mapping study was carried out to investigate and distill the state-of-the-art from ranked journals and conference publications....... In doing so, data extraction task was carried out using fifteen variables. Eg. What kinds of research challenges and contributions were reported to design ICTs based solutions? Which disciplines (knowledge areas) were most explored? Result: ICT in agriculture has gained attention over the past few years...

  3. Secure E-Examination Systems Compared: Case Studies from Two Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E. Fluck

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: Electronic examinations have some inherent problems. Students have expressed negative opinions about electronic examinations (e-examinations due to a fear of, or unfamiliarity with, the technology of assessment, and a lack of knowledge about the methods of e-examinations. Background: Electronic examinations are now a viable alternative method of assessing student learning. They provide freedom of choice, in terms of the location of the examination, and can provide immediate feedback; students and institutions can be assured of the integrity of knowledge testing. This in turn motivates students to strive for deeper learning and better results, in a higher quality and more rigorous educational process. Methodology\t: This paper compares an e-examination system at FUT Minna Nigeria with one in Australia, at the University of Tasmania, using case study analysis. The functions supported, or inhibited, by each of the two e-examination systems, with different approaches to question types, cohort size, technology used, and security features, are compared. Contribution: The researchers’ aim is to assist stakeholders (including lecturers, invigilators, candidates, computer instructors, and server operators to identify ways of improving the process. The relative convenience for students, administrators, and lecturer/assessors and the reliability and security of the two systems are considered. Challenges in conducting e-examinations in both countries are revealed by juxtaposing the systems. The authors propose ways of developing more effective e-examination systems. Findings: The comparison of the two institutions in Nigeria and Australia shows e-examinations have been implemented for the purpose of selecting students for university courses, and for their assessment once enrolled. In Nigeria, there is widespread systemic adoption for university entrance merit selection. In Australia this has been limited to one subject in one state, rather

  4. Participatory ergonomics intervention in an industrially developing country--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helali, Faramarz; Lönnroth, Emma-Christin; Shahnavaz, Houshang

    2008-01-01

    In industrially developing countries, a few ergonomists have directed great efforts towards developing ergonomics awareness among managers and workers in organizations. There is little research on the degree of their success, though. Furthermore, access of organizations to ergonomics knowledge is usually very difficult, especially in industrially developing countries. Thus, building ergonomics awareness is certainly the first phase of the process. Three companies from one industry (44 people: 14 females and 30 males) participated in a project aimed at improving their work system. At the beginning, we needed to create a common goal and ensure participation with appropriate ergonomics tools. The findings of this study were the key issue for the ergonomics intervention (i.e., a shared vision, awakened need of change and learning). Further, to build ergonomics awareness and develop a continuous learning process in the company, it was necessary to use more ergonomics tools through workers' participation in different workplaces.

  5. Students' perceptions and doubts about menstruation in developing countries: a case study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chothe, Vikas; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Seabert, Denise; Asalkar, Mahesh; Rakshe, Sarika; Firke, Arti; Midha, Inuka; Simmons, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Menstrual education is a vital aspect of adolescent health education. Culture, awareness, and socioeconomic status often exert profound influence on menstrual practices. However, health education programs for young women in developing countries do not often address menstrual hygiene, practices, and disorders. Developing culturally sensitive menstrual health education and hygiene programs for adolescent females has been recommended by professional health organizations like the World Health Organization and UNICEF. These programs cannot be developed without understanding existing myths and perceptions about menstruation in adolescent females of developing countries. Thus, the purpose of this qualitative study from India was to document existing misconceptions regarding menstruation and perceptions about menarche and various menstrual restrictions that have been understudied. Out of the 612 students invited to participate by asking questions, 381 girls participated by asking specific questions about menstruation (response rate = 62%). The respondents consisted of 84 girls from sixth grade, 117 from seventh grade, and 180 from eighth grade. The questions asked were arranged into the following subthemes: anatomy and physiology, menstrual symptoms, menstrual myths and taboos, health and beauty, menstrual abnormalities, seeking medical advice and home remedies; sanitary pads usage and disposal; diet and lifestyle; and sex education. Results of our study indicate that students had substantial doubts about menstruation and were influenced by societal myths and taboos in relation to menstrual practices. Parents, adolescent care providers, and policy makers in developing countries should advocate for comprehensive sexuality education and resources (e.g., low-cost sanitary pads and school facilities) to promote menstrual health and hygiene promotion.

  6. The Impact of Taxation on Economic Growth: Case Study of OECD Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macek Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the impact of individual types of taxes on the economic growth by utilizing regression analysis on the OECD countries for the period of 2000–2011. The impact of taxation is integrated into growth models by its impact on the individual growth variables, which are capital accumulation and investment, human capital and technology. The analysis in this paper is based on extended neoclassical growth model of Mankiw, Romer and Weil (1992, and for the verification of relation between taxation and economic growth the panel regression method is used. The taxation rate itself is not approximated only by traditional tax quota, which is characteristic by many insufficiencies, but also by the alternative World Tax Index which combines hard and soft data. It is evident from the results of both analyses that corporate taxation followed by personal income taxes and social security contribution are the most harmful for economic growth. Concurrently, in case of the value added tax approximated by tax quota, the negative impact on economic growth was not confirmed, from which it can be concluded that tax quota, in this case as the indicator of taxation, fails. When utilizing World Tax Index, a negative relation between these two variables was confirmed, however, it was the least quantifiable. The impact of property taxes was statistically insignificant. Based on the analysis results it is evident that in effort to stimulate economic growth in OECD countries, economic-politic authorities should lower the corporate taxation and personal income taxes, and the loss of income tax revenues should be compensated by the growth of indirect tax revenues.

  7. Budget transparency on maternal health spending: a case study in five Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malajovich, Laura; Alcalde, Maria Antonieta; Castagnaro, Kelly; Barroso, Carmen

    2012-06-01

    Progress in reducing maternal mortality has been slow and uneven, including in Latin America, where 23,000 women die each year from preventable causes. This article is about the challenges civil society organizations in Latin America faced in assessing budget transparency on government spending on specific aspects of maternity care, in order to hold them accountable for reducing maternal deaths. The study was carried out by the International Planned Parenthood, Western Hemisphere Region and the International Budget Partnership in five Latin American countries--Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Panama and Peru. It found that only in Peru was most of the information they sought available publicly (from a government website). In the other four countries, none of the information was available publicly, and although it was possible to obtain at least some data from ministry and health system sources, the search process often took a complex course. The data collected in each country were very different, depending not only on the level of budget transparency, but also on the existence and form of government data collection systems. The obstacles that these civil society organizations faced in monitoring national and local budget allocations for maternal health must be addressed through better budgeting modalities on the part of governments. Concrete guidelines are also needed for how governments can better capture data and track local and national progress. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Adoption of Social Media in Nonprofit Organizations : The Case Study of the United Nations Country Team in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Panyam, Sinta

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the role of social media in non-profit organizations using the case study from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in Thailand Country office. As Social media become a significant channel to raise the visibility and promote the work of the organization. The focus of this research examines what drives organizations adopting social media through a model built round four key factors, 1.) The importance of social media, 2.) The impact to image of the organization, 3...

  9. Towards Age-Friendly Hospitals in Developing Countries: A Case Study in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ahmadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Developing countries such as Iran are experiencing a growth in the elderly population. This is a challenge for healthcare providers and their families. This study investigated the extent in which hospitals at Tehran meet the criteria of age-friendly hospitals.Methods: In this descriptive study, using convenience sampling, 26 hospitals were selected in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. The instrument was a checklist included 50 items in the three dimensions of information and training of service providers, management systems in health care centers, physical environment and accessibility of hospitals.Results: Most hospitals were in a good condition regarding physical environment and access to public transportation, but in a poor condition for special healthcare programs for the elderly, teaching principles of geriatrics and gerontology, interaction of medical staff, physicians and nurses with senior patients and systems of priority for them.Conclusion: Due to the growing elderly population, it is necessary for health policymakers, especially in developing countries, to consider seriously the issue of elderly healthcare and their need for special outpatient and inpatient services.

  10. Developing national obesity policy in middle-income countries: a case study from North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Michelle; El Ati, Jalila; Bour, Abdellatif; Kameli, Yves; Derouiche, Abdelfettah; Millstone, Erik; Delpeuch, Francis

    2013-12-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity is a rapidly growing threat to public health in both Morocco and Tunisia, where it is reaching similar proportions to high-income countries. Despite this, a national strategy for obesity does not exist in either country. The aim of this study was to explore the views of key stakeholders towards a range of policies to prevent obesity, and thus guide policy makers in their decision making on a national level. Using Multicriteria Mapping, data were gathered from 82 stakeholders (from 33 categories in Morocco and 36 in Tunisia) who appraised 12 obesity policy options by reference to criteria of their own choosing. The feasibility of policies in practical or political terms and their cost were perceived as more important than how effective they would be in reducing obesity. There was most consensus and preference for options targeting individuals through health education, compared with options that aimed at changing the environment, i.e. modifying food supply and demand (providing healthier menus/changing food composition/food sold in schools); controlling information (advertising controls/mandatory labelling) or improving access to physical activity. In Tunisia, there was almost universal consensus that at least some environmental-level options are required, but in Morocco, participants highlighted the need to raise awareness within the population and policy makers that obesity is a public health problem, accompanied by improving literacy before such measures would be accepted. Whilst there is broad interest in a range of policy options, those measures targeting behaviour change through education were most valued. The different socioeconomic, political and cultural contexts of countries need to be accounted for when prioritizing obesity policy. Obesity was not recognized as a major public health priority; therefore, convincing policy makers about the need to prioritize action to prevent obesity, particularly in Morocco, will be

  11. Developing national obesity policy in middle-income countries: a case study from North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Michelle; El Ati, Jalila; Bour, Abdellatif; Kameli, Yves; Derouiche, Abdelfettah; Millstone, Erik; Delpeuch, Francis

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity is a rapidly growing threat to public health in both Morocco and Tunisia, where it is reaching similar proportions to high-income countries. Despite this, a national strategy for obesity does not exist in either country. The aim of this study was to explore the views of key stakeholders towards a range of policies to prevent obesity, and thus guide policy makers in their decision making on a national level. Methods Using Multicriteria Mapping, data were gathered from 82 stakeholders (from 33 categories in Morocco and 36 in Tunisia) who appraised 12 obesity policy options by reference to criteria of their own choosing. Results The feasibility of policies in practical or political terms and their cost were perceived as more important than how effective they would be in reducing obesity. There was most consensus and preference for options targeting individuals through health education, compared with options that aimed at changing the environment, i.e. modifying food supply and demand (providing healthier menus/changing food composition/food sold in schools); controlling information (advertising controls/mandatory labelling) or improving access to physical activity. In Tunisia, there was almost universal consensus that at least some environmental-level options are required, but in Morocco, participants highlighted the need to raise awareness within the population and policy makers that obesity is a public health problem, accompanied by improving literacy before such measures would be accepted. Conclusion Whilst there is broad interest in a range of policy options, those measures targeting behaviour change through education were most valued. The different socioeconomic, political and cultural contexts of countries need to be accounted for when prioritizing obesity policy. Obesity was not recognized as a major public health priority; therefore, convincing policy makers about the need to prioritize action to prevent

  12. Preservation of Cultural Heritage Embodied in Traditional Crafts in the Developing Countries. A Case Study of Pakistani Handicraft Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhong Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cultural heritage embodied in traditional crafts is an integral part of any nation which reflects the culture and tradition of a particular region. Although the importance of handicraft has been widely recognized, the literature regarding preservation of traditional craft is scarce. The present paper aimed to explore and identify issues faced by traditional craftsmanship in developing countries and to address those issues in order to contribute to the sustainability of traditional craft heritage and ensure continuous transmission of craft skills and knowledge from generation to generation. Our study identified several key issues which poses substantial challenges to the preservation of traditional craft heritage in developing countries. In order to add empirical evidence, we examined the case of Pakistani handicraft industry that provided further understanding of highlighted issues which traditional craft heritage face. We have suggested some policies to promote, develop and preserve the traditional craft heritage. The significance of these policy suggestions is underlined with the case study of Pakistan.

  13. Hydrologic modeling for water resource assessment in a developing country: the Rwanda case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve McNulty; Erika Cohen Mack; Ge Sun; Peter Caldwell

    2016-01-01

    Accurate water resources assessment using hydrologic models can be a challenge anywhere, but particularly for developing countries with limited financial and technical resources. Developing countries could most benefit from the water resource planning capabilities that hydrologic models can provide, but these countries are least likely to have the data needed to run ...

  14. Exploring the transition to DRGs in Developing Countries: A case study in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoxin; Liu, Rui; Li, Ping; Jiang, Chenghua

    2014-01-01

    Objective: With the success of DRGs (Diagnosis Related Groups) in developing countries, this prospective payment system has been imported into China from the early 21st century. However, DRGs has been struggling and has made little progress since (its adoption in) 2004. This study contributes to the debate on how to bridge the pay-for-service (system/scheme) and DRGs (Diagnosis Related Groups) during the transitional period of payment reform in China. Methods: From 2008 to 2012, sixty regional general hospitals in Shanghai were divided into three groups according to their economic level, and one hospital was picked from each group randomly. After ranking of morbidity, 22130 patients with hypertension or coronary heart disease were chosen as sample. Using multiple linear regression analysis, the inter relationships between the total medical expenses of the inpatients, and age, gender of the inpatients, length of stay, region and economic level of the hospitals were examined. Results: The main findings were (1) Age, LOS and the economic level of treatment location had a statistically significant impact on patients with hypertension or coronary heart disease. However, gender is only a significant factor to patients with coronary heart disease. The results suggested that age, LOS and the economic level of treatment location should be considered in formulating pricing standards for the hypertension patient group. Besides the above mentioned factors, gender should also be considered in formulating pricing standards for the coronary heart disease patient group. (2) Under the premise of limited resources, developing countries should first narrow down to screen for common and frequently occurring diseases, then study the key factors which affect the treatment cost of the diseases. Conclusion: Simplification of the DRGs standard- setting process based on standardized clinical pathways and accurate costing will greatly increase the efficiency of implementing DRGs in the

  15. Case studies on the use of biotechnologies and on biosafety provisions in four African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Robert; Fava, Fabio; Mattei, Niccolo; Robert, Vincent; Seal, Susan; Verdier, Valerie

    2011-12-20

    This review is based on a study commissioned by the European Commission on the evaluation of scientific, technical and institutional challenges, priorities and bottlenecks for biotechnologies and regional harmonisation of biosafety in Africa. Biotechnology was considered within four domains: agricultural biotechnologies ('Green'), industrial biotechnologies and biotechnologies for environmental remediation ('White'), biotechnologies in aquaculture ('Blue') and biotechnologies for healthcare ('Red'). An important consideration was the decline in partnerships between the EU and developing countries because of the original public antipathy to some green biotechnologies, particularly genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and food from GM crops in Europe. The study focus reported here was West Africa (Ghana, Senegal, Mali and Burkina Faso). The overall conclusion was that whereas high-quality research was proceeding in the countries visited, funding is not sustained and there is little evidence of practical application of biotechnology and benefit to farmers and the wider community. Research and development that was being carried out on genetically modified crop varieties was concentrating on improving food security and therefore unlikely to have significant impact on EU markets and consumers. However, there is much non-controversial green biotechnology such as molecular diagnostics for plant and animal disease and marker-assisted selection for breeding that has great potential application. Regarding white biotechnology, it is currently occupying only a very small industrial niche in West Africa, basically in the sole sector of the production of liquid biofuels (i.e., bio-ethanol) from indigenous and locally planted biomass (very often non-food crops). The presence of diffused small-scale fish production is the basis to develop and apply new (Blue) aquaculture technologies and, where the research conditions and the production sector can permit, to increase this type of

  16. The Image of the Country in Journalists’ Tweets – Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banias Oksana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to assess the role of Twitter in international communication on the basis of intentionally selected part of reality. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the potential impact of messages, posted in the microblogging service by the internationally recognized journalist, on creating the image of Poland in the world. Case study was carried out on the example of Anne Applebaum’s Twitter account.

  17. Technology transfer of nuclear power development in developing countries: Case study of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jiachen; Shen Wenquan; Zhang Luqing

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the specific experiences in the technology transfer of nuclear power in China, a country that both imported and developed indigenous nuclear technology. Based on this experience some recommendations are presented that should be considered particularly by the developing countries. (author)

  18. Smart electrification : microgrid concept for remote areas in developing countries : Indian case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upadhyay, G.; Nguyen, P.H.; Ribeiro, P.F.; Kling, W.L.; Claessens, B.; Hommelberg, M.P.F.

    2012-01-01

    After a long history of development, power systems are entering in so-called smart grid period. Smart grids aim to support not only the developed countries by integration of state-of-the-art ICT technologies, but also developing countries with more efficient and flexible energy supply options. This

  19. Ride-sharing business model for sustainability in developing country: Case Study Nebengers, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asirin, Asirin; Azhari, Danang

    2018-05-01

    The growth of population and urban economy increased the need for humans’ mobility to support their activities. On the other hand, online Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is growing rapidly and more affordable. Within few years, there is some sharing economy business formed by using online platform. This condition brings through the emergence of ride-sharing business model using an online platform which can be beneficial to sustainability. This research aims to explore one of ridesharing business models which use the online platform and its impact on sustainability. This research used the procedure of case study method with a single case study of Nebengers. This research explores the case study with the scope of this research is limited by using several conceptual frameworks, they are sharing economy business model, four elements of a business model for sustainability (BMfS), Social Construction of Technology (SCoT), sustainable mobility and agency theory. Nebengers is a sharing economy business using online platform that historically can be explained using Social Construction of Technology (SCoT) Theory. There are conflicts between nebengers entrepreneur and the city government. Nebengers disrupts traditional and formal public transportation services which are managed by the government. However, nebengers also contributes to achieve the city government goal in developing sustainable mobility. The future challenge is how to arrange ride-sharing collaborative governance business model for sustainability in the cities in Indonesia.

  20. Nuclear Safety Culture Assessment for a Newcomer Country: Case Study of Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasawneh, Khalid; Park, Yun Woon

    2016-01-01

    For countries initiating or considering to start their nuclear power programs; developing a successful safety culture is of a great challenge, owing to lack of experience and the sensitive nature of the nuclear industry in general. The Jordanian case was chosen since Jordan is in the early stages of its nuclear program and the establishment of an effective safety culture is crucial to guarantee the safe operation of its future nuclear facilities. It also should be noted that Fukushima accident has adversely affected the progress of the Jordanian nuclear program driven by the negative public opinion. The government shifts the policies toward enhancing the nuclear safety by enforcing the communication between the engaged parties and openness and transparency with public. In the wake of Fukushima accident the Jordanian government reassured the appropriate siting criteria and siting review, the leadership and the organizations commitment to nuclear safety by adopting advanced reactor technology, the consideration of modern operator accident mitigation strategies and the increased and close cooperation with IAEA and adherence to evolving international safety standards. The progress in the Jordanian nuclear power project in order to satisfy the IAEA requirements was quantified and ranked. A good progress was shown in some aspects, for example in the multicultural and multi-national elements and the establishment of an independent and effective regulatory body. However, some elements, concerning the understanding of the safety culture, management system of the regulatory body and the cultural assessment was not satisfied and an urgent need to focus on and enhance those aspects are required by the Jordanian government. Some elements, for example the leadership, communication and competence, have partial fulfillment of the IAEA requirements. However enhancing those aspects is required in the short and the mid-term in order to guarantee a well-established nuclear power

  1. Nuclear Safety Culture Assessment for a Newcomer Country: Case Study of Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khasawneh, Khalid; Park, Yun Woon [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    For countries initiating or considering to start their nuclear power programs; developing a successful safety culture is of a great challenge, owing to lack of experience and the sensitive nature of the nuclear industry in general. The Jordanian case was chosen since Jordan is in the early stages of its nuclear program and the establishment of an effective safety culture is crucial to guarantee the safe operation of its future nuclear facilities. It also should be noted that Fukushima accident has adversely affected the progress of the Jordanian nuclear program driven by the negative public opinion. The government shifts the policies toward enhancing the nuclear safety by enforcing the communication between the engaged parties and openness and transparency with public. In the wake of Fukushima accident the Jordanian government reassured the appropriate siting criteria and siting review, the leadership and the organizations commitment to nuclear safety by adopting advanced reactor technology, the consideration of modern operator accident mitigation strategies and the increased and close cooperation with IAEA and adherence to evolving international safety standards. The progress in the Jordanian nuclear power project in order to satisfy the IAEA requirements was quantified and ranked. A good progress was shown in some aspects, for example in the multicultural and multi-national elements and the establishment of an independent and effective regulatory body. However, some elements, concerning the understanding of the safety culture, management system of the regulatory body and the cultural assessment was not satisfied and an urgent need to focus on and enhance those aspects are required by the Jordanian government. Some elements, for example the leadership, communication and competence, have partial fulfillment of the IAEA requirements. However enhancing those aspects is required in the short and the mid-term in order to guarantee a well-established nuclear power

  2. D3.3 : report on “good practice” case studies of professional development in three countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente

    This report presents ‘good practice case studies’ of exemplary approaches to innovative in-service professional development of ECEC practitioners in three countries: Denmark, Italy and Poland. The report is part of the project CARE “Curriculum Quality Analyses and Impact Review of European......, findings, limitations and discussion of results. This multiple case study involved data collection on innovative in-service professional development approaches in each of the three countries (Denmark, Italy, Poland) that were considered good examples of “innovative approaches to in-service PD” by local......’s well-being and learning. There is also a need for contact and exchange in the field and at the managers’ level, to single out possible paths for innovation, so as to understand how they work and how they can be adapted culturally in order to inspire and contribute to the development of effective...

  3. Bhutanese Students' Views of Nature of Science: a Case Study of Culturally Rich Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Pabi Maya; Faikhamta, Chatree; Punsuvon, Vittaya

    2017-07-01

    This study is aimed at exploring ninth-grade Bhutanese students' views of nature of science (NOS). A total of 389 students from middle secondary and higher secondary schools from the eastern, western, southern and central regions of Bhutan took part in this study. To generate a representative population, a stratified random sampling technique was used. An adopted and adapted version of the Students Understanding of Science and Scientific Inquiry (SUSSI) comprised Likert-type items, and open-ended questions were used as a research tool. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics, and the qualitative data were analysed and categorized into naïve, transitional and informed views. The results indicated that the majority of the Bhutanese students held naïve views on sociocultural embeddedness, scientific laws, scientific theories and science as a body of knowledge. The study has an implication for curriculum developers and teaching professionals, particularly in culturally rich countries, that explicit instruction of NOS should be reframed based on students' cultural backgrounds and their indigenous knowledge.

  4. Library services and user satisfaction in developing countries: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairaj, Muhammad Ijaz; Naseer, Mirza Muhammad

    2013-12-01

    Punjab Institute of Cardiology (PIC) is a recognised teaching hospital for cardiac care in the Punjab province of Pakistan. PIC has established a library to fulfil the research and information needs of health care professionals. This study aims to evaluate the satisfaction of users with the services of PIC library. A purposive sample of 15 health care professionals was selected. A semistructured interview technique based on an interview guide was used for collection of data. The data were qualitatively analysed using a thematic approach. Users of PIC library were satisfied with the library collection, organisation, reference and circulation services, staff attitudes, cooling and heating. They were concerned about library space, hours, furniture and environment, and suggested more availability of electronic library services, newer collections, better Internet access and comfortable furniture. The study proved useful to investigate users' satisfaction with the services of PIC library. It concludes that the PIC library should maintain and strengthen the services with which users are satisfied, and improve those about which they are concerned. The study will be useful to libraries in other developing countries for improvement in their services. © 2013 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2013 Health Libraries Group.

  5. Increasing the Use of Urban Greenways in Developing Countries: A Case Study on Wutong Greenway in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiyong; Gu, Weiying; Liu, Tao; Yuan, Lei; Zeng, Mali

    2017-05-23

    Given the benefits of urban greenways on the health and well-being of urban populations, the increased use of urban greenways has garnered increasing attention. Studies on urban greenways, however, have been mostly conducted in Western countries, whereas there is limited knowledge on greenway use in urban areas in developing countries. To address this shortcoming, the present study selected Wutong Greenway in Shenzhen, China, as a case study and focused on the use pattern and factors that influence the frequency and duration of urban greenway use in developing countries. An intercept survey of greenway users was conducted, and 1257 valid questionnaires were obtained. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between potential predictors and greenway use. Results showed that visitors with a varied sociodemographic background use Wutong Greenway with high intensity. Various factors affect the use of urban greenways, including individual and environmental factors and greenway use patterns. Unlike previous studies, we found that accommodation type, length of stay at present residence and mode of transportation to the greenway are important factors that affect greenway use. In contrast with studies conducted in Western countries, less-educated and low-income respondents visit the Wutong greenway even more frequently than others. Thus, the greenway is an important public asset that promotes social equity and that all residents can freely use. To better serve citizens, we suggest that the greenway network should be extended to other areas and that its environmental quality should be improved.

  6. Indexation of psychiatric journals from low- and middle-income countries: a survey and a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIELING, CHRISTIAN; HERRMAN, HELEN; PATEL, VIKRAM; MARI, JAIR DE JESUS

    2009-01-01

    There is a marked underepresentation of low- and middle-income countries (LAMIC) in the psychiatric literature, which may reflect an overall low representation of LAMIC publications in databases of indexed journals. This paper investigates the worldwide distribution of indexed psychiatric journals. A survey in both Medline and ISI Web of Science was performed in order to identify journals in the field of psychiatry according to their country of origin. Two hundred and twenty-two indexed psychiatric journals were found. Of these, 213 originated from high-income countries and only nine (4.1%) from middle-income countries. None were found in low-income countries. We also present the experience of a LAMIC psychiatric journal, the Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, in its recent indexation process. This case study may serve as an example for other LAMIC journals to pursue indexation in major databases as a strategy to widen the international foundation of psychiatric research. There is an important need for the inclusion of LAMIC psychiatric publications in the major indexation databases. This process will require multiple agents to partner with journals from LAMIC to improve their quality and strengthen their chances of being indexed. PMID:19293959

  7. Emergency management in the countries without nuclear power plants: the Italian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzero, S.; Giaimo, G.; Pizzi, R.

    2003-01-01

    warning network (called REMRAD) and a national complementary network (GAMMA), both operated by the National Environmental Protection Agency (NEPA) and supported by the national firemen network. The latter, built up during the 'cold war' era, was completely checked and reorganised in the 90s to suite for a more detailed radiometric survey. In case of emergency, an intensification of the laboratory measures conducted by the regional environmental protection agencies is provided too. All the data coming from the radiometric networks, together with the weather forecasts and other information provided by specific data bases, are collected in a computer system called ARIES, that processes forecasts and patterns of a possible radioactive plume an the whole Europe. Italy, as a member state of the European Union, signed the protocol for the radiological data exchange EURDEP and is connected to the urgent radiological information exchange ECURIE. In addition, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Conventions on early notification and assistance, Italy designated its own competent authorities for the radiological emergencies or nuclear accidents that can happen inside (DCP and NEPA) and in foreign countries (DCP). Italy also designated its own national warning point (NEPA). Participating regularly in international exercises organized by the European Union, the IAEA and the Nuclear Energy Agency, and arranging specific national exercises, allows Italy to frequently review the entire emergency management support system and to refine the countermeasures contained in the national plan. figs. 2 (author)

  8. Systematic Mapping Study of Information Technology for Development in Agriculture (The Case of Developing Countries)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zewge, Amanuel; Dittrich, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    With its rapid proliferation in the developing world, information and communication technology (ICT) has been accepted as an opportunity to assist disadvantaged people. Many projects have piloted ICT supporting rural communities in developing countries. Such rural communities are socially complex...

  9. Community level composting in a developing country: case study of KIWODET, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberlin, A.S.; Szanto, G.L.

    2011-01-01

    Environmentally sustainable waste management practices have a limited relevance and viability in developing countries. Despite a technological potential, composting initiatives often share this fate. Little is known about the functioning of community level composting, which is reportedly the optimal

  10. Clean Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: A Case Study for Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Fotourehchi, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the long-run causality relationship between renewable/clean energy consumption and economic growth during the period 1990-2012 for 42 developing countries, under the Canning and Pedroni (2008) long-run causality test, which indicates that there is long-run positive causality running from renewable energy to real GDP. This means that for developing countries where renewable energy consumption has a positive long-run causal effect on real GDP, renewable energy dependen...

  11. Overseas oil-development policy of resource-poor countries: A case study from Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Masanari; Mogi, Gento; Albedaiwi, Waleed H.

    2008-01-01

    Japan, currently the world's third largest oil consumer, depends on imports for almost all of its oil needs. Owing to this high level of dependence, Japanese citizens as well as the economy have historically been vulnerable. In the past, certain incidents caused by the interruption of oil imports have resulted in fatal damages to the country. In order to reduce these risks, the Japanese government has supported overseas exploration and development activities of the domestic upstream oil industry, which has not proven as successful as expected. This paper presents the experiences, policies, and the structure of Japan's attempts to increase the share of domestic oil needs met by development activities. While conducting this study, both internal and external constraints were encountered. In addition to the lack of domestic oil reserves, factors including the institutional design of cooperation between government and private industries, the early history of the upstream industry, the target area of overseas development, and the changing environment have created impediments toward achieving the targets. In 2006, Japan again set a new target for doubling the ratio of self-developed oil in its total imports by 2030, and will face challenges in clearing the above-mentioned hurdles

  12. Environmental accident and its treatment in a developing country: a case study on China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yu

    2012-08-01

    Along with their rapid progress, developing countries have had to deal with more environmental problems, which have been a cause for concern among policy makers and the public in general. This study cites two accidents that happened in China in 2006 that caused serious environmental problems in nearby communities and discusses the problems these accidents created and the resulting disputes among the concerned people. Pollution-causing accidents not only pose threats to the health of the victims but also give rise to environmental disputes that jeopardise national security and social stability. Conflicts normally ensue following a pollution-causing accident, which are more likely to happen within a development zone or industrial park. Few environmental conflicts in the past decades were resolved through litigation. Nevertheless, there are lapses in the regulatory system, which have to be addressed to ensure that the public's rights and interests are protected. Currently, reports on pollution-causing accidents are difficult to obtain and are often released very late. A majority of industrial firms operate without environmental clearance, thus highlighting the government's inefficiency in environmental management. It is about time that the Chinese government takes seriously the use of the Environmental Impact Assessment.

  13. Surgical Residency Training in Developing Countries: West African College of Surgeons as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajao, Oluwole Gbolagunte; Alao, Adekola

    2016-01-01

    In 1904, William Halsted introduced the present model of surgical residency program which has been adopted worldwide. In some developing countries, where surgical residency training programs are new, some colleges have introduced innovations to the Halsted's original concept of surgical residency training. These include 1) primary examination, 2) rural surgical posting, and 3) submission of dissertation for final certification. Our information was gathered from the publications on West African College of Surgeons' (WACS) curriculum of the medical schools, faculty papers of medical schools, and findings from committees of medical schools. Verbal information was also gathered via interviews from members of the WACS. Additionally, our personal experience as members and examiners of the college are included herein. We then noted the differences between surgical residency training programs in the developed countries and that of developing countries. The innovations introduced into the residency training programs in the developing countries are mainly due to the emphasis placed on paper qualifications and degrees instead of performance. We conclude that the innovations introduced into surgical residency training programs in developing countries are the result of the misconception of what surgical residency training programs entail. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Effect of culture on acceptance of telemedicine in Middle Eastern countries: case study of Jordan and Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alajlani, Mohannad; Clarke, Malcolm

    2013-04-01

    We investigated issues that affect the use and adoption of telemedicine in Middle Eastern countries, taking the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and the Syrian Arab Republic as case studies. Our study is based on interviews with key stakeholders (including doctors, technicians, engineers, and decision makers) and questionnaires administered to key stakeholders (including patients), ensuring opinion was gained from people from a full range of backgrounds and roles in the healthcare system. We found doctor and patient resistance was a major issue preventing the adoption of telemedicine in both countries, followed by poor infrastructure, lack of funding, and lack of information technology training. Our research identifies that culture is a greater issue than technical matters for the adoption of telemedicine in Middle Eastern countries. Based on our preliminary results we developed a guideline framework for each country that might be applied to telemedicine projects at the pre-implementation phase. The proposed guideline framework was validated through a return visit to the stakeholders and seeking further opinion.

  15. Teaching Recent History in Countries that Have Experienced Human Rights Violations: Case Studies from Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Maria Isabel; Magendzo, Abraham; Gazmuri, Renato

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating recent history into the educational curricula of countries that have experienced human rights violations combines the complexities of teaching history, teaching recent history, and human rights education. Recent history makes a historical analysis of social reality and a historiographical analysis of the immediate. It is located…

  16. Success Factors for e-Learning in a Developing Country: A Case Study of Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspopovic, Miroslava; Jankulovic, Aleksandar; Runic, Jovana; Lucic, Vanja

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, DeLone and McLean's updated information system model was used to evaluate the success of an e-Learning system and its courses in a transitional country like Serbia. In order to adapt this model to an e-Learning system, suitable success metrics were chosen for each of the evaluation stages. Furthermore, the success metrics for…

  17. Exploring evidence-policy linkages in health research plans: A case study from six countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladepo Oladimeji

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The complex evidence-policy interface in low and middle income country settings is receiving increasing attention. Future Health Systems (FHS: Innovations for Equity, is a research consortium conducting health systems explorations in six Asian and African countries: Bangladesh, India, China, Afghanistan, Uganda, and Nigeria. The cross-country research consortium provides a unique opportunity to explore the research-policy interface. Three key activities were undertaken during the initial phase of this five-year project. First, key considerations in strengthening evidence-policy linkages in health system research were developed by FHS researchers through workshops and electronic communications. Four key considerations in strengthening evidence-policy linkages are postulated: development context; research characteristics; decision-making processes; and stakeholder engagement. Second, these four considerations were applied to research proposals in each of the six countries to highlight features in the research plans that potentially strengthen the research-policy interface and opportunities for improvement. Finally, the utility of the approach for setting research priorities in health policy and systems research was reflected upon. These three activities yielded interesting findings. First, developmental consideration with four dimensions – poverty, vulnerabilities, capabilities, and health shocks – provides an entry point in examining research-policy interfaces in the six settings. Second, research plans focused upon on the ground realities in specific countries strengthens the interface. Third, focusing on research prioritized by decision-makers, within a politicized health arena, enhances chances of research influencing action. Lastly, early and continued engagement of multiple stakeholders, from local to national levels, is conducive to enhanced communication at the interface. The approach described has four main utilities: first

  18. The effect of education and economic growth in the labour market in transition economies - Case study for SEE countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majlinda Mazalliu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper is analyzed labour market in transition economies with case study SEE countries and the main theoretical arguments for discussions are as following: the effects of education on labour market, improving labour market performance in SEE countries, structural reforms and economic policies for improving labour markets, relationship between level of education and growth on labour market. In methodology, the data is collected from international institutions and is calculated through STATA program. The main analyses include: descriptive statistic, multiple regression analysis and correlation matrix. The results of regression analysis and correlation matrix have shown that education has negative impact and negative correlation on labour market (labour market efficiency and labour market regulation. But, economic growth has shown positive impact and positive correlation on labour market (labour market efficiency and labour market regulation and all variables that are including in T-statistical analysis have shown non - significance on labour market.

  19. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Ravindranath, N.H.; Somashekhar, B.S.; Gadgil, M. (Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore, (India). Center for Ecological Sciences and ASTRA); Deying, Xu (Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, (China). Research Inst. of Forestry)

    1992-08-01

    As part of the effort to understand the sources of carbon dioxide and other major greenhouse gases, the Tropical Forestry and Global Climate Change Research Network (F-7) was established. The countries taking part in the F-7 Network -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria and Thailand -- possess large tracts of tropical forests and together experience the bulk of large scale tropical deforestation. Integreation of work of indigenous researchers and institutions from the participating countries should allow for the gathering of on-site information into the more general and universally available base of knowledge. The information contained in this report represents the results of the first phase of the F-7 project, which had the explicit aim of providing quantitative data on forestry-related carbon emissions from India and China.

  20. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J.; Ravindranath, N.H.; Somashekhar, B.S.; Gadgil, M.; Deying, Xu

    1992-08-01

    As part of the effort to understand the sources of carbon dioxide and other major greenhouse gases, the Tropical Forestry and Global Climate Change Research Network (F-7) was established. The countries taking part in the F-7 Network -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria and Thailand -- possess large tracts of tropical forests and together experience the bulk of large scale tropical deforestation. Integreation of work of indigenous researchers and institutions from the participating countries should allow for the gathering of on-site information into the more general and universally available base of knowledge. The information contained in this report represents the results of the first phase of the F-7 project, which had the explicit aim of providing quantitative data on forestry-related carbon emissions from India and China

  1. Inequality, Economic Growth and Trade Openness: a Study Case for Central and Eastern Countries (ECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Neagu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the phenomenon of income inequality in ten countries from Eastern and Central Europe (ECE, by highlighting two aspects: (1 the link between growth and income inequality; (2 the effects of trade openess and other key factors on income inequality, such as: foreign direct investment (FDI, market capitalization and educational level of labour force. The method used was the Panel Data Analysis with statistical data from the period of 2000-2014. An increasing effect in income inequality was identified due to the trade openess, the inward stock of ISD and the market capitalization and an equalizing effect in the income distribution generated by the educational level of labour force. A positive association was also found between the growth of PIB per capita level and the increase of income inequality in the examined countries.

  2. A case study of career related challenges of expatriate Indian professionals in the GCC countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Naithani, Pranav

    2013-01-01

    The success of an overseas employment contract is significantly influenced by career related challenges. This paper presents the findings of a primary research conducted in the three GCC countries (Bahrain, Oman and the UAE) to comprehend the key career related challenges faced by professional Indian expatriates. This paper also explores the influence of demographic factors on career related challenges and concludes with the analysis of overall findings.

  3. A case study of career related challenges of expatriate Indian professionals in the GCC countries

    OpenAIRE

    Naithani, Pranav

    2013-01-01

    The success of an overseas employment contract is significantly influenced by career related challenges. This paper presents the findings of a primary research conducted in the three GCC countries (Bahrain, Oman and the UAE) to comprehendthe key career related challenges faced by professional Indian expatriates. This paper also explores the influence of demographic factors on career related challenges and concludes with the analysis of overall findings.

  4. Schemes of Funding Music Research in Italy: A Case Study in Comparison with other European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Gianturco

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The awareness of the central government and other supportive agencies in Italy as to the need for research to be accomplished in music and music history in that country is determined by first stating what that support has been for such research in the 1990s, together with its accessibility to groups and/or individuals working in that field, and then reporting how such aid has been reduced in the more recent times of financial crises. In order to assess Italy’s position not in isolation but more realistically by considering it within a broader geographical frame, the same investigation has been accomplished for a group of other culturally developed countries in Europe which offer sufficient areas of comparison: Spain, France, England, Germany. Sadly, Italy does not come off well. Perhaps surprisingly but still sadly this is shown not to be due to the present financial crises but to a long-standing absence of respect for the entire musical history of the country and for the need that it be known and understood thoroughly. In short, the government in Italy seems not to have been sufficiently aware of its responsibility to acknowledge and preserve its musical patrimony by adequately supporting research which aims at uncovering the country’s rich past, understanding it, and thereby making it available to professional performing musicians and, through them, also to the people of Italy and the rest of the world.

  5. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 4: Mexico: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Cerutti, O.M.; Ordonez, M.J.; Minjarez, R.D. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico) Centro de Ecologia

    1992-08-01

    Estimates of carbon emissions from deforestation in Mexico are derived for the year 1985 and for two contrasting scenarios in 2025. Carbon emissions are calculated through an in-depth review of the existing information on forest cover deforestation mtes and area affected by forest fires as well as on forests` carbon-related biological characteristics. The analysis covers both tropical -- evergreen and deciduous -- and temperate -- coniferous and broadleaf -- closed forests. Emissions from the forest sector are also compared to those from energy and industry. Different policy options for promoting the sustainable management of forest resources in the country are discussed. The analysis indicates that approximately 804,000 hectares per year of closed forests suffered from major perturbations in the mid 1980`s in Mexico, leading to an annual deforestation mte of 668,000 hectares. Seventy five percent of total deforestation is concentrated in tropical forests. The resulting annual carbon balance is estimated in 53.4 million tons per year, and the net committed emissions in 45.5 million tons or 41% and 38%, respectively, of the country`s total for 1985--87. The annual carbon balance from the forest sector in 2025 is expected to decline to 16.5 million tons in the low emissions scenario and to 22.9 million tons in the high emissions scenario. Because of the large uncertainties in some of the primary sources of information, the stated figures should be taken as preliminary estimates.

  6. Medical incidents in developing countries: A few case studies from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwuneke, F N

    2015-12-01

    The moral worth of a clinician's, action in patients' management depends exclusively on the moral acceptability of the rule of obligation to duty on which the clinician acts. Since every rational being thinks of him or herself as an end, all people must act in such a way that they treat humanity, whether in their own person or in the person of another, always as an end and never simply as a means. A duty of care is, therefore, paramount in the relationship between clinician and patient. While litigation in healthcare system is rapidly increasing globally, which affords individual explanation and compensation for perceived wrong diagnosis and treatment; it is still rudimentary in Nigeria. This default position has made most health care providers indifferent in the presence of gross clinical negligence and medical errors. Though most Nigerians may be aware of their rights to institute legal action in situations such as, negligence with serious harm or death, but, the socioeconomic factors, cultural, and religious notions among other reasons within the society often makes litigation impossible for an individual. Attributing every medical adverse event in the course of treatment as "God's Will" and the saying "It's God's Time" for every death among most African people has also become a great impediment to curbing clinical negligence in our environment. This paper presents a few case studies from author's experience and complaints from patients during clinical practice.

  7. The dilemma of BME research projects in developing countries: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Edmond; Attar, Hamid Movahedian

    2011-01-01

    Researchers are faced with huge challenges when undertaking BME research projects in developing countries. Various administrative, technical, economic and even cultural barriers have to be overcome whereas the quality and quantity of the output has to be comparable with the developed world in order to make results publishable. This paper uses a real project context to highlight the major problems and the necessity of a holistic approach which would take into consideration all stakeholders interests. It is only by tackling problems such as relationship between academia-industry and administration efficiency at their root that significant progress can be achieved.

  8. Indoor particulate matter in developing countries: a case study in Pakistan and potential intervention strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Zaheer Ahmad; Colbeck, Ian; Ali, Zulfiqar; Ahmad, Shakil

    2013-06-01

    Around three billion people, largely in low and middle income countries, rely on biomass fuels for their household energy needs. The combustion of these fuels generates a range of hazardous indoor air pollutants and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Worldwide, it is responsible for four million deaths. A reduction in indoor smoke can have a significant impact on lives and can help achieve many of the Millennium Developments Goals. This letter presents details of a seasonal variation in particulate matter (PM) concentrations in kitchens using biomass fuels as a result of relocating the cooking space. During the summer, kitchens were moved outdoors and as a result the 24 h average PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 fell by 35%, 22% and 24% respectively. However, background concentrations of PM10 within the village increased by 62%. In locations where natural gas was the dominant fuel, the PM concentrations within the kitchen as well as outdoors were considerably lower than those in locations using biomass. These results highlights the importance of ventilation and fuel type for PM levels and suggest that an improved design of cooking spaces would result in enhanced indoor air quality.

  9. Indoor particulate matter in developing countries: a case study in Pakistan and potential intervention strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, Zaheer Ahmad; Colbeck, Ian; Ali, Zulfiqar; Ahmad, Shakil

    2013-01-01

    Around three billion people, largely in low and middle income countries, rely on biomass fuels for their household energy needs. The combustion of these fuels generates a range of hazardous indoor air pollutants and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Worldwide, it is responsible for four million deaths. A reduction in indoor smoke can have a significant impact on lives and can help achieve many of the Millennium Developments Goals. This letter presents details of a seasonal variation in particulate matter (PM) concentrations in kitchens using biomass fuels as a result of relocating the cooking space. During the summer, kitchens were moved outdoors and as a result the 24 h average PM 10 , PM 2.5 and PM 1 fell by 35%, 22% and 24% respectively. However, background concentrations of PM 10 within the village increased by 62%. In locations where natural gas was the dominant fuel, the PM concentrations within the kitchen as well as outdoors were considerably lower than those in locations using biomass. These results highlights the importance of ventilation and fuel type for PM levels and suggest that an improved design of cooking spaces would result in enhanced indoor air quality. (letter)

  10. Sustainable Waste Water Treatment in Developing Countries: A Case Study of IIT Kharagpur Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sutapa; Bokshi, Sanjit

    2017-06-01

    Treatment of wastewater and its reuse in irrigation and agriculture can mitigate the inevitable scarcity of safe drinking water in coming decades. For developing countries like India and especially in its under-privileged regions, it is high time to focus on sustainable wastewater treatment which will be economical and easy to construct, operate and maintain by unskilled users without much dependency on electricity. Addressing this issue, various sustainable methods of wastewater treatment was critically analyzed and the Waste Stabilization Pond system was selected. A facility was designed for 20,000 residents of Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur campus based on its geo-climatic and wastewater characteristics. Detailed calculations were carried out to demonstrate the effluent quality with reduced BOD and E-coli is suitable for unrestricted irrigation. This project with minor customisation can act as a prototype for adjacent vast rural areas where land is available but water, electricity and skilled technicians are not. If implemented, this project will bear social benefits beyond campus such as water supply to drought prone areas, better harvest and rural employment. Moreover, it underpins government' several initiatives to develop rural infrastructure and inclusive growth of the country.

  11. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Cerutti, O.M.; Ordonez, M.J.; Minjarez, R.D. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico) Centro de Ecologia)

    1992-08-01

    Estimates of carbon emissions from deforestation in Mexico are derived for the year 1985 and for two contrasting scenarios in 2025. Carbon emissions are calculated through an in-depth review of the existing information on forest cover deforestation mtes and area affected by forest fires as well as on forests' carbon-related biological characteristics. The analysis covers both tropical -- evergreen and deciduous -- and temperate -- coniferous and broadleaf -- closed forests. Emissions from the forest sector are also compared to those from energy and industry. Different policy options for promoting the sustainable management of forest resources in the country are discussed. The analysis indicates that approximately 804,000 hectares per year of closed forests suffered from major perturbations in the mid 1980's in Mexico, leading to an annual deforestation mte of 668,000 hectares. Seventy five percent of total deforestation is concentrated in tropical forests. The resulting annual carbon balance is estimated in 53.4 million tons per year, and the net committed emissions in 45.5 million tons or 41% and 38%, respectively, of the country's total for 1985--87. The annual carbon balance from the forest sector in 2025 is expected to decline to 16.5 million tons in the low emissions scenario and to 22.9 million tons in the high emissions scenario. Because of the large uncertainties in some of the primary sources of information, the stated figures should be taken as preliminary estimates.

  12. Drug addict deaths in the Nordic countries: a study based on medicolegally examined cases in the five Nordic countries in 1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steentoft, Anni; Teige, Brita; Holmgren, Per

    1996-01-01

    The study includes medicolegally examined deaths among drug addicts in 1991 in the five Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. A common definition of ‘drug addict’ was applied by the participating countries. The greatest number of drug addict deaths per 105 inhabitants...... was observed in Denmark followed, in descending order by Norway, Sweden, Finland and finally Iceland with only four deaths. The main difference between the countries was found in the number of fatal poisonings. The distribution according to geographical regions showed that about half of all drug addict deaths...

  13. Developing an appropriate digital hearing aid for low-resource countries: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israsena, P; Isaradisaikul, S; Noymai, A; Boonyanukul, S; Hemakom, A; Chinnarat, C; Navacharoen, N; Lekagul, S

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the development process and discusses the key findings which resulted from our multidisciplinary research team's effort to develop an alternative digital hearing suitable for low-resource countries such as Thailand. A cost-effective, fully programmable digital hearing aid, with its specifications benchmarking against WHO's recommendations, was systematically designed, engineered, and tested. Clinically it had undergone a full clinical trial that employed the outcome measurement protocol adopted from the APHAB, the first time implemented in Thai language. Results indicated that using the hearing aid improves user's satisfaction in terms of ease of communication, background noises, and reverberation, with clear benefit after 3 and 6 months, confirming its efficacy. In terms of engineering, the hearing aid also proved to be robust, passing all the designated tests. As the technology has successfully been transferred to a local company for the production phase, we also discuss other challenges that may arise before the device can be introduced into the market.

  14. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ECONOMIC GROWTH AND GOVERNMENT SPENDING: A CASE STUDY OF OIC COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heri Sudarsono

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results for testing for causal relationship between economic growth and goverment spending for OIC countries covering the time series data 1970~2006. There are usually two propositions regarding the relation between economic growth and government spending: Wagner’s Law states that as GDP grows, the public sector tends to grow; and the Keynesian framework postulates that public expenditure causes GDP to grow. The primary strength and originality of this paper is that we used aggregate data as well as disaggregate data for Granger causality test. By testing for causality between economic growth and government spending, we find that government spending does cause economic growth in Iran, Nigeria and Tunisia, which are compatible with Keynesian’s theory. However, the economic growth does cause the increase in goverment spending in Algeria, Burkina Faso, Benin, Indonesia, Libya Malaysia, Marocco, and Saudi, which are well-suited with Wagner’s law.

  15. The three waves in implementation of facility-based kangaroo mother care: a multi-country case study from Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, Anne-Marie; de Graft-Johnson, Joseph; Khadka, Neena; Om'Iniabohs, Alyssa; Udani, Rekha; Pratomo, Hadi; De Leon-Mendoza, Socorro

    2016-01-27

    Kangaroo mother care has been highlighted as an effective intervention package to address high neonatal mortality pertaining to preterm births and low birth weight. However, KMC uptake and service coverage have not progressed well in many countries. The aim of this case study was to understand the institutionalisation processes of facility-based KMC services in three Asian countries (India, Indonesia and the Philippines) and the reasons for the slow uptake of KMC in these countries. Three main data sources were available: background documents providing insight in the state of implementation of KMC in the three countries; visits to a selection of health facilities to gauge their progress with KMC implementation; and data from interviews and meetings with key stakeholders. The establishment of KMC services at individual facilities began many years before official prioritisation for scale-up. Three major themes were identified: pioneers of facility-based KMC; patterns of KMC knowledge and skills dissemination; and uptake and expansion of KMC services in relation to global trends and national policies. Pioneers of facility-based KMC were introduced to the concept in the 1990s and established the practice in a few individual tertiary or teaching hospitals, without further spread. A training method beneficial to the initial establishment of KMC services in a country was to send institutional health-professional teams to learn abroad, notably in Colombia. Further in-country cascading took place afterwards and still later on KMC was integrated into newborn and obstetric care programs. The patchy uptake and expansion of KMC services took place in three phases aligned with global trends of the time: the pioneer phase with individual champions while the global focus was on child survival (1998-2006); the newborn-care phase (2007-2012); and lastly the current phase where small babies are also included in action plans. This paper illustrates the complexities of implementing a

  16. Countdown to 2015 country case studies: what have we learned about processes and progress towards MDGs 4 and 5?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moucheraud, Corrina; Owen, Helen; Singh, Neha S; Ng, Courtney Kuonin; Requejo, Jennifer; Lawn, Joy E; Berman, Peter

    2016-09-12

    Countdown to 2015 was a multi-institution consortium tracking progress towards Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5. Case studies to explore factors contributing to progress (or lack of progress) in reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH) were undertaken in: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, China, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Niger, Pakistan, Peru, and Tanzania. This paper aims to identify cross-cutting themes on how and why these countries achieved or did not achieve MDG progress. Applying a standard evaluation framework, analyses of impact, coverage and equity were undertaken, including a mixed methods analysis of how these were influenced by national context and coverage determinants (including health systems, policies and financing). The majority (7/10) of case study countries met MDG-4 with over two-thirds reduction in child mortality, but none met MDG-5a for 75 % reduction in maternal mortality, although six countries achieved >75 % of this target. None achieved MDG-5b regarding reproductive health. Rates of reduction in neonatal mortality were half or less that for post-neonatal child mortality. Coverage increased most for interventions administered at lower levels of the health system (e.g., immunisation, insecticide treated nets), and these experienced substantial political and financial support. These interventions were associated with ~30-40 % of child lives saved in 2012 compared to 2000, in Ethiopia, Malawi, Peru and Tanzania. Intrapartum care for mothers and newborns -- which require higher-level health workers, more infrastructure, and increased community engagement -- showed variable increases in coverage, and persistent equity gaps. Countries have explored different approaches to address these problems, including shifting interventions to the community setting and tasks to lower-level health workers. These Countdown case studies underline the importance of consistent national investment and global attention for achieving improvements

  17. Countdown to 2015 country case studies: what have we learned about processes and progress towards MDGs 4 and 5?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrina Moucheraud

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Countdown to 2015 was a multi-institution consortium tracking progress towards Millennium Development Goals (MDGs 4 and 5. Case studies to explore factors contributing to progress (or lack of progress in reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH were undertaken in: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, China, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Niger, Pakistan, Peru, and Tanzania. This paper aims to identify cross-cutting themes on how and why these countries achieved or did not achieve MDG progress. Methods Applying a standard evaluation framework, analyses of impact, coverage and equity were undertaken, including a mixed methods analysis of how these were influenced by national context and coverage determinants (including health systems, policies and financing. Results The majority (7/10 of case study countries met MDG-4 with over two-thirds reduction in child mortality, but none met MDG-5a for 75 % reduction in maternal mortality, although six countries achieved >75 % of this target. None achieved MDG-5b regarding reproductive health. Rates of reduction in neonatal mortality were half or less that for post-neonatal child mortality. Coverage increased most for interventions administered at lower levels of the health system (e.g., immunisation, insecticide treated nets, and these experienced substantial political and financial support. These interventions were associated with ~30–40 % of child lives saved in 2012 compared to 2000, in Ethiopia, Malawi, Peru and Tanzania. Intrapartum care for mothers and newborns -- which require higher-level health workers, more infrastructure, and increased community engagement -- showed variable increases in coverage, and persistent equity gaps. Countries have explored different approaches to address these problems, including shifting interventions to the community setting and tasks to lower-level health workers. Conclusions These Countdown case studies underline the importance of consistent

  18. A new approach to nationwide sanitation planning for developing countries: Case study of Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerstens, S.M., E-mail: sjoerd.kerstens@rhdhv.com [Royal HaskoningDHV, P.O. Box 1132, 3800 BC, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Spiller, M., E-mail: marc.spiller@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Sub-department of Environmental Technology, P.O. Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen (Netherlands); Leusbrock, I., E-mail: ingo.leusbrock@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Sub-department of Environmental Technology, P.O. Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen (Netherlands); Zeeman, G., E-mail: grietje.zeeman@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Sub-department of Environmental Technology, P.O. Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2016-04-15

    Many developing countries struggle to provide wastewater and solid waste services. The backlog in access has been partly attributed to the absence of a functional sanitation planning framework. Various planning tools are available; however a comprehensive framework that directly links a government policy to nationwide planning is missing. Therefore, we propose a framework to facilitate the nationwide planning process for the implementation of wastewater and solid waste services. The framework requires inputs from government planners and experts in the formulation of starting points and targets. Based on a limited number of indicators (population density, urban functions) three outputs are generated. The first output is a visualization of the spatial distribution of wastewater and solid waste systems to support regional priority setting in planning and create awareness. Secondly, the total number of people served, budget requirements and distribution of systems is determined. Thirdly, the required budget is allocated to the responsible institution to assure effective implementation. The determined budgets are specified by their beneficiaries, distinguishing urban, rural, poor and non-poor households. The framework was applied for Indonesia and outputs were adopted in the National Development Plan. The required budget to reach the Indonesian government's 2019 target was determined to be 25 billion US$ over 5 years. The contribution from the national budget required a more than fivefold increase compared to the current budget allocation in Indonesia, corresponding to an increase from 0.5 to 2.7 billion US$ per year. The budget for campaigning, advocacy and institutional strengthening to enable implementation was determined to be 10% of the total budget. The proposed framework is not only suitable for Indonesia, but could also be applied to any developing country that aims to increase access to wastewater and solid waste facilities. - Highlights: • A nationwide

  19. A new approach to nationwide sanitation planning for developing countries: Case study of Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerstens, S.M.; Spiller, M.; Leusbrock, I.; Zeeman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Many developing countries struggle to provide wastewater and solid waste services. The backlog in access has been partly attributed to the absence of a functional sanitation planning framework. Various planning tools are available; however a comprehensive framework that directly links a government policy to nationwide planning is missing. Therefore, we propose a framework to facilitate the nationwide planning process for the implementation of wastewater and solid waste services. The framework requires inputs from government planners and experts in the formulation of starting points and targets. Based on a limited number of indicators (population density, urban functions) three outputs are generated. The first output is a visualization of the spatial distribution of wastewater and solid waste systems to support regional priority setting in planning and create awareness. Secondly, the total number of people served, budget requirements and distribution of systems is determined. Thirdly, the required budget is allocated to the responsible institution to assure effective implementation. The determined budgets are specified by their beneficiaries, distinguishing urban, rural, poor and non-poor households. The framework was applied for Indonesia and outputs were adopted in the National Development Plan. The required budget to reach the Indonesian government's 2019 target was determined to be 25 billion US$ over 5 years. The contribution from the national budget required a more than fivefold increase compared to the current budget allocation in Indonesia, corresponding to an increase from 0.5 to 2.7 billion US$ per year. The budget for campaigning, advocacy and institutional strengthening to enable implementation was determined to be 10% of the total budget. The proposed framework is not only suitable for Indonesia, but could also be applied to any developing country that aims to increase access to wastewater and solid waste facilities. - Highlights: • A nationwide

  20. Initiative for 100% rural electrification in developing countries: Case study of Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diouf, Boucar; Pode, Ramchandra; Osei, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has the lowest access to electricity in the World. In Senegal, less than 25% of the rural population benefit of electricity service. Solar energy offers an important potential to Senegal with over 3000 h of sunlight a year. This is a real opportunity to generalize the access to electricity. But, the efforts to bridge the gap must be diversified and completed. We approach the problem of rural electrification with a different point of view. Grid expansion and centralized solutions may be adequate for villages with a population organized in high-density of habitations. Small size villages or those with highly dispersed population may need different propositions because of cost. These regions will not be the priority of electrification programs. Furthermore, this rural population is characterized by its low income and saving. Such a conjuncture suggests the opportunity of a service based fees model for access to electricity. On the basis of a fees-for-service model, individual standalone photovoltaic systems may be a more appropriate solution to cover the priority needs of lighting and mobile phones battery charge for telecommunication. We present a pilot project in a village of Senegal to support the model and demonstrate its feasibility. - Highlights: • Rural electrification in developing countries. • Problems of access to electricity in rural areas. • Fees-for-service solution for small villages/highly dispersed population villages. • Situation of Senegal. • Presentation of a pilot project in a small village of Senegal

  1. Bioaerosols in residential micro-environments in low income countries: A case study from Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, Zaheer Ahmad; Colbeck, Ian; Sultan, Sikander; Ahmed, Shakil

    2012-01-01

    Our knowledge of the concentrations of bioaerosols in residential micro-environments in low income countries is scanty. The present investigation was conducted to assess the culturable concentration and size distribution of bacteria, gram negative bacteria and fungi in two rural and an urban site in Pakistan. The highest indoor culturable bacteria concentration was found at Rural Site II (14,650 CFU/m 3 ) while the outdoor maximum occurred at the urban site (16,416 CFU/m 3 ). With reference to fungi, both indoor and outdoor concentrations were considerably higher at Rural Site I than the other sites. The size distribution of culturable bacteria at all sites showed greater variability than that of culturable fungi. At all sites more than the half (55–93%) of the culturable bacterial and fungal counts were observed in the respirable fraction ( 3 in the indoor environment. ► Elevated levels outdoors due to proximity to cattle and poor sanitary conditions. ► More that 50% of the bacterial and fungal aerosols were respirable. ► Possible increased respiratory exposure of inhabitants. - Bioaerosol concentrations up to 14,650 CFU/m 3 were measured in the indoor environment reflecting the proximity to cattle and poor sanitary conditions. These elevated levels pose a significant health risk.

  2. Success Factors for e-Learning in a Developing Country: A Case Study of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Raspopovic1, 1, 1, and 2

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, DeLone and McLean’s updated information system model was used to evaluate the success of an e-Learning system and its courses in a transitional country like Serbia. In order to adapt this model to an e-Learning system, suitable success metrics were chosen for each of the evaluation stages. Furthermore, the success metrics for e-Learning evaluation are expanded by providing several systems for quantifying the given success metrics. The results presented in this paper are based on courses that were taught both online and traditionally in three different subject areas: graphic design, information technology, and management. Of particular interest were success metrics which can be determined using quantifiable data from the e-Learning system itself, in order to evaluate and find the relationship between students’ academic achievement, usage of learning materials, and students’ satisfaction. The results from different courses were used to illustrate the implementation and evaluation of these success metrics for both online and traditional students.

  3. Decentralized domestic wastewater systems in developing countries: the case study of Harare (Zimbabwe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirisa, Innocent; Bandauko, Elmond; Matamanda, Abraham; Mandisvika, Gladys

    2017-06-01

    Until recently there has been little, if any, concern over revamping let alone improving wastewater management system in Zimbabwe's urban areas given the dominance and institutionalised water-borne system. Yet, the current constraints in this system and the immensity of urbanisation in the country begs and compels planners, engineers and systems thinkers to rethink what best can work as a sustainable wastewater system. With particular reference to the ever-expanding Harare metropolitan region, this article provides an evaluative analysis on the potentiality, risks and strategies that can be adopted by Harare and its satellites in addressing the problems of the conventional wastewater management system. The suggested framework of operation is a decentralised domestic wastewater collection and treatment system which however has its own multifarious risks. Using systems dynamics conceptualisation of the potentiality, opportunities, risks and strategies, the paper seeks to model the path and outcomes of this decentralised domestic wastewater collection and treatment system and also suggests a number of policy measures and strategies that the city of Harare and its satellites can adopt.

  4. Tanzania country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meena, H E [Centre for Energy, Environment, Science and Technology, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    An objective of this study is to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without an in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. (au)

  5. Zambia country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    The Zambia Country Study, which was part of the Danida-funded project Climate Change Mitigation in Southern Africa: Phase 2, aimed at methodological development, national mitigation analysis and institutional capacity building in Zambia. The study comprised the following five elements: Comprehensive evaluation of national social and economic development framework for climate change; Baseline scenario(s) projection(s); Mitigation scenario(s) projection(s); Macro-economic assessment; Implementation Issues. (au) 17 refs.

  6. Tanzania country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meena, H.E.

    1998-01-01

    An objective of this study is to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without an in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. (au)

  7. Incidence and risk factors of aplastic anemia in Latin American countries: the LATIN case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluf, Eliane; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Júnior, Álvaro Avezum; Eluf-Neto, José; Falcão, Roberto Passetto; Lorand-Metze, Irene G.; Goldenberg, Daniel; Santana, Cézar Leite; de Oliveira Werneck Rodrigues, Daniela; da Motta Passos, Leny Nascimento; Rosenfeld, Luis Gastão Mange; Pitta, Marimilia; Loggetto, Sandra; Feitosa Ribeiro, Andreza A.; Velloso, Elvira Deolinda; Kondo, Andrea Tiemi; de Miranda Coelho, Erika Oliveira; Pintão, Maria Carolina Tostes; de Souza, Hélio Moraes; Borbolla, José Rafael; Pasquini, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Background Associations between aplastic anemia and numerous drugs, pesticides and chemicals have been reported. However, at least 50% of the etiology of aplastic anemia remains unexplained. Design and Methods This was a case-control, multicenter, multinational study, designed to identify risk factors for agranulocytosis and aplastic anemia. The cases were patients with diagnosis of aplastic anemia confirmed through biopsy or bone marrow aspiration, selected through an active search of clinical laboratories, hematology clinics and medical records. The controls did not have either aplastic anemia or chronic diseases. A total of 224 patients with aplastic anemia were included in the study, each case was paired with four controls, according to sex, age group, and hospital where the case was first seen. Information was collected on demographic data, medical history, laboratory tests, medications, and other potential risk factors prior to diagnosis. Results The incidence of aplastic anemia was 1.6 cases per million per year. Higher rates of benzene exposure (≥30 exposures per year) were associated with a greater risk of aplastic anemia (odds ratio, OR: 4.2; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.82–9.82). Individuals exposed to chloramphenicol in the previous year had an adjusted OR for aplastic anemia of 8.7 (CI: 0.87–87.93) and those exposed to azithromycin had an adjusted OR of 11.02 (CI 1.14–108.02). Conclusions The incidence of aplastic anemia in Latin America countries is low. Although the research study centers had a high coverage of health services, the underreporting of cases of aplastic anemia in selected regions can be discussed. Frequent exposure to benzene-based products increases the risk for aplastic anemia. Few associations with specific drugs were found, and it is likely that some of these were due to chance alone. PMID:19734415

  8. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J.; Fearnside, P.M.

    1992-08-01

    Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia in 1990 was releasing approximately 281--282 X 10 6 metric tons (MT) of carbon on conversion to a landscape of agriculture, productive pasture, degraded pasture, secondary forest and regenerated forest in the proportions corresponding to the equilibrium condition implied by current land-use patterns. Emissions are expressed as ''committed carbon,'' or the carbon released over a period of years as the carbon stock in each hectare deforested approaches a new equilibrium in the landscape that replaces the original forest. To the extent that deforestation rates have remained constant, current releases from the areas deforested in previous years will be equal to the future releases from the areas being cleared now. Considering the quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide, NO x and non-methane hydrocarbons released raises the impact by 22--37%. The relative impact on the greenhouse effect of each gas is based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculations over a 20-year time period (including indirect effects). The six gases considered have a combined global warming impact equivalent to 343 to 386 million MT of C0 2 -equivalent carbon, depending on assumptions regarding the release of methane and other gases from the various sources such as burning and termites. These emissions represent 7--8 times the 50 million MT annual carbon release from Brazil's use of fossil fuels, but bring little benefit to the country. Stopping deforestation in Brazil would prevent as much greenhouse emission as tripling the fuel efficiency of all the automobiles in the world. The relatively cheap measures needed to contain deforestation, together with the many complementary benefits of doing so, make this the first priority for funds intended to slow global warming

  9. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Fearnside, P.M. (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Departmento de Ecologia)

    1992-08-01

    Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia in 1990 was releasing approximately 281--282 X 10{sup 6} metric tons (MT) of carbon on conversion to a landscape of agriculture, productive pasture, degraded pasture, secondary forest and regenerated forest in the proportions corresponding to the equilibrium condition implied by current land-use patterns. Emissions are expressed as committed carbon,'' or the carbon released over a period of years as the carbon stock in each hectare deforested approaches a new equilibrium in the landscape that replaces the original forest. To the extent that deforestation rates have remained constant, current releases from the areas deforested in previous years will be equal to the future releases from the areas being cleared now. Considering the quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide, NO{sub x} and non-methane hydrocarbons released raises the impact by 22--37%. The relative impact on the greenhouse effect of each gas is based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculations over a 20-year time period (including indirect effects). The six gases considered have a combined global warming impact equivalent to 343 to 386 million MT of C0{sub 2}-equivalent carbon, depending on assumptions regarding the release of methane and other gases from the various sources such as burning and termites. These emissions represent 7--8 times the 50 million MT annual carbon release from Brazil's use of fossil fuels, but bring little benefit to the country. Stopping deforestation in Brazil would prevent as much greenhouse emission as tripling the fuel efficiency of all the automobiles in the world. The relatively cheap measures needed to contain deforestation, together with the many complementary benefits of doing so, make this the first priority for funds intended to slow global warming.

  10. Night-shift work and hematological cancers: a population based case-control study in three Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talibov, Madar; Pukkala, Eero; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Hansen, Johnni

    2018-05-01

    Objective The aim of this case-control study was to assess the effect of night-shift work on the risk of hematological cancers. Methods The study included 39 371 leukemia, 56 713 non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 9322 Hodgkin lymphoma, and 26 188 multiple myeloma cases diagnosed between 1961 and 2005 in Finland, Sweden, and Iceland. Five controls for each case were selected from the Nordic Occupational Cancer Study (NOCCA) cohort, matched by year of birth, sex and country. Night-shift exposure was assessed by using the NOCCA job-exposure matrix (JEM). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated from conditional logistic regression models. Results Overall, night work was not associated with a risk of hematological cancers. We observed a small but non-significantly increased risk for leukemia (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.99-1.16), especially for acute myeloid leukemia (OR 1.15, 95% CI 0.97-1.36) among workers exposed to a high level of cumulative night work exposure. Night work exposure was not associated with lymphatic cancers and multiple myeloma. Conclusion This study did not support associations between night-shift work and hematological cancers.

  11. Municipal Bonds in Developing Countries. Case Study: Municipality of Stip, Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija GOGOVA SAMONIKOV

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The developing countries, especially in the Balkans, barely use the municipal bonds as an alternative way of financing their activities. This paper is part of the project “The municipal bonds as an alternative source of financing municipals activities and the effective management of funds, with a special emphasis to the Municipality of Stip, R. Macedonia”. The paper has an important impact, according to both academic and practical perspective. It combines the experts’ academic analysis with the municipals potential in order to facilitate a successful municipal bond emission that would support the local economic growth. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the ability and willingness of the Municipality of Stip to issue municipal bonds. The main hypothesis states that the Municipality of Stip is able to issue a municipal bond as an alternative way of financing its investment activities. The research includes the classical SWOT analysis regarding the Municipality of Stip and continues with a statistical analysis based on correlation and regression relationships within the accounts of the Municipality’s annual reports. The methodological framework is based on quantitative research methods (correlations and regression methods which result in acceptance of the main hypothesis in the paper - the municipal bonds as an alternative source for funding municipal’s activities are justified, especially if the funds are associated with a specific revenue-generating project. The findings would serve as a basis for the municipal bonds prospect, which would be the ultimate goal of combining the academic knowledge with the practical potential of the Municipality of Stip. The conclusions reveal that this would be the first municipal bond emission in the Republic of Macedonia. However, this fact can serve as an advantage in the market in terms of introducing financial instrument innovation. This paper suggests that the usage of municipal bonds is

  12. Hungary country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uerge-Vorsatz, D.; Fuele, M. [eds.

    1999-09-01

    Hungary recognises the importance of limiting greenhouse gas emissions in order to prevent or mitigate their impact on the global climate. On an international level, Hungary is not a significant carbon dioxide emitter, neither to the absolute degree nor on a per capita basis. This means that the principal reason for Hungarian participation in emission`s reduction is not perceivable international consequences but solidarity and participation in the common action of the countries of the world. Hungary is a signatory to both the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto protocol. However, the (Hungarian) National Environmental Program also emphasises that the fulfilment of international conventions must happen at a level and pace reasonable for Hungary. The goal of this study is to investigate the potentials, costs and implementation strategies of greenhouse gas abatement in Hungary. First presented is a background of Hungary`s economy and a summary of the economic transitions in Hungary. A brief description of the Hungarian energy sector is included, with a short summary of carbon dioxide emissions, and of the Hungarian forestry sector. The following chapter is devoted to the development of baseline scenarios, from bottom-up and top-down perspectives. In the chapter on mitigation, the spectrum of energy efficiency measures in the residential and public sectors is discussed. Fifteen specific measures, whose impact is considered important, are selected and discussed in detail. The cost curves are developed for the discussed mitigation options. Then, we discuss the issues related to the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the Hungarian residential and commercial sectors. After a general background and a framework on the implementation of the energy efficiency measures in the sectors chosen, we elaborate on the practicality of these concepts. As a case study, the concept and the feasibility of carbon/energy taxes are examined. To complete the

  13. Botswana country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    This study was carried out in Botswana, Tanzania and Zambia as part of the project `Climate Change Mitigation in Southern Africa` funded by the Danish International Development Agency (Danida). The project was conducted parallel to the UNEP/GEF project `Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations` which involved 8 other developing countries and 2 regional projects in Latin America and the SADC region. The limitation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is a complex issue, intimately connected with economic development at local, national, regional and global levels. Key economic sectors such as energy, agriculture, industry and forestry all produce GHGs, and are likely to be affected directly and indirectly by any mitigation policy. The UNEP Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies, initiated in 1991, attempted to address these complex issues, developing a methodological framework and testing it through practical application in ten countries. (EHS) 28 refs.

  14. Achieving maternal and child health gains in Afghanistan: a Countdown to 2015 country case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akseer, Nadia; Salehi, Ahmad S; Hossain, S M Moazzem; Mashal, M Taufiq; Rasooly, M Hafiz; Bhatti, Zaid; Rizvi, Arjumand; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2016-06-01

    for nurses (738 to 5766), midwives (211 to 3333), general physicians (403 to 5990), and community health workers (2682 to 28 837). Multivariable analysis of factors contributing to overall changes in skilled birth attendance and facility births suggests independent contributions of maternal literacy, deployment of community midwives, and proximity to a facility. Despite conflict and poverty, Afghanistan has made reasonable progress in its reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health indicators over the last decade based on contributions of factors within and outside the health sector. However, equitable access to health care remains a challenge and present delivery models have high transactional costs, affecting sustainability. To maintain and further accelerate health and development gains, future strategies in Afghanistan will need to focus on investments in improving social determinants of health and targeted cost-effective interventions to address major causes of maternal and newborn mortality. US Fund for UNICEF under the Countdown to 2015 for Maternal, Newborn, and Child Survival grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and from the Government of Canada, Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada. Additional direct and in-kind support was received from the UNICEF Country Office Afghanistan, the Centre for Global Child Health, the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, the Aga Khan University, and Mother and Child Care Trust (Pakistan). Copyright © 2016 Akseer et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Establishment of Risk based microbiological criteria in the Nordic countries: A case study on Campylobacter in broiler meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten

    Microbiological criteria (MCs) offer a practical tool for food safety control and they are currently under discussion internationally. To meet the present scientific standards, there is an increasing demand for so- called “risk based” microbiological criteria that are based on risk assessment....... In this project we studied the potentials for setting risk based microbiological criteria on Campylobacter in chicken meat by studying the potential impact that specific microbiological criteria would have in different Nordic countries. This is done on the basis of different data sets that have been collected...... based microbiological criteria, the “case-by-case” risk assessment methodology is used (Christensen et al 2013) and its impact is analysed on the basis of the same data sets. In both approaches the same risk assessment model for Campylobacter in broiler meat is used. The difference between...

  16. Ethnic Chinese Remigration from Southeast Asian Countries since 1960s: A Case Study of Malaysian Chinese Outflows

    OpenAIRE

    Kang Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Total outflows of Chinese from Southeast Asian countries since the Second World War reached around 3 million. They headed to the developed countries such as the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, France and Singapore. As for the case of Malaysia, large number of Malaysian Chinese remigrated to Singapore, United Kingdom, United States, Canada and Australia for new residence since the end of the Second World War. They left Malaysia because of political discrimination, economic re...

  17. Higher Education Governance in Developing Countries, Challenges and Recommendations: Iran as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Raisan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the challenges to higher education in Iran and summarizes a range of expert studies, including those of the writer. Common to all the studies is the goal of improving Iran’s higher education system by analyzing its internal and external challenges. This review makes several policy recommendations, including a turn frombureaucratic management to transformational leadership, more resources dedicated to workforce development and research, and outreach for help and advice from institutions and experts.

  18. Curriculum Issues: Teaching and Learning for Sustainable Development in Developing Countries--Zimbabwe Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambudzo, Ignatius Isaac

    2015-01-01

    The study sought to investigate curriculum issues, teaching and learning for sustainable development in secondary schools in Zimbabwe. Education for sustainable development (ESD) aims at changing the approach to education by integrating principles, values, practices and needs in all forms of learning. Literature has documented the importance of…

  19. Industrial energy utilization patterns in a developing country: a case study of selected industries in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolde-Ghiorgis, W. (Addis Ababa Univ. (Ethiopia))

    1991-01-01

    Energy utilization patterns in three factories involved in cement production, textile manufacturing, and food processing in Ethiopia are discussed. The study uses data of energy consumption and products to obtain specific energy consumption figures for two of the factories. Results show areas of apparent energy losses and corresponding conservation possibilities. (author).

  20. International Monetary Fund’s intervention during crisis in emerging countries. Case study of Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    ANDRONIC (BRĂTULESCU) Maria Letiția

    2018-01-01

    We addressed the theme of the IMF’s intervention in Argentina because we found it challenging to discover how an emerging state with potential could have passed through all economic phases in just a few years. First, the empirical analysis proved that the continuous involvement of international organizations does not always have positive effects. This study aims to analyse the external debt, a cause of the economic collapse of 1998-2002, and what the authorities shoul...

  1. Countdown to 2015 country case studies: systematic tools to address the "black box" of health systems and policy assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neha S; Huicho, Luis; Afnan-Holmes, Hoviyeh; John, Theopista; Moran, Allisyn C; Colbourn, Tim; Grundy, Chris; Matthews, Zoe; Maliqi, Blerta; Mathai, Matthews; Daelmans, Bernadette; Requejo, Jennifer; Lawn, Joy E

    2016-09-12

    Evaluating health systems and policy (HSP) change and implementation is critical in understanding reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH) progress within and across countries. Whilst data for health outcomes, coverage and equity have advanced in the last decade, comparable analyses of HSP changes are lacking. We present a set of novel tools developed by Countdown to 2015 (Countdown) to systematically analyse and describe HSP change for RMNCH indicators, enabling multi-country comparisons. International experts worked with eight country teams to develop HSP tools via mixed methods. These tools assess RMNCH change over time (e.g. 1990-2015) and include: (i) Policy and Programme Timeline Tool (depicting change according to level of policy); (ii) Health Policy Tracer Indicators Dashboard (showing 11 selected RMNCH policies over time); (iii) Health Systems Tracer Indicators Dashboard (showing four selected systems indicators over time); and (iv) Programme implementation assessment. To illustrate these tools, we present results from Tanzania and Peru, two of eight Countdown case studies. The Policy and Programme Timeline tool shows that Tanzania's RMNCH environment is complex, with increased funding and programmes for child survival, particularly primary-care implementation. Maternal health was prioritised since mid-1990s, yet with variable programme implementation, mainly targeting facilities. Newborn health only received attention since 2005, yet is rapidly scaling-up interventions at facility- and community-levels. Reproductive health lost momentum, with re-investment since 2010. Contrastingly, Peru moved from standalone to integrated RMNCH programme implementation, combined with multi-sectoral, anti-poverty strategies. The HSP Tracer Indicators Dashboards show that Peru has adopted nine of 11 policy tracer indicators and Tanzania has adopted seven. Peru costed national RMNCH plans pre-2000, whereas Tanzania developed a national RMNCH plan in 2006 but

  2. Climate Change Awareness among the High School Students: Case Study from a Climate Vulnerable Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.A. Rahman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is one the worst sufferers of climate change. Climate change awareness creation is pivotal to adaptation and mitigation strategies. Effective dissemination of knowledge among the citizens during high school years is crucial to that end. In Bangladesh, secondary school students follow common curricula which include entries on climate change. This paper investigates the role of the diverse demographic profiles and inherent scholastic background of students on their informedness. The research is based on responses from secondary schools students in Chittagong, Bangladesh. Based on their understanding of climate change, we have constructed the Climate Awareness Index (CAI. Then the relative roles of demographic determinants of the awareness have been compared using the CAI. The quality of schools, and grade, major and merit position of students have affected the CAI values. Besides, the study concluded that the religion, gender, parental education, occupation and income, etc. could affect students’ climate change informedness in Bangladesh.

  3. Forecasting generation of urban solid waste in developing countries--a case study in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buenrostro, O; Bocco, G; Vence, J

    2001-01-01

    Based on a study of the composition of urban solid waste (USW) and of socioeconomic variables in Morelia, Mexico, generation rates were estimated. In addition, the generation of residential solid waste (RSW) and nonresidential solid waste (NRSW) was forecasted by means of a multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis. For residential sources, the independent variables analyzed were monthly wages, persons per dwelling, age, and educational level of the heads of the household. For nonresidential sources, variables analyzed were number of employees, area of facilities, number of working days, and working hours per day. The forecasted values for residential waste were similar to those observed. This approach may be applied to areas in which available data are scarce, and in which there is an urgent need for the planning of adequate management of USW.

  4. Performance of PWR study in the technology supplier countries: south korea and japan case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriyana

    2007-01-01

    Electricity is needed as an infrastructure to support the national economic growth. For economic development sustainability, energy alternatives should be provided. Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) become the alternative of electricity generation for optimum energy mix in Indonesia and planned to operate in the 2016. Several studies have already done to prepare the NPP construction. This study focused on NPP performance especially PWR type in Asia, namely Japan and South Korea. Methodology used in this is literature tracing and a small calculation. The energy availability per unit per year is used as a parameter for evaluating the NPP performance. This conclusion are 1) the amount of NPP - PWR type in Japan is 22 units with total operational experiences 526 reactor-years and the average energy availability factor about 70.7% per unit per year. Meanwhile for the same type South Korea has 16 unit with total operational experience 222 reactor-years and average availability factor per unit per year is about 86.9%. 2) the 1000 class of PWR type both South Korea and Japan have 14 units. The operational experiences for thi class is 170 reactor-year for South Korean and 307 reactor-year for Japan. Meanwhile the average availability factor per unit per year is about 87.0% for South Korea and 69.6% for Japan. 3) the average availability factor is closed to capacity factor, so is important for real figure in assuming the techno-economic parameters, because it will influence the result o economic calculation. (author)

  5. Solar plants, environmental degradation and local socioeconomic contexts: A case study in a Mediterranean country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delfanti, Lavinia [University of Viterbo, Department DAFNE, Via S. Camillo De Lellis snc, I-11100, Viterbo (Italy); Colantoni, Andrea, E-mail: colantoni@unitus.it [University of Viterbo, Department DAFNE, Via S. Camillo De Lellis snc, I-11100, Viterbo (Italy); Recanatesi, Fabio [University of Viterbo, Department DAFNE, Via S. Camillo De Lellis snc, I-11100, Viterbo (Italy); Bencardino, Massimiliano [University of Salerno, Department of Political, Social and Communication Sciences, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Sateriano, Adele [Via A. Di Tullio 40, I-00136, Rome (Italy); Zambon, Ilaria [University of Viterbo, Department DAFNE, Via S. Camillo De Lellis snc, I-11100, Viterbo (Italy); Salvati, Luca, E-mail: luca.salvati@crea.gov.it [Council for Agricultural Research and Economics (CREA-RPS), Via della Navicella 2-4, I-00184, Rome (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    Photovoltaic plants developed on rural land are becoming a common infrastructure in the Mediterranean region and may contribute, at least indirectly, to various forms of environmental degradation including landscape deterioration, land take, soil degradation and loss in traditional cropland and biodiversity. Our study illustrates a procedure estimating (i) the extension of ground-mounted photovoltaic fields at the municipal scale in Italy and (ii) inferring the socioeconomic profile of the Italian municipalities experiencing different expansion rates of ground-mounted photovoltaic fields over the last years (2007-2014). The procedure was based on diachronic information derived from official data sources integrated into a geographical decision support system. Our results indicate that the surface area of ground-mounted photovoltaic fields into rural land grew continuously in Italy between 2007 and 2014 with positive and increasing growth rates observed during 2007-2011 and positive but slightly decreasing growth rates over 2012-2014, as a result of market saturation and policies containing the diffusion of solar plants on greenfields. We found important differences in the density of ground-mounted solar plants between northern and southern Italian municipalities. We identified accessible rural municipalities in southern Italy with intermediate population density and large availability of non-urban land as the most exposed to the diffusion of solar plants on greenfields in the last decade. Our approach is a promising tool to estimate changes in the use of land driven by the expansion of photovoltaic fields into rural land.

  6. Practical application of corporate governance principles in a developing country: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanjiru Gachie

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of examining corporate governance in organisations cannot be overemphasised. Corporate governance failure which has resulted from weak corporate governance systems has highlighted the need for research aimed at contributing to the improvement and reform of corporate governance at business, national and international level. A review of corporate governance mechanisms and their practical application in two retail companies in South Africa was undertaken. The research question that informed the study was: What is the nature of corporate governance mechanisms in the South African retail sector? The research design entailed analysis of secondary data, namely Annual Reports and other pertinent documents, and document analysis was used to show what is accessible to the ordinary share/stake-holder and what is not. Data analysis was conducted both qualitatively and quantitatively. With regard to corporate governance mechanisms, the results and discussion show that the two companies have not yet complied with the King II and III codes. Recommended strategies to strengthen corporate governance mechanisms in the South African retail sector should include a commitment to risk disclosure and revamping of the corporate governance structure of the ‘whole’ system.

  7. Solar plants, environmental degradation and local socioeconomic contexts: A case study in a Mediterranean country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfanti, Lavinia; Colantoni, Andrea; Recanatesi, Fabio; Bencardino, Massimiliano; Sateriano, Adele; Zambon, Ilaria; Salvati, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Photovoltaic plants developed on rural land are becoming a common infrastructure in the Mediterranean region and may contribute, at least indirectly, to various forms of environmental degradation including landscape deterioration, land take, soil degradation and loss in traditional cropland and biodiversity. Our study illustrates a procedure estimating (i) the extension of ground-mounted photovoltaic fields at the municipal scale in Italy and (ii) inferring the socioeconomic profile of the Italian municipalities experiencing different expansion rates of ground-mounted photovoltaic fields over the last years (2007-2014). The procedure was based on diachronic information derived from official data sources integrated into a geographical decision support system. Our results indicate that the surface area of ground-mounted photovoltaic fields into rural land grew continuously in Italy between 2007 and 2014 with positive and increasing growth rates observed during 2007-2011 and positive but slightly decreasing growth rates over 2012-2014, as a result of market saturation and policies containing the diffusion of solar plants on greenfields. We found important differences in the density of ground-mounted solar plants between northern and southern Italian municipalities. We identified accessible rural municipalities in southern Italy with intermediate population density and large availability of non-urban land as the most exposed to the diffusion of solar plants on greenfields in the last decade. Our approach is a promising tool to estimate changes in the use of land driven by the expansion of photovoltaic fields into rural land.

  8. Noise pollution in the hospital environment of a developing country: A case study of Lahore (Pakistan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baqar, Mujtaba; Arslan, Muhammad; Abbasi, Saddam A; Ashraf, Uzma; Khalid, Anam; Zahid, Hina

    2017-08-24

    The present study investigates the noise pollution levels in public- and private-sector hospitals of Lahore. The noise pollution parameters were investigated from 20 public and 10 private hospitals. We observed that the equivalent continuous sound level (Leq) values varied significantly in different departments of the hospitals as well as at different times of the day. The public-sector hospitals had significantly higher noise pollution compared to the private-sector hospitals. The Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney two-sample rank-sum test revealed significant difference between noise levels in intensive care unit (ICU) during morning and in emergency, waiting area, intensive care unit (ICU), and reception during daytimes. However, no significant differences were found for any department during the evening. The Leq values were found to be higher than the international norms (WHO standards) for all hospitals, higher than USEPA for 29 hospitals and higher than local standards for 27 hospitals. Overall, significantly lower sound levels were always observed in private hospitals.

  9. Do countries rely on the World Health Organization for translating research findings into clinical guidelines? A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ramadhani A; Geldsetzer, Pascal; Bärnighausen, Till; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2016-10-06

    The World Health Organization's (WHO) antiretroviral therapy (ART) guidelines have generally been adopted rapidly and with high fidelity by countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Thus far, however, WHO has not published specific guidance on nutritional care and support for (non-pregnant) adults living with HIV despite a solid evidence base for some interventions. This offers an opportunity for a case study on whether national clinical guidelines in sub-Saharan Africa provide concrete recommendations in the face of limited guidance by WHO. This study, therefore, aims to determine if national HIV treatment guidelines in sub-Saharan Africa contain specific guidance on nutritional care and support for non-pregnant adults living with HIV. We identified the most recent national HIV treatment guidelines in sub-Saharan African countries with English as an official language. Using pre-specified criteria, we determined for each guideline whether it provides guidance to clinicians on each of five components of nutritional care and support for adults living with HIV: assessment of nutritional status, dietary counseling, micronutrient supplementation, ready-to-use therapeutic or supplementary foods, and food subsidies. We found that national HIV treatment guidelines in sub-Saharan Africa generally do not contain concrete recommendations on nutritional care and support for non-pregnant adults living with HIV. Given that decisions on nutritional care and support are inevitably being made at the clinician-patient level, and that clinicians have a relative disadvantage in systematically identifying, summarizing, and weighing up research evidence compared to WHO and national governments, there is a need for more specific clinical guidance. In our view, such guidance should at a minimum recommend daily micronutrient supplements for adults living with HIV who are in pre-ART stages, regular dietary counseling, periodic assessment of anthropometric status, and additional nutritional

  10. Towards a Science of Community Stakeholder Engagement in Biomedical HIV Prevention Trials: An Embedded Four-Country Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Peter A; Rubincam, Clara; Slack, Catherine; Essack, Zaynab; Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Chuang, Deng-Min; Tepjan, Suchon; Shunmugam, Murali; Roungprakhon, Surachet; Logie, Carmen; Koen, Jennifer; Lindegger, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Broad international guidelines and studies in the context of individual clinical trials highlight the centrality of community stakeholder engagement in conducting ethically rigorous HIV prevention trials. We explored and identified challenges and facilitators for community stakeholder engagement in biomedical HIV prevention trials in diverse global settings. Our aim was to assess and deepen the empirical foundation for priorities included in the GPP guidelines and to highlight challenges in implementation that may merit further attention in subsequent GPP iterations. From 2008-2012 we conducted an embedded, multiple case study centered in Thailand, India, South Africa and Canada. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with respondents from different trial-related subsystems: civil society organization representatives, community advocates, service providers, clinical trialists/researchers, former trial participants, and key HIV risk populations. Interviews/focus groups were recorded, and coded using thematic content analysis. After intra-case analyses, we conducted cross-case analysis to contrast and synthesize themes and sub-themes across cases. Lastly, we applied the case study findings to explore and assess UNAIDS/AVAC GPP guidelines and the GPP Blueprint for Stakeholder Engagement. Across settings, we identified three cross-cutting themes as essential to community stakeholder engagement: trial literacy, including lexicon challenges and misconceptions that imperil sound communication; mistrust due to historical exploitation; and participatory processes: engaging early; considering the breadth of "community"; and, developing appropriate stakeholder roles. Site-specific challenges arose in resource-limited settings and settings where trials were halted. This multiple case study revealed common themes underlying community stakeholder engagement across four country settings that largely mirror GPP goals and the GPP Blueprint, as well as highlighting

  11. Towards a Science of Community Stakeholder Engagement in Biomedical HIV Prevention Trials: An Embedded Four-Country Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Peter A.; Rubincam, Clara; Slack, Catherine; Essack, Zaynab; Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Chuang, Deng-Min; Tepjan, Suchon; Shunmugam, Murali; Roungprakhon, Surachet; Logie, Carmen; Koen, Jennifer; Lindegger, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Broad international guidelines and studies in the context of individual clinical trials highlight the centrality of community stakeholder engagement in conducting ethically rigorous HIV prevention trials. We explored and identified challenges and facilitators for community stakeholder engagement in biomedical HIV prevention trials in diverse global settings. Our aim was to assess and deepen the empirical foundation for priorities included in the GPP guidelines and to highlight challenges in implementation that may merit further attention in subsequent GPP iterations. Methods From 2008–2012 we conducted an embedded, multiple case study centered in Thailand, India, South Africa and Canada. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with respondents from different trial-related subsystems: civil society organization representatives, community advocates, service providers, clinical trialists/researchers, former trial participants, and key HIV risk populations. Interviews/focus groups were recorded, and coded using thematic content analysis. After intra-case analyses, we conducted cross-case analysis to contrast and synthesize themes and sub-themes across cases. Lastly, we applied the case study findings to explore and assess UNAIDS/AVAC GPP guidelines and the GPP Blueprint for Stakeholder Engagement. Results Across settings, we identified three cross-cutting themes as essential to community stakeholder engagement: trial literacy, including lexicon challenges and misconceptions that imperil sound communication; mistrust due to historical exploitation; and participatory processes: engaging early; considering the breadth of “community”; and, developing appropriate stakeholder roles. Site-specific challenges arose in resource-limited settings and settings where trials were halted. Conclusions This multiple case study revealed common themes underlying community stakeholder engagement across four country settings that largely mirror GPP goals and the

  12. Towards a Science of Community Stakeholder Engagement in Biomedical HIV Prevention Trials: An Embedded Four-Country Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A Newman

    Full Text Available Broad international guidelines and studies in the context of individual clinical trials highlight the centrality of community stakeholder engagement in conducting ethically rigorous HIV prevention trials. We explored and identified challenges and facilitators for community stakeholder engagement in biomedical HIV prevention trials in diverse global settings. Our aim was to assess and deepen the empirical foundation for priorities included in the GPP guidelines and to highlight challenges in implementation that may merit further attention in subsequent GPP iterations.From 2008-2012 we conducted an embedded, multiple case study centered in Thailand, India, South Africa and Canada. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with respondents from different trial-related subsystems: civil society organization representatives, community advocates, service providers, clinical trialists/researchers, former trial participants, and key HIV risk populations. Interviews/focus groups were recorded, and coded using thematic content analysis. After intra-case analyses, we conducted cross-case analysis to contrast and synthesize themes and sub-themes across cases. Lastly, we applied the case study findings to explore and assess UNAIDS/AVAC GPP guidelines and the GPP Blueprint for Stakeholder Engagement.Across settings, we identified three cross-cutting themes as essential to community stakeholder engagement: trial literacy, including lexicon challenges and misconceptions that imperil sound communication; mistrust due to historical exploitation; and participatory processes: engaging early; considering the breadth of "community"; and, developing appropriate stakeholder roles. Site-specific challenges arose in resource-limited settings and settings where trials were halted.This multiple case study revealed common themes underlying community stakeholder engagement across four country settings that largely mirror GPP goals and the GPP Blueprint, as well as

  13. Risk of injury after alcohol consumption from case-crossover studies in five countries from the America’s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Orozco, Ricardo; Monteiro, Maristela; Cherpitel, Cheryl; Then, Eddy Pérez; López, Víctor A.; Bassier-Paltoo, Marcia; Weil A., Donald; de Bradshaw, Aldacira M

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study aimed to: 1) provide relative risk (RR) estimates between acute alcohol use and injuries from emergency departments in the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Guyana, Nicaragua and Panama, and 2) test whether the RR differs if two control periods for the estimates were used. Design Case-crossover methodology was used to obtain estimates of the RR of having an injury within six hours after drinking alcohol, using a pair-matching design with control periods of the same time of day the day prior to injury, and the same time of day and day of week the week prior to injury. Setting Emergency departments(EDs). Participants 2,503 injured patients from EDs were interviewed between 2010–2011, with a response rate of 92.6%. Measurements Number of drinks consumed within six hours prior to the injury and in the two control periods. Findings The RR of injury after drinking alcohol was 4.38 (95% confidence interval CI= 3.29–5.84) using as the control period the prior week, and 5.35 (CI=3.50–8.17) using as a control period the prior day. The RR was 5.08 (CI=4.15–6.23) in multiple matching. Those drinking 1–2 drinks had a RR of 4.85 (CI=3.12–7.54); those drinking 3–5 a RR of 5.00 (CI =3.47–7.18); those drinking 6–15 a RR of 4.54 (CI=3.36–6.14); and those drinking 16 or more a RR of 10.42 (CI=4.38–24.79). Conclusions As in other countries, alcohol drinking is a trigger for an injury in all five countries. The use of more than one control period give further strength to these findings from case-crossover analysis. PMID:22775508

  14. Tanzania country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    Objectives of this study are to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass, as well as other forestry products. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without and in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. Analysis of the mitigation scenario has been based on Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis (COMAP). This study has analysed the forestry and land use sector behaviour on the basis of the current policies on land and environment. Furthermore three scenarios have been developed on the basis of what is expected to happen in the sectors, the worse scenario being a catastrophic one where if things takes the business as usual trend then the forest resources will easily be depleted. The TFAP scenario takes into account the implementation of the current plans as scheduled while the mitigation scenario takes into account the GHG mitigation in the implementation of the plans. A Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis Process (COMAP) has been used to analyse the GHG and cost implications of the various programmes under the mitigation scenario. (au) 30 refs.

  15. Occupational exposure to asbestos and risk of cholangiocarcinoma: a population-based case-control study in four Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farioli, Andrea; Straif, Kurt; Brandi, Giovanni; Curti, Stefania; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Sparen, Pär; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Biasco, Guido; Violante, Francesco Saverio; Mattioli, Stefano; Pukkala, Eero

    2018-03-01

    To assess the association between occupational exposure to asbestos and the risk of cholangiocarcinoma (CC). We conducted a case-control study nested in the Nordic Occupational Cancer (NOCCA) cohort. We studied 1458 intrahepatic CC (ICC) and 3972 extrahepatic CC (ECC) cases occurring among subjects born in 1920 or later in Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. Each case was individually matched by birth year, gender and country to five population controls. The cumulative exposure to asbestos (measured in fibres (f)/ml × years) was assessed by applying the NOCCA job-exposure matrix to data on occupations collected during national population censuses (conducted in 1960, 1970, 1980/81 and 1990). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI were estimated using conditional logistic regression models adjusted by printing industry work. We observed an increasing risk of ICC with cumulative exposure to asbestos: never exposed, OR 1.0 (reference category); 0.1-4.9 f/mL × years, OR 1.1 (95% CI 0.9 to 1.3); 5.0-9.9 f/mL × years, OR 1.3 (95% CI 0.9 to 2.1); 10.0-14.9 f/mL × years, OR 1.6 (95% CI 1.0 to 2.5); ≥15.0 f/mL × years, OR 1.7 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.6). We did not observe an association between cumulative asbestos exposure and ECC. Our study provides evidence that exposure to asbestos might be a risk factor for ICC. Our findings also suggest that the association between ECC and asbestos is null or weaker than that observed for ICC. Further studies based on large industrial cohorts of asbestos workers and possibly accounting for personal characteristics and clinical history are needed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Mauritius country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manraj, D D [Central Statistical Office (Mauritius)

    1998-10-01

    Mauritius has no known oil, gas or coal reserves but is only endowed with limited renewable energy resources namely hydropower and bagasse. Bagasse represents about one third of the country`s energy requirements and meets almost all of the sugar industries energy demand. Projects identified for mitigation options are: Energy Sector - Renewable Sources (Solar, Wind, Biomass); Transport Sector - Fuel switching and Mass transit transport; Manufacturing Sector - Increase efficiency of energy use in the manufacturing process. (EG)

  17. Renewable energy policies in the Gulf countries. A case study of the carbon-neutral 'Masdar City' in Abu Dhabi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiche, Danyel

    2010-01-01

    The Gulf countries are largely dependent on exporting oil and natural gas for their national budgets. They mainly use domestic fossil fuels for their domestic energy supply. In spite of favorable geographic conditions, especially for solar energy, renewable energies are still a niche application. Abu Dhabi, besides Dubai, the most important emirate in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), has now started a process of 'transforming oil wealth into renewable energy leadership', and has set the long-term goal of a 'transition from a 20th Century, carbon-based economy into a 21st Century sustainable economy'. This article is a case study about 'Masdar City', a planned carbon-neutral town in Abu Dhabi. The article describes the key characteristics of Masdar City, analyses the drivers behind the project, identifies the main actors for its implementation, and seeks obstacles to creation and development as well as the policy behind Masdar City. Finally, a first judgment of possible diffusion effects of the project is done. (author)

  18. Can the right to health inform public health planning in developing countries? A case study for maternal healthcare from Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambruoso, Lucia; Byass, Peter; Nurul Qomariyah, Siti

    2008-09-09

    Maternal mortality remains unacceptably high in developing countries despite international advocacy, development targets, and simple, affordable and effective interventions. In recent years, regard for maternal mortality as a human rights issue as well as one that pertains to health, has emerged. We study a case of maternal death using a theoretical framework derived from the right to health to examine access to and quality of maternal healthcare. Our objective was to explore the potential of rights-based frameworks to inform public health planning from a human rights perspective. Information was elicited as part of a verbal autopsy survey investigating maternal deaths in rural settings in Indonesia. The deceased's relatives were interviewed to collect information on medical signs, symptoms and the social, cultural and health systems circumstances surrounding the death. In this case, a prolonged, severe fever and a complicated series of referrals culminated in the death of a 19-year-old primagravida at 7 months gestation. The cause of death was acute infection. The woman encountered a range of barriers to access; behavioural, socio-cultural, geographic and economic. Several serious health system failures were also apparent. The theoretical framework derived from the right to health identified that none of the essential elements of the right were upheld. The rights-based approach could identify how and where to improve services. However, there are fundamental and inherent conflicts between the public health tradition (collective and preventative) and the right to health (individualistic and curative). As a result, and in practice, the right to health is likely to be ineffective for public health planning from a human rights perspective. Collective rights such as the right to development may provide a more suitable means to achieve equity and social justice in health planning.

  19. Risk factors for falls with severe fracture in elderly people living in a middle-income country: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Coutinho, Evandro SF; Fletcher, Astrid; Bloch, Katia V; Rodrigues, Laura C

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Fracture after falling has been identified as an important problem in public health. Most studies of risk factors for fractures due to falls have been carried out in developed countries, although the size of the elderly population is increasing fast in middle income countries. The objective of this paper is to identify risk factors for fall related to severe fractures in those aged 60 or more in a middle-income country. Methods A case-control study was carried out in Rio d...

  20. Risk factors for ischaemic and intracerebral haemorrhagic stroke in 22 countries (the INTERSTROKE study): a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donnell, M.J.; Serpault, Damien Xavier; Xiufeng, Liu

    2010-01-01

    Background The contribution of various risk factors to the burden of stroke worldwide is unknown, particularly in countries of low and middle income. We aimed to establish the association of known and emerging risk factors with stroke and its primary subtypes, assess the contribution of these ris...

  1. Assessment of benefits of research reactors in less developed countries. A case study of the Dalat reactor in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hien, P.D.

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of data on nuclear research reactor (NRR) and socio-economic conditions across countries reveals highly significant relationships of reactor power with GDP and R and D expenditure. The trends revealed can be used as preliminary guides for feasibility assessment of investment in a NRR. Concerning reactor performance, i.e. the number of reactor operation days per year, the covariation with R and D expenditure is most significant, but moderate, implying that there are other controlling factors, e.g. the engagement of country in nuclear power development. Thus, the size of the R and D fund is a most significant indicator to look at in reactor planning. Unfortunately, the lack of adequate R and D funding is a common and chronic problem in less developed countries. As NRR is among the biggest R and D investment in less developed countries, adequate cost benefit assessment is rightfully required. In the case of Vietnam, during 15 years of operation of a 500 kW NRR 2300 Ci of radioisotopes were delivered and 45,000 samples were analysed for multielemental compositions. From a pure financial viewpoint these figures would still be insignificant to justify the investment. However, the impact of the reactor on the technological development seems not to be a matter of pro and cons. The status of reactor utilization and lessons learned are presented and discussed. (author)

  2. Assessment of benefits of research reactors in less developed countries. A case study of the Dalat reactor in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hien, P.D. [Vietnam Atomic Energy Agency, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    1999-08-01

    The analysis of data on nuclear research reactor (NRR) and socio-economic conditions across countries reveals highly significant relationships of reactor power with GDP and R and D expenditure. The trends revealed can be used as preliminary guides for feasibility assessment of investment in a NRR. Concerning reactor performance, i.e. the number of reactor operation days per year, the covariation with R and D expenditure is most significant, but moderate, implying that there are other controlling factors, e.g. the engagement of country in nuclear power development. Thus, the size of the R and D fund is a most significant indicator to look at in reactor planning. Unfortunately, the lack of adequate R and D funding is a common and chronic problem in less developed countries. As NRR is among the biggest R and D investment in less developed countries, adequate cost benefit assessment is rightfully required. In the case of Vietnam, during 15 years of operation of a 500 kW NRR 2300 Ci of radioisotopes were delivered and 45,000 samples were analysed for multielemental compositions. From a pure financial viewpoint these figures would still be insignificant to justify the investment. However, the impact of the reactor on the technological development seems not to be a matter of pro and cons. The status of reactor utilization and lessons learned are presented and discussed. (author)

  3. How does the scientific progress in developing countries affect bibliometric impact measures of developed countries? A counterfactual case study on China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahlschmidt, S.; Hinze, S.

    2016-07-01

    Many developed countries have found their bibliometric impact measures to be improving over the last decade. Also the BRICS states, the economically largest group of developing countries, observe a similar pattern. This uniform growth seems puzzling, as not every country can improve its relative performance to all other countries. A possible explanation for this uniform growth might be found in the dynamic environment and especially in the exponential growth of Chinese publications. We like to analyze how this unprecedented growth of contributions from a single country with its specific bibliometric characteristics affects the whole bibliometric measurement process. We show that due to the lowly cited Chinese publications the overall corpus of scientific publications grows especially in the lower tail and argue that this unequal increase in publications benefits especially the bibliometric impact measures of developed countries. The actual magnitude of this effect will be derived by contrasting the actual bibliometric world with a counterfactual one without China. (Author)

  4. What can be learned from practical cases of green economy? –studies from five European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitkänen, K.; Antikainen, R.; Droste, N.; Loiseau, E.; Saikku, L.; Aissani, L.; Hansjürgens, B.; Kuikman, P.J.; Leskinen, P.; Thomsen, M.

    2016-01-01

    The transition to green economies has been mediated by concrete cases and experiments in a variety of different industrial and social sectors. What is lacking, is research that would synthesize key findings and “lessons learned” across a variety of cases. In this study, we explore ten cases of

  5. The Impact of Factors Affecting Environmental Pollution with Emphasis on Trade Openness in Different Countries (Case study CO2 emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hosein mohammadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization, population growth and moving from traditional manufacturing industry to accelerate the process of economic development and parallel, significant environmental impacts are left. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of different variables such as trade openness, comparative advantage, production levels and other important variables affecting the emission of carbon dioxide gas in various countries of the world. Stata11 software was used to estimate the panel data model of 77 countries over the years 2010-1980. The results indicate that propagation environment, and in particular CO2, in all four groups of countries are associated with prior emission, with a per capita income direct link but with the square of it correlates inversely and have direct link with the ratio of capital to labor and with the square of it correlates inversely and trade openness in high-income countries and moderate negative effect in low-income and middle-income countries is directly related to the bottom.

  6. Child health and nutrition in Peru within an antipoverty political agenda: a Countdown to 2015 country case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huicho, Luis; Segura, Eddy R; Huayanay-Espinoza, Carlos A; de Guzman, Jessica Niño; Restrepo-Méndez, Maria Clara; Tam, Yvonne; Barros, Aluisio J D; Victora, Cesar G

    2016-06-01

    Peru is an upper-middle-income country with wide social and regional disparities. In recent years, sustained multisectoral antipoverty programmes involving governments, political parties, and civil society have included explicit health and nutrition goals and spending increased sharply. We did a country case study with the aim of documenting Peru's progress in reproductive, maternal, neonatal, and child health from 2000-13, and explored the potential determinants. We examined the outcomes of health interventions coverage, under-5 mortality, neonatal mortality, and prevalence of under-5 stunting. We obtained data from interviews with key informants, a literature review of published and unpublished data, national censuses, and governmental reports. We obtained information on social determinants of health, including economic growth, poverty, unmet basic needs, urbanisation, women's education, water supply, fertility rates, and child nutrition from the annual national households surveys and the Peruvian Demographic and Health Surveys. We obtained national mortality data from the Interagency Group for Child Mortality Estimation, and calculated subnational rates from 11 surveys. Analyses were stratified by region, wealth quintiles, and urban or rural residence. We calculated coverage indicators for the years 2000-13, and we used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to estimate the effect of changes in intervention coverage and in nutritional status on mortality. From 2000 to 2013, under-5 mortality fell by 58% from 39·8 deaths per 1000 livebirths to 16·7. LiST, which was used to predict the decline in mortality arising from changes in fertility rates, water and sanitation, undernutrition, and coverage of indicators of reproductive, maternal, neonatal, and child health predicted that the under-5 mortality rate would fall from 39·8 to 28·4 per 1000 livebirths, accounting for 49·2% of the reported reduction. Neonatal mortality fell by 51% from 16·2 deaths per 1000 livebirths

  7. Economic and social impact of diabetes mellitus in a low-income country: A case-control study in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrayah-Eliadarous, Hind A; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Eltom, Mohamed; Johansson, Pia; Sparring, Vibeke; Wahlström, Rolf

    2017-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus accounts for 11% of total health expenditure worldwide, and most people with diabetes live in low- and middle-income countries. The present study examined the economic and social effects attributed to diabetes in Sudan by calculating out-of-pocket medical expenses and the health and social effects of the disease for people with diabetes (n = 375) and their families compared with a non-diabetic control group (n = 375), matched for age, sex, and residence area. Data were obtained in 2013 in four states within the Sudan, via structured interviews, using instruments from the International Diabetes Federation. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze differences between case and control participants. The median total annual medical expenditure was fourfold higher for people with than without diabetes (US$579 vs US$148, respectively). Annual mean expenditure was 85% higher for those with diabetes (US$1004 vs US$544). People with diabetes were also significantly more likely to suffer from serious comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disorders and foot ulcers, compared with control participants. Moreover, those with diabetes reported a higher proportion of personal adverse social effects, such as being prevented from doing paid work or participating in education, both for themselves and their families. The high economic burden and adverse social effects on people with diabetes and their families in Sudan call for the development of evidence-based policy and program strategies for the prevention and management of diabetes, with an emphasis on low-resource communities. © 2017 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Mauritius country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manraj, D.D.

    1998-01-01

    Mauritius has no known oil, gas or coal reserves but is only endowed with limited renewable energy resources namely hydropower and bagasse. Bagasse represents about one third of the country's energy requirements and meets almost all of the sugar industries energy demand. Projects identified for mitigation options are: Energy Sector - Renewable Sources (Solar, Wind, Biomass); Transport Sector - Fuel switching and Mass transit transport; Manufacturing Sector - Increase efficiency of energy use in the manufacturing process. (EG)

  9. Identifying barriers to the availability and use of Magnesium Sulphate Injection in resource poor countries: a case study in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Anna L; Bero, Lisa A; Hill, Suzanne R

    2010-12-16

    Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are serious complications of pregnancy and major causes of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. According to systematic reviews and WHO guidelines magnesium sulphate injection (MgSO4) should be the first -line treatment for severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Studies have shown that this safe and effective medicine is unavailable and underutilized in many resource poor countries. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to the availability and use of MgSO4 in the Zambian Public Health System. A 'fishbone' (Ishikawa) diagram listing probable facilitators to the availability and use of MgSO4 identified from the literature was used to develop an assessment tool. Barriers to availability and use of MgSO4 were assessed at the regulatory/government, supply, procurement, distribution, health facility and health professional levels. The assessment was completed during August 2008 using archival data, and observations at a pragmatic sample of health facilities providing obstetric services in Lusaka District, Zambia. The major barrier to the availability of MgSO4 within the public health system in Zambia was lack of procurement by the Ministry of Health. Other barriers identified included a lack of demand by health professionals at the health centre level and a lack of in-service training in the use of MgSO4. Where there was demand by obstetricians, magnesium sulphate injection was being procured from the private sector by the hospital pharmacy despite not being registered and licensed for use for the treatment of severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia by the national Pharmaceutical Regulatory Authority. The case study in Zambia highlights the complexities that underlie making essential medicines available and used appropriately. The fishbone diagram is a useful theoretical framework for illustrating the complexity of translating research findings into clinical practice. A better understanding of the supply system and of the pattern

  10. Identifying barriers to the availability and use of Magnesium Sulphate Injection in resource poor countries: A case study in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Suzanne R

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are serious complications of pregnancy and major causes of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. According to systematic reviews and WHO guidelines magnesium sulphate injection (MgSO4 should be the first -line treatment for severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Studies have shown that this safe and effective medicine is unavailable and underutilized in many resource poor countries. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to the availability and use of MgSO4 in the Zambian Public Health System. Methods A 'fishbone' (Ishikawa diagram listing probable facilitators to the availability and use of MgSO4 identified from the literature was used to develop an assessment tool. Barriers to availability and use of MgSO4 were assessed at the regulatory/government, supply, procurement, distribution, health facility and health professional levels. The assessment was completed during August 2008 using archival data, and observations at a pragmatic sample of health facilities providing obstetric services in Lusaka District, Zambia. Results The major barrier to the availability of MgSO4 within the public health system in Zambia was lack of procurement by the Ministry of Health. Other barriers identified included a lack of demand by health professionals at the health centre level and a lack of in-service training in the use of MgSO4. Where there was demand by obstetricians, magnesium sulphate injection was being procured from the private sector by the hospital pharmacy despite not being registered and licensed for use for the treatment of severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia by the national Pharmaceutical Regulatory Authority. Conclusions The case study in Zambia highlights the complexities that underlie making essential medicines available and used appropriately. The fishbone diagram is a useful theoretical framework for illustrating the complexity of translating research findings into clinical

  11. The Philippines. Country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, E.B.

    1995-01-01

    Biomass is organic matter produced in a renewable and sustainable manner, by plants through the process of photosynthesis. Biomass can be used as an energy resource to produce heat, power and transport fuels. The integration of biomass into a national energy supply mix may confer a number of local and national benefits. These benefits include displacement of imported fossil fuels with concomitant savings in foreign exchange, abatement of greenhouse gas release and possible reductions in levels of air pollution. The present case study evaluates the status of energy development in the Philippines to determine current levels of biomass utilization and the potential to further develop and use indigenous biomass energy resources. The study is based on: (a) Discussions held with representatives of the various agencies involved with biomass production and energy planning and programme implementation, during a brief mission to the Philippines; (b) An evaluation of current conversion technologies and facilities with the potential to fully utilize available biomass resources in domestic, industrial and power generation sectors; (c) An analysis of existing biomass production data, energy policies and plans, and projections for energy supply and consumption supplied by the relevant agencies and government departments of the Philippines. The Department of Energy is responsible for development and management of national energy policy and programmes. They have prepared an energy policy and projections for energy supply and consumption for the period 1996 to 2025. Non-conventional energy resources have been given a high priority, and a separate programme has been developed under the administration of the Non-conventional Energy Division of the Department of Energy. Total energy consumption in 1994 was estimated at 198 million barrels of fuel oil equivalent (BFOE). Imported fossil fuels accounted for 58% of the total energy supply in 1994, biomass being the most important

  12. The Philippines. Country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, E B [Agro-industrial Consultancy, Burgess Hill, Sussex (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-01

    Biomass is organic matter produced in a renewable and sustainable manner, by plants through the process of photosynthesis. Biomass can be used as an energy resource to produce heat, power and transport fuels. The integration of biomass into a national energy supply mix may confer a number of local and national benefits. These benefits include displacement of imported fossil fuels with concomitant savings in foreign exchange, abatement of greenhouse gas release and possible reductions in levels of air pollution. The present case study evaluates the status of energy development in the Philippines to determine current levels of biomass utilization and the potential to further develop and use indigenous biomass energy resources. The study is based on: (a) Discussions held with representatives of the various agencies involved with biomass production and energy planning and programme implementation, during a brief mission to the Philippines; (b) An evaluation of current conversion technologies and facilities with the potential to fully utilize available biomass resources in domestic, industrial and power generation sectors; (c) An analysis of existing biomass production data, energy policies and plans, and projections for energy supply and consumption supplied by the relevant agencies and government departments of the Philippines. The Department of Energy is responsible for development and management of national energy policy and programmes. They have prepared an energy policy and projections for energy supply and consumption for the period 1996 to 2025. Non-conventional energy resources have been given a high priority, and a separate programme has been developed under the administration of the Non-conventional Energy Division of the Department of Energy. Total energy consumption in 1994 was estimated at 198 million barrels of fuel oil equivalent (BFOE). Imported fossil fuels accounted for 58% of the total energy supply in 1994, biomass being the most important

  13. Basic Education for Girls in Yemen: Country Case Study and Analysis. Mid-Decade Review of Progress towards Education for All.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Sharon

    In 1995, the International Consultative Forum on Education for All (EFA) commissioned case studies in developing countries as part of a mid-decade review of progress in expanding access to basic education. This paper examines provision of basic education (grades 1-9) in Yemen, focusing on obstacles to girls' education in rural areas. The report…

  14. The roles and needs of community health workers in developing countries: an exploratory case study in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khalala, G

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available counseling and testing. Community Health Workers play a significant role in primary health care provision to vulnerable communities[5][6]. Although the importance of Community Health Workers in the provision of primary health care to rural... slightly urbanized (Soweto). In terms of data collection, group interviews and questionnaires were used as data collection tools. 1) Selection of case studies Case study was chosen as an appropriate approach as this study sought to explore...

  15. E-government factors to reduce administrative and finance corruption in Arab countries: Case study Iraqi oil sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, M. A.; Eman, Y.; Hussein, A. H.; Hasson, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Arab countries face the corruption issues in its several public organizations. The corruption in these countries is considered as the main challenge. The oil sector is one of the public sectors that have huge level of corruption. However, the Iraqi economy had become dependable on oil sector daring the last three decades, and on the contrary, of what other oil countries did. The capital is considered as one of the essential factor for economic development. The revenues of oil exports will stay the essential source for economic development in Iraq in the future in order to reduce being dependable on oil. Since the beginning of the 3rd thousands, the world witnessed great rise in the demand on oil, but the Iraqi exports of crude oil come to be less than its similarities in the seventeenths of last century. So our oil sector is still in need of deep study. This study focuses on technological technique that can make huge decrease for corruption in oil sector in Iraq. However, e-government is considered as the best techniques that can decrease the corruption. Thus, this study bases on challenges that effect on build successful e-government project in Iraqi oil industry.

  16. What tools do we have to study the morphological effects of hydroelectric plants in developing countries? The Chilean case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcayaga, Hernan; Caamaño, Diego; Palma, Sebastian; Contreras, Karla

    2017-04-01

    Countries growing rates are directly related to energy production. Therefore, developed and developing nations are focused on hydropower and dam construction; on the contrary dam removal practices are significantly different among nations, demonstrating the former group a lesser interest on removing structures. Chiles hydropower generation corresponds to 50% of the current grid, having a potential capacity to double the current situation. Thus: ¿What tools can we apply to assess the potential impacts on our rivers? The goal of this project is to study two different reaches located in two separates streams in Central Chile. The Aconcagua River represents a mountain stream (i.e. steep, narrow, and confined) subject to the operation of a hydroelectric system composed by five diversion hydropower plants built during the 90`s. The Rapel River reach corresponds to the last 10km upstream to the outlet; it is a mild and wide stream that includes the gravel-sand transition. The Rapel dam operates about 25km upstream this second reach that is characterized by an 112m wall built in 1968. The Aconcagua hydropower system was characterized within a GIS environment and a morphological response conceptual model applied. The model uses two indexes to evaluate changes in i) channel forming discharge and ii) sediment supply. The provided response shows the trends and magnitudes of the changes, based in eighth possible directions for ten morphological responsible variables. The Rapel river system was evaluated differently and sampling of sediments characteristics (D50 and armour index), discharge index for both before and after the dam operation, Morphological Quality Index (IQM) and an analysis of aerial photography time series were performed. Results showed that the hydrology indicator impacts for the Aconcagua system were more severe than the impacts on sediments transport (typically the case for diversion type hydropower). A fine armour layer was found within the Rapel river site

  17. Ethnic Chinese Remigration from Southeast Asian Countries since 1960s: A Case Study of Malaysian Chinese Outflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Xiaoli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Total outflows of Chinese from Southeast Asian countries since the Second World War reached around 3 million. They headed to the developed countries such as the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, France and Singapore. As for the case of Malaysia, large number of Malaysian Chinese remigrated to Singapore, United Kingdom, United States, Canada and Australia for new residence since the end of the Second World War. They left Malaysia because of political discrimination, economic restrictions, and unequal educational and cultural treatment. According to Malaysia census data and natural population growth rate, this paper made estimation that by 201 0 a total of 1.13 million ethnic Chinese had migrated out of Malaysia. After deducting the number of ethnic Chinese moving to Malaysia, the Malaysian Chinese migrating abroad reached 1.05 million. Malaysian Chinese left Malaysia in the manner of permanent residents and short-term migrants. Permanent residents include those in the skill stream, family stream and those with special eligibility. Short-term migrants refer to visiting scholars, foreign students, guest labor, business expatriates and expatriate professionals. As a matter of fact, there has been a serious brain drain through Chinese remigration from Malaysia.

  18. The usefulness of air quality monitoring and air quality impact studies before the introduction of reformulated gasolines in developing countries. Mexico City, a real case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, H.A.; Torres, R.J. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico). Section de Contaminacion Ambiental

    2000-07-01

    Urban air pollution is a major environmental problem in several developing countries in the world. This phenomenon seems to be related to the growth of both the urban population in large cities and the number of old and poorly maintained car fleets. The expected rise of population in the next century in countries which suffer from lack of capital for air pollution control, means that there is a great potential for the worsening of the air quality. The worldwide promote policy to phase out lead in gasolines has not proved to be an adequate option in improving the environmental quality. Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) represents a case in which the introduction of reformulated gasolines in an old car fleet has resulted in the reduction of the airborne lead levels but has worsened the ozone concentration of its urban atmosphere. This paper critically analyzes the chronological evolution of the ozone air pollution problem in MCMA after the successive occurrence of several changes in the formulation of low leaded and unleaded gasolines. It also presents evidences of the usefulness potential of air quality monitoring activities and air quality impact studies on the definition of realistic fuel reformulation policies of developing countries. (author)

  19. Multivariant strategy study for the use of plutonium in a nuclear programme: the case of the large and small country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dievoet, J. van; Kunsch, P.; Verraver, J.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a multicriteria study into the desirability of introducing a plutonium using FBR programme into two fictitious countries, one large and one small, are presented. The strategy discussed concerns only base load electrical energy production with both fossil and nuclear fuels. A number of independent social, economic and political objectives need to be considered in the choice of power plant programme. These include the price of fuel, the safety of fuel supply, the balance of services, the new investments needed and the impact of new technology. (U.K.)

  20. Insight into Groundwater Flow within a Crystalline Aquifer. Case Study of the Ursuya Mount, Northern Basque Country (France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaunat, J.; Huneau, F.; Dupuy, A.; Franceschi, M.; Coustumer, P. Le; Celle-Jeanton, H.

    2011-01-01

    The Ursuya Mount is one of the main water supplies of the Northern Basque Country. A study is being conducted since 2009 on this aquifer in order to improve the knowledge on its potential and its hydrodynamics properties. Two hydrological cycles are required to get the necessary data to meet the following objectives: clarifying the aquifer potential of the site both quantitatively and qualitatively; determining the geographic and seasonal variations; understanding the origin and the flow pattern of the groundwater; evaluating the groundwater residence times and the areas of preferential recharge. Here, we present only some geochemical and isotopic data. Thus, structural or hydrodynamic approaches will not be discussed.

  1. Student's Plagiarisms in Higher Learning Institutions in the Era of Improved Internet Access: Case Study of Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anney, Vicent Naano; Mosha, Mary Atanas

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated students' plagiarism practices in Tanzania higher learning institutions by involving two universities-one public and one private university as a case study. The universities involved have honour code and policies for plagiarism detection however they do not employ software for checking students' plagiarism. The study…

  2. Challenges for Sustainable Energy Sectors in Developing Countries- with Case Studies from Zambia, Zimbabwe, India and Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Regine

    1998-12-31

    Most of the developing countries have severe constraints on economic development caused by serious problems in their power sector. This report analyses the technical and financial situation of the sector from the perspective of sustainable electricity strategies. The core problem of the electricity sector is the complete lack of energy efficiency at all levels from generation to end user. The current emphasis on private participation in new electricity generation projects fails to solve the core problem and even diverts attention from the real challenge. An arm`s length relationship between governments and utilities is of central importance for a sound performance of the power sector. But more autonomous power sector decisions, such as reformed tariff structures, might contribute to inflation and political unrest. This is a main barrier to steps towards power sector autonomy. Another barrier is the lack of institutional capacity, despite over staffed utilities. Most important is the fact that the organizational structures are designed for supply-side management and that the incentive structures for good performance are often weak. The case of Thailand shows that end-use efficiency can be developed considerably by means of incentives and regulations and that transparency was an important condition for achieving this. The real challenge for development cooperation is to support the improvement of energy efficiency at all levels and the institutional and financial preconditions. It is also an important challenge to support developing countries in preparing for future utilization of viable new renewable energy carriers. Apart from this, it is important to continue the work for environmental impact assessments of planned power projects, and to support measures for minimizing the environmental impacts of old power plants. 48 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Challenges for Sustainable Energy Sectors in Developing Countries- with Case Studies from Zambia, Zimbabwe, India and Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Regine

    1997-12-31

    Most of the developing countries have severe constraints on economic development caused by serious problems in their power sector. This report analyses the technical and financial situation of the sector from the perspective of sustainable electricity strategies. The core problem of the electricity sector is the complete lack of energy efficiency at all levels from generation to end user. The current emphasis on private participation in new electricity generation projects fails to solve the core problem and even diverts attention from the real challenge. An arm`s length relationship between governments and utilities is of central importance for a sound performance of the power sector. But more autonomous power sector decisions, such as reformed tariff structures, might contribute to inflation and political unrest. This is a main barrier to steps towards power sector autonomy. Another barrier is the lack of institutional capacity, despite over staffed utilities. Most important is the fact that the organizational structures are designed for supply-side management and that the incentive structures for good performance are often weak. The case of Thailand shows that end-use efficiency can be developed considerably by means of incentives and regulations and that transparency was an important condition for achieving this. The real challenge for development cooperation is to support the improvement of energy efficiency at all levels and the institutional and financial preconditions. It is also an important challenge to support developing countries in preparing for future utilization of viable new renewable energy carriers. Apart from this, it is important to continue the work for environmental impact assessments of planned power projects, and to support measures for minimizing the environmental impacts of old power plants. 48 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Countdown to 2015 country case studies: what can analysis of national health financing contribute to understanding MDG 4 and 5 progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Carlyn; Ng, Courtney; Akseer, Nadia; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Borghi, Josephine; Colbourn, Tim; Hernández-Peña, Patricia; Huicho, Luis; Malik, Muhammad Ashar; Martinez-Alvarez, Melisa; Munthali, Spy; Salehi, Ahmad Shah; Tadesse, Mekonnen; Yassin, Mohammed; Berman, Peter

    2016-09-12

    Countdown to 2015 (Countdown) supported countries to produce case studies that examine how and why progress was made toward the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5. Analysing how health-financing data explains improvements in RMNCH outcomes was one of the components to the case studies. This paper presents a descriptive analysis on health financing from six Countdown case studies (Afghanistan, Ethiopia, Malawi, Pakistan, Peru, and Tanzania), supplemented by additional data from global databases and country reports on macroeconomic, health financing, demographic, and RMNCH outcome data as needed. It also examines the effect of other contextual factors presented in the case studies to help interpret health-financing data. Dramatic increases in health funding occurred since 2000, where the MDG agenda encouraged countries and donors to invest more resources on health. Most low-income countries relied on external support to increase health spending, with an average 20-64 % of total health spending from 2000 onwards. Middle-income countries relied more on government and household spending. RMNCH funding also increased since 2000, with an average increase of 119 % (2005-2010) for RMNH expenditures (2005-2010) and 165 % for CH expenditures (2005-2011). Progress was made, especially achieving MDG 4, even with low per capita spending; ranging from US$16 to US$44 per child under 5 years among low-income countries. Improvements in distal factors were noted during the time frame of the analysis, including rapid economic growth in Ethiopia, Peru, and Tanzania and improvements in female literacy as documented in Malawi, which are also likely to have contributed to MDG progress and achievements. Increases in health and RMNCH funding accompanied improvements in outcomes, though low-income countries are still very reliant on external financing, and out-of-pocket comprising a growing share of funds in middle-income settings. Enhancements in tracking RMNCH expenditures

  5. Countdown to 2015 country case studies: what can analysis of national health financing contribute to understanding MDG 4 and 5 progress?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlyn Mann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Countdown to 2015 (Countdown supported countries to produce case studies that examine how and why progress was made toward the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs 4 and 5. Analysing how health-financing data explains improvements in RMNCH outcomes was one of the components to the case studies. Methods This paper presents a descriptive analysis on health financing from six Countdown case studies (Afghanistan, Ethiopia, Malawi, Pakistan, Peru, and Tanzania, supplemented by additional data from global databases and country reports on macroeconomic, health financing, demographic, and RMNCH outcome data as needed. It also examines the effect of other contextual factors presented in the case studies to help interpret health-financing data. Results Dramatic increases in health funding occurred since 2000, where the MDG agenda encouraged countries and donors to invest more resources on health. Most low-income countries relied on external support to increase health spending, with an average 20–64 % of total health spending from 2000 onwards. Middle-income countries relied more on government and household spending. RMNCH funding also increased since 2000, with an average increase of 119 % (2005–2010 for RMNH expenditures (2005–2010 and 165 % for CH expenditures (2005–2011. Progress was made, especially achieving MDG 4, even with low per capita spending; ranging from US$16 to US$44 per child under 5 years among low-income countries. Improvements in distal factors were noted during the time frame of the analysis, including rapid economic growth in Ethiopia, Peru, and Tanzania and improvements in female literacy as documented in Malawi, which are also likely to have contributed to MDG progress and achievements. Conclusions Increases in health and RMNCH funding accompanied improvements in outcomes, though low-income countries are still very reliant on external financing, and out-of-pocket comprising a growing share of funds in

  6. Needs for Professional Education to Optimize Cervical Cancer Screenings in Low-Income Countries: a Case Study from Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Anne E; Su, Dejun; Kahesa, Crispin; Soliman, Amr S

    2017-09-11

    Cervical cancer is a significant health problem in many developing countries. Due to limited treatment facilities for cancer in Tanzania, a screening referral program was developed between two urban clinics and Ocean Road Cancer Institute (ORCI), the only cancer treatment center in Tanzania. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the program and to identify opportunities for professional education. The study included 139 patients who were referred to ORCI from the screening clinics of Magomeni and Temeke between January 2015 and May 2016. Abstracted data from the medical records included patient age, screening results, and treatment. Eight nurses performing screening at the three locations were interviewed about their screening experience. Over half of the referrals (51.9%) were false positives. False positive diagnosis was more common among younger patients (35.68 ± 8.6 years) (p education of nurses and improvement in the health systems. Continuous education of nurses may increase the effectiveness of cervical screening. Health system enhancement of screening facilities such as provision of Lugol's iodine, more space for screening, and consistency and completion of screening records are needed to increase the accuracy of cervical screening and referrals in Tanzania and other similar low-income countries.

  7. Stagnant neonatal mortality and persistent health inequality in middle-income countries: a case study of the Philippines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleli D Kraft

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The probability of survival through childhood continues to be unequal in middle-income countries. This study uses data from the Philippines to assess trends in the prevalence and distribution of child mortality and to evaluate the country's socioeconomic-related child health inequality. METHODOLOGY: Using data from four Demographic and Health Surveys we estimated levels and trends of neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality from 1990 to 2007. Mortality estimates at national and subnational levels were produced using both direct and indirect methods. Concentration indices were computed to measure child health inequality by wealth status. Multivariate regression analyses were used to assess the contribution of interventions and socioeconomic factors to wealth-related inequality. FINDINGS: Despite substantial reductions in national under-five and infant mortality rates in the early 1990s, the rates of declines have slowed in recent years and neonatal mortality rates remain stubbornly high. Substantial variations across urban-rural, regional, and wealth equity-markers are evident, and suggest that the gaps between the best and worst performing sub-populations will either be maintained or widen in the future. Of the variables tested, recent wealth-related inequalities are found to be strongly associated with social factors (e.g. maternal education, regional location, and access to health services, such as facility-based delivery. CONCLUSION: The Philippines has achieved substantial progress towards Millennium Development Goal 4, but this success masks substantial inequalities and stagnating neonatal mortality trends. This analysis supports a focus on health interventions of high quality--that is, not just facility-based delivery, but delivery by trained staff at well-functioning facilities and supported by a strong referral system--to re-start the long term decline in neonatal mortality and to reduce persistent within-country

  8. Stagnant neonatal mortality and persistent health inequality in middle-income countries: a case study of the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Aleli D; Nguyen, Kim-Huong; Jimenez-Soto, Eliana; Hodge, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The probability of survival through childhood continues to be unequal in middle-income countries. This study uses data from the Philippines to assess trends in the prevalence and distribution of child mortality and to evaluate the country's socioeconomic-related child health inequality. Using data from four Demographic and Health Surveys we estimated levels and trends of neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality from 1990 to 2007. Mortality estimates at national and subnational levels were produced using both direct and indirect methods. Concentration indices were computed to measure child health inequality by wealth status. Multivariate regression analyses were used to assess the contribution of interventions and socioeconomic factors to wealth-related inequality. Despite substantial reductions in national under-five and infant mortality rates in the early 1990s, the rates of declines have slowed in recent years and neonatal mortality rates remain stubbornly high. Substantial variations across urban-rural, regional, and wealth equity-markers are evident, and suggest that the gaps between the best and worst performing sub-populations will either be maintained or widen in the future. Of the variables tested, recent wealth-related inequalities are found to be strongly associated with social factors (e.g. maternal education), regional location, and access to health services, such as facility-based delivery. The Philippines has achieved substantial progress towards Millennium Development Goal 4, but this success masks substantial inequalities and stagnating neonatal mortality trends. This analysis supports a focus on health interventions of high quality--that is, not just facility-based delivery, but delivery by trained staff at well-functioning facilities and supported by a strong referral system--to re-start the long term decline in neonatal mortality and to reduce persistent within-country inequalities in child health.

  9. Indonesia country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    This study demonstrated the use of MARKAL model in carbon mitigation analysis for both energy and forestry sector. Four scenarios were used namely: 1. EbFb (baseline scenario). In this scenario, mitigation technologies in the energy sector were not included in the model and no target was set up for increasing net carbon uptake by forest activities. 2. EmFb. Mitigation technologies in the energy sector were included with the target of reducing cumulative net carbon emission by about 13% and activities in the forestry sectors were the same as those in baseline. 3. EbFm. Mitigation technologies in the energy sector were not included and the forestry activities were targeted to increase the carbon uptake so that the cumulative net carbon emission decreased by 13%. 4. EmFm. Mitigation technologies in the energy sector were included as well as forestry sector with target of reducing cumulative net carbon emission by about 35%. This study indicates that the MARKAL model has the potential to be used for mitigation analysis for both energy and forestry sectors. However, there are some limitations encountered during the study. The program is not able to accommodate the delayed emission from the forestry sector in a manner consistent to the treatment of emissions in the energy sector. In addition, there are some technical problems that still need to be resolved such as the inclusion of soil carbon uptake calculation in the model and the verification of carbon uptake calculation. In this study, all carbon uptakes was assumed to occur at the time of planting. (EHS) 37 refs.

  10. Breast-milk substitutes: a new old-threat for breastfeeding policy in developing countries. A case study in a traditionally high breastfeeding country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Barennes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Developing countries with traditionally breastfeeding are now experiencing the increasing pressure of formula milk marketing. This may endanger lives and undermine the efforts of national policies in achieving the objectives of the Millennium Development Goals. We examined the use of, and factors for use, of all available breast-milk substitutes (BMS in a country with a traditionally high rate of breastfeeding. METHODS: Randomised multi-stage sampling surveys in 90 villages in 12/17 provinces in Laos. PARTICIPANTS: 1057 mothers with infants under 24 months of age. TOOLS: 50-query questionnaire and a poster of 22 BMS (8 canned or powdered milk; 6 non-dairy; 6 formulas; 2 non-formulas. OUTCOME MEASURES INCLUDED: prevalence of use and age of starting BMS in relation to socio-demographic characteristics and information sources, by univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Of 1057 mothers: 72.5% currently breastfed; 25.4% gave BMS (10.6% infant formula; 19.6% gave BMS before 6 months of age (of them: 83% non-dairy or cereals; mean age: 2.9 months; 95% Confidence interval: 2.6-3.2. One formula and one non-formula product accounted for 85% of BMS. BMS were considered as milk by the majority of mothers. Thai TV was the main source of information on BMS for mothers. Lao Loum mothers (the main ethnic group living in concrete houses with good sanitary conditions, were more likely than others to use BMS before 6 months (OR: 1.79, (1.15-2.78, p<0.009. Mothers who fed their infants colostrum at birth were less likely to use BMS before 6 months of age (OR: 0.63, (0.41-0.99, p = 0.04. Unemployed mothers living in rural areas were less likely to consider BMS better than breast milk. CONCLUSION: In Laos, mothers with the highest socio-economic status are showing a tendency to give up breastfeeding. Successful educational strategies and advocacy measures should be urgently developed to promote and sustain breastfeeding in developing countries.

  11. Botswana country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Peter [EECG Consultants, Gaborone (Botswana)

    1998-10-01

    The project analysed the baseline economic, energy development and greenhouse gas (GHG) scenarios, and abatement costing of plausible greenhouse gas mitigation options in the energy sector of Botswana. The analysis period for both the baseline and mitigation scenarios is up to 2030 with the short term stretching from 1994 to 2005 and the long term up to 2030. There is a relatively significant potential to reduce GHG emissions in the energy system of Botswana by applying a number of mitigation options. The potential in by applying a set of 21 mitigation options analysed in this study was found to be about 28.7% in 2005 and 26.1% in 2030. (EG)

  12. Botswana country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The project analysed the baseline economic, energy development and greenhouse gas (GHG) scenarios, and abatement costing of plausible greenhouse gas mitigation options in the energy sector of Botswana. The analysis period for both the baseline and mitigation scenarios is up to 2030 with the short term stretching from 1994 to 2005 and the long term up to 2030. There is a relatively significant potential to reduce GHG emissions in the energy system of Botswana by applying a number of mitigation options. The potential in by applying a set of 21 mitigation options analysed in this study was found to be about 28.7% in 2005 and 26.1% in 2030. (EG)

  13. An investigation on economic growth and tax: A case study of D8 countries from 1990 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Abedini Najafabadi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Experiences of different countries with efficient tax systems have shown that the high share of tax resources than non-tax sources could prevent many unpleasant economical events. In other words, an efficient tax system could ensure economic system against many different risks. Tax is also a primary source for developing economy used by government. In this study, we investigate the relationship between economic growth and tax among D8 countries using panel data from 1990 to 2009. The results indicate growth domestic product is the most important factor and these governments could collect more tax as the economic figures improve. The results of our survey show that an increase of one percent on GDP will increase taxable income for about 0.0014119 percent. The tourism has more impact since an increase of one unit in tourism's income; taxable income will increase for about 10.26257 units. One the contrary to other variables, unemployment has a negative impact on taxable income.

  14. Using ergonomics checkpoints to support a participatory ergonomics intervention in an industrially developing country (IDC)--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helali, Faramarz

    2009-01-01

    To achieve ergonomics awareness in 3 subsidiary companies, an intervention team was formed. The aims of this study were to implement basic ergonomics through a participatory ergonomics intervention process that can support a continuous learning process and lead to an improvement in health and safety as well as in the work systems in the organization. The findings of this study (i.e., method, continuous learning and integration) were key to making the participatory ergonomics intervention successful. Furthermore, 4 issues of the ergonomics checkpoints (i.e., work schedules, work tasks, healthy work organization and learning) for assessing the work system were found suitable for both changing work schedules and for improving the work system. This paper describes the result of this project and also the experiences gained and the conclusions reached from using the International Labour Office's ergonomics checkpoints in the industries of industrially developing country.

  15. Romania biomass energy. Country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, M; Easterly, J L; Mark, P E; Keller, A [DynCorp, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The present report was prepared under contract to UNIDO to conduct a case study of biomass energy use and potential in Romania. The purpose of the case study is to provide a specific example of biomass energy issues and potential in the context of the economic transition under way in eastern Europe. The transition of Romania to a market economy is proceeding at a somewhat slower pace than in other countries of eastern Europe. Unfortunately, the former regime forced the use of biomass energy with inadequate technology and infrastructure, particularly in rural areas. The resulting poor performance thus severely damaged the reputation of biomass energy in Romania as a viable, reliable resource. Today, efforts to rejuvenate biomass energy and tap into its multiple benefits are proving challenging. Several sound biomass energy development strategies were identified through the case study, on the basis of estimates of availability and current use of biomass resources; suggestions for enhancing potential biomass energy resources; an overview of appropriate conversion technologies and markets for biomass in Romania; and estimates of the economic and environmental impacts of the utilization of biomass energy. Finally, optimal strategies for near-, medium- and long-term biomass energy development, as well as observations and recommendations concerning policy, legislative and institutional issues affecting the development of biomass energy in Romania are presented. The most promising near-term biomass energy options include the use of biomass in district heating systems; cofiring of biomass in existing coal-fired power plants or combined heat and power plants; and using co-generation systems in thriving industries to optimize the efficient use of biomass resources. Mid-term and long-term opportunities include improving the efficiency of wood stoves used for cooking and heating in rural areas; repairing the reputation of biogasification to take advantage of livestock wastes

  16. Romania biomass energy. Country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, M.; Easterly, J.L.; Mark, P.E.; Keller, A.

    1995-01-01

    The present report was prepared under contract to UNIDO to conduct a case study of biomass energy use and potential in Romania. The purpose of the case study is to provide a specific example of biomass energy issues and potential in the context of the economic transition under way in eastern Europe. The transition of Romania to a market economy is proceeding at a somewhat slower pace than in other countries of eastern Europe. Unfortunately, the former regime forced the use of biomass energy with inadequate technology and infrastructure, particularly in rural areas. The resulting poor performance thus severely damaged the reputation of biomass energy in Romania as a viable, reliable resource. Today, efforts to rejuvenate biomass energy and tap into its multiple benefits are proving challenging. Several sound biomass energy development strategies were identified through the case study, on the basis of estimates of availability and current use of biomass resources; suggestions for enhancing potential biomass energy resources; an overview of appropriate conversion technologies and markets for biomass in Romania; and estimates of the economic and environmental impacts of the utilization of biomass energy. Finally, optimal strategies for near-, medium- and long-term biomass energy development, as well as observations and recommendations concerning policy, legislative and institutional issues affecting the development of biomass energy in Romania are presented. The most promising near-term biomass energy options include the use of biomass in district heating systems; cofiring of biomass in existing coal-fired power plants or combined heat and power plants; and using co-generation systems in thriving industries to optimize the efficient use of biomass resources. Mid-term and long-term opportunities include improving the efficiency of wood stoves used for cooking and heating in rural areas; repairing the reputation of biogasification to take advantage of livestock wastes

  17. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE REGULATION IN EMERGING COUNTRIES. CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu George BOCEAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the literature on corporate governance emphasizes that firms should be run in the interests of shareholders. This is a suitable objective function when markets are perfect and complete. In many emerging economies this is not the case: markets are imperfect and incomplete. Corporate governance issues are especially important in emerging countries, since these countries do not have the long-established financial institution infrastructure to deal with corporate governance issues. This paper discusses how emerging countries are dealing with corporate governance issues and the extra obstacles they have to overcome due to a lack of regulations. Romanian case study is examined.

  18. Attributes of quality programs in universities in developing countries: Case studies of two private universities in Ecuador and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriguen, Monica I.

    This study sought to identify the key attributes of high-quality programs with an eye toward helping developing countries such as Ecuador advance program quality. The dissertation is divided into five chapters: (1) introduction to high-quality programs; (2) literature review of attributes of high-quality programs; (3) grounded theory method (including interviews with 60 individuals) used to identify program attributes that enhance student learning; (4) findings; and (5) conclusions and recommendations. Following are the five clusters and thirteen attributes of high-quality programs that I identified: Cluster One: Highly Qualified Participants: (1) Highly Qualified Faculty, and (2) Highly Qualified Students; Cluster Two: Learning-Centered Cultures: (3) Shared Program Direction Focused on Learning, (4) Real-World Learning Experiences, (5) Reading-Centered Culture, and (6) Supportive and Risk-Taking Environment; Cluster Three: Interactive Teaching and Learning: (7) Integrative learning: Theory with Practice, Self with Subject, and (8) Exclusive Tutoring and Mentoring; Cluster Four: Connected Program Requirements: (9) Planned Breadth and Depth Course Work, and (10) Tangible Products; and Cluster Five: Adequate Resources: (11) Support for Students, (12) Support for Faculty, and (13) Support for Campus Infrastructure. The study was guided by Haworth and Conrad's (1997) "Engagement Theory of High-Quality Programs." Eleven of the attributes of high-quality programs are closely connected to Haworth and Conrad's theory and the other two attributes---real-world learning experiences and a reading-centered culture---make the signature theoretical contributions of the study. Real-world learning experiences encourage the active involvement of stakeholders in designing curricula with real-world learning experiences. The second attribute---a reading-centered culture---has never before been identified in the literature. There are four key differences between Haworth and Conrad

  19. Stagnant Neonatal Mortality and Persistent Health Inequality in Middle-Income Countries: A Case Study of the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Aleli D.; Nguyen, Kim-Huong; Jimenez-Soto, Eliana; Hodge, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Background The probability of survival through childhood continues to be unequal in middle-income countries. This study uses data from the Philippines to assess trends in the prevalence and distribution of child mortality and to evaluate the country’s socioeconomic-related child health inequality. Methodology Using data from four Demographic and Health Surveys we estimated levels and trends of neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality from 1990 to 2007. Mortality estimates at national and subnational levels were produced using both direct and indirect methods. Concentration indices were computed to measure child health inequality by wealth status. Multivariate regression analyses were used to assess the contribution of interventions and socioeconomic factors to wealth-related inequality. Findings Despite substantial reductions in national under-five and infant mortality rates in the early 1990s, the rates of declines have slowed in recent years and neonatal mortality rates remain stubbornly high. Substantial variations across urban-rural, regional, and wealth equity-markers are evident, and suggest that the gaps between the best and worst performing sub-populations will either be maintained or widen in the future. Of the variables tested, recent wealth-related inequalities are found to be strongly associated with social factors (e.g. maternal education), regional location, and access to health services, such as facility-based delivery. Conclusion The Philippines has achieved substantial progress towards Millennium Development Goal 4, but this success masks substantial inequalities and stagnating neonatal mortality trends. This analysis supports a focus on health interventions of high quality – that is, not just facility-based delivery, but delivery by trained staff at well-functioning facilities and supported by a strong referral system – to re-start the long term decline in neonatal mortality and to reduce persistent within-country inequalities in child

  20. Prospects and opportunities for achieving the MDGs in post-conflict countries: a case study of Sierra Leone and Liberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humphreys, M.; Richards, P.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we examine the strategies being employed by post-conflict countries in Africa to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. We argue that to attain these goals, these countries will need to alter the way they undertake development planning. Rather than design strategies to achieve best

  1. Public Health Responses to and Challenges for the Control of Dengue Transmission in High-Income Countries: Four Case Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvina Viennet

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dengue has a negative impact in low- and lower middle-income countries, but also affects upper middle- and high-income countries. Despite the efforts at controlling this disease, it is unclear why dengue remains an issue in affluent countries. A better understanding of dengue epidemiology and its burden, and those of chikungunya virus and Zika virus which share vectors with dengue, is required to prevent the emergence of these diseases in high-income countries in the future. The purpose of this review was to assess the relative burden of dengue in four high-income countries and to appraise the similarities and differences in dengue transmission. We searched PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar using specific keywords for articles published up to 05 May 2016. We found that outbreaks rarely occur where only Aedes albopictus is present. The main similarities between countries uncovered by our review are the proximity to dengue-endemic countries, the presence of a competent mosquito vector, a largely nonimmune population, and a lack of citizens' engagement in control of mosquito breeding. We identified important epidemiological and environmental issues including the increase of local transmission despite control efforts, population growth, difficulty locating larval sites, and increased human mobility from neighboring endemic countries. Budget cuts in health and lack of practical vaccines contribute to an increased risk. To be successful, dengue-control programs for high-income countries must consider the epidemiology of dengue in other countries and use this information to minimize virus importation, improve the control of the cryptic larval habitat, and engage the community in reducing vector breeding. Finally, the presence of a communicable disease center is critical for managing and reducing future disease risks.

  2. Public Health Responses to and Challenges for the Control of Dengue Transmission in High-Income Countries: Four Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viennet, Elvina; Ritchie, Scott A; Williams, Craig R; Faddy, Helen M; Harley, David

    2016-09-01

    Dengue has a negative impact in low- and lower middle-income countries, but also affects upper middle- and high-income countries. Despite the efforts at controlling this disease, it is unclear why dengue remains an issue in affluent countries. A better understanding of dengue epidemiology and its burden, and those of chikungunya virus and Zika virus which share vectors with dengue, is required to prevent the emergence of these diseases in high-income countries in the future. The purpose of this review was to assess the relative burden of dengue in four high-income countries and to appraise the similarities and differences in dengue transmission. We searched PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar using specific keywords for articles published up to 05 May 2016. We found that outbreaks rarely occur where only Aedes albopictus is present. The main similarities between countries uncovered by our review are the proximity to dengue-endemic countries, the presence of a competent mosquito vector, a largely nonimmune population, and a lack of citizens' engagement in control of mosquito breeding. We identified important epidemiological and environmental issues including the increase of local transmission despite control efforts, population growth, difficulty locating larval sites, and increased human mobility from neighboring endemic countries. Budget cuts in health and lack of practical vaccines contribute to an increased risk. To be successful, dengue-control programs for high-income countries must consider the epidemiology of dengue in other countries and use this information to minimize virus importation, improve the control of the cryptic larval habitat, and engage the community in reducing vector breeding. Finally, the presence of a communicable disease center is critical for managing and reducing future disease risks.

  3. Risk factors for falls with severe fracture in elderly people living in a middle-income country: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloch Katia V

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fracture after falling has been identified as an important problem in public health. Most studies of risk factors for fractures due to falls have been carried out in developed countries, although the size of the elderly population is increasing fast in middle income countries. The objective of this paper is to identify risk factors for fall related to severe fractures in those aged 60 or more in a middle-income country. Methods A case-control study was carried out in Rio de Janeiro-Brazil based general hospitals between 2002–2003. Two hundred-fifty hospitalised cases of fracture were matched with 250 community controls by sex, age group and living area. Data were collected for socio-demographic variables, health status and drugs used before the fall. A conditional logistic regression model was fitted to identify variables associated with the risk of fall related severe fracture. Results Low body mass index, cognitive impairment, stroke and lack of urine control were associated with increased risk of severe fall related fractures. Benzodiazepines and muscle relaxants were also related to an increased risk of severe fractures while moderate use of alcohol was associated with reduced risk. Conclusion Although the association between benzodiazepines and fractures due to fall has been consistently demonstrated for old people, this has not been the case for muscle relaxant drugs. The decision to prescribe muscle relaxants for elderly people should take into account the risk of severe fracture associated with these drugs.

  4. Risk factors for falls with severe fracture in elderly people living in a middle-income country: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Evandro S F; Fletcher, Astrid; Bloch, Katia V; Rodrigues, Laura C

    2008-08-26

    Fracture after falling has been identified as an important problem in public health. Most studies of risk factors for fractures due to falls have been carried out in developed countries, although the size of the elderly population is increasing fast in middle income countries. The objective of this paper is to identify risk factors for fall related to severe fractures in those aged 60 or more in a middle-income country. A case-control study was carried out in Rio de Janeiro-Brazil based general hospitals between 2002-2003. Two hundred-fifty hospitalised cases of fracture were matched with 250 community controls by sex, age group and living area. Data were collected for socio-demographic variables, health status and drugs used before the fall. A conditional logistic regression model was fitted to identify variables associated with the risk of fall related severe fracture. Low body mass index, cognitive impairment, stroke and lack of urine control were associated with increased risk of severe fall related fractures. Benzodiazepines and muscle relaxants were also related to an increased risk of severe fractures while moderate use of alcohol was associated with reduced risk. Although the association between benzodiazepines and fractures due to fall has been consistently demonstrated for old people, this has not been the case for muscle relaxant drugs. The decision to prescribe muscle relaxants for elderly people should take into account the risk of severe fracture associated with these drugs.

  5. The challenge of cancer in middle-income countries with an ageing population: Mexico as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Ajay; Unger-Saldaña, Karla; Lewison, Grant; Sullivan, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Mexico is undergoing rapid population ageing as a result of its epidemiological transition. This study explores the interface between this rapid population ageing and the burden of cancer. The number of new cancer cases is expected to increase by nearly 75% by 2030 (107,000 additional cases per annum), with 60% of cases in the elderly (aged ≥ 65). A review of the literature was supplemented by a bibliometric analysis of Mexico’s cancer research output. Cancer incidence projections for selected sites were estimated with Globocan software. Data were obtained from recent national census, surveys, and cancer death registrations. The elderly, especially women and those living in rural areas, face high levels of poverty, have low rates of educational attainment, and many are not covered by health insurance schemes. Out of pocket payments and private health care usage remain high, despite the implementation of Seguro Popular that was designed to achieve financial protection for the lowest income groups. A number of cancers that predominate in elderly persons are not covered by the scheme and individuals face catastrophic expenditure in seeking treatment. There is limited research output in those cancer sites that have a high burden in the elderly Mexican population, especially research that focuses on outcomes. The elderly population in Mexico is vulnerable to the effects of the rising cancer burden and faces challenges in accessing high quality cancer care. Based on our evidence, we recommend that geriatric oncology should be an urgent public policy priority for Mexico. PMID:26015805

  6. Child health and nutrition in Peru within an antipoverty political agenda: a Countdown to 2015 country case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huicho, L.; Segura, E.R.; Huayanay-Espinoza, C.A.; Niño de Guzman, J.; Restrepo-Méndez, M.C.; Tam, Y.; Barros, A.J.D.; Victora, C.G.; Hernández-Peña, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Peru is an upper-middle-income country with wide social and regional disparities. In recent years, sustained multisectoral antipoverty programmes involving governments, political parties, and civil society have included explicit health and nutrition goals and spending increased sharply.

  7. Motorcycle safety among motorcycle taxi drivers and nonoccupational motorcyclists in developing countries: A case study of Maoming, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Connor Y H; Loo, Becky P Y

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of motorcycle taxis have been involved in traffic crashes in many developing countries. This study examines the characteristics of both motorcycle taxi drivers and nonoccupational motorcyclists, investigates the risks they pose to road safety, and provides recommendations to minimize their risks. Based on the data collected from a questionnaire survey of 867 motorcycle taxi drivers and 2,029 nonoccupational motorcyclists in Maoming, South China, comparisons were made to analyze differences of personal attributes, attitudes toward road safety, and self-reported behavior of the 2 groups. Results of the chi-square tests show that not only motorcycle taxi drivers but also nonoccupational motorcyclists in Maoming held poor attitudes toward road safety and both groups reported unsafe driving behavior. There is much room for improving local road safety education among all motorcyclists in Maoming. Yet, motorcycle taxi drivers were more likely to pose road safety risks than nonoccupational motorcyclists under some circumstances, such as speeding late at night or early in the morning, not requiring passengers to wear helmets, and running a red light. The results of the binary logistic regression model show that possessing a vehicle license for a motorcycle or not was the common significant predictor for unsafe driving behavior of motorcycle taxi drivers and nonoccupational motorcyclists. Therefore, enforcement against all motorcyclists not showing vehicle licenses for their motorcycles should be stepped up. Motorcycle safety is largely poor in Maoming. Therefore, efforts to improve motorcycle safety should be strengthened by targeting not only motorcycle taxi drivers but also nonoccupational motorcyclists.

  8. Renewable energy utilization and CO2 mitigation in the power sector: A case study in selected GMS countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Pagnarith

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is an alternative resource to substitute fossil fuels. Currently, the share of renewable energy inpower generation is very low. The selected Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS, namely, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand andVietnam is a region having abundant of renewable energy resources. Though these countries have a high potential of renewableenergy utilization, they are still highly dependent on the imported fossil fuels for electricity generation. The less contributionof renewable energy in the power sector in the region is due to the high cost of technologies. Renewable energytechnology cannot compete with the conventional power plant. However, in order to promote renewable energy utilizationand reduce dependency on imported fossil fuel as well as to mitigate CO2 emissions from the power sector, this study introducesfour renewable energy technologies, namely, biomass, wind, solar PV, and geothermal power, for substitution of conventionaltechnologies. To make the renewable energy competitive to the fossil fuels, incentives in terms of carbon credit of20$/ton-ne CO2 are taken into account. Results are analyzed by using the Long-Range Energy Alternative Planning System(LEAP modeling. Results of analyses reveal that in the renewable energy (RE scenario the biomass power, wind, solarphotovoltaics, and geothermal would contribute in electricity supply for 5.47 GW in the region, accounted for 3.5% in 2030.The RE scenario with carbon credits could mitigate CO2 emissions at about 36.0 million tonne at lower system cost whencompared to the business-as-usual scenario.

  9. Cytogenetic studies of Brazilian pediatric myelodysplastic syndrome cases: challenges and difficulties in a large and emerging country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.D.R.P. Velloso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML are rare hematopoietic stem cell diseases affecting children. Cytogenetics plays an important role in the diagnosis of these diseases. We report here the experience of the Cytogenetic Subcommittee of the Brazilian Cooperative Group on Pediatric Myelodysplastic Syndromes (BCG-MDS-PED. We analyzed 168 cytogenetic studies performed in 23 different cytogenetic centers; 84 of these studies were performed in patients with confirmed MDS (primary MDS, secondary MDS, JMML, and acute myeloid leukemia/MDS+Down syndrome. Clonal abnormalities were found in 36.9% of the MDS cases and cytogenetic studies were important for the detection of constitutional diseases and for differential diagnosis with other myeloid neoplasms. These data show the importance of the Cooperative Group for continuing education in order to avoid a late or wrong diagnosis.

  10. Cytogenetic studies of Brazilian pediatric myelodysplastic syndrome cases: challenges and difficulties in a large and emerging country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velloso, E D R P; Chauffaille, M L; Peliçario, L M; Tanizawa, R S S; Toledo, S R C; Gaiolla, R D; Lopes, L F

    2013-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) are rare hematopoietic stem cell diseases affecting children. Cytogenetics plays an important role in the diagnosis of these diseases. We report here the experience of the Cytogenetic Subcommittee of the Brazilian Cooperative Group on Pediatric Myelodysplastic Syndromes (BCG-MDS-PED). We analyzed 168 cytogenetic studies performed in 23 different cytogenetic centers; 84 of these studies were performed in patients with confirmed MDS (primary MDS, secondary MDS, JMML, and acute myeloid leukemia/MDS+Down syndrome). Clonal abnormalities were found in 36.9% of the MDS cases and cytogenetic studies were important for the detection of constitutional diseases and for differential diagnosis with other myeloid neoplasms. These data show the importance of the Cooperative Group for continuing education in order to avoid a late or wrong diagnosis.

  11. MODIFIED APPROACH FOR SITE SELECTION OF UNWANTED RADIOACTIVE SEALED SOURCES DISPOSAL IN ARID COUNTRIES (CASE STUDY - EGYPT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABDEL AZIZ, M.A.H.; COCHRAN, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present a systematic methodology for siting of radioactive sealed sources disposal in arid countries and demonstrate the use of this methodology in Egypt. Availing from the experience gained from the greater confinement disposal (GCD) boreholes in Nevada, USA, the IAEA's approach for siting of near disposal was modified to fit the siting of the borehole disposal which suits the unwanted radioactive sealed sources. The modifications are represented by dividing the surveyed area into three phases; the exclusion phase in which the areas that meet exclusion criteria should be excluded, the site selection phase in which some potential sites that meet the primary criteria should be candidate and the preference stage in which the preference between the potential candidate sites should be carried out based on secondary criteria to select one or two sites at most. In Egypt, a considerable amount of unwanted radioactive sealed sources wastes have accumulated due to the peaceful uses of radio-isotopes.Taking into account the regional aspects and combining of the proposed developed methodology with geographic information system (GIS), the Nile Delta and its valley, the Sinai Peninsula and areas of historical heritage value are excluded from our concern as potential areas for radioactive waste disposal. Using the primary search criteria, some potential sites south Kharga, the Great Sand Sea, Gilf El-Kebear and the central part of the eastern desert have been identified as candidate areas meeting the primary criteria of site selection. More detailed studies should be conducted taking into account the secondary criteria to prefer among the above sites and select one or two sites at most

  12. Potential Use of School Absenteeism Record for Disease Surveillance in Developing Countries, Case Study in Rural Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Calvin K. Y.; Channarith, Hing; Cowling, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Disease surveillance allows prospective monitoring of patterns in disease incidence in the general community, specific institutions (e.g. hospitals, elderly care homes), and other important population subgroups. Surveillance activities are now routinely conducted in many developed countries and in certain easy-to-reach areas of the developing ones. However due to limited health resources, population in rural area that consisted of the most the vulnerable groups are not under surveillance. Cheaper alternative ways for disease surveillance were needed in resource-limited settings. Methods and Findings In this study, a syndromic surveillance system using disease specific absenteeism rates was established in 47 pre-schools with 1,417 students 3–6 y of age in a rural area of Kampot province, Cambodia. School absenteeism data were collected via short message service. Data collected between 1st January and 31st December 2012 was used for system evaluation for future potential use in larger scale. The system appeared to be feasible and acceptable in the rural study setting. Moderate correlation was found between rates of school absenteeism due to illness and the reference data on rates of attendance at health centers in persons absenteeism data is pre-existing, easily accessible and requires minimum time and resources after initial development, and our results suggest that this system may be able to provide complementary data for disease surveillance, especially in resource limited settings where there is very little information on illnesses in the community and traditional surveillance systems are difficult to implement. An important next step is to validate the syndromic data with other forms of surveillance including laboratory data. PMID:24155907

  13. Load-bearing masonry system adoption and performance: A case study of construction company in a developing country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Nor Azlinda; Abdullah, Che Sobry; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Bahaudin, Ahmad Yusni

    2016-08-01

    This study addresses the factors that influence the adoption of load-bearing masonry (LBM) system. A case study of the load-bearing masonry (LBM) system adoption is conducted through an interview to explore the situation of the technology adoption in a construction company. The finding indicates the factors influence the adoption of LBM system for the construction company are: organizational resources, usefulness, less maintenance, reduce construction time and cost. From the findings, these factors consistent with previous literature. Furthermore, the performance of the company was measured by looking into the financial and non-financial aspects. The LBM system brings good performance as it increased the profits of the company, a good quality of product and attracts more demand from customers. Thus, these factors should be considered for the other companies that are interested in implementing the LBM system in their projects.

  14. Institutional solid waste management practices in developing countries. A case study of three academic institutions in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbuligwe, Stephen E. [Faculty of Lands and Environmental Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, University College of Lands and Architectural Studies UCLAS, PO Box 35176, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    This paper reports on institutional solid waste management in three Tanzanian institutions. It is noted that there are indeed advantages in managing solid waste at institutional level because of the institutions' unique characteristics that also influence their waste management needs. The paper outlines findings from a yearlong study on institutional solid waste management at three institutions: University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM), University College of Lands and Architectural Studies (UCLAS) and Water Resources Institute (WRI). Surveys and field investigations, including on-site waste measurements and questionnaire surveys were done at UDSM, UCLAS and WRI. The study has revealed, among other things, that per capita waste generation rates, W{sub G} vary between staff and students within each institution as well as among the three institutions. The composition of the waste was found to be predominantly organic in nature, suggesting a strong resource recovery potential in terms of animal feed or production of biogas through anaerobic digestion. Additionally, the W{sub G} was found to vary in line with changes in institutional activities like normal studies, examinations and holidays. The study has shown that resource recovery could greatly enhance solid waste management at the case study institutions.

  15. Cognition, academic achievement, and epilepsy in school-age children: a case-control study in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbourne Chambers, R; Morrison-Levy, N; Chang, S; Tapper, J; Walker, S; Tulloch-Reid, M

    2014-04-01

    We conducted a case-control study of 33 Jamaican children 7 to 12years old with uncomplicated epilepsy and 33 of their classroom peers matched for age and gender to determine whether epilepsy resulted in differences in cognitive ability and school achievement and if socioeconomic status or the environment had a moderating effect on any differences. Intelligence, language, memory, attention, executive function, and mathematics ability were assessed using selected tests from NEPSY, WISCR, TeaCh, WRAT3 - expanded, and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. The child's environment at home was measured using the Middle Childhood HOME inventory. Socioeconomic status was determined from a combination of household, crowding, possessions, and sanitation. We compared the characteristics of the cases and controls and used random effects regression models (using the matched pair as the cluster) to examine the relationship between cognition and epilepsy. We found that there was no significant difference in IQ, but children with epilepsy had lower scores on tests of memory (pmathematics ability (coefficient=-0.01, CI: -0.02, -0.00). Adjustment for the home environment and socioeconomic status and inclusion of interaction terms for these variables did not alter these effects. In conclusion, we found that epilepsy status in Jamaican children has a significant effect on performance on tests of memory, language, and mathematics and that this effect is not modified or explained by socioeconomic status or the child's home environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Birth characteristics and Wilms tumors in children in the Nordic countries: a register-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, Joachim; Schmidt, Lisbeth Samsø; Kogner, Per; Lähteenmäki, Päivi M; Pal, Niklas; Stokland, Tore; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2011-05-01

    Little is known about causes of Wilms tumor. Because of the young age at diagnosis, several studies have looked at various birth characteristics. We conducted a registry-based case-control study involving 690 cases of Wilms tumor aged 0-14 years, occurring in Denmark, Finland, Norway or Sweden during 1985-2006, individually matched to five controls drawn randomly from the Nordic childhood population. Information on birth characteristics was obtained from the population-based medical birth registries. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using conditional logistic regression analysis. We observed a distinct association between Wilms tumor and high birth weight (≥4 kg) for girls (OR 1.97, CI 1.50-2.59) but not for boys (1.04, 0.78-1.38); overall, the OR was 1.43 (1.17-1.74). Among girls, risk increased by 28% (15-42%) per 500 g increase in birth weight. Large-for-gestational age girls also had a higher risk (2.48, 1.51-4.05), whereas no effect was seen for boys (1.12, 0.60-2.07). An association was seen with Apgar score at 5 min birth order. In our large-scale, registry-based study, we confirmed earlier observations of an association between high birth weight and risk of Wilms tumor, but we found an effect only in girls. The higher risk of infants with low Apgar score might reflect hypoxia causing cell damage, adverse side effects of neonatal treatment or reverse causation as low Apgar score might indicate the presence of a tumor. Copyright © 2010 UICC.

  17. Diabetes Knowledge Translation Status in Developing Countries: A Mixed Method Study Among Diabetes Researchers in Case of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valinejadi, Ali; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Salehi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable investment in research, the existing research evidence is frequently not implemented and/or leads to useless or detrimental care in healthcare. The knowledge-practice gap proposed as one of the main causes of not achieving the treatment goals in diabetes. Iran also is facing a difference between the production and utilization of the knowledge of diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the status of diabetes knowledge translation (KT) in Iran. This was a survey that executed in 2015 by concurrent mixed methods approach in a descriptive, cross-sectional method. The research population was 65 diabetes researchers from 14 diabetes research centers throughout Iran. The research was carried out via the self-assessment tool for research institutes (SATORI), a valid and reliable tool. Focus group discussions were used to complete this tool. The data were analyzed using quantitative (descriptive method by Excel software) and qualitative approaches (thematic analysis) based on SATORI-extracted seven themes. The mean of scores "the question of research," "knowledge production," "knowledge transfer," "promoting the use of evidence," and all aspects altogether were 2.48, 2.80, 2.18, 2.06, and 2.39, respectively. The themes "research quality and timeliness" and "promoting and evaluating the use of evidence" received the lowest (1.91) and highest mean scores (2.94), respectively. Except for the theme "interaction with research users" with a relatively mediocre scores (2.63), the other areas had scores below the mean. The overall status of diabetes KT in Iran was lower than the ideal situation. There are many challenges that require great interventions at the organizational or macro level. To reinforce diabetes KT in Iran, it should hold a more leading and centralized function in the strategies of the country's diabetes research system.

  18. Using the Lives Saved Tool to aid country planning in meeting mortality targets: a case study from Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keita, Youssouf; Sangho, Hamadoun; Roberton, Timothy; Vignola, Emilia; Traoré, Mariam; Munos, Melinda

    2017-11-07

    Mali is one of four countries implementing a National Evaluation Platform (NEP) to build local capacity to answer evaluation questions for maternal, newborn, child health and nutrition (MNCH&N). In 2014-15, NEP-Mali addressed questions about the potential impact of Mali's MNCH&N plans and strategies, and identified priority interventions to achieve targeted mortality reductions. The NEP-Mali team modeled the potential impact of three intervention packages in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) from 2014 to 2023. One projection included the interventions and targets from Mali's ten-year health strategy (PDDSS) for 2014-2023, and two others modeled intervention packages that included scale up of antenatal, intrapartum, and curative interventions, as well as reductions in stunting and wasting. We modeled the change in maternal, newborn and under-five mortality rates under these three projections, as well as the number of lives saved, overall and by intervention. If Mali were to achieve the MNCH&N coverage targets from its health strategy, under-5 mortality would be reduced from 121 per 1000 live births to 93 per 1000, far from the target of 69 deaths per 1000. Projections 1 and 2 produced estimated mortality reductions from 121 deaths per 1000 to 70 and 68 deaths per 1000, respectively. With respect to neonatal mortality, the mortality rate would be reduced from 39 to 32 deaths per 1000 live births under the current health strategy, and to 25 per 1000 under projections 1 and 2. This study revealed that achieving the coverage targets for the MNCH&N interventions in the 2014-23 PDDSS would likely not allow Mali to achieve its mortality targets. The NEP-Mali team was able to identify two packages of MNCH&N interventions (and targets) that achieved under-5 and neonatal mortality rates at, or very near, the PDDSS targets. The Malian Ministry of Health and Public Hygiene is using these results to revise its plans and strategies.

  19. Applying the food technology neophobia scale in a developing country context. A case-study on processed matooke (cooking banana) flour in Central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Steur, Hans; Odongo, Walter; Gellynck, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The success of new food technologies largely depends on consumers' behavioral responses to the innovation. In Eastern Africa, and Uganda in particular, a technology to process matooke into flour has been introduced with limited success. We measure and apply the Food technology Neophobia Scale (FTNS) to this specific case. This technique has been increasingly used in consumer research to determine consumers' fear for foods produced by novel technologies. Although it has been successful in developed countries, the low number and limited scope of past studies underlines the need for testing its applicability in a developing country context. Data was collected from 209 matooke consumers from Central Uganda. In general, respondents are relatively neophobic towards the new technology, with an average FTNS score of 58.7%, which hampers the success of processed matooke flour. Besides socio-demographic indicators, 'risk perception', 'healthiness' and the 'necessity of technologies' were key factors that influenced consumer's preference of processed matooke flour. Benchmarking the findings against previous FTNS surveys allows to evaluate factor solutions, compare standardized FTNS scores and further lends support for the multidimensionality of the FTNS. Being the first application in a developing country context, this study provides a case for examining food technology neophobia for processed staple crops in various regions and cultures. Nevertheless, research is needed to replicate this method and evaluate the external validity of our findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A framework for evaluating WTP for BIPV in residential housing design in developing countries: A case study of North Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radmehr, Mehrshad; Willis, Ken; Kenechi, Ugo Elinwa

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores people's preferences for a Built in Photovoltaic (BIPV) renewable energy system to be integrated into housing construction. A novel methodology was developed, to study the case of Northern Cyprus, for better understanding of possibilities that abound in BIPV integration. The methodology incorporates Building Information Modeling (BIM) as a real-time design and economic assessment tool for BIPV choices. This serves to benefit both the construction companies and potential house owners in their decision-making. In addition, it uses a Contingent Valuation (CV) method to assess the Willingness to Pay (WTP) and the Willingness to Accept (WTA) compensation. The results indicate that the capital cost of PV is not instrumental in choice, and a lower feed-in tariff could be acceptable

  1. Assessment of Soft Power Strategies: Towards an Aggregative Analytical Model for Country-Focused Case Study Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patalakh Artem

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper advances a realist analytical model for case studies of national soft power policies. First, it argues that for the purposes of realist analysis, a soft power policy must be considered as a rational strategy pursued under the conditions of competition. Furthermore, it emphasises the importance of taking into account the specificities of the recipient state as well as the fact that a soft power strategy is targeted at both its elite and its public. In addition, the article substantiates the necessity to draw a clear-cut distinction between soft power sources and instruments and shows possible shortcomings that research can have should this distinction fail to be made. Finally, the paper discusses the impact of a competitor’s presence on a soft power strategy and specifies the terms under which disregarding this impact may engender a wrong conclusion.

  2. Segmentation and informality in Vietnam : a survey of the literature: country case study on labour market segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Cling, Jean-Pierre; Razafindrakoto, Mireille; Roubaud, François

    2014-01-01

    Labour market segmentation is usually defined as the division of the labour markets into separate sub-markets or segments, distinguished by different characteristics and behavioural rules (incomes, contracts, etc.). The economic debate on the segmentation issue has been focusing in developed countries, and especially in Europe, on contractual segmentation and dualism.

  3. Corporate Social Responsibility in the Oil Industry-Comparative Case Studies Of Chinese Oil Enterprises In Five Latin American Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenyuan

    This dissertation evaluates and compares social and environmental records of Chinese national oil companies (NOCs) operating in Latin America from the early 21st century to 2015. Five countries representing the entirety of Chinese NOCs' physical presence are selected: Peru, Ecuador, Argentina, Colombia, and Venezuela. The project discovers that Chinese NOCs demonstrate the highest level of social responsibility in Peru and the lowest in Venezuela, with the other three countries constituting intermediate observations. The differences in social responsibility records are then causally traced to variances in the host countries' regulatory frameworks and civil society capacities. Chinese NOCs are found to be most willing to commit to social responsibility under an enabling regulatory environment in which the host government facilitates competitiveness and decentralization in its hydrocarbons industry while upholding inclusive policies regarding its civil society. Moreover, these NOCs are most likely to follow through on their CSR commitments when faced with a unified and collaborative civil society. These major findings yield important policy lessons for both the host government and the civil society in developing countries with abundance in energy resources.

  4. Assessment of the Successes and Failures of Decentralized Energy Solutions and Implications for the Water–Energy–Food Security Nexus: Case Studies from Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawit Diriba Guta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Access to reliable and affordable energy is vital for sustainable development. In the off-grid areas of developing countries, decentralized energy solutions have received increasing attention due to their contributions to reducing poverty. However, most of the rural population in many developing countries still has little or no access to modern energy technologies. This paper assesses the factors that determine the successes and failures of decentralized energy solutions based on local harmonized case studies from heterogeneous contexts from Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and South America. The case studies were analyzed through the coupled lenses of energy transition and the Water–Energy–Food Security (WEF Nexus. The findings indicate that access to modern decentralized energy solutions has not resulted in complete energy transitions due to various tradeoffs with the other domains of the WEF Nexus. On the other hand, the case studies point at the potential for improvements in food security, incomes, health, the empowerment of women, and resource conservation when synergies between decentralized energy solutions and other components of the WEF Nexus are present.

  5. Scaling up specialist training in developing countries: lessons learned from the first 12 years of regional postgraduate training in Fiji – a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In 1997, regional specialist training was established in Fiji, consisting of one-year Postgraduate Diplomas followed by three-year master’s degree programs in anesthesia, internal medicine, obstetrics/gynecology, pediatrics and surgery. The evolution of these programs during the first 12 years is presented. Case description A case study utilizing mixed methods was carried out, including a prospective collection of enrolment and employment data, supplemented by semi-structured interviews. Between 1997 and 2009, 207 doctors (113 from Fiji and 94 from 13 other countries or territories in the Pacific) trained to at least the Postgraduate Diploma level. For Fiji graduates, 29.2% migrated permanently to developed countries, compared to only 8.5% for regional graduates (P Fiji is having an increasingly positive impact on the specialist workforce in the Pacific. With forethought, many of the difficulties we encountered may have been avoidable. Our experiences may help others who are establishing or expanding postgraduate training in developing countries to optimize the benefit of postgraduate training on their national and regional workforces. PMID:23270525

  6. Using the Lives Saved Tool to aid country planning in meeting mortality targets: a case study from Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssouf Keita

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mali is one of four countries implementing a National Evaluation Platform (NEP to build local capacity to answer evaluation questions for maternal, newborn, child health and nutrition (MNCH&N. In 2014-15, NEP-Mali addressed questions about the potential impact of Mali’s MNCH&N plans and strategies, and identified priority interventions to achieve targeted mortality reductions. Methods The NEP-Mali team modeled the potential impact of three intervention packages in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST from 2014 to 2023. One projection included the interventions and targets from Mali’s ten-year health strategy (PDDSS for 2014-2023, and two others modeled intervention packages that included scale up of antenatal, intrapartum, and curative interventions, as well as reductions in stunting and wasting. We modeled the change in maternal, newborn and under-five mortality rates under these three projections, as well as the number of lives saved, overall and by intervention. Results If Mali were to achieve the MNCH&N coverage targets from its health strategy, under-5 mortality would be reduced from 121 per 1000 live births to 93 per 1000, far from the target of 69 deaths per 1000. Projections 1 and 2 produced estimated mortality reductions from 121 deaths per 1000 to 70 and 68 deaths per 1000, respectively. With respect to neonatal mortality, the mortality rate would be reduced from 39 to 32 deaths per 1000 live births under the current health strategy, and to 25 per 1000 under projections 1 and 2. Conclusions This study revealed that achieving the coverage targets for the MNCH&N interventions in the 2014-23 PDDSS would likely not allow Mali to achieve its mortality targets. The NEP-Mali team was able to identify two packages of MNCH&N interventions (and targets that achieved under-5 and neonatal mortality rates at, or very near, the PDDSS targets. The Malian Ministry of Health and Public Hygiene is using these results to revise its plans

  7. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 3, India and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Ravindranath, N.H.; Somashekhar, B.S.; Gadgil, M. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore, (India). Center for Ecological Sciences and ASTRA; Deying, Xu [Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, (China). Research Inst. of Forestry

    1992-08-01

    As part of the effort to understand the sources of carbon dioxide and other major greenhouse gases, the Tropical Forestry and Global Climate Change Research Network (F-7) was established. The countries taking part in the F-7 Network -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria and Thailand -- possess large tracts of tropical forests and together experience the bulk of large scale tropical deforestation. Integreation of work of indigenous researchers and institutions from the participating countries should allow for the gathering of on-site information into the more general and universally available base of knowledge. The information contained in this report represents the results of the first phase of the F-7 project, which had the explicit aim of providing quantitative data on forestry-related carbon emissions from India and China.

  8. MULTIPLE SELECTIONS OF ALTERNATIVES UNDER CONSTRAINTS: CASE STUDY OF EUROPEAN COUNTRIES IN AREA OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Furková

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is given over to a multicriteria evaluation approach to the issue of international comparison of research and development indicators. The policy activities in R&D (Research & Development area are significant parts of many national programs of many EU member states. There are several reasons for governments to take active role in stimulation investment in R&D. R&D are generally considered to be the main engine of long-run economic growth. Also The European Commission pays more attention to R&D activities and provides more and more resources to these activities through Community Framework Programs. We decided to exploit multi-attribute decision-making to evaluate R&D indicators of European countries. As multi-attribute decision-making method Topsis method was applied. Topis method has provided us complete ranking of the countries taking into account indicators such as patent applications, total intramural R&D expenditure, human resources in science and technology, employment in knowledge-intensive activities and business enterprise R&D expenditure. Having these results in a hand; we proceed to making multiple selections of countries under constraints. Our main goal was to suggest an optimization model for resources distribution - subsides for R&D encouragement, i.e. to find an optimal selection of several alternatives given a set of constraints. To make a decision concerning proper countries selection we employed optimization model inspired by Promethee V, which enables us to take into account the results of previous empirical part and, at the same time, to take into account defined constraints. Formulated binary linear programming model could be useful support decision making tool in the process of resources distribution - subsides for R&D encouragement.

  9. Creation of Malaysia’s Royal Belum State Park: A Case Study of Conservation in a Developing Country

    OpenAIRE

    Schwabe, KA; Carson, RT; DeShazo, JR; Potts, MD; Reese, AN; Vincent, JR

    2015-01-01

    © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav. The incentives for resource extraction and development make the conservation of biodiversity challenging within tropical forestlands. The 2007 establishment of the Royal Belum State Park in the Malaysian state of Perak offers lessons for creating protected areas in tropical countries where subnational governments are major forestland owners. This article elucidates the social and political forces that influe...

  10. The effect of female labour force in economic growth and sustainability in transition economies - case study for SEE countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majlinda Mazalliu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper, the main theoretical arguments for discussions are as following: female labour force participation in transition countries, female employment in economic sectors and their main barriers, and the contributions of female labour force in economic growth. In methodology, the secondary data are used, and they are calculated through STATA program. The main analysis include: descriptive statistic, regression analysis and correlation matrix. Based on empirical results, the regression analysis has found that economic growth and government effectiveness has a negative impact on female labour force. Financial market development, enterprises reforms, and innovation have a positive impact on female labour force in SEE (South Eastern European countries. In T-statistic analysis all independent variables have shown a negative significance (T <2 on female labour force. In correlation, economic growth and financial development market have negative correlation on female labour force, but other variables have shown positive correlation. SEE countries should develop the female labour force in their economies, so their role may be crucial toward different economic problems and challenges in the modern economy.

  11. Technology and knowledge transfer from Annex 1 countries to non Annex 2 countries under the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). An empirical case study of CDM projects implemented in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer

    2008-10-15

    The CDM constitutes a central element in political discussions on climate change concerning means to facilitate transfer of technology and knowledge, regarding greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation technologies, from Annex 1 countries to Non Annex 1 countries. The purpose of this thesis is therefore to answer the question of what role the CDM plays in relation to transfer of technology and knowledge. The thesis relies on multiple sources of qualitative data and is conducted as a multiple case study of thirteen CDM projects implemented in Malaysia. It focuses on the companies involved in implementation of specific technologies in these projects and the channels that can facilitate the transfer process. The aim of the thesis is therefore to provide insights into the dynamics of technology transfer at the micro-level. An analytical framework is put forward on which it can be concluded that the CDM only plays a role in one out of the thirteen projects examined. The thesis may contribute to provide a background on which future provisions concerning technology transfer in the CDM, and/or other mechanisms that involve GHG mitigation activities in Non Annex 1 countries. (au)

  12. Environmental impact assessment on the construction and operation of municipal solid waste sanitary landfills in developing countries: China case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Lü, Fan

    2014-01-01

    An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through...... life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between...

  13. Insight into Groundwater Flow Within a Crystalline Aquifer. Case study of the Ursuya Mount, Northern Basque Country (France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaunat, J.; Huneau, F.; Dupuy, A.; Franceschi, M.; Le Coustumer, P. [Universite de Bordeaux, Institut EGID, EA Georessources et Environnement, Pessac (France); Celle-Jeanton, H. [Universite de Clermont-Ferrand, LMV UMR 6524, Clermont-Ferrand (France)

    2013-07-15

    Stable isotopes of the water molecule and tritium in conjunction with geochemistry have been used to understand the groundwater flow pattern and origin within the gneissic aquifer of the Ursuya Mount. This aquifer constitutes one of the main water supplies of the Northern Basque Country and improved knowledge about the water recharge, origin, quality and residence time is of strategic importance for a sustainable development of the resource. 16 springs, 4 boreholes and total rainfall have been sampled monthly since summer 2009. Preliminary results indicate complex and contrasted groundwater flows within the aquifer. Shallow groundwater restricted to the upper weathered horizons is characterized by a strong influence of anthropogenic inputs. At depth, groundwater mainly circulates along the major structural discontinuities of the gneiss in semi-confined conditions. These levels, providing the most promising resource for the water supply, show increased water mineralization caused by a longer residence time of groundwater and hence indicate a slower dynamic of the system. (author)

  14. Microbial conversion of agriculture wastes as a source of energy for developing countries: a case study in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejike, C.; Okereke, G.U.

    1991-01-01

    The direct relationship between level of economic development of any nation and its consumption of energy show that there is improve standard of living with increase in the per capita consumption of energy. In Nigeria, the need to offset some of the economic set backs brought about by increasing fuel costs and chronic lack of foreign currency reserves has compelled her to search for alternative sources of energy. The continuous increase in concern over environmental pollution has also resulted in greater negative cost values of wastes and hence has increased their potential as substrates for bio-derived energy. Cellulosic agricultural wastes are available in Nigeria in large amounts, are ordinarily of little economic value and are non toxic. Nigeria produces about 227,500 tons of animal waste per day implying the bio gas production could be a feasible alternative source of energy. Conversion of agricultural waste to usable energy at commercially acceptable rates involves the availability of raw materials and conversion of same to suitable substrates for fermentation to alcohol and then to bio gas. Saccharomyces spp. produced from fermentation of alcoholic beverages in Northern Nigeria have been used in the production of ethanol from corn corp waste and grass straw. Chromolaena odorata a weed that has no economic value which grows luxuriantly in Nigeria has been used in the generation of bio gas. Drying procedure and pH are among other conditions the affect methane yield. The development of the biotechnology of bio-derivable energy from agricultural waste if effectively harnessed will help to aleviate the energy problems of developing countries. The climate for the promotion of this technology is favourable because of low cost of raw material, high cost of fuel energy, and poor foreign exchange earning capacity of developing countries. (author)

  15. Telemedicine utilization to support the management of the burns treatment involving patient pathways in both developed and developing countries: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Scholl, Jeremiah; Chen, Chiehfeng Cliff; Santos, Martinho D P S; Jian, Wen-Shan; Liou, Der-Ming; Li, Yu-Chuan

    2012-01-01

    This case study reports on the utilization of telemedicine to support the management of the burns treatment in the islands of Sao Tome and Principe by Taipei Medical University-affiliated hospital in Taiwan. The authors share experiences about usage of telemedicine to support treatment of the burn victims in a low-income country that receive reconstructive surgery in a developed country. Throughout the entire care process, telemedicine has been used not only to provide an expert advice from distance but also to help establish and maintain the doctor-patient relationship, to keep patients in contact with their families, and to help educate and consult the medical personal physically present in Sao Tome and Principe. This case study presents the details of how this process has been conducted to date, on what were learned from this process, and on issues that should be considered to improve this process in the future. The authors plan to create instructional videos and post them on YouTube to aid clinical workers providing similar treatment during the acute care and rehabilitation process and also to support eLearning in many situations where it otherwise is not possible to use videoconferencing to establish real-time contact between doctors at the local site and remote specialists.

  16. Estimating and explaining the effect of education and income on head and neck cancer risk: INHANCE consortium pooled analysis of 31 case-control studies from 27 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, David I; Brenner, Darren R; McMahon, Alex D; Macpherson, Lorna M D; Agudo, Antonio; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Bosetti, Cristina; Brenner, Hermann; Castellsague, Xavier; Chen, Chu; Curado, Maria Paula; Curioni, Otávio A; Dal Maso, Luigino; Daudt, Alexander W; de Gois Filho, José F; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Edefonti, Valeria; Fabianova, Eleonora; Fernandez, Leticia; Franceschi, Silvia; Gillison, Maura; Hayes, Richard B; Healy, Claire M; Herrero, Rolando; Holcatova, Ivana; Jayaprakash, Vijayvel; Kelsey, Karl; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Koifman, Sergio; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lagiou, Pagona; Lazarus, Philip; Levi, Fabio; Lissowska, Jolanta; Luce, Daniele; Macfarlane, Tatiana V; Mates, Dana; Matos, Elena; McClean, Michael; Menezes, Ana M; Menvielle, Gwenn; Merletti, Franco; Morgenstern, Hal; Moysich, Kirsten; Müller, Heiko; Muscat, Joshua; Olshan, Andrew F; Purdue, Mark P; Ramroth, Heribert; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Rudnai, Peter; Schantz, Stimson; Schwartz, Stephen M; Shangina, Oxana; Simonato, Lorenzo; Smith, Elaine; Stucker, Isabelle; Sturgis, Erich M; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Talamini, Renato; Thomson, Peter; Vaughan, Thomas L; Wei, Qingyi; Winn, Deborah M; Wunsch-Filho, Victor; Yu, Guo-Pei; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Zheng, Tongzhang; Znaor, Ariana; Boffetta, Paolo; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Ghodrat, Marianoosh; Amy Lee, Yuan-Chin; Hashibe, Mia; Brennan, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Low socioeconomic status has been reported to be associated with head and neck cancer risk. However, previous studies have been too small to examine the associations by cancer subsite, age, sex, global region and calendar time and to explain the association in terms of behavioral risk factors. Individual participant data of 23,964 cases with head and neck cancer and 31,954 controls from 31 studies in 27 countries pooled with random effects models. Overall, low education was associated with an increased risk of head and neck cancer (OR = 2.50; 95% CI = 2.02 - 3.09). Overall one-third of the increased risk was not explained by differences in the distribution of cigarette smoking and alcohol behaviors; and it remained elevated among never users of tobacco and nondrinkers (OR = 1.61; 95% CI = 1.13 - 2.31). More of the estimated education effect was not explained by cigarette smoking and alcohol behaviors: in women than in men, in older than younger groups, in the oropharynx than in other sites, in South/Central America than in Europe/North America and was strongest in countries with greater income inequality. Similar findings were observed for the estimated effect of low versus high household income. The lowest levels of income and educational attainment were associated with more than 2-fold increased risk of head and neck cancer, which is not entirely explained by differences in the distributions of behavioral risk factors for these cancers and which varies across cancer sites, sexes, countries and country income inequality levels. © 2014 UICC.

  17. A Hybrid Genetic Programming Method in Optimization and Forecasting: A Case Study of the Broadband Penetration in OECD Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Salpasaranis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of a hybrid genetic programming method (hGP in fitting and forecasting of the broadband penetration data is proposed. The hGP uses some well-known diffusion models, such as those of Gompertz, Logistic, and Bass, in the initial population of the solutions in order to accelerate the algorithm. The produced solutions models of the hGP are used in fitting and forecasting the adoption of broadband penetration. We investigate the fitting performance of the hGP, and we use the hGP to forecast the broadband penetration in OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. The results of the optimized diffusion models are compared to those of the hGP-generated models. The comparison indicates that the hGP manages to generate solutions with high-performance statistical indicators. The hGP cooperates with the existing diffusion models, thus allowing multiple approaches to forecasting. The modified algorithm is implemented in the Python programming language, which is fast in execution time, compact, and user friendly.

  18. Impact assessment of road fleet transitions on emissions: The case study of a medium European size country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontes, T.; Pereira, S.R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the impacts of fleet composition changes on emission due to the introduction of different road transportation policies in a medium size European country (Portugal) applying an ex-post analysis (e.g. policies based on fuel pricing, car scraping, car taxation). A baseline scenario was compared with a counterfactual scenario in order to understand what would occur in the absence of the introduction of those policies. For each scenario, four approaches were assessed using economic effects and/or human health costs. HC, CO, NO x , PM and CO 2 emissions from passenger cars and light duty vehicles were evaluated. The results show high statistical significance (p≤0.05) between CO emissions and different vehicle features as vehicle age, fuel type and engine classes. The same pattern was observed between the average vehicle age and HC, NO x and PM. After the implementation of road traffic policies, the average emission factors of the fleet decreased 28–62% for HC, CO, NO x , PM and 20–39% for CO 2 . However, if a counterfactual scenario would be implemented, the reduction would be 20–80% and 26–55% higher, respectively. The results demonstrates that although were recorded some benefits, the fleet characteristics distribution were more environmental friendly in 2001 than in 2011. - Highlights: • Assess the effects of fleet composition changes on emission in Portugal between 2001 and 2011. • A baseline scenario was compared with a counterfactual scenario. • In the baseline scenario the average emission factors decreased 28–62%. • If a counterfactual scenario would be implemented, the reduction would be 20–80% higher. • High statistical significance was found only between some pollutants and vehicle features

  19. Environmental impact assessment on the construction and operation of municipal solid waste sanitary landfills in developing countries: China case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Lü, Fan; Shao, Li-Ming; Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; He, Pin-Jing

    2014-05-01

    An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between landfill C&O and the total landfilling technology implies that the contribution of C&O to overall landfill emissions is not negligible. The non-toxic impacts induced by C&O can be attributed mainly to the consumption of diesel used for daily operation, while the toxic impacts are primarily due to the use of mineral materials. To test the influences of different landfill C&O approaches on environmental impacts, six baseline alternatives were assessed through sensitivity analysis. If geomembranes and geonets were utilized to replace daily and intermediate soil covers and gravel drainage systems, respectively, the environmental burdens of C&O could be mitigated by between 2% and 27%. During the LCA of landfill C&O, the research scope or system boundary has to be declared when referring to material consumption values taken from the literature; for example, the misapplication of data could lead to an underestimation of diesel consumption by 60-80%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of research tool patents on biotechnology innovation in a developing country: A case study of South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryu Tae-Kyu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concerns have recently been raised about the negative effects of patents on innovation. In this study, the effects of patents on innovations in the Korean biotech SMEs (small and medium-sized entrepreneurs were examined using survey data and statistical analysis. Results The survey results of this study provided some evidence that restricted access problems have occurred even though their frequency was not high. Statistical analysis revealed that difficulties in accessing patented research tools were not negatively correlated with the level of innovation performance and attitudes toward the patent system. Conclusion On the basis of the results of this investigation in combination with those of previous studies, we concluded that although restricted access problems have occurred, this has not yet deterred innovation in Korea. However, potential problems do exist, and the effects of restricted access should be constantly scrutinized.

  1. Effects of research tool patents on biotechnology innovation in a developing country: a case study of South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung-Nam; Ryu, Tae-Kyu; Lee, Yoon-Sik

    2009-03-26

    Concerns have recently been raised about the negative effects of patents on innovation. In this study, the effects of patents on innovations in the Korean biotech SMEs (small and medium-sized entrepreneurs) were examined using survey data and statistical analysis. The survey results of this study provided some evidence that restricted access problems have occurred even though their frequency was not high. Statistical analysis revealed that difficulties in accessing patented research tools were not negatively correlated with the level of innovation performance and attitudes toward the patent system. On the basis of the results of this investigation in combination with those of previous studies, we concluded that although restricted access problems have occurred, this has not yet deterred innovation in Korea. However, potential problems do exist, and the effects of restricted access should be constantly scrutinized.

  2. The Prediction of the Students' Academic Underachievement in Mathematics Using the DEA Model: A Developing Country Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Fatemeh; Amiripour, Parvaneh

    2017-01-01

    In this study, an attempt was made to predict the students' mathematical academic underachievement at the Islamic Azad University-Yadegare-Imam branch and the appropriate strategies in mathematical academic achievement to be applied using the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model. Survey research methods were used to select 91 students from the…

  3. ATTITUDE OF CORPORATE MANAGERS AND STOCKHOLDERS WITH RESPECT TO GOOD GOVERNANCE IN A DEVELOPING COUNTRY: A CASE STUDY OF BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Z. Mamun

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study showed the perceptional differences between corporate managers1 and stockholders2 regarding good governance. The study is conducted among 25 pairs of senior managers and stockholders from 25 randomly chosen corporations3 in Bangladesh. Different statistical tools like numeric scale, discriminant analysis, descriptive analysis, t-test, F-test were used for the comparative analysis. Regarding good governance, it is found that the corporate managers and stockholders possess opposing view. While managers of the studied firms find governance of their companies is quite well but stockholders view that it is very poor. This happened especially in terms of turnover, production, capital, leverage, debt service, credit policy, solvency, human resource, recruitment, technology, customer satisfaction, internal control, strength, opportunity, competition, industry position, collective bargaining agent (CBA issues and economic remedies which the study found the groups differ in perception; whereas, they have similar view in terms of adequacy of research fund, company weaknesses and threats, contingency plans, presence of political influence. The managers think that the companies do not have enough retained earnings and these should not be distributed among stockholders, but the stockholders think otherwise. Managers always perceive that they are underpaid whereas stockholders express the opposite view. Each group believes that it is the other group that dominates the decision-making. While both the groups want to have mutual interaction but stockholders want to interact more than the mangers. No doubt this attitudinal differences are not good for smooth functioning of the corporations, what is needed is openness, more dialogues, mutual trust and understanding of each other. The study also noted that corporate managers' tenure is more with the company than a stockholder's holding of stock. It is also found that the managers are better educated than

  4. Diabetes knowledge translation status in developing countries: A mixed method study among diabetes researchers in case of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Valinejadi; Farahnaz Sadoughi; Masoud Salehi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite considerable investment in research, the existing research evidence is frequently not implemented and/or leads to useless or detrimental care in healthcare. The knowledge-practice gap proposed as one of the main causes of not achieving the treatment goals in diabetes. Iran also is facing a difference between the production and utilization of the knowledge of diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the status of diabetes knowledge translation (KT) in Iran. Methods...

  5. Countdown to 2015 country case studies: systematic tools to address the “black box” of health systems and policy assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha S. Singh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluating health systems and policy (HSP change and implementation is critical in understanding reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH progress within and across countries. Whilst data for health outcomes, coverage and equity have advanced in the last decade, comparable analyses of HSP changes are lacking. We present a set of novel tools developed by Countdown to 2015 (Countdown to systematically analyse and describe HSP change for RMNCH indicators, enabling multi-country comparisons. Methods International experts worked with eight country teams to develop HSP tools via mixed methods. These tools assess RMNCH change over time (e.g. 1990–2015 and include: (i Policy and Programme Timeline Tool (depicting change according to level of policy; (ii Health Policy Tracer Indicators Dashboard (showing 11 selected RMNCH policies over time; (iii Health Systems Tracer Indicators Dashboard (showing four selected systems indicators over time; and (iv Programme implementation assessment. To illustrate these tools, we present results from Tanzania and Peru, two of eight Countdown case studies. Results The Policy and Programme Timeline tool shows that Tanzania’s RMNCH environment is complex, with increased funding and programmes for child survival, particularly primary-care implementation. Maternal health was prioritised since mid-1990s, yet with variable programme implementation, mainly targeting facilities. Newborn health only received attention since 2005, yet is rapidly scaling-up interventions at facility- and community-levels. Reproductive health lost momentum, with re-investment since 2010. Contrastingly, Peru moved from standalone to integrated RMNCH programme implementation, combined with multi-sectoral, anti-poverty strategies. The HSP Tracer Indicators Dashboards show that Peru has adopted nine of 11 policy tracer indicators and Tanzania has adopted seven. Peru costed national RMNCH plans pre-2000, whereas

  6. To what extent are medicinal plants shared between country home gardens and urban ones? A case study from Misiones, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Violeta; Kujawska, Monika; Hilgert, Norma Ines; Pochettino, María Lelia

    2016-09-01

    Context Worldwide ethnobotanical research has shown the importance of home gardens as sources of medicinal plants. These resources are worthy of further study in the Argentinean Atlantic Forest due to the richness of medicinal flora and their importance for local people. Objective We studied richness, composition, cultural importance and medicinal uses of plants in home gardens of rural, semirural and urban areas in the Iguazú Department (Misiones, Argentina). Our hypothesis claims that people living in different environments have a similar array of medicinal plants in their gardens and they use them in a similar way. Materials and methods The analysis was based on 76 interviews and plant inventories of home gardens. During guided walks in gardens, voucher specimens were collected. To analyse composition, Simpson similarity index was applied and a new index was proposed to measure culturally salient species. Results All the environments had similar species composition with species differing in less than 30% of them. The most culturally salient taxa were Mentha spicata L. (Lamiaceae), in rural, Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae), in semirural, and Aloe maculata All. (Xanthorrhoeaceae), in urban areas. The body systems treated with medicinal plants were similar across study sites. Discussion The results suggest a "core repertoire" of medicinal plants and a widespread exchange of plants among local population. The cultural importance index informs us about plant adaptability, based on the efficacy and the versatility of medicinal resources. Conclusion In this changing context where mobility and migrations constitute everyday life, medicinal plants in home gardens are part of local healthcare sovereignty.

  7. Quality of health news disseminated in the print media in developing countries: a case study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashorkhani, Mahnaz; Gholami, Jaleh; Maleki, Katayoun; Nedjat, Sima; Mortazavi, Jalaledin; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2012-08-09

    Mass media play an important role in keeping people up-to-date with the latest health news. This study aims at investigating the quality of health news disseminated in the print media, its course of production and factors affecting its quality. In the quantitative section of the study, 410 health-related news items, published during a six-month span in the Iranian public press, underwent content analysis. In the qualitative section, focus group discussions were held with journalists, editors-in-chief and news gatekeepers. The quantitative phase showed that 18% of the news articles were not fit for dissemination in public. The qualitative phase illustrated that multiple factors at various levels affect the quality of news, namely poor knowledge, inadequate motivations and context-related barriers. The quality of health news reporting is not desirable. Educational interventions need to be carried out to raise awareness among researchers and journalists. Also, certain steps should be taken to increase motivations and strengthen infrastructures, including designing guidelines and monitoring news.

  8. Clean Development Mechanism” projects in the developing countries within the Kyoto protocol: problem analysis of a case study in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaglioppa P

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available An internship period spent in the north of Morocco kingdom (Tetouan gave a contribute to the organization activity in promoting sustainable development in the rural areas under the Kyoto Protocol. The multitasking project will increase biodiversity planting trees for wood, forage and fruits productions. The paper show a first step study to evaluate the possibility to reach an agreement with the propriety and the manager of these areas in a multifunctional reforestation project. The eligible site suitable for reforestation in accordance with the CDM international scheme is a large plateau (more than 5000 hectares 600 meters high on the sea level far from the Cannabis crops area. The evaluation of the project costs and of the social benefits for the population consider (using different species the indigenous communities necessity. The evaluation of carbon sequestration show the small scale of the reforestation project on behalf of the Kyoto Protocol, but give also an idea about the people rights and necessities. The normal afforestation and reforestation projects, under the Kyoto Protocol, try to maximize the CO2 sequestration in a short time, than business laws usually require. A small scale project could be self-managing, less expensive (international certification costs and more interesting for local communities.

  9. Multi crop model climate risk country-level management design: case study on the Tanzanian maize production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, E.

    2015-12-01

    Future climate projections indicate that a very serious consequence of post-industrial anthropogenic global warming is the likelihood of the greater frequency and intensity of extreme hydrometeorological events such as heat waves, droughts, storms, and floods. The design of national and international policies targeted at building more resilient and environmentally sustainable food systems needs to rely on access to robust and reliable data which is largely absent. In this context, the improvement of the modelling of current and future agricultural production losses using the unifying language of risk is paramount. In this study, we use a methodology that allows the integration of the current understanding of the various interacting systems of climate, agro-environment, crops, and the economy to determine short to long-term risk estimates of crop production loss, in different environmental, climate, and adaptation scenarios. This methodology is applied to Tanzania to assess optimum risk reduction and maize production increase paths in different climate scenarios. The simulations carried out use inputs from three different crop models (DSSAT, APSIM, WRSI) run in different technological scenarios and thus allowing to estimate crop model-driven risk exposure estimation bias. The results obtained also allow distinguishing different region-specific optimum climate risk reduction policies subject to historical as well as RCP2.5 and RCP8.5 climate scenarios. The region-specific risk profiles obtained provide a simple framework to determine cost-effective risk management policies for Tanzania and allow to optimally combine investments in risk reduction and risk transfer.

  10. Country Branding and Country Image: Insights, Challenges and Prospects. The Case of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Same Siiri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gaining understanding about customers ’mindset and information on their experiences is a precondition for the formulation of an effective country branding strategy. What potential tourists might learn and how they can be made to feel about a place can help small and not very well-known countries compete with bigger and more popular tourist destinations. The article focuses on the effectiveness of Brand Estonia and claims that it is still a challenge, despite the existence of an ongoing strategy. It also favors the revision of the brand identity selection and the promotion of Estonian brand, and supports a customer-based approach for their assessment. Documentary and empirical evidence show that the image of Estonia among its most important target audiences in the field of tourism does not match the Estonian brand identity. The gap in-between was evidenced by the results and content analysis of 24 in-depth interviews made with a selected group of people well acquainted with the country as well as some branding experts. This article contributes to the existing case study literature with findings that also manifest opportunities to strengthen the country brand, if its formulation develops a realistic brand identity and its promotion is based on accurate, unique and appealing ideas. It proposes academic support to innovative or alternative concepts for the country branding, and comments on applications of this study to more specific fields and further research.

  11. Risk factors for community-acquired urinary tract infections caused by ESBL-producing enterobacteriaceae--a case-control study in a low prevalence country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Søraas

    Full Text Available Community-acquired urinary tract infection (CA-UTI is the most common infection caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, but the clinical epidemiology of these infections in low prevalence countries is largely unknown. A population based case-control study was conducted to assess risk factors for CA-UTI caused by ESBL-producing E. coli or K. pneumoniae. The study was carried out in a source population in Eastern Norway, a country with a low prevalence of infections caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. The study population comprised 100 cases and 190 controls with CA-UTI caused by ESBL-producing and non-ESBL-producing E. coli or K. pneumoniae, respectively. The following independent risk factors of ESBL-positive UTIs were identified: Travel to Asia, The Middle East or Africa either during the past six weeks (Odds ratio (OR = 21; 95% confidence interval (CI: 4.5-97 or during the past 6 weeks to 24 months (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.1-4.4, recent use of fluoroquinolones (OR = 16; 95% CI: 3.2-80 and β-lactams (except mecillinam (OR = 5.0; 95% CI: 2.1-12, diabetes mellitus (OR = 3.2; 95% CI: 1.0-11 and recreational freshwater swimming the past year (OR = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.0-4.0. Factors associated with decreased risk were increasing number of fish meals per week (OR = 0.68 per fish meal; 95% CI: 0.51-0.90 and age (OR = 0.89 per 5 year increase; 95% CI: 0.82-0.97. In conclusion, we have identified risk factors that elucidate mechanisms and routes for dissemination of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in a low prevalence country, which can be used to guide appropriate treatment of CA-UTI and targeted infection control measures.

  12. Vitamin D status in mothers with pre-eclampsia and their infants: a case-control study from Serbia, a country without a vitamin D fortification policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djekic-Ivankovic, Marija; Weiler, Hope; Jones, Glenville; Kaufmann, Martin; Kaludjerovic, Jovana; Aleksic-Velickovic, Vesna; Mandić, Ljuba M; Glibetic, Maria

    2017-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine if vitamin D intake and status are associated with pre-eclampsia in a country without a vitamin D fortification policy. A case-control study of pregnancies with (case) and without (control) pre-eclampsia was conducted from January to April when UVB is minimal. Maternal and cord blood obtained at delivery were measured for plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3), 3-epimer of 25-OH-D3 (3-epi-25-OH-D3) and 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (24,25-(OH)2D3) by LC-MS/MS and maternal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)2D). Differences between groups were tested with ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc tests (Pcase: 11·2 (sd 5·1); control: 16·1 (sd 5·7) ng/ml; P=0·0006), 25-OH-D3 (case: 10·0 (sd 4·9); control: 14·2 (sd 5·8) ng/ml; P=0·002), 3-epi-25-OH-D3 (case: 0·5 (sd 0·2); control: 0·7 (sd 0·2) ng/ml; P=0·0007) and 1,25-(OH)2D (case: 56·5 (sd 26·6); control: 81·0 (sd 25·7) pg/ml; P=0·018), while 24,25-(OH)2D3 was not different between groups. Infants did not differ in total plasma 25-OH-D, 25-OH-D3, 3-epi-25-OH-D3 and 24,25-(OH)2D3, but the mean proportion of 3-epi-25-OH-D3 was higher in the infant case group (case: 7·9 (sd 1·1); control: 7·0 (sd 1·4) % of total 25-OH-D3; P=0·005). A high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, as defined by plasma 25-OH-D<12 ng/ml, was observed in 47 % of all mothers and 77 % of all infants. These data underscore the need for prenatal vitamin D supplementation and a food fortification policy in Serbia.

  13. Scaling up specialist training in developing countries: lessons learned from the first 12 years of regional postgraduate training in Fiji – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oman Kimberly

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1997, regional specialist training was established in Fiji, consisting of one-year Postgraduate Diplomas followed by three-year master’s degree programs in anesthesia, internal medicine, obstetrics/gynecology, pediatrics and surgery. The evolution of these programs during the first 12 years is presented. Case description A case study utilizing mixed methods was carried out, including a prospective collection of enrolment and employment data, supplemented by semi-structured interviews. Between 1997 and 2009, 207 doctors (113 from Fiji and 94 from 13 other countries or territories in the Pacific trained to at least the Postgraduate Diploma level. For Fiji graduates, 29.2% migrated permanently to developed countries, compared to only 8.5% for regional graduates (P coup d’etat in 2000. By 2005, interviews suggested a dynamic of political instability initially leading to resignations, leading to even heavier workloads, compounded by academic studies that seemed unlikely to lead to career benefit. This was associated with loss of hope and downward spirals of further resignations. After 2006, however, Master’s graduates generally returned from overseas placements, had variable success in career progression, and were able to engage in limited private practice. Enrolments and retention stabilized and increased. Discussion and evaluation Over time, all specialties have had years when the viability and future of the programs were in question, but all have recovered to varying degrees, and the programs continue to evolve and strengthen. Prospective clarification of expected career outcomes for graduates, establishment of career pathways for diploma-only graduates, and balancing desires for academic excellence with workloads that trainees were able to bear may have lessened ongoing losses of trainees and graduates. Conclusions Despite early losses of trainees, the establishment of regional postgraduate training in Fiji is

  14. Lifetime occupational exposure to metals and welding fumes, and risk of glioma: a 7-country population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Marie-Elise; Turner, Michelle C; Lavoué, Jérôme; Richard, Hugues; Figuerola, Jordi; Kincl, Laurel; Richardson, Lesley; Benke, Geza; Blettner, Maria; Fleming, Sarah; Hours, Martine; Krewski, Daniel; McLean, David; Sadetzki, Siegal; Schlaefer, Klaus; Schlehofer, Brigitte; Schüz, Joachim; Siemiatycki, Jack; van Tongeren, Martie; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2017-08-25

    Brain tumor etiology is poorly understood. Based on their ability to pass through the blood-brain barrier, it has been hypothesized that exposure to metals may increase the risk of brain cancer. Results from the few epidemiological studies on this issue are limited and inconsistent. We investigated the relationship between glioma risk and occupational exposure to five metals - lead, cadmium, nickel, chromium and iron- as well as to welding fumes, using data from the seven-country INTEROCC study. A total of 1800 incident glioma cases and 5160 controls aged 30-69 years were included in the analysis. Lifetime occupational exposure to the agents was assessed using the INTEROCC JEM, a modified version of the Finnish job exposure matrix FINJEM. In general, cases had a slightly higher prevalence of exposure to the various metals and welding fumes than did controls, with the prevalence among ever exposed ranging between 1.7 and 2.2% for cadmium to 10.2 and 13.6% for iron among controls and cases, respectively. However, in multivariable logistic regression analyses, there was no association between ever exposure to any of the agents and risk of glioma with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) ranging from 0.8 (0.7-1.0) for lead to 1.1 (0.7-1.6) for cadmium. Results were consistent across models considering cumulative exposure or duration, as well as in all sensitivity analyses conducted. Findings from this large-scale international study provide no evidence for an association between occupational exposure to any of the metals under scrutiny or welding fumes, and risk of glioma.

  15. Barriers and facilitators to care for the terminally ill: a cross-country case comparison study of Canada, England, Germany, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Christopher A; Howell, Doris; Zakus, David; Deber, Raisa B

    2014-02-01

    Why do many patients not die at their preferred location? Analyze system-level characteristics influencing the ability to implement best practices in delivering care for terminally ill adults (barriers and facilitators). Cross-country comparison study from a "most similar-most different" perspective, triangulating evidence from a scoping review of the literature, document analyses, and semi-structured key informant interviews. Case study of Canada, England, Germany, and the United States. While similar with regard to leading causes of death, patient needs, and potential avenues to care, different models of service provision were employed in the four countries studied. Although hospice and palliative care services were generally offered with standard care along the disease continuum and in various settings, and featured common elements such as physical, psycho-social, and spiritual care, outcomes (access, utilization, etc.) varied across jurisdictions. Barriers to best practice service provision included legislative (including jurisdictional), regulatory (e.g. education and training), and financial issues as well as public knowledge and perception ("giving up hope") challenges. Advance care planning, dedicated and stable funding toward hospice and palliative care, including caregiver benefits, population aging, and standards of practice and guidelines to hospice and palliative care, were identified as facilitators. Successful implementation of effective and efficient best practice approaches to care for the terminally ill, such as shared care, requires concerted action to align these system-level characteristics; many factors were identified as being essential but not sufficient. Policy implementation needs to be tailored to the respective health-care system(s), monitored, and fine-tuned.

  16. Voluntary agreements, implementation and efficiency. Swedish country study report. Covering the EKO-Energi programme. With case studies in pulp and paper and heavy vehicle manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaagstroem, Jonas; Aastrand, Kerstin; Helby, Peter

    2000-03-01

    The VAIE research project is concerned with voluntary agreements for improvement of industrial energy efficiency in five European countries. This national report deals with the Swedish EKO-Energi agreements. It includes case studies in pulp and paper and heavy vehicle manufacturing. The first chapter presents the principal aspects of the Swedish EKO-Energi programme, explains the selection of companies for case studies, and summarises the results of the national study. The chapter shows the EKO-Energi programme to be directed at a fairly exclusive part of Swedish industry, namely environmental front-runners striving for EMAS or ISO 14001 certification. It provides them with paid energy audits and with marketing support. It requires them to establish an energy management system, i.e. to include energy efficiency issues in their certification process. The agreements are 'soft' in the sense that they address mainly organisational issues, are based much on trust in the companies own dedication to improvement, and are very informal in the monitoring. On the balance, the EKO-Energi programme would seem to be a small, but reasonably effective programme, contributing particularly to such organisational developments as are important for long-term trends in industrial energy efficiency. The second chapter provides a brief introduction to the whole VAIE project and outlines the methodology of the study, explained in more detail in a separate report. The third chapter describes the progress of the EKO-Energi programme from policy formulation to implementation, and assesses a number of hypotheses concerning this process. Support is found for the hypotheses (a) that voluntary agreements tend to exclude the influence of third parties, (b) that they tend to continue the logic of previous policies, and (c) that expected short term energy savings tend to be very close to the baseline scenario. The fourth chapter describes how agreements with individual companies are made

  17. Measuring turbidity, and indicator to evaluate drinkability of waters in Southern countries? Approaches from Burkina Faso, Sudan and Argentina case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie, Emilie; Robert, Elodie

    2013-04-01

    The relationship between proportion of suspended solids, dissolved oxygen and bacteriology has long been proven (Brock, 1966; Lechevallier et al., 1985; Bustina and Levallois, 2003; Chang and Liao, 2012), bacteria need coarse elements to hang on and develop. However, water bacteriology analyses are difficult to implement in southern countries. They are expensive and require sterile equipment, transport in cold conditions and a nearby laboratory, which remains difficult in remote areas under these hot latitudes. Yet, simple measurement devices allow to know in a few minutes the water turbidity. Is turbidity an efficient tool to evaluate the drinkability of water when no bacteriological analyses are possible? The results proposed here are taken from three different studies whose purposes were to measure different physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters of water used for human and/or animal consumption. One of the finalities was to propose a method, at lower cost, to evaluate the drinkability of water for consumption. Four case studies were chosen: the basin of the Doubegue River in Burkina Faso is a rural area of a developing country, where drinking water is taken from the alluvial aquifer close to the surface. Furthermore, the laundry is washed and the children play in running streams. Major expansion of the cultivated lands since 1980s has brought important soils losses, thus a chronicle contamination of surface water with suspended solids (Robert, 2012). The Mendoza and Tunuyán Rivers Basins in Argentina, an emerging country, have snow-glaciar regimes with naturally turbid waters. They supply drinking water to two towns, Mendoza and Tunuyán cities, respectively 1 million and 40,000 inhabitants. However, these two streams -whose watersheds are common- do not present the same managements: the Mendoza River has been equipped with large hydraulic infrastructures, moving the turbid waters into clear and erosive ones (Lavie, 2009), while the Tunuyán River

  18. Development of women's human capital and its impact on economic growth and total factor productivity: A case study of selected OECD countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Mostafaee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Experiences of developed countries and various studies in the context of economic growth of developing countries have shown that economic growth is not only explained by physical capital and labor force but also, and more importantly, by human capital. The later variable should be entered, as a major determinant, in the endogenous growth model. With the concern of important role of human capital in this research, the primary objective of this paper is to explore the effect of gender discrimination of human capital on economic growth and factor productivity in Iran and the selected OECD countries. More specifically, to indicate the economic capability of educated females, we use data of the considered countries over the period 1974-2008, to estimate the relevant models of growth and productivity. The implication is to compare the empirical results obtained for Iran and the selected developed countries.

  19. Comparative study of the variables for determining unit processing cost of irradiated food products in developing countries : case study of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banini, G.K; Emi-Reynolds, G.; Kassapu, S.N.

    1997-01-01

    A method for estimating unit cost of gamma treated food products in a developing country like Ghana is presented. The method employs the cost of cobalt source requirement, capital and operating costs, dose requirements etc. and relates these variables to various annual throughput at a gamma processing facility. In situations where the cost of foreign components or devices are required, the assumptions have been based on those of Kunstadt and Steeves. Otherwise, the prevailing conditions existing in Ghana have been used. The study reveals that the unit processing cost for gamma treatment foods in such a facility is between 8.0 to 147.2 US dollars per tonne. (author). 9 refs., 4 figs

  20. Simulating partially illegal markets of private tanker water providers on the country level: A multi-agent, hydroeconomic case-study of Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassert, C. J. A.; Yoon, J.; Gawel, E.; Klauer, B.; Sigel, K.; Talozi, S.; Lachaut, T.; Selby, P. D.; Knox, S.; Gorelick, S.; Tilmant, A.; Harou, J. J.; Mustafa, D.; Medellin-Azuara, J.; Rajsekhar, D.; Avisse, N.; Zhang, H.

    2016-12-01

    In arid countries around the world, markets of private small-scale water providers, mostly delivering water via tanker trucks, have emerged to balance the shortcomings of public water supply systems. While these markets can provide substantial contributions to meeting customers' water demands, they often partially rely on illegal water abstractions, thus imposing an unregulated and unmonitored strain on ground and surface water resources. Despite their important impacts on water users' welfare and resource sustainability, these markets are still poorly understood. We use a multi-agent, hydroeconomic simulation model, developed as part of the Jordan Water Project, to investigate the role of these markets in a country-wide case-study of Jordan. Jordan's water sector is characterized by a severe and growing scarcity of water resources, high intermittency in the public water network, and a strongly increasing demand due to an unprecedented refugee crisis. The tanker water market serves an important role in providing water from rural wells to households and commercial enterprises, especially during supply interruptions. In order to overcome the lack of direct data about this partially illegal market, we simulate demand and supply for tanker water. The demand for tanker water is conceptualized as a residual demand, remaining after a water user has depleted all available cheap and qualitatively reliable piped water. It is derived from residential and commercial demand functions on the basis of survey data. Tanker water supply is determined by farm simulation models calculating the groundwater pumping cost and the agricultural opportunity cost of tanker water. A market algorithm is then used to match rural supplies with users' demands, accounting for survey data on tanker operators' transport costs and profit expectations. The model is used to gain insights into the size of the tanker markets in all 89 subdistricts of Jordan and their responsiveness to various policy

  1. Reflections on Health Promotion and Disability in Low and Middle-Income Countries: Case Study of Parent-Support Programmes for Children with Congenital Zika Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Kuper

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Universal health coverage (UHC has been adopted by many countries as a national target for 2030. People with disabilities need to be included within efforts towards UHC, as they are a large group making up 15% of the world’s population and are more vulnerable to poor health. UHC focuses both on covering the whole population as well as providing all the services needed and must include an emphasis on health promotion, as well as disease treatment and cure. Health promotion often focusses on tackling individual behaviours, such as encouraging exercise or good nutrition. However, these activities are insufficient to improve health without additional efforts to address poverty and inequality, which are the underlying drivers of poor health. In this article, we identify common challenges, opportunities and examples for health promotion for people with disabilities, looking at both individual behaviour change as well as addressing the drivers of poor health. We present a case study of a carer support programme for parents of children with Congenital Zika Syndrome in Brazil as an example of a holistic programme for health promotion. This programme operates both through improving skills of caregivers to address the health needs of their child and tackling poverty and exclusion.

  2. Renewable energy policies in the Gulf countries. A case study of the carbon-neutral 'Masdar City' in Abu Dhabi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiche, Danyel [Department of Political Studies and Public Administration (PSPA), American University of Beirut, Jesup Hall, Room 205, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Wuppertal Institute (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    The Gulf countries are largely dependent on exporting oil and natural gas for their national budgets. They mainly use domestic fossil fuels for their domestic energy supply. In spite of favorable geographic conditions, especially for solar energy, renewable energies are still a niche application. Abu Dhabi, besides Dubai, the most important emirate in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), has now started a process of 'transforming oil wealth into renewable energy leadership', and has set the long-term goal of a 'transition from a 20th Century, carbon-based economy into a 21st Century sustainable economy'. This article is a case study about 'Masdar City', a planned carbon-neutral town in Abu Dhabi. The article describes the key characteristics of Masdar City, analyses the drivers behind the project, identifies the main actors for its implementation, and seeks obstacles to creation and development as well as the policy behind Masdar City. Finally, a first judgment of possible diffusion effects of the project is done. (author)

  3. Renewable Energy Policies in the Gulf countries: A case study of the carbon-neutral 'Masdar City' in Abu Dhabi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiche, Danyel, E-mail: dr09@aub.edu.l [Department of Political Studies and Public Administration (PSPA), American University of Beirut, Jesup Hall, Room 205, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Wuppertal Institute (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    The Gulf countries are largely dependent on exporting oil and natural gas for their national budgets. They mainly use domestic fossil fuels for their domestic energy supply. In spite of favorable geographic conditions, especially for solar energy, renewable energies are still a niche application. Abu Dhabi, besides Dubai, the most important emirate in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), has now started a process of 'transforming oil wealth into renewable energy leadership,' and has set the long-term goal of a 'transition from a 20th Century, carbon-based economy into a 21st Century sustainable economy.' This article is a case study about 'Masdar City,' a planned carbon-neutral town in Abu Dhabi. The article describes the key characteristics of Masdar City, analyses the drivers behind the project, identifies the main actors for its implementation, and seeks obstacles to creation and development as well as the policy behind Masdar City. Finally, a first judgment of possible diffusion effects of the project is done.

  4. CASE STUDY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-02

    Jun 2, 2011 ... immunosuppression associated with HIV/AIDS puts them at a higher risk of developing oesophageal cancer. 47. CASE STUDY. A 49-year-old man was diagnosed as HIV infected, with a CD4 count of 60 cells/µl. He was started on an antiretroviral treatment regimen comprising zidovudine, lamivudine and ...

  5. Global and regional effects of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with acute stroke in 32 countries (INTERSTROKE): a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Martin J; Chin, Siu Lim; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Xavier, Denis; Liu, Lisheng; Zhang, Hongye; Rao-Melacini, Purnima; Zhang, Xiaohe; Pais, Prem; Agapay, Steven; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Damasceno, Albertino; Langhorne, Peter; McQueen, Matthew J; Rosengren, Annika; Dehghan, Mahshid; Hankey, Graeme J; Dans, Antonio L; Elsayed, Ahmed; Avezum, Alvaro; Mondo, Charles; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Ryglewicz, Danuta; Czlonkowska, Anna; Pogosova, Nana; Weimar, Christian; Iqbal, Romaina; Diaz, Rafael; Yusoff, Khalid; Yusufali, Afzalhussein; Oguz, Aytekin; Wang, Xingyu; Penaherrera, Ernesto; Lanas, Fernando; Ogah, Okechukwu S; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Iversen, Helle K; Malaga, German; Rumboldt, Zvonko; Oveisgharan, Shahram; Al Hussain, Fawaz; Magazi, Daliwonga; Nilanont, Yongchai; Ferguson, John; Pare, Guillaume; Yusuf, Salim

    2016-08-20

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. We sought to quantify the importance of potentially modifiable risk factors for stroke in different regions of the world, and in key populations and primary pathological subtypes of stroke. We completed a standardised international case-control study in 32 countries in Asia, America, Europe, Australia, the Middle East, and Africa. Cases were patients with acute first stroke (within 5 days of symptom onset and 72 h of hospital admission). Controls were hospital-based or community-based individuals with no history of stroke, and were matched with cases, recruited in a 1:1 ratio, for age and sex. All participants completed a clinical assessment and were requested to provide blood and urine samples. Odds ratios (OR) and their population attributable risks (PARs) were calculated, with 99% confidence intervals. Between Jan 11, 2007, and Aug 8, 2015, 26 919 participants were recruited from 32 countries (13 447 cases [10 388 with ischaemic stroke and 3059 intracerebral haemorrhage] and 13 472 controls). Previous history of hypertension or blood pressure of 140/90 mm Hg or higher (OR 2·98, 99% CI 2·72-3·28; PAR 47·9%, 99% CI 45·1-50·6), regular physical activity (0·60, 0·52-0·70; 35·8%, 27·7-44·7), apolipoprotein (Apo)B/ApoA1 ratio (1·84, 1·65-2·06 for highest vs lowest tertile; 26·8%, 22·2-31·9 for top two tertiles vs lowest tertile), diet (0·60, 0·53-0·67 for highest vs lowest tertile of modified Alternative Healthy Eating Index [mAHEI]; 23·2%, 18·2-28·9 for lowest two tertiles vs highest tertile of mAHEI), waist-to-hip ratio (1·44, 1·27-1·64 for highest vs lowest tertile; 18·6%, 13·3-25·3 for top two tertiles vs lowest), psychosocial factors (2·20, 1·78-2·72; 17·4%, 13·1-22·6), current smoking (1·67, 1·49-1·87; 12·4%, 10·2-14·9), cardiac causes (3·17, 2·68-3·75; 9·1%, 8·0-10·2), alcohol consumption (2·09, 1·64

  6. Casing study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, P.

    2000-12-01

    An unorthodox method of casing drilling used by Tesco Corporation at a gas well in Wyoming to drill deeper using casings as drillpipe is discussed. The process involves either rotating the casing as drill string or using a downhole mud motor to rotate the bit. In this instance, the surface hole and the production hole were casing-drilled to a record 8,312 feet by rotating the casing. The 8 1/2-inch surface hole was drilled with 7-inch casing to 1,200 feet using a Tesco underreamer and a polycrystalline pilot bit; drilling and cementing was completed in 12 1/2 hours. The 6 1/4-inch production hole was drilled with 4 1/2-inch casing and the bottomhole assembly was retrieved after 191 hours rotating. This case was the first in which the entire well was casing-drilled from surface to TD. Penetration rate compared favorably with conventional methods: 12 1/2 hours for casing-drilling to 18.9 hours for conventional drilling, despite the fact that the casing-drilling technology is still in its infancy. It is suggested that casing-drilling has the potential to eliminate the need for the drillpipe entirely. If these expectations were to be realised, casing-drilling could be one of the most radical drilling changes in the history of the oil and gas industry. 1 photo.

  7. Potential of geographical variation analysis for realigning providers to value-based care. ECHO case study on lower-value indications of C-section in five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Armesto, Sandra; Angulo-Pueyo, Ester; Martínez-Lizaga, Natalia; Mateus, Céu; Joaquim, Inês; Bernal-Delgado, Enrique

    2015-02-01

    Although C-section is a highly effective procedure, literature abounds with evidence of overuse and particularly misuse, in lower-value indications such as low-risk deliveries. This study aims to quantify utilization of C-section in low-risk cases, mapping out areas showing excess-usage in each country and to estimate excess-expenditure as a proxy of the opportunity cost borne by healthcare systems. Observational, ecologic study on deliveries in 913 sub-national administrative areas of five European countries (Denmark, England, Portugal, Slovenia and Spain) from 2002 to 2009. The study includes a cross-section analysis with 2009 data and a time-trend analysis for the whole period. Main endpoints: age-standardized utilization rates of C-section in low-risk pregnancies and deliveries per 100 deliveries. Secondary endpoints: Estimated excess-cases per geographical unit of analysis in two scenarios of minimized utilization. C-section is widely used in all examined countries (ranging from 19% of Slovenian deliveries to 33% of deliveries in Portugal). With the exception of Portugal, there are no systematic variations in intensity of use across areas in the same country. Cross-country comparison of lower-value C-section leaves Denmark with 10% and Portugal with 2%, the highest and lowest. Such behaviour was stable over the period of analysis. Within each country, the scattered geographical patterns of use intensity speak for local drivers playing a major role within the national trend. The analysis conducted suggests plenty of room for enhancing value in obstetric care and equity in women's access to such within the countries studied. The analysis of geographical variations in lower-value care can constitute a powerful screening tool. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  8. CASE STUDY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV infection has several oral manifestations, including oral candidiasis and oral hairy leucoplakia. Occasionally unusual presentations requiring rigorous investigations are seen, and in these cases the diagnosis sometimes remains a dilemma owing to limited investigation facilities.1-3 We present the case of a patient who.

  9. Hospital volume and the risk of revision in Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty in the Nordic countries -an observational study of 14,496 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badawy, Mona; Fenstad, Anne M.; Bartz-Johannessen, Christoffer A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: High procedure volume and dedication to unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) has been suggested to improve revision rates. This study aimed to quantify the annual hospital volume effect on revision risk in Oxfordu? nicompartmental knee arthroplasty in the Nordic countries. Methods......). The outcome was revision risk after 2 and 10 years calculated using Kaplan Meier method. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to assess the Hazard Ratio (HR) of any revision due to specific reasons with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: The implant survival was 80% at 10 years in the volume...

  10. A model approach for analysing trends in energy supply and demand at country level: case study of industrial development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda-da-Cruz, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    Ideally, national energy supply and demand choices would be based on comprehensive models and predictions of the energy sources, energy transformations, energy carriers and energy end-uses expected to play major roles into the foreseeable future (20-40 years). However, in many cases, the necessary detailed, high quality, consistent and timely data is not available for such comprehensive models to be constructed, in particular in large and complex developing economies expected to be major energy users in the near future. In the developing countries that are the focus of UNIDO's work, attention has been concentrated on making progress simultaneously on two fronts: (a) a dramatic decrease in energy intensity, particularly in activities linked to industrial production and (b) a major increase in the contribution of local renewable energy to limit growth in fossil fuel use. National policies need to be oriented towards a strict and strategic monitoring of the respective energy matrices with a simultaneous focus on both fronts. Robust assessments of industrial development trends throughout the whole 20-40 year transition phase are needed to achieve both objectives. Until more comprehensive energy-related models can be built up, to overcome the limited availability of data at country level it is proposed that a simple energy supply and demand model analysis consisting of three phases be used for identifying the consistency of future scenarios and corresponding policy requirements. This model analysis, which is a dynamic exercise, consists, first, of an analysis at aggregate level of the current and future national energy matrices; secondly, an analysis of perspectives for decreasing the energy intensity of the most inefficient systems or industrial sectors; and thirdly, an analysis of perspectives for increasing the supply and cost-effectiveness of sustainable energy sources. As an illustration of this model approach, the case of China is analysed with emphasis on the

  11. Application of best practice for setting minimum energy efficiency standards in technically disadvantaged countries: Case study of Air Conditioners in Brunei Darussalam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Xunpeng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Setting MEPS requires significant data, financial resources and technical capacity. • Application of best practice in technical disadvantaged countries (TDCs) was demonstrated. • Best practice was successfully applied to Brunei for its AC MEPS. • For Brunei, COP at 2.9 is recommended and 15% efficiency improvement is achievable. • The methodology is applicable to other appliances in any TDCs. - Abstract: Application of the best practice of setting minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) in technically disadvantaged countries (TDCs) faces many barriers. The best practice of determining MEPS has a comprehensive analytical framework including engineering-economic analysis, life-cycle cost-benefit analysis, as well stakeholders’ and market impact assessments. However, TDCs usually are lack of reference product classes, market data, and other necessary inputs data. This study demonstrated how to overcome those barriers to apply the best practice to TDCs using the actual experience in setting initial MEPS for Air Conditioners (ACs) in Brunei from scratch with limited secondary data as an example. The series of application works include definition of the product classes and the baseline group; collection of market data; formulation of cost-efficiency relationship from the market data; examination of the economic, environmental, and financial impacts of various MEPS options; revealing of the consumers’ willingness to pay; and analysis of the impacts and responses from the industry and consumers. The coordination with the compliance of the Montreal Protocol was also considered. The methodology should also be applicable to setting MEPF for other appliances in any TDCs.

  12. a case study ondo state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    the design of a Government Cloud (G-Cloud) network for Ondo State Government which will ... network for a developing economy; a case study of ... France is one of those countries that favour .... Arequipa city. .... Where region 0 = Akure, 1 =.

  13. case study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elton

    particularly in patients who commence ART with low CD4 counts and established opportunistic infections. IRIS results from a pathological inflammatory response to pre-existing infective, host or other antigens, alive or dead, causing clinical deterioration in HIV-infected patients after initiating ART.1 A case definition for IRIS ...

  14. CASE STUDY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-09-01

    Sep 1, 2010 ... of the two diseases surgery can be successful, recovery can be similar to that .... lymphocytes predominated in 68% of cases, and that there was an .... using ferritin is the fact that it acts as an acute-phase reactant and will be ...

  15. Using standardized methods for research on HIV and injecting drug use in developing/transitional countries: case study from the WHO Drug Injection Study Phase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stimson Gerry V

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful cross-national research requires methods that are both standardized across sites and adaptable to local conditions. We report on the development and implementation of the methodology underlying the survey component of the WHO Drug Injection Study Phase II – a multi-site study of risk behavior and HIV seroprevalence among Injecting Drug Users (IDUs. Methods Standardized operational guidelines were developed by the Survey Coordinating Center in collaboration with the WHO Project Officer and participating site Investigators. Throughout the duration of the study, survey implementation at the local level was monitored by the Coordinating Center. Surveys were conducted in 12 different cities. Prior rapid assessment conducted in 10 cities provided insight into local context and guided survey implementation. Where possible, subjects were recruited both from drug abuse treatment centers and via street outreach. While emphasis was on IDUs, non-injectors were also recruited in cities with substantial non-injecting use of injectable drugs. A structured interview and HIV counseling/testing were administered. Results Over 5,000 subjects were recruited. Subjects were recruited from both drug treatment and street outreach in 10 cities. Non-injectors were recruited in nine cities. Prior rapid assessment identified suitable recruitment areas, reduced drug users' distrust of survey staff, and revealed site-specific risk behaviors. Centralized survey coordination facilitated local questionnaire modification within a core structure, standardized data collection protocols, uniform database structure, and cross-site analyses. Major site-specific problems included: questionnaire translation difficulties; locating affordable HIV-testing facilities; recruitment from drug treatment due to limited/selective treatment infrastructure; access to specific sub-groups of drug users in the community, particularly females or higher income groups

  16. Case Study: Testing with Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2015-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses using case studies to test for knowledge or lessons learned.

  17. Factors Affecting Customer’s Perception of Service Quality: Comparing Differences among Countries - Case study: Beauty salons in Bandung and Tokyo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Nakashima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines a holistic study of analyzing several factors affecting service quality andtheir correlation with characteristic of customers based on value and life style. Furthermore,customer’s perception of service quality can be drawn from those relationships. Exploratoryfactor analysis and quantitative analysis is employed with case study of beauty salon serviceat Bandung and Tokyo. The results indicate how the quality of services is perceived differentlyby customers who have different value and life style, and also describe significant relationshipbetween value and life style with the affecting factors of service quality.Key words : service quality, value and life style, customer perception, beauty salon.

  18. A poor country clothing the rich countries: case of garment trade in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mahboob Ali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ready-made garment industry of Bangladesh is one of the largest formal manufacturing sectors. It has played a key role in the country’s process of industrialisation, empowerment of women, export oriented development and growth. Workers from poor socio-economic backgrounds are working in the garment industry. Their health, safety and working conditions are very poor and not protected. There is a lack of regular inspection and compliance with local law in buildings and factories. This led to the collapse of the eight story Rana Plaza building in the capital Dhaka on the 24th of April 2013, “killing 1,100 workers and 2,500 injured”2 . The main aim of the study is to assess the impact of Rana Plaza Tragedy, where RMG workers make garments for multinational brands of Australia, Europe and USA, and the advantage which took these companies of the absence of labour laws, workplace health and safety standards, building standards, long working hours and low wages in Bangladesh. The study used both primary and secondary data including related case studies. The practical application of the study is to develop formal ethical, labour-law, health and safety standards for a factory worker; construction; institutions and courts for monitoring the supplier’s behaviour onshore and large multinational firms offshore. The study recommends to protect the rights of women workers who are sowing garments for the fashion conscious consumers from the developed countries. Future research will explore inclusive growth for workers and how to stimulate inclusive sustainable business for export led garment industry.

  19. Analyzing on-Street Parking Duration and Demand in a Metropolitan City of a Developing Country: A Case Study of Yogyakarta City, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ajeng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available On-street parking is an urgent issue to address in a fast-growing city of a developing country, such as Yogyakarta City in Indonesia. However, this issue has not been satisfactorily studied due to a lack of relevant parking data. Using a sample of 21 street segments that are currently used for on-street parking in the central district of the city, this study analyzes how the parking duration and demand are differentiated by street and land use characteristics. The characteristics are evaluated through a field survey, which is supplemented by remote sensing and GIS. Specifically, QuickBird imagery is used to roughly examine the length and angle of the street segments and GIS data to calculate parking capacity and demand as well as to confirm the street length and angle. Regression models find that the parking duration is affected by the street length, parking volume, and commercial type of land use, while the street length also differentiates the parking demand. Although the model for the parking demand has only one significant variable—street length—its variation is better accounted for by the same set of variables than the variation in the parking duration. Regarding the street length, it is found to be the only significant variable in the demand model, but it becomes the weakest among those significant in the duration model, where the land use type has the highest magnitude.

  20. A Feasibility Study of Biogas Technology to Solving Peri-urban Sanitation Problems in Developing Countries. A Case for Harare, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Sibanda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the feasibility of converting organic waste into energy using biogas technology to address sanitation problems in peri-urban suburbs of Harare, Zimbabwe.These suburbs with an estimated population of 156.975 are unique in that they are not connected to the Harare main water sewer system. A baseline survey was conducted to determine the quantity of biodegradable human and kitchen waste (N=60. Biodigester sizing and costing was done for various scenarios mainly household standalone, single centralised suburb and combined suburbs centralised biogas models. In addition potential biogas conversion to electricity was done for single centralised suburb and combined suburbs centralised biogas models. This was followed by a cost benefit analysis of employing combined suburbs biogas technology. A combined suburbs centralised biogas model was found to be the most feasible scenario producing 7378 m3 of biogas per day with electricity production capacity of 384 kW .There was a potential of wood savings of 6129 tonnes/year, paraffin savings of 2.556 tonnes/year and greenhouse benefits of 980 tonnes of CO2 equivalent emissions/ year and which would attract U$2940 from carbon credits sales per year. The study recommended the adoption of the biogas technology because of its potential toaddress both economic and sanitation challenges being faced by local authorities in developing countries particularly, improved hygienic conditions, energy supply chronic epidemics and sewerreticulation.

  1. Tourmaline orbicules in peraluminous monzogranites of Argentina: A study case of fluid-rock interaction between leucogranite and country-rock metasediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Raúl; Poklepovic, María F.

    2017-12-01

    Tourmaline orbicules hosted in peraluminous granites are documented worldwide. Seven occurrences were identified in Argentina. Petrography, mineral chemistry, whole-rock geochemistry mass balance and microthermometric studies were performed in orbicules formed at the cupola of a peraluminous A-type leucogranite (Los Riojanos pluton), as well as complementary investigation was achieved in other orbicules of similar geological setting. Mass balance computations in zoned orbicules consistently confirmed immobility of Si both in core and halo, immobility of K and little loss of Al during halo reactions. Elements gained and lost in the schorl-rich core are Fe, Al, Mg, Ti, Ba, Sr, Y and Zr, and Na, K, Rb and Nb, respectively; in the halo, K, Ba, Sr, Y, Zr and locally CaO, were gained, and Fe, Mg, Na, Al, Rb and Nb were lost. The schorl-rich core is enriched in LREE relative to the leucogranite host. A temperature-salinity plot from fluid inclusion data delineates a magmatic-meteoric mixing trend of diluting salinity with descending temperature. Computed δDH20 values from Los Riojanos orbicule schorl suggest magmatic and magmatic-meteoric mixed origins. In Los Riojanos, mass balance constraints suggest that Fe, Mg, Ba, Sr and metallic traces like Zn and V (±Pb) were most likely derived from country-rock schists and gneisses through fluid-rock exchange reactions. A late magmatic-, volatile-rich- fluid exsolution scenario for the formation of orbicules is envisaged. Schorl crystallization was likely delayed to the latest stages of leucogranite consolidation, not only favored by the high diffusivity of B2O3 preferentially partitioned into the exsolved aqueous-rich fluid, but also likely limited to the low availability of Fe and Mg from the scarce granitic biotite, and to the high F- content of the melt. The spatial confination of orbicules to the contact zone granite-metasediments suggests that orbicules were not formed until exsolved fluids reached the boundary with the

  2. Using participatory methods to design an mHealth intervention for a low income country, a case study in Chikwawa, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Rebecca; Dixon, Diane; Morse, Tracy; Beattie, Tara K; Kumwenda, Save; Mpemberera, Grant

    2017-07-05

    mHealth holds the potential to educate rural communities in developing countries such as Malawi, on issues which over-burdened and under staffed health centres do not have the facilities to address. Previous research provides support that mHealth could be used as a vehicle for health education campaigns at a community level; however the limited involvement of potential service users in the research process endangers both user engagement and intervention effectiveness. This two stage qualitative study used participatory action research to inform the design and development of an mHealth education intervention. First, secondary analysis of 108 focus groups (representing men, women, leadership, elderly and male and female youth) identified four topics where there was a perceived health education need. Second, 10 subsequent focus groups explored details of this perceived need and the acceptability and feasibility of mHealth implementation in Chikwawa, Malawi. Stage 1 and Stage 2 informed the design of the intervention in terms of target population, intervention content, intervention delivery and the frequency and timing of the intervention. This has led to the design of an SMS intervention targeting adolescents with contraceptive education which they will receive three times per week at 4 pm and will be piloted in the next phase of this research. This study has used participatory methods to identify a need for contraception education in adolescents and inform intervention design. The focus group discussions informed practical considerations for intervention delivery, which has been significantly influenced by the high proportion of users who share mobile devices and the intervention has been designed to allow for message sharing as much as possible.

  3. Acid deposition study in the Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soon, Ting-Kueh [Tunku Abdul Rahman College, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Lau, Wai-Yoo [Malaysian Scientific Association, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1996-12-31

    The Association of South East Asian Nations or ASEAN is a regional association of seven countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei and Vietnam, located at the south eastern part of the Asian continent. Together with the East Asian States of Japan, China, Korea and Taiwan, this part of the world is experiencing rapid economic growth, especially in the last decade. Rapid industrialization has resulted in an increased demand for energy in the manufacturing and transport sectors, and also for infrastructure development. This has led to a significant increase in gaseous emissions and a corresponding increase in atmospheric acidity. Acid deposition study in the ASEAN countries began in the mid-70s when Malaysia first started her acid rain monitoring network in 1976. This was followed closely by Singapore and the other ASEAN countries in the 80s. By now all ASEAN countries have their own acid rain monitoring networks with a number of these countries extending the monitoring to dry deposition as well.

  4. Area Handbook Series: Indonesia: A Country Study,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    carry a selendang, a long stretch of cloth draped over the shoulder, which on less formal occasions was used to carry babies or objects. Urban...vols.) (The Asia Society.) New York: Scribner’s, 1988. 419 Indonesia: A Country Study Foss, Christopher F. (ed.). Jane’s Armour and Artillery, 1991-92

  5. Promotion of energy conservation in developing countries through the combination of ESCO and CDM: A case study of introducing distributed energy resources into Chinese urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Hongbo; Zhou Weisheng; Gao Weijun; Wu Qiong

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of an energy service company (ESCO) project in developing countries may result not only in reduced energy cost but also in considerable environmental benefits, including the reduction of CO 2 emissions, which can be assessed in an economic manner under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) scheme. In this way, the economic and environmental benefits of energy conservation activities can be enjoyed by both the investor and the end-user, which can reduce the investment risk and realize a rational profit allocation. This study presents a numerical analysis of the introduction of distributed energy resources (DER) into a Chinese urban area. An optimization model is developed to determine the energy system combination under the constraints on the electrical and thermal balances and equipment availability. According to the simulation results, the introduction of DER systems possesses considerable potential to reduce CO 2 emissions, especially when considering that the economic profit of the CO 2 credit will increase the incentive to adopt DER systems to an even greater extent. Furthermore, by sharing the energy cost savings with the investors under an ESCO framework, the investment risk can be further reduced, and the conditions required for the project to qualify for CDM can be relaxed. Highlights: ► An investor focused analytical model is developed to aid the investment of a DER system. ► The combination of ESCO and CDM enhances the incentive to introduce energy conservation measures. ► Electricity buy-back is effective in boosting the DER system adoption under the proposed framework. ► The increased energy cost savings allocated to the investor promotes the DER system adoption. ► The rational allocation of CER credits is of vital importance to the success of the project.

  6. Injury incidence, reactivity and ease of handling of horses kept in groups: A matched case control study in four Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keeling, L.J.; Bøe, K.E.; Christensen, Janne Winther

    2016-01-01

    evaluated. It was hypothesized that a more socially variable group composition has beneficial effects on behaviour, ease of handling and reducing reactivity whereas frequent changes in group composition has negative consequences, resulting in more injuries. We found that differences in treatment effects...... horses from groups and horses’ reactivity to a fearful stimulus. Using a matched case control design, 61 groups of horses were studied in Denmark, Norway, Finland and Sweden. They were allocated into groups of similar or different age and sex or where membership changed regularly or remained stable....... Injuries were recorded before mixing the horses into treatment groups, the day after mixing and four weeks later. Reactivity of horses to a moving novel object and the behaviour of a horse being removed from its group and the reactions of other group members towards this horse and the handler were...

  7. The European I-MOVE Multicentre 2013-2014 Case-Control Study. Homogeneous moderate influenza vaccine effectiveness against A(H1N1)pdm09 and heterogenous results by country against A(H3N2).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Valenciano, Marta

    2015-06-04

    In the first five I-MOVE (Influenza Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe) influenza seasons vaccine effectiveness (VE) results were relatively homogenous among participating study sites. In 2013-2014, we undertook a multicentre case-control study based on sentinel practitioner surveillance networks in six European Union (EU) countries to measure 2013-2014 influenza VE against medically-attended influenza-like illness (ILI) laboratory-confirmed as influenza. Influenza A(H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses co-circulated during the season.

  8. The Changing Role of International Cooperation in Developing Countries (as They Develop): A Case Study of Skills Development Policies in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    A focus on the changes in the relationship between international cooperation and local actors in the skills development field in Peru as the country strengthened its financial position in the last two decades allows us to examine the role of the economic factor in these changes. The paper argues that indeed there is an association between the two.…

  9. Application of AHP for the development of waste management systems that minimize infection risks in developing countries: Case studies Lesotho and South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brent, AC

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available -analysis approach, has been incorporated with international Life Cycle Management best practice to subsequently develop a decision support tool (WasteOpt) to optimise developing country rural Health Care Waste Management (HCWM) systems to address a main objective...

  10. Facebook as a Learning Tool? A Case Study on the Appropriation of Social Network Sites from Mobile Phones in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimmer, Christoph; Linxen, Sebastian; Grohbiel, Urs

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory research investigates how students and professionals use social network sites (SNSs) in the setting of developing and emerging countries. Data collection included focus groups consisting of medical students and faculty as well as the analysis of a Facebook site centred on medical and clinical topics. The findings show how users,…

  11. Institutional perceptions, adaptive capacity and climate change response in a post-conflict country: a case study from Central African Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, H.C.P.; Smit, B.; Somorin, O.A.; Sonwa, D.J.; Ngana, F.

    2013-01-01

    The Central African Republic (CAR) faces increased vulnerability to climate change because it is a low-income country with low adaptive capacity; a situation that is exacerbated by recent civil conflict. This research analysed the perceptions of decision-makers within, and the response of diverse

  12. How Are New Vaccines Prioritized in Low-Income Countries? A Case Study of Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lauren; Kapirir, Lydia

    2017-04-08

    To date, research on priority-setting for new vaccines has not adequately explored the influence of the global, national and sub-national levels of decision-making or contextual issues such as political pressure and stakeholder influence and power. Using Kapiriri and Martin's conceptual framework, this paper evaluates priority setting for new vaccines in Uganda at national and sub-national levels, and considers how global priorities can influence country priorities. This study focuses on 2 specific vaccines, the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). This was a qualitative study that involved reviewing relevant Ugandan policy documents and media reports, as well as 54 key informant interviews at the global level and national and sub-national levels in Uganda. Kapiriri and Martin's conceptual framework was used to evaluate the prioritization process. Priority setting for PCV and HPV was conducted by the Ministry of Health (MoH), which is considered to be a legitimate institution. While respondents described the priority setting process for PCV process as transparent, participatory, and guided by explicit relevant criteria and evidence, the prioritization of HPV was thought to have been less transparent and less participatory. Respondents reported that neither process was based on an explicit priority setting framework nor did it involve adequate representation from the districts (program implementers) or publicity. The priority setting process for both PCV and HPV was negatively affected by the larger political and economic context, which contributed to weak institutional capacity as well as power imbalances between development assistance partners and the MoH. Priority setting in Uganda would be improved by strengthening institutional capacity and leadership and ensuring a transparent and participatory processes in which key stakeholders such as program implementers (the districts) and beneficiaries (the public) are

  13. Differential impact of statin on new-onset diabetes in different age groups: a population-based case-control study in women from an asian country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Statins reduce cardiovascular risks but increase the risk of new-onset diabetes (NOD. The aim of this study is to determine what effect, if any, statins have on the risk of NOD events in a population-based case-control study. An evaluation of the relationship between age and statin-exposure on NOD risks was further examined in a female Asian population. METHOD: In a nationwide case-controlled study, the authors assessed 1065 female NOD patients and 10650 controls with matching ages, genders and physician visit dates. The impact of statin-exposure on NOD was examined through multiple logistic regression models. Subgroup analysis for exploring the risk of NOD and statin-exposure in different age groups was performed. RESULTS: Statin-exposure was statistically significantly associated with increased new-onset diabetes risks using multivariate analysis. Interaction effect between age and statin-exposure on NOD risk was noted. For atorvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 8.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.57-24.90. For rosuvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 40-54 year-olds (adjusted OR, 14.8; 95% CI, 2.27-96.15. For simvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted OR, 15.8; 95% CI, 5.77-43.26. For pravastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted OR, 14.0; 95% CI, 1.56-125.18. CONCLUSIONS: This population-based study found that statin use is associated with an increased risk of NOD in women. The risk of statin-related NOD was more evident for women aged 40-64 years compared to women aged 65 or more, and was cumulative-dose dependent. The use of statins should always be determined by weighing the clinical benefits and potential risks for NOD, and the patients should be continuously monitored for adverse effects.

  14. Renewable energy in the Baltic countries: the case of hydropower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punys, P.; Dumbrauskas, A.; Rimkus, Z.; Streimikiene, D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the use of renewable energy sources (RES) dedicated mainly for electricity generation in the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania). Hydropower sector including both large (medium) and small power plants is particularly considered. The region has very limited energy resources of its own and is heavily dependent on the import of the primary energy sources (in some way except Estonia). The main objective of energy policy of the Baltic countries is to reduce such a total dependence by favouring the use of RES. A brief description of energy sector is given, focusing on electricity generation. RES potential currently in use and to be exploited in the future, buy- back rates of the key sources are presented. The countries' target broken down according to the individual RES to meet the EU 'green' electricity directive (2001/77/CE) are presented. Small and large hydropower potential is analyzed, a general overview of hydro-plants in operation and planned schemes is provided. A particular attention is devoted to environmental and social aspects of hydropower development. The requirements of the protected areas in relation to dam construction are analyzed, an estimation of resistance to small hydropower development is shown. The environmental legislation including forbidden rivers for damming actually in force in the Baltic countries is considered; hydropower image perceptible by general public, NGOs and official environmental bodies are discussed. The causes and legal basis of the promulgation of the list of forbidden rivers are revealed. A conclusion is drawn that the contradiction between two EU legal frameworks - environmental protection and promotion of renewables, in the case of hydropower, exists. The evaluation of the quantitative impact of the forbidden rivers on small hydropower resources in Lithuania proves. the environmental legislation is one of the strictest in the European countries. (authors)

  15. Human Health Risk Assessment due to Global Warming – A Case Study of the Gulf Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Rafi Chaudhary

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated global warming is predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC due to increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The climate changes are anticipated to have a long-term impact on human health, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, water resources and vegetation. Due to rising sea levels, low lying coastal regions will be flooded, farmlands will be threatened and scarcity of fresh water resources will be aggravated. This will in turn cause increased human suffering in different parts of the world. Spread of disease vectors will contribute towards high mortality, along with the heat related deaths. Arid and hot climatic regions will face devastating effects risking survival of the fragile plant species, wild animals, and other desert ecosystems. The paper presents future changes in temperature, precipitation and humidity and their direct and indirect potential impacts on human health in the coastal regions of the Gulf countries including Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, and Bahrain. The analysis is based on the long-term changes in the values of temperature, precipitation and humidity as predicted by the global climatic simulation models under different scenarios of GHG emission levels. Monthly data on temperature, precipitation, and humidity were retrieved from IPCC databases for longitude 41.25°E to 61.875°E and latitude 9.278°N to 27.833°N. Using an average of 1970 to 2000 values as baseline, the changes in the humidity, temperature and precipitation were predicted for the period 2020 to 2050 and 2070 to 2099. Based on epidemiological studies on various diseases associated with the change in temperature, humidity and precipitation in arid and hot regions, empirical models were developed to assess human health risk in the Gulf region to predict elevated levels of diseases and mortality rates under different emission scenarios as developed by the IPCC.The preliminary

  16. Synthetic Scenarios from CMIP5 Model Simulations for Climate Change Impact Assessments in Managed Ecosystems and Water Resources: Case Study in South Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandhi, A.; Omani, N.; Chaubey, I.; Horton, R.; Bader, D.; Nanjundiah, R. S.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing population, urbanization, and associated demand for food production compounded by climate change and variability have important implications for the managed ecosystems and water resources of a region. This is particularly true for south Asia, which supports one quarter of the global population, half of whom live below the poverty line. This region is largely dependent on monsoon precipitation for water. Given the limited resources of the developing countries in this region, the objective of our study was to empirically explore climate change in south Asia up to the year 2099 using monthly simulations from 35 global climate models (GCMs) participating in the fifth phase of the Climate Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) for two future emission scenarios (representative concentration pathways RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) and provide a wide range of potential climate change outcomes. This was carried out using a three-step procedure: calculating the mean annual, monsoon, and non-monsoon precipitation and temperatures; estimating the percent change from historical conditions; and developing scenario funnels and synthetic scenarios. This methodology was applied for the entire south Asia region; however, the percent change information generated at 1.5deg grid scale can be used to generate scenarios at finer spatial scales. Our results showed a high variability in the future change in precipitation (-23% to 52%, maximum in the non-monsoon season) and temperature (0.8% to 2.1%) in the region. Temperatures in the region consistently increased, especially in the Himalayan region, which could have impacts including a faster retreat of glaciers and increased floods. It could also change rivers from perennial to seasonal, leading to significant challenges in water management. Increasing temperatures could further stress groundwater reservoirs, leading to withdrawal rates that become even more unsustainable. The high precipitation variability (with higher propensity for

  17. PRUNE BELLY SYNDROME: CASE REPORT OF A FAILED MANAGEMENT IN A LOWINCOME COUNTRY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Schiavone

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Prune Belly Syndrome (PBS is a rare congenital syndrome characterized by three main features: abdominal wall flaccidity, bilateral intra-abdominal cryptorchidism, and urologic abnormalities. In this study we describe the case of a 2,600 gr baby, born at the Central Hospital of Beira, Mozambique. Our study confirms that in a low-income country only conservative management can be delivered, and therefore prognosis is worse and less effective than high-income countries.

  18. Facilitating health information exchange in low- and middle-income countries: conceptual considerations, stakeholders perspectives and deployment strategies illustrated through an in-depth case study of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Akhlaq, Ather

    2016-01-01

    Background Health information exchange (HIE) may help healthcare professionals and policymakers make informed decisions to improve patient and population health outcomes. There is, however, limited uptake of HIE in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). While resource constraints are an obvious barrier to implementation of HIE, it is important to explore what other political, structural, technical, environmental, legal and cultural factors may be involved. In particu...

  19. Solid waste deposits as a significant source of contaminants of emerging concern to the aquatic and terrestrial environments — A developing country case study from Owerri, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arukwe, Augustine; Eggen, Trine; Möder, Monika

    2012-01-01

    In developing countries, there are needs for scientific basis to sensitize communities on the problems arising from improper solid waste deposition and the acute and long-term consequences for areas receiving immobilized pollutants. In Nigeria, as in many other African countries, solid waste disposal by way of open dumping has been the only management option for such wastes. Herein, we have highlighted the challenges of solid waste deposit and management in developing countries, focusing on contaminants of emerging concern and leaching into the environment. We have analyzed sediments and run-off water samples from a solid waste dumping site in Owerri, Nigeria for organic load and compared these with data from representative world cities. Learning from previous incidents, we intend to introduce some perspective for awareness of contaminants of emerging concerns such as those with potential endocrine disrupting activities in wildlife and humans. Qualitative and quantitative data obtained by gas chromatography and mass spectrometric analysis (GC–MS) provide an overview on lipophilic and semi-polar substances released from solid waste, accumulated in sediments and transported via leachates. The chromatograms of the full scan analyses of the sediment extracts clearly point to contamination related to heavy oil. The homologous series of n-alkanes with chain lengths ranging between C16 and C30, as well as detected polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds such as anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene support the assumption that diesel fuel or high boiling fractions of oil are deposited on the site. Targeted quantitative analysis for selected compounds showed high concentration of substances typically released from man-made products such as plastics, textiles, household and consumer products. Phthalate, an integral component of plastic products, was the dominant compound group in all sediment samples and run-off water samples. Technical nonylphenols (mixture

  20. Solid waste deposits as a significant source of contaminants of emerging concern to the aquatic and terrestrial environments - A developing country case study from Owerri, Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arukwe, Augustine, E-mail: arukwe@bio.ntnu.no [Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Hogskoleringen 5, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Eggen, Trine [Bioforsk, Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Postveien 213, N-4353 Klepp St. (Norway); Moeder, Monika [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research UFZ, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    In developing countries, there are needs for scientific basis to sensitize communities on the problems arising from improper solid waste deposition and the acute and long-term consequences for areas receiving immobilized pollutants. In Nigeria, as in many other African countries, solid waste disposal by way of open dumping has been the only management option for such wastes. Herein, we have highlighted the challenges of solid waste deposit and management in developing countries, focusing on contaminants of emerging concern and leaching into the environment. We have analyzed sediments and run-off water samples from a solid waste dumping site in Owerri, Nigeria for organic load and compared these with data from representative world cities. Learning from previous incidents, we intend to introduce some perspective for awareness of contaminants of emerging concerns such as those with potential endocrine disrupting activities in wildlife and humans. Qualitative and quantitative data obtained by gas chromatography and mass spectrometric analysis (GC-MS) provide an overview on lipophilic and semi-polar substances released from solid waste, accumulated in sediments and transported via leachates. The chromatograms of the full scan analyses of the sediment extracts clearly point to contamination related to heavy oil. The homologous series of n-alkanes with chain lengths ranging between C16 and C30, as well as detected polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds such as anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene support the assumption that diesel fuel or high boiling fractions of oil are deposited on the site. Targeted quantitative analysis for selected compounds showed high concentration of substances typically released from man-made products such as plastics, textiles, household and consumer products. Phthalate, an integral component of plastic products, was the dominant compound group in all sediment samples and run-off water samples. Technical nonylphenols (mixture of

  1. Area Handbook Series: Vietnam: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    cough, measles, poliomyelitis, chicken pox , typhoid fever, acute encepha- litis, and acute meningitis. Hanoi claimed in 1970 that alcoholic cirrhosis...Country Study the people of Van Lang grew other grains and beans and raised stock, mainly buffaloes, chickens , and pigs. Pottery-making and bamboo...152 Cuba 550-45 Malaysia 550-22 Cyprus 550-161 Mauritania 550-158 Czechoslovakia 550-79 Mexico 550-36 Dominican Republic/Haiti 550-76 Mongolia 550-52

  2. Area Handbook Series. Philippines: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    the Philippines’ own claim to Sabah, the territory in northeastern Bor- neo that had become a Malaysian state in 1963. Marcos and the Road to Martial...north, was on the risc 50 Historical Setting In 1969 the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) was or- ganized on Malaysian soil. The MNLF conducted an...particularly so where the 7enter was itself a full-scale 91 Philippines: A Country Study town, complete with restaurants, cinemas , banks, specialty

  3. Area Handbook Series. Albania: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    inadequa prenal cue, tbe proportion of preature births increse •d from 7 to 11 perent between 197 amd early 1992. Hospits lacked es- sen"h mecidmund erp...were urgently needed to deal with the multiplying number of privately owned cars. Albanian entrepreneurs also 151 Albania: A Country Study imported... entrepreneurs from the reta marketplace. At first, peasants began setting up road- side fruit and vegetables stands or carrying their produce to mar- kets in

  4. Area Handbook Series: Israel: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    kid- napping of Nazi war criminal Adolph Eichmann from Argentina. Another kidnapping, in 1986, brought to Israel for prosecution the nuclear...penalty could be imposed for treason or for conviction for Nazi war crimes but, as of 1988, 331 Israel: A Country Study Eichmann was the only person to be...See land ownership Eichmann , Adolph, 331-32 extensive threat concept, 267-68 Eisenhower, Dwight D., 58 Ezekiel, 11 Eisenstadt, S. N., 83 Ezra, II

  5. DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE. THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIOVANA IUHASZ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the past years, developing countries have become extremely interesting for researchers, as well as for capital investors. Dominated by growth and industrialization, but lacking macroeconomic indicator stability or sufficiently mature financial markets, these countries make it acutely necessary to identify measures that will stimulate foreign investors to invest and that will ensure the financial stability for SMEs. One such measure is increasing the quality of corporate governance at the level of small and medium-sized enterprises, where it is currently almost absent. This article aims to help raise awareness of the need to implement good corporate management practices at the level of companies in developing countries and especially in Romania. This paper uses a questionnaire in order to evaluate the state of the corporate governance in Timis county and offers some suggestions on what should be done for a higher corporate governance quality in the case of small and medium-sized companies in Romania, with the purpose of establishing a connection between governance quality and business performance of SMEs

  6. Using causal loop diagrams for the initialization of stakeholder engagement in soil salinity management in agricultural watersheds in developing countries: a case study in the Rechna Doab watershed, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inam, Azhar; Adamowski, Jan; Halbe, Johannes; Prasher, Shiv

    2015-04-01

    Over the course of the last twenty years, participatory modeling has increasingly been advocated as an integral component of integrated, adaptive, and collaborative water resources management. However, issues of high cost, time, and expertise are significant hurdles to the widespread adoption of participatory modeling in many developing countries. In this study, a step-wise method to initialize the involvement of key stakeholders in the development of qualitative system dynamics models (i.e. causal loop diagrams) is presented. The proposed approach is designed to overcome the challenges of low expertise, time and financial resources that have hampered previous participatory modeling efforts in developing countries. The methodological framework was applied in a case study of soil salinity management in the Rechna Doab region of Pakistan, with a focus on the application of qualitative modeling through stakeholder-built causal loop diagrams to address soil salinity problems in the basin. Individual causal loop diagrams were developed by key stakeholder groups, following which an overall group causal loop diagram of the entire system was built based on the individual causal loop diagrams to form a holistic qualitative model of the whole system. The case study demonstrates the usefulness of the proposed approach, based on using causal loop diagrams in initiating stakeholder involvement in the participatory model building process. In addition, the results point to social-economic aspects of soil salinity that have not been considered by other modeling studies to date. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Occupational exposure to wood dust and risk of nasal and nasopharyngeal cancer: A case-control study among men in four nordic countries-With an emphasis on nasal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, Sie Sie; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Sparén, Pär; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Pukkala, Eero

    2017-12-15

    The current study aims to provide stronger evidence to aid in our understanding of the role of cumulative occupational exposure to (softwood-dominated) mixed wood dust in aetiology of nasal cancer. We included broad exposure occurred in a range of wood-processing occupation across varied industries in four Nordic countries. A population-based case-control study was conducted on all male cases with nasal adenocarcinoma (393 cases), other types of nasal cancer (2,446) and nasopharyngeal cancer (1,747) diagnosed in Finland, Sweden, Norway and Iceland between 1961 and 2005. For each case, five male controls, who were alive at the time of diagnosis of the case (index date), were randomly selected, matched by birth-year and country. Cumulative exposures (CE)s to wood dust and formaldehyde before the index date were quantified based on a job-exposure matrix linked to occupational titles derived from population censuses. Hazard ratios (HRs) for the CE of wood dust were estimated by conditional logistic regression, adjusted for CE to formaldehyde and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. There was an increasing risk of nasal adenocarcinoma related to wood dust exposure. The HR in the highest CE category of wood dust (≥ 28.82 mg/m 3 -years) was 16.5 (95% CI 5.05-54.1). Neither nonadenocarcinoma of the nose nor nasopharyngeal cancer could be linked to wood dust exposure. CE to softwood-dominated mixed wood dusts is strongly linked with elevated risk in nasal adenocarcinoma but not with other types of nasal or nasopharyngeal cancer. © 2017 UICC.

  8. CASE STUDY CRITIQUE; UPPER CLINCH CASE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case study critique: Upper Clinch case study (from Research on Methods for Integrating Ecological Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment: A Trade-off Weighted Index Approach to Integrating Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment). This critique answers the questions: 1) does ...

  9. The applicability of space imagery to the small-scale topographic mapping of developing countries: A case study — the Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, G.; El Niweiri, A. E. H.

    After reviewing the current status of topographic mapping in Sudan, the paper considers the possible applications of space inagery to the topographic mapping of the country at 1 : 100,000 scale. A comprehensive series of tests of the geometric accuracy and interpretability of six types of space imagery taken by the Landsat MSS, RBV and TM sensors, the MOMS scanner, the ESA Metric Camera and NASA's Large Format Camera have been conducted over a test area established in the Red Sea Hills area of Sudan supplemented by further interpretation tests carried out over the area of Khartoum and the Gezira. The results of these tests are given together with those from comparative tests carried out with other images acquired by the same sensors over test areas in developed countries (UK and USA). Further collateral information on topographic mapping at 1 : 100,000 scale from SPOT imagery has been provided by the Ordnance Survey based on its tests and experience in North Yemen. The paper concludes with an analysis of the possibilities of mapping the main (non-equatorial) area of Sudan at 1 : 100,000 scale based on the results of the extensive series of tests reported in the paper and elsewhere. Consideration is also given to the infrastructure required to support such a programme.

  10. Controlling water pollution in developing and transition countries--lessons from three successful cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathuria, Vinish

    2006-03-01

    The policy prescription for solving environmental problems of developing countries and countries-in-transition (CIT) is slowly getting polarized into two viewpoints. One group of researchers and policy advocates including multilateral organizations upholds extensive use of market based instruments (MBIs) in these countries. The other group argues that institutions need to be built first or the policy makers should select the incremental or tiered approach taking into account the existing capabilities. The group also insists that the financial, institutional and political constraints make environmental regulation in these countries more problematic than in industrialized countries. In the short-run, the immediate needs of the developing countries can be addressed effectively by learning lessons from the difficulties encountered by a few successful cases and accordingly evolving an appropriate policy instrument. In this paper an attempt has been made to highlight three such cases from three different parts of the world--Malaysia (Asia-pacific), Poland (Eastern Europe) and Colombia (Latin America). The paper looks into what policy instruments led to a fall in water pollution levels in these countries and what role did MBIs play in this pollution mitigation? The case studies suggest that it is a combination of instruments--license fee, standards, charge and subsidies--reinforced by active enforcement that led to an overall improvement in environment compliance.

  11. A comparative study in disaster planning in selected countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmode M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessment of different strategic in disaster planning in selected countries. According to the international report indicating that IRAN is among the seven countries most susceptible to disaster, experiencing 31 known disasters out of 40 in the world, occurrence of 1536 moderate to severe earthquake, during 1370-80 and 712 other disasters at the same period it seems necessary to design a disaster plan."nMethods: This research is a comparative-descriptive and case based study in which the researcher used random sampling process in selecting the statistical society from both developed and developing countries. In this goal oriented research the necessary information are extracted from valid global reports, articles and many questionnaires which were subjected to scientific analysis."nResults: Studying different countries (which includes: Canada, Japan, India, USA, Turkey, Pakistan and Iran shows that there is a direct relationship between the level of countries development and their success in disaster planning and management (including preventive measures and confrontation. In most of the studied countries, decentralized planning caused many professional planners participate in different levels of disaster management which ultimately led to development of efficient and realistic plans which in turn decreased the catastrophic effects of disasters dramatically. The results of the aforementioned countries showed that a balanced approach to disaster plan with investment in prophylactic area is very important."nConclusion: As our country uses a centralized strategy for disaster management which has proven its ineffectiveness, the researcher suggests that we should change our approach in disaster management and let our planners participate from all levels include: provincial, rural and etc. This will led to a reality based planning and using all potential capacities in disaster management. According to this study it will be possible to use

  12. Solid waste deposits as a significant source of contaminants of emerging concern to the aquatic and terrestrial environments - a developing country case study from Owerri, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arukwe, Augustine; Eggen, Trine; Möder, Monika

    2012-11-01

    In developing countries, there are needs for scientific basis to sensitize communities on the problems arising from improper solid waste deposition and the acute and long-term consequences for areas receiving immobilized pollutants. In Nigeria, as in many other African countries, solid waste disposal by way of open dumping has been the only management option for such wastes. Herein, we have highlighted the challenges of solid waste deposit and management in developing countries, focusing on contaminants of emerging concern and leaching into the environment. We have analyzed sediments and run-off water samples from a solid waste dumping site in Owerri, Nigeria for organic load and compared these with data from representative world cities. Learning from previous incidents, we intend to introduce some perspective for awareness of contaminants of emerging concerns such as those with potential endocrine disrupting activities in wildlife and humans. Qualitative and quantitative data obtained by gas chromatography and mass spectrometric analysis (GC-MS) provide an overview on lipophilic and semi-polar substances released from solid waste, accumulated in sediments and transported via leachates. The chromatograms of the full scan analyses of the sediment extracts clearly point to contamination related to heavy oil. The homologous series of n-alkanes with chain lengths ranging between C16 and C30, as well as detected polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds such as anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene support the assumption that diesel fuel or high boiling fractions of oil are deposited on the site. Targeted quantitative analysis for selected compounds showed high concentration of substances typically released from man-made products such as plastics, textiles, household and consumer products. Phthalate, an integral component of plastic products, was the dominant compound group in all sediment samples and run-off water samples. Technical nonylphenols (mixture of

  13. Lipdubs as a tool to conquer social influence. A study of four paradigmatic cases made in Quebec, USA, Catalonia and the Basque Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Txema Ramírez-de-la-Piscina-Martínez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the principal conclusions of an investigation carried out by the author into lipdub as an instrument used in order to get more social influence. The analyzed lipdubs are the following: “I gotta feeling-UQAM”, performed by students of Communication in Quebec, (in early 2012, it was the most viewed lipdub on the Internet; “The Grand Rapids” (this lipdub holds the record for hits per day on the web; “Lipddub Indepèndencia” (it held the world record for the number of participants – 5,771 and, finally, “Lipdub Kukutza”, the most viewed lipdub in the Basque Country. This work claims that, at this time, a good lipdub can be a crucial tool for social movements in order to overcome the invisibility with which the mass-media often punishes any expression which challenges mainstream tendencies.

  14. Biomass energy potential in Brazil. Country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, J [Biomass Users Network-Brazil Regional Office, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1995-12-01

    The present paper was prepared as a country study about the biomass potential for energy production in Brazil. Information and analysis of the most relevant biomass energy sources and their potential are presented in six chapters. Ethanol fuel, sugar-cane bagasse, charcoal, vegetable oil, firewood and other biomass-derived fuels are the objects of a historical review, in addition to the presentation of state-of-the-art technologies, economic analysis and discussion of relevant social and environmental issues related to their production and use. Wherever possible, an evaluation, from the available sources of information and based on the author`s knowledge, is performed to access future perspectives of each biomass energy source. Brazil is a country where more than half of the energy consumed is provided from renewable sources of energy, and biomass provides 28% of the primary energy consumption. Its large extension, almost all located in the tropical and rainy region, provides an excellent site for large-scale biomass production, which is a necessity if biomass is to be used to supply a significant part of future energy demand. Even so, deforestation has occurred and is occurring in the country, and the issue is discussed and explained as mainly the result of non-energy causes or the use of old and outdated technologies for energy production. (author) 115 refs, figs, tabs

  15. Biomass energy potential in Brazil. Country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, J.

    1995-01-01

    The present paper was prepared as a country study about the biomass potential for energy production in Brazil. Information and analysis of the most relevant biomass energy sources and their potential are presented in six chapters. Ethanol fuel, sugar-cane bagasse, charcoal, vegetable oil, firewood and other biomass-derived fuels are the objects of a historical review, in addition to the presentation of state-of-the-art technologies, economic analysis and discussion of relevant social and environmental issues related to their production and use. Wherever possible, an evaluation, from the available sources of information and based on the author's knowledge, is performed to access future perspectives of each biomass energy source. Brazil is a country where more than half of the energy consumed is provided from renewable sources of energy, and biomass provides 28% of the primary energy consumption. Its large extension, almost all located in the tropical and rainy region, provides an excellent site for large-scale biomass production, which is a necessity if biomass is to be used to supply a significant part of future energy demand. Even so, deforestation has occurred and is occurring in the country, and the issue is discussed and explained as mainly the result of non-energy causes or the use of old and outdated technologies for energy production. (author)

  16. A study of work injuries in eight Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, C N; Phoon, W O; Tan, T C; Jeyaratnam, J; Cho, S C; Suma'mur, P K; Mahathevan, R; Reverente, B R; Wongphanich, W; Kogi, K

    1984-04-01

    This study is based on a survey conducted in Hong Kong, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Thailand on occupational injuries during the years 1975-1980. The number of work accidents have risen rapidly during this period in all of the 8 countries studied. In the case of Thailand, the total number of work injuries increased four fold from 1975-1978, whereas, in Singapore it has almost doubled in 6 years. The number of permanent disablement nearly trebled in Korea, and the Philippines for the year 1967-1980. The largest percentage of accidents are lost-time injuries in all of the 8 countries. Thailand had a three fold increase in lost-time injuries whilst in Hong Kong the figure doubled. Six out of the 8 countries indicated that the building construction industry had the largest number of fatal accidents, followed by the manufacturing industry.

  17. Jurisdiction in international civil and commercial cases : a comparative study of the law in the IBSA countries and the Hague Convention on Choice of Court Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    LL.M. (International Commercial Law) This dissertation concerns a comparative analysis of Brazilian, Indian and South African private international law principles on the exercise of jurisdiction in international civil and commercial cases. The intention is to uncover the fundamental grounds of jurisdiction in these legal systems and in doing so draw attention to their comparable characteristics. Emphasis is placed on matters of a commercial nature. Furthermore, a discussion of the Hague Co...

  18. Exploring English-Language Teachers' Professional Development in Developing Countries: Cases from Syria and Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayoub, Ruba; Bashiruddin, Ayesha

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to present the findings of a study carried out in Pakistan that explored English-language teachers' professional development in developing countries. The main guiding question for the study was: How do English-language teachers at secondary schools learn to teach and develop professionally in Syria and Pakistan? Two cases were…

  19. Area Handbook Series: Egypt: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    iI~torical Settinlg Sphinx and pyramids at Giza (Al jizah) THE ROOTS OF EGYPTIAN civilization go back more than 6,000 years to the beginning of...built by Snoferu, the first king of the Fourth Dynasty. His son and successor, Kheops, built the Great Pyramid at Giza (AlJizah); this, with its two... Pyramid and Sphinx at Giza , Fourth Dynasty, ca. 2540 B. C. Courtesy Boris Boguslavsky 19 Egypt: A Country Study In June 640, reinforcements for the Arab

  20. Impact of high penetration of wind and solar PV generation on the country power system load: The case study of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komušanac, Ivan; Ćosić, Boris; Duić, Neven

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • 69 scenarios of wind and solar PV as a base technology are analysed with EnergyPLAN model. • Pareto analysis is used for selection of the optimal scenario. • Multi-criteria analysis was performed in order to observe the behaviour of grading the scenarios. • Results shows optimal mix of 1.65 GW of wind and 1.6 GW of solar PV. - Abstract: Even though the Republic of Croatia is on track of achieving goals set in the Europe 2020 strategy, to achieve the goals set in the 2030 European framework for climate and energy policies will require more effort. The new 2030 framework calls for a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by at least 40% compared to the 1990 level, yet the Republic of Croatia does not have such an ambitious plan. In times when wind plants and photovoltaic systems have reached grid parity in the majority of European countries, this paper analysed the influence of construction of wind and photovoltaic power plants in order to present the optimal constructing ratio of such systems on the Croatian power system load. Simulations have been conducted in the EnergyPLAN model for the year 2012. After the simulation presented promising scenarios, applying the Pareto analysis showed the optimal scenario for generating electricity from renewables, scenario with the lowest import of electricity, scenario with the lowest CO 2 emissions and with the lowest critical excess electricity production. In addition, all of the scenarios were subjected to a multiple criteria decision analysis in order to find the best overall scenario. After showing that the best overall scenario was 1.65 GW of wind power plants and 1.6 GW of installed PV capacity, a multi-criteria analysis was performed in order to observe the behaviour of grading the scenarios. Indeed, all of the simulations proved that PV will have a bigger role in the Republic of Croatia than expected.

  1. A new concept of irrigation response units for effective management of surface and groundwater resources: a case study from the multi-country Fergana Valley, Central Asia

    KAUST Repository

    Awan, Usman Khalid

    2016-09-09

    When estimating canal water supplies for large-scale irrigation schemes and especially in arid regions worldwide, the impact of all factors affecting the gross irrigation requirements (GIR) are not properly accounted for, which results in inefficient use of precious freshwater resources. This research shows that the concept of irrigation response units (IRU)—areas having unique combinations of factors effecting the GIR—allows for more precise estimates of GIR. An overlay analysis of soil texture and salinity, depth and salinity of groundwater, cropping patterns and irrigation methods was performed in a GIS environment, which yielded a total of 17 IRUs combinations of the Oktepa Zilol Chashmasi water consumers’ association in multi-country Fergana Valley, Central Asia. Groundwater contribution, leaching requirements, losses in the irrigation system through field application and conveyance and effective rainfall were included in GIR estimates. The GIR varied significantly among IRUs [average of 851 mm (±143 mm)] with a maximum (1051 mm) in IRU-12 and a minimum (629 mm) in IRUs-15, 16. Owing to varying groundwater levels in each IRU, the groundwater contribution played a key role in the estimation of the GIR. The maximum groundwater contribution occurred in IRUs dominated by cotton–fallow rotations as evidenced by an average value of 159 mm but a maximum of 254 mm and a minimum of 97 mm. Percolation losses depended on irrigation methods for different crops in their respective IRUs. The novel approach can guide water managers in this and similar regions to increase the accuracy of irrigation demands based on all the factor effecting the GIR. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  2. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 2, Greenhouse gas emissions from deforestration in the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Fearnside, P.M. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Departmento de Ecologia

    1992-08-01

    Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia in 1990 was releasing approximately 281--282 X 10{sup 6} metric tons (MT) of carbon on conversion to a landscape of agriculture, productive pasture, degraded pasture, secondary forest and regenerated forest in the proportions corresponding to the equilibrium condition implied by current land-use patterns. Emissions are expressed as ``committed carbon,`` or the carbon released over a period of years as the carbon stock in each hectare deforested approaches a new equilibrium in the landscape that replaces the original forest. To the extent that deforestation rates have remained constant, current releases from the areas deforested in previous years will be equal to the future releases from the areas being cleared now. Considering the quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide, NO{sub x} and non-methane hydrocarbons released raises the impact by 22--37%. The relative impact on the greenhouse effect of each gas is based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculations over a 20-year time period (including indirect effects). The six gases considered have a combined global warming impact equivalent to 343 to 386 million MT of C0{sub 2}-equivalent carbon, depending on assumptions regarding the release of methane and other gases from the various sources such as burning and termites. These emissions represent 7--8 times the 50 million MT annual carbon release from Brazil`s use of fossil fuels, but bring little benefit to the country. Stopping deforestation in Brazil would prevent as much greenhouse emission as tripling the fuel efficiency of all the automobiles in the world. The relatively cheap measures needed to contain deforestation, together with the many complementary benefits of doing so, make this the first priority for funds intended to slow global warming.

  3. The role of insurance in the achievement of universal coverage within a developing country context: South Africa as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heever, Alex M

    2012-01-01

    Achieving universal coverage as an objective needs to confront the reality of multiple mechanisms, with healthcare financing and provision occurring in both public and private settings. South Africa has both large and mature public and private health systems offering useful insights into how they can be effectively harmonized to optimise coverage. Private healthcare in South Africa has also gone through many phases and regulatory regimes which, through careful review, can help identify potential policy frameworks that can optimise their ability to deepen coverage in a manner that complements the basic coverage of public arrangements. Using South Africa as a case study, this review examines whether private health systems are susceptible to regulation and therefore able to support an extension and deepening of coverage when complementing a pre-existing publicly funded and delivered health system? The approach involves a review of different stages in the development of the South African private health system and its response to policy changes. The focus is on the time-bound characteristics of the health system and associated policy responses and opportunities. A distinction is consequently made between the early, largely unregulated, phases of development and more mature phases with alternative regulatory regimes. The private health system in South Africa has played an important supplementary role in achieving universal coverage throughout its history, but more especially in the post-Apartheid period. However, the quality of this role has been erratic, influenced predominantly by policy vacillation.The private system expanded rapidly during the 1980s mainly due to the pre-existence of a mature health insurance system and a weakening public hospital system which could accommodate and facilitate an increased demand for private hospital services. This growth served to expand commercial interest in health insurance, in the form of regulated medical schemes, which until

  4. [Nutrition and population: study of three countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    The cases of Mexico, Kenya, and India are described to illustrate the difficulty of assuring national food supplies in the face of rapid population growth. In 1985, despite a world cereal surplus, some 700 million of the earth's poorest inhabitants lacked sufficient food to support a normal life, and some 17 million children died of malnutrition or diseases aggravated by malnutrition. 16% of today's Third World population lacks sufficient food to maintain health. Rapid population growth is a cause of hunger in both countries and households. In already densely populated countries such as Bangladesh, population growth reduces the availability of agricultural land for each rural family, causing rural incomes to decrease and worsening rural unemployment. Few developing countries have been able to avoid serious urban unemployment and underemployment. Unstable governments try to calm urban unrest by concentrating all social and economic investment in the cities, causing suffering and diminished production in the countryside. Today more than 60 countries have food deficits. The majority of them are poor and becoming poorer. India, Kenya, and Mexico have had relative success in balancing food production and population growth, but each still has malnutrition due to inadequate economic policies for most of the poor and to implacable population growth. India's population of 785 million is growing at a rate of 2.3%/year. 1984 per capita calorie consumption was 92% of the required minimum. The poorest 20% of the population shared 7% of total household income. Since 1950 food production in India has almost tripled, but population nearly doubled in the same years. Poor food distribution and unequal agricultural progress have meant that malnutrition continues to plague India. Approximately 45% of the population suffered some degree of malnutrition in 1986. It is unlikely that India's future agricultural progress will be as rapid as that of the past 3 decades. Erosion

  5. Paying for Mitigation: A Multiple Country Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Kataria, Mitesh; Krupnick, Alan; Lampi, Elina; Loefgren, Aasa; Ping Qin; Chung, Susie; Sterner, Thomas

    2010-05-15

    Unique survey data from a contingent valuation study conducted in three different countries (China, Sweden, and the United States) were used to investigate the ordinary citizen's willingness to pay (WTP) for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. We find that a large majority of the respondents in all three countries believe that the mean global temperature has increased over the last 100 years and that humans are responsible for the increase. A smaller share of Americans, however, believes these statements, when compared to the Chinese and Swedes. A larger share of Americans is also pessimistic and believes that nothing can be done to stop climate change. We also find that Sweden has the highest WTP for reductions of CO{sub 2}, while China has the lowest. Thus, even though the Swedes and Chinese are similar to each other in their attitudes toward climate change, they differ considerably in their WTP. When WTP is measured as a share of household income, the willingness to pay is the same for Americans and Chinese, while again higher for the Swedes

  6. Avoidable cancer cases in the Nordic countries - The impact of overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Therese M-L; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Engholm, Gerda; Lund, Anne-Sofie Q; Olafsdottir, Elinborg; Pukkala, Eero; Stenbeck, Magnus; Storm, Hans

    2017-07-01

    Several types of cancers are causally linked to overweight and obesity, which are increasing in the Nordic countries. The aim of this study was to quantify the proportion of the cancer burden linked to overweight and obesity in the Nordic countries and estimate the potential for cancer prevention. Under different prevalence scenarios of overweight and obesity, the number of cancer cases in the Nordic countries in the next 30 years (i.e. 2016-2045) was estimated for 13 cancer sites and compared to the projected number of cancer cases if the prevalence stayed constant. The Prevent macro-simulation model was used. Over the period 2016-2045, 205,000 cancer cases out of the 2.1 million expected for the 13 cancer sites (9.5%) that have been studied, could be avoided in the Nordic countries by totally eliminating overweight and obesity in the target population. The largest proportional impact was found for oesophageal adenocarcinoma (24%), and the highest absolute impact was observed for colon (44638) and postmenopausal breast cancer (41135). Decreased prevalence of overweight and obesity would reduce the cancer burden in the Nordic countries. The results from this study form an important step to increase awareness and priorities in cancer control by controlling overweight and obesity in the population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Regional impact assessment of land use scenarios in developing countries using the FoPIA approach: Findings from five case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    König, H.J.; Uthes, S.; Schuler, J.; Zhen, L.; Purushothaman, S.; Suarma, U.; Sghaier, M.; Makokha, S.; Helming, K.; Sieber, S.; Chen, L.; Brouwer, F.M.; Morris, J.; Wiggering, H.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of land use changes on sustainable development is of increasing interest in many regions of the world. This study aimed to test the transferability of the Framework for Participatory Impact Assessment (FoPIA), which was originally developed in the European context, to developing

  8. Cost-price estimation of clinical laboratory services based on activity-based costing: A case study from a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouseli, Ali; Barouni, Mohsen; Amiresmaili, Mohammadreza; Samiee, Siamak Mirab; Vali, Leila

    2017-04-01

    It is believed that laboratory tariffs in Iran don't reflect the real costs. This might expose private laboratories at financial hardship. Activity Based Costing is widely used as a cost measurement instrument to more closely approximate the true cost of operations. This study aimed to determine the real price of different clinical tests of a selected private clinical laboratory. This study was a cross sectional study carried out in 2015. The study setting was the private laboratories in the city of Kerman, Iran. Of 629 tests in the tariff book of the laboratory (relative value), 188 tests were conducted in the laboratory that used Activity Based Costing (ABC) methodology to estimate cost-price. Analyzing and cost-price estimating of laboratory services were performed by MY ABCM software Version 5.0. In 2015, the total costs were $641,645. Direct and indirect costs were 78.3% and 21.7% respectively. Laboratory consumable costs by 37% and personnel costs by 36.3% had the largest share of the costing. Also, group of hormone tests cost the most $147,741 (23.03%), and other tests group cost the least $3,611 (0.56%). Also after calculating the cost of laboratory services, a comparison was made between the calculated price and the private sector's tariffs in 2015. This study showed that there was a difference between costs and tariffs in the private laboratory. One way to overcome this problem is to increase the number of laboratory tests with regard to capacity of the laboratories.

  9. Export Credit Insurances in Developing Countries: The Case of Turkey and IMT Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihat Koksal

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Export credit insurance is one of the substantial tools to promote export in a country. This paper endeavours to find out the effect of Export Credit Insurance covered by Export Credit Agencies on the developing countries’ export figures and GDP. The countries subject to the analysis are Turkey and Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand also known as IMT Countries. The relationship between export value, economic growth and export credit insurances will be analyzed using Vector Autoregression (VAR Model.

  10. Low cost friction seismic base-isolation of residential new masonry buildings in developing countries: A small masonry house case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habieb, A. B.; Milani, G.; Tavio, T.; Milani, F.

    2017-07-01

    A Finite element model was established to examine performance of a low-cost friction base-isolation system in reducing seismic vulnerability of rural buildings. This study adopts an experimental investigation of the isolation system which was conducted in India. Four friction isolation interfaces, namely, marble-marble, marble-high-density polyethylene, marble-rubber sheet, and marble-geosynthetic were involved. Those interfaces differ in static and dynamic friction coefficient obtained through previous research. The FE model was performed based on a macroscopic approach and the masonry wall is assumed as an isotropic element. In order to observe structural response of the masonry house, elastic and plastic parameters of the brick wall were studied. Concrete damage plasticity (CDP) model was adopted to determine non-linear behavior of the brick wall. The results of FE model shows that involving these friction isolation systems could much decrease response acceleration at roof level. It was found that systems with marble-marble and marble-geosynthetic interfaces reduce the roof acceleration up to 50% comparing to the system without isolation. Another interesting result is there was no damage appearing in systems with friction isolation during the test. Meanwhile a severe failure was clearly visible for a system without isolation.

  11. Temporal evolution of the environmental performance of implementing selective collection in municipal waste management systems in developing countries: A Brazilian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez-Forés, Valeria; Bovea, María D; Coutinho-Nóbrega, Claudia; de Medeiros-García, Hozana R; Barreto-Lins, Raissa

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the evolution of the municipal solid waste management system of João Pessoa (Brazil), which was one of the Brazilian pioneers cities in implementing door-to-door selective collection programmes, in order to analyse the effect of policy decisions adopted in last decade with regard to selective collection. To do it, this study focuses on analysing the evolution, from 2005 to 2015, of the environmental performance of the municipal solid waste management (MSWM) system implemented in different sorting units with selective collection programmes by applying the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology and using as a starting point data collected directly from the different stakeholders involved in the MSWM system. This article presents the temporal evolution of environmental indicators measuring the environmental performance of the MSWM system implemented in João Pessoa by sorting unit, for each stage of the life cycle of the waste (collection, classification, intermediate transports, recycling and landfilling), for each waste fraction and for each collection method (selective collection or mixed collection), with the aim of identifying the key aspects with the greatest environmental impact and their causes. Results show on one hand, that environmental behaviour of waste management in a door-to-door selective collection programme significantly improves the behaviour of the overall waste management system. Consequently, the potential to reduce the existing environmental impact based on citizens' increased participation in selective collection is evidenced, so the implementation of awareness-raising campaigns should be one of the main issues of the next policies on solid waste. On the other hand, increasing the amount of recyclable wastes collected selectively, implementing alternative methods for valorising the organic fraction (compost/biomethanization) and improving the efficiency of the transportation stage by means of optimizing

  12. US country studies program: Results from mitigation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the U.S. Country Studies Program which was implemented to support the principles and objectives of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). There were three principle objectives in this program: to enhance capabilities to conduct climate change assessments, prepare action plans, and implement technology projects; to help establish a process for developing and implementing national policies and measures; to support principles and objective of the FCCC. As a result, 55 countries are completing studies, more than 2000 analysts engaged in the studies have been trained, and there is a much broader understanding and support for climate change concerns. The article describes experiences of some countries, and general observations and conclusions which are broadly seperated into developed countries and those with economies in transition.

  13. Regional-Scale High Spatial Resolution Mapping of Aboveground Net Primary Productivity (ANPP from Field Survey and Landsat Data: A Case Study for the Country of Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J. Tebbs

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an alternative approach for high spatial resolution vegetation productivity mapping at a regional scale, using a combination of Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI imagery and widely distributed ground-based Above-ground Net Primary Production (ANPP estimates. Our method searches through all available single-date NDVI imagery to identify the images which give the best NDVI–ANPP relationship. The derived relationships are then used to predict ANPP values outside of field survey plots. This approach enables the use of the high spatial resolution (30 m Landsat 8 sensor, despite its low revisit frequency that is further reduced by cloud cover. This is one of few studies to investigate the NDVI–ANPP relationship across a wide range of temperate habitats and strong relationships were observed (R2 = 0.706, which increased when only grasslands were considered (R2 = 0.833. The strongest NDVI–ANPP relationships occurred during the spring “green-up” period. A reserved subset of 20% of ground-based ANPP estimates was used for validation and results showed that our method was able to estimate ANPP with a RMSE of 15–21%. This work is important because we demonstrate a general methodological framework for mapping of ANPP from local to regional scales, with the potential to be applied to any temperate ecosystems with a pronounced green up period. Our approach allows spatial extrapolation outside of field survey plots to produce a continuous surface product, useful for capturing spatial patterns and representing small-scale heterogeneity, and well-suited for modelling applications. The data requirements for implementing this approach are also discussed.

  14. Pollution of shallow groundwater in urban areas of developing countries; a comparative case study of Enugu and Aba towns of southeastern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uma, K. O.; Ezeigbo, H. I.

    2000-07-01

    Field studies involving hydrochemical sampling of the groundwater in dug wells and shallow boreholes were carried out in the towns of Enugu (underlain by laterized clay aquifers) and Aba (underlain by loose sandstones). The results suggested generally similar enrichment pattern of some sewage sensitive geochemical parameters (Cl - , NO 3 , electric conductivity, HCO -3 and p H). There is, for instance, a clear elevation of the concentration of nitrates and chlorides above background values of zero and 10 mg/l respectively and these could be correlated with the intensity of urbanization in both towns. A significant observation was the relatively higher concentration of the sensitive parameters in the laterized clay aquifer beneath Enugu with respect to the sandy aquifer beneath Aba. The median concentration values of nitrates and chlorides were 20 mg/l and 16 mg/l at Aba whereas the values at Enugu were 27 mg/l and 72 mg/I respectively. The average electric conductance at Aba (300 mS/cm) was only about 50% of the corresponding value at Enugu, (610 mS/cm). There was also a more uniform concentration range at Enugu whereas outlier values were more common at Aba. The explanation for this could be found in both the matrix lithology and aquifer hydraulics in the areas. It is projected from the findings that thin laterized clay aquifers in hilly terrains could provide a highly conducive environment for rapid contaminant distribution. Such a hydrogeologic environment may even pose greater danger than that of a permeable sandy aquifer in flat terrains

  15. Sustainable development and climate change: Lessons from country studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Shukla, P.; Garg, A.

    2008-01-01

    Sustainable development has been suggested as a framework for integrating development and climate change policies in developing countries. Mainstreaming climate change into sustainable development policies would allow these countries to achieve their development goals while addressing climate...... change. A number of research programmes have investigated how potential synergies could be achieved at national level and what kind of trade-offs between the various aspects of sustainable development have to be faced. An overview of these studies is provided, focusing on national case studies....... The energy and transportation sectors are covered in many studies, but some attention is also given to the infrastructure sector and water supply. Most existing development policies will not lead to a sustainable development pattern, since they insufficiently address climate change. However, good...

  16. Project management case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kerzner, Harold R

    2013-01-01

    A new edition of the most popular book of project management case studies, expanded to include more than 100 cases plus a ""super case"" on the Iridium Project Case studies are an important part of project management education and training. This Fourth Edition of Harold Kerzner''s Project Management Case Studies features a number of new cases covering value measurement in project management. Also included is the well-received ""super case,"" which covers all aspects of project management and may be used as a capstone for a course. This new edition:Contains 100-plus case studies drawn from re

  17. Case Study Research Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Widdowson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Commenting on the lack of case studies published in modern psychotherapy publications, the author reviews the strengths of case study methodology and responds to common criticisms, before providing a summary of types of case studies including clinical, experimental and naturalistic. Suggestions are included for developing systematic case studies and brief descriptions are given of a range of research resources relating to outcome and process measures. Examples of a pragmatic case study design and a hermeneutic single-case efficacy design are given and the paper concludes with some ethical considerations and an exhortation to the TA community to engage more widely in case study research.

  18. The average cost of measles cases and adverse events following vaccination in industrialised countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kou Ulla

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though the annual incidence rate of measles has dramatically decreased in industrialised countries since the implementation of universal immunisation programmes, cases continue to occur in countries where endemic measles transmission has been interrupted and in countries where adequate levels of immunisation coverage have not been maintained. The objective of this study is to develop a model to estimate the average cost per measles case and per adverse event following measles immunisation using the Netherlands (NL, the United Kingdom (UK and Canada as examples. Methods Parameter estimates were based on a review of the published literature. A decision tree was built to represent the complications associated with measles cases and adverse events following imminisation. Monte-Carlo Simulation techniques were used to account for uncertainty. Results From the perspective of society, we estimated the average cost per measles case to be US$276, US$307 and US$254 for the NL, the UK and Canada, respectively, and the average cost of adverse events following immunisation per vaccinee to be US$1.43, US$1.93 and US$1.51 for the NL, UK and Canada, respectively. Conclusions These average cost estimates could be combined with incidence estimates and costs of immunisation programmes to provide estimates of the cost of measles to industrialised countries. Such estimates could be used as a basis to estimate the potential economic gains of global measles eradication.

  19. Corporate Governance Practices in Developing Countries: The Case for Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Mwanzia Mulili; Dr. Peter Wong

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of corporate governance from a historical perspective. The paper explores how the agency theory and stewardship theory affect corporate governance practices. The focus of the paper is on public universities in Kenya. An extensive review of literature indicates that the ideals of good corporate governance have been adopted by developing countries since the 1980s. Developing countries differ from developed countries in a wide variety of ways. Therefore, there is ...

  20. Area Handbook Series: Cuba; a Country Study,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    xix Chapter 1. Historical Setting. ...................................... Elizabeth de Lima ...Guane Rio Santo L F AntonClarao -22 % Fei ienfuegos Moron kNulvo Gerona Playa Sancti 11-,Giron Spirntu Jhoi ~~ ~Trinidad Cg a Tunas de Zaza * National...schol- arly literature. xi Country Profile 0 0l Country _ Formal Name: Cuba (Rep6blica de Cuba). Short Form: Cuba. Term for Citizens: Cubans. Capital

  1. Country's image as judged by international indices: Case of Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presented various international indices and how Tanzania is judged by them. The purpose was to reveal to different stakeholders and policy makers how this country is perceived by outsiders such as foreign donor countries, investors, tourist or international bodies. The methodology involved empirical review of ...

  2. Global National Qualifications Framework Inventory: Country Cases from EU and ETF Partner Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Certificates, diplomas and titles are commonly known as qualifications. Their purpose is to show employers, training providers, and individuals what the person holding the qualification has learned and can do. Every country issues many different qualifications, but for the European labor market to work as intended--that is for European citizens to…

  3. Globalization of the pharmaceutical industry and the growing dependency of developing countries: the case of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semin, Semih; Güldal, Dilek

    2008-01-01

    In developing countries, the effect of globalization on the pharmaceutical sector has resulted in a decrease in exportation and domestic production, accompanied by an increase in importation of pharmaceuticals and a rise in prices and expenditures. As an example of a developing country, Turkey has been facing the long-standing and increasing pressure of global regulations placed on its pharmaceutical sector. This has led to an increasing dependency on multinational companies and a gradual deterioration of an already weakened domestic pharmaceutical sector. This case study of Turkey offers points to consider in the world of increasing globalization, as it offers lessons on ways of examining the effects of globalization on the pharmaceutical industry of developing countries.

  4. Mergers and Acquisitions in the Banking Sector: The Case of Western Balkan Countries / BKT Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulzim Rashiti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explain the financial system which is the engine force for the development of a trade economy. This system ensures payment means in economy and has an impact on its real activity, through the implementation of financial intermediation, acquisitions and mergers in the banking industry that have occurred in recent years in the Western Balkan countries, and monetary policy transmission in these countries. In developing countries, among which are also: Serbia, Macedonia, Albania, Montenegro, etc., banking industry is o" en almost the most important area in the financial system. Therefore, this paper will focus on the way the acquisitions and mergers occurred in the banking system, by assuming that many of the conclusions are applicable to the entire financial system in the Western Balkans. This paper will elaborate on this aspect a case study that deals with the acquisition of Banka Kombetare Tregtare (National Commercial Bank in Albania by the Turkish company Calik Holding (Akif Bank.

  5. Area Handbook Series Guatemala, A Country Study,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    o’independencee, the cp tanc general of’ Guatemsala consisted of the present-day republics of’ C;entral Amierica-Guatemnala, El Salvador, (Ionduras, Nicar- agua ...countries that maintained significant political relationships with Guatemala were Chile and Argentina. Both had active military relationships with...1 d somiething tobreak (downi time, coliiitr\\s grossl\\yneItial 204 lburisf maZUrke’t San Anitoni o .Aguasv Cali’n tc. Resvidenats in San Antonio Aguas

  6. Area Handbook Series: Brazil: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Encompassing almost half the South American conti- nent and bordering every South American country except Ecuador and Chile , Brazil ranks as the fifth largest...and agricultural projects related to the program was slowed. Expansion of the sugarcane acreage was less 184 Construction site, Aguas Claras mine near...Development-OECD) purchased 60 percent of Brazil’s exports. Among Brazil’s 10 largest export markets, only Argentina (US$718 million), Chile (US$363 million

  7. Federal Republic of Germany, A Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    toes, and sugar beets. Raising livestock, largely for milk and meat, more important than cropping. Country about 70 percent self- sufficient in foods ...ministries of economics and of food , agriculture, and forests. The FDP lost the powerful ministry of the interior, however. Friedrich Zimmer- man, a...34........................... PALATINATE S k 9:: ANSCAAACH LO RAIN 9 41, - - ( I ) WORTTEMBiRG L 0SUNDGA . .......... .. ............ 0 FRANCHE ::::::::::::. S w I S C 0 N F E D E R A T

  8. 451 Case studies Cardiac

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marinda

    Case Studies. 29 ... A case of a 26-year-old ASA I physical status male undergoing septoplasty had an abrupt ... myocardial infarction, severe hypertensive crisis, cerebral .... or no formal management is required in an ASA I patient.8 One.

  9. The importance of Evolutionary Medicine in developing countries: A case for Pakistan's medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enam, Syed Faaiz; Hashmi, Shumaila

    2018-01-01

    Evolutionary Medicine (EM) is a fundamental science exploring why our bodies are plagued with disease and hindered by limitations. EM views the body as an assortment of benefits, mistakes, and compromises molded over millennia. It highlights the role of evolution in numerous diseases encountered in community and family medicine clinics of developing countries. It enables us to ask informed questions and develop novel responses to global health problems. An understanding of the field is thus crucial for budding doctors, but its study is currently limited to a handful of medical schools in high-income countries. For the developing world, Pakistan's medical schools may be excellent starting posts as the country is beset with communicable and non-communicable diseases that are shaped by evolution. Remarkably, Pakistani medical students are open to studying and incorporating EM into their training. Understanding the principles of EM could empower them to tackle growing health problems in the country. Additionally, some difficulties that western medical schools face in integrating EM into their curriculum may not be a hindrance in Pakistan. We propose solutions for the remaining challenges, including obstinate religious sentiments. Herein, we make the case that incorporating EM is particularly important in developing countries such as Pakistan and that it is achievable in its medical student body.

  10. [Food and population: study of three countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    In 1985, despite a nearly 25% worldwide surplus of cereals, more than 700 million poor people had insufficient food and some 17 million children died of malnutrition or related causes. 16% of the developing world's population is undernourished. Rapid population growth is a major reason for the world's hunger. Large families exhaust the resources of many urban couples and rural couples with little land. Closely spaced pregnancies deplete the nutritional resources of the mother and lead to low birth weight babies and inadequate lactation. Population growth in already densely populated countries reduces the land available for each family, inevitably contributing to poverty and rural malnutrition. Unemployment and underemployment reach alarming proportions in the city, where the combination of high fertility rates and migration from the countryside have produced growth twice that of the world population as a whole. Few developing countries have been able to generate sufficient investment to create new jobs for all seeking them. Unstable governments attempt to pacify urban unrest by subsidizing food prices and concentrating social and economic investments in the cities, causing further deterioration in rural conditions. Today more than 60 countries have food deficits, although not all are suffering. India, Kenya, and Mexico are 3 countries that have had some success in balancing population growth and food production, but each still has undernourished population sectors because of economic policies that fail to provide sufficient help to their poor and because of implacable population growth. Ending malnutrition in the 3 countries will require reducing the cost of food for households and increasing their incomes, but both objectives are made more difficult by rapid population growth. As a result of the green revolution and other factors, food production in India has tripled since 1950, but population has almost doubled in the same years. With rapid population growth, per

  11. Individual Characteristics of Entrepreneurs in Transition Countries. The Albanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areti Stringa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The transition process in Albania, as in other ex-communist countries, stopped the enterprise development. The increasing number of small and medium enterprises is the most promising consequence of the transition process. Several researches in western countries have demonstrated that entrepreneurship involves objective and subjective factors and is interrelated with environmental objective factors and individual subjective ones. Our research examines clear characteristics of the businesses’ analysis, the performance of the entrepreneurs themselves (their background and personal characteristics, their motivation to start a business and the perceptions of the different characteristics and the aspects of the businesses they run.

  12. Five years MIQE guidelines: the case of the Arabian countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afif M Abdel Nour

    Full Text Available The quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR has become a key molecular enabling technology with an immense range of research, clinical, forensic as well as diagnostic applications. Its relatively moderate instrumentation and reagent requirements have led to its adoption by numerous laboratories, including those located in the Arabian world, where qPCR, which targets DNA, and reverse transcription qPCR (RT-qPCR, which targets RNA, are widely used for region-specific biotechnology, agricultural and human genetic studies. However, it has become increasingly apparent that there are significant problems with both the quality of qPCR-based data as well as the transparency of reporting. This realisation led to the publication of the Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE guidelines in 2009 and their more widespread adoption in the last couple of years. An analysis of the performance of biomedical research in the Arabian world between 2001-2005 suggests that the Arabian world is producing fewer biomedical publications of lower quality than other Middle Eastern countries. Hence we have analysed specifically the quality of RT-qPCR-based peer-reviewed papers published since 2009 from Arabian researchers using a bespoke iOS/Android app developed by one of the authors. Our results show that compliance with 15 essential MIQE criteria was low (median of 40%, range 0-93% and few details on RNA quality controls (22% compliance, assays design (12%, RT strategies (32%, amplification efficiencies (30% and the normalisation process (3%. These data indicate that one of the reasons for the poor performance of Arabian world biomedical research may be the low standard of any supporting qPCR experiments and identify which aspects of qPCR experiments require significant improvements.

  13. Creative economy policy in developing countries : The case of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahmi, Fikri Zul; McCann, Philip; Koster, Sierdjan

    This paper investigates how the creative economy discourse is interpreted and implemented in the context of Indonesia as a developing country. Our main conclusion is that the discourse is interpreted differently across localities. Bandung appears to be the only locality whose interpretation aligns

  14. Industrial biotechnology for developing countries: The case for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attempts to diversify the energy portfolios of developed countries with green technologies have brought competition between food and fuel for crop production resources to the forefront of public policy debates. ... Keywords: Barriers to trade, energy policy, genetically modified (GM) crops, international trade, land-use policy

  15. Assessing the energy vulnerability: Case of industrialised countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnansounou, Edgard

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of new big consumer countries on the energy markets and the perspective of oil and gas depletion at the end of the current century raise the concerns about fair distribution of the remaining resources for the common and sustainable well-being of the mankind. High volatility of energy prices discourages the investment and delays the energy technology transition. Voluntary measures are needed mainly in industrialised countries in order to develop alternative and sustainable energy sources, to enable technology transfer towards emerging and developing countries and to avoid struggle for energy procurement. In this paper, a composite index of energy demand/supply weaknesses is defined as a proxy of energy vulnerability. The proposed index is based on several indicators such as energy intensity, oil and gas import dependency, CO 2 content of primary energy supply, electricity supply weaknesses and non-diversity in transport fuels. The assessment of this composite index for selected industrialised countries is discussed as well as the sensitivity to various factors

  16. Should all suspected tuberculosis cases in high income countries be tested with GeneXpert?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Venanzio; Broda, Agnieszka; Drobniewski, Francis

    2018-05-01

    In countries with a low incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), universal testing with GeneXpert might not be always cost-effective. This study provides hospital managers in low MDR-TB incidence countries with criteria on when decentralised universal GeneXpert testing would make sense. The alternatives taken into consideration include: universal microbiological culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST) only (comparator); as above but with concurrent centralized GeneXpert in a referral laboratory vs a decentralized GeneXpert system in every hospital to test smear-positive cases only; as above but testing all samples with GeneXpert regardless of smear status. The parameters were from the national TB statistics for England and from a systematic review. Decentralised GeneXpert to test any suspected TB case was the most cost-effective option when 6% or more TB patients belonged to the high-risk group, defined as previous TB diagnosis and or being born in countries with a high MDR-TB incidence. Hospital managers in England and other low MDR-TB incidence countries could use these findings to decide when to invest in GeneXpert or other molecular diagnostics with similar performance criteria for TB diagnostics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. On the Appropriateness of Incident Management Systems in Developing Countries: A Case from the UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faouzi Kamoun

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic incidents are eliciting growing public concerns due to their devastating social, economical, and environmental impacts. The severity of these random events is particularly alarming in developing countries, where the situation is just worsening. Recently, Incident Management Systems (IMSs have been proposed as powerful tools to enhance the coordination and management of rescue operations during traffic accidents. However, most of the available commercial IMS solutions are designed for large metropolitan cities and within the contexts of developed nations. This paper explores the issues of appropriateness and customization of IMS solutions in developing countries through an exploratory inquiry consisting of a case study from the United Arab Emirates (UAE. The paper also explores the important issues related to managing the organizational changes that an IMS introduces to the operations of the command and control room. This contribution calls for the development of more comprehensive theoretical frameworks that can guide towards the implementation of appropriate IMS solutions in developing countries. Our research highlights the need for developing countries to acquire appropriate IMS solutions that are tailored to the local organizational work context in which these systems will be used. The experience reported herein can also inspire other public safety agencies in developing countries to consider the option of developing customized IMS solutions that best suit their needs.

  18. The relevance of global energy governance for Arab countries: The case of Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, Kerstin; Zejli, Driss; Taenzler, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Global climate and energy governance have led to the creation of a wide range of international and regional institutions, initiatives and financial mechanisms dedicated to fostering renewable energies. Furthermore, a low-carbon economy has evolved in recent years. The objective of this paper is to assess the potential benefits and merits of these institutions, initiatives and mechanisms from the perspective of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The central questions are if and how these organizations, initiatives and finance mechanisms could support a country from MENA in its efforts to implement large-scale capacities for renewable energy production. For this purpose, Morocco was chosen as a case study. The findings in this paper indicate that the existing institutions and financial mechanisms do not sum up to a coordinated governance approach, although the main needs of a country or region appear to be addressed. The existing institutions and financial mechanisms vary significantly in their ability to support countries, especially those taking the lead in renewable energy implementation. - Research highlights: → A coordinated governance approach is missing for the encouragement of renewable energy application. → Existing institutions and financial mechanisms vary significantly in their ability to support countries. → Front runner countries, such as Morocco, may not find all of their needs adequately addressed.

  19. Regional Integration and Foreign Investment: The Case of Asean Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel O. Nwosu; Anthony Orji; Nathaniel Urama; Joseph I. Amuka

    2013-01-01

    The importance of regional integration in stimulating foreign direct investment cannot be overemphasized. With a special focus on the ASEAN countries, this research paper investigates the role of regional integration in attracting foreign direct investment. We bring a novelty to this paper by dividing foreign direct investment into Inter-and Intra-ASEAN to see if both are determined by the same set of factors. If economic integration drives intra-ASEAN FDI we would expect such FDI to be unrel...

  20. Factors influencing trainee doctor emigration in a high income country: a mixed methods study.

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Nicholas; Crowe, Sophie; Humphries, Niamh; Conroy, Ronan; O'Hare, Simon; Kavanagh, Paul; Brugha, Ruairi F

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel focuses particularly on migration of doctors from low- and middle-income countries. Less is understood about migration from high-income countries. Recession has impacted several European countries in recent years, and in some cases emigration has reached unprecedented levels. This study measures and explores the predictors of trainee doctor emigration from Ireland. METHODS: Using a partially mixed ...

  1. Factors influencing trainee doctor emigration in a high income country: a mixed methods study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clarke, Nicholas

    2017-09-25

    The Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel focuses particularly on migration of doctors from low- and middle-income countries. Less is understood about migration from high-income countries. Recession has impacted several European countries in recent years, and in some cases emigration has reached unprecedented levels. This study measures and explores the predictors of trainee doctor emigration from Ireland.

  2. Within country inequalities in caesarean section rates: observational study of 72 low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatin, Adeline Adwoa; Schlotheuber, Anne; Betran, Ana Pilar; Moller, Ann-Beth; Barros, Aluisio J D; Boerma, Ties; Torloni, Maria Regina; Victora, Cesar G; Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza

    2018-01-24

    To provide an update on economic related inequalities in caesarean section rates within countries. Secondary analysis of demographic and health surveys and multiple indicator cluster surveys. 72 low and middle income countries with a survey conducted between 2010 and 2014 for analysis of the latest situation of inequality, and 28 countries with a survey also conducted between 2000 and 2004 for analysis of the change in inequality over time. Women aged 15-49 years with a live birth during the two or three years preceding the survey. Data on caesarean section were disaggregated by asset based household wealth status and presented separately for five subgroups, ranging from the poorest to the richest fifth. Absolute and relative inequalities were measured using difference and ratio measures. The pace of change in the poorest and richest fifths was compared using a measure of excess change. National caesarean section rates ranged from 0.6% in South Sudan to 58.9% in the Dominican Republic. Within countries, caesarean section rates were lowest in the poorest fifth (median 3.7%) and highest in the richest fifth (median 18.4%). 18 out of 72 study countries reported a difference of 20 percentage points or higher between the richest and poorest fifth. The highest caesarean section rates and greatest levels of absolute inequality were observed in countries from the region of the Americas, whereas countries from the African region had low levels of caesarean use and comparatively lower levels of absolute inequality, although relative inequality was quite high in some countries. 26 out of 28 countries reported increases in caesarean section rates over time. Rates tended to increase faster in the richest fifth (median 0.9 percentage points per year) compared with the poorest fifth (median 0.2 percentage points per year), indicating an increase in inequality over time in most of these countries. Substantial within country economic inequalities in caesarean deliveries remain

  3. Exploring synergistic interactions and catalysts in complex interventions: longitudinal, mixed methods case studies of an optimised multi-level suicide prevention intervention in four european countries (Ospi-Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona M. Harris

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Medical Research Council (MRC Framework for complex interventions highlights the need to explore interactions between components of complex interventions, but this has not yet been fully explored within complex, non-pharmacological interventions. This paper draws on the process evaluation data of a suicide prevention programme implemented in four European countries to illustrate the synergistic interactions between intervention levels in a complex programme, and to present our method for exploring these. Methods A realist evaluation approach informed the process evaluation, which drew on mixed methods, longitudinal case studies. Data collection consisted of 47 semi-structured interviews, 12 focus groups, one workshop, fieldnoted observations of six programme meetings and 20 questionnaires (delivered at six month intervals to each of the four intervention sites. Analysis drew on the framework approach, facilitated by the use of QSR NVivo (v10. Our qualitative approach to exploring synergistic interactions (QuaSIC also developed a matrix of hypothesised synergies that were explored within one workshop and two waves of data collection. Results All four implementation countries provided examples of synergistic interactions that added value beyond the sum of individual intervention levels or components in isolation. For instance, the launch ceremony of the public health campaign (a level 3 intervention in Ireland had an impact on the community-based professional training, increasing uptake and visibility of training for journalists in particular. In turn, this led to increased media reporting of OSPI activities (monitored as part of the public health campaign and also led to wider dissemination of editorial guidelines for responsible reporting of suicidal acts. Analysis of the total process evaluation dataset also revealed the new phenomenon of the OSPI programme acting as a catalyst for externally generated (and funded

  4. Exploring synergistic interactions and catalysts in complex interventions: longitudinal, mixed methods case studies of an optimised multi-level suicide prevention intervention in four european countries (Ospi-Europe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Fiona M; Maxwell, Margaret; O'Connor, Rory; Coyne, James C; Arensman, Ella; Coffey, Claire; Koburger, Nicole; Gusmão, Ricardo; Costa, Susana; Székely, András; Cserhati, Zoltan; McDaid, David; van Audenhove, Chantal; Hegerl, Ulrich

    2016-03-15

    The Medical Research Council (MRC) Framework for complex interventions highlights the need to explore interactions between components of complex interventions, but this has not yet been fully explored within complex, non-pharmacological interventions. This paper draws on the process evaluation data of a suicide prevention programme implemented in four European countries to illustrate the synergistic interactions between intervention levels in a complex programme, and to present our method for exploring these. A realist evaluation approach informed the process evaluation, which drew on mixed methods, longitudinal case studies. Data collection consisted of 47 semi-structured interviews, 12 focus groups, one workshop, fieldnoted observations of six programme meetings and 20 questionnaires (delivered at six month intervals to each of the four intervention sites). Analysis drew on the framework approach, facilitated by the use of QSR NVivo (v10). Our qualitative approach to exploring synergistic interactions (QuaSIC) also developed a matrix of hypothesised synergies that were explored within one workshop and two waves of data collection. All four implementation countries provided examples of synergistic interactions that added value beyond the sum of individual intervention levels or components in isolation. For instance, the launch ceremony of the public health campaign (a level 3 intervention) in Ireland had an impact on the community-based professional training, increasing uptake and visibility of training for journalists in particular. In turn, this led to increased media reporting of OSPI activities (monitored as part of the public health campaign) and also led to wider dissemination of editorial guidelines for responsible reporting of suicidal acts. Analysis of the total process evaluation dataset also revealed the new phenomenon of the OSPI programme acting as a catalyst for externally generated (and funded) activity that shared the goals of suicide prevention

  5. [Case and studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, András

    2015-11-15

    Case studies and case reports form an important and ever growing part of scientific and scholarly literature. The paper deals with the share and citation rate of these publication types on different fields of research. In general, evidence seems to support the opinion that an excessive number of such publications may negatively influence the impact factor of the journal. In the literature of scientometrics, case studies (at least the presence of the term "case study" in the titles of the papers) have a moderate share, but their citation rate is practically equal to that of other publication types.

  6. Area Handbook Series: Argentina: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    votes after a campaign that emphasized firm opposition to the military government and verbal attacks on the trade union leadership of the PJ...legal pro- cedures that were designed especially for these cases. The trials were open to the public, evidence would be taken verbal - ly instead of...1981,144-45. Terrera, Guillermo Alfredo. Geopolitica Argentina: Poblacion, fronteras, comunicaciones , antropologia. Buenos Aires: Edi- torial Plus

  7. Ochronotic Arthropathy: Two Case Reports from a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq A. Rathore

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaptonuria is a rare inborn error of metabolism, which is classified as an orphan disease. It is due to the lack of an enzyme homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase, which results in an accumulation of homogentisic acid in different areas of the body, including sclera, skin, cardiac valves, articular cartilage of the large joints and intervertebral disks. We present two cases of alkaptonuria resulting in ochronotic arthropathy with advanced secondary generalized osteoarthritis, intervertebral disk calcifications, skin and scleral pigmentation. In these case reports, both patients had symptoms for >10 years before being diagnosed. Conservative management in the form of high-dose ascorbic acid, exercises, and gait aids was offered to both of them, which resulted in some symptomatic improvement in the first case, while the second case was lost to follow-up. Alkaptonuria is a rare disease, and although it does not clearly impact mortality, early diagnosis may improve the quality of life.

  8. FMCT verification: Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui Zhang

    2001-01-01

    for states that have traditionally had 'less transparency' in their military sectors. As case studies, first we investigate how to applied verification measures including remote sensing, off-site environmental sampling and on-site inspections to monitor the shutdown status of plutonium production facilities, and what measures could be taken to prevent the disclosure of sensitive information at the site. We find the most effective verification measure to monitor the status of the reprocessing plant would be on-site environmental sampling. Some countries may worry that sample analysis could disclose sensitive information about their past plutonium production activities. However, we find that sample analysis at the reprocessing site need not reveal such information. Sampling would not reveal such information as long as inspectors are not able to measure total quantities of Cs-137 and Sr-90 from HLW produced at former military plutonium production facilities. Secondly, we consider verification measures for shutdown gaseous diffusion uranium-enrichment plants (GDPs). The GDPs could be monitored effectively by satellite imagery, as one telltale operational signature of the GDP would be the water-vapor plume coming from the cooling tower, which should be easy to detect with satellite images. Furthermore, the hot roof of the enrichment building could be detectable using satellite thermal-infrared images. Finally, some on-site verification measures should be allowed, such as visual observation, surveillance and tamper-indicating seals. Finally, FMCT verification regime would have to be designed to detect undeclared fissile material production activities and facilities. These verification measures could include something like special or challenge inspections or complementary access. There would need to be provisions to prevent the abuse of such inspections, especially at sensitive and non-proscribed military and nuclear activities. In particular, to protect sensitive

  9. Septic Systems Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collection of septic systems case studies to help community planners, elected officials, health department staff, state officials, and interested citizens explore alternatives for managing their decentralized wastewater treatment systems.

  10. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  11. A Psychobiographical Case Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    man, and cancer fighter. This psychobiographical case study entailed a psychosocial-historical ... does not draw more attention as a research method, as this approach has .... of the applied Levinsonian theory to the life of Jobs against the ...

  12. Qualitative Case Study Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Introduction to Sociological Methods. 2nd ed. New York, McGraw-Hill 14. Denzin , N. K. and Lincoln , Y. S. (2011) The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative...The Art of Science. In: Denzin , N. K. and Lincoln , Y. S. (eds.) Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, Sage 19. GAO (1990) Case Study...Rinehart & Winston 39. Stake, R. E. (1994) Case Studies. In: Denzin , N. K. and Lincoln , Y. S. (eds.) Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, Sage

  13. Area Handbook Series. India: A Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Parties. New York: Facts on File, 1983. Dua , Bhagwan D. "A Study in Executive-Judicial Conflict," Asian Survey, 23, No. 4, April 1983, 463-83. Dutt...September 1977, 1-12. Sagar , Imroze. "Indo-Soviet Interest," Naval War College Re- view, 34, No. 1, January-February 1981, 13-33. Sharma, Gautam. "Defence

  14. Pilot Study on Harmonisation of Reactor Safety in WENRA Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    Most of the objectives, set for the Pilot Study, were met. It can be concluded that the methodology was adequate for its purpose. National requirements on selected safety issues have been systematically compared and the major gaps and differences have been identified. Convenient overviews have been provided of differences and similarities between the countries. Furthermore, the conclusions are based on a safety justification and are detailed enough to provide input to a further more detailed analysis on the national level. It was not possible, however, to provide fully verified conclusions about the implementation of the reference levels in the different countries. This has to do with the following constraints on the study: In line with the Terms of Reference, the comparison of formal requirements did not address the more detailed use of criteria and methods to verify compliance. The same requirement could be enforced differently in different regulatory systems, and hence lead to different implementation. The Pilot Study also assessed the implementation, but it was not possible to do this in sufficient detail to identify such differences. The implementation was assessed on the basis of current knowledge of the respective regulatory body, but it was not possible to provide the panels with evidence of the implementation. For these reasons, conclusions about implemented safety provisions in the different countries should be drawn with precaution. The introduction of the panel assessments greatly improved the quality and consistency of the comparison assessments. Uncertainties in the assessments are mainly connected with lack of time to make a detailed analysis in some cases. The reliability of the assessments seems to be sufficient for the objectives of the Pilot Study. The introduction of the IAEA safety standards in the study proved to be helpful and provided confidence in the scope and strictness of the reference levels. This Pilot Study has contributed to

  15. Area Handbook Series: Jordan: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Jordan’s vulnerability increased significantly in February 1979, when Shia radicals overthrew Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi of Iran. The Iranian...give formal recognition to the PLO’s role. In an abrupt turn- about in policy, Egyptian foreign minister Ismail Fahmi respond- ed by declaring that Egypt... Fahmi , Ismail, 46 modern, 101-3, 110; government Faisal I (son of Hussein Ali Al Hashimi), spending for, 114; students studying 18, 20-23, as king of

  16. Intercultural communication in business between China and Arabic countries : Case company: Zhejiang Lianmei Co., Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Rong

    2012-01-01

    Intercultural communication plays a very important role in international commercial intercourse. China and Arabic countries both have a long history and unique culture. With the process of globalization, the contact between China and Arabic countries become more and more frequent, especially in business intercourses. In that case, business meetings the between two parties are inevitable. The main purpose of this thesis was to give theoretical cultural knowledge and practical case informat...

  17. The validity of vignettes in cross country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pozzoli, Dario; Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Kristensen, Nicolai

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments may be ham-pered by sub-population speci.c response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular - notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes as a means to re-scale across ...... that the assumption of RC is not innocous and that our extended model improves the fit and significantly changes the cross-country rankings of health vis-á-vis the standard Chopit model.......Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments may be ham-pered by sub-population speci.c response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular - notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes as a means to re-scale across...

  18. Strategies for reducing emissions and depositions in Central and Eastern European countries: The case of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Harmelen, T.; Stoffer, A.; De Kruijk, H.; Salamonova, A.

    1995-06-01

    A detailed case study on developments and reduction of acidifying SO 2 and NO x emissions from the energy system was conducted for Slovakia. Scenarios and the Energy Flow Optimization Model - Environment (EFOM-ENV) of the European Union (DG 12) were applied for the first time in Slovakia and were similar to those that were used in the other European country studies in preparation of the Second Sulphur Protocol. Slovak SO 2 emissions can be reduced at low marginal costs but high total national costs compared with e.g. the Netherlands. The main reasons for this are the high sulphur content of (brown) coal that has a high share in national energy consumption, a relatively high energy intensity, lower wages, and the fact that most Western countries already have reduced their SO 2 emissions in the past. Marginal NO x emission reduction costs are similar to those of Western countries and national total NO x reduction costs are relatively high. In contrast with fuel switching, retrofitting of existing technologies is an attractive SO 2 and NO x reduction option in the short term. High interest and discount rates due to capital scarcity increases emissions and emission reduction costs. Therefore, short term involvement of Western investors could lead to European cost-effective emission reduction. 17 figs., 5 tabs., 2 appendices, 20 refs

  19. EIA in the Baltic countries. The case of three oil terminals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm-Hansen, J. [ed.

    1995-12-31

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in the Baltic Countries: The Case of Three Oil Terminals is the second phase of a research and exchange project that has been going on between Baltic and Nordic experts on Environmental Impact Assessment since 1992. The objective of the projects is to contribute to the capability of the Baltic states in carrying out EIAs. By scrutinizing the processes of the EIAs carried out for three Baltic oil terminals, working groups consisting of both Nordic and Baltic EIA experts have sought to highlight the practical implications of the `EIA vocabulary` eagerly taught by Western experts and perhaps even more eagerly studied by their `Eastern` counterparts during the last few years. The three cases were: Lithuania, Oil Port of Klaipeda; Latvia, Oil Terminal in Liepaja; Estonia, Muuga Port. (au)

  20. Information and Communication Technologies and Poverty Reduction in Developing Countries : the Case of Sub Saharan Africa countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lot Tcheeko

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in using Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs to support poverty reduction efforts and strategies in the framework of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. These interest ended up revealing how much the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs of many african nations have underestimated the importance of ICTs as a development tool. The fact that so little was mentionned about the use of ICTs for poverty alleviation and creation of employment highlighted the confusion, and uncertainty of decision makers. At the country level, ICT is still to be effectively integrated into national poverty alleviation and development strategies. The question then is how ICTs can help achieve those objectives. How can ICTs be used as tools to fight against poverty? Poverty is widely recognized as multidimensional, encompassing food security, health, education, rights, security and dignity, amongst others as stressed by Bachelor and al in a model showing the intricate linkages between ICTs and most PRSP goals. The link between ICTs and poverty reduction strategy is therefore not that obvious. Although, researchers and development partners involved in poverty alleviation recognize more easily the linkage between ICT and poverty reduction strategies. In any case, it is a prerequisite to have a conducive environment and country readiness for ICTs implementation. Unfortunately, in many Sub-Saharan Africa countries, there is not yet a clear and effective policy and strategy for the use of ICT.

  1. case study nigeria pstn

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    telecommunications industry all over the world is ever burgeoning. Its growth is buoyed ... developing countries depends, among other things, on the ... countries are rushing to modernize their ..... However, most operators prefer to outsource.

  2. Origins of Social Security in Developing Countries: the Case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... arrangements or schemes have developed in the way they have, nor has there been an in depth analysis of the structure of the current institutions, the range and scope of covers, as well as the process of benefit delivery. The paper attempts such a study. African Journal of Finance and Management Vol.7(1) 1998: 61-68 ...

  3. Formation of common cultural competence in country studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in country studies classes (based on Turkish language teaching practice) ... the acquisition of common cultural competence in foreign language education. ... analysis of methodological frameworks offered by Russian and foreign specialists.

  4. Objectivist case study research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner; Fachner, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    be achieved through the use of objectivist case study research. The strength of the case study design is that it allows for uncovering or suggesting causal relationships in real-life settings through an intensive and rich collection of data. According to Hilliard (1993), the opposite applies for extensive......In order to comprehend the impact of music therapy or music therapy processes, a researcher might look for an approach where the topic under investigation can be understood within a broader context. This calls for a rich inclusion of data and consequently a limited number of participants and may...... designs, in which a small amount of data is gathered on a large number of subjects. With the richness of data, the intensive design is ―the primary pragmatic reason for engaging in single-case or small N research‖ (p. 374) and for working from an idiographic rather than a nomothetic perspective....

  5. Science and technology in a developing country: The Brazilian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Jose Israel

    2001-01-01

    than 25% per year, reaching in 1999 US$ 3 billion for imports and US$ 1.35 billion for exports. In this context it is interesting to note that a recent UNDP study revealed an apparent paradox: while Brazil ranks 43rd in science and technology performance among the world's nations, it nevertheless ranks 27th among exporters of high-technology products. Examples will be presented on the current progress in science and technology development in fields such as nuclear, computers, information, agricultural and health sciences, as well as on the implementation of novel legal approaches to induce innovation. The latter is seen as a precondition to strengthen the competitiveness of key industries, especially their entry into the rapidly evolving international market. (author)

  6. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.

  7. Nuclear forensics case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedchenko, Vitaly

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this presentation is to share three case studies from the Institute of Transuranium Elements (ITU) which describe the application of nuclear forensics to events where nuclear and other radioactive material was found to be out of regulatory control

  8. SCA12 case study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 88; Issue 1. Utilizing linkage disequilibrium information from Indian Genome Variation Database for mapping mutations: SCA12 case study. Samira Bahl Ikhlak Ahmed The Indian Genome Variation Consortium Mitali Mukerji. Research Article Volume 88 Issue 1 April 2009 pp 55- ...

  9. national Case study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This national case study reports on the development of a national network, ... system under the new policy), tends to be limited by content on problems and ... 20 credit programme; and within two Post Graduate Certificate of Education contexts, ...... descriptive with an issues focus (empirical) towards awareness production to.

  10. Dynamic functional studies in nuclear medicine in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Proceedings document some of the trials and tribulations involved in setting up nuclear medicine facilities in general and specifically as regards nuclear medicine applications for the diagnosis of the diseases prevalent in the less developed countries. Most of the 51 papers deal with various clinical applications of dynamic functional studies. However, there was also a session on quality control of the equipment used, and a panel discussion critically looked at the problems and potential of dynamic studies in developing countries. This book will be of interest and use not only to those practising nuclear medicine in the developing countries, but it may also bring home to users in developed countries how ''more can be done with less''. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. MRI case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huggett, S.; Barber, J.

    1989-01-01

    Three case studies are presented to show the value of magnetic resonance imaging used in conjunction with other imaging techniques. In each case MRI proved a vital diagnostic tool and superior to CT in showing firstly the haematoma in a patient with aphasia and right-sided weakness, secondly the size of the disc herniation in a patient with severe leg and ankle pains and thirdly the existence of a metastatic lesion in a patient with a previous history of breast cancer. 11 figs

  12. Critical Studies on Men in Ten European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pringle, Keith; Hearn, Jeff (and 13 other network partners)

    2002-01-01

    This article is one the work of The European Research Network on Men in Europe project “The Social Problem and Societal Problematization of Men and Masculinities” (2000-2003), funded by the European Commission. The Network comprises women and men researchers with range of disciplinary backgrounds...... of statistical sources on men's practices in the ten countries, are presented. This is the second of four articles reviewing critical studies on men in the ten countries through different methods and approaches....

  13. Is the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Impacting Mental Health Laws and Policies in High-Income Countries? A Case Study of Implementation in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven J; Sritharan, Lathika; Tejpar, Ali

    2016-11-11

    Persons with psychosocial disabilities face disparate access to healthcare and social services worldwide, along with systemic discrimination, structural inequalities, and widespread human rights abuses. Accordingly, many people have looked to international human rights law to help address mental health challenges. On December 13, 2006, the United Nations formally adopted the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) - the first human rights treaty of the 21st century and the fastest ever negotiated. This study assesses the CRPD's potential impact on mental health systems and presents a legal and public policy analysis of its implementation in one high-income country: Canada. As part of this analysis, a critical review was undertaken of the CRPD's implementation in Canadian legislation, public policy, and jurisprudence related to mental health. While the Convention is clearly an important step forward, there remains a divide, even in Canada, between the Convention's goals and the experiences of Canadians with disabilities. Its implementation is perhaps hindered most by Canada's reservations to Article 12 of the CRPD on legal capacity for persons with psychosocial disabilities. The overseeing CRPD Committee has stated that Article 12 only permits "supported decision-making" regimes, yet most Canadian jurisdictions maintain their "substitute decision-making" regimes. This means that many Canadians with mental health challenges continue to be denied legal capacity to make decisions related to their healthcare, housing, and finances. But changes are afoot: new legislation has been introduced in different jurisdictions across the country, and recent court decisions have started to push policymakers in this direction. Despite the lack of explicit implementation, the CRPD has helped to facilitate a larger shift in social and cultural paradigms of mental health and disability in Canada. But ratification and passive implementation are not enough. Further

  14. CAREM X INPRO case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florido, P.C.; Brasnarof, D.; Delmastro, D.; Azpitarte, O.E.

    2004-01-01

    In order to assess and compare the performance of innovative nuclear energy systems INPRO has defined a set of basic principles, user requirements and criteria to be met in different areas (economics, sustainability and environment, safety, waste management and proliferation). This paper illustrates the use of INPRO methodology to a particular reactor system. Argentina is performing CAREM X Nuclear System Case Study based on CAREM nuclear reactor and Once Through Fuel Cycle, using SIGMA for enriched uranium production, and a deep geological repository for final disposal of high level waste after surface intermediate storage in horizontal natural convection silos, to verify INPRO (International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles) methodology. 6 aspects have been considered: 1) enrichment based on Sigma enrichment plant (gas diffusion technology), 2) conversion to UO 2 , 3) fuel manufacturing, 4) CAREM-300 based reactor technology, 5) intermediate spent fuel storage, and 6) deep geological repository of spent fuels. Projections show that developing countries could play a crucial role in the deployment of nuclear energy, in the next fifty years. This case study will be highly useful for checking INPRO methodology for this scenario. In this paper, the preliminary findings of the Case Study are presented, including proposals to improve the INPRO methodology

  15. Country branding emerging from citizens’ emotions and the perceptions of competitive advantage: the case of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Che-Ha, Norbani; Nguyen, Bang; Yahya, Wan Kalthom; Melewar, T. C.; Chen, Yeo Pei

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to examine the elements of country branding from the perspectives of a country’s citizens. In this exploration, the study constructs their views toward the country using both emotion (affect) and perceptions of competitive advantage and subsequently conceptualizes and tests a framework of internal country-branding elements. Using a survey approach, the study generated a total sample of 445 respondents across Malaysia. Structural equation modeling was employed to analyze the ...

  16. Determinants of Small Enterprises’ Performance in Developing Countries: A Bangladesh Case

    OpenAIRE

    Khondoker, Abdul Mottaleb; Sonobe, Tetsushi

    2011-01-01

    Family-based traditional microenterprises are abundant in developing countries, and in many cases they are a major source of income and employment for both urban and rural poor. With a few exceptions, however, most these family-based traditional microenterprises in the rural areas of developing countries seldom grow in terms of enterprises’ size and product quality. Thus, they tend to perform poorly relative to their growth potentials. The development of these family-based microenterprises wo...

  17. Impact of global health governance on country health systems: the case of HIV initiatives in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chima, Charles Chikodili; Homedes, Nuria

    2015-06-01

    Three global health initiatives (GHIs) - the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, and the World Bank Multi-Country HIV/AIDS Program - finance most HIV services in Nigeria. Critics assert that GHIs burden fragile health systems in resource-poor countries and that health system limitations in these countries constrain the achievement of the objectives of GHIs. This study analyzed interactions between HIV GHIs and the Nigerian Health System and explored how the impact of the GHIs could be optimized. A country case study was conducted using qualitative methods, including: semi-structured interviews, direct observation, and archival review. Semi-structured interviews were held with key informants selected to reach a broad range of stakeholders including policymakers, program managers, service providers, representatives of donor agencies and their implementing partners; the WHO country office in Nigeria; independent consultants; and civil society organizations involved in HIV work. The fieldwork was conducted between June and August 2013. HIV GHIs have had a mixed impact on the health system. They have enhanced availability of and access to HIV services, improved quality of services, and strengthened health information systems and the role of non-state actors in health care. On the negative end, HIV donor funding has increased dependency on foreign aid, widened disparities in access to HIV services, done little to address the sustainability of the services, crowded out non-HIV health services, and led to the development of a parallel supply management system. They have also not invested significantly in the production of new health workers and have not addressed maldistribution problems, but have rather contributed to internal brain drain by luring health workers from the public sector to non-governmental organizations and have increased workload for existing health workers. There is poor policy direction

  18. Case study - Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovar, P.

    1986-01-01

    In the lecture Case Study - Czechoslovakia with the sub-title 'Unified System of Personnel Preparation for Nuclear Programme in Czechoslovakia' the actual status and the current experience of NPP personnel training and preparation in Czechoslovakia are introduced. The above mentioned training system is presented and demonstrated by the story of a proxy person who is going to become shift engineer in a nuclear power plant in Czechoslovakia. (orig./HP)

  19. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  20. Peace Corps Water/Sanitation Case Studies and Analyses. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Case Study CS-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbert, Diana E., Comp.

    This document provides an overview of Peace Corps water and sanitation activities, five case studies (Thailand, Yemen, Paraguay, Sierra Leone, and Togo), programming guidelines, and training information. Each case study includes: (1) background information on the country's geography, population, and economics; (2) information on the country's…

  1. The emergence of a health insurance system in a developing country: the case of South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, S

    1989-12-01

    In an attempt to understand the social forces and the economic and political conditions under which new social policies emerge in developing countries, this study outlines factors affecting the introduction of the health insurance system in South Korea. The emergence of the South Korean health insurance system was influenced by changing labor needs of the industrial sector, increasing social expectations, external and international pressures, increasing medical costs, and class conflict. These pressures compelled the South Korean government to respond to demands for the introduction of new social welfare policies in the 1970s. In the case of South Korea, the new health insurance system resulted from the government's attempts to cope with political, economic, and social pressures rather than from an ideological commitment to the well-being of the population. The resulting insurance system was a way to maintain the social order and legitimacy of the regime, and a means to promote the health of groups important to defense or production.

  2. Assessment of international mitigation costing studies in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsnaes, K.

    1995-01-01

    The establishment of the Framework Convention on Climate change has motivated a large number of mitigation costing studies of developing countries. A variety of modelling approaches and input assumptions have been employed, and studies have been carried out by a range of institutions, including international research institutions, consultants and national organisations. This paper attempts to bring together the main results and characteristics of some of the major recent studies. In spite of the diversity of teams involved in the studies, the similarities in scenario definitions and in the bottom-up approach used for the energy sector analysis, enable some key macro indicators and results of the studies to be compared. Two main coordinated country study efforts have been carried out: by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and by UNEP collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE). The results and methodological framework of these country studies are assessed in relation to similar country study activities for China, West Africa and South East Asia in order to evaluate possible common conclusions. (au) 13 refs

  3. Business Registration Reform Case Studies : Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Olaisen, John

    2009-01-01

    This collection of case studies describes experiences and draws lessons from varied business registration reform programs in economies in vastly different stages of development: Bulgaria, Estonia, Ireland, Madagascar, and Malaysia. Over the last twenty years, a number of countries have recognized the importance of smooth and efficient business start up procedures. A functioning business re...

  4. Case study: Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baktybek Abdrisaev

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The paper discusses the importance of Open Source (OS hereinafter technology for national Information Communication Technology (ICT hereinafter development and E-Government for developing countries as a general strategy for overcoming the digital divide. The paper highlights the opportunities presented to the developing countries by the growing world-wide movement for use of OS systems, namely, the ability to promote the transfer of technological know-how and the growth of local IT professionals, the possibility of providing IT solutions within the limited financial means of a developing country, and the ability to strengthen the legal use of software. The paper

  5. Cross-Country Entrepreneurial Intentions Study: The Danube Region Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban Šebjan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we investigate how entrepreneurial intentions of individuals in the eight countries of the Danube region are shaped by different components of individuals’ personal attitudes, the subjective norm and personal behavioral control. We analyze the internal structure of these components as well as some demographic and human capital factors. Cultural and developmental differences influencing variation in causal effects among variables in the model are analyzed. Structural equation modeling is used for data obtained by adult population surveys within the GEM research. Results of our study show that the entrepreneurial intention model is applicable across countries and that the internal effects among components of motivational antecedents exist, although not all hypothesized relationships are confirmed. Our study suggests that the process from perception to intention is similarly shaped across the eight countries of the Danube region, although there are several differences in the magnitude of causal effects as well as differences regarding influential factors.

  6. Case Study - Alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Leybourne

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study was developed from an actual scenario by Dr. Steve Leybourne of Boston University.  The case documents the historical evolution of an organization, and has been used successfully in courses dealing with organizational and cultural change, and the utilization of ‘soft skills’ in project-based management. This is a short case, ideal for classroom use and discussion.  The issues are easily accessible to students, and there is a single wide ranging question that allows for the inclusion of many issues surrounding strategic decision-making, and behavioural and cultural change. Alpha was one of the earlier companies in the USA to invest in large, edge-of-town superstores, with plentiful free vehicle parking, selling food and related household products. Alpha was created in the 1950s as a subsidiary of a major publicly quoted retail group.  It started business by opening a string of very large discount stores in converted industrial and warehouse premises in the south of the United States. In the early days shoppers were offered a limited range of very competitively priced products. When Alpha went public in 1981 it was the fourth largest food retailer in the US, selling an ever-widening range of food and non-food products.  Its success continued to be based on high volume, low margins and good value for money, under the slogan of ‘Alpha Price.’

  7. Case studies of nurseries in Malawi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namoto, M.; Likoswe, M.G.

    This study of 42 case studies of nurseries was made as part of a major sample survey of 360 nurseries in 6 districts in Malawi. The purpose of the study was to let the small nurseries in the country explain in their own words how they source seed, how and for whom they produce seedlings......, and to explain about their problems and opportunities in the nursery business. The assessment was made within the framework of Improved Seed Supply for Agroforestry in African Countries (ISSAAC), a Danida supported programme implemented in cooperation between Forest & Landscape Denmark and World Agroforestry...

  8. NOx trade. Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, J.

    2002-01-01

    Some of the questions with respect to the trade of nitrogen oxides that businesses in the Netherlands have to deal with are dealt with: should a business buy or sell rights for NOx emission; which measures must be taken to reduce NOx emission; how much must be invested; and how to deal with uncertainties with regard to prices. Simulations were carried out with the MOSES model to find the answers to those questions. Results of some case studies are presented, focusing on the chemical sector in the Netherlands. Finally, the financial (dis)advantages of NOx trade and the related uncertainties for a single enterprise are discussed [nl

  9. OBSESSIONS: CASE REPORT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Židanik

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obsessions are one of the most refractory psychiatric disorders. The therapeutic guidelines include a psychopharmacotherapy and the use of behavioural and supportive psychotherapy.Methods. This case report study presents a patient with a homicide obsessions at the forefront and narcissistic personality disorder in background. The use of analytical oriented psychotherapy, which helped to resolve axis-1 symptoms, is described.Conclusions. In the therapy of patients it is important to have the knowledge about the national therapeutic guidelines and critical distance toward them as well. Which therapy to use should be decided by the individual patient’s needs.

  10. ALTER-GLOBALISM AND DEVELOPMENT IN MIGRATION CONDITIONS. THE CASE OF AN EAST EUROPEAN COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina HALLER

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation is a process that brings advantages and disadvantages to all states, regardless of their stage of development. The relative deprivation, especially the financial one, of the developing countries is a reason of frustration, which motivates the emigration decision; hence our orientation to alter-globalism. In this paper, I intend to highlight by means of analysis, synthesis, deduction, induction, and statistic data, the causes and types of migration in Romania’s case, one of the main European countries where the immigrants originate from. We will see how globalisation manifests itself in a twofold manner in the economy and the society of a developing country, just like migration. We will show why a poor country is avoided by immigrants and deserted, as a result of immigration, by its own population, while, just like the developed states, it is likely to face the same demographic, economic and social problems, considering that the process of demographic transition is already manifested.

  11. ECONOMIC PROMOTION OF A SMALL COUNTRY – THE CASE OF SLOVENIA

    OpenAIRE

    Dejan Romih

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the economic promotion of a small country in the case of Slovenia. It also examines the economic diplomacy, whose main activity is the promotion of an economy, in the same case. For Slovenia, economic promotion, especially trade and investment promotion, is particularly important. One of the reasons for this is the importance of foreign trade and investment for its economic growth and development.

  12. Overview of the Kenya country studies on Climate Change Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gacuhi, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    The general objective of the Kenya country study on climate change was to make a contribution to the global efforts of finding a solution to climatic change problem.The specific objectives were, Contribute to the development of national capacity to handle climatic changes issues, Assess the country's contribution to the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG's), Evaluate the vulnerability of various sensitive sectors to impacts of climate change, Generate information useful to the development of an overall national policy on climate change, Lay a foundation for development of national action plans and national communication required under the UNFCCC

  13. Overview of knowledge transfer in MENA countries - The case of Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nour, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of knowledge transfer and explains the factors that enable or impede absorption capacity and knowledge transfer in the MENA countries, with particular reference to the case of Egypt. We employ the conceptual framework used in the international literature on absorption

  14. Five case studies of multifamily weatherization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, L; Wilson, T.; Lewis, G. [Synertech Systems Corp. (United States); MacDonald, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The multifamily case studies that are the subject of this report were conducted to provide a better understanding of the approach taken by program operators in weatherizing large buildings. Because of significant variations in building construction and energy systems across the country, five states were selected based on their high level of multifamily weatherization. This report summarizes findings from case studies conducted by multifamily weatherization operations in five cities. The case studies were conducted between January and November 1994. Each of the case studies involved extensive interviews with the staff of weatherization subgrantees conducting multifamily weatherization, the inspection of 4 to 12 buildings weatherized between 1991 and 1993, and the analysis of savings and costs. The case studies focused on innovative techniques which appear to work well.

  15. Country variations in depressive symptoms profile in Asian countries: Findings of the Research on Asia Psychotropic Prescription (REAP) studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Kok-Yoon; Tripathi, Adarsh; Avasthi, Ajit; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Sim, Kang; Si, Tian-Mei; Kanba, Shigenobu; He, Yan-Ling; Lee, Min-Soo; Fung-Kum Chiu, Helen; Yang, Shu-Yu; Kuga, Hironori; Udormatn, Pichet; Kallivayalil, Roy A; Tanra, Andi J; Maramis, Margarita; Grover, Sandeep; Chin, Loi-Fei; Dahlan, Rahima; Mohamad Isa, Mohd Fadzli; Ebenezer, Esther Gunaseli M; Nordin, Norhayati; Shen, Winston W; Shinfuku, Naotaka; Tan, Chay-Hoon; Sartorius, Norman

    2015-09-01

    This study was to assess differences in the symptom profile of depressive illness across various countries/territories in Asia. The study was a part of the Research on Asia Psychotropic Prescription project. The participating countries/territories include China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand. The pattern of depressive symptoms in 1,400 subjects with depressive disorder from 42 psychiatric centers in 10 Asian countries/territories was assessed. We collected information on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics with a standardized protocol and data collection procedure. The most common presentations of depressive symptoms were persistent sadness, loss of interest, and insomnia. Similar findings were found regardless of the region, country, or its income level. Patients with depressive disorder from high-income countries presented significantly more with vegetative symptom cluster (P countries had significantly more with both mood (P countries, patients with depressive symptoms had significantly less mood symptom cluster (P countries/territories, core depressive symptoms remain the same. Variations have been found in presentation of depressive symptoms with regards to the level of income of countries. Physical or vegetative symptoms were reported more by centers in higher income countries, while depressive cognition and suicidal thoughts/acts were more frequently reported from lower income countries. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Macroeconomic factors and foreign portfolio investment volatility: A case of South Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Waqas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Macroeconomic factors play a pivotal role in attracting foreign investment in the country. This study investigates the relationship between macroeconomic factors and foreign portfolio investment volatility in South Asian countries. The monthly data is collected for the period ranging from 2000 to 2012 for four Asian countries i.e. China, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka because monthly data is ideal for measuring portfolio investment volatility. For measuring volatility in foreign portfolio investment, GARCH (1,1 is used because shocks are responded quickly by this model. The results reveal that there exists significant relationship between macroeconomic factors and foreign portfolio investment volatility. Thus, less volatility in international portfolio flows is associated with high interest rate, currency depreciation, foreign direct investment, lower inflation, and higher GDP growth rate of the host country. Thus findings of this study suggest that foreign portfolio investors focus on stable macroeconomic environment of country.

  17. Radiation dose and relapse are predictors for development of second malignant solid tumors after cancer in childhood and adolescence: A population-based case-control study in the five Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svahn-Tapper, Gudrun; Garwicz, Stanislaw; Anderson, Harald

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the risk with radiation therapy and chemotherapy of the first cancer in childhood and adolescence for the development of a second malignant solid tumor (SMST). Also, the role of relapse of the primary tumor was studied. It is a nested case-control study within a Nordic cohort of patients less than 20 years of age at first diagnosis 1960-1987. SMSTs were diagnosed in 1960-1991. There were 196 cases and 567 controls. The risk was increased only for radiotherapy given more than five years before the development of the SMST. A significantly increased relative risk of 1.8 was found already at doses below 1 Gy. The risk increased rapidly up to a maximum of 18.3 for doses above 30 Gy. Chemotherapy alone did not increase the risk to develop an SMST. However, in combination with radiotherapy, chemotherapy showed a significant potentiating effect. Relapse was found to be an independent risk factor for development of an SMST, with a higher relative risk for females than for males

  18. Financial Shenanigans : A Case Study of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Onitilo, Nnenna Chidimma

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the identified cases of financial shenanigans in between 2001 and 2009 in Nigeria. The scope of this study includes the identification of the common attempts and approaches used by companies and the motivations for financial shenanigans. A cross country comparison of the characteristics of the corporate reporting environments between Nigeria and Malaysia was also carried out. This study finds that the most common attempt used by the sample companies are majorly revenue...

  19. Nuclear proliferation in developing countries: A comparative study for selected countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun Woong.

    1991-01-01

    This study explores major conditions conducive to nuclear proliferation to project possible proliferation trends in the future and, hopefully, to suggest some effective strategies to address the problem of nuclear proliferation. It attempts to provide a qualitative analysis of the causes and trends of nuclear proliferation by presenting generalizations of the causes of proliferation. While a variety of factors can be considered as causes of proliferation, three primary factors appear to influence the prospects for proliferation: (1) the technical capabilities and constraints; (2) motivation: incentives and disincentives; and (3) particular domestic and international situations. It is generally hypothesized that in order for a country to go nuclear, two basic conditions - some minimum level of indigenous national capability and strong motivations - must be simultaneously satisfied. It is concluded that while technology is, of course, one element necessary for the nuclear-proliferation process, the fundamental conditions of nuclear proliferation appear to be motivational factors

  20. Social costs of illicit financial flows in low- and middle-income countries: the case of infant vaccination coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Bienvenido; Sanjuán, Jesús; Casquero, Antonio

    2018-03-01

    The liberalization of capital flows is generally associated with prospects of higher growth. However, in developing countries, opening the capital account may also facilitate the flow of capital out of the country through illicit financial flows (IFFs). Given that IFFs drain the scarce public resources available to finance the provision of public goods and services, the extent of illicit capital flows from developing countries is serious cause for concern. In this context, as a first step in analysing the social costs of IFFs in developing countries, this article studied the relationship between IFFs and infant immunization coverage rates. Data for 56 low- and middle-income countries for the period 2002-13 were used in the empirical analysis. The main result was that the relative level of IFFs to total trade negatively impacted vaccination coverage but only in the case of countries with very high levels of perceived corruption. In this case, the total effect of an annual 1 p.p. increase in the ratio of IFFs to total trade was to reduce the level of vaccination coverage rates over the coming years by 0.19 p.p. Given that there was an annual average of 18 million infants in this cluster of 25 countries, this result suggests that at least 34 000 children may not receive this basic health care intervention in the future as a consequence of this increase in IFFs in any particular year. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. TOURISM AND POVERTY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. THE CASE OF INDIA AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel BADULESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable tourism has become lately an important issue addressing the question of over-exploiting and degradation of resources. The topic is quite more challenging and presents particular importance in the case of developing countries, facing also social issues and the poverty of large segments of population. This paper investigates, based on surveying experts’ opinion, the impact of mass tourism vs. voluntary tourism vs. pro-poor tourism in India and Romania, two very different countries but facing similar challenges, and it highlights the similar issues but also the differences concerning the economic, social and environmental effects of these forms of tourism.

  2. COUNTRY-OF-ORIGIN EFFECTS ON PURCHASING DOMESTIC PRODUCTS: THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana-Denisa STOENESCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies revealed that ethnocentric consumers are more willing to purchase a domestic product. Furthermore, country-of-origin has a direct impact on consumers’ decision to buy a product in such a manner that a positive country image can substitute other missing qualities of the product. On the other hand, a strong brand is not expected to compensate for a negative country-of-origin perception. Many brands rely on their home country as a warranty for quality and prestige, in order to gain consumers’ interest and attention. This paper examines the moderating role of variables such as perceived quality, ethnocentrism and familiarity in determining a consumer to buy a domestic product. Through exploratory research, this study aims to investigate to what extent Romania, as country-of-origin for its local products, influences consumers’ decision making process. The major contributions of the study consist of identifying the elements that play a role in consumers’ product evaluation based on the country-of-origin and to improve the understanding of country image effects on the buying intention.

  3. A CROSS-COUNTRY ANALYSIS OF THE BANKS’ FINANCIAL SOUNDNESS: THE CASE OF THE CEE-3 COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sargu Alina Camelia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The European integration process has a direct impact on all the components of the macroeconomic environment. The existence of a well functioning and sound banking sector becomes of great importance for the integration process as the European Union economy is financed especially through this channel. The banking sectors of the new EU member countries have undergone through tremendous changes in the last decade, both from an ownership and also from a business strategy point of view, these changes having a direct impact on their financial soundness. Thus, the aim of our research is to empirically examine the financial soundness of the banks operating in Bulgaria, Czech Republic and Romania, three EU members countries from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE-3. In order to achieve this we have employed a combine quantitative analysis based on the CAMELS framework (namely Capital Adequacy, Asset quality, Management soundness, Earnings, Liquidity, Sensitivity to market risk and the Z-score, thus being able to underline simultaneously the financial soundness and the possibility of default for the banks from our sample. The analysed period is 2004-2011 providing us with an evaluation of the impact that the EU ascension and also the global financial crisis had on the financial soundness of the analysed banks. Our sample is composed from 40 commercial banks that operate in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic and Romania, that overall own over 75% of the total banking assets, making this study one of the most comprehensive undertaken to this date. The data that we have employed in our research is obtained from the Bureau Van Dijk Bankscope database and the annual financial statements of the banks from our sample. The paper through its original dual approach contributes to the academic debate by providing not only insight into the financial soundness of the banks operating in the CEE-3 countries but also underling their financial strength through the usage of the Z

  4. The Influence of the Country of Origin Image on Brand Equity: A Study of Spanish Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Alves Prado

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As there are few studies on the influence of the country of origin image on brand equity for services companies (as it is the case of financial institutions, the aim of this paper is to analyze the influence of the country of origin image on the brand equity of Spanish banks. A descriptive and quantitative research was employed, using the survey method to verify the hypothesis that the country of origin image (Spain positively influences the brand equity of Spanish banks. The main statistical analyzes were the  factor analysis and the multiple regression analysis. As a result, it was found that the Attitude dimension underlying the variable Brand equity of Spanish banks suffered more influence than the Awareness dimension. Furthermore, it was found that the country of origin image positively influences the brand equity of Spanish banks. The technical aspects, in general, influence more than friendly aspects, thus implying a direction for the Spain brand development strategy focused on these aspects. Limitations of this study include the use of a non-probability sample and the use of Spanish banks as the object of study. We suggest the development of new works in the services area, in different categories and with different countries of origin, in order to provide further discussion and theoretical basis for future studies and strategic actions, aiming to create and improve the image of countries.

  5. Issues of construction health and safety in developing countries: a case of Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhair Zaid Alkilani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is widely regarded as one of the most significant interms of its impact on health and safety (H&S. Recent findings suggestthat in developing countries H&S awareness and performance is low. In this paper,the current state of H&S on construction sites in Jordan was explored usinga two-part investigation. The first part introduces the area of research in aliterature based study of on-site safety. The second part is a case study onthe Jordanian construction industry and its current H&S practices. Primary datawas collected from field visits, expert interviews and semi-structuredquestionnaires. Supporting secondary data was collected from archival studiesand related research literature. The research findings highlight a lack of governmentcommitment exemplified by regulations, policies and legal constraints thatlimit the operational efficiency of those government departments responsiblefor H&S management, and hindering the development of good H&S practice.Research results also highlight the key constraints of good H&S practice fromthe perspective of construction contractors.The study concludes with discussion ofpotential solutions toimprove H&S performance on construction sites in Jordan.

  6. Operational Research for Developing Countries - a case of transfer of technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui; Ravn, Hans V.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is concerned with some fundamental aspects of the process of transfer of operational research from the industrialized countries to the Third World. Two complementary conceptions of operational research are identified: technical and social operational research. The main contribution of ...... of this paper is to regard the discussion of operational research for developing countries as a case of transfer of technology. Finally, some proposals for action and further research will be briefly outlined.......This paper is concerned with some fundamental aspects of the process of transfer of operational research from the industrialized countries to the Third World. Two complementary conceptions of operational research are identified: technical and social operational research. The main contribution...

  7. Hybrid renewable energy systems for the supply of services in rural settlements of mediterranean partner countries. The HYRESS project - the case study of the hybrid system - microgrid in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadakis, G.; Mohamed, E.S.; Kyriakarakos, G. [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece); Kassem, A.W.S. [Alexandria Univ., El Chatbi (Egypt). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Hybrid renewable energy systems is one of the most promising application of renewable energy technologies in remote areas, where the cost of grid extension is prohibitive and the price of fossil fuels increase drastically with the remoteness of the location. Applications of hybrid systems range from small power supplies for remote households providing electricity for lighting or water pumping and water supply to village electrification for remote communities. The strategic objective of the HYRESS project is to remove the knowledge barriers against the installation of Renewable Energy Systems and creation of micro grids. In order to fulfill this objective, three different modular hybrid systems with the generating technologies connected to the AC side were designet, installed and evaluated in three selected remote sites far away from the grid in Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. This paper describes the hybrid system installed in Egypt as a case study and presents first operation results. (orig.)

  8. Inbreeding Depression and IQ in a Study of 72 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    In this ecological study, a robust negative correlation of r = - 0.62 (P less than 0.01) is reported between national IQs and consanguinity as measured by the log10 transformed percentage of consanguineous marriages for 72 countries. This correlation is reduced in magnitude, when IQ is controlled for GDP per capita (r = - 0.41, P less than 0.01);…

  9. Lessons Learned in Performing and Implementing the Results of TNA in a Newly Developed Regulatory Body with a Mandate to Regulate the Country's Expanding Nuclear Power Programme: A Case Study of PNRA no. 97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, Moazzam

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: → It is essential that regulatory bodies apply a systematic approach to training need assessment; → Education and training requires capital investment, time and effort; it must be planned long in advance to be effective; → It is essential for a country considering a nuclear power programme to establish and implement a corresponding manpower development programme for its regulatory body

  10. Do new Access and Benefit Sharing procedures under the Convention on Biological Diversity threaten the future of biological control? Supplemental material (case studies, natural enemy releases, country views concerning ABS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cock, M.J.W.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Brodeur, J.; Barratt, I.P.; Bigler, F.; Bolckmans, K.; Cônsoli, F.L.; Haas, F.; Mason, P.G.; Parra, J.R.P.

    2010-01-01

    Under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) countries have sovereign rights over their genetic resources. Agreements governing the access to these resources and the sharing of the benefits arising from their use need to be established between involved parties [i.e. Access and Benefit Sharing

  11. A National Regulatory Authority set up in a developing country: case of Mali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kone, Nagantie

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Republic of Mali is member of the International Atomic Energy Agency since 1961. Of since the creation of the IAEA, some African countries are members. The technical cooperation with the Agency started in the years 1975. Through that cooperation, many pacific uses of nuclear techniques have been introduced, then developed at different levels in many socio- economic domains as medicine, agriculture, research, and so on. That development of nuclear techniques use has occurred without legislation at all or in some limited cases with part of the legislation of the colonizing country), in a precise field (like radiography in medicine). Later the need of regulatory infrastructure implementation started. That implementation has followed several ways in the different African countries. Also, it started earlier in countries which had advanced activities in nuclear techniques and very later in others. Most if not all of these infrastructure (say regulatory board) were created by the greatest users of the nuclear techniques, the Ministry of Health in most cases or Energy Commission for Countries having a research reactor. After the years 90, the Agency has developed new vision in the implementation of Regulatory Authorities. The new innovation was: 1-) Development of Regulatory Authority with independent statute (decisions and finance); 2-) Assuming post graduate training in developing countries to come other the lack of human resources. That new strategy of the IAEA has facilitated the apparition and development of several new regulatory authorities. We are going to develop here the progress done by one of these new regulatory authorities, through five years being. (author)

  12. Practical guidance material for the development, energy and climate country studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Garg, A.; Olhoff, A.; Denton, F.

    2006-10-15

    The document is developed as part of the Development, Energy and Climate project in order to facilitate methodological consistency and the use of common assumptions in national case studies in Bangladesh, Brazil, China, India, Senegal and South Africa that are conducted as part of the project. In addition to this document the project and country studies are also based on in depth thematic work in three areas namely; 1) Development pathways and climate change; 2) Assessment of Policy Instruments in the Context of Current Market Structure, Institutional Capacities and Risks in Developing Countries; 3) Climate change impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation in the energy sector with a special emphasis given to linkages between adaptation and mitigation policies. The Development, Energy, and Climate project will identify promising energy policy options in the participating countries that are consistent with their national sustainable development objectives. The project teams from Bangladesh, Brazil, China, India, South Africa and Senegal will examine how energy sector policies can be evaluated using specific sustainable development indicators and existing analytical approaches and tools relevant to the countries. The country studies will address energy sector issues, adaptation policies, and alternative scenarios for technology penetration processes. The policy options and the sustainable development impacts of implementing these will be discussed in national stakeholder dialogues with broad participation of government, private sector and NGOs. Cross-country interactions about conceptual and common methodological issues will be covered in three thematic papers. The project will produce a synthesis of the country case studies as an input to various international processes in order to build support for approaches that integrate sustainable development, energy and climate policies. (au)

  13. Goiania incident case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petterson, J.S.

    1988-06-01

    The reasons for wanting to document this case study and present the findings are simple. According to USDOE technical risk assessments (and our own initial work on the Hanford socioeconomic study), the likelihood of a major accident involving exposure to radioactive materials in the process of site characterization, construction, operation, and closure of a high-level waste repository is extremely remote. Most would agree, however, that there is a relatively high probability that a minor accident involving radiological contamination will occur sometime during the lifetime of the repository -- for example, during transport, at an MRS site or at the permanent site itself during repacking and deposition. Thus, one of the major concerns of the Yucca Mountain Socioeconomic Study is the potential impact of a relatively minor radiation-related accident. A large number of potential impact of a relatively minor radiation-related accident. A large number of potential accident scenarios have been under consideration (such as a transportation or other surface accident which results in a significant decline in tourism, the number of conventions, or the selection of Nevada as a retirement residence). The results of the work in Goiania make it clear, however, that such a significant shift in established social patterns and trends is not likely to occur as a direct outcome of a single nuclear-related accident (even, perhaps, a relatively major one), but rather, are likely to occur as a result of the enduring social interpretations of such an accident -- that is, as a result of the process of understanding, communicating, and socially sustaining a particular set of associations with respect to the initial incident

  14. International Development Partnerships and Diffusion of Renewable Energy Technologies in Developing Countries: Cases in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonova, Inna

    Access to energy is vital for sustainable development and poverty alleviation, yet billions of people in developing countries continue to suffer from constant exposure to open fires and dangerous fuels, such as kerosene. Renewable energy technologies are being acknowledged as suitable solutions for remote rural communities in much of the developing world and international development non-governmental organizations (NGOs) increasingly play important roles in the diffusion of these technologies via development partnerships. While these partnerships are widely promoted, many questions related to their functioning and effectiveness remain open. To advance the theory and practice, this interdisciplinary exploratory research provides in-depth insights into the nature of international NGO-driven development partnerships in rural renewable energy and their effectiveness based on the case studies in Talamanca, Costa Rica and Cajamarca, Peru. The analysis of the nature of development partnerships shows that partnerships in the case studies differ in structure, size and diversity of actors due to differentiation in the implementation strategies, technological complexities, institutional and contextual factors. A multi-theoretical approach is presented to explain the multiple drivers of the studied development partnerships. The research highlights partnership constraints related to the provision of rural renewable energy, the organizational type and institutional environments. Based on the case studies this research puts forward theoretical propositions regarding the factors that affect the effectiveness of the partnerships. In terms of the partnership dynamics dimension, several key factors of success are confirmed from the existing literature, namely shared values and goals, complementary expertise and capacities, confidence and trust, clear roles and responsibilities, effective communication. Additional factors identified are personality match and continuity of staff. In

  15. Price dispersion in neighboring countries in the Western Balkans - the case of the Macedonian tomato industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blazhe JORDANOV

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the degree of change in price and co- movement of prices between markets. The distinctiveness of the study is that it introduced a single product (highly perishable product price relationship analysis between a pair of spatially separated markets in the countries of the Western Balkan. This study attempts to comprehend to what extent the Macedonian domestic market is integrated into the regional markets, as well as to understand the relationship between the spatially separated regional markets. The data refer to the domestic Macedonian market and four different regional markets (Croatia, Serbia, Kosovo and Montenegro, as major importers of Macedonian fresh tomatoes. These countries were part of a common market until the 1990s and in the past period transited to a market economy. The method used is common time series analysis through unit root test, co-integration test and causality test. The study showed that the Macedonian economy, especially in terms of the tomato industry, is highly vulnerable and dependant on external markets. Future developments do not only depend upon the advances in the country, but also on developments in the export destinations. This also applies to the other concerned countries in the regions. The main finding is that a small country such as Macedonia is absorbed by developments in other countries in the region. This finding is supported by the results of the study that demonstrated a high level of co-integration between the domestic and regional markets.

  16. LNG as a strategy to establish developing countries' gas markets: The Brazilian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberto Rechelo Neto, Carlos; Sauer, Ildo Luis

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to evaluate, from a Brazilian case study, if the natural gas trade can be viewed as a good opportunity for developing countries located geographically close to Western Europe and North America gas markets. Initially, the paper presents an overview of the Brazilian natural gas industry and evaluates the balance between supply and demand in each main region of Brazil. Then, it analyzes the evolution of the international gas trade, which is expected to increase rapidly (LNG particularly). Finally, the paper analyses the financial viability of the Brazilian LNG project in a context of high volatility of natural gas prices in the international market. To take this uncertainty into account, North-American natural gas prices are modelled according to the ORNSTEIN-UHLENBECK process (with EIA data over the period 1985-2003). By using an approach based on Monte-Carlo simulations and under the assumption that imports are guaranteed since the North American gas price would be higher than the breakeven of the Brazilian project, the model aims to test the hypothesis that export can promote the development of the Brazilian Northeastern gas market. LNG project is here compared to the Petrobras pipelines project, which is considered as the immediate solution for the Northeastern gas shortage. As a conclusion, this study shows that the LNG export will be vulnerable to the risks associated to the natural gas prices volatility observed on the international market

  17. Final report on case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungberg, Daniel; McKelvey, Maureen; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2012-01-01

    Case study as a research design means investigating a single or multiple instance(s) or setting(s) (i.e. a case) and its entire context to explain a phenomenon and its processes. This is achieved through detailed understanding, usually comprised of multiple sources of information. In this way, case...... studies attempt to provide as a complete an understanding of a (complex) phenomenon as possible. Within the AEGIS project, survey and case study research are complementary. They are complementary in the sense that the former can provide more generalizable evidence on a phenomenon in terms of cross......-sectional data, while the latter can provide more in-depth (qualitative) understanding on specific issues. In systematically examining the case studies, however, this report goes beyond a typical single case study. Here we provide a synthesis of 86 case studies. Multiple case studies, following similar focus...

  18. ECONOMIC PROMOTION OF A SMALL COUNTRY – THE CASE OF SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan ROMIH

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the economic promotion of a small country in the case of Slovenia, which is facing certain economic and social problems. One reason for this is the current financial and economic crisis, which is continuing to affect the country’s economy. Economic promotion is therefore very important for Slovenia and its economic performance in both the short and long run.

  19. ALTER-GLOBALISM AND DEVELOPMENT IN MIGRATION CONDITIONS. THE CASE OF AN EAST EUROPEAN COUNTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Alina HALLER

    2017-01-01

    Globalisation is a process that brings advantages and disadvantages to all states, regardless of their stage of development. The relative deprivation, especially the financial one, of the developing countries is a reason of frustration, which motivates the emigration decision; hence our orientation to alter-globalism. In this paper, I intend to highlight by means of analysis, synthesis, deduction, induction, and statistic data, the causes and types of migration in Romania’s case, one of the m...

  20. 425 Case study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marinda

    Anaesthesia management of acute aortic dissection type B in ... of a severe, constant abdominal and chest pain radiating to the ... Continuous spinal anaesthesia was induced ... these cases surgical intervention is critical.1,2 Type B of AAD is.

  1. Cross-country learning in public procurement : An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Kimberly; Senden, Shirin; Telgen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    All countries use public procurement to some degree to further policy objectives such as sustainability, innovation, fighting fraud and corruption, value for taxpayers’ money etc. Countries may learn from past successes and failures in other countries while implementing these policies: cross-country

  2. A comparative study of gender pay gaps in nordic countries and eastern european countries

    OpenAIRE

    Weng, Linling

    2007-01-01

    Under the compressed wage structure and generous family policies, Nordic countries have been regarded as leaders of gender equality in terms of low gender pay gaps and high rates of female labor force participation; after the fundamental restructuring of the economic system in Eastern European countries, women have experienced a remarkable change with respect to the labor market positions and economic status facing the increased wage inequality and significant declines in labor force particip...

  3. The role of government intermediaries in the internationalization of low- and medium-technology SMEs from developing countries: a case study of the Foreign Trade Commission of Mexico in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Garcia, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    This thesis assesses the role of the Government (in Mexico) and the Foreign Trade Council of Mexico (BANCOMEXT) in the internationalization of Mexican small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in low- and medium-technology industries (LMT), which is the main group of firms serviced by BANCOMEXT-Europe. It also sheds light on the internal and external barriers this organization has identified as affecting the internationalization of these SMEs from developing countries (Mexico) in developed an...

  4. Cost-effectiveness of female human papillomavirus vaccination in 179 countries: a PRIME modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Brisson, Marc; Portnoy, Allison; Hutubessy, Raymond

    2014-07-01

    Introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in settings with the highest burden of HPV is not universal, partly because of the absence of quantitative estimates of country-specific effects on health and economic costs. We aimed to develop and validate a simple generic model of such effects that could be used and understood in a range of settings with little external support. We developed the Papillomavirus Rapid Interface for Modelling and Economics (PRIME) model to assess cost-effectiveness and health effects of vaccination of girls against HPV before sexual debut in terms of burden of cervical cancer and mortality. PRIME models incidence according to proposed vaccine efficacy against HPV 16/18, vaccine coverage, cervical cancer incidence and mortality, and HPV type distribution. It assumes lifelong vaccine protection and no changes to other screening programmes or vaccine uptake. We validated PRIME against existing reports of HPV vaccination cost-effectiveness, projected outcomes for 179 countries (assuming full vaccination of 12-year-old girls), and outcomes for 71 phase 2 GAVI-eligible countries (using vaccine uptake data from the GAVI Alliance). We assessed differences between countries in terms of cost-effectiveness and health effects. In validation, PRIME reproduced cost-effectiveness conclusions for 24 of 26 countries from 17 published studies, and for all 72 countries in a published study of GAVI-eligible countries. Vaccination of a cohort of 58 million 12-year-old girls in 179 countries prevented 690,000 cases of cervical cancer and 420,000 deaths during their lifetime (mostly in low-income or middle-income countries), at a net cost of US$4 billion. HPV vaccination was very cost effective (with every disability-adjusted life-year averted costing less than the gross domestic product per head) in 156 (87%) of 179 countries. Introduction of the vaccine in countries without national HPV vaccination at present would prevent substantially more cases

  5. Benefits of Low Carbon Development Strategies in Emerging Cities of Developing Country: a Case of Kathmandu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shree Raj Shakya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Kathmandu is one of the fastest growing cities in South Asia facing various challenges related to climate change, local pollutants emissions and energy security of supply. This study analysed the greenhouse gas mitigation potential in different economic sectors of the city by using Long-range Energy Planning (LEAP frame work. It shows that the effect of implementing various low carbon development strategy options can reduce 35.2% of total greenhouse gas emission from energy use as compared to the base case scenario in 2030. This indicates the need for exploring the possibility of utilizing the global climate funds and adopting voluntary mechanisms for greenhouse gas mitigation. The estimated demand side technology investment cost of low carbon measures for different sectors ranges from less than US$ 1/tonne CO2e for residential sector to US$ 99/tonne CO2e for transport sector. The low carbon options also results co-benefits in terms of significant reduction in emission of local pollutants and improvement of energy security. As Government of Nepal has envisioned following low carbon economic development path on the long run, there is the need of establishment of regulatory framework, institutional framework and development of clear action plans for realizing the implementation of low carbon development strategy measures in the country.

  6. The politics of health sector reform in developing countries: three cases of pharmaceutical policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, M R

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the political dynamics of health sector reform in poor countries, through a comparative study of pharmaceutical policy reform in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and the Philippines. The paper first reviews five reasons why policy reform is political. It then presents three political economic models of the policy reform process: the political will, political factions, and political survival models. Next, the paper describes the three cases of national pharmaceutical policy reform, and identifies common conditions that made these reforms politically feasible. The paper's analysis suggests that health sector reform is feasible at certain definable, and perhaps predictable, political moments, especially in the early periods of new regimes. The most important and manipulable political factors are: political timing, which provides opportunities for policy entrepreneurs to introduce their ideas into public debate, and political management of group competition, which allows leaders to control the political effects of distributional consequences and protect the regime's stability. A strong and narrow political coalition improves the capacity of political leaders to resist the pressures of concentrated economic costs (both inside and outside national boundaries). The paper argues that for reform to succeed, policy-makers need effective methods to analyze relevant political conditions and shape key political factors in favor of policy reform. The method of Political Mapping is briefly introduced as a technique that can help policy-makers in analyzing and managing the political dimensions of policy reform and in improving the political feasibility of reform.

  7. Effective coverage and systems effectiveness for malaria case management in sub-Saharan African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Galactionova

    Full Text Available Scale-up of malaria preventive and control interventions over the last decade resulted in substantial declines in mortality and morbidity from the disease in sub-Saharan Africa and many other parts of the world. Sustaining these gains will depend on the health system performance. Treatment provides individual benefits by curing infection and preventing progression to severe disease as well as community-level benefits by reducing the infectious reservoir and averting emergence and spread of drug resistance. However many patients with malaria do not access care, providers do not comply with treatment guidelines, and hence, patients do not necessarily receive the correct regimen. Even when the correct regimen is administered some patients will not adhere and others will be treated with counterfeit or substandard medication leading to treatment failures and spread of drug resistance. We apply systems effectiveness concepts that explicitly consider implications of health system factors such as treatment seeking, provider compliance, adherence, and quality of medication to estimate treatment outcomes for malaria case management. We compile data for these indicators to derive estimates of effective coverage for 43 high-burden Sub-Saharan African countries. Parameters are populated from the Demographic and Health Surveys and other published sources. We assess the relative importance of these factors on the level of effective coverage and consider variation in these health systems indicators across countries. Our findings suggest that effective coverage for malaria case management ranges from 8% to 72% in the region. Different factors account for health system inefficiencies in different countries. Significant losses in effectiveness of treatment are estimated in all countries. The patterns of inter-country variation suggest that these are system failures that are amenable to change. Identifying the reasons for the poor health system performance and

  8. Male-female differences in the number of reported incident dengue fever cases in six Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Anker

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Demographic factors, such as age and sex, are associated with the likelihood of exposure to Aedes aegypti, the vector for dengue. However, dengue date disaggregated by both sex and ageare not routinely reported or analyzed by national surveillance systems. This study analysed the reported number of incident dengue cases by age and sex for six countries in Asia. Methods. Data for the Lao People's Democratic Republic, the Philippines, Singapore and Sri Lanka were obtained from DengueNet; the number of male and female dengue cases was available for four age groups ( 15 years over a cumulative period of six to 10 years. Data for Cambodia (2010 and Malaysia (1997–2008 were obtained from their respective ministries of health. Results. An excess of males was found among reported dengue cases > 15 years of age. This pattern was observed consistently over several years across six culturally and economically diverse countries. Discussion. These data indicated the importance of reporting data stratified by both sex and age since collapsing the data over all ages would have masked some of the observed differences. In order to target preventive measures appropriately, assessment of gender by age is important for dengue because biological or gender-related factors can change over the human lifespan and gender-related factors may differ across countries.

  9. Citation success of different publication types: a case study on all references in psychology publications from the German-speaking countries (D-A-CH-L-L) in 2009, 2010, and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krampen, Günter; Weiland, Peter; Wiesenhütter, Jürgen

    Scientometric data on the citation success of different publication types and publication genres in psychology publications are presented. Data refer to references that are cited in these scientific publications and that are documented in PSYNDEX, the exhaustive database of psychology publications from the German-speaking countries either published in German or in English language. Firstly, data analyses refer to the references that are cited in publications of 2009 versus 2010 versus 2011. With reference to all cited references, the portion of journal articles ranges from 57 to 61 %, of books from 22 to 24 %, and of book chapters from 14 to 15 %, with a rather high stability across the three publication years analysed. Secondly, data analyses refer to the numbers of cited references from the German-speaking countries, which are also documented in PSYNDEX. These compose about 11 % of all cited references indicating that nearly 90 % of the references cited are of international and/or interdisciplinary publications not stemming from the German-speaking countries. The subsample shows the proportion of journal articles, books, and chapters, and these are very similar to the percentages identified for all references that are cited. Thirdly, analyses refer to document type, scientific genre, and psychological sub-discipline of the most frequently cited references in the psychology publications. The frequency of top-cited references of books and book chapters is almost equal to that of journal articles; two-thirds of the top-cited references are non-empirical publications, only one-third are empirical publications. Top-cited references stem particularly from clinical psychology, experimental psychology, as well as tests, testing and psychometrics. In summary, the results point to the fact that citation analyses, which are limited to journal papers, tend to neglect very high portions of references that are cited in scientific publications.

  10. LiveDiverse: Case study area, Greater Kruger South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nortje, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Livelihoods and Biodiversity in Developing Countries Case study area: Greater Kruger, South Africa January 2011 Kolhapur, India Where are we? HARDSHIP LIVELIHOODS NATURE & BIODIVERSITY BELIEFS & CULTURAL PRACTISE threesansinv foursansinv onesansinv...

  11. Implementation of renewable technologies - Opportunities and barriers. Zimbabwe country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Renewable Energy Technologies (RETS) have over the years become an integral part of the energy supply chain in most developed countries. Recent projections show that 13.5% of the world's primary energy supply comes from renewable and this figure has an aggregated annual growth rate of 16%. Wind has the highest annual growth rate of 22% while the least annual growth rate of 2% is for hydropower. The main push for renewable like wind in the OECD countries are environmental concerns and the business aspect in power generation. The situation is however completely different in Africa, where the thrust for RETs is developmental based. Although the continent has abundant renewable energy resources like solar, biomass, wind and hydro potential, they have remained largely unexploited. Several efforts have been made to help African countries like Zimbabwe to exploit such resources. The main objectives of this country study included review of Zimbabwe's development of past RETs, establish barriers related lessons learnt from such projects and currently running RETs projects, identify barriers experienced by other projects and then select a few barrier removal projects and then develop them with the help of all stake holders in the country. The methodology of this study involved a review of past RETs projects to establish barriers faced and barriers related lessons learnt. An examination of the policy instruments related to RETs was done to establish how they promote the dissemination of the technologies as well as their adequacy. A survey of all possible RETs projects in the country was carried out and in this survey the end-users were visited and interviewed by the research team. An initial workshop, which was attended by all stake holders, was held in November 1999. An Advisory committee on RETs in Zimbabwe was then set up comprising of various stake holders from government, the private sector, research institutions, interviewed end-users and the NGO community

  12. Screening for genital tuberculosis in a limited resource country: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namani, Sadie; Qehaja-Buçaj, Emine; Namani, Diellëza

    2017-02-07

    Screening for benign or malignant process of pelvis in young females is a challenge for a physician in a limited resource country. Tuberculosis should be always considered in the differential diagnosis of a pelvic mass in countries with high prevalence of tuberculosis. Negative results of analysis of peritoneal fluid for acid-fast staining, late cultures, and unavailability of new diagnostics methods such as polymerase chain reaction and adenosine deaminase of the aspirated fluid from peritoneal cavity can often result in invasive diagnostic procedures such as laparotomy. We report a case of a 24 year old Albanian unemployed female living in urban place in Kosovo who presented with abdominal pain, loss of appetite, fever, headache, a weight loss, nonproductive cough and menstrual irregularity for three weeks. In this example case, the patient with cystic mass in tubo-ovarial complex and elevated serum cancer antigen 125 levels was diagnosed for genital tuberculosis after performing laparotomy. Caseose mass found in left tubo-ovarial complex and histopathological examination of biopsied tissue were the fastest diagnostic tools for confirming pelvis TB. The Lowenstein-Jensen cultures were positive after six weeks and her family history was positive for tuberculosis. Young females with abdominopelvic mass, ascites, a positive family history for tuberculosis and high serum cancer antigen 125, should always raise suspicion of tuberculosis especially in a limited resource country. A laparoscopy combined with peritoneal biopsy should be performed to confirm the diagnosis as this could lead to a prevention of unnecessary laparotomies.

  13. Patterns of clinical mentorship in undergraduate nurse education: A comparative case analysis of eleven EU and non-EU countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolska, Beata; McGonagle, Ian; Kane, Roslyn; Jackson, Christine S; Kegl, Barbara; Bergin, Michael; Cabrera, Esther; Cooney-Miner, Dianne; Di Cara, Veronika; Dimoski, Zvonko; Kekus, Divna; Pajnkihar, Majda; Prlić, Nada; Sigurdardottir, Arun K; Wells, John; Palese, Alvisa

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the number of studies available in the field and policy documents developed both at the national and the international levels, there is no reliable data available regarding the variation of roles occupied by clinical mentors (CMs) across countries. To describe and compare the CM's role; responsibilities; qualifications; employment requirements and experience in undergraduate nurse education as enacted in 11 European Union (EU) and non- EU countries. A case study design. A panel of expert nurse educators from 11 countries within and outside of the EU (Croatia, Czech Republic, England, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Poland, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, and the USA). A questionnaire containing both quantitative and qualitative questions was developed and agreed by the panel using a Nominal Group Technique (NGT); four cycles of data collection and analysis were conducted involving key experts in nursing education in each country. In all countries, there are at least two types of clinical mentorship dedicated to undergraduate nursing students: the first is offered by higher education institutions, and the second is offered by health care providers. Variation was noted in terms of profile, responsibilities and professional requirements to act as a CM; however, the CM role is mainly carried out by registered nurses, and in most countries there are no special requirements in terms of education and experience. Those who act as CMs at the bedside continue to manage their usual caseload, thus the role adds to their work burden. Whilst it is imperative to have respect for the different national traditions in undergraduate nurse education, the globalisation of the nursing workforce and greater opportunities for student mobility during the course of their undergraduate education suggests that in areas such as clinical mentorship, jurisdictions, particularly within the EU, should work towards greater system harmonisation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The economics of soil conservation in developing countries: the case of crop residue mulching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erenstein, O.C.A.

    1999-01-01

    The study contributes to the search for a methodology to assess soil conservation, particularly in developing countries. The study first assesses the economics of soil conservation in general - with special emphasis on the relationships between technology, economic analysis and policy implications.

  15. Fatal varicella in immigrants from tropical countries: Case reports and forensic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadagnini, Gianni; Lo Baido, Simone; Poli, Francesca; Govi, Annamaria; Borin, Sveva; Fais, Paolo; Pelotti, Susi

    2018-05-01

    The primary Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) infection results in varicella, a generally benign, self-limiting disease in immunocompetent children. Despite the usual course a possible fatal evolution of the primary infection is observed predominantly in immunocompromised subjects and in adults, especially emigrating from tropical regions. Two cases of fatal varicella have been investigated and discussed. Death occurred in two patients over 40 years of age, coming from South Asia and receiving chronic immunosuppressive therapy. The forensic expert must be cautious and consider all clinical records in managing fatal varicella cases, bearing in mind risk factors and pre-existing conditions such as age, geographical provenance and pathological comorbidity, which may lead to a bad prognosis irrespective of therapies. Based on the severe and fatal course observed in the reported cases, an extension of the immunization program appears advisable for immigrants from tropical countries, especially before scheduled immunotherapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of butter and cheese in 10 European countries - A case of contrasting educational differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prattala, R. S.; Groth, Margit Velsing; Oltersdorf, U. S.

    2003-01-01

    Background: This paper alms to analyse socioeconomic variation in the use of cheese and butter in Europe by reviewing existing dietary surveys. It explores whether socioeconomic differences in the intake of these foods follow a similar pattern in all countries. Methods: An overview of available s...... classes prefer modern foods,. lower classes traditional foods....... studies on socioeconomic differences in food habits in Europe over the period 1985-1997 was performed. Twenty studies from 10 countries included information on cheese and butter. A simple directional vote-counting method was used to register the association between educational level add consumption...

  17. Social sustainability in developing country suppliers : an exploratory study in the readymade garments industry of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Huq, Fahian; Stevenson, Mark; Zorzini, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate why developing country suppliers are adopting socially sustainable practices and how the implementation process is both impeded and enabled. Design/methodology/approach: A multi-case study approach is adopted based on four ready made garment (RMG) industry suppliers in Bangladesh and the Bangladeshi buying houses of two large UK retailers. The primary mode of data collection is exploratory face-to-face interviews with 14 senior representati...

  18. Labelled compounds for agrochemical residue studies in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Potential applications of stable and radioactive isotopic tracers for assessing undesirable contaminants in agriculture, fisheries and food are discussed as related to developing countries. Sources and types of residues are considered, and their local implications; also, the availability of suitably labelled compounds, including possible international cooperation to facilitate more centralized and economic preparation, and the distribution of labelled intermediates and compounds for use by local scientists. The provision of training courses and their syllabus are reviewed. Experience in the Joint FAO/IAEA chemical residue and pollution programme has indicated a need for longer-lived radioisotopically labelled pesticides (insecticides, acaricides, fungicides, herbicides, fumigants, etc.) for studying their behaviour. 15 N-, 13 C- or 2 H-labelled fertilizers and fertilizer additives such as nitrification inhibitors will shortly be needed, for studying the behaviour of fertilizer nitrogen residues, and their regulation and conservation, under conditions prevailing in the developing countries. Compounds labelled with stable isotopes are considered particularly valuable under field conditions. The report reviews the present situation and presents specific recommendations to the Directors General of FAO and IAEA

  19. Cost-effectiveness of introducing a rotavirus vaccine in developing countries: The case of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Mendoza, Atanacio; Bertozzi, Stefano M; Gutierrez, Juan-Pablo; Itzler, Robbin

    2008-01-01

    Background In developing countries rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhoea and diarrhoeal deaths in children under 5. Vaccination could greatly alleviate that burden, but in Mexico as in most low- and middle-income countries the decision to add rotavirus vaccine to the national immunisation program will depend heavily on its cost-effectiveness and affordability. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of including the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in Mexico's national immunisation program. Methods A cost-effectiveness model was developed from the perspective of the health system, modelling the vaccination of a hypothetical birth cohort of 2 million children monitored from birth through 60 months of age. It compares the cost and disease burden of rotavirus in an unvaccinated cohort of children with one vaccinated as recommended at 2, 4, and 6 months. Results Including the pentavalent vaccine in the national immunisation program could prevent 71,464 medical visits (59%), 5,040 hospital admissions (66%), and 612 deaths from rotavirus gastroenteritis (70%). At US$10 per dose and a cost of administration of US$13.70 per 3-dose regimen, vaccination would cost US$122,058 per death prevented, US$4,383 per discounted life-year saved, at a total net cost of US$74.7 million dollars to the health care system. Key variables influencing the results were, in order of importance, case fatality, vaccine price, vaccine efficacy, serotype prevalence, and annual loss of efficacy. The results are also very sensitive to the discount rate assumed when calculated per life-year saved. Conclusion At prices below US $15 per dose, the cost per life-year saved is estimated to be lower than one GNP per capita and hence highly cost effective by the WHO Commission on Macroeconomics and Health criteria. The cost-effectiveness estimates are highly dependent upon the mortality in the absence of the vaccine, which suggests that the vaccine is likely to be

  20. Cost-effectiveness of introducing a rotavirus vaccine in developing countries: The case of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez Juan-Pablo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developing countries rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhoea and diarrhoeal deaths in children under 5. Vaccination could greatly alleviate that burden, but in Mexico as in most low- and middle-income countries the decision to add rotavirus vaccine to the national immunisation program will depend heavily on its cost-effectiveness and affordability. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of including the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in Mexico's national immunisation program. Methods A cost-effectiveness model was developed from the perspective of the health system, modelling the vaccination of a hypothetical birth cohort of 2 million children monitored from birth through 60 months of age. It compares the cost and disease burden of rotavirus in an unvaccinated cohort of children with one vaccinated as recommended at 2, 4, and 6 months. Results Including the pentavalent vaccine in the national immunisation program could prevent 71,464 medical visits (59%, 5,040 hospital admissions (66%, and 612 deaths from rotavirus gastroenteritis (70%. At US$10 per dose and a cost of administration of US$13.70 per 3-dose regimen, vaccination would cost US$122,058 per death prevented, US$4,383 per discounted life-year saved, at a total net cost of US$74.7 million dollars to the health care system. Key variables influencing the results were, in order of importance, case fatality, vaccine price, vaccine efficacy, serotype prevalence, and annual loss of efficacy. The results are also very sensitive to the discount rate assumed when calculated per life-year saved. Conclusion At prices below US $15 per dose, the cost per life-year saved is estimated to be lower than one GNP per capita and hence highly cost effective by the WHO Commission on Macroeconomics and Health criteria. The cost-effectiveness estimates are highly dependent upon the mortality in the absence of the vaccine, which suggests that the vaccine

  1. Emotion, Engagement, and Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Terry, David R.; Lemons, Paula; Armstrong, Norris; Brickman, Peggy; Ribbens, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Three college faculty taught large general biology classes using case studies and personal response systems (clickers). Each instructor taught the same eight cases in two different sections, except the questions within the cases differed. In one section the questions were lower order (LO) factual inquiries, and in the other they were largely…

  2. Job insecurity and health: a study of 16 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Krisztina D; Pikhart, Hynek; Kopp, Mária S; Bobak, Martin; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Marmot, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Although the number of insecure jobs has increased considerably over the recent decades, relatively little is known about the health consequences of job insecurity, their international pattern, and factors that may modify them. In this paper, we investigated the association between job insecurity and self-rated health, and whether the relationship differs by country or individual-level characteristics. Cross-sectional data from 3 population-based studies on job insecurity, self-rated health, demographic, socioeconomic, work-related and behavioural factors and lifetime chronic diseases in 23,245 working subjects aged 45-70 years from 16 European countries were analysed using logistic regression and meta-analysis. In fully adjusted models, job insecurity was significantly associated with an increased risk of poor health in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, the Netherlands, Poland and Russia, with odds ratios ranging between 1.3 and 2.0. Similar, but not significant, associations were observed in Austria, France, Italy, Spain and Switzerland. We found no effect of job insecurity in Belgium and Sweden. In the pooled data, the odds ratio of poor health by job insecurity was 1.39. The association between job insecurity and health did not differ significantly by age, sex, education, and marital status. Persons with insecure jobs were at an increased risk of poor health in most of the countries included in the analysis. Given these results and trends towards increasing frequency of insecure jobs, attention needs to be paid to the public health consequences of job insecurity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Addressing mitigation options within the South African country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Gina [Eskom (South Africa)

    1998-10-01

    The South African Country Study Programme is being executed under the auspices of the South African Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAandT). The full study comprises the following four components, each headed by a technical coordinator: the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory; a study of South Africa`s vulnerability to climate change and possible adaptation strategies; potential mitigation actions and; policy development. Ideally, these components should be executed in sequence. However, in view of South Africa`s commitments in terms of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and the need to draw up a national communication, it was decided to execute the components simultaneously, with an emphasis on coordination between the components. (EG)

  4. Addressing mitigation options within the South African country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, Gina

    1998-01-01

    The South African Country Study Programme is being executed under the auspices of the South African Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEA and T). The full study comprises the following four components, each headed by a technical coordinator: the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory; a study of South Africa's vulnerability to climate change and possible adaptation strategies; potential mitigation actions and; policy development. Ideally, these components should be executed in sequence. However, in view of South Africa's commitments in terms of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and the need to draw up a national communication, it was decided to execute the components simultaneously, with an emphasis on coordination between the components. (EG)

  5. Economic feasibility study of regional centers for nuclear fuel reprocessing in the developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakeshloo, A.A.

    1977-01-01

    The fuel cycle costs for the following three different economic alternatives were studied: (1) Reprocessing in an industrialized country (such as the U.S.); (2) Reprocessing in the individual developing country; (3) Reprocessing in a regional center. The nuclear fuel cycle cost for the ''Throw-away'' fuel cycle was evaluated. Among the six regions which were considered in this study, region one (South America including Mexico) was selected for the economic analysis of the nuclear fuel cycle for the above three alternatives. For evaluation of the cases where the fuel is reprocessed in a regional center or in an individual developing country, a unit reprocessing cost equation was developed. An economic evaluation was developed to estimate the least expensive method for transporting radioactive nuclear material by either leased or purchased shipping casks. The necessary equations were also developed for estimating plutonium transportation and the safeguard costs. On the basis of nuclear material and services requirements and unit costs for each component, the levelized nuclear fuel cycle costs for each alternative were estimated. Finally, by a comparison of cost, among these three alternatives plus the ''Throw-away'' case,it was found that it is not at all economical to build individual reprocessing plants inside the developing countries in region one. However, it also was found that the economic advantage of a regional center with respect to the first alternative is less than a 4% difference between their total fuel cycle costs. It is concluded that there is no great economic advantage in any developing countries to seek to process their fuel in one of the advanced countries. Construction of regional reprocessing centers is an economically viable concept

  6. Building theories from case study research: the progressive case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2006-01-01

    Meredith (1998) argues for more case and field research studies in the field of operations management. Based on a literature review, we discuss several existing approaches to case studies and their characteristics. These approaches include; the Grounded Theory approach which proposes no prior

  7. Theory Testing Using Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke; Dissing Sørensen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    The appropriateness of case studies as a tool for theory testing is still a controversial issue, and discussions about the weaknesses of such research designs have previously taken precedence over those about its strengths. The purpose of the paper is to examine and revive the approach of theory...... testing using case studies, including the associated research goal, analysis, and generalisability. We argue that research designs for theory testing using case studies differ from theorybuilding case study research designs because different research projects serve different purposes and follow different...... research paths....

  8. Medical Publications (2002-2009 of Islamic Countries; A Medline-Based Study Compared To Non-Islamic Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Majidi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The number of scientific publication by a countryis an important indication of its science generation and development.The aim of this study was to compare the publicationsin medical sciences of Islamic countries from 2002-2009with those of a number of developed countries.Methods: The PubMed and CIA World Fact Book were used toextract the number of publications and socioeconomic status oftarget countries, respectively. The number of publications, publicationsper million population, gross domestic product (GDPper capita, population below poverty line (PBP and type ofpublications of the countries were compared.Results: The publications of Islamic countries increased from6906 in 2002 to 21656 in 2009. There was a positive correlationbetween GDP per capita and publication per million. However,publication productivity did not decrease significantly with theincrease of PBP. Turkey and Iran were top two among Islamiccountries in terms of the number of publications and growth ofthe rate of scientific publication, respectively. Islamic countriesdo lag behind developed countries in terms of the number ofpublication and the rate of growth.Conclusion: There is a wide gap between developed and Islamiccountries and among Islamic countries themselves interms of the number and the rate of growth of publication inmedical sciences.

  9. THE MAGNITUDE AND DETERMINANTS OF CAPITAL FLIGHT - THE CASE FOR 6 SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN COUNTRIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HERMES, N; LENSINK, R

    1992-01-01

    Most studies treat capital flight as an exclusively Latin American problem. This paper estimates capital flight for six African countries and shows that the emphasis on Latin American capital flight is not correct. It appears that the burden of capital flight is also important for many African

  10. PRELIMINARY STUDY TO PRIMARY EDUCATION FACILITIES (A Comparison Study between Indonesia and Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Yosita

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This writing is a preliminary study to condition of primary education facilities in Indonesia, and then comparing these with theories as well as various relevant cases aimed to know the problem more obviously. Basically, there is difference between primary education facilities in Indonesia with those in developed countries. Meanwhile on the other hand, the condition as well as the completion of education facility is actually as the main factor contributes to address the purpose of learning process. If building design, interior and also site plan were dynamic in form, space, colour and tools, those would be probably more stimulate activity and influence into the growth of students. However, lastly, it is still required further analysis, as an example analysis to student's behaviour in spaces of learning environment, more detail and within enough time, not only at indoor but also at outdoor.

  11. Implementation of renewable energy technology - Opportunities and barriers. Summary of country studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painuly, J.P.; Fenhann, J.V.

    2002-07-01

    The project was launched to identify barriers to the implementation of renewable energy technologies (RETs) and explore measures to overcome the identified barriers. National institutions in Egypt, Ghana and Zimbabwe carried out the country studies based on the basic methodological framework provided by the UNEP Centre. The objectives of the project included strengthening institutional capacity for analysis and implementation of RET projects in the participating countries and bring out experiences on RETs barriers and removal measures for dissemination so that others can benefit from the knowledge so gained. An important highlight of the studies was involvement of stake holders in the process of identification of barriers and measures to remove them. A preliminary identification of relevant RETs for their countries was done by the country teams in the initial stage of the project. After that, national workshops involving various stake holders were held between July and September 1999 to discuss the RETs and barriers to their implementation. Based on the discussions, a few important RETs were identified for more detailed study. PV systems for rural electrification, solar water heating systems and large-scale biogas system were identified and analysed for barriers in the Egypt country study. Economic, information and policy barriers were identified as major barriers for these technologies. Solar water pumps, biogas and small hydro were the focus of study in Ghana. In this case also, economic, information and policy barriers were found to be the important barriers for the selected technologies. In the case of Zimbabwe, focus was on identification of primary and secondary barriers to RETs dissemination. The primary barriers included lack of capacity to develop proposals, lack of information for policy making and framework for information dissemination. The study concluded that the secondary barriers as seen and experienced by the stake holders are due to primary

  12. Monitoring VET Systems of Major EU Competitor Countries - The Cases of China, India, Russia and Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    The study on VET systems of major EU competitor countries is based on the objective of the (revised) Lisbon agenda to become the most competitive region of the world based on a knowledge driven production and social cohesion. Building on experts opinion and literature research this study aims at monitoring VET policies in China, India, Russia and Korea. The study analyses five themes which are assumed to be of outstanding importance for understanding the current performance and the developing...

  13. Cross-country Differences in Reporting Practices – the Case of Provisions for Liabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Klimczak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the study was to explore and compare reporting practices on provisions for liabilities in different countries. Methodology: The research was limited to the types of provisions that are addressed in the International Accounting Standard 37 - Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets. For the purpose of the study, financial statements of the biggest public companies in Great Britain, Germany and Poland have been chosen to be taken into consideration. The following detailed issues have been explored: - Presentation of the types of provisions in a statement of financial position and additional notes to a financial statement, - Presentation of the amounts of provisions made, used, and reversed during a given period and the effects of changes in the discount rate, - Scope and quality of descriptions of the nature of obligations presented by entities. The results of the analysis have been viewed from two perspectives - the areas of compliance and non-compliance of reporting on provisions with IFRS have been identified and a comparison of the extent of compliance with particular requirements between companies from different countries has been developed. Findings: The results of the analysis have revealed that companies from selected countries demonstrate different levels of compliance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS. Substantial differences in the scope and the quality of descriptive disclosures on provisions have been also identified. Originality/value: The study contributes to the research on cross-country differences in reporting practices and indicates the need for a further analysis of the underlying determinants

  14. Appropriate information systems in underdeveloped countries: The case of the Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesley, C.; Weyers, R.

    1990-05-01

    Considers the application of new technology to information systems in underdeveloped countries taking the case of the National Documentation Centre (NDC) in Khartoum, Sudan as an example. Describes the implementation of a project there to improve information collection and dissemination using microcomputers and micrographics. The scope of the project is to collect conventional and non-conventional documents produced in and about Sudan in the areas of science, technology and the social sciences, and to maintain databases containing bibliographic, research project, institutional and personnel data. Examines the advantages of microcomputers for underdeveloped countries and other technological developments such as CD-ROM, desktop publishing, expert systems and factors such as exchange of data, repackaging of information, and cooperation, all of which are likely to have an impact on scientific and technological information provision in the 1990s. Considers constraints to introducing new technology (hardware/software procurement and maintenance, operating conditions, existing document delivery systems, absence of information sharing culture) but argues that a longer term development strategy which allows for training, long term funding, cooperation and appropriate computer applications will result in sustainable information systems development in underdeveloped countries. (author). 11 refs

  15. Comparison of temporal realistic telecommunication base station exposure with worst-case estimation in two countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahfouz, Z.; Verloock, L.; Joseph, W.; Tanghe, E.; Gati, A.; Wiart, J.; Lautru, D.; Hanna, V. F.; Martens, L.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of temporal daily exposure to global system for mobile communications (GSM) and universal mobile telecommunications systems and high speed down-link packet access (UMTS-HSDPA) is investigated using spectrum analyser measurements in two countries, France and Belgium. Temporal variations and traffic distributions are investigated. Three different methods to estimate maximal electric-field exposure are compared. The maximal realistic (99 %) and the maximal theoretical extrapolation factor used to extrapolate the measured broadcast control channel (BCCH) for GSM and the common pilot channel (CPICH) for UMTS are presented and compared for the first time in the two countries. Similar conclusions are found in the two countries for both urban and rural areas: worst-case exposure assessment overestimates realistic maximal exposure up to 5.7 dB for the considered example. In France, the values are the highest, because of the higher population density. The results for the maximal realistic extrapolation factor at the weekdays are similar to those from weekend days. (authors)

  16. Appropriate information systems in underdeveloped countries: The case of the Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesley, C; Weyers, R [National Council for Research, Khartoum (Sudan). National Documentation Centre

    1990-05-01

    Considers the application of new technology to information systems in underdeveloped countries taking the case of the National Documentation Centre (NDC) in Khartoum, Sudan as an example. Describes the implementation of a project there to improve information collection and dissemination using microcomputers and micrographics. The scope of the project is to collect conventional and non-conventional documents produced in and about Sudan in the areas of science, technology and the social sciences, and to maintain databases containing bibliographic, research project, institutional and personnel data. Examines the advantages of microcomputers for underdeveloped countries and other technological developments such as CD-ROM, desktop publishing, expert systems and factors such as exchange of data, repackaging of information, and cooperation, all of which are likely to have an impact on scientific and technological information provision in the 1990s. Considers constraints to introducing new technology (hardware/software procurement and maintenance, operating conditions, existing document delivery systems, absence of information sharing culture) but argues that a longer term development strategy which allows for training, long term funding, cooperation and appropriate computer applications will result in sustainable information systems development in underdeveloped countries. (author). 11 refs.

  17. Comparison of temporal realistic telecommunication base station exposure with worst-case estimation in two countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouz, Zaher; Verloock, Leen; Joseph, Wout; Tanghe, Emmeric; Gati, Azeddine; Wiart, Joe; Lautru, David; Hanna, Victor Fouad; Martens, Luc

    2013-12-01

    The influence of temporal daily exposure to global system for mobile communications (GSM) and universal mobile telecommunications systems and high speed downlink packet access (UMTS-HSDPA) is investigated using spectrum analyser measurements in two countries, France and Belgium. Temporal variations and traffic distributions are investigated. Three different methods to estimate maximal electric-field exposure are compared. The maximal realistic (99 %) and the maximal theoretical extrapolation factor used to extrapolate the measured broadcast control channel (BCCH) for GSM and the common pilot channel (CPICH) for UMTS are presented and compared for the first time in the two countries. Similar conclusions are found in the two countries for both urban and rural areas: worst-case exposure assessment overestimates realistic maximal exposure up to 5.7 dB for the considered example. In France, the values are the highest, because of the higher population density. The results for the maximal realistic extrapolation factor at the weekdays are similar to those from weekend days.

  18. The Role of Small Countries in Post-Soviet Territorial Restructuring: the Baltic Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This author analyses the 2013 Lithuanian presidency of the EU in the context of the Ukrainian crisis and evaluates the contribution of Latvia and Estonia (the former Soviet republics set to preside over the EU in 2015 and 2018 to the shift in the power balance in the post-Soviet space. Through assessing the actions of small countries in promoting the Eastern Partnership programme with an emphasis on the anti-Russian agenda, the author concludes that they will inflict harm on the EU in a long-term perspective. These former Soviet republics no longer rely on mere diplomacy, but resort to a whole new problematic narrative, where Russia is described as an “aggressive and unpredictable neighbour” that poses the “threat from the East.” Being more mobile, small countries are able to concentrate power and resources in one or several key areas. This makes it possible for these countries to take advantage of international politics (even if the consequences of such steps are miscalculated and “feed” on it through — so metimes consciously — creating “conflict nodes” in the relations between major players. This is especially true in the case of states that do not bear responsibility for global stability.

  19. Ranking structures and rank-rank correlations of countries: The FIFA and UEFA cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausloos, Marcel; Cloots, Rudi; Gadomski, Adam; Vitanov, Nikolay K.

    2014-04-01

    Ranking of agents competing with each other in complex systems may lead to paradoxes according to the pre-chosen different measures. A discussion is presented on such rank-rank, similar or not, correlations based on the case of European countries ranked by UEFA and FIFA from different soccer competitions. The first question to be answered is whether an empirical and simple law is obtained for such (self-) organizations of complex sociological systems with such different measuring schemes. It is found that the power law form is not the best description contrary to many modern expectations. The stretched exponential is much more adequate. Moreover, it is found that the measuring rules lead to some inner structures in both cases.

  20. Theory testing using case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing Sørensen, Pernille; Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina

    2006-01-01

    on the strengths of theory-testing case studies. We specify research paths associated with theory testing in case studies and present a coherent argument for the logic of theoretical development and refinement using case studies. We emphasize different uses of rival explanations and their implications for research...... design. Finally, we discuss the epistemological logic, i.e., the value to larger research programmes, of such studies and, following Lakatos, conclude that the value of theory-testing case studies lies beyond naïve falsification and in their contribution to developing research programmes in a progressive......Case studies may have different research goals. One such goal is the testing of small-scale and middle-range theories. Theory testing refers to the critical examination, observation, and evaluation of the 'why' and 'how' of a specified phenomenon in a particular setting. In this paper, we focus...

  1. The Digital Divide in Developing Countries: A Case for Distance Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth E. Paprock

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Although distance education is catching up in almost all countries in the world, it is still little known and less studied in many of the developing countries. Given such a lack of coverage even in the Western educational literature, the possibilities of finding in-depth exchanges concerning distance education in developing countries are very limited. This presentation presents the existing 'digital gap' in the world, and focuses on three important barriers to distance education or learning are: 1 the lack of resources 2 lack of infrastructures, and 3 lack of recurrent funding necessary to acquire or develop appropriate software and courseware on a continuous basis, and maintain, service and replace the equipment. Technologists and educators need to enter the developing world, study the market and then modify their wares according to local needs with the help of local industry and labor-force. This is one important way of building meaningful collaborations and partnerships between the developed and developing countries.

  2. Fuzzy-Set Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Kim Sass

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary case studies rely on verbal arguments and set theory to build or evaluate theoretical claims. While existing procedures excel in the use of qualitative information (information about kind), they ignore quantitative information (information about degree) at central points of the analysis. Effectively, contemporary case studies rely on…

  3. Methodology for the case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.J.W.; Woltjer, G.B.

    2017-01-01

    This document is about the methodology and selection of the case studies. It is meant as a guideline for the case studies, and together with the other reports in this work package can be a source of inform ation for policy officers, interest groups and researchers evaluating or performing impact

  4. Opportunities, constraints and constrained opportunities - A study on mothers' working time patterns in 22 European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milla Salin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze mothers’ working time patters across 22 European countries. The focu was on three questions: how much mothers prefer to work, how much they actually work, and to what degree their preferred and actual working times are (inconsistent with each other. The focus was on cross-national differences in mothers’ working time patterns, comparison of mothers’ working times to that of childless women and fathers, as well as on individual- and country-level factors that explain the variation between them. In the theoretical background, the departure point was an integrative theoretical approach where the assumption is that there are various kinds of explanations for the differences in mothers’ working time patterns – namely structural, cultural and institutional – , and that these factors are laid in two levels: individual- and country-levels. Data were extracted from the European Social Survey (ESS 2010 / 2011. The results showed that mothers’ working time patterns, both preferred and actual working times, varied across European countries. Four clusters were formed to illustrate the differences. In the full-time pattern, full-time work was the most important form of work, leaving all other working time forms marginal. The full-time pattern was perceived in terms of preferred working times in Bulgaria and Portugal. In polarised pattern countries, full-time work was also important, but it was accompanied by a large share of mothers not working at all. In the case of preferred working times, many Eastern and Southern European countries followed it whereas in terms of actual working times it included all Eastern and Southern European countries as well as Finland. The combination pattern was characterised by the importance of long part-time hours and full-time work. It was the preferred working time pattern in the Nordic countries, France, Slovenia, and Spain, but Belgium, Denmark, France, Norway, and Sweden

  5. Case study - Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, E.

    1986-01-01

    Antecedents and experience of nuclear activities in Argentina; the Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA). First development and research activities. Research reactors and radioisotopes plants. Health physics and safety regulations. - Feasibility studies for the first nuclear power plant. Awarding the first plant CNA I (Atucha I). Relevant data related to the different project stages. Plant performance. - Feasibility study for the second nuclear power plant. Awarding the second plant CNE (Central Nuclear Embalse). Relevant data related to established targets. Differences compared with the first station targets. Local participation. Plant performance. (orig./GL)

  6. Case Study: Shiraz Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Khajehnoori

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between lifestyle which seems as a scale of globalization process with body image. Required data was collected by systematic random sampling among 508 women in Shiraz. Based on existing theories and studies theoretical framework has constituted based on Giddens theory. Six hypotheses have been established. For collecting information, survey method and self reported questionnaire were used. In data analysis and explanation, multiple regression and unilateral dispersion analyses were used. The result showed that among effective factors on body image, modern musical lifestyle, religious' lifestyle, leisure lifestyle and participative lifestyle explained 23 percent of variations of body image. Among these variables, only religious lifestyle had negative relationship with body image and other variables had positive relationship with dependant variable.

  7. Centrifugal compressor case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, B.

    2010-10-15

    Three centrifugal compressors at a pipeline station were retrofitted with higher head impellers in 2008. The owners of the station experienced vibration problems over the following 2 years that caused transmitter and position failures that were assumed to be flow-induced pulsations. A vibration and pulsation analysis indicated that the shell mode piping vibration excited by the blade pass pulsation was responsible for the failures. This study outlined factors that contributed to the vibration problem. Interferences between the compressor and shell mode piping natural frequencies were predicted, and potential excitation sources were examined. The study demonstrated how centrifugal vibration analyses can be used during the design phase to avoid costly adjustments. Recommendations included the addition of stiffeners to alter the shell modes, and the addition of constrained layer damping material to reduce resonant responses. 2 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  8. Case study: Tourism marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Kennell, James

    2014-01-01

    Tourism can be a challenging subject for students because it is both dynamic and susceptible to economic turbulence and shifts in trends. Tourism: A Modern Synthesis is an essential textbook for tourism students looking for a clear and comprehensive introduction to their studies which helps overcome these challenges. The authors apply a strong business approach to the subject reflecting developments in the teaching and content of modern courses and the text covers both key principles and cont...

  9. Country characteristics and acute diarrhea in children from developing nations: a multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzón-Rondón, Ángela María; Zárate-Ardila, Carol; Hoyos-Martínez, Alfonso; Ruiz-Sternberg, Ángela María; Vélez-van-Meerbeke, Alberto

    2015-08-21

    Each year 2.5 billion cases of diarrheal disease are reported in children under five years, and over 1,000 die. Country characteristics could play a role on this situation. We explored associations between country characteristics and diarrheal disease in children under 5 years of age, adjusting by child, mother and household attributes in developing countries. This study included 348,706 children from 40 nations. We conducted a multilevel analysis of data from the Demographic and Health Surveys and the World Bank. The prevalence of acute diarrhea was 14 %. Country inequalities (OR = 1.335; 95 % CI 1.117-1.663) and country's low income (OR = 1.488; 95 % CI 1.024-2.163) were associated with diarrhea, and these country characteristics changed the associations of well-known determinants of diarrhea. Specifically, living in poor countries strengthens the association of poor household wealth and mother's lack of education with the disease. Other factors associated with diarrhea were female sex of the child (OR = 0.922; 95 % CI 0.900-0.944), age of the child (OR = 0.978; 95 % CI 0.978-0.979), immunization status (OR = 0.821; 95 % CI 0.799-0.843), normal birthweight (OR = 0.879; 95 % CI 0.834-0.926), maternal age (OR = 0.987; 95 % CI 0.985-0.989), lack of maternal education (OR = 1.416; 95 % CI 1.283-1.564), working status of the mother (OR = 1.136; 95 % CI 1.106-1.167), planned pregnancy (OR = 0.774; 95 % CI 0.753-0.795), a nuclear family structure (OR = 0.949; 95 % CI 0.923-0.975), and household wealth (OR = 0.948; 95 % CI 0.921-0.977). Inequalities and lack of resources at the country level in developing countries -but not health expenditure- were associated with acute diarrhea, independently of child, family and household features. The broad environment considerably modifies well-known social determinants of acute diarrhea and public health campaigns designed to target diarrhea should consider macro characteristics of the

  10. Russia Foreign Policy In Latin America - Case Study Of Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-23

    case study of Nicaragua deeper than the previous thesis. It relates a study to the larger, ongoing dialogue in the literature, filling in gaps and...RUSSIA FOREIGN POLICY IN LATIN AMERICA — CASE STUDY OF NICARAGUA A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and...countries, in which case further publication or sale of copyrighted images is not permissible. ii REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No

  11. Case Study: Derechos Digitales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Neylon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Derechos Digitales is a Latin American advocacy and research network focussed on freedom on the internet, privacy and copyright reform. For the pilot project a specific IDRC funded project was the notional focus of study. However in practice the effort for considering data sharing was aimed at being organisation wide. The organisation already shares reports and other resources (particularly images and infographics by default. While open data was described as being “in the DNA of the organisation” there was little practice across the network of sharing preliminary and in-process materials. Some aspects of data collection on research projects, particularly to do with copyright and legal issues, have significant privacy issues and as the organisation focuses on privacy as one of its advocacy areas this is taken very seriously. Many materials from research projects are not placed online at all. Derechos Digitales run distributed projects and this creates challenges for consistent management. Alongside this the main contact at DD changed during the course of the pilot. This exchange exemplified the challenges of maintaining organisational systems and awareness through a personnel change.

  12. Strategies for reducing emissions and depositions in Central and Eastern European countries: The case of the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Harmelen, T.; De Kruijk, H.; Stoffer, A.; Maly, M.

    1995-06-01

    A detailed case study on developments and reduction of acidifying SO 2 and NO x emissions from the energy system was conducted for the Czech Republic. Scenarios and the Energy Flow Optimization Model - Environment (EFOM-ENV) of the European Union (DG 12) were applied for the first time in the Czech Republic and were similar to those that were used in the other European country studies in preparation of the Second Sulphur Protocol. Czech SO 2 emissions can be reduced at low marginal costs, but at high total national costs compared with e.g. the Netherlands. The main reasons for this are the high sulphur content of (brown) coal, that has a high share in national energy consumption, a relatively high energy intensity, low wages, and the fact that most Western countries already have reduced their SO 2 emissions in the past. Marginal NO x emission reduction costs are similar to those of Western countries and national total NO x reduction costs are relatively high. In contrast with fuel switching, retrofitting of existing technologies is an attractive SO 2 and NO x reduction option in the short term. High interest and discount rates due to capital scarcity increases emissions and emission reduction costs. Therefore, short term involvement of Western investors could lead to European cost-effective emission reduction. 17 figs., 5 tabs., 2 appendices, 20 refs

  13. Case study: Khoramdareh County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Riahi Riahi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental sustainability of rural settlements based on a systematic viewpoint may be defined as a realization of sustainable development in different social, economic and environmental aspects of rural areas. Achieving this goal requires that we pay more attention to effective elements and factors through a set of sustainability indices. This research was meant to analyze sustainable factors of rural settlement in three dimensions: environmental, social and economic context using multi-criteria decision analysis and explanation of the relationships between its active and effective factors in the rural area of the Khorramdarreh County in the province of Zanjan. The research method used is the descriptive analytic approach. Data from 287 households were sampled randomly from a total of 1143 households in the four villages including: Rahmat Abad, Alvand, Baghdareh and, Sukhariz (out of 15 villages in the Khorramdarreh County. In the process of doing this research and after calculating the weights, the difference in the sustainability of environmental, social, economic and physical aspects in rural areas of this county have been determined. Data was collected using library and field research through questionnaires. Data analysis was performed by the One-Sample t Test and the Vikur and path analysis techniques, using statistical software SPSS. The findings show that environmental sustainability in the study area is half desirable. Among the different aspects of environmental sustainability, the most effective factors are physical, economic, social and environmental aspects, respectively. Little attention of policy-making –system to socio-cultural and environmental aspects, especially in practice, and rapid and unplanned utilization of production resources are the most important factors affecting this situation in two given dimensions. Although, in programmed documents the planning system agents emphasize on the socio-cultural sustainability

  14. Facebook use and acculturation: The case of overseas Chinese professionals in western countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Yuping; Qian, Yuxia

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe emergence of social network sites has provided new opportunities for intercultural communication. This study is one of the first to explore the role of Facebook on the acculturation of Chinese professionals overseas. Through qualitative interviews, we explored how overseas Chinese professionals use Facebook to maintain their social networks, manage their multicultural identities, and adapt to Western culture in their host countries. Our research reveals that overseas Chinese p...

  15. Gender Inequality and Growth : The Case of Rich vs. Poor Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, Mohammad; Kuntchev, Veselin; Schmidt, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses cross-section data for 107 countries to explore the relationship between gender inequality and economic growth. The paper departs from the literature by using a broad measure of gender inequality that goes well beyond gender inequality in education, which has been the focus of most studies. Another novelty of the paper lies in exploring heterogeneity in the growth-gender in...

  16. Can virtual water 'trade' reduce water scarcity in semi-arid countries? The case of Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido, Alberto; Novo, Paula; Rodriguez Casado, Roberto; Varela-Ortega, Consuelo

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural trade is by far the largest vehicle to ‘move’ water virtually around the world. Observing that most countries import and export water embedded in the exchanged products, the objective of this study is to assess the virtual water ‘trade’ in Spain for the period 1997-2006. We differentiate between the green and blue components of virtual water from a hydrological and economic perspective. The combination of spatial and time dimensions offers a unique empirical setting to determine ...

  17. Does Innovation Performance Depend on Economic Growth?: The Case of a Country in Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej H Jasinski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to analyze a possible influence of economic growth on innovation performance. Econometric model based on principal component analysis is the research tool. Poland, as a country in transition, is here a case-study. The analysis has confirmed an interesting pattern: in 1989-2007, corporate innovation performance was changing, in principle, in the same direction as macro-economic changes but with a one-to-two-year delay. This is some proof that the innovation activity followed the cyclical development of the national economy. Innovation performance was demand-driven, i.e., pulled by demand resulting from the economy's recovery and high economic growth. So, technological innovation appeared to be highly sensitive to the general economic situation in Poland as a transitional economy. Economic growth seems to be a kind of tag-boat pulling innovation activities in the business sector.Este artículo intenta analizar una posible influencia del crecimiento económico en el desempeño de la innovación. La herramienta de investigación empleada es el modelo econométrico basado en un componente principal de análisis. El estudio de caso es Polonia, una economía en transición. El análisis ha confirmado un patrón interesante: durante el periodo 1989-2007, el desempeño de la innovación cambió, en principio, en la misma dirección que los cambios macroeconómicos pero con un retraso de uno a dos años. Esto muestra de algún modo que la actividad innovadora correspondió al desarrollo cíclico de la economía nacional. El desempeño innovador se orientó por la demanda, es decir, una demanda impulsada por la recuperación económica y el alto crecimiento económico. Por lo tanto, la innovación tecnológica parece ser muy sensible a la situación económica en general de Polonia, como economía en transición. El crecimiento económico parece ser una especie de motor que impulsa las actividades innovadoras del sector de negocios.

  18. Institutions and service employment: a panel study for OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Messina, Julián

    2004-01-01

    We live in a service economy, but the extent of development of service employment differs across developed countries. This paper assesses the role of structural factors and institutions in explaining the common patterns and main di?erences in the recent expansion of service employment in OECD countries. It finds that GDP per capita, the size of the government sector and the extent of urbanization are positively associated with the service employment share. However, the evidence suggests that ...