WorldWideScience

Sample records for country case studies

  1. Cost of dengue outbreaks: literature review and country case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Hans-Christian; Butenschoen, Vicki Marie; Tran, Hien Tinh; Gozzer, Ernesto; Skewes, Ronald; Mahendradhata, Yodi; Runge-Ranzinger, Silvia; Kroeger, Axel; Farlow, Andrew

    2013-11-06

    Dengue disease surveillance and vector surveillance are presumed to detect dengue outbreaks at an early stage and to save--through early response activities--resources, and reduce the social and economic impact of outbreaks on individuals, health systems and economies. The aim of this study is to unveil evidence on the cost of dengue outbreaks. Economic evidence on dengue outbreaks was gathered by conducting a literature review and collecting information on the costs of recent dengue outbreaks in 4 countries: Peru, Dominican Republic, Vietnam, and Indonesia. The literature review distinguished between costs of dengue illness including cost of dengue outbreaks, cost of interventions and cost-effectiveness of interventions. Seventeen publications on cost of dengue showed a large range of costs from 0.2 Million US$ in Venezuela to 135.2 Million US$ in Brazil. However, these figures were not standardized to make them comparable. Furthermore, dengue outbreak costs are calculated differently across the publications, and cost of dengue illness is used interchangeably with cost of dengue outbreaks. Only one paper from Australia analysed the resources saved through active dengue surveillance. Costs of vector control interventions have been reported in 4 studies, indicating that the costs of such interventions are lower than those of actual outbreaks. Nine papers focussed on the cost-effectiveness of dengue vaccines or dengue vector control; they do not provide any direct information on cost of dengue outbreaks, but their modelling methodologies could guide future research on cost-effectiveness of national surveillance systems.The country case studies--conducted in very different geographic and health system settings - unveiled rough estimates for 2011 outbreak costs of: 12 million US$ in Vietnam, 6.75 million US$ in Indonesia, 4.5 million US$ in Peru and 2.8 million US$ in Dominican Republic (all in 2012 US$). The proportions of the different cost components (vector control

  2. Evaluating Decoupling Process in OECD Countries: Case Study of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Nazan; Şengün Ucal, Meltem; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is at the top of the present and future problems facing humanity. Climate change is now largely attributed to human activities and economic activities are the source of human activities that cause climate change by creating pressure on the environment. Providing the sustainability of resources for the future seems possible by reducing the pressure of these economic activities on the environment. Given the increasing population pressure and growth-focused economies, it is possible to say that achieving decoupling is not so easy on a global basis. It is known that there are some problems in developing countries especially in terms of accessing reliable data in transition and implementation process of decoupling. Developed countries' decoupling practices and proper calculation methods can also be a guide for developing countries. In this study, we tried to calculate the comparative decoupling index for OECD countries and Turkey in terms of data suitability, and we showed the differences between them. We tried to indicate the level of decoupling (weak, stable, strong) for each country. We think that the comparison of Turkey can be an example in terms of developing countries. Acknowledgement: This research has been supported by Bogazici University Research Fund Grant Number 12220.

  3. Software Development Offshoring Competitiveness: A Case Study of ASEAN Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Minh Q.

    2011-01-01

    With the success of offshoring within the American software industry, corporate executives are moving their software developments overseas. The member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have become a preferred destination. However, there is a lack of published studies on the region's software competitiveness in…

  4. Voluntary Environmental Regulation in Developing Countries: A Mexican Case Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ALLEN BLACKMAN; NICHOLAS SISTO

    2006-01-01

    .... This article presents a case study of four high-profile voluntary environmental agreements used during the 1980s and 1990s in an attempt to control pollution from leather tanneries in León, Guanajuato...

  5. Water supply arrangements in developing countries: A case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Malawi. B.U.G. Mughogho, I.B.M. Kosamu. Abstract. The provision of potable water in the cities of developing countries has been of concern for a long time. Most of the urban population, especially in unplanned settlements, relies on ...

  6. Developing countries and incipient industrialization: a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Botswana's small and large towns offer good examples of incipient industrialization and enterprise clustering in a developing economy. Using data from Lobatse, a small industrial centre in Botswana, this brief paper shows that clustering in developing countries does not necessarily induce high inter-firm relationships as is ...

  7. Contextualising case studies in entrepreneurship: A tandem approach to conducting a longitudinal cross-country case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chetty, S. K.; Partanen, J.; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager

    2014-01-01

    Using predictive and effectuation logics as a framework, this research note explains how case study research was conducted to demonstrate rigour and relevance. The study involves a longitudinal cross-country case study on small and medium-sized firm growth and networks undertaken by research teams...... in three countries (Finland, Denmark and New Zealand) involving 33 firms. This research note outlines the implications of this research and provides valuable guidance and reflections upon opportunities for future research regarding the conduct of contextual studies in entrepreneurship without compromising...

  8. developing countries: case study of china and sub-saharan africa (ssa)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: CASE STUDY OF CHINA AND. SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA (SSA). Andzio-Bika Herve Lezin Wilfrid and Kamitewoko Edwige. Abstract. This paper analyzed the influence of agriculture in GDP of China and three SSA countries. Data used for the study was drawn from the Food and Agriculture ...

  9. Online Grocery Shopping in Developing Countries: Jordanian Consumers as Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Al Nawayseh; Wamadeva Balachandran

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated customer willingness towards online grocery shopping in the Jordanian context, chosen as a case of a developing country. It explores the customers’ general attitudes towards buying groceries on the Internet with respect to promoting and inhibiting factors. Online grocery shopping has grown rapidly in developed countries, for the benefit and convenience of customers there. Such services remain in their infancy in developing countries. This study was conducted by formu...

  10. Multiple case study in seven European countries regarding culture-sensitive classroom quality assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Slot, P.L.; Cadima, Joana; Salminen, Jenni; Pastori, Giulia; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a multiple case study, conducted in seven European countries to examine common and culturally differing aspects of curriculum, pedagogy, and quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) provisions in Europe. This multiple case study involved intensive data collection on structural characteristics, process quality, implemented curricula and pedagogical approaches in four ECEC centers in each of the seven countries that were considered examples of ‘g...

  11. Coastal Vulnerability to Erosion Processes: Study Cases from Different Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anfuso, Giorgio; Martinez Del Pozo, Jose Angel; Rangel-Buitrago, Nelson

    2010-05-01

    When natural processes affect or threaten human activities or infrastructures they become a natural hazard. In order to prevent the natural hazards impact and the associated economic and human losses, coastal managers need to know the intrinsic vulnerability of the littoral, using information on the physical and ecological coastal features, human occupation and present and future shoreline trends. The prediction of future coastline positions can be based on the study of coastal changes which have occurred over recent decades. Vertical aerial photographs, satellite imagery and maps are very useful data sources for the reconstruction of coast line changes at long (>60 years) and medium (between 60 and 10 years) temporal and spatial scales. Vulnerability maps have been obtained for several coastal sectors around the world through the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS), computer-assisted multivariate analysis and numerical models. In the USA, "Flood Insurance Rate Maps" have been created by the government and "Coastal Zone Hazard Maps" have been prepared for coastal stretches affected by hurricane Hugo. In Spain, the vulnerability of the Ebro and an Andalusia coastal sector were investigated over different time scales. McLaughlin et al., (2002) developed a GIS based coastal vulnerability index for the Northern Ireland littoral that took into account socio-economic activities and coastal resistance to erosion and energetic characteristics. Lizárraga et al., (2001) combined beach reduction at Rosario (Mexico) with the probability of damage to landward structures, obtaining a vulnerability matrix. In this work several coastal vulnerability maps have also been created by comparing data on coastal erosion/accretion and land use along different coastal sectors in Italy, Morocco and Colombia. Keywords: Hazard, Vulnerability, Coastal Erosion, Italy, Morocco, Colombia.

  12. Multiple case study in seven European countries regarding culture-sensitive classroom quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, P.L.; Cadima, Joana; Salminen, Jenni; Pastori, Giulia; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina

    This report presents the findings of a multiple case study, conducted in seven European countries to examine common and culturally differing aspects of curriculum, pedagogy, and quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) provisions in Europe. This multiple case study involved intensive

  13. 16 case studies on the deployment of photovoltaic technologies in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme presents 16 Case Studies on the deployment of photovoltaic technologies in developing countries. This guide provides information for all decision-makers in developing countries involved in the process of developing a PV project. These decision-makers can be found in institutions and host governments and also include PV project developers and sponsors, PV producers and suppliers, entrepreneurs, and NGOs. The case studies presented can help such decision-makers learn from past experience gained in the deployment of PV systems. They include experience gained in PV-related projects in various countries, including electrification, water desalination and solar home systems. Financing issues are, of course, also addressed.

  14. Home education in the post-communist countries: Case study of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvona KOSTELECKÁ

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the emergence of home education in European post-communist countries after 1989. The case of the Czech Republic representing the development and characteristic features of home education in the whole region is studied in detail. Additionalinformation about homeschooling in other post-communist countries are provided wherever they are available in order to provide a more comprehensive picture of the issue. The driving forces and history of home education after 1989 are described. Current homeschooling legislation is analyzed with special attention paid to the processes of the legal enrolment of individuals into home education, supervision and assessment of educational results. The article concludes that despite the existence of country-specificcharacteristics, many features of home education in post-communist countries are similar. These generally include the rather strict regulation of home education and the high importance of schools as both gate-keeping and supervising institutions.

  15. Home education in the post-communist countries: Case study of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvona Kostelecka

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the emergence of home education in European post-communist countries after 1989. The case of the Czech Republic representing the development and characteristic features of home education in the whole region is studied in detail. Additional information about homeschooling in other post-communist countries are provided wherever they are available in order to provide a more comprehensive picture of the issue. The driving forces and history of home education after 1989 are described. Current homeschooling legislation is analyzed with special attention paid to the processes of the legal enrolment of individuals into home education, supervision and assessment of educational results. The article concludes that despite the existence of country-specific characteristics, many features of home education in post-communist countries are similar. These generally include the rather strict regulation of home education and the high importance of schools as both gate-keeping and supervising institutions.

  16. Case studies on employment-related health inequalities in countries representing different types of labor markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Ho; Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo; Benach, Joan

    2010-01-01

    The authors selected nine case studies, one country from each cluster of their labor market inequalities typology, to outline the macro-political and economic roots of employment relations and their impacts on health. These countries illustrate variations in labor markets and health, categorized into a global empirical typology. The case studies illustrated that workers' health is significantly connected with labor market characteristics and the welfare system. For a core country, the labor market is characterized by a formal sector. The labor institutions of Sweden traditionally have high union density and collective bargaining coverage and a universal health care system, which correlate closely with positive health, in comparison with Spain and the United States. For a semi-periphery country, the labor market is delineated by a growing informal economy. Although South Korea, Venezuela, and El Salvador provide some social welfare benefits, a high proportion of irregular and informal workers are excluded from these benefits and experience hazardous working conditions that adversely affect their health. Lastly, several countries in the global periphery--China, Nigeria, and Haiti--represent informal work and severe labor market insecurity. In the absence of labor market regulations, the majority of their workers toil in the informal sector in unsafe conditions with inadequate health care.

  17. The impact of nation branding campaigns on country image. Case Study: Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Anca-Georgiana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze how a nation branding campaign can influence the image of a country and to highlight its positive or negative impact on industries such as tourism and on people’s perception. In order to accomplish this objective, Romania was taken as a case study. Five of the most important nation branding campaigns in Romania, after 1989, were examined in comparison, analyzing the same indicators. In the end, the paper shows that if nation branding campaigns do not follow a long-term strategy with all actors involved in the process, its impact in country image may be rather negative.

  18. Adoption of the HPV vaccine: a case study of three emerging countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro Martínez, Araceli; Espín Balbino, Jaime; Lemgruber, Alexandre; Martín Ruiz, Eva; Olry de Labry Lima, Antonio; García-Mochón, Leticia; Lessa, Fernanda

    2017-05-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has recently attracted considerable attention in emerging countries, due to its potential to reduce the impact of HPV-related diseases. This case study sheds new light about the variety of HTA arrangements, methods and processes involved in the adoption and use of HPV vaccines in a selected sample of central, eastern and southern Europe and Latin America and the Caribbean, all of them emerging in the use of HTA. A multi-country case study was designed. Mixed methods, document review, semi-structured surveys and personal communication with experts, were used for data collection and triangulation. This study shows that common elements of good practice exist in the processes and methods used, with all countries arriving at the same appraisal recommendations. However, the influence of socio-politico-economic factors appears to be determinant on the final decisions and restrictions to access made. This case study intends to draw useful lessons for policymakers in emerging settings interested in the adoption of the HPV vaccine supported by evidence-informed processes, such as those offered by institutionalized HTA. Future studies are also recommended to elucidate the specific roles that social values and uncertainties play in vaccine decision-making across different societies.

  19. What can be learned from practical cases of green economy? - studies from five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitkänen, Kati; Antikainen, Riina; Droste, Nils

    2016-01-01

    The transition to green economies has been mediated by concrete cases and experiments in a variety of different industrial and social sectors. What is lacking, is research that would synthesize key findings and “lessons learned” across a variety of cases. In this study, we explore ten cases...... of green economy of different sectors and approaches from five European countries and identify factors that have had critical importance for the success or failure of the cases. Our paper reveals similarities across small and large scale cases and different approaches for implementing green economy. We...... identified critical factors related to economic viability, public funding, technological development, impact assessments, public policies and regulation, social capital, leadership and coordination as well as public acceptability and image. According to our results, transition to green economies requires...

  20. Case Study for Effectiveness Analysis on Nuclear Regulatory Infrastructure Support for Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. E.; Byeon, M. J.; Yoo, J. W.; Lee, J. M.; Lim, J. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The donor countries need to make decisions on various steps such as whether to fully accept newcomers’ requests, the depth of support, and how the supportive action will be carried out. Such is not an easy task due to limited time, resources, manpower, etc. Thus, creating an infrastructure to support emerging nuclear energy countries is needed. This paper suggests the resource portfolio concept used in business management and aims to analyze the validity of supporting the new entrants’ development of regulatory infrastructure as a case study. This study tries to develop a very simple Excel-based tool for assessing the supporting strategy quantitatively and screening the activities that is projected to be less effective and attractive. There are many countries, so called newcomers, which have expressed interests in developing their own nuclear power program. It has been recognized by the international community that every country considering embarking upon their own nuclear power program should establish their nuclear safety infrastructure to sustain a high level of nuclear safety. The newcomers have requested for considerable assistance from the IAEA and they already have bilateral cooperation programs with the advanced countries with matured nuclear regulatory programs. Currently, the regulatory bodies that provide support are confronted with two responsibilities as follows; the primary objective of the regulatory bodies is to ensure that the operator fulfills the responsibility to protect human health.

  1. Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

    2015-04-04

    Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 1, Summary: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. [eds.; Cerutti, O.M.

    1992-08-01

    Forests are a major source of carbon dioxide emissions in developing countries, in most cases far exceeding the emissions from the energy sector. To date, however, efforts at quantifying forestry emissions have produced a wide range of results. In order to assist policymakers in developing measures to reduce emissions` levels and to increase carbon sequestration, the Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) has undertaken this effort to improve the precision of emissions estimates and to identify possible response options in the forestry sector. This paper summarizes the results of one component of this work. The Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) was established in 1990 as part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change`s (IPCC) activities in examining growing emissions of greenhouse gases and their potential impact on the global climate. Unlike past methods, this study relied on a network of participants from developing countries to prepare estimates of carbon emissions. The participating countries -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico and Thailand -- currently represent an estimated two-thirds of the annual deforestation of closed moist forests. This study gives an estimate of 837 million tonnes of carbon emissions from deforestation and logging in the F-7 countries in 1990. A proportional projection of these estimates to the tropical biome shows that the total carbon emissions are between 1.1 and 1.7 billion tonnes of carbon, with a working average of 1.4 billion tonnes per year. This work also provides estimates of emissions and uptake from China, which past studies rarely have included. This summary will be followed by individual reports by each of the participating countries, which will include detailed evaluations of possible response options. Estimates for Nigeria are also under preparation.

  3. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. (eds.); Cerutti, O.M.

    1992-08-01

    Forests are a major source of carbon dioxide emissions in developing countries, in most cases far exceeding the emissions from the energy sector. To date, however, efforts at quantifying forestry emissions have produced a wide range of results. In order to assist policymakers in developing measures to reduce emissions' levels and to increase carbon sequestration, the Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) has undertaken this effort to improve the precision of emissions estimates and to identify possible response options in the forestry sector. This paper summarizes the results of one component of this work. The Tropical Forest Research Network (F-7) was established in 1990 as part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) activities in examining growing emissions of greenhouse gases and their potential impact on the global climate. Unlike past methods, this study relied on a network of participants from developing countries to prepare estimates of carbon emissions. The participating countries -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico and Thailand -- currently represent an estimated two-thirds of the annual deforestation of closed moist forests. This study gives an estimate of 837 million tonnes of carbon emissions from deforestation and logging in the F-7 countries in 1990. A proportional projection of these estimates to the tropical biome shows that the total carbon emissions are between 1.1 and 1.7 billion tonnes of carbon, with a working average of 1.4 billion tonnes per year. This work also provides estimates of emissions and uptake from China, which past studies rarely have included. This summary will be followed by individual reports by each of the participating countries, which will include detailed evaluations of possible response options. Estimates for Nigeria are also under preparation.

  4. A philosophy for health informatics education in developing countries: Nigeria as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinde, A D; Soriyan, H A; Adagunodo, E R

    1997-02-01

    The use of computers in the health sector has increased significantly during the last few years in Nigeria. This paper addresses the integration of health and informatics education, or health education and informatics education, or informatics education in health care delivery. It gives an introduction to the status of a health informatics programme in the daily practice of computer use. The essence of a health informatics curriculum, the planning and administration of the programme in medical schools, and what informatics education offers the health sector, even in a developing country, are presented. The problems of administering an informatics programme in a conventional medical training curriculum are highlighted. The article describes the philosophy which should underline the framework for the formulation of appropriate national policies and curricula for health informatics education in developing countries, using Nigeria as a case study.

  5. Using information technology for an improved pharmaceutical care delivery in developing countries. Study case: Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edoh, Thierry Oscar; Teege, Gunnar

    2011-10-01

    One of the problems in health care in developing countries is the bad accessibility of medicine in pharmacies for patients. Since this is mainly due to a lack of organization and information, it should be possible to improve the situation by introducing information and communication technology. However, for several reasons, standard solutions are not applicable here. In this paper, we describe a case study in Benin, a West African developing country. We identify the problem and the existing obstacles for applying standard ECommerce solutions. We develop an adapted system approach and describe a practical test which has shown that the approach has the potential of actually improving the pharmaceutical care delivery. Finally, we consider the security aspects of the system and propose an organizational solution for some specific security problems.

  6. Modeling integrated urban water systems in developing countries: case study of Port Vila, Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poustie, Michael S; Deletic, Ana

    2014-12-01

    Developing countries struggle to provide adequate urban water services, failing to match infrastructure with urban expansion. Despite requiring an improved understanding of alternative infrastructure performance when considering future investments, integrated modeling of urban water systems is infrequent in developing contexts. This paper presents an integrated modeling methodology that can assist strategic planning processes, using Port Vila, Vanuatu, as a case study. 49 future model scenarios designed for the year 2050, developed through extensive stakeholder participation, were modeled with UVQ (Urban Volume and Quality). The results were contrasted with a 2015 model based on current infrastructure, climate, and water demand patterns. Analysis demonstrated that alternative water servicing approaches can reduce Port Vila's water demand by 35 %, stormwater generation by 38 %, and nutrient release by 80 % in comparison to providing no infrastructural development. This paper demonstrates that traditional centralized infrastructure will not solve the wastewater and stormwater challenges facing rapidly growing urban cities in developing countries.

  7. Implementation of e-commerce in developing countries: impact and its limitations-Albanian Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genti Çela

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of Electronic Commerce (hereinafter referred to as "e-Commerce" in developed countries has been proven as an indisputable potential to ameliorate the efficiency and productivity in different areas, therefore, its implementation is attracting significant attention in developing countries. Despite its opportunities established in developed countries, there were many doubts about the e-commerce implementation in developing countries. That reluctance is heightened by the limited number of studies on e-commerce and the lack of legislation. This paper aims to contribute on filling the research gap by highlighting the e-commerce implementation in Albania as a developing country, its importance, the level of trust, its benefits, its positive or negative impacts and its limitations. This study will be continuously and accordingly updated with new evidence based on research results, along with future developments of Albania’s economic, political, social and demographic environment. This is because different areas represent different infrastructure and different social and economic characteristics, different levels of trust on transactions, different attitudes towards institutions. We have also take into consideration that different communities have different attitudes toward the acceptance and developments of e-Commerce system. In this paper, we present a comprehensive approach to e-commerce, concentrating specifically on Albanian case. Firstly we analyze the current situation of e-Commerce. Secondly we pay attention to the benefits and legal strategies for its implementation. The third step consists in presenting the relevant objectives. We believe and insist that the development of e-commerce in developing nations, - including Albania, has a positive perspective, if the government, companies and the public can better understand and implement e-Commerce.

  8. A case study of an ESL Student learning English in an English Speaking Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Taufiq

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Different students who learn English as the second language has various problems and strategies to overcome. A case study on an international student who learns English as a second language in an English speaking country raised some problems he had and offered some strategies he used during the process of learning. The progress of learning from the first time coming and studying at a college in Australia was mainly the core data collected on this study. The data copes from his formal academic learning experience and also from informal situation that he met at his everyday life. This study applied qualitative research method and use interview and recording as the instruments. The data were analized through three stages: data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing. The results of the study show that the learner experiences a range of English learning problems which happened after his coming to Australia and some strategies he used to overcome.

  9. Factors Influencing Adaptive Marine Governance in a Developing Country Context: a Case Study of Southern Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa S. Evans

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive governance can be conceptualized as distinct phases of: 1 understanding environmental change; 2 using this understanding to inform decision making; and 3 acting on decisions in a manner that sustains resilience of desirable system states. Using this analytical framework, we explore governance in practice in two case studies in Kenya, that reflect the "messiness" of contemporary coastal governance in many developing country contexts. Findings suggest that adaptive marine governance is unlikely to be a smooth process of learning, knowledge sharing, and responding. There are institutional, sociocultural, and political factors, past and present, that influence each phase of both local and state decision making. New local institutions related to fisher associations and Beach Management Units influence learning and knowledge sharing in ways contrary to those expected of institutions that enable collaborative fisheries management. Similarly, state decision making is relatively uninformed by the diverse knowledge systems available in the coastal zone, despite the rhetoric of participation. Historical relations and modes of working continue to play a significant role in mediating the potential for adaptive governance in the future. The case studies are illustrative and point to a number of institutional and political issues that would need to be addressed in processes of governance reform towards more adaptive management in developing country contexts.

  10. Waste management barriers in developing country hospitals: Case study and AHP analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmonico, Diego V de Godoy; Santos, Hugo H Dos; Pinheiro, Marco Ap; de Castro, Rosani; de Souza, Regiane M

    2018-01-01

    Healthcare waste management is an essential field for both researchers and practitioners. Although there have been few studies using statistical methods for its evaluation, it has been the subject of several studies in different contexts. Furthermore, the known precarious practices for waste management in developing countries raise questions about its potential barriers. This study aims to investigate the barriers in healthcare waste management and their relevance. For this purpose, this paper analyses waste management practices in two Brazilian hospitals by using case study and the Analytic Hierarchy Process method. The barriers were organized into three categories - human factors, management, and infrastructure, and the main findings suggest that cost and employee awareness were the most significant barriers. These results highlight the main barriers to more sustainable waste management, and provide an empirical basis for multi-criteria evaluation of the literature.

  11. Creating organizational innovations in countries in transition using Finnish change laboratory: A case study from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodrožić Zlatko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Finnish Change Laboratory intervention method has been used in several Western countries to support innovation and learning within organizations. This study explored the applicability of the Change Laboratory method to work activities in Eastern European transition economies. The case of a Change Laboratory project at a Serbian publishing house was examined and discussed. The Change Laboratory led to a clear break from previous models and resulted in a new, much more efficient model of work organization based on teams. The studied publishing house can be characterized as an innovator within a relatively laggard industry. This characteristic increased the Serbian publisher’s potential for developing “learning partnerships” with publishing activities in EU Member States. These “learning partnerships” enabled appropriate Western concepts to be found that could be used as stimuli to develop a new model of work for the publishing house during the Change Laboratory.

  12. The three waves in implementation of facility-based kangaroo mother care: a multi-country case study from Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Bergh, Anne-Marie; de Graft-Johnson, Joseph; Khadka, Neena; Om?Iniabohs, Alyssa; Udani, Rekha; Pratomo, Hadi; De Leon-Mendoza, Socorro

    2016-01-01

    Background Kangaroo mother care has been highlighted as an effective intervention package to address high neonatal mortality pertaining to preterm births and low birth weight. However, KMC uptake and service coverage have not progressed well in many countries. The aim of this case study was to understand the institutionalisation processes of facility-based KMC services in three Asian countries (India, Indonesia and the Philippines) and the reasons for the slow uptake of KMC in these countries...

  13. Convergence to the European Energy Policy in European countries: case studies and comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Teixeira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Our paper aims at analyzing how different European countries cope with the European Energy Policy, which proposes a set of measures (free energy market, smart meters, energy certificates to improve energy utilization and management in Europe.Design/methodology/approach – The paper first reports the general vision, regulations and goals set up by Europe to implement the European Energy Policy. Later on, it performs an analysis of how some European countries are coping with the goals, with financial, legal, economical and regulatory measures. Finally, the paper draws a comparison between the countries to present a view on how Europe is responding to the emerging energy emergency of the modern world.Findings – Our analysis on different use cases (countries showed that European countries are converging to a common energy policy, even though some countries appear to be later than others In particular, Southern European countries were slowed down by the world financial and economical crisis. Still, it appears that contingency plans were put into action, and Europe as a whole is proceeding steadily towards the common vision.Research limitations/implications – European countries are applying yet more cuts to financing green technologies, and it is not possible to predict clearly how each country will evolve its support to the European energy policy.Practical implications – Different countries applied the concepts and measures in different ways. The implementation of the European energy policy has to cope with the resulting plethora of regulations, and a company proposing enhancement regarding energy management still has to possess robust knowledge of the single country, before being able to export experience and know-how between European countries.Originality/Value – Even though a few surveys on energy measures in Europe are already part of the state-of-the-art, organic analysis diagonal to the different topics of the European

  14. Risk factors for ischaemic and intracerebral haemorrhagic stroke in 22 countries (the INTERSTROKE study): a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donnell, M.J.; Serpault, Damien Xavier; Xiufeng, Liu

    2010-01-01

    of symptoms onset and 72 h of hospital admission). Controls had no history of stroke, and were matched with cases for age and sex. All participants completed a structured questionnaire and a physical examination, and most provided blood and urine samples. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and population......Background The contribution of various risk factors to the burden of stroke worldwide is unknown, particularly in countries of low and middle income. We aimed to establish the association of known and emerging risk factors with stroke and its primary subtypes, assess the contribution of these risk...... factors to the burden of stroke, and explore the differences between risk factors for stroke and myocardial infarction. Methods We undertook a standardised case-control study in 22 countries worldwide between March 1, 2007, and April 23, 2010. Cases were patients with acute first stroke (within 5 days...

  15. Waste a necessary evil for economically impoverished communities in least developed countries (LCDc): a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mvuma, G

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available ” for the economically impoverished communities particularly from a Least Developed Country (LCD) perspective. To illustrate the economic contribution of waste harvesters in terms of jobs creation and income generation, we examine a case of Lesotho as a least developed...

  16. Malaria control in Bhutan: case study of a country embarking on elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangzom, Thinley; Gueye, Cara Smith; Namgay, Rinzin; Galappaththy, Gawrie N L; Thimasarn, Krongthong; Gosling, Roly; Murugasampillay, Shiva; Dev, Vas

    2012-01-09

    Bhutan has achieved a major reduction in malaria incidence amid multiple challenges. This case study seeks to characterize the Bhutan malaria control programme over the last 10 years. A review of the malaria epidemiology, control strategies, and elimination strategies employed in Bhutan was carried out through a literature review of peer-reviewed and grey national and international literature with the addition of reviewing the surveillance and vector control records of the Bhutan Vector-Borne Disease Control Programme (VDCP). Data triangulation was used to identify trends in epidemiology and key strategies and interventions through analysis of the VDCP surveillance and programme records and the literature review. Enabling and challenging factors were identified through analysis of socio-economic and health indicators, corroborated through a review of national and international reports and peer-review articles. Confirmed malaria cases in Bhutan declined by 98.7% from 1994 to 2010. The majority of indigenous cases were due to Plasmodium vivax (59.9%) and adult males are most at-risk of malaria. Imported cases, or those in foreign nationals, varied over the years, reaching 21.8% of all confirmed cases in 2006. Strategies implemented by the VDCP are likely to be related to the decline in cases over the last 10 years. Access to malaria diagnosis in treatment was expanded throughout the country and evidence-based case management, including the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for P. falciparum, increasing coverage of high risk areas with Indoor Residual Spraying, insecticide-treated bed nets, and long-lasting insecticidal nets are likely to have contributed to the decline alongside enabling factors such as economic development and increasing access to health services. Bhutan has made significant strides towards elimination and has adopted a goal of national elimination. A major challenge in the future will be prevention and management of

  17. Malaria control in Bhutan: case study of a country embarking on elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangzom Thinley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bhutan has achieved a major reduction in malaria incidence amid multiple challenges. This case study seeks to characterize the Bhutan malaria control programme over the last 10 years. Methods A review of the malaria epidemiology, control strategies, and elimination strategies employed in Bhutan was carried out through a literature review of peer-reviewed and grey national and international literature with the addition of reviewing the surveillance and vector control records of the Bhutan Vector-Borne Disease Control Programme (VDCP. Data triangulation was used to identify trends in epidemiology and key strategies and interventions through analysis of the VDCP surveillance and programme records and the literature review. Enabling and challenging factors were identified through analysis of socio-economic and health indicators, corroborated through a review of national and international reports and peer-review articles. Findings Confirmed malaria cases in Bhutan declined by 98.7% from 1994 to 2010. The majority of indigenous cases were due to Plasmodium vivax (59.9% and adult males are most at-risk of malaria. Imported cases, or those in foreign nationals, varied over the years, reaching 21.8% of all confirmed cases in 2006. Strategies implemented by the VDCP are likely to be related to the decline in cases over the last 10 years. Access to malaria diagnosis in treatment was expanded throughout the country and evidence-based case management, including the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT for P. falciparum, increasing coverage of high risk areas with Indoor Residual Spraying, insecticide-treated bed nets, and long-lasting insecticidal nets are likely to have contributed to the decline alongside enabling factors such as economic development and increasing access to health services. Conclusion Bhutan has made significant strides towards elimination and has adopted a goal of national elimination. A major

  18. An overview of the circular economy among SMEs in the Basque country: A multiple case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ormazabal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This research analyzes the maturity of environmental management as well as the degree of to which the Circular Economy has been implemented in Basque SMEs. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 17 case studies were carried out in industrial SMEs companies in the Basque Country. Findings: The main results show that companies are limited to complying with the law and in many cases are worried about the image of the company, although they are not committed to environmental issues. There is still a lot to do in SMEs, as they are the companies that face the biggest challenges due to a lack of resources. Originality/value: Circular Economy aims to change a linear economy into promoting sustainability of the economy while also engaging in sustainable environmental protection. This research has focused on small and medium enterprises as they represent a 99% of companies in Europe and they are the ones that have the most difficulty reaching a stage of environmental excellence due to their limited resources.

  19. Climate variability as a threat for countries progressing towards malaria elimination: The case study of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousam, Aneela; Maggioni, Viviana; Quispe, Antonio; Aquila, Valentina

    2015-04-01

    Malaria cases reported by the Peruvian Ministry of Health demonstrate a 61% reduction of malaria in the last decade (2001- 2010). However, during the years 2011-14 malaria increased by ~2.7 folds in Peru and ~5 folds in Loreto, an Amazonian department that continues contributing over 90% of the malaria cases in Peru. Past studies have indicated that there is a strong association between climate variability and malaria rates. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that climate variables have played a key role in the recent increase of malaria cases in Peru. Climate data, such as precipitation, temperature, humidity and surface pressure simulated by the NASA MERRA model during a 10-year ling time series (2004-2013) are used to verify this hypothesis. Preliminary data analyses show large deviations from the 10-year mean (i.e., climatological anomalies) in humidity, surface pressure, and temperature during 2010 up to four times larger than previous and subsequent years. An increase of 8% in precipitation yearly averages is observed in 2010, which also corresponds with the following reverse of the downward trend of malaria incidence, particularly in Loreto. The sudden amplification of climatological anomalies in 2010 could have set the environmental conditions that caused the re-emergence of malaria in 2011. Investigation is underway to link weekly malaria data from different districts in Peru to the climate conditions at those locations during the past ten years. This will be crucial in understanding why some countries, despite all necessary efforts, are unable to completely eliminate malaria.

  20. Malawi and Millennium Development Goal 4: a Countdown to 2015 country case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyuka, Mercy; Ndawala, Jameson; Mleme, Tiope; Chisesa, Lusungu; Makwemba, Medson; Amouzou, Agbessi; Borghi, Josephine; Daire, Judith; Ferrabee, Rufus; Hazel, Elizabeth; Heidkamp, Rebecca; Hill, Kenneth; Martínez Álvarez, Melisa; Mgalula, Leslie; Munthali, Spy; Nambiar, Bejoy; Nsona, Humphreys; Park, Lois; Walker, Neff; Daelmans, Bernadette; Bryce, Jennifer; Colbourn, Tim

    2016-03-01

    Several years in advance of the 2015 endpoint for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), Malawi was already thought to be one of the few countries in sub-Saharan Africa likely to meet the MDG 4 target of reducing under-5 mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. Countdown to 2015 therefore selected the Malawi National Statistical Office to lead an in-depth country case study, aimed mainly at explaining the country's success in improving child survival. We estimated child and neonatal mortality for the years 2000-14 using five district-representative household surveys. The study included recalculation of coverage indicators for that period, and used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to attribute the child lives saved in the years from 2000 to 2013 to various interventions. We documented the adoption and implementation of policies and programmes affecting the health of women and children, and developed estimates of financing. The estimated mortality rate in children younger than 5 years declined substantially in the study period, from 247 deaths (90% CI 234-262) per 1000 livebirths in 1990 to 71 deaths (58-83) in 2013, with an annual rate of decline of 5·4%. The most rapid mortality decline occurred in the 1-59 months age group; neonatal mortality declined more slowly (from 50 to 23 deaths per 1000 livebirths), representing an annual rate of decline of 3·3%. Nearly half of the coverage indicators have increased by more than 20 percentage points between 2000 and 2014. Results from the LiST analysis show that about 280,000 children's lives were saved between 2000 and 2013, attributable to interventions including treatment for diarrhoea, pneumonia, and malaria (23%), insecticide-treated bednets (20%), vaccines (17%), reductions in wasting (11%) and stunting (9%), facility birth care (7%), and prevention and treatment of HIV (7%). The amount of funding allocated to the health sector has increased substantially, particularly to child health and HIV and from external

  1. A survey of climate change beliefs : a case study of the Canada Country Study participants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortsch, L. [Environment Canada, Downsview, ON (Canada); Bradley, B.; Andrey, J. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Warriner, K. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Sociology; Fisher, A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2000-06-01

    This survey of the Canada Country Study (CCS) highlighted some beliefs of an informed group of climate change experts that can be used to develop communication strategies on this issue. The CCS was a national assessment of the social, economic and ecological impacts of climate change. It focused on 12 economic factors, 5 geographical regions and several related issues. The CCS provided useful information on what is known about climate change impacts in Canada, but it did not explore what scientists and researchers believe about climate change, including the certainty of climate change, causes, impacts, responsibility for action and future information needs. The beliefs of the highly educated are critical because they play a major role in risk communication, policy development and research. For that reason, a symposium was held in November 1997 in which Canadian climate change experts and stakeholders gathered to address the issues of awareness, understanding and actions. More than 80 per cent of the participants suggested that climate change was certain, or likely, to occur along with impacts of sea level rise and increases in droughts, floods and insect infestations. Two per cent of the respondents felt that an increase of 1.5 degrees Celsius in the next 50 years was very unlikely, 7 per cent felt it was somewhat unlikely. While the respondents recognized negative impacts, they were perceived to be more likely to occur elsewhere and not likely to pose personal threats. The issue which had the greatest ambivalence in terms of being a cause of climate change or not, was the depletion of ozone in the upper atmosphere. Survey respondents felt they were less informed about adaptation, limitation strategies and climate change detection and wanted more information on the consequences of changes to temperature and precipitation as well as social and economic impacts. It was concluded that industry/business, as well as governments are accountable for taking action on

  2. Food waste quantification in primary production - The Nordic countries as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartikainen, Hanna; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Svanes, Erik; Franke, Ulrika

    2018-01-01

    Our understanding of food waste in the food supply chain has increased, but very few studies have been published on food waste in primary production. The overall aims of this study were to quantify the total amount of food waste in primary production in Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark, and to create a framework for how to define and quantify food waste in primary production. The quantification of food waste was based on case studies conducted in the present study and estimates published in scientific literature. The chosen scope of the study was to quantify the amount of edible food (excluding inedible parts like peels and bones) produced for human consumption that did not end up as food. As a result, the quantification was different from the existing guidelines. One of the main differences is that food that ends up as animal feed is included in the present study, whereas this is not the case for the recently launched food waste definition of the FUSIONS project. To distinguish the 'food waste' definition of the present study from the existing definitions and to avoid confusion with established usage of the term, a new term 'side flow' (SF) was introduced as a synonym for food waste in primary production. A rough estimate of the total amount of food waste in primary production in Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark was made using SF and 'FUSIONS Food Waste' (FFW) definitions. The SFs in primary production in the four Nordic countries were an estimated 800,000 tonnes per year with an additional 100,000 tonnes per year from the rearing phase of animals. The 900,000 tonnes per year of SF corresponds to 3.7% of the total production of 24,000,000 tonnes per year of edible primary products. When using the FFW definition proposed by the FUSIONS project, the FFW amount was estimated at 330,000 tonnes per year, or 1% of the total production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Participatory Research for Adaptive Water Management in a Transition Country - a Case Study from Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya Hirsch

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Participatory research has in recent years become a popular approach for problem-oriented scientific research that aims to tackle complex problems in a real management context. Within the European Union project NeWater, stakeholder processes were initiated in seven case studies to develop approaches for adaptive water management. The Uzbek part of the Amudarya River basin was one of the studied river basins. However, given the current political and cultural context in Uzbekistan, which provides little room for stakeholder participation, it was unclear to what extent participation could be realized there. In this paper, we present an evaluation of the participatory research carried out in the Amudarya case study with respect to (i the choice and application of different participatory methods and their adaptation to the given political, socioeconomic, and cultural environment, (ii their usefulness in improving system understanding and developing strategies and measures to improve water management and monitoring, and (iii their acceptance and suitability for enhancing policy-making processes in the Amudarya River basin context. The main lessons learned from the comparison of the different participatory methods were (1 the stakeholder process provided an opportunity for meetings and discussions among stakeholders from different organizational levels and thus promoted communication between different levels and organizations, and (2 in a context where most stakeholders are not generally involved in policy-making, there is a danger of raising expectations that a research project cannot meet, e.g., of transferring local interests to higher levels. Our experience shows that in order to choose participatory methods and adapt them to the Uzbek cultural and political setting (and most likely this applies to other post-Soviet transition countries as well, four aspects should be taken into account: the time required to prepare and apply the method, good

  4. The Morphology of Urban Agglomerations for Developing Countries: A Case Study with China

    CERN Document Server

    Gangopadhyay, Kausik

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the relationship between two well-accepted empirical propositions regarding the distribution of population in cities, namely, Gibrat's law and Zipf's law, are rigorously examined using the Chinese census data. Our findings are quite in contrast with the most of the previous studies performed exclusively for developed countries. This motivates us to build a general environment to explain the morphology of urban agglomerations both in developed and developing countries. A dynamic process of job creation generates a particular distribution for the urban agglomerations and introduction of Special Economic Zones (SEZ) in this abstract environment shows that the empirical observations are in good agreement with the proposed model.

  5. The Experiences of Host Country Nationals in International Schools: A Case-Study from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been considerable research into expatriate children attending international schools, there has been little investigation into children who attend international schools within their own nation. Seeking to redress this imbalance, this article analyses interview data from a small-scale study of host country nationals attending an…

  6. North Country Successes: Case Studies of Successful Entrepreneurs in the ANCA Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugh, Ram L.; Gandhi, Prem P.

    This study identifies the characteristics of both successful small businesses and their entrepreneurial owners in a 14-county area of the Adirondack North Country Association (ANCA). Of the 100 survey respondents representing successful small businesses, 50% had been in business for less than 14 years; 38% were in manufacturing; 48% employed more…

  7. Microorganisms Associated With Pneumonia in Children Emerging Countries: The GABRIEL Pneumonia Multicenter, Prospective, Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénet, Thomas; Sánchez Picot, Valentina; Messaoudi, Mélina; Chou, Monidarin; Eap, Tekchheng; Wang, Jianwei; Shen, Kunling; Pape, Jean-William; Rouzier, Vanessa; Awasthi, Shally; Pandey, Nitin; Bavdekar, Ashish; Sanghavi, Sonali; Robinson, Annick; Rakoto-Andrianarivelo, Mala; Sylla, Maryam; Diallo, Souleymane; Nymadawa, Pagbajabyn; Naranbat, Nymadawaagiin; Russomando, Graciela; Basualdo, Wilma; Komurian-Pradel, Florence; Endtz, Hubert; Vanhems, Philippe; Paranhos-Baccalà, Gláucia

    2017-08-15

    Pneumonia, the leading infectious cause of child mortality globally, mainly afflicts developing countries. This prospective observational study aimed to assess the microorganisms associated with pneumonia in children aged emerging countries. A multicenter, case-control study by the GABRIEL (Global Approach to Biological Research, Infectious diseases and Epidemics in Low-income countries) network was conducted between 2010 and 2014 in Cambodia, China, Haiti, India (2 sites), Madagascar, Mali, Mongolia, and Paraguay. Cases were hospitalized children with radiologically confirmed pneumonia; controls were children from the same setting without any features suggestive of pneumonia. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from all subjects; 19 viruses and 5 bacteria were identified by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Associations between microorganisms and pneumonia were quantified by calculating the adjusted population attributable fraction (aPAF) after multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for sex, age, time period, other pathogens, and site. Overall, 888 cases and 870 controls were analyzed; ≥1 microorganism was detected in respiratory samples in 93.0% of cases and 74.4% of controls (P emerging countries. Increasing S. pneumoniae vaccination coverage may substantially reduce the burden of pneumonia among children in developing countries.

  8. Does autonomy for public hospitals in developing countries increase performance? Evidence-based case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geyndt, Willy

    2017-04-01

    Governments in middle and low income countries have sought ways for the past decades to make their public hospitals more performing. The objectives of this assessment are to: (a) synthesize the experience of eleven countries at granting autonomy to their public hospitals and the obstacles encountered; (b) deduce which autonomy policies have or have not been effective documenting successes and failures; and (c) propose evidence-based recommendations to policy makers. Data for five countries are derived from the author's participation in the autonomy process augmented by current updates provided by national colleagues. Data for the other six countries are derived from publications available in the literature. Policies granting autonomy to public hospitals have had limited success. In all cases Boards of Directors have been created. Governance of autonomized hospitals by Boards however is obstructed by the resistance of central level entities to have their authority diminished. The Ministry of Finance tends to maintain control over revenues and expenditures. The Public Service Commission resists abdicating its role to hire, promote, transfer and dismiss government employees. The Ministry of Health attempts to keep its authority to appoint hospital staff, procure medical supplies and equipment; it may do so directly or indirectly by selecting and appointing Board members. Management information systems continue to collect activity measures to be aggregated at the national level for statistical purposes and do not provide financial and clinical data useful for decision making by the Boards and by senior management. Decentralizing decision making to the operational level has had limited success. Stakeholders at the central level devise strategies to maintain their power. Two main obstacles are delegating authority over human resources and finances that are sine qua non conditions for governing and increasing the performance of public hospitals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  9. Framework for energy policy and technology assessment in developing countries: a case study of Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mubayi, V.; Palmedo, P.F.; Doernberg, A.B.

    1979-12-01

    The potential of various energy sources and technology options in meeting national economic and social development goals in developing countries is assessed. The resource options that are of interest are the development of indigenous resources. In general, two categories of options can be considered: those which correspond to the accelerated implementation of existing elements of the energy system and those which correspond to the introduction of a new technology, such as solar electricity. The various resource and technology options that must be analyzed with respect to a number of criteria or payoff functions are: total demand and fuel mix; reduction of oil consumption; national social goals; total energy costs; and environmental quality. First, a view is constructed of the energy implications of current national economic development plans. A consistent description of the future energy system of the country, under the assumption of current trends and policies is constructed for certain reference years in the future. The values of the payoff functions selected are then calculated for that reference case. The major resource and technology options are identified and the rates at which they can be implemented are determined. Finally, the impact on the various payoff functions of the implementation of each option is calculated. The basic element of the framework is the Reference Energy System, discussed in Secton 3. The energy policy analysis for Peru is used as a reference case. 11 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  10. Internationalisation in Online Distance Learning Postgraduate Education: A Case Study on Student Views on Learning Alongside Students from Other Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmell, Isla; Harrison, Roger; Clegg, Judith; Reed, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Internationalisation in higher education has been shown to provide both intellectual and cultural benefits to students which can help in their future employment. This case study describes student views on learning alongside students from different countries in an online distance learning environment. Seventy-three students undertaking the online…

  11. Secure E-Examination Systems Compared: Case Studies from Two Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E. Fluck

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: Electronic examinations have some inherent problems. Students have expressed negative opinions about electronic examinations (e-examinations due to a fear of, or unfamiliarity with, the technology of assessment, and a lack of knowledge about the methods of e-examinations. Background: Electronic examinations are now a viable alternative method of assessing student learning. They provide freedom of choice, in terms of the location of the examination, and can provide immediate feedback; students and institutions can be assured of the integrity of knowledge testing. This in turn motivates students to strive for deeper learning and better results, in a higher quality and more rigorous educational process. Methodology\t: This paper compares an e-examination system at FUT Minna Nigeria with one in Australia, at the University of Tasmania, using case study analysis. The functions supported, or inhibited, by each of the two e-examination systems, with different approaches to question types, cohort size, technology used, and security features, are compared. Contribution: The researchers’ aim is to assist stakeholders (including lecturers, invigilators, candidates, computer instructors, and server operators to identify ways of improving the process. The relative convenience for students, administrators, and lecturer/assessors and the reliability and security of the two systems are considered. Challenges in conducting e-examinations in both countries are revealed by juxtaposing the systems. The authors propose ways of developing more effective e-examination systems. Findings: The comparison of the two institutions in Nigeria and Australia shows e-examinations have been implemented for the purpose of selecting students for university courses, and for their assessment once enrolled. In Nigeria, there is widespread systemic adoption for university entrance merit selection. In Australia this has been limited to one subject in one state, rather

  12. Students' perceptions and doubts about menstruation in developing countries: a case study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chothe, Vikas; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Seabert, Denise; Asalkar, Mahesh; Rakshe, Sarika; Firke, Arti; Midha, Inuka; Simmons, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Menstrual education is a vital aspect of adolescent health education. Culture, awareness, and socioeconomic status often exert profound influence on menstrual practices. However, health education programs for young women in developing countries do not often address menstrual hygiene, practices, and disorders. Developing culturally sensitive menstrual health education and hygiene programs for adolescent females has been recommended by professional health organizations like the World Health Organization and UNICEF. These programs cannot be developed without understanding existing myths and perceptions about menstruation in adolescent females of developing countries. Thus, the purpose of this qualitative study from India was to document existing misconceptions regarding menstruation and perceptions about menarche and various menstrual restrictions that have been understudied. Out of the 612 students invited to participate by asking questions, 381 girls participated by asking specific questions about menstruation (response rate = 62%). The respondents consisted of 84 girls from sixth grade, 117 from seventh grade, and 180 from eighth grade. The questions asked were arranged into the following subthemes: anatomy and physiology, menstrual symptoms, menstrual myths and taboos, health and beauty, menstrual abnormalities, seeking medical advice and home remedies; sanitary pads usage and disposal; diet and lifestyle; and sex education. Results of our study indicate that students had substantial doubts about menstruation and were influenced by societal myths and taboos in relation to menstrual practices. Parents, adolescent care providers, and policy makers in developing countries should advocate for comprehensive sexuality education and resources (e.g., low-cost sanitary pads and school facilities) to promote menstrual health and hygiene promotion.

  13. The Impact of Taxation on Economic Growth: Case Study of OECD Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macek Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the impact of individual types of taxes on the economic growth by utilizing regression analysis on the OECD countries for the period of 2000–2011. The impact of taxation is integrated into growth models by its impact on the individual growth variables, which are capital accumulation and investment, human capital and technology. The analysis in this paper is based on extended neoclassical growth model of Mankiw, Romer and Weil (1992, and for the verification of relation between taxation and economic growth the panel regression method is used. The taxation rate itself is not approximated only by traditional tax quota, which is characteristic by many insufficiencies, but also by the alternative World Tax Index which combines hard and soft data. It is evident from the results of both analyses that corporate taxation followed by personal income taxes and social security contribution are the most harmful for economic growth. Concurrently, in case of the value added tax approximated by tax quota, the negative impact on economic growth was not confirmed, from which it can be concluded that tax quota, in this case as the indicator of taxation, fails. When utilizing World Tax Index, a negative relation between these two variables was confirmed, however, it was the least quantifiable. The impact of property taxes was statistically insignificant. Based on the analysis results it is evident that in effort to stimulate economic growth in OECD countries, economic-politic authorities should lower the corporate taxation and personal income taxes, and the loss of income tax revenues should be compensated by the growth of indirect tax revenues.

  14. Visegrad Four CountriesCase Study of Econometric Panel Data Model for Regional Competitiveness Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevima Jan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to create an econometric panel data model with techniques using dummy variables for simplification of regional competitiveness evaluation in the case of selected EU Visegrad Four (V4 countries. Theoretical background of the paper is based on the knowledge of theoretical concept and issues of regional competitiveness and productivity in the context of growth theories. The empirical part of the paper is focused on the application of linear panel data regression model for 35 regions at NUTS level 2 of selected V4 countries. The level of regional competitiveness is analysed by selected indicators evaluating the performance of the EU growth strategies objectives. Selection of explanatory variables in the panel data model appropriately reflects the level of competitive potential in NUTS 2 regions of the selected EU V4 countries in the reference period 2000 - 2008. The use of econometric panel data model seems to be appropriate, since it marks the better capture of the dynamics of changes and fixed or random effects that have occurred in the proposed explanatory variables. Based on the estimation of the panel data model, econometric and economic verification, the final part of the paper includes a comparison of results for all explanatory variables in NUTS 2 regions which are cross-sectional and time used to determine the order of influence of each NUTS 2 region of the selected V4 countries to the overall competitiveness of the European Union. The basic hypothesis assumes that the average value of EU 27 GDP per capita is considered as an ideal region, i.e., the most competitive region. In the paper, we have observed contributions of each statistically significant V4 NUTS 2 region to the average level of the whole EU 27 performance approximated by GDP per inhabitant in PPS. For the model purposes, the overall EU competitiveness is approximated with the average volume of GDP per capita in PPS for 271 NUTS 2 regions in the EU 27

  15. Supply Chain Integration in the Manufacturing Firms in Developing Country: An Ethiopian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasika Bete Georgise

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of information and communication technologies, supply chain integration has been considered a strategic tool for firms to improve their competitiveness. The supply chain integration within processes and between organizations has enhanced value creation. However, the fragmented nature of the business in developing country demonstrates a noticeable difficulty in terms of competitiveness and efficiency. Lack of a relevant literature on practical experience in supply chain integration in developing countries is one of the challenges. The purpose of this research is to identify the level of interorganizational and intraorganizational supply chain integration practices. It also analyzes the challenges faced in the manufacturing firms in developing countries. The methodology followed a thorough review of literature and semistructured interviews amongst the Ethiopian manufacturing industries. The preliminary findings of the study highlight that prevailing approach to supply chain integration is limited to ad hoc functional based boundaries within the firm. The SC integration enablers are also restricted to the traditional way of communications such as telephone, fax, and letters. Firms need to focus on those issues that require attention in pursuance of greater SC integration.

  16. INDUSTRIAL CLUSTERS IN THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A CASE STUDY OF THE CHILE FISH CLUSTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Smirnova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The issue of existence of an industrial cluster should be correlated with the stage of life cycle of basic industry production. The technological cycle of some industries lasts decades, and the life cycle of industrial cluster can be shorter. While developing consequent stages of the life cycle of the cluster it is necessary to consider the factor of availability of resources or the duration of exploitation, created for functioning of this sector of infrastructure. The development of practically all industrial clusters took a lot of time, the development of the Russian clusters is calculated for 5–10 years. In the world practice there are no cases of creating efficient industrial companies in the developing countries over such periods. There is often a need to use ready objects of infrastructure, but even in this case it may need renovation. Therefore, at the stage of formation, it is desirable to carry out the minimum number of investments that are mainly associated with the creation of the necessary infrastructure and complementary set of institutional conditions that maximize the use of existing infrastructure.

  17. Sustainable Agricultural and Watershed Management in Developing Countries - An India Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliszek, A.; Vaicunas, R.; Zook, K.; Popkin, J.; Inamdar, S. P.; Duke, J.; Awokuse, T.; Sims, T.; Hansen, D.; Wani, S. P.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of sustainable agricultural and watershed management is to enhance agricultural productivity while protecting and preserving our environment and natural resources. The vast majority of information on sustainable watershed management practices is primarily derived from studies in developed nations with very few inputs from developing nations. Through a USDA-funded project, the University of Delaware (UD) initiated a collaboration with the International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) located in Hyderabad, India to study sustainable agricultural management practices in developing countries and their impacts on the environment, crop productivity, and socioeconomic conditions of the watershed community. As a part of this project, ICRISAT provided us with a vast amount of data on sustainable agricultural practices and their impacts on runoff, soil and water quality, crop yields, nutrient management and socioeconomic conditions. Conservation practices that were implemented included check dams, groundwater recharge wells, intercropping, nutrient management, integrated pest management and a suite of other practices. Using this information, students and faculty at UD developed teaching modules that were used for education and enrichment of existing UD courses and are also being used for the development of a stand-alone online course. The students and faculty visited India in July 2010 to get a first-hand experience of the conditions in the agricultural watersheds and the impacts of sustainable management practices. The project was a tremendous learning experience for US students and faculty and highlighted the challenges people face in developing countries and how that affects every aspect of their lives. Such challenges include environmental, agricultural, technological, economic, and transportation. Although we experience many of the same challenges, developing countries do not have the technology or economic infrastructure in place to

  18. Implementation of e-commerce in developing countries: impact and its limitations-Albanian Case study

    OpenAIRE

    Genti Çela

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of Electronic Commerce (hereinafter referred to as "e-Commerce") in developed countries has been proven as an indisputable potential to ameliorate the efficiency and productivity in different areas, therefore, its implementation is attracting significant attention in developing countries. Despite its opportunities established in developed countries, there were many doubts about the e-commerce implementation in developing countries. That reluctance is heightened by the limit...

  19. Drug addict deaths in the Nordic countries: a study based on medicolegally examined cases in the five Nordic countries in 1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steentoft, Anni; Teige, Brita; Holmgren, Per

    1996-01-01

    The study includes medicolegally examined deaths among drug addicts in 1991 in the five Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. A common definition of ‘drug addict’ was applied by the participating countries. The greatest number of drug addict deaths per 105 inhabitants wa...... of alcohol, cannabis and benzodiazepines, diazepam especially, was seen in all the countries....

  20. Towards Age-Friendly Hospitals in Developing Countries: A Case Study in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ahmadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Developing countries such as Iran are experiencing a growth in the elderly population. This is a challenge for healthcare providers and their families. This study investigated the extent in which hospitals at Tehran meet the criteria of age-friendly hospitals.Methods: In this descriptive study, using convenience sampling, 26 hospitals were selected in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. The instrument was a checklist included 50 items in the three dimensions of information and training of service providers, management systems in health care centers, physical environment and accessibility of hospitals.Results: Most hospitals were in a good condition regarding physical environment and access to public transportation, but in a poor condition for special healthcare programs for the elderly, teaching principles of geriatrics and gerontology, interaction of medical staff, physicians and nurses with senior patients and systems of priority for them.Conclusion: Due to the growing elderly population, it is necessary for health policymakers, especially in developing countries, to consider seriously the issue of elderly healthcare and their need for special outpatient and inpatient services.

  1. Deficit analysis: service capacity assessment and planning in developing countries - case study in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Garric E; Magpili, Luna M; Pinto, Cesar A

    2007-12-01

    Current demand analysis methods do not formally cover the case of chronic deficits in quantity or quality of water and sanitation services. These services include drinking water supply (DWS), wastewater and sewage treatment (WST), and municipal solid waste management (MSW). Formal analysis of this case would, at minimum, define the deficit state and evaluate appropriate options for reducing it. This paper proposes for a formal analytical model for municipal sanitation systems (MSS) that operate with deficits in at least one of the constituent services of DWS, WST, or MSW. The model introduces definitions and notation for describing the deficit state for conducting demand analysis on municipal sanitation systems. This model of demand analysis for systems with chronic deficits will hereinafter be referred to as deficit analysis. A case study for Bacoor, Philippines is presented as an example.

  2. Hydrologic modeling for water resource assessment in a developing country: the Rwanda case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve McNulty; Erika Cohen Mack; Ge Sun; Peter Caldwell

    2016-01-01

    Accurate water resources assessment using hydrologic models can be a challenge anywhere, but particularly for developing countries with limited financial and technical resources. Developing countries could most benefit from the water resource planning capabilities that hydrologic models can provide, but these countries are least likely to have the data needed to run ...

  3. Case studies on the use of biotechnologies and on biosafety provisions in four African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Robert; Fava, Fabio; Mattei, Niccolo; Robert, Vincent; Seal, Susan; Verdier, Valerie

    2011-12-20

    This review is based on a study commissioned by the European Commission on the evaluation of scientific, technical and institutional challenges, priorities and bottlenecks for biotechnologies and regional harmonisation of biosafety in Africa. Biotechnology was considered within four domains: agricultural biotechnologies ('Green'), industrial biotechnologies and biotechnologies for environmental remediation ('White'), biotechnologies in aquaculture ('Blue') and biotechnologies for healthcare ('Red'). An important consideration was the decline in partnerships between the EU and developing countries because of the original public antipathy to some green biotechnologies, particularly genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and food from GM crops in Europe. The study focus reported here was West Africa (Ghana, Senegal, Mali and Burkina Faso). The overall conclusion was that whereas high-quality research was proceeding in the countries visited, funding is not sustained and there is little evidence of practical application of biotechnology and benefit to farmers and the wider community. Research and development that was being carried out on genetically modified crop varieties was concentrating on improving food security and therefore unlikely to have significant impact on EU markets and consumers. However, there is much non-controversial green biotechnology such as molecular diagnostics for plant and animal disease and marker-assisted selection for breeding that has great potential application. Regarding white biotechnology, it is currently occupying only a very small industrial niche in West Africa, basically in the sole sector of the production of liquid biofuels (i.e., bio-ethanol) from indigenous and locally planted biomass (very often non-food crops). The presence of diffused small-scale fish production is the basis to develop and apply new (Blue) aquaculture technologies and, where the research conditions and the production sector can permit, to increase this type of

  4. Redefining Entrepreneurial Learning Paradigms in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Manu, D.; Afrane, S. K.; Badu, E.; Edwards, D. J.; Brown, M.

    2013-01-01

    In a rapidly changing world of knowledge exchange, innovation and technological advancements, entrepreneurship continues to fuel economic growth in both developed and developing countries. In the developed world, an increased influx of graduate entrepreneurs sustains economic growth whilst, in contrast, developing countries continue to suffer from…

  5. User and researcher collaborations in mental health in low and middle income countries: a case study of the EMPOWER project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Esha; Roberts, Bayard

    2014-01-14

    Increasing recognition has been given to the interaction of users and researchers in shaping the perspective and practice of mental health care. However, there remains very little evidence exploring how this interaction works, particularly in low and middle income countries. The aim of this study was to explore experiences of how users and researchers worked together to communicate research, using a case study of the EMPOWER project. The study followed a case-study approach. EMPOWER was a project that sought to strengthen the capacity of user organizations in India, Kenya, Nepal and Zambia by encouraging user-researcher collaborations to communicate research findings in the four countries. A qualitative research method was applied for this study, with semi-structured interviews conducted with seven people: two researchers, one communications developer, and four user group members (one from each of the four countries). Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings indicated positive perceptions of the collaboration between researchers and users. Key themes were partnership and support, the value of the personal experience of users and their knowledge of the target audiences, and empowerment. Key challenges related to differences in levels of education and technical knowledge and the lack of payments to users. This exploratory study provides insight to help understand collaborative processes for communicating mental health research. It highlights many positive outcomes from the EMPOWER collaboration but also highlights the need for more in-depth research on this issue.

  6. Nuclear Safety Culture Assessment for a Newcomer Country: Case Study of Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khasawneh, Khalid; Park, Yun Woon [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    For countries initiating or considering to start their nuclear power programs; developing a successful safety culture is of a great challenge, owing to lack of experience and the sensitive nature of the nuclear industry in general. The Jordanian case was chosen since Jordan is in the early stages of its nuclear program and the establishment of an effective safety culture is crucial to guarantee the safe operation of its future nuclear facilities. It also should be noted that Fukushima accident has adversely affected the progress of the Jordanian nuclear program driven by the negative public opinion. The government shifts the policies toward enhancing the nuclear safety by enforcing the communication between the engaged parties and openness and transparency with public. In the wake of Fukushima accident the Jordanian government reassured the appropriate siting criteria and siting review, the leadership and the organizations commitment to nuclear safety by adopting advanced reactor technology, the consideration of modern operator accident mitigation strategies and the increased and close cooperation with IAEA and adherence to evolving international safety standards. The progress in the Jordanian nuclear power project in order to satisfy the IAEA requirements was quantified and ranked. A good progress was shown in some aspects, for example in the multicultural and multi-national elements and the establishment of an independent and effective regulatory body. However, some elements, concerning the understanding of the safety culture, management system of the regulatory body and the cultural assessment was not satisfied and an urgent need to focus on and enhance those aspects are required by the Jordanian government. Some elements, for example the leadership, communication and competence, have partial fulfillment of the IAEA requirements. However enhancing those aspects is required in the short and the mid-term in order to guarantee a well-established nuclear power

  7. Serological cross-sectional studies on salmonella incidence in eight European countries: no correlation with incidence of reported cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falkenhorst Gerhard

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Published incidence rates of human salmonella infections are mostly based on numbers of stool culture-confirmed cases reported to public health surveillance. These cases constitute only a small fraction of all cases occurring in the community. The extent of underascertainment is influenced by health care seeking behaviour and sensitivity of surveillance systems, so that reported incidence rates from different countries are not comparable. We performed serological cross-sectional studies to compare infection risks in eight European countries independent of underascertainment. Methods A total of 6,393 sera from adults in Denmark, Finland, France, Italy, Poland, Romania, Sweden, and The Netherlands were analysed, mostly from existing serum banks collected in the years 2003 to 2008. Immunoglobulin A (IgA, IgM, and IgG against salmonella lipopolysaccharides were measured by in-house mixed ELISA. We converted antibody concentrations to estimates of infection incidence (‘sero-incidence’ using a Bayesian backcalculation model, based on previously studied antibody decay profiles in persons with culture-confirmed salmonella infections. We compared sero-incidence with incidence of cases reported through routine public health surveillance and with published incidence estimates derived from infection risks in Swedish travellers to those countries. Results Sero-incidence of salmonella infections ranged from 56 (95% credible interval 8–151 infections per 1,000 person-years in Finland to 547 (343–813 in Poland. Depending on country, sero-incidence was approximately 100 to 2,000 times higher than incidence of culture-confirmed cases reported through routine surveillance, with a trend for an inverse correlation. Sero-incidence was significantly correlated with incidence estimated from infection risks in Swedish travellers. Conclusions Sero-incidence estimation is a new method to estimate and compare the incidence of salmonella

  8. Serological cross-sectional studies on salmonella incidence in eight European countries: no correlation with incidence of reported cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenhorst, Gerhard; Simonsen, Jacob; Ceper, Tina H; van Pelt, Wilfrid; de Valk, Henriette; Sadkowska-Todys, Malgorzata; Zota, Lavinia; Kuusi, Markku; Jernberg, Cecilia; Rota, Maria Cristina; van Duynhoven, Yvonne Thp; Teunis, Peter Fm; Krogfelt, Karen A; Mølbak, Kåre

    2012-07-16

    Published incidence rates of human salmonella infections are mostly based on numbers of stool culture-confirmed cases reported to public health surveillance. These cases constitute only a small fraction of all cases occurring in the community. The extent of underascertainment is influenced by health care seeking behaviour and sensitivity of surveillance systems, so that reported incidence rates from different countries are not comparable. We performed serological cross-sectional studies to compare infection risks in eight European countries independent of underascertainment. A total of 6,393 sera from adults in Denmark, Finland, France, Italy, Poland, Romania, Sweden, and The Netherlands were analysed, mostly from existing serum banks collected in the years 2003 to 2008. Immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgM, and IgG against salmonella lipopolysaccharides were measured by in-house mixed ELISA. We converted antibody concentrations to estimates of infection incidence ('sero-incidence') using a Bayesian backcalculation model, based on previously studied antibody decay profiles in persons with culture-confirmed salmonella infections. We compared sero-incidence with incidence of cases reported through routine public health surveillance and with published incidence estimates derived from infection risks in Swedish travellers to those countries. Sero-incidence of salmonella infections ranged from 56 (95% credible interval 8-151) infections per 1,000 person-years in Finland to 547 (343-813) in Poland. Depending on country, sero-incidence was approximately 100 to 2,000 times higher than incidence of culture-confirmed cases reported through routine surveillance, with a trend for an inverse correlation. Sero-incidence was significantly correlated with incidence estimated from infection risks in Swedish travellers. Sero-incidence estimation is a new method to estimate and compare the incidence of salmonella infections in human populations independent of surveillance artefacts. Our

  9. Increasing the Use of Urban Greenways in Developing Countries: A Case Study on Wutong Greenway in Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiyong; Gu, Weiying; Liu, Tao; Yuan, Lei; Zeng, Mali

    2017-01-01

    Given the benefits of urban greenways on the health and well-being of urban populations, the increased use of urban greenways has garnered increasing attention. Studies on urban greenways, however, have been mostly conducted in Western countries, whereas there is limited knowledge on greenway use in urban areas in developing countries. To address this shortcoming, the present study selected Wutong Greenway in Shenzhen, China, as a case study and focused on the use pattern and factors that influence the frequency and duration of urban greenway use in developing countries. An intercept survey of greenway users was conducted, and 1257 valid questionnaires were obtained. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between potential predictors and greenway use. Results showed that visitors with a varied sociodemographic background use Wutong Greenway with high intensity. Various factors affect the use of urban greenways, including individual and environmental factors and greenway use patterns. Unlike previous studies, we found that accommodation type, length of stay at present residence and mode of transportation to the greenway are important factors that affect greenway use. In contrast with studies conducted in Western countries, less-educated and low-income respondents visit the Wutong greenway even more frequently than others. Thus, the greenway is an important public asset that promotes social equity and that all residents can freely use. To better serve citizens, we suggest that the greenway network should be extended to other areas and that its environmental quality should be improved. PMID:28545246

  10. Increasing the Use of Urban Greenways in Developing Countries: A Case Study on Wutong Greenway in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiyong; Gu, Weiying; Liu, Tao; Yuan, Lei; Zeng, Mali

    2017-05-23

    Given the benefits of urban greenways on the health and well-being of urban populations, the increased use of urban greenways has garnered increasing attention. Studies on urban greenways, however, have been mostly conducted in Western countries, whereas there is limited knowledge on greenway use in urban areas in developing countries. To address this shortcoming, the present study selected Wutong Greenway in Shenzhen, China, as a case study and focused on the use pattern and factors that influence the frequency and duration of urban greenway use in developing countries. An intercept survey of greenway users was conducted, and 1257 valid questionnaires were obtained. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between potential predictors and greenway use. Results showed that visitors with a varied sociodemographic background use Wutong Greenway with high intensity. Various factors affect the use of urban greenways, including individual and environmental factors and greenway use patterns. Unlike previous studies, we found that accommodation type, length of stay at present residence and mode of transportation to the greenway are important factors that affect greenway use. In contrast with studies conducted in Western countries, less-educated and low-income respondents visit the Wutong greenway even more frequently than others. Thus, the greenway is an important public asset that promotes social equity and that all residents can freely use. To better serve citizens, we suggest that the greenway network should be extended to other areas and that its environmental quality should be improved.

  11. Indexation of psychiatric journals from low- and middle-income countries: a survey and a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIELING, CHRISTIAN; HERRMAN, HELEN; PATEL, VIKRAM; MARI, JAIR DE JESUS

    2009-01-01

    There is a marked underepresentation of low- and middle-income countries (LAMIC) in the psychiatric literature, which may reflect an overall low representation of LAMIC publications in databases of indexed journals. This paper investigates the worldwide distribution of indexed psychiatric journals. A survey in both Medline and ISI Web of Science was performed in order to identify journals in the field of psychiatry according to their country of origin. Two hundred and twenty-two indexed psychiatric journals were found. Of these, 213 originated from high-income countries and only nine (4.1%) from middle-income countries. None were found in low-income countries. We also present the experience of a LAMIC psychiatric journal, the Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, in its recent indexation process. This case study may serve as an example for other LAMIC journals to pursue indexation in major databases as a strategy to widen the international foundation of psychiatric research. There is an important need for the inclusion of LAMIC psychiatric publications in the major indexation databases. This process will require multiple agents to partner with journals from LAMIC to improve their quality and strengthen their chances of being indexed. PMID:19293959

  12. Bhutanese Students' Views of Nature of Science: a Case Study of Culturally Rich Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Pabi Maya; Faikhamta, Chatree; Punsuvon, Vittaya

    2017-07-01

    This study is aimed at exploring ninth-grade Bhutanese students' views of nature of science (NOS). A total of 389 students from middle secondary and higher secondary schools from the eastern, western, southern and central regions of Bhutan took part in this study. To generate a representative population, a stratified random sampling technique was used. An adopted and adapted version of the Students Understanding of Science and Scientific Inquiry (SUSSI) comprised Likert-type items, and open-ended questions were used as a research tool. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics, and the qualitative data were analysed and categorized into naïve, transitional and informed views. The results indicated that the majority of the Bhutanese students held naïve views on sociocultural embeddedness, scientific laws, scientific theories and science as a body of knowledge. The study has an implication for curriculum developers and teaching professionals, particularly in culturally rich countries, that explicit instruction of NOS should be reframed based on students' cultural backgrounds and their indigenous knowledge.

  13. Library services and user satisfaction in developing countries: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairaj, Muhammad Ijaz; Naseer, Mirza Muhammad

    2013-12-01

    Punjab Institute of Cardiology (PIC) is a recognised teaching hospital for cardiac care in the Punjab province of Pakistan. PIC has established a library to fulfil the research and information needs of health care professionals. This study aims to evaluate the satisfaction of users with the services of PIC library. A purposive sample of 15 health care professionals was selected. A semistructured interview technique based on an interview guide was used for collection of data. The data were qualitatively analysed using a thematic approach. Users of PIC library were satisfied with the library collection, organisation, reference and circulation services, staff attitudes, cooling and heating. They were concerned about library space, hours, furniture and environment, and suggested more availability of electronic library services, newer collections, better Internet access and comfortable furniture. The study proved useful to investigate users' satisfaction with the services of PIC library. It concludes that the PIC library should maintain and strengthen the services with which users are satisfied, and improve those about which they are concerned. The study will be useful to libraries in other developing countries for improvement in their services. © 2013 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2013 Health Libraries Group.

  14. Is physician-assisted death only for developed countries? Latin America as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Florencia; Van Delden, Johannes J M

    2004-01-01

    The achievements of modern medicine are manifold and impressive. However, there is a broad recognition of the fact that continuing medical treatment is not always beneficial to the patient, nor is it always what the patient wants. This has led to a debate about the way physicians may or may not be involved in the end of life of patients. Could there be a justification for the active ending of a patient's life? This debate has a global character. In this article we will explore this debate for developing countries; we will focus on physician-assisted death (PAD) in Latin American countries. At stake is the moral relevance of differences, not the moral justification of PAD per se. We argue that arguments for PAD apply equally in affluent and in developing countries. Some of the counterarguments, however, would seem to hold more in developing countries than in affluent countries. Yet, under certain conditions, a policy tolerating PAD would be as acceptable in developing countries as in developed countries.

  15. Pharmacovigilance systems in developing countries: an evaluative case study in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabore, Lassane; Millet, Pascal; Fofana, Souleymane; Berdai, Driss; Adam, Caroline; Haramburu, Françoise

    2013-05-01

    Burkina Faso, like other Sub-Saharan African countries, has recently experienced a large-scale deployment of new medicines for the prevention and treatment of notable diseases of public health interest, including malaria, HIV/AIDS and meningitis. This new context rendered the implementation of pharmacovigilance necessary in order to monitor and establish the safety and effectiveness of these medicines. In 2008, the Ministry of Health of Burkina Faso, West Africa, launched a formal pharmacovigilance system to respond to this need. The aim of this study was to evaluate the early-stage pharmacovigilance system of Burkina Faso through a comprehensive and system-based approach with the prospect of identifying areas for improvements. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study in Burkina Faso. Sixteen key informants from the National Drug Authority (NDA), public health programmes (PHPs) and hospitals were interviewed. Study participants were selected based on a convenience sampling in the NDA, three teaching hospitals, two regional hospitals and six PHPs. Data were collected using the Indicator-based Pharmacovigilance Assessment Tool (IPAT), a metric instrument recently designed and validated by 'Management Sciences for Health', a US non-profit organization. The evaluation also involved the collection and review of relevant pharmacovigilance-related documentation in the institutions assessed. A scoring system was used for the quantification of assessment results. The NDA of Burkina Faso, the institution statutorily in charge of pharmacovigilance, achieved a performance score of 70 %. The basic structures for pharmacovigilance activities were in place; however, the lack of specific laws dedicated to pharmacovigilance, the lack of national guidelines and standard operating procedures on pharmacovigilance, and the insufficient coordination of pharmacovigilance stakeholders in the country were identified as the main weaknesses. Safety data collected thus far have not

  16. Community level composting in a developing country: case study of KIWODET, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberlin, A.S.; Szanto, G.L.

    2011-01-01

    Environmentally sustainable waste management practices have a limited relevance and viability in developing countries. Despite a technological potential, composting initiatives often share this fate. Little is known about the functioning of community level composting, which is reportedly the optimal

  17. CONSUMERS’ BEHAVIOR TOWARDS TELEMARKETING: : A CASE STUDY OF DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Macrinici, Adela; Bilal, Mian Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Marketing, Direct Marketing, Tele-Marketing, Consumer Behavior, Tele-sales, Developing countries, Customer attitude/behavior, Call center, Outbound calls, Proactive telemarketing, Sales promotion ,Survey, Telemarketing center , Telemarketing sales , Telephone marketers , Cold calls.

  18. Systematic Mapping Study of Information Technology for Development in Agriculture (The Case of Developing Countries)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zewge, Amanuel; Dittrich, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    With its rapid proliferation in the developing world, information and communication technology (ICT) has been accepted as an opportunity to assist disadvantaged people. Many projects have piloted ICT supporting rural communities in developing countries. Such rural communities are socially complex...

  19. TOURISM WEBSITES CHARACTERISTICS IN A COUNTRY WITH SMALL INTERNET USE - CASE STUDY OF SERBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara PAVLOVIĆ; DRAGIĆEVIĆ, VANJA; Svetlana VUKOSAV; Nevena ĆURČIĆ; Uglješa STANKOV

    2009-01-01

    Web is the powerful tool for tourism industry in economically developed countries. That mostly implies high website quality, use of Internet promotion techniques and good management of website distribution elements. However, what kinds of tourism websites characteristics are present in a country with small development and small use of Internet, such as Serbia? Serbia connected to Internet in 1996, and two years later first websites related to tourism subjects appeared, but still has small Int...

  20. TOURISM WEBSITES CHARACTERISTICS IN A COUNTRY WITH SMALL INTERNET USE - CASE STUDY OF SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara PAVLOVIĆ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Web is the powerful tool for tourism industry in economically developed countries. That mostly implies high website quality, use of Internet promotion techniques and good management of website distribution elements. However, what kinds of tourism websites characteristics are present in a country with small development and small use of Internet, such as Serbia? Serbia connected to Internet in 1996, and two years later first websites related to tourism subjects appeared, but still has small Internet penetration rate. Many companies in travel industry from developing countries use websites, but not in the right way. The purpose of this paper is to examine and show present tourism websites characteristics in term of its credibility, presentation and type of website content, visibility and search engine rank. The main method used in this research is structural observation of domestic 260 travel websites in Serbia. The results have pointed to the negative websites characteristics and inadequate use of its possibilities in tourism sector in Serbia.

  1. Nurse educators' perceptions of critical thinking in developing countries: Ghana as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boso CM

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Christian Makafui Boso,1 Janet J Gross2,31School of Nursing and Midwifery, College of Health Science and Allied Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana; 2Morehead State University, Morehead, KY, USA; 3School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, GhanaAbstract: The ability to critically evaluate information for the purpose of rendering health care is a prerequisite for modern nurses in a complex and ever-changing health care environment. The nurse educators’ perceptions influence the utilization of critical thinking strategies in the classroom. The purpose of this study was to assess nursing faculty’s perceptions of critical thinking. Using a questionnaire 106 nurse educators from two types of nursing educational program self-reported their perceptions. Data were collected from November 2013 to March 2014. Results were presented using frequencies, percentages, and t-test. The findings revealed that majority (95.3% of nurse educators could not provide definitions that captured both affective and cognitive aspects of critical thinking. However, the majority of nurse educators had positive perceptions of critical thinking. Nurse educators in universities had more positive perceptions of critical thinking than those in the nurses’ training colleges (P=0.007. The results suggested that the current nursing programs are not preparing nurses with the necessary critical thinking skills for the complex health care environment. Professional development programs in critical thinking should be instituted for nurse educators to assist them in developing appropriate teaching strategies to foster students' acquisition of critical thinking skills.Keywords: nurse educators, critical thinking, perceptions, Ghana, developing countries

  2. Barriers of clinical practice guidelines development and implementation in developing countries: A case study in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Baradaran Seyed

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The lack of an evidence-based healthcare system and a political macro support are mentioned as the key barriers in Iran as a developing country. The establishment of a system of development and implementation of CPGs as the evidence-based practice tools will not be possible, unless the barriers are removed.

  3. Success Factors for e-Learning in a Developing Country: A Case Study of Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspopovic, Miroslava; Jankulovic, Aleksandar; Runic, Jovana; Lucic, Vanja

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, DeLone and McLean's updated information system model was used to evaluate the success of an e-Learning system and its courses in a transitional country like Serbia. In order to adapt this model to an e-Learning system, suitable success metrics were chosen for each of the evaluation stages. Furthermore, the success metrics for…

  4. Exploring evidence-policy linkages in health research plans: A case study from six countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladepo Oladimeji

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The complex evidence-policy interface in low and middle income country settings is receiving increasing attention. Future Health Systems (FHS: Innovations for Equity, is a research consortium conducting health systems explorations in six Asian and African countries: Bangladesh, India, China, Afghanistan, Uganda, and Nigeria. The cross-country research consortium provides a unique opportunity to explore the research-policy interface. Three key activities were undertaken during the initial phase of this five-year project. First, key considerations in strengthening evidence-policy linkages in health system research were developed by FHS researchers through workshops and electronic communications. Four key considerations in strengthening evidence-policy linkages are postulated: development context; research characteristics; decision-making processes; and stakeholder engagement. Second, these four considerations were applied to research proposals in each of the six countries to highlight features in the research plans that potentially strengthen the research-policy interface and opportunities for improvement. Finally, the utility of the approach for setting research priorities in health policy and systems research was reflected upon. These three activities yielded interesting findings. First, developmental consideration with four dimensions – poverty, vulnerabilities, capabilities, and health shocks – provides an entry point in examining research-policy interfaces in the six settings. Second, research plans focused upon on the ground realities in specific countries strengthens the interface. Third, focusing on research prioritized by decision-makers, within a politicized health arena, enhances chances of research influencing action. Lastly, early and continued engagement of multiple stakeholders, from local to national levels, is conducive to enhanced communication at the interface. The approach described has four main utilities: first

  5. Productive utilization of pig farm wastes: A case study for developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polprasert, Chongrak; Kongsricharoern, Noppadol; Kanjanaprapin, Wilai (Environmental Engineering Div., Asian Inst. of Technology, Bangkok (Thailand)); Yang, P.Y. (Dept. of Agricultural Engineering, Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States))

    1994-06-30

    This paper presents a case study on pig farm waste management in which pig manure is stabilized in two-stage anaerobic reactors (to produce methane), while pig farm wastewater is treated in water hyacinth ponds from which the harvested water hyacinth plants are used in the production of silage (animal feed) or compost fertilizer. The results suggest the technical feasibility of applying these technologies to treat and recycle pig farm wastes. Cost/benefit analysis reveals the option to produce methane gas and silage to be financially viable after 15 years of operation. A management concept of waste recycling programs is presented, including relationships among objectives, constraints and implementation plan. Decision on a waste recycling program should not be based only on cost/benefit analysis, but also on the pollution control and public health improvement to be gained

  6. The effect of education and economic growth in the labour market in transition economies - Case study for SEE countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majlinda Mazalliu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper is analyzed labour market in transition economies with case study SEE countries and the main theoretical arguments for discussions are as following: the effects of education on labour market, improving labour market performance in SEE countries, structural reforms and economic policies for improving labour markets, relationship between level of education and growth on labour market. In methodology, the data is collected from international institutions and is calculated through STATA program. The main analyses include: descriptive statistic, multiple regression analysis and correlation matrix. The results of regression analysis and correlation matrix have shown that education has negative impact and negative correlation on labour market (labour market efficiency and labour market regulation. But, economic growth has shown positive impact and positive correlation on labour market (labour market efficiency and labour market regulation and all variables that are including in T-statistical analysis have shown non - significance on labour market.

  7. Transferring results of occupational safety and health cost-effectiveness studies from one country to another - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Jos; Pulliainen, Marjo; Kankaanpää, Eila; Taimela, Simo

    2010-06-01

    There are a limited number of studies about the cost-effectiveness of occupational health and safety (OSH) interventions. Applying the results of a cost-effectiveness study from one country to another is hampered by differences in the organization of healthcare and social security. In order to find out how these problems can be overcome, we transferred the results of a Dutch occupational cost-effectiveness study to the Finnish situation and vice-versa. We recalculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) for the target country based on resource use in the original study and the associated costs in the target country. We also allocated the costs to the employer, the employee, and tax-payers. We found that the ICER did not differ very much from those in the original studies. However, the different healthcare funding structure led to a more unfavorable ICER for employers in the Netherlands. Both interventions represented a cost saving for tax-payers and employees. Employers had to invest euro10-54 to avert one day of sick leave. We conclude that results of cost-effectiveness studies can be transferred from one country to another, but many adjustments are needed. An extensive description of the intervention, a detailed list of resource use, allocation of costs to various parties, and detailed knowledge of the healthcare systems in the original studies are necessary to enable calculations.

  8. Chemical leucoderma: a clinico-aetiological study of 864 cases in the perspective of a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S; Mukhopadhyay, S

    2009-01-01

    Chemical leucoderma, often clinically mimicking idiopathic vitiligo and other congenital and acquired hypopigmentation, has been increasing rapidly in incidence in developing countries such as India. This study attempts to detect clinical and epidemiological patterns of chemical leucoderma. Detailed history-taking, especially of exposure to contributory chemicals, clinical examination, relevant investigations, data recording and analysis were done. In a total of 864 cases of chemical leucoderma, 65.6% cases started de novo and vitiligo patches were pre-existing in the remaining cases. Patches were limited to the contact area in 73.7% but had spread to remote areas in 26.3% cases. The face (41.1%) and scalp (5.9%) were the commonest and least involved sites. Confetti macules were seen in 89% and pruritus was complained of in 21.8%. Aetiological agents identified were hair dye 27.4% (21% self-use; 6.4% not self-use), deodorant and spray perfume 21.6%, detergent and cleansers 15.4%, adhesive bindi 12%, rubber chappal 9.4%, black socks and shoes 9.1%, eyeliner 8.2%, lipliner 4.8%, rubber condoms 3.5%, lipstick 3.3%, fur toys 3.1%, toothpaste 1.9%, insecticides 1.7%, 'alta' 1.2%, amulet string colour 0.9%. Therapeutic response was much better in 'pure' chemical leucoderma (73.4%) than in those with co-existing vitiligo (20.9%). Chemical leucoderma, a disease of mostly industrial origin in developed countries, may be induced by common domestic products in developing countries. Diagnosis and differentiation from other causes of hypopigmentation can be done confidently by following the clinical criteria as proposed. The therapeutic response of chemical leucoderma is better than that of vitiligo.

  9. Human health risk assessment due to global warming--a case study of the Gulf countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Tahir; Chaudhary, Junaid Rafi

    2008-12-01

    Accelerated global warming is predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC) due to increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The climate changes are anticipated to have a long-term impact on human health, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, water resources and vegetation. Due to rising sea levels, low lying coastal regions will be flooded, farmlands will be threatened and scarcity of fresh water resources will be aggravated. This will in turn cause increased human suffering in different parts of the world. Spread of disease vectors will contribute towards high mortality, along with the heat related deaths. Arid and hot climatic regions will face devastating effects risking survival of the fragile plant species, wild animals, and other desert ecosystems. The paper presents future changes in temperature, precipitation and humidity and their direct and indirect potential impacts on human health in the coastal regions of the Gulf countries including Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, and Bahrain. The analysis is based on the long-term changes in the values of temperature, precipitation and humidity as predicted by the global climatic simulation models under different scenarios of GHG emission levels. Monthly data on temperature, precipitation, and humidity were retrieved from IPCC databases for longitude 41.25 degrees E to 61.875 degrees E and latitude 9.278 degrees N to 27.833 degrees N. Using an average of 1970 to 2000 values as baseline, the changes in the humidity, temperature and precipitation were predicted for the period 2020 to 2050 and 2070 to 2099. Based on epidemiological studies on various diseases associated with the change in temperature, humidity and precipitation in arid and hot regions, empirical models were developed to assess human health risk in the Gulf region to predict elevated levels of diseases and mortality rates under different emission scenarios as developed by the IPCC.The preliminary assessment indicates

  10. Inequality, Economic Growth and Trade Openness: a Study Case for Central and Eastern Countries (ECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Neagu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the phenomenon of income inequality in ten countries from Eastern and Central Europe (ECE, by highlighting two aspects: (1 the link between growth and income inequality; (2 the effects of trade openess and other key factors on income inequality, such as: foreign direct investment (FDI, market capitalization and educational level of labour force. The method used was the Panel Data Analysis with statistical data from the period of 2000-2014. An increasing effect in income inequality was identified due to the trade openess, the inward stock of ISD and the market capitalization and an equalizing effect in the income distribution generated by the educational level of labour force. A positive association was also found between the growth of PIB per capita level and the increase of income inequality in the examined countries.

  11. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Ravindranath, N.H.; Somashekhar, B.S.; Gadgil, M. (Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore, (India). Center for Ecological Sciences and ASTRA); Deying, Xu (Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, (China). Research Inst. of Forestry)

    1992-08-01

    As part of the effort to understand the sources of carbon dioxide and other major greenhouse gases, the Tropical Forestry and Global Climate Change Research Network (F-7) was established. The countries taking part in the F-7 Network -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria and Thailand -- possess large tracts of tropical forests and together experience the bulk of large scale tropical deforestation. Integreation of work of indigenous researchers and institutions from the participating countries should allow for the gathering of on-site information into the more general and universally available base of knowledge. The information contained in this report represents the results of the first phase of the F-7 project, which had the explicit aim of providing quantitative data on forestry-related carbon emissions from India and China.

  12. THE ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF TOURISM IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES : case study, Lagos Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Eruotor, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Africa is blessed with natural resources, such as natural flowing water, beach and safari wild life which makes Africa a great continent. There are numerous countries in Africa with beautiful tourist attraction which can compete with what is achieved in rest part of the world. Nigeria has abundant tourism components that could make her the leading tourism provider in Africa. There are numerous attractions ranging from places of natural beauty to cultural and historical heritage. The aim...

  13. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 4: Mexico: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Cerutti, O.M.; Ordonez, M.J.; Minjarez, R.D. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico) Centro de Ecologia

    1992-08-01

    Estimates of carbon emissions from deforestation in Mexico are derived for the year 1985 and for two contrasting scenarios in 2025. Carbon emissions are calculated through an in-depth review of the existing information on forest cover deforestation mtes and area affected by forest fires as well as on forests` carbon-related biological characteristics. The analysis covers both tropical -- evergreen and deciduous -- and temperate -- coniferous and broadleaf -- closed forests. Emissions from the forest sector are also compared to those from energy and industry. Different policy options for promoting the sustainable management of forest resources in the country are discussed. The analysis indicates that approximately 804,000 hectares per year of closed forests suffered from major perturbations in the mid 1980`s in Mexico, leading to an annual deforestation mte of 668,000 hectares. Seventy five percent of total deforestation is concentrated in tropical forests. The resulting annual carbon balance is estimated in 53.4 million tons per year, and the net committed emissions in 45.5 million tons or 41% and 38%, respectively, of the country`s total for 1985--87. The annual carbon balance from the forest sector in 2025 is expected to decline to 16.5 million tons in the low emissions scenario and to 22.9 million tons in the high emissions scenario. Because of the large uncertainties in some of the primary sources of information, the stated figures should be taken as preliminary estimates.

  14. Integrating ethics, health policy and health systems in low- and middle-income countries: case studies from Malaysia and Pakistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hyder, Adnan A; Merritt, Maria; Ali, Joseph; Tran, Nhan T; Subramaniam, Kulanthayan; Akhtar, Tasleem

    2008-01-01

    .... This paper seeks to describe the ethics processes in play when public-health mechanisms are established in low- and middle-income countries, by focusing on two cases where ethics played a crucial...

  15. Tanzania country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meena, H.E. [Centre for Energy, Environment, Science and Technology, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    An objective of this study is to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without an in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. (au)

  16. Zambia country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    The Zambia Country Study, which was part of the Danida-funded project Climate Change Mitigation in Southern Africa: Phase 2, aimed at methodological development, national mitigation analysis and institutional capacity building in Zambia. The study comprised the following five elements: Comprehensive evaluation of national social and economic development framework for climate change; Baseline scenario(s) projection(s); Mitigation scenario(s) projection(s); Macro-economic assessment; Implementation Issues. (au) 17 refs.

  17. Success Factors for e-Learning in a Developing Country: A Case Study of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Miroslava Raspopovic1, 1, 1, and 2; Aleksandar Jankulovic; Jovana Runic; Vanja Lucic

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, DeLone and McLean’s updated information system model was used to evaluate the success of an e-Learning system and its courses in a transitional country like Serbia. In order to adapt this model to an e-Learning system, suitable success metrics were chosen for each of the evaluation stages. Furthermore, the success metrics for e-Learning evaluation are expanded by providing several systems for quantifying the given success metrics. The results presented in this paper are based o...

  18. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Cerutti, O.M.; Ordonez, M.J.; Minjarez, R.D. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico) Centro de Ecologia)

    1992-08-01

    Estimates of carbon emissions from deforestation in Mexico are derived for the year 1985 and for two contrasting scenarios in 2025. Carbon emissions are calculated through an in-depth review of the existing information on forest cover deforestation mtes and area affected by forest fires as well as on forests' carbon-related biological characteristics. The analysis covers both tropical -- evergreen and deciduous -- and temperate -- coniferous and broadleaf -- closed forests. Emissions from the forest sector are also compared to those from energy and industry. Different policy options for promoting the sustainable management of forest resources in the country are discussed. The analysis indicates that approximately 804,000 hectares per year of closed forests suffered from major perturbations in the mid 1980's in Mexico, leading to an annual deforestation mte of 668,000 hectares. Seventy five percent of total deforestation is concentrated in tropical forests. The resulting annual carbon balance is estimated in 53.4 million tons per year, and the net committed emissions in 45.5 million tons or 41% and 38%, respectively, of the country's total for 1985--87. The annual carbon balance from the forest sector in 2025 is expected to decline to 16.5 million tons in the low emissions scenario and to 22.9 million tons in the high emissions scenario. Because of the large uncertainties in some of the primary sources of information, the stated figures should be taken as preliminary estimates.

  19. Sustainable Waste Water Treatment in Developing Countries: A Case Study of IIT Kharagpur Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sutapa; Bokshi, Sanjit

    2017-06-01

    Treatment of wastewater and its reuse in irrigation and agriculture can mitigate the inevitable scarcity of safe drinking water in coming decades. For developing countries like India and especially in its under-privileged regions, it is high time to focus on sustainable wastewater treatment which will be economical and easy to construct, operate and maintain by unskilled users without much dependency on electricity. Addressing this issue, various sustainable methods of wastewater treatment was critically analyzed and the Waste Stabilization Pond system was selected. A facility was designed for 20,000 residents of Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur campus based on its geo-climatic and wastewater characteristics. Detailed calculations were carried out to demonstrate the effluent quality with reduced BOD and E-coli is suitable for unrestricted irrigation. This project with minor customisation can act as a prototype for adjacent vast rural areas where land is available but water, electricity and skilled technicians are not. If implemented, this project will bear social benefits beyond campus such as water supply to drought prone areas, better harvest and rural employment. Moreover, it underpins government' several initiatives to develop rural infrastructure and inclusive growth of the country.

  20. Indoor particulate matter in developing countries: a case study in Pakistan and potential intervention strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Zaheer Ahmad; Colbeck, Ian; Ali, Zulfiqar; Ahmad, Shakil

    2013-06-01

    Around three billion people, largely in low and middle income countries, rely on biomass fuels for their household energy needs. The combustion of these fuels generates a range of hazardous indoor air pollutants and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Worldwide, it is responsible for four million deaths. A reduction in indoor smoke can have a significant impact on lives and can help achieve many of the Millennium Developments Goals. This letter presents details of a seasonal variation in particulate matter (PM) concentrations in kitchens using biomass fuels as a result of relocating the cooking space. During the summer, kitchens were moved outdoors and as a result the 24 h average PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 fell by 35%, 22% and 24% respectively. However, background concentrations of PM10 within the village increased by 62%. In locations where natural gas was the dominant fuel, the PM concentrations within the kitchen as well as outdoors were considerably lower than those in locations using biomass. These results highlights the importance of ventilation and fuel type for PM levels and suggest that an improved design of cooking spaces would result in enhanced indoor air quality.

  1. Tobacco use and risk of myocardial infarction in 52 countries in the INTERHEART study: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Koon K; Ounpuu, Stephanie; Hawken, Steven; Pandey, M R; Valentin, Vicent; Hunt, David; Diaz, Rafael; Rashed, Wafa; Freeman, Rosario; Jiang, Lixin; Zhang, Xiaofei; Yusuf, Salim

    2006-08-19

    Tobacco use is one of the major avoidable causes of cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to assess the risks associated with tobacco use (both smoking and non-smoking) and second hand tobacco smoke (SHS) worldwide. We did a standardised case-control study of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with 27,089 participants in 52 countries (12,461 cases, 14,637 controls). We assessed relation between risk of AMI and current or former smoking, type of tobacco, amount smoked, effect of smokeless tobacco, and exposure to SHS. We controlled for confounders such as differences in lifestyles between smokers and non-smokers. Current smoking was associated with a greater risk of non-fatal AMI (odds ratio [OR] 2.95, 95% CI 2.77-3.14, pexposed to SHS in the never smoker reference group raised the risk in former smokers by about 10%. Smoking beedies alone (indigenous to South Asia) was associated with increased risk (2.89, 2.11-3.96) similar to that associated with cigarette smoking. Chewing tobacco alone was associated with OR 2.23 (1.41-3.52), and smokers who also chewed tobacco had the highest increase in risk (4.09, 2.98-5.61). SHS was associated with a graded increase in risk related to exposure; OR was 1.24 (1.17-1.32) in individuals who were least exposed (1-7 h per week) and 1.62 (1.45-1.81) in people who were most exposed (>21 h per week). Young male current smokers had the highest population attributable risk (58.3%; 95% CI 55.0-61.6) and older women the lowest (6.2%, 4.1-9.2). Population attributable risk for exposure to SHS for more than 1 h per week in never smokers was 15.4% (12.1-19.3). Tobacco use is one of the most important causes of AMI globally, especially in men. All forms of tobacco use, including different types of smoking and chewing tobacco and inhalation of SHS, should be discouraged to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  2. The three waves in implementation of facility-based kangaroo mother care: a multi-country case study from Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, Anne-Marie; de Graft-Johnson, Joseph; Khadka, Neena; Om'Iniabohs, Alyssa; Udani, Rekha; Pratomo, Hadi; De Leon-Mendoza, Socorro

    2016-01-27

    Kangaroo mother care has been highlighted as an effective intervention package to address high neonatal mortality pertaining to preterm births and low birth weight. However, KMC uptake and service coverage have not progressed well in many countries. The aim of this case study was to understand the institutionalisation processes of facility-based KMC services in three Asian countries (India, Indonesia and the Philippines) and the reasons for the slow uptake of KMC in these countries. Three main data sources were available: background documents providing insight in the state of implementation of KMC in the three countries; visits to a selection of health facilities to gauge their progress with KMC implementation; and data from interviews and meetings with key stakeholders. The establishment of KMC services at individual facilities began many years before official prioritisation for scale-up. Three major themes were identified: pioneers of facility-based KMC; patterns of KMC knowledge and skills dissemination; and uptake and expansion of KMC services in relation to global trends and national policies. Pioneers of facility-based KMC were introduced to the concept in the 1990s and established the practice in a few individual tertiary or teaching hospitals, without further spread. A training method beneficial to the initial establishment of KMC services in a country was to send institutional health-professional teams to learn abroad, notably in Colombia. Further in-country cascading took place afterwards and still later on KMC was integrated into newborn and obstetric care programs. The patchy uptake and expansion of KMC services took place in three phases aligned with global trends of the time: the pioneer phase with individual champions while the global focus was on child survival (1998-2006); the newborn-care phase (2007-2012); and lastly the current phase where small babies are also included in action plans. This paper illustrates the complexities of implementing a

  3. Botswana country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    This study was carried out in Botswana, Tanzania and Zambia as part of the project `Climate Change Mitigation in Southern Africa` funded by the Danish International Development Agency (Danida). The project was conducted parallel to the UNEP/GEF project `Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations` which involved 8 other developing countries and 2 regional projects in Latin America and the SADC region. The limitation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is a complex issue, intimately connected with economic development at local, national, regional and global levels. Key economic sectors such as energy, agriculture, industry and forestry all produce GHGs, and are likely to be affected directly and indirectly by any mitigation policy. The UNEP Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies, initiated in 1991, attempted to address these complex issues, developing a methodological framework and testing it through practical application in ten countries. (EHS) 28 refs.

  4. Hungary country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uerge-Vorsatz, D.; Fuele, M. [eds.

    1999-09-01

    Hungary recognises the importance of limiting greenhouse gas emissions in order to prevent or mitigate their impact on the global climate. On an international level, Hungary is not a significant carbon dioxide emitter, neither to the absolute degree nor on a per capita basis. This means that the principal reason for Hungarian participation in emission`s reduction is not perceivable international consequences but solidarity and participation in the common action of the countries of the world. Hungary is a signatory to both the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto protocol. However, the (Hungarian) National Environmental Program also emphasises that the fulfilment of international conventions must happen at a level and pace reasonable for Hungary. The goal of this study is to investigate the potentials, costs and implementation strategies of greenhouse gas abatement in Hungary. First presented is a background of Hungary`s economy and a summary of the economic transitions in Hungary. A brief description of the Hungarian energy sector is included, with a short summary of carbon dioxide emissions, and of the Hungarian forestry sector. The following chapter is devoted to the development of baseline scenarios, from bottom-up and top-down perspectives. In the chapter on mitigation, the spectrum of energy efficiency measures in the residential and public sectors is discussed. Fifteen specific measures, whose impact is considered important, are selected and discussed in detail. The cost curves are developed for the discussed mitigation options. Then, we discuss the issues related to the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the Hungarian residential and commercial sectors. After a general background and a framework on the implementation of the energy efficiency measures in the sectors chosen, we elaborate on the practicality of these concepts. As a case study, the concept and the feasibility of carbon/energy taxes are examined. To complete the

  5. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ECONOMIC GROWTH AND GOVERNMENT SPENDING: A CASE STUDY OF OIC COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heri Sudarsono

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results for testing for causal relationship between economic growth and goverment spending for OIC countries covering the time series data 1970~2006. There are usually two propositions regarding the relation between economic growth and government spending: Wagner’s Law states that as GDP grows, the public sector tends to grow; and the Keynesian framework postulates that public expenditure causes GDP to grow. The primary strength and originality of this paper is that we used aggregate data as well as disaggregate data for Granger causality test. By testing for causality between economic growth and government spending, we find that government spending does cause economic growth in Iran, Nigeria and Tunisia, which are compatible with Keynesian’s theory. However, the economic growth does cause the increase in goverment spending in Algeria, Burkina Faso, Benin, Indonesia, Libya Malaysia, Marocco, and Saudi, which are well-suited with Wagner’s law.

  6. Systematic mapping study of information communication technology research for agriculture (in case of developing Countries)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zewge, Amanuel; Dittrich, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Context: A rural community in a developing country is a socially complex and infrastructural weak environment that demands clear understanding of the social, economical, cultural, and political precondition before implementing information commutation technology (ICT) innovations. Objective...... with number of contributions but still there is long ways to go. The review shows that currently there are limited knowledge areas in methods, user interface design, and theory in how to design information system for rural community settings. Conclusion: This paper first presents an overview of research...... topics and trends from selected top ranked ICT4D Journals and conference proceedings. Second, the detailed explanation about the proposed and/ or used frameworks, theoretical underpinning, methods and Technology used were discussed, among others. Third, the paper also motivates others researchers...

  7. Countdown to 2015 country case studies: what have we learned about processes and progress towards MDGs 4 and 5?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrina Moucheraud

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Countdown to 2015 was a multi-institution consortium tracking progress towards Millennium Development Goals (MDGs 4 and 5. Case studies to explore factors contributing to progress (or lack of progress in reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH were undertaken in: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, China, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Niger, Pakistan, Peru, and Tanzania. This paper aims to identify cross-cutting themes on how and why these countries achieved or did not achieve MDG progress. Methods Applying a standard evaluation framework, analyses of impact, coverage and equity were undertaken, including a mixed methods analysis of how these were influenced by national context and coverage determinants (including health systems, policies and financing. Results The majority (7/10 of case study countries met MDG-4 with over two-thirds reduction in child mortality, but none met MDG-5a for 75 % reduction in maternal mortality, although six countries achieved >75 % of this target. None achieved MDG-5b regarding reproductive health. Rates of reduction in neonatal mortality were half or less that for post-neonatal child mortality. Coverage increased most for interventions administered at lower levels of the health system (e.g., immunisation, insecticide treated nets, and these experienced substantial political and financial support. These interventions were associated with ~30–40 % of child lives saved in 2012 compared to 2000, in Ethiopia, Malawi, Peru and Tanzania. Intrapartum care for mothers and newborns -- which require higher-level health workers, more infrastructure, and increased community engagement -- showed variable increases in coverage, and persistent equity gaps. Countries have explored different approaches to address these problems, including shifting interventions to the community setting and tasks to lower-level health workers. Conclusions These Countdown case studies underline the importance of consistent

  8. Food security status in developing countries: a case study of Burera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this case, concerned stakeholders in agriculture should take immediate action of radical terraces, irrigation, compost application, land use consolidation and soil analysis, making local fertilizer from volcanic soil and lime, land tenure and rotation, official resettlement in less risk zones, and joblessness reduction. Actually ...

  9. A new approach to nationwide sanitation planning for developing countries: Case study of Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerstens, S.M., E-mail: sjoerd.kerstens@rhdhv.com [Royal HaskoningDHV, P.O. Box 1132, 3800 BC, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Spiller, M., E-mail: marc.spiller@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Sub-department of Environmental Technology, P.O. Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen (Netherlands); Leusbrock, I., E-mail: ingo.leusbrock@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Sub-department of Environmental Technology, P.O. Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen (Netherlands); Zeeman, G., E-mail: grietje.zeeman@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Sub-department of Environmental Technology, P.O. Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2016-04-15

    Many developing countries struggle to provide wastewater and solid waste services. The backlog in access has been partly attributed to the absence of a functional sanitation planning framework. Various planning tools are available; however a comprehensive framework that directly links a government policy to nationwide planning is missing. Therefore, we propose a framework to facilitate the nationwide planning process for the implementation of wastewater and solid waste services. The framework requires inputs from government planners and experts in the formulation of starting points and targets. Based on a limited number of indicators (population density, urban functions) three outputs are generated. The first output is a visualization of the spatial distribution of wastewater and solid waste systems to support regional priority setting in planning and create awareness. Secondly, the total number of people served, budget requirements and distribution of systems is determined. Thirdly, the required budget is allocated to the responsible institution to assure effective implementation. The determined budgets are specified by their beneficiaries, distinguishing urban, rural, poor and non-poor households. The framework was applied for Indonesia and outputs were adopted in the National Development Plan. The required budget to reach the Indonesian government's 2019 target was determined to be 25 billion US$ over 5 years. The contribution from the national budget required a more than fivefold increase compared to the current budget allocation in Indonesia, corresponding to an increase from 0.5 to 2.7 billion US$ per year. The budget for campaigning, advocacy and institutional strengthening to enable implementation was determined to be 10% of the total budget. The proposed framework is not only suitable for Indonesia, but could also be applied to any developing country that aims to increase access to wastewater and solid waste facilities. - Highlights: • A nationwide

  10. Success Factors for e-Learning in a Developing Country: A Case Study of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Raspopovic1, 1, 1, and 2

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, DeLone and McLean’s updated information system model was used to evaluate the success of an e-Learning system and its courses in a transitional country like Serbia. In order to adapt this model to an e-Learning system, suitable success metrics were chosen for each of the evaluation stages. Furthermore, the success metrics for e-Learning evaluation are expanded by providing several systems for quantifying the given success metrics. The results presented in this paper are based on courses that were taught both online and traditionally in three different subject areas: graphic design, information technology, and management. Of particular interest were success metrics which can be determined using quantifiable data from the e-Learning system itself, in order to evaluate and find the relationship between students’ academic achievement, usage of learning materials, and students’ satisfaction. The results from different courses were used to illustrate the implementation and evaluation of these success metrics for both online and traditional students.

  11. Decentralized domestic wastewater systems in developing countries: the case study of Harare (Zimbabwe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirisa, Innocent; Bandauko, Elmond; Matamanda, Abraham; Mandisvika, Gladys

    2017-06-01

    Until recently there has been little, if any, concern over revamping let alone improving wastewater management system in Zimbabwe's urban areas given the dominance and institutionalised water-borne system. Yet, the current constraints in this system and the immensity of urbanisation in the country begs and compels planners, engineers and systems thinkers to rethink what best can work as a sustainable wastewater system. With particular reference to the ever-expanding Harare metropolitan region, this article provides an evaluative analysis on the potentiality, risks and strategies that can be adopted by Harare and its satellites in addressing the problems of the conventional wastewater management system. The suggested framework of operation is a decentralised domestic wastewater collection and treatment system which however has its own multifarious risks. Using systems dynamics conceptualisation of the potentiality, opportunities, risks and strategies, the paper seeks to model the path and outcomes of this decentralised domestic wastewater collection and treatment system and also suggests a number of policy measures and strategies that the city of Harare and its satellites can adopt.

  12. Developing an Appropriate Digital Hearing Aid for Low-Resource Countries: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Israsena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the development process and discusses the key findings which resulted from our multidisciplinary research team’s effort to develop an alternative digital hearing suitable for low-resource countries such as Thailand. A cost-effective, fully programmable digital hearing aid, with its specifications benchmarking against WHO’s recommendations, was systematically designed, engineered, and tested. Clinically it had undergone a full clinical trial that employed the outcome measurement protocol adopted from the APHAB, the first time implemented in Thai language. Results indicated that using the hearing aid improves user’s satisfaction in terms of ease of communication, background noises, and reverberation, with clear benefit after 3 and 6 months, confirming its efficacy. In terms of engineering, the hearing aid also proved to be robust, passing all the designated tests. As the technology has successfully been transferred to a local company for the production phase, we also discuss other challenges that may arise before the device can be introduced into the market.

  13. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Fearnside, P.M. (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Departmento de Ecologia)

    1992-08-01

    Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia in 1990 was releasing approximately 281--282 X 10{sup 6} metric tons (MT) of carbon on conversion to a landscape of agriculture, productive pasture, degraded pasture, secondary forest and regenerated forest in the proportions corresponding to the equilibrium condition implied by current land-use patterns. Emissions are expressed as committed carbon,'' or the carbon released over a period of years as the carbon stock in each hectare deforested approaches a new equilibrium in the landscape that replaces the original forest. To the extent that deforestation rates have remained constant, current releases from the areas deforested in previous years will be equal to the future releases from the areas being cleared now. Considering the quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide, NO{sub x} and non-methane hydrocarbons released raises the impact by 22--37%. The relative impact on the greenhouse effect of each gas is based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculations over a 20-year time period (including indirect effects). The six gases considered have a combined global warming impact equivalent to 343 to 386 million MT of C0{sub 2}-equivalent carbon, depending on assumptions regarding the release of methane and other gases from the various sources such as burning and termites. These emissions represent 7--8 times the 50 million MT annual carbon release from Brazil's use of fossil fuels, but bring little benefit to the country. Stopping deforestation in Brazil would prevent as much greenhouse emission as tripling the fuel efficiency of all the automobiles in the world. The relatively cheap measures needed to contain deforestation, together with the many complementary benefits of doing so, make this the first priority for funds intended to slow global warming.

  14. Case studies of patient safety research classics to build research capacity in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andermann, Anne; Wu, Albert W; Lashoher, Angela; Norton, Peter; Arora, Narendra Kumar; Bates, David W; Larizgoitia, Itziar

    2013-12-01

    Strengthening research capacity is a key priority and rate-limiting step for conducting patient safety research, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, but also in other settings where such research is currently limited. Case studies of classic publications in patient safety research were therefore developed as part of a larger strategy aimed at increasing the knowledge base and building the research capacity required for making health care safer and reducing harm to patients. A multistep method was used to develop the case studies, which involved developing a theoretical framework for classifying patient safety research articles; purposively selecting articles to illustrate a range of research methods and study designs; and involving the articles' lead authors to provide context, review the summaries, and offer advice to future patient safety researchers. The series of patient safety research case studies used 17 examples to illustrate how different research methods and study designs can be used to answer different types of research questions across five stages of the research cycle: (1) measuring harm, (2) understanding causes, (3) identifying solutions, (4) evaluating impact, and (5) translating evidence into safer care. No single study design or research method is better in all circumstances. Choosing the most appropriate method and study design depends on the stage in the research cycle, the objectives, the research question, the subject area, the setting, and the resources available. Beyond serving as didactic tools in assisting future leaders in patient safety research to build up their own competencies, the case studies help to illuminate the burgeoning field of patient safety research as a an important vehicle for reducing patient harm and improving health outcomes worldwide.

  15. Municipal Bonds in Developing Countries. Case Study: Municipality of Stip, Republic of Macedonia

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    Marija GOGOVA SAMONIKOV

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The developing countries, especially in the Balkans, barely use the municipal bonds as an alternative way of financing their activities. This paper is part of the project “The municipal bonds as an alternative source of financing municipals activities and the effective management of funds, with a special emphasis to the Municipality of Stip, R. Macedonia”. The paper has an important impact, according to both academic and practical perspective. It combines the experts’ academic analysis with the municipals potential in order to facilitate a successful municipal bond emission that would support the local economic growth. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the ability and willingness of the Municipality of Stip to issue municipal bonds. The main hypothesis states that the Municipality of Stip is able to issue a municipal bond as an alternative way of financing its investment activities. The research includes the classical SWOT analysis regarding the Municipality of Stip and continues with a statistical analysis based on correlation and regression relationships within the accounts of the Municipality’s annual reports. The methodological framework is based on quantitative research methods (correlations and regression methods which result in acceptance of the main hypothesis in the paper - the municipal bonds as an alternative source for funding municipal’s activities are justified, especially if the funds are associated with a specific revenue-generating project. The findings would serve as a basis for the municipal bonds prospect, which would be the ultimate goal of combining the academic knowledge with the practical potential of the Municipality of Stip. The conclusions reveal that this would be the first municipal bond emission in the Republic of Macedonia. However, this fact can serve as an advantage in the market in terms of introducing financial instrument innovation. This paper suggests that the usage of municipal bonds is

  16. Reduction in child mortality in Niger: a Countdown to 2015 country case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amouzou, Agbessi; Habi, Oumarou; Bensaïd, Khaled

    2012-09-29

    The Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4) is to reduce by two-thirds the mortality rate of children younger than 5 years, between 1990 and 2015. The 2012 Countdown profile shows that Niger has achieved far greater reductions in child mortality and gains in coverage for interventions in child survival than neighbouring countries in west Africa. Countdown therefore invited Niger to do an in-depth analysis of their child survival programme between 1998 and 2009. We developed new estimates of child and neonatal mortality for 1998-2009 using a 2010 household survey. We recalculated coverage indicators using eight nationally-representative surveys for that period, and documented maternal, newborn, and child health programmes and policies since 1995. We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to estimate the child lives saved in 2009. The mortality rate in children younger than 5 years declined significantly from 226 deaths per 1000 livebirths (95% CI 207-246) in 1998 to 128 deaths (117-140) in 2009, an annual rate of decline of 5·1%. Stunting prevalence decreased slightly in children aged 24-35 months, and wasting declined by about 50% with the largest decreases in children younger than 2 years. Coverage increased greatly for most child survival interventions in this period. Results from LiST show that about 59,000 lives were saved in children younger than 5 years in 2009, attributable to the introduction of insecticide-treated bednets (25%); improvements in nutritional status (19%); vitamin A supplementation (9%); treatment of diarrhoea with oral rehydration salts and zinc, and careseeking for fever, malaria, or childhood pneumonia (22%); and vaccinations (11%). Government policies supporting universal access, provision of free health care for pregnant women and children, and decentralised nutrition programmes permitted Niger to decrease child mortality at a pace that exceeds that needed to meet the MDG 4. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation; World Bank; Governments of Australia

  17. Ethnic Chinese Remigration from Southeast Asian Countries since 1960s: A Case Study of Malaysian Chinese Outflows

    OpenAIRE

    Kang Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Total outflows of Chinese from Southeast Asian countries since the Second World War reached around 3 million. They headed to the developed countries such as the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, France and Singapore. As for the case of Malaysia, large number of Malaysian Chinese remigrated to Singapore, United Kingdom, United States, Canada and Australia for new residence since the end of the Second World War. They left Malaysia because of political discrimination, economic re...

  18. Challenges in Bioenergy Production from Sugarcane Mills in Developing Countries: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Colombo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide energy policies are moving towards a reduction of fossil fuels’ share in the energy mix and to invest in renewable and green energy sources. Biomass is one of these, and it represents, in the form of sugarcane, a strategic source in Colombia, especially in the Valle del Cauca. In this region, the sugarcane industry is able to convert the energy content of the cane into different energy products, such as ethanol, electricity, and high-pressure steam, which are cogenerated via bagasse combustion. In this work, the case of a sucrose and ethanol production plant, which mills ten thousand tons of sugarcane per day, is considered. A tailor-made computational model was developed to assess the energy and material process balances in order to estimate the effect of different operating conditions on cogeneration boilers and turbines, and to optimize the overall process efficiency. The current situation was modeled with good precision from the developed model. Likewise, the concept of “Renewable Efficiency” was introduced to explain the degree of green power, which a process plant is able to produce. Consequently, new innovative solutions and process layouts were proposed in order to increase their renewable efficiency. With the new configurations, a convenient energy surplus of up to 33 MW can be reached, which could be sold in the national electricity grid, representing long-term interesting economic benefits for the company.

  19. Predicting the Emergence of Community Psychology and Community Development in 91 Countries with Brief Case Studies of Chile and Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanitio, Felicia; Perkins, Douglas D

    2017-03-01

    Using a mixed-method analysis, we propose and test a framework for predicting the international development of community psychology (CP) and community development (CD) as two examples of applied community-based research (CBR) disciplines aiming to link local knowledge generation with social change. Multiple regressions on an international sample of 91 countries were used to determine the relative influences of preexisting grassroots activism, population size, social and economic development, and civil liberties on estimates of the current strength of CP and CD based on Internet search and review of training courses and programs, published articles and journals, and professional organizations and conferences in these countries. Our results provide support for the proposed model and suggest that grassroots activism positively accounts for the development of CP and CD, above and beyond the influences of the other predictors. Brief qualitative case-study analyses of Chile (high CP, low CD) and Ghana (high CD, low CP) explore the limitations of our quantitative model and the importance of considering other historical, sociopolitical, cultural, and geographic factors for explaining the development of CP, CD, and other applied community studies. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  20. Higher Education Governance in Developing Countries, Challenges and Recommendations: Iran as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Raisan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the challenges to higher education in Iran and summarizes a range of expert studies, including those of the writer. Common to all the studies is the goal of improving Iran’s higher education system by analyzing its internal and external challenges. This review makes several policy recommendations, including a turn frombureaucratic management to transformational leadership, more resources dedicated to workforce development and research, and outreach for help and advice from institutions and experts.

  1. Calf-level factors associated with bovine neonatal pancytopenia--a multi-country case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryony A Jones

    Full Text Available Bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP, a high fatality condition causing haemorrhages in calves aged less than 4 weeks, was first reported in 2007 in Germany and subsequently observed at low incidence in other European countries and New Zealand. A multi-country matched case-control study was conducted in 2011 to identify calf-level risk factors for BNP. 405 BNP cases were recruited from 330 farms in Belgium, France, Germany and the Netherlands by laboratory confirmation of farmer-reported cases. Up to four calves of similar age from the same farm were selected as controls (1154 calves. Risk factor data were collected by questionnaire. Multivariable modelling using conditional logistic regression indicated that PregSure®BVD (PregSure, Pfizer Animal Health vaccination of the dam was strongly associated with BNP cases (adjusted matched Odds Ratio - amOR 17.8 first lactation dams; 95% confidence interval - ci 2.4, 134.4; p = 0.005, and second or more lactation PregSure-vaccinated dams were more likely to have a case than first lactation vaccinated dams (amOR 2.2 second lactation; ci 1.1, 4.3; p = 0.024; amOR 5.3 third or more lactation; ci 2.9, 9.8; p = <0.001. Feeding colostrum from other cows was strongly associated with BNP if the dam was not PregSure-vaccinated (amOR 30.5; ci 2.1, 440.5; p = 0.012, but the effect was less if the dam was PregSure-vaccinated (amOR 2.1; ci 1.1, 4.0; p = 0.024. Feeding exclusively dam's milk was a higher risk than other types of milk (amOR 3.4; ci 1.6, 7.5; p = 0.002. The population attributable fractions were 0.84 (ci 0.68, 0.92 for PregSure vaccination, 0.13 (ci 0.06, 0.19 for feeding other cows' colostrum, and 0.15 (ci 0.08, 0.22 for feeding dam's milk. No other calf-level factors were identified, suggesting that there are other important factors that are outside the scope of this study, such as genetics, which explain why BNP develops in some PregSure-colostrum-exposed calves but not in

  2. Curriculum Issues: Teaching and Learning for Sustainable Development in Developing Countries--Zimbabwe Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambudzo, Ignatius Isaac

    2015-01-01

    The study sought to investigate curriculum issues, teaching and learning for sustainable development in secondary schools in Zimbabwe. Education for sustainable development (ESD) aims at changing the approach to education by integrating principles, values, practices and needs in all forms of learning. Literature has documented the importance of…

  3. Case studies on the use of biotechnologies and on biosafety provisions in four African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Black, R; Fava, F.; Mattei, N.; Robert, Vincent; Seal, S.; Verdier, Valérie

    2011-01-01

    This review is based on a study commissioned by the European Commission on the evaluation of scientific, technical and institutional challenges, priorities and bottlenecks for biotechnologies and regional harmonisation of biosafety in Africa. Biotechnology was considered within four domains: agricultural biotechnologies ('Green'), industrial biotechnologies and biotechnologies for environmental remediation ('White'), biotechnologies in aquaculture ('Blue') and biotechnologies for healthcare (...

  4. Capacity-Building for Women in African Countries: A Case Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana Journal of Development Studies ... Abstract. Capacity-building has become an attractive and important component of development planning and programming in Sierra Leone's post-conflict rebuilding. ... The paper is informed by conceptual analysis of existing literature and official documentation. It finds a trend of ...

  5. Constraints on the delivery of animal-source foods to infants and young children: case studies from five countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachón, Helena; Simondon, Kirsten B; Fall, Safiètou T; Menon, Purnima; Ruel, Marie T; Hotz, Christine; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Arce, Blanca; Domínguez, María Reyna Liria; Frongillo, Edward A; Brown, Dan L

    2007-06-01

    BACKGROUND. Optimal feeding of infants and young children in developing countries includes daily feeding of animal-source foods. OBJECTIVE. To evaluate constraints on the availability of animal-source foods at the community level, access to animal-source foods at the household level, and intake of animal-source foods at the individual level among children under 3 years of age in case studies in five developing countries: Mexico, Peru, Haiti, Senegal, and Ethiopia. Data were obtained from published and unpublished research and from program experiences of health and agriculture specialists. In Ethiopia, 27% to 51% of case-study children had consumed an animal-source food on the previous day; from 56% to 87% of children in the other case-study sites had consumed an animal-source food on the previous day. Data on intake of animal-source foods in grams were only available for the Latin American case-study sites, where daily milk intake was high in Mexico and Peru (195 and 180 g/day, respectively) and the intakes of meat, fish, and poultry (MFP) (29.0 and 13.6 g/day) and of egg (18.4 and 4.9 g/day) were low. The conceptual model guiding this work identified more constraining factors at the community and household levels than at the individual level. The most common constraints on feeding animal-source foods to young children were poverty, animal health, and land degradation at the community level; cost of animal-source foods and limited livestock holdings at the household level; and caregivers' perceptions of giving animal-source foods to children at the individual level. For program planning, it is useful to simultaneously consider factors that affect community availability of household access to, and children's intake of animal-source foods. Efforts to overcome individual-level constraints on intake of animal-source foods should be coupled with activities to address community and household constraints.

  6. Green development and participation-implications for countries in transition: Case study of Stara Planina, Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perović Maša

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The following research looks at opportunities and obstacles for applying public participation and sustainable environmental management in countries in transition. The case study analyses how the plans to develop a ski resort on the Stara Planina in the Republic of Serbia were created. The results show that factors which influence unsustainable developments are a lack of enforceable laws and the rule of law; lack of public awareness and information on relevant issues; weak civil society and lack of community involvement in decision making; high level of corruption in government and the public sector; highly politicized society with much influence from informal sources of power and their interests. The research concludes that with effective public participation the developments would be more environmentally sustainable. For participation to be effective there is a need to raise environmental awareness in the region as a consequence of the communist past and marginalisation of rural areas. .

  7. Climate Change Awareness among the High School Students: Case Study from a Climate Vulnerable Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.A. Rahman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is one the worst sufferers of climate change. Climate change awareness creation is pivotal to adaptation and mitigation strategies. Effective dissemination of knowledge among the citizens during high school years is crucial to that end. In Bangladesh, secondary school students follow common curricula which include entries on climate change. This paper investigates the role of the diverse demographic profiles and inherent scholastic background of students on their informedness. The research is based on responses from secondary schools students in Chittagong, Bangladesh. Based on their understanding of climate change, we have constructed the Climate Awareness Index (CAI. Then the relative roles of demographic determinants of the awareness have been compared using the CAI. The quality of schools, and grade, major and merit position of students have affected the CAI values. Besides, the study concluded that the religion, gender, parental education, occupation and income, etc. could affect students’ climate change informedness in Bangladesh.

  8. Nurse educators' perceptions of critical thinking in developing countries: Ghana as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boso, Christian Makafui; Gross, Janet J

    2015-01-01

    The ability to critically evaluate information for the purpose of rendering health care is a prerequisite for modern nurses in a complex and ever-changing health care environment. The nurse educators' perceptions influence the utilization of critical thinking strategies in the classroom. The purpose of this study was to assess nursing faculty's perceptions of critical thinking. Using a questionnaire 106 nurse educators from two types of nursing educational program self-reported their perceptions. Data were collected from November 2013 to March 2014. Results were presented using frequencies, percentages, and t-test. The findings revealed that majority (95.3%) of nurse educators could not provide definitions that captured both affective and cognitive aspects of critical thinking. However, the majority of nurse educators had positive perceptions of critical thinking. Nurse educators in universities had more positive perceptions of critical thinking than those in the nurses' training colleges (P=0.007). The results suggested that the current nursing programs are not preparing nurses with the necessary critical thinking skills for the complex health care environment. Professional development programs in critical thinking should be instituted for nurse educators to assist them in developing appropriate teaching strategies to foster students' acquisition of critical thinking skills.

  9. Nurse educators’ perceptions of critical thinking in developing countries: Ghana as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boso, Christian Makafui; Gross, Janet J

    2015-01-01

    The ability to critically evaluate information for the purpose of rendering health care is a prerequisite for modern nurses in a complex and ever-changing health care environment. The nurse educators’ perceptions influence the utilization of critical thinking strategies in the classroom. The purpose of this study was to assess nursing faculty’s perceptions of critical thinking. Using a questionnaire 106 nurse educators from two types of nursing educational program self-reported their perceptions. Data were collected from November 2013 to March 2014. Results were presented using frequencies, percentages, and t-test. The findings revealed that majority (95.3%) of nurse educators could not provide definitions that captured both affective and cognitive aspects of critical thinking. However, the majority of nurse educators had positive perceptions of critical thinking. Nurse educators in universities had more positive perceptions of critical thinking than those in the nurses’ training colleges (P=0.007). The results suggested that the current nursing programs are not preparing nurses with the necessary critical thinking skills for the complex health care environment. Professional development programs in critical thinking should be instituted for nurse educators to assist them in developing appropriate teaching strategies to foster students’ acquisition of critical thinking skills. PMID:26379453

  10. Do countries rely on the World Health Organization for translating research findings into clinical guidelines? A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ramadhani A; Geldsetzer, Pascal; Bärnighausen, Till; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2016-10-06

    The World Health Organization's (WHO) antiretroviral therapy (ART) guidelines have generally been adopted rapidly and with high fidelity by countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Thus far, however, WHO has not published specific guidance on nutritional care and support for (non-pregnant) adults living with HIV despite a solid evidence base for some interventions. This offers an opportunity for a case study on whether national clinical guidelines in sub-Saharan Africa provide concrete recommendations in the face of limited guidance by WHO. This study, therefore, aims to determine if national HIV treatment guidelines in sub-Saharan Africa contain specific guidance on nutritional care and support for non-pregnant adults living with HIV. We identified the most recent national HIV treatment guidelines in sub-Saharan African countries with English as an official language. Using pre-specified criteria, we determined for each guideline whether it provides guidance to clinicians on each of five components of nutritional care and support for adults living with HIV: assessment of nutritional status, dietary counseling, micronutrient supplementation, ready-to-use therapeutic or supplementary foods, and food subsidies. We found that national HIV treatment guidelines in sub-Saharan Africa generally do not contain concrete recommendations on nutritional care and support for non-pregnant adults living with HIV. Given that decisions on nutritional care and support are inevitably being made at the clinician-patient level, and that clinicians have a relative disadvantage in systematically identifying, summarizing, and weighing up research evidence compared to WHO and national governments, there is a need for more specific clinical guidance. In our view, such guidance should at a minimum recommend daily micronutrient supplements for adults living with HIV who are in pre-ART stages, regular dietary counseling, periodic assessment of anthropometric status, and additional nutritional

  11. Risk of injury after alcohol consumption from case-crossover studies in five countries from the America’s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Orozco, Ricardo; Monteiro, Maristela; Cherpitel, Cheryl; Then, Eddy Pérez; López, Víctor A.; Bassier-Paltoo, Marcia; Weil A., Donald; de Bradshaw, Aldacira M

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study aimed to: 1) provide relative risk (RR) estimates between acute alcohol use and injuries from emergency departments in the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Guyana, Nicaragua and Panama, and 2) test whether the RR differs if two control periods for the estimates were used. Design Case-crossover methodology was used to obtain estimates of the RR of having an injury within six hours after drinking alcohol, using a pair-matching design with control periods of the same time of day the day prior to injury, and the same time of day and day of week the week prior to injury. Setting Emergency departments(EDs). Participants 2,503 injured patients from EDs were interviewed between 2010–2011, with a response rate of 92.6%. Measurements Number of drinks consumed within six hours prior to the injury and in the two control periods. Findings The RR of injury after drinking alcohol was 4.38 (95% confidence interval CI= 3.29–5.84) using as the control period the prior week, and 5.35 (CI=3.50–8.17) using as a control period the prior day. The RR was 5.08 (CI=4.15–6.23) in multiple matching. Those drinking 1–2 drinks had a RR of 4.85 (CI=3.12–7.54); those drinking 3–5 a RR of 5.00 (CI =3.47–7.18); those drinking 6–15 a RR of 4.54 (CI=3.36–6.14); and those drinking 16 or more a RR of 10.42 (CI=4.38–24.79). Conclusions As in other countries, alcohol drinking is a trigger for an injury in all five countries. The use of more than one control period give further strength to these findings from case-crossover analysis. PMID:22775508

  12. Human Resources for Cancer Control in Uttar Pradesh, India: A Case Study for Low and Middle Income Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daphtary, Maithili; Agrawal, Sushma; Vikram, Bhadrasain

    2014-01-01

    For addressing the growing burden of cancer in low and middle income countries, an important first step is to estimate the human resources required for cancer control in a country, province, or city. However, few guidelines are available to decision makers in that regard. Here, we propose a methodology for estimating the human and other resources needed in the state of Uttar Pradesh (UP), India as a case study. Information about the population of UP and its cities was obtained from http://citypopulation.de/. The number of new cancer cases annually for the commonest cancers was estimated from GLOBOCAN 20081. For estimating the human resources needed, the following assumptions were made: newly diagnosed cancer patients need pathology for diagnosis and for treatment surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiotherapy. The percentage of patients requiring each of those modalities, their average lengths of stay as in-patients, and number of in-patient oncology beds were estimated. The resources already available in UP were determined by a telephone survey and by searching the websites of radiation therapy centers and medical colleges. Twenty-four radiation oncologists at 24 cancer centers in 10 cities responded to the survey. As detailed in this manuscript, an enormous shortage of human resources for cancer control exists in UP. Human resources are the key to diagnosing cancers early and treating them appropriately. Addressing the shortage will not be easy but we hope that the methodology described here can guide decision makers and form a framework for discussion among the various stakeholders. This methodology is readily adaptable to local practices and data. PMID:25237650

  13. HUMAN RESOURCES FOR CANCER CONTROL IN UTTAR PRADESH, INDIA: A CASE STUDY FOR LOW AND MIDDLE INCOME COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maithili eDaphtary

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For addressing the growing burden of cancer in low and middle income countries an important first step is to estimate the human resources required for cancer control in a country, province or city. However, few guidelines are available to decision-makers in that regard. Here we propose a methodology for estimating the human and other resources needed in the state of Uttar Pradesh (UP, India as a case study. Information about the population of UP and its cities was obtained from http://citypopulation.de/. The number of new cancer cases annually for the commonest cancers was estimated from GLOBOCAN 2008 (http://globocan.iarc.fr. For estimating the human resources needed the following assumptions were made: newly diagnosed cancer patients need pathology for diagnosis and for treatment surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiotherapy. The percentage of patients requiring each of those modalities, their average lengths of stay as in-patients, and number of in-patient oncology beds were estimated based upon expert opinions. The resources already available in UP were determined by a telephone survey and by searching the websites of radiation therapy centers and medical colleges. Twenty-four radiation oncologists at 21 cancer centers in ten cities responded to the survey. As detailed in this manuscript, an enormous shortage of human resources for cancer control exists in UP. Human resources are the key to diagnosing cancers early and treating them appropriately. Addressing the shortage will not be easy but we hope that the methodology described here can guide decision-makers and form a framework for discussion among the various stakeholders. This methodology is readily adaptable to local practices and data.

  14. Towards a Science of Community Stakeholder Engagement in Biomedical HIV Prevention Trials: An Embedded Four-Country Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A Newman

    Full Text Available Broad international guidelines and studies in the context of individual clinical trials highlight the centrality of community stakeholder engagement in conducting ethically rigorous HIV prevention trials. We explored and identified challenges and facilitators for community stakeholder engagement in biomedical HIV prevention trials in diverse global settings. Our aim was to assess and deepen the empirical foundation for priorities included in the GPP guidelines and to highlight challenges in implementation that may merit further attention in subsequent GPP iterations.From 2008-2012 we conducted an embedded, multiple case study centered in Thailand, India, South Africa and Canada. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with respondents from different trial-related subsystems: civil society organization representatives, community advocates, service providers, clinical trialists/researchers, former trial participants, and key HIV risk populations. Interviews/focus groups were recorded, and coded using thematic content analysis. After intra-case analyses, we conducted cross-case analysis to contrast and synthesize themes and sub-themes across cases. Lastly, we applied the case study findings to explore and assess UNAIDS/AVAC GPP guidelines and the GPP Blueprint for Stakeholder Engagement.Across settings, we identified three cross-cutting themes as essential to community stakeholder engagement: trial literacy, including lexicon challenges and misconceptions that imperil sound communication; mistrust due to historical exploitation; and participatory processes: engaging early; considering the breadth of "community"; and, developing appropriate stakeholder roles. Site-specific challenges arose in resource-limited settings and settings where trials were halted.This multiple case study revealed common themes underlying community stakeholder engagement across four country settings that largely mirror GPP goals and the GPP Blueprint, as well as

  15. Towards a Science of Community Stakeholder Engagement in Biomedical HIV Prevention Trials: An Embedded Four-Country Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Peter A; Rubincam, Clara; Slack, Catherine; Essack, Zaynab; Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Chuang, Deng-Min; Tepjan, Suchon; Shunmugam, Murali; Roungprakhon, Surachet; Logie, Carmen; Koen, Jennifer; Lindegger, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Broad international guidelines and studies in the context of individual clinical trials highlight the centrality of community stakeholder engagement in conducting ethically rigorous HIV prevention trials. We explored and identified challenges and facilitators for community stakeholder engagement in biomedical HIV prevention trials in diverse global settings. Our aim was to assess and deepen the empirical foundation for priorities included in the GPP guidelines and to highlight challenges in implementation that may merit further attention in subsequent GPP iterations. From 2008-2012 we conducted an embedded, multiple case study centered in Thailand, India, South Africa and Canada. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with respondents from different trial-related subsystems: civil society organization representatives, community advocates, service providers, clinical trialists/researchers, former trial participants, and key HIV risk populations. Interviews/focus groups were recorded, and coded using thematic content analysis. After intra-case analyses, we conducted cross-case analysis to contrast and synthesize themes and sub-themes across cases. Lastly, we applied the case study findings to explore and assess UNAIDS/AVAC GPP guidelines and the GPP Blueprint for Stakeholder Engagement. Across settings, we identified three cross-cutting themes as essential to community stakeholder engagement: trial literacy, including lexicon challenges and misconceptions that imperil sound communication; mistrust due to historical exploitation; and participatory processes: engaging early; considering the breadth of "community"; and, developing appropriate stakeholder roles. Site-specific challenges arose in resource-limited settings and settings where trials were halted. This multiple case study revealed common themes underlying community stakeholder engagement across four country settings that largely mirror GPP goals and the GPP Blueprint, as well as highlighting

  16. Implementing Intellectual Property of Pharmaceuticals in Middle-Income Countries: A Case Study of Patent Regulation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, Elize Massard; Bastos, Francisco Inácio

    2016-06-01

    The protection of pharmaceutical intellectual property (IP) rights is one of the most controversial debates in contemporary public health as countries have to balance incentives for drug development with the necessity of providing life-saving drugs. Compliance with IP protections is mandatory for members of the World Trade Organization (WTO). However, because of the costs associated with IP implementation we should expect late and/or poor implementation in middle-income countries. Surprisingly, this was not the case in Brazil. The country not only just fully implemented the WTO's requirement but declined the grace period granted for countries to adapt and included extra IP protections, going against a coalition of local industrialists and activists. Notwithstanding, as the consequences of IP regulations unfolds, Brazil also promoted new alliances that tailored and adjusted the regulations toward public health. We demonstrate that arguments of foreign pressure and lobbying are exaggerated and call attention to domestic shifts, long-term processes of regulatory decision, and political dynamics happening at the local level. By analyzing the case of Brazil, we provide a nuanced contribution to the discussion of IP implementation in middle-income countries and call attention to new models of government-society interactions in regulatory policy. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  17. Tanzania country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    Objectives of this study are to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass, as well as other forestry products. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without and in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. Analysis of the mitigation scenario has been based on Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis (COMAP). This study has analysed the forestry and land use sector behaviour on the basis of the current policies on land and environment. Furthermore three scenarios have been developed on the basis of what is expected to happen in the sectors, the worse scenario being a catastrophic one where if things takes the business as usual trend then the forest resources will easily be depleted. The TFAP scenario takes into account the implementation of the current plans as scheduled while the mitigation scenario takes into account the GHG mitigation in the implementation of the plans. A Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis Process (COMAP) has been used to analyse the GHG and cost implications of the various programmes under the mitigation scenario. (au) 30 refs.

  18. Implementation considerations when expanding health worker roles to include safe abortion care: a five-country case study synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenton, Claire; Sorhaindo, Annik M; Ganatra, Bela; Lewin, Simon

    2017-09-21

    Allowing a broader range of trained health workers to deliver services can be an important way of improving access to safe abortion care. However, the expansion of health worker roles may be challenging to implement. This study aimed to explore factors influencing the implementation of role expansion strategies for non-physician providers to include the delivery of abortion care. We conducted a multi-country case study synthesis in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Nepal, South Africa and Uruguay, where the roles of non-physician providers have been formally expanded to include the provision of abortion care. We searched for documentation from each country related to non-physician providers, abortion care services and role expansion through general internet searches, Google Scholar and PubMed, and gathered feedback from 12 key informants. We carried out a thematic analysis of the data, drawing on categories from the SURE Framework of factors affecting the implementation of policy options. Several factors appeared to affect the successful implementation of including non-physician providers to provide abortion care services. These included health workers' knowledge about abortion legislation and services; and health workers' willingness to provide abortion care. Health workers' willingness appeared to be influenced by their personal views about abortion, the method of abortion and stage of pregnancy and their perceptions of their professional roles. While managers' and co-workers' attitudes towards the use of non-physician providers varied, the synthesis suggests that female clients focused less on the type of health worker and more on factors such as trust, privacy, cost, and closeness to home. Health systems factors also played a role, including workloads and incentives, training, supervision and support, supplies, referral systems, and monitoring and evaluation. Strategies used, with varying success, to address some of these issues in the study countries included values

  19. Implementation considerations when expanding health worker roles to include safe abortion care: a five-country case study synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Glenton

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allowing a broader range of trained health workers to deliver services can be an important way of improving access to safe abortion care. However, the expansion of health worker roles may be challenging to implement. This study aimed to explore factors influencing the implementation of role expansion strategies for non-physician providers to include the delivery of abortion care. Methods We conducted a multi-country case study synthesis in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Nepal, South Africa and Uruguay, where the roles of non-physician providers have been formally expanded to include the provision of abortion care. We searched for documentation from each country related to non-physician providers, abortion care services and role expansion through general internet searches, Google Scholar and PubMed, and gathered feedback from 12 key informants. We carried out a thematic analysis of the data, drawing on categories from the SURE Framework of factors affecting the implementation of policy options. Results Several factors appeared to affect the successful implementation of including non-physician providers to provide abortion care services. These included health workers’ knowledge about abortion legislation and services; and health workers’ willingness to provide abortion care. Health workers’ willingness appeared to be influenced by their personal views about abortion, the method of abortion and stage of pregnancy and their perceptions of their professional roles. While managers’ and co-workers’ attitudes towards the use of non-physician providers varied, the synthesis suggests that female clients focused less on the type of health worker and more on factors such as trust, privacy, cost, and closeness to home. Health systems factors also played a role, including workloads and incentives, training, supervision and support, supplies, referral systems, and monitoring and evaluation. Strategies used, with varying success, to address

  20. Mauritius country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manraj, D.D. [Central Statistical Office (Mauritius)

    1998-10-01

    Mauritius has no known oil, gas or coal reserves but is only endowed with limited renewable energy resources namely hydropower and bagasse. Bagasse represents about one third of the country`s energy requirements and meets almost all of the sugar industries energy demand. Projects identified for mitigation options are: Energy Sector - Renewable Sources (Solar, Wind, Biomass); Transport Sector - Fuel switching and Mass transit transport; Manufacturing Sector - Increase efficiency of energy use in the manufacturing process. (EG)

  1. An empirical case study of the transfer of GHG mitigation technologies from Annex 1 countries to Malaysia under the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses what role the CDM currently plays in relation to the transfer of GHG mitigation technologies from Annex 1 countries to non-Annex 1 countries. The study relies on multiple sources of qualitative data and is conducted as a case study of 13 CDM projects implemented in Malaysia...... it can be concluded that the CDM only plays a role in one out of the 13 projects examined. The study may contribute to provide a background for adopting future provisions concerning technology transfer in the CDM or other initiatives involving GHG mitigation activities in non-Annex 1 countries....

  2. Complementing Neurophysiology Education for Developing Countries via Cost-Effective Virtual Labs: Case Studies and Classroom Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwakar, Shyam; Parasuram, Harilal; Medini, Chaitanya; Raman, Raghu; Nedungadi, Prema; Wiertelak, Eric; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Achuthan, Krishnashree; Nair, Bipin

    2014-01-01

    Classroom-level neuroscience experiments vary from detailed protocols involving chemical, physiological and imaging techniques to computer-based modeling. The application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is revolutionizing the current laboratory scenario in terms of active learning especially for distance education cases. Virtual web-based labs are an asset to educational institutions confronting economic issues in maintaining equipment, facilities and other conditions needed for good laboratory practice. To enhance education, we developed virtual laboratories in neuroscience and explored their first-level use in (Indian) University education in the context of developing countries. Besides using interactive animations and remotely-triggered experimental devices, a detailed mathematical simulator was implemented on a web-based software platform. In this study, we focused on the perceptions of technology adoption for a virtual neurophysiology laboratory as a new pedagogy tool for complementing college laboratory experience. The study analyses the effect of virtual labs on users assessing the relationship between cognitive, social and teaching presence. Combining feedback from learners and teachers, the study suggests enhanced motivation for students and improved teaching experience for instructors. PMID:24693260

  3. Complementing Neurophysiology Education for Developing Countries via Cost-Effective Virtual Labs: Case Studies and Classroom Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwakar, Shyam; Parasuram, Harilal; Medini, Chaitanya; Raman, Raghu; Nedungadi, Prema; Wiertelak, Eric; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Achuthan, Krishnashree; Nair, Bipin

    2014-01-01

    Classroom-level neuroscience experiments vary from detailed protocols involving chemical, physiological and imaging techniques to computer-based modeling. The application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is revolutionizing the current laboratory scenario in terms of active learning especially for distance education cases. Virtual web-based labs are an asset to educational institutions confronting economic issues in maintaining equipment, facilities and other conditions needed for good laboratory practice. To enhance education, we developed virtual laboratories in neuroscience and explored their first-level use in (Indian) University education in the context of developing countries. Besides using interactive animations and remotely-triggered experimental devices, a detailed mathematical simulator was implemented on a web-based software platform. In this study, we focused on the perceptions of technology adoption for a virtual neurophysiology laboratory as a new pedagogy tool for complementing college laboratory experience. The study analyses the effect of virtual labs on users assessing the relationship between cognitive, social and teaching presence. Combining feedback from learners and teachers, the study suggests enhanced motivation for students and improved teaching experience for instructors.

  4. D3.3 : report on “good practice” case studies of professional development in three countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Bente

    2016-01-01

    This report presents ‘good practice case studies’ of exemplary approaches to innovative in-service professional development of ECEC practitioners in three countries: Denmark, Italy and Poland.The report is part of the project CARE “Curriculum Quality Analyses and Impact Review of European Education and Care”, a collaborative project funded by the European Union within the Seventh Framework Program, to address issues related to the quality, inclusiveness, and individual, social, and economic b...

  5. The Need for Hematology Nurse Education in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Community Case Study in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buser, Julie M.

    2017-01-01

    Hematology-related diseases, such as anemia, malaria, sickle cell disease (SCD), and blood cancers, have differing rates of survival between high-income and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Nurses in LMICs have an unmet need for specialty training and education to address hematology and hemato-oncology disorders. A gap in the literature exists about hematology nurse education and clinical service demands in LMICs. This community case study documents a collaborative hematology and basic hemato-oncology education program to sustainably strengthen nurse capacity at a national referral hospital and university in Tanzania. The goal of the intervention was to provide culturally competent nurse training in pediatric and adult hematology. A certified pediatric nurse practitioner with hematology and oncology experience provided culturally competent training and staff development to nurses over two weeks to meet this goal. Prior to development of a training schedule, nurses confidentially identified five of their top learning needs. Main hematology and basic oncology educational needs identified by nurses were the management of anemia, safe handling of cytotoxic agents, and treatment of SCD. The format of the education varied from bedside teaching to formal presentations to one-on-one individual discussions. Overall, nurses expressed satisfaction with the education and verbalized appreciation for teaching and training activities tailored to meet their needs. Specialized training in hematology and hemato-oncology has the potential to increase nurses’ confidence, respect, and participation in interprofessional team decision-making. Lessons learned from the impact of collaborative nurse education and partnership in Tanzania can be generalized to other LMICs. This community case study highlights the importance of specialty nurse education, interprofessional development, and global partnerships needed to improve patient outcomes. PMID:28424766

  6. Risk of cardiac valvulopathy with use of bisphosphonates: a population-based, multi-country case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coloma, P M; de Ridder, M; Bezemer, I; Herings, R M C; Gini, R; Pecchioli, S; Scotti, L; Rijnbeek, P; Mosseveld, M; van der Lei, J; Trifirò, G; Sturkenboom, M

    2016-05-01

    Analyses of healthcare data from 30 million individuals in three countries showed that current use of bisphosphonates may be associated with a small increased risk of cardiac valvulopathy (vs. those not exposed within the previous year), although confounding cannot be entirely ruled out. The observed tendency for decreased valvulopathy risk with cumulative duration of bisphosphonate use >6 months may even indicate a protective effect with prolonged use. Further studies are still needed to evaluate whether bisphosphonates increase or decrease the risk of valvulopathy. A signal of cardiac valve disorders with use of bisphosphonates was identified in the literature and EudraVigilance database, which contains reports of suspected adverse drug reactions from worldwide sources. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association using population-based healthcare data. This was a case-control study among users of bisphosphonates and other drugs for osteoporosis in six healthcare databases covering over 30 million individuals in Italy, Netherlands and the UK from 1996 to 2012. Prescriptions/dispensations were used to assess drug exposure. Newly diagnosed cases of cardiac valvulopathy were identified via disease codes/free-text search. Controls were matched to each case by age, sex, database and index date. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression for the pooled data and meta-analysis of individual database risk estimates. A small but statistically significant association was found between exposure to bisphosphonates as a class and risk of valvulopathy. Overall risk was 18 % higher (95 % CI 12-23 %) in those currently exposed to any bisphosphonate (mainly alendronate and risedronate) vs. those not exposed within the previous year. Risk of valve regurgitation was 14 % higher (95 % CI 7-22 %). Decreased valvulopathy risk was observed with longer cumulative duration of bisphosphonate use, compared to use of less than 6

  7. Assessment of benefits of research reactors in less developed countries. A case study of the Dalat reactor in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hien, P.D. [Vietnam Atomic Energy Agency, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    1999-08-01

    The analysis of data on nuclear research reactor (NRR) and socio-economic conditions across countries reveals highly significant relationships of reactor power with GDP and R and D expenditure. The trends revealed can be used as preliminary guides for feasibility assessment of investment in a NRR. Concerning reactor performance, i.e. the number of reactor operation days per year, the covariation with R and D expenditure is most significant, but moderate, implying that there are other controlling factors, e.g. the engagement of country in nuclear power development. Thus, the size of the R and D fund is a most significant indicator to look at in reactor planning. Unfortunately, the lack of adequate R and D funding is a common and chronic problem in less developed countries. As NRR is among the biggest R and D investment in less developed countries, adequate cost benefit assessment is rightfully required. In the case of Vietnam, during 15 years of operation of a 500 kW NRR 2300 Ci of radioisotopes were delivered and 45,000 samples were analysed for multielemental compositions. From a pure financial viewpoint these figures would still be insignificant to justify the investment. However, the impact of the reactor on the technological development seems not to be a matter of pro and cons. The status of reactor utilization and lessons learned are presented and discussed. (author)

  8. Multicenter case-control study protocol of pneumonia etiology in children: Global Approach to Biological Research, Infectious diseases and Epidemics in Low-income countries (GABRIEL network).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picot, Valentina Sanchez; Bénet, Thomas; Messaoudi, Melina; Telles, Jean-Noël; Chou, Monidarin; Eap, Tekchheng; Wang, Jianwei; Shen, Kunling; Pape, Jean-William; Rouzier, Vanessa; Awasthi, Shally; Pandey, Nitin; Bavdekar, Ashish; Sanghvi, Sonali; Robinson, Annick; Contamin, Bénédicte; Hoffmann, Jonathan; Sylla, Maryam; Diallo, Souleymane; Nymadawa, Pagbajabyn; Dash-Yandag, Budragchaagiin; Russomando, Graciela; Basualdo, Wilma; Siqueira, Marilda M; Barreto, Patricia; Komurian-Pradel, Florence; Vernet, Guy; Endtz, Hubert; Vanhems, Philippe; Paranhos-Baccalà, Gláucia

    2014-12-10

    Data on the etiologies of pneumonia among children are inadequate, especially in developing countries. The principal objective is to undertake a multicenter incident case-control study of <5-year-old children hospitalized with pneumonia in developing and emerging countries, aiming to identify the causative agents involved in pneumonia while assessing individual and microbial factors associated with the risk of severe pneumonia. A multicenter case-control study, based on the GABRIEL network, is ongoing. Ten study sites are located in 9 countries over 3 continents: Brazil, Cambodia, China, Haiti, India, Madagascar, Mali, Mongolia, and Paraguay. At least 1,000 incident cases and 1,000 controls will be enrolled and matched for age and date. Cases are hospitalized children <5 years with radiologically confirmed pneumonia, and the controls are children without any features suggestive of pneumonia. Respiratory specimens are collected from all enrolled subjects to identify 19 viruses and 5 bacteria. Whole blood from pneumonia cases is being tested for 3 major bacteria. S. pneumoniae-positive specimens are serotyped. Urine samples from cases only are tested for detection of antimicrobial activity. The association between procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and pathogens is being evaluated. A discovery platform will enable pathogen identification in undiagnosed samples. This multicenter study will provide descriptive results for better understanding of pathogens responsible for pneumonia among children in developing countries. The identification of determinants related to microorganisms associated with pneumonia and its severity should facilitate treatment and prevention.

  9. What can be learned from practical cases of green economy? –studies from five European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitkänen, K.; Antikainen, R.; Droste, N.; Loiseau, E.; Saikku, L.; Aissani, L.; Hansjürgens, B.; Kuikman, P.J.; Leskinen, P.; Thomsen, M.

    2016-01-01

    The transition to green economies has been mediated by concrete cases and experiments in a variety of different industrial and social sectors. What is lacking, is research that would synthesize key findings and “lessons learned” across a variety of cases. In this study, we explore ten cases of

  10. Child health and nutrition in Peru within an antipoverty political agenda: a Countdown to 2015 country case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huicho, Luis; Segura, Eddy R; Huayanay-Espinoza, Carlos A; de Guzman, Jessica Niño; Restrepo-Méndez, Maria Clara; Tam, Yvonne; Barros, Aluisio J D; Victora, Cesar G

    2016-06-01

    Peru is an upper-middle-income country with wide social and regional disparities. In recent years, sustained multisectoral antipoverty programmes involving governments, political parties, and civil society have included explicit health and nutrition goals and spending increased sharply. We did a country case study with the aim of documenting Peru's progress in reproductive, maternal, neonatal, and child health from 2000-13, and explored the potential determinants. We examined the outcomes of health interventions coverage, under-5 mortality, neonatal mortality, and prevalence of under-5 stunting. We obtained data from interviews with key informants, a literature review of published and unpublished data, national censuses, and governmental reports. We obtained information on social determinants of health, including economic growth, poverty, unmet basic needs, urbanisation, women's education, water supply, fertility rates, and child nutrition from the annual national households surveys and the Peruvian Demographic and Health Surveys. We obtained national mortality data from the Interagency Group for Child Mortality Estimation, and calculated subnational rates from 11 surveys. Analyses were stratified by region, wealth quintiles, and urban or rural residence. We calculated coverage indicators for the years 2000-13, and we used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to estimate the effect of changes in intervention coverage and in nutritional status on mortality. From 2000 to 2013, under-5 mortality fell by 58% from 39·8 deaths per 1000 livebirths to 16·7. LiST, which was used to predict the decline in mortality arising from changes in fertility rates, water and sanitation, undernutrition, and coverage of indicators of reproductive, maternal, neonatal, and child health predicted that the under-5 mortality rate would fall from 39·8 to 28·4 per 1000 livebirths, accounting for 49·2% of the reported reduction. Neonatal mortality fell by 51% from 16·2 deaths per 1000 livebirths

  11. Basic Education for Girls in Yemen: Country Case Study and Analysis. Mid-Decade Review of Progress towards Education for All.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Sharon

    In 1995, the International Consultative Forum on Education for All (EFA) commissioned case studies in developing countries as part of a mid-decade review of progress in expanding access to basic education. This paper examines provision of basic education (grades 1-9) in Yemen, focusing on obstacles to girls' education in rural areas. The report…

  12. Identifying barriers to the availability and use of Magnesium Sulphate Injection in resource poor countries: A case study in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Suzanne R

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are serious complications of pregnancy and major causes of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. According to systematic reviews and WHO guidelines magnesium sulphate injection (MgSO4 should be the first -line treatment for severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Studies have shown that this safe and effective medicine is unavailable and underutilized in many resource poor countries. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to the availability and use of MgSO4 in the Zambian Public Health System. Methods A 'fishbone' (Ishikawa diagram listing probable facilitators to the availability and use of MgSO4 identified from the literature was used to develop an assessment tool. Barriers to availability and use of MgSO4 were assessed at the regulatory/government, supply, procurement, distribution, health facility and health professional levels. The assessment was completed during August 2008 using archival data, and observations at a pragmatic sample of health facilities providing obstetric services in Lusaka District, Zambia. Results The major barrier to the availability of MgSO4 within the public health system in Zambia was lack of procurement by the Ministry of Health. Other barriers identified included a lack of demand by health professionals at the health centre level and a lack of in-service training in the use of MgSO4. Where there was demand by obstetricians, magnesium sulphate injection was being procured from the private sector by the hospital pharmacy despite not being registered and licensed for use for the treatment of severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia by the national Pharmaceutical Regulatory Authority. Conclusions The case study in Zambia highlights the complexities that underlie making essential medicines available and used appropriately. The fishbone diagram is a useful theoretical framework for illustrating the complexity of translating research findings into clinical

  13. Education and risk for acute myocardial infarction in 52 high, middle and low-income countries: INTERHEART case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, A; Subramanian, S V; Islam, S; Chow, C K; Avezum, A; Kazmi, K; Sliwa, K; Zubaid, M; Rangarajan, S; Yusuf, S

    2009-12-01

    To determine the effect of education and other measures of socioeconomic status (SES) on risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients and controls from countries with diverse economic circumstances (high, middle, and low income countries). Case-control study. 52 countries from all inhabited regions of the world. 12242 cases and 14622 controls. First non-fatal AMI. SES was measured using education, family income, possessions in the household and occupation. Low levels of education (education adjusted for age, sex and region was 1.56 (95% confidence interval 1.47 to 1.66). After further adjustment for psychosocial, lifestyle, other factors and mutually for other socioeconomic factors, the OR associated with education alcohol and abdominal obesity) explained about half of the socioeconomic gradient. Family income, numbers of possessions and non-professional occupation were only weakly or not at all independently related to AMI. In high-income countries (World Bank Classification), the risk factor adjusted OR associated with low education was 1.61 (1.33 to 1.94), whereas it was substantially lower in low-income and middle-income countries: 1.25 (1.14 to 1.37) (p for interaction 0.045). Of the SES measures we studied, low education was the marker most consistently associated with increased risk for AMI globally, most markedly in high-income countries.

  14. Adoption of trastuzumab for breast cancer in four emerging countries in the use of health technology assessment: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Ruiz, Eva; Espín Balbino, Jaime; Lemgruber, Alexandre; Caro-Martínez, Araceli; Lessa, Fernanda; Olry-de-Labry-Lima, Antonio; Pérez-Velasco, Roman; García-Mochón, Leticia

    2016-07-01

    To describe processes for the adoption of trastuzumab in four countries in the use of health technology assessment (HTA): Poland, Albania, Brazil and Colombia. Mixed methods were used for collection and triangulation of data. Data were examined following a conceptual framework connecting HTA process steps and key principles. Trastuzumab was generally assessed following well-structured HTA processes. Nonetheless, areas of improvement were detected in terms of transparency and inclusiveness, as well as in methods used. The extent to which different criteria influenced decisions was unclear. This study covers an area in which information may not always be available, and sets the example for emerging countries interested in HTA. Further studies to gain a better understanding on decision-making across settings are warranted.

  15. E-government factors to reduce administrative and finance corruption in Arab countries: Case study Iraqi oil sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, M. A.; Eman, Y.; Hussein, A. H.; Hasson, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Arab countries face the corruption issues in its several public organizations. The corruption in these countries is considered as the main challenge. The oil sector is one of the public sectors that have huge level of corruption. However, the Iraqi economy had become dependable on oil sector daring the last three decades, and on the contrary, of what other oil countries did. The capital is considered as one of the essential factor for economic development. The revenues of oil exports will stay the essential source for economic development in Iraq in the future in order to reduce being dependable on oil. Since the beginning of the 3rd thousands, the world witnessed great rise in the demand on oil, but the Iraqi exports of crude oil come to be less than its similarities in the seventeenths of last century. So our oil sector is still in need of deep study. This study focuses on technological technique that can make huge decrease for corruption in oil sector in Iraq. However, e-government is considered as the best techniques that can decrease the corruption. Thus, this study bases on challenges that effect on build successful e-government project in Iraqi oil industry.

  16. What tools do we have to study the morphological effects of hydroelectric plants in developing countries? The Chilean case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcayaga, Hernan; Caamaño, Diego; Palma, Sebastian; Contreras, Karla

    2017-04-01

    Countries growing rates are directly related to energy production. Therefore, developed and developing nations are focused on hydropower and dam construction; on the contrary dam removal practices are significantly different among nations, demonstrating the former group a lesser interest on removing structures. Chiles hydropower generation corresponds to 50% of the current grid, having a potential capacity to double the current situation. Thus: ¿What tools can we apply to assess the potential impacts on our rivers? The goal of this project is to study two different reaches located in two separates streams in Central Chile. The Aconcagua River represents a mountain stream (i.e. steep, narrow, and confined) subject to the operation of a hydroelectric system composed by five diversion hydropower plants built during the 90`s. The Rapel River reach corresponds to the last 10km upstream to the outlet; it is a mild and wide stream that includes the gravel-sand transition. The Rapel dam operates about 25km upstream this second reach that is characterized by an 112m wall built in 1968. The Aconcagua hydropower system was characterized within a GIS environment and a morphological response conceptual model applied. The model uses two indexes to evaluate changes in i) channel forming discharge and ii) sediment supply. The provided response shows the trends and magnitudes of the changes, based in eighth possible directions for ten morphological responsible variables. The Rapel river system was evaluated differently and sampling of sediments characteristics (D50 and armour index), discharge index for both before and after the dam operation, Morphological Quality Index (IQM) and an analysis of aerial photography time series were performed. Results showed that the hydrology indicator impacts for the Aconcagua system were more severe than the impacts on sediments transport (typically the case for diversion type hydropower). A fine armour layer was found within the Rapel river site

  17. Ethnic Chinese Remigration from Southeast Asian Countries since 1960s: A Case Study of Malaysian Chinese Outflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Xiaoli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Total outflows of Chinese from Southeast Asian countries since the Second World War reached around 3 million. They headed to the developed countries such as the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, France and Singapore. As for the case of Malaysia, large number of Malaysian Chinese remigrated to Singapore, United Kingdom, United States, Canada and Australia for new residence since the end of the Second World War. They left Malaysia because of political discrimination, economic restrictions, and unequal educational and cultural treatment. According to Malaysia census data and natural population growth rate, this paper made estimation that by 201 0 a total of 1.13 million ethnic Chinese had migrated out of Malaysia. After deducting the number of ethnic Chinese moving to Malaysia, the Malaysian Chinese migrating abroad reached 1.05 million. Malaysian Chinese left Malaysia in the manner of permanent residents and short-term migrants. Permanent residents include those in the skill stream, family stream and those with special eligibility. Short-term migrants refer to visiting scholars, foreign students, guest labor, business expatriates and expatriate professionals. As a matter of fact, there has been a serious brain drain through Chinese remigration from Malaysia.

  18. The usefulness of air quality monitoring and air quality impact studies before the introduction of reformulated gasolines in developing countries. Mexico City, a real case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, H.A.; Torres, R.J. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico). Section de Contaminacion Ambiental

    2000-07-01

    Urban air pollution is a major environmental problem in several developing countries in the world. This phenomenon seems to be related to the growth of both the urban population in large cities and the number of old and poorly maintained car fleets. The expected rise of population in the next century in countries which suffer from lack of capital for air pollution control, means that there is a great potential for the worsening of the air quality. The worldwide promote policy to phase out lead in gasolines has not proved to be an adequate option in improving the environmental quality. Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) represents a case in which the introduction of reformulated gasolines in an old car fleet has resulted in the reduction of the airborne lead levels but has worsened the ozone concentration of its urban atmosphere. This paper critically analyzes the chronological evolution of the ozone air pollution problem in MCMA after the successive occurrence of several changes in the formulation of low leaded and unleaded gasolines. It also presents evidences of the usefulness potential of air quality monitoring activities and air quality impact studies on the definition of realistic fuel reformulation policies of developing countries. (author)

  19. Indonesia country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    This study demonstrated the use of MARKAL model in carbon mitigation analysis for both energy and forestry sector. Four scenarios were used namely: 1. EbFb (baseline scenario). In this scenario, mitigation technologies in the energy sector were not included in the model and no target was set up for increasing net carbon uptake by forest activities. 2. EmFb. Mitigation technologies in the energy sector were included with the target of reducing cumulative net carbon emission by about 13% and activities in the forestry sectors were the same as those in baseline. 3. EbFm. Mitigation technologies in the energy sector were not included and the forestry activities were targeted to increase the carbon uptake so that the cumulative net carbon emission decreased by 13%. 4. EmFm. Mitigation technologies in the energy sector were included as well as forestry sector with target of reducing cumulative net carbon emission by about 35%. This study indicates that the MARKAL model has the potential to be used for mitigation analysis for both energy and forestry sectors. However, there are some limitations encountered during the study. The program is not able to accommodate the delayed emission from the forestry sector in a manner consistent to the treatment of emissions in the energy sector. In addition, there are some technical problems that still need to be resolved such as the inclusion of soil carbon uptake calculation in the model and the verification of carbon uptake calculation. In this study, all carbon uptakes was assumed to occur at the time of planting. (EHS) 37 refs.

  20. Botswana country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Peter [EECG Consultants, Gaborone (Botswana)

    1998-10-01

    The project analysed the baseline economic, energy development and greenhouse gas (GHG) scenarios, and abatement costing of plausible greenhouse gas mitigation options in the energy sector of Botswana. The analysis period for both the baseline and mitigation scenarios is up to 2030 with the short term stretching from 1994 to 2005 and the long term up to 2030. There is a relatively significant potential to reduce GHG emissions in the energy system of Botswana by applying a number of mitigation options. The potential in by applying a set of 21 mitigation options analysed in this study was found to be about 28.7% in 2005 and 26.1% in 2030. (EG)

  1. Biological and social feasibility of Sesbania fallow practice in small holder agricultural farms in developing countries: a Zambian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opio, C

    2001-01-01

    Many small holder farmers in developing countries face problems of declining soil fertility and crop yields and insufficient money to buy expensive inorganic fertilizers. The Sesbania fallow system, an agroforestry technology, seems to hold a key to these problems. Based on field studies in eastern Zambia, this paper reports that fallow system has the potential to improve and sustain soil productivity in the small holder farms. However, the paper also reports that the ability for subsistence farmers to adopt the Sesbania fallow system is affected by gender differences in resource allocation to productive resources and institutional, cultural, and social structural settings in which farmers exist and make decisions.

  2. Countdown to 2015 country case studies: what can analysis of national health financing contribute to understanding MDG 4 and 5 progress?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlyn Mann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Countdown to 2015 (Countdown supported countries to produce case studies that examine how and why progress was made toward the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs 4 and 5. Analysing how health-financing data explains improvements in RMNCH outcomes was one of the components to the case studies. Methods This paper presents a descriptive analysis on health financing from six Countdown case studies (Afghanistan, Ethiopia, Malawi, Pakistan, Peru, and Tanzania, supplemented by additional data from global databases and country reports on macroeconomic, health financing, demographic, and RMNCH outcome data as needed. It also examines the effect of other contextual factors presented in the case studies to help interpret health-financing data. Results Dramatic increases in health funding occurred since 2000, where the MDG agenda encouraged countries and donors to invest more resources on health. Most low-income countries relied on external support to increase health spending, with an average 20–64 % of total health spending from 2000 onwards. Middle-income countries relied more on government and household spending. RMNCH funding also increased since 2000, with an average increase of 119 % (2005–2010 for RMNH expenditures (2005–2010 and 165 % for CH expenditures (2005–2011. Progress was made, especially achieving MDG 4, even with low per capita spending; ranging from US$16 to US$44 per child under 5 years among low-income countries. Improvements in distal factors were noted during the time frame of the analysis, including rapid economic growth in Ethiopia, Peru, and Tanzania and improvements in female literacy as documented in Malawi, which are also likely to have contributed to MDG progress and achievements. Conclusions Increases in health and RMNCH funding accompanied improvements in outcomes, though low-income countries are still very reliant on external financing, and out-of-pocket comprising a growing share of funds in

  3. Challenges for Sustainable Energy Sectors in Developing Countries- with Case Studies from Zambia, Zimbabwe, India and Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Regine

    1997-12-31

    Most of the developing countries have severe constraints on economic development caused by serious problems in their power sector. This report analyses the technical and financial situation of the sector from the perspective of sustainable electricity strategies. The core problem of the electricity sector is the complete lack of energy efficiency at all levels from generation to end user. The current emphasis on private participation in new electricity generation projects fails to solve the core problem and even diverts attention from the real challenge. An arm`s length relationship between governments and utilities is of central importance for a sound performance of the power sector. But more autonomous power sector decisions, such as reformed tariff structures, might contribute to inflation and political unrest. This is a main barrier to steps towards power sector autonomy. Another barrier is the lack of institutional capacity, despite over staffed utilities. Most important is the fact that the organizational structures are designed for supply-side management and that the incentive structures for good performance are often weak. The case of Thailand shows that end-use efficiency can be developed considerably by means of incentives and regulations and that transparency was an important condition for achieving this. The real challenge for development cooperation is to support the improvement of energy efficiency at all levels and the institutional and financial preconditions. It is also an important challenge to support developing countries in preparing for future utilization of viable new renewable energy carriers. Apart from this, it is important to continue the work for environmental impact assessments of planned power projects, and to support measures for minimizing the environmental impacts of old power plants. 48 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Student's Plagiarisms in Higher Learning Institutions in the Era of Improved Internet Access: Case Study of Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anney, Vicent Naano; Mosha, Mary Atanas

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated students' plagiarism practices in Tanzania higher learning institutions by involving two universities-one public and one private university as a case study. The universities involved have honour code and policies for plagiarism detection however they do not employ software for checking students' plagiarism. The study…

  5. Breast-milk substitutes: a new old-threat for breastfeeding policy in developing countries. A case study in a traditionally high breastfeeding country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barennes, Hubert; Empis, Gwenaelle; Quang, Thao Duong; Sengkhamyong, Khouanheuan; Phasavath, Phonethepa; Harimanana, Aina; Sambany, Emercia M; Koffi, Paulin N

    2012-01-01

    Developing countries with traditionally breastfeeding are now experiencing the increasing pressure of formula milk marketing. This may endanger lives and undermine the efforts of national policies in achieving the objectives of the Millennium Development Goals. We examined the use of, and factors for use, of all available breast-milk substitutes (BMS) in a country with a traditionally high rate of breastfeeding. Randomised multi-stage sampling surveys in 90 villages in 12/17 provinces in Laos. 1057 mothers with infants under 24 months of age. 50-query questionnaire and a poster of 22 BMS (8 canned or powdered milk; 6 non-dairy; 6 formulas; 2 non-formulas). OUTCOME MEASURES INCLUDED: prevalence of use and age of starting BMS in relation to socio-demographic characteristics and information sources, by univariate and multivariate analyses. Of 1057 mothers: 72.5% currently breastfed; 25.4% gave BMS (10.6% infant formula); 19.6% gave BMS before 6 months of age (of them: 83% non-dairy or cereals; mean age: 2.9 months; 95% Confidence interval: 2.6-3.2). One formula and one non-formula product accounted for 85% of BMS. BMS were considered as milk by the majority of mothers. Thai TV was the main source of information on BMS for mothers. Lao Loum mothers (the main ethnic group) living in concrete houses with good sanitary conditions, were more likely than others to use BMS before 6 months (OR: 1.79, (1.15-2.78), p<0.009). Mothers who fed their infants colostrum at birth were less likely to use BMS before 6 months of age (OR: 0.63, (0.41-0.99), p = 0.04). Unemployed mothers living in rural areas were less likely to consider BMS better than breast milk. In Laos, mothers with the highest socio-economic status are showing a tendency to give up breastfeeding. Successful educational strategies and advocacy measures should be urgently developed to promote and sustain breastfeeding in developing countries.

  6. Breast-milk substitutes: a new old-threat for breastfeeding policy in developing countries. A case study in a traditionally high breastfeeding country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Barennes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Developing countries with traditionally breastfeeding are now experiencing the increasing pressure of formula milk marketing. This may endanger lives and undermine the efforts of national policies in achieving the objectives of the Millennium Development Goals. We examined the use of, and factors for use, of all available breast-milk substitutes (BMS in a country with a traditionally high rate of breastfeeding. METHODS: Randomised multi-stage sampling surveys in 90 villages in 12/17 provinces in Laos. PARTICIPANTS: 1057 mothers with infants under 24 months of age. TOOLS: 50-query questionnaire and a poster of 22 BMS (8 canned or powdered milk; 6 non-dairy; 6 formulas; 2 non-formulas. OUTCOME MEASURES INCLUDED: prevalence of use and age of starting BMS in relation to socio-demographic characteristics and information sources, by univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Of 1057 mothers: 72.5% currently breastfed; 25.4% gave BMS (10.6% infant formula; 19.6% gave BMS before 6 months of age (of them: 83% non-dairy or cereals; mean age: 2.9 months; 95% Confidence interval: 2.6-3.2. One formula and one non-formula product accounted for 85% of BMS. BMS were considered as milk by the majority of mothers. Thai TV was the main source of information on BMS for mothers. Lao Loum mothers (the main ethnic group living in concrete houses with good sanitary conditions, were more likely than others to use BMS before 6 months (OR: 1.79, (1.15-2.78, p<0.009. Mothers who fed their infants colostrum at birth were less likely to use BMS before 6 months of age (OR: 0.63, (0.41-0.99, p = 0.04. Unemployed mothers living in rural areas were less likely to consider BMS better than breast milk. CONCLUSION: In Laos, mothers with the highest socio-economic status are showing a tendency to give up breastfeeding. Successful educational strategies and advocacy measures should be urgently developed to promote and sustain breastfeeding in developing countries.

  7. Breast-Milk Substitutes: A New Old-Threat for Breastfeeding Policy in Developing Countries. A Case Study in a Traditionally High Breastfeeding Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barennes, Hubert; Empis, Gwenaelle; Quang, Thao Duong; Sengkhamyong, Khouanheuan; Phasavath, Phonethepa; Harimanana, Aina; Sambany, Emercia M.; Koffi, Paulin N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Developing countries with traditionally breastfeeding are now experiencing the increasing pressure of formula milk marketing. This may endanger lives and undermine the efforts of national policies in achieving the objectives of the Millennium Development Goals. We examined the use of, and factors for use, of all available breast-milk substitutes (BMS) in a country with a traditionally high rate of breastfeeding. Methods Randomised multi-stage sampling surveys in 90 villages in 12/17 provinces in Laos. Participants: 1057 mothers with infants under 24 months of age. Tools: 50-query questionnaire and a poster of 22 BMS (8 canned or powdered milk; 6 non-dairy; 6 formulas; 2 non-formulas). Outcome measures included: prevalence of use and age of starting BMS in relation to socio-demographic characteristics and information sources, by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Of 1057 mothers: 72.5% currently breastfed; 25.4% gave BMS (10.6% infant formula); 19.6% gave BMS before 6 months of age (of them: 83% non-dairy or cereals; mean age: 2.9 months; 95% Confidence interval: 2.6–3.2). One formula and one non-formula product accounted for 85% of BMS. BMS were considered as milk by the majority of mothers. Thai TV was the main source of information on BMS for mothers. Lao Loum mothers (the main ethnic group) living in concrete houses with good sanitary conditions, were more likely than others to use BMS before 6 months (OR: 1.79, (1.15–2.78), p<0.009). Mothers who fed their infants colostrum at birth were less likely to use BMS before 6 months of age (OR: 0.63, (0.41–0.99), p = 0.04). Unemployed mothers living in rural areas were less likely to consider BMS better than breast milk. Conclusion In Laos, mothers with the highest socio-economic status are showing a tendency to give up breastfeeding. Successful educational strategies and advocacy measures should be urgently developed to promote and sustain breastfeeding in developing countries. PMID

  8. Forecasting deforestation and carbon emissions in tropical developing countries facing demographic expansion: a case study in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieilledent, Ghislain; Grinand, Clovis; Vaudry, Romuald

    2013-06-01

    Anthropogenic deforestation in tropical countries is responsible for a significant part of global carbon dioxide emissions in the atmosphere. To plan efficient climate change mitigation programs (such as REDD+, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation), reliable forecasts of deforestation and carbon dioxide emissions are necessary. Although population density has been recognized as a key factor in tropical deforestation, current methods of prediction do not allow the population explosion that is occurring in many tropical developing countries to be taken into account. Here, we propose an innovative approach using novel computational and statistical tools, including R/GRASS scripts and the new phcfM R package, to model the intensity and location of deforestation including the effect of population density. We used the model to forecast anthropogenic deforestation and carbon dioxide emissions in five large study areas in the humid and spiny-dry forests of Madagascar. Using our approach, we were able to demonstrate that the current rapid population growth in Madagascar (+3.39% per year) will significantly increase the intensity of deforestation by 2030 (up to +1.17% per year in densely populated areas). We estimated the carbon dioxide emissions associated with the loss of aboveground biomass to be of 2.24 and 0.26 tons per hectare and per year in the humid and spiny-dry forest, respectively. Our models showed better predictive ability than previous deforestation models (the figure of merit ranged from 10 to 23). We recommend this approach to reduce the uncertainty associated with deforestation forecasts. We also underline the risk of an increase in the speed of deforestation in the short term in tropical developing countries undergoing rapid population expansion.

  9. Stagnant neonatal mortality and persistent health inequality in middle-income countries: a case study of the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Aleli D; Nguyen, Kim-Huong; Jimenez-Soto, Eliana; Hodge, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The probability of survival through childhood continues to be unequal in middle-income countries. This study uses data from the Philippines to assess trends in the prevalence and distribution of child mortality and to evaluate the country's socioeconomic-related child health inequality. Using data from four Demographic and Health Surveys we estimated levels and trends of neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality from 1990 to 2007. Mortality estimates at national and subnational levels were produced using both direct and indirect methods. Concentration indices were computed to measure child health inequality by wealth status. Multivariate regression analyses were used to assess the contribution of interventions and socioeconomic factors to wealth-related inequality. Despite substantial reductions in national under-five and infant mortality rates in the early 1990s, the rates of declines have slowed in recent years and neonatal mortality rates remain stubbornly high. Substantial variations across urban-rural, regional, and wealth equity-markers are evident, and suggest that the gaps between the best and worst performing sub-populations will either be maintained or widen in the future. Of the variables tested, recent wealth-related inequalities are found to be strongly associated with social factors (e.g. maternal education), regional location, and access to health services, such as facility-based delivery. The Philippines has achieved substantial progress towards Millennium Development Goal 4, but this success masks substantial inequalities and stagnating neonatal mortality trends. This analysis supports a focus on health interventions of high quality--that is, not just facility-based delivery, but delivery by trained staff at well-functioning facilities and supported by a strong referral system--to re-start the long term decline in neonatal mortality and to reduce persistent within-country inequalities in child health.

  10. Stagnant neonatal mortality and persistent health inequality in middle-income countries: a case study of the Philippines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleli D Kraft

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The probability of survival through childhood continues to be unequal in middle-income countries. This study uses data from the Philippines to assess trends in the prevalence and distribution of child mortality and to evaluate the country's socioeconomic-related child health inequality. METHODOLOGY: Using data from four Demographic and Health Surveys we estimated levels and trends of neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality from 1990 to 2007. Mortality estimates at national and subnational levels were produced using both direct and indirect methods. Concentration indices were computed to measure child health inequality by wealth status. Multivariate regression analyses were used to assess the contribution of interventions and socioeconomic factors to wealth-related inequality. FINDINGS: Despite substantial reductions in national under-five and infant mortality rates in the early 1990s, the rates of declines have slowed in recent years and neonatal mortality rates remain stubbornly high. Substantial variations across urban-rural, regional, and wealth equity-markers are evident, and suggest that the gaps between the best and worst performing sub-populations will either be maintained or widen in the future. Of the variables tested, recent wealth-related inequalities are found to be strongly associated with social factors (e.g. maternal education, regional location, and access to health services, such as facility-based delivery. CONCLUSION: The Philippines has achieved substantial progress towards Millennium Development Goal 4, but this success masks substantial inequalities and stagnating neonatal mortality trends. This analysis supports a focus on health interventions of high quality--that is, not just facility-based delivery, but delivery by trained staff at well-functioning facilities and supported by a strong referral system--to re-start the long term decline in neonatal mortality and to reduce persistent within-country

  11. An investigation on economic growth and tax: A case study of D8 countries from 1990 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Abedini Najafabadi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Experiences of different countries with efficient tax systems have shown that the high share of tax resources than non-tax sources could prevent many unpleasant economical events. In other words, an efficient tax system could ensure economic system against many different risks. Tax is also a primary source for developing economy used by government. In this study, we investigate the relationship between economic growth and tax among D8 countries using panel data from 1990 to 2009. The results indicate growth domestic product is the most important factor and these governments could collect more tax as the economic figures improve. The results of our survey show that an increase of one percent on GDP will increase taxable income for about 0.0014119 percent. The tourism has more impact since an increase of one unit in tourism's income; taxable income will increase for about 10.26257 units. One the contrary to other variables, unemployment has a negative impact on taxable income.

  12. Integrating ethics, health policy and health systems in low- and middle-income countries: case studies from Malaysia and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Adnan A; Merritt, Maria; Ali, Joseph; Tran, Nhan T; Subramaniam, Kulanthayan; Akhtar, Tasleem

    2008-08-01

    Scientific progress is a significant basis for change in public-health policy and practice, but the field also invests in value-laden concepts and responds daily to sociopolitical, cultural and evaluative concerns. The concepts that drive much of public-health practice are shaped by the collective and individual mores that define social systems. This paper seeks to describe the ethics processes in play when public-health mechanisms are established in low- and middle-income countries, by focusing on two cases where ethics played a crucial role in producing positive institutional change in public-health policy. First, we introduce an overview of the relationship between ethics and public health; second, we provide a conceptual framework for the ethical analysis of health system events, noting how this approach might enhance the power of existing frameworks; and third, we demonstrate the interplay of these frameworks through the analysis of a programme to enhance road safety in Malaysia and an initiative to establish a national ethics committee in Pakistan. We conclude that, while ethics are gradually being integrated into public-health policy decisions in many developing health systems, ethical analysis is often implicit and undervalued. This paper highlights the need to analyse public-health decision-making from an ethical perspective.

  13. Establishment of Risk based microbiological criteria in the Nordic countries: A case study on Campylobacter in broiler meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten

    based microbiological criteria, the “case-by-case” risk assessment methodology is used (Christensen et al 2013) and its impact is analysed on the basis of the same data sets. In both approaches the same risk assessment model for Campylobacter in broiler meat is used. The difference between......, the uncertainty attending the “case by case” approach seems to be a little smaller. This preliminary result suggests that the “case by case” approach may be a more reliable method. One way to study this further will be to proceed with Bayesian data analysis as presented in this report. We have shown that risk......Microbiological criteria (MCs) offer a practical tool for food safety control and they are currently under discussion internationally. To meet the present scientific standards, there is an increasing demand for so- called “risk based” microbiological criteria that are based on risk assessment...

  14. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE REGULATION IN EMERGING COUNTRIES. CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu George BOCEAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the literature on corporate governance emphasizes that firms should be run in the interests of shareholders. This is a suitable objective function when markets are perfect and complete. In many emerging economies this is not the case: markets are imperfect and incomplete. Corporate governance issues are especially important in emerging countries, since these countries do not have the long-established financial institution infrastructure to deal with corporate governance issues. This paper discusses how emerging countries are dealing with corporate governance issues and the extra obstacles they have to overcome due to a lack of regulations. Romanian case study is examined.

  15. Coronary heart disease case fatality in four countries. A community study. The Acute Myocardial Infarction Register Teams of Auckland, Augsburg, Bremen, FINMONICA, Newcastle, and Perth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwel, H; Dobson, A; Keil, U; Herman, B; Hobbs, M S; Stewart, A; Arstila, M; Miettinen, H; Mustaniemi, H; Tuomilehto, J

    1993-12-01

    Community-based registers participating in the MONICA Project of the World Health Organization show markedly different attack and death rates of coronary heart disease. This variation is a function of both the incidence and case fatality occurring within countries. The contribution of case fatality to the international variation in coronary heart disease mortality rates is not well understood. The register data from eight study populations--Augsburg and Bremen in Germany, Auckland in New Zealand, Perth and Newcastle in Australia, and North Karelia, Kuopio, and Turku/Loimaa in Finland--were compared. All patients with definite myocardial infarction or coronary death aged 35 to 64 years occurring in the study populations in 1985 through 1989 are the basis for the case fatality calculations by different definitions: 28-day case fatality for all cases, for hospitalized cases, and for hospitalized 24-hour survivors; out-of-hospital case fatality; and 24-hour case fatality for hospitalized cases. Differences in case fatality were much smaller than differences in attack and mortality rates in these populations. About two thirds of deaths occurred before the patients reached a hospital. The 28-day case fatality ranged from 37% for men in Perth to 58% for women in Augsburg. Among those who reached the hospital alive, 28-day case fatality was 13% to 27% for men and 20% to 35% for women. In those who survived 24 hours from the onset of symptoms, 28-day case fatality was 8% to 17% for men and 12% to 26% for women. Differences in case fatality were not associated with differences in coronary mortality rates between these populations. As most deaths occurred before reaching a hospital, opportunities for reducing case fatality through improved hospital care are limited. This emphasizes the primary role of prevention in reducing coronary death rates.

  16. D3.3 : report on “good practice” case studies of professional development in three countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente

    and observations). Case studies were conducted within the “WP3, Professional Development: Impact and Innovation”, with the aim to explore new effective approaches to professional development aimed at enhancing education and improving workforce training strategies for early childhood education and care...... Education and Care”, a collaborative project funded by the European Union within the Seventh Framework Program, to address issues related to the quality, inclusiveness, and individual, social, and economic benefits of Early Childhood Education and Care in Europe. The report reviews studies on innovative...... approaches to professional development, including the use of new technologies, peer learning, reflective practice and organizational learning, within the field of Early Childhood Education in Europe (T3.3, narrative literature review), and then presents the case study design, results and interpretations...

  17. Effective Use of Assistive Technologies for Inclusive Education in Developing Countries: Issues and Challenges from Two Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönlund, Åke; Lim, Nena; Larsson, Hannu

    2010-01-01

    Developing countries face many obstacles in the process of implementing inclusive education (IE). Effective use of assistive technologies (AT) can help governments in developing countries achieve inclusive education by helping children with disabilities in schools. Despite the importance and positive impact of AT, prior research on the use of AT…

  18. Stagnant Neonatal Mortality and Persistent Health Inequality in Middle-Income Countries: A Case Study of the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Aleli D.; Nguyen, Kim-Huong; Jimenez-Soto, Eliana; Hodge, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Background The probability of survival through childhood continues to be unequal in middle-income countries. This study uses data from the Philippines to assess trends in the prevalence and distribution of child mortality and to evaluate the country’s socioeconomic-related child health inequality. Methodology Using data from four Demographic and Health Surveys we estimated levels and trends of neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality from 1990 to 2007. Mortality estimates at national and subnational levels were produced using both direct and indirect methods. Concentration indices were computed to measure child health inequality by wealth status. Multivariate regression analyses were used to assess the contribution of interventions and socioeconomic factors to wealth-related inequality. Findings Despite substantial reductions in national under-five and infant mortality rates in the early 1990s, the rates of declines have slowed in recent years and neonatal mortality rates remain stubbornly high. Substantial variations across urban-rural, regional, and wealth equity-markers are evident, and suggest that the gaps between the best and worst performing sub-populations will either be maintained or widen in the future. Of the variables tested, recent wealth-related inequalities are found to be strongly associated with social factors (e.g. maternal education), regional location, and access to health services, such as facility-based delivery. Conclusion The Philippines has achieved substantial progress towards Millennium Development Goal 4, but this success masks substantial inequalities and stagnating neonatal mortality trends. This analysis supports a focus on health interventions of high quality – that is, not just facility-based delivery, but delivery by trained staff at well-functioning facilities and supported by a strong referral system – to re-start the long term decline in neonatal mortality and to reduce persistent within-country inequalities in child

  19. Public Health Responses to and Challenges for the Control of Dengue Transmission in High-Income Countries: Four Case Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvina Viennet

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dengue has a negative impact in low- and lower middle-income countries, but also affects upper middle- and high-income countries. Despite the efforts at controlling this disease, it is unclear why dengue remains an issue in affluent countries. A better understanding of dengue epidemiology and its burden, and those of chikungunya virus and Zika virus which share vectors with dengue, is required to prevent the emergence of these diseases in high-income countries in the future. The purpose of this review was to assess the relative burden of dengue in four high-income countries and to appraise the similarities and differences in dengue transmission. We searched PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar using specific keywords for articles published up to 05 May 2016. We found that outbreaks rarely occur where only Aedes albopictus is present. The main similarities between countries uncovered by our review are the proximity to dengue-endemic countries, the presence of a competent mosquito vector, a largely nonimmune population, and a lack of citizens' engagement in control of mosquito breeding. We identified important epidemiological and environmental issues including the increase of local transmission despite control efforts, population growth, difficulty locating larval sites, and increased human mobility from neighboring endemic countries. Budget cuts in health and lack of practical vaccines contribute to an increased risk. To be successful, dengue-control programs for high-income countries must consider the epidemiology of dengue in other countries and use this information to minimize virus importation, improve the control of the cryptic larval habitat, and engage the community in reducing vector breeding. Finally, the presence of a communicable disease center is critical for managing and reducing future disease risks.

  20. Public Health Responses to and Challenges for the Control of Dengue Transmission in High-Income Countries: Four Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viennet, Elvina; Ritchie, Scott A; Williams, Craig R; Faddy, Helen M; Harley, David

    2016-09-01

    Dengue has a negative impact in low- and lower middle-income countries, but also affects upper middle- and high-income countries. Despite the efforts at controlling this disease, it is unclear why dengue remains an issue in affluent countries. A better understanding of dengue epidemiology and its burden, and those of chikungunya virus and Zika virus which share vectors with dengue, is required to prevent the emergence of these diseases in high-income countries in the future. The purpose of this review was to assess the relative burden of dengue in four high-income countries and to appraise the similarities and differences in dengue transmission. We searched PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar using specific keywords for articles published up to 05 May 2016. We found that outbreaks rarely occur where only Aedes albopictus is present. The main similarities between countries uncovered by our review are the proximity to dengue-endemic countries, the presence of a competent mosquito vector, a largely nonimmune population, and a lack of citizens' engagement in control of mosquito breeding. We identified important epidemiological and environmental issues including the increase of local transmission despite control efforts, population growth, difficulty locating larval sites, and increased human mobility from neighboring endemic countries. Budget cuts in health and lack of practical vaccines contribute to an increased risk. To be successful, dengue-control programs for high-income countries must consider the epidemiology of dengue in other countries and use this information to minimize virus importation, improve the control of the cryptic larval habitat, and engage the community in reducing vector breeding. Finally, the presence of a communicable disease center is critical for managing and reducing future disease risks.

  1. Risk factors for falls with severe fracture in elderly people living in a middle-income country: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloch Katia V

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fracture after falling has been identified as an important problem in public health. Most studies of risk factors for fractures due to falls have been carried out in developed countries, although the size of the elderly population is increasing fast in middle income countries. The objective of this paper is to identify risk factors for fall related to severe fractures in those aged 60 or more in a middle-income country. Methods A case-control study was carried out in Rio de Janeiro-Brazil based general hospitals between 2002–2003. Two hundred-fifty hospitalised cases of fracture were matched with 250 community controls by sex, age group and living area. Data were collected for socio-demographic variables, health status and drugs used before the fall. A conditional logistic regression model was fitted to identify variables associated with the risk of fall related severe fracture. Results Low body mass index, cognitive impairment, stroke and lack of urine control were associated with increased risk of severe fall related fractures. Benzodiazepines and muscle relaxants were also related to an increased risk of severe fractures while moderate use of alcohol was associated with reduced risk. Conclusion Although the association between benzodiazepines and fractures due to fall has been consistently demonstrated for old people, this has not been the case for muscle relaxant drugs. The decision to prescribe muscle relaxants for elderly people should take into account the risk of severe fracture associated with these drugs.

  2. Epidemiology of Oral Cavity Cancers in a Country Located in the Esophageal Cancer Belt: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Saedi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As one of the most common cancers among head and neck malignancies, cancer of the oral cavity probably has some variations in countries with a high prevalence of esophageal cancer.  Materials and Methods: Patients with oral cavity cancer who were treated at two tertiary referral centers from January 1999 to January 2009 were included in this study. In addition to demographic data, information regarding personal and family history of head and neck cancer, use of dentures, presence of immune deficiency, consumption of alcohol, and incidence of cigarette smoking was collected. Additionally, a history of opium usage was obtained from the participants in this study. Moreover, an appropriately matched control group was selected for comparisons between the risk factors.   Results: A total of 557 patients were entered into this study over a 10-year period, of whom 219 (39.3% were female and the remaining 338 (60.7% were male. The tongue was the most common site of cancer and 9% of the patients had a history of opium abuse, but more than half of the patients did not have any recognized risk factors. The incidence and stage of cancer had a significant relationship with cigarette smoking (P= 0.013.   Conclusion: Tongue cancer in non-smokers is the predominant pattern of oral cavity cancer in Iran.

  3. Potential use of school absenteeism record for disease surveillance in developing countries, case study in rural Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Calvin K Y; Channarith, Hing; Cowling, Benjamin J

    2013-01-01

    Disease surveillance allows prospective monitoring of patterns in disease incidence in the general community, specific institutions (e.g. hospitals, elderly care homes), and other important population subgroups. Surveillance activities are now routinely conducted in many developed countries and in certain easy-to-reach areas of the developing ones. However due to limited health resources, population in rural area that consisted of the most the vulnerable groups are not under surveillance. Cheaper alternative ways for disease surveillance were needed in resource-limited settings. In this study, a syndromic surveillance system using disease specific absenteeism rates was established in 47 pre-schools with 1,417 students 3-6 y of age in a rural area of Kampot province, Cambodia. School absenteeism data were collected via short message service. Data collected between 1st January and 31st December 2012 was used for system evaluation for future potential use in larger scale. The system appeared to be feasible and acceptable in the rural study setting. Moderate correlation was found between rates of school absenteeism due to illness and the reference data on rates of attendance at health centers in persons system may be able to provide complementary data for disease surveillance, especially in resource limited settings where there is very little information on illnesses in the community and traditional surveillance systems are difficult to implement. An important next step is to validate the syndromic data with other forms of surveillance including laboratory data.

  4. A Multiple Case Study of Mental Health Interventions in Middle Income Countries: Considering the Science of Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Sean A; Madan, Athena; Rallabandi, Susmitha; Cole, Donald C; Muskat, Elisha; Raja, Shoba; Wiljer, David; Aylward, David; McKenzie, Kwame

    2016-01-01

    In the debate in global mental health about the most effective models for developing and scaling interventions, there have been calls for the development of a more robust literature regarding the "non-specific", science of delivery aspects of interventions that are locally, contextually, and culturally relevant. This study describes a rigorous, exploratory, qualitative examination of the key, non-specific intervention strategies of a diverse group of five internationally-recognized organizations addressing mental illness in middle income countries (MICs). A triangulated approach to inquiry was used with semi-structured interviews conducted with service recipients, service providers and leaders, and key community partners (N = 159). The interview focus was upon processes of implementation and operation. A grounded theory-informed analysis revealed cross cutting themes of: a holistic conceptualization of mental health problems, an intensive application of principles of leverage and creating the social, cultural, and policy "space" within which interventions could be applied and resourced. These findings aligned with key aspects of systems dynamic theory suggesting that it might be a helpful framework in future studies of mental health service implementation in MICs.

  5. A Multiple Case Study of Mental Health Interventions in Middle Income Countries: Considering the Science of Delivery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean A Kidd

    Full Text Available In the debate in global mental health about the most effective models for developing and scaling interventions, there have been calls for the development of a more robust literature regarding the "non-specific", science of delivery aspects of interventions that are locally, contextually, and culturally relevant. This study describes a rigorous, exploratory, qualitative examination of the key, non-specific intervention strategies of a diverse group of five internationally-recognized organizations addressing mental illness in middle income countries (MICs. A triangulated approach to inquiry was used with semi-structured interviews conducted with service recipients, service providers and leaders, and key community partners (N = 159. The interview focus was upon processes of implementation and operation. A grounded theory-informed analysis revealed cross cutting themes of: a holistic conceptualization of mental health problems, an intensive application of principles of leverage and creating the social, cultural, and policy "space" within which interventions could be applied and resourced. These findings aligned with key aspects of systems dynamic theory suggesting that it might be a helpful framework in future studies of mental health service implementation in MICs.

  6. Child health and nutrition in Peru within an antipoverty political agenda: a Countdown to 2015 country case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huicho, L.; Segura, E.R.; Huayanay-Espinoza, C.A.; Niño de Guzman, J.; Restrepo-Méndez, M.C.; Tam, Y.; Barros, A.J.D.; Victora, C.G.; Hernández-Peña, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Peru is an upper-middle-income country with wide social and regional disparities. In recent years, sustained multisectoral antipoverty programmes involving governments, political parties, and civil society have included explicit health and nutrition goals and spending increased sharply.

  7. Japan’s Positive and Negative Aid Sanctions Policy Toward Asian Countries: Case Studies of Thailand and Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    FURUOKA, Fumitaka

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, Japan’s positive and negative aid sanctions policy toward Asian countries since the introduction of new aid guidelines will be examined and discussed. Japan can choose to impose negative aid sanctions (the suspension or a decrease in foreign aid) on recipient countries where undesirable policy changes occur, while positive aid sanctions (an increase in foreign aid) would be applied to aid recipients that conduct desirable polices in the light of Japan’s ODA Charter. The Japanes...

  8. The challenge of cancer in middle-income countries with an ageing population: Mexico as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Ajay; Unger-Saldaña, Karla; Lewison, Grant; Sullivan, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Mexico is undergoing rapid population ageing as a result of its epidemiological transition. This study explores the interface between this rapid population ageing and the burden of cancer. The number of new cancer cases is expected to increase by nearly 75% by 2030 (107,000 additional cases per annum), with 60% of cases in the elderly (aged ≥ 65). A review of the literature was supplemented by a bibliometric analysis of Mexico’s cancer research output. Cancer incidence projections for selected sites were estimated with Globocan software. Data were obtained from recent national census, surveys, and cancer death registrations. The elderly, especially women and those living in rural areas, face high levels of poverty, have low rates of educational attainment, and many are not covered by health insurance schemes. Out of pocket payments and private health care usage remain high, despite the implementation of Seguro Popular that was designed to achieve financial protection for the lowest income groups. A number of cancers that predominate in elderly persons are not covered by the scheme and individuals face catastrophic expenditure in seeking treatment. There is limited research output in those cancer sites that have a high burden in the elderly Mexican population, especially research that focuses on outcomes. The elderly population in Mexico is vulnerable to the effects of the rising cancer burden and faces challenges in accessing high quality cancer care. Based on our evidence, we recommend that geriatric oncology should be an urgent public policy priority for Mexico. PMID:26015805

  9. Application of the IPCC Waste Model to solid waste disposal sites in tropical countries: case study of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangyao, Komsilp; Towprayoon, Sirintornthep; Chiemchaisri, Chart; Gheewala, Shabbir H; Nopharatana, Annop

    2010-05-01

    Measurements of landfill methane emission were performed at nine solid waste disposal sites in Thailand, including five managed sanitary landfills (four deep and one shallow landfills) and four unmanaged landfills (three deep and one shallow dumpsites). It was found that methane emissions during the rainy season were about five to six times higher than those during the winter and summer seasons in the case of managed landfills and two to five times higher in the case of unmanaged landfills. Methane emission estimate using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Waste Model was compared with the actual field measurement from the studied disposal sites with methane correction factors and methane oxidation factors that were obtained by error function analysis with default values of half-life parameters. The methane emissions from the first-order decay model from the IPCC Waste Model yielded fair results compared to field measurements. The best fitting values of methane correction factor were 0.65, 0.20, 0.15, and 0.1 for deep landfills, shallow landfills, deep dumpsites, and shallow dumpsites, respectively. Using these key parameters in the case of Thailand, it was estimated that 89.22 Gg of methane were released from solid waste disposal sites into the atmosphere in 2006.

  10. The challenge of cancer in middle-income countries with an ageing population: Mexico as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Ajay; Unger-Saldaña, Karla; Lewison, Grant; Sullivan, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Mexico is undergoing rapid population ageing as a result of its epidemiological transition. This study explores the interface between this rapid population ageing and the burden of cancer. The number of new cancer cases is expected to increase by nearly 75% by 2030 (107,000 additional cases per annum), with 60% of cases in the elderly (aged ≥ 65). A review of the literature was supplemented by a bibliometric analysis of Mexico's cancer research output. Cancer incidence projections for selected sites were estimated with Globocan software. Data were obtained from recent national census, surveys, and cancer death registrations. The elderly, especially women and those living in rural areas, face high levels of poverty, have low rates of educational attainment, and many are not covered by health insurance schemes. Out of pocket payments and private health care usage remain high, despite the implementation of Seguro Popular that was designed to achieve financial protection for the lowest income groups. A number of cancers that predominate in elderly persons are not covered by the scheme and individuals face catastrophic expenditure in seeking treatment. There is limited research output in those cancer sites that have a high burden in the elderly Mexican population, especially research that focuses on outcomes. The elderly population in Mexico is vulnerable to the effects of the rising cancer burden and faces challenges in accessing high quality cancer care. Based on our evidence, we recommend that geriatric oncology should be an urgent public policy priority for Mexico.

  11. Motorcycle safety among motorcycle taxi drivers and nonoccupational motorcyclists in developing countries: A case study of Maoming, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Connor Y H; Loo, Becky P Y

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of motorcycle taxis have been involved in traffic crashes in many developing countries. This study examines the characteristics of both motorcycle taxi drivers and nonoccupational motorcyclists, investigates the risks they pose to road safety, and provides recommendations to minimize their risks. Based on the data collected from a questionnaire survey of 867 motorcycle taxi drivers and 2,029 nonoccupational motorcyclists in Maoming, South China, comparisons were made to analyze differences of personal attributes, attitudes toward road safety, and self-reported behavior of the 2 groups. Results of the chi-square tests show that not only motorcycle taxi drivers but also nonoccupational motorcyclists in Maoming held poor attitudes toward road safety and both groups reported unsafe driving behavior. There is much room for improving local road safety education among all motorcyclists in Maoming. Yet, motorcycle taxi drivers were more likely to pose road safety risks than nonoccupational motorcyclists under some circumstances, such as speeding late at night or early in the morning, not requiring passengers to wear helmets, and running a red light. The results of the binary logistic regression model show that possessing a vehicle license for a motorcycle or not was the common significant predictor for unsafe driving behavior of motorcycle taxi drivers and nonoccupational motorcyclists. Therefore, enforcement against all motorcyclists not showing vehicle licenses for their motorcycles should be stepped up. Motorcycle safety is largely poor in Maoming. Therefore, efforts to improve motorcycle safety should be strengthened by targeting not only motorcycle taxi drivers but also nonoccupational motorcyclists.

  12. Renewable energy utilization and CO2 mitigation in the power sector: A case study in selected GMS countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Pagnarith

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is an alternative resource to substitute fossil fuels. Currently, the share of renewable energy inpower generation is very low. The selected Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS, namely, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand andVietnam is a region having abundant of renewable energy resources. Though these countries have a high potential of renewableenergy utilization, they are still highly dependent on the imported fossil fuels for electricity generation. The less contributionof renewable energy in the power sector in the region is due to the high cost of technologies. Renewable energytechnology cannot compete with the conventional power plant. However, in order to promote renewable energy utilizationand reduce dependency on imported fossil fuel as well as to mitigate CO2 emissions from the power sector, this study introducesfour renewable energy technologies, namely, biomass, wind, solar PV, and geothermal power, for substitution of conventionaltechnologies. To make the renewable energy competitive to the fossil fuels, incentives in terms of carbon credit of20$/ton-ne CO2 are taken into account. Results are analyzed by using the Long-Range Energy Alternative Planning System(LEAP modeling. Results of analyses reveal that in the renewable energy (RE scenario the biomass power, wind, solarphotovoltaics, and geothermal would contribute in electricity supply for 5.47 GW in the region, accounted for 3.5% in 2030.The RE scenario with carbon credits could mitigate CO2 emissions at about 36.0 million tonne at lower system cost whencompared to the business-as-usual scenario.

  13. Rapid assessment of environmental health risks posed by mining operations in low- and middle-income countries: selected case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravanos, Jack; Ericson, Bret; Ponce-Canchihuamán, Johny; Hanrahan, David; Block, Meredith; Susilorini, Budi; Fuller, Richard

    2013-11-01

    Previous studies have evaluated associated health risks and human exposure pathways at mining sites. Others have provided estimates of the scale of the issue based in part on surveys. However, a global census of mining-related hazardous waste sites has been lacking. The Toxic Sites Identification Program (TSIP) implemented by Blacksmith Institute (New York, NY, USA) since 2009 is an ongoing effort to catalogue a wide range of chemically contaminated sites with a potential human health risk (Ericson et al., Environ Monit Assess doi:10.1007/s 10661-012-2665-2, 2012). The TSIP utilizes a rapid assessment instrument, the Initial Site Screening (ISS), to quickly and affordably identify key site criteria including human exposure pathways, estimated populations at risk, and sampling information. The resulting ISS allows for comparison between sites exhibiting different contaminants and pollution sources. This paper explores the results of a subset of ISSs completed at 131 artisanal and small-scale gold mining areas and 275 industrial mining and ore processing sites in 45 countries. The authors show that the ISS captures key data points, allowing for prioritization of sites for further investigation or remedial activity.

  14. AN ANALYSIS OF AN INTERNATIONAL NGOS DESIGN DECISION-MAKING IN POST DISASTER DEVELOPING COUNTRY CONTEXT A Sri Lanka Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bruen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the current design and delivery approaches of a selected INGO operating in the field of post disaster housing design and delivery in developing country contexts and clearly map out their approach from inception to completion of a housing project. The research utilizes a case study analysis involving a leading European INGO operating in post disaster housing delivery in Sri Lanka in the aftermath of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. The research highlights the main challenges and opportunities in relation to the design and delivery of low cost sustainable housing in developing countries as identified in current literature on the subject. An in depth analysis of the selected INGO’s overall design and delivery approach was undertaken utilizing a causal mapping interview procedure with lead designers within the organization who were involved in the project’s design and implementation. The results identify and discuss the specific approaches, challenges and considerations that informed their decision-making as an INGO in a post disaster developing country context which. The results of this research study provide a concise insight into the design decision-making process and considerations of leading foreign INGO’s operating in developing countries and will be beneficial to policy makers, NGOs, government bodies and community organizations in practice as it offers unique evidence based insights into an international bodies housing design decision-making process.

  15. Potential use of school absenteeism record for disease surveillance in developing countries, case study in rural Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin K Y Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disease surveillance allows prospective monitoring of patterns in disease incidence in the general community, specific institutions (e.g. hospitals, elderly care homes, and other important population subgroups. Surveillance activities are now routinely conducted in many developed countries and in certain easy-to-reach areas of the developing ones. However due to limited health resources, population in rural area that consisted of the most the vulnerable groups are not under surveillance. Cheaper alternative ways for disease surveillance were needed in resource-limited settings. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this study, a syndromic surveillance system using disease specific absenteeism rates was established in 47 pre-schools with 1,417 students 3-6 y of age in a rural area of Kampot province, Cambodia. School absenteeism data were collected via short message service. Data collected between 1st January and 31st December 2012 was used for system evaluation for future potential use in larger scale. The system appeared to be feasible and acceptable in the rural study setting. Moderate correlation was found between rates of school absenteeism due to illness and the reference data on rates of attendance at health centers in persons <16 y (maximum cross-correlation coefficient = 0.231 at lag = -1 week. CONCLUSIONS: School absenteeism data is pre-existing, easily accessible and requires minimum time and resources after initial development, and our results suggest that this system may be able to provide complementary data for disease surveillance, especially in resource limited settings where there is very little information on illnesses in the community and traditional surveillance systems are difficult to implement. An important next step is to validate the syndromic data with other forms of surveillance including laboratory data.

  16. Applying the food technology neophobia scale in a developing country context. A case-study on processed matooke (cooking banana) flour in Central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Steur, Hans; Odongo, Walter; Gellynck, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The success of new food technologies largely depends on consumers' behavioral responses to the innovation. In Eastern Africa, and Uganda in particular, a technology to process matooke into flour has been introduced with limited success. We measure and apply the Food technology Neophobia Scale (FTNS) to this specific case. This technique has been increasingly used in consumer research to determine consumers' fear for foods produced by novel technologies. Although it has been successful in developed countries, the low number and limited scope of past studies underlines the need for testing its applicability in a developing country context. Data was collected from 209 matooke consumers from Central Uganda. In general, respondents are relatively neophobic towards the new technology, with an average FTNS score of 58.7%, which hampers the success of processed matooke flour. Besides socio-demographic indicators, 'risk perception', 'healthiness' and the 'necessity of technologies' were key factors that influenced consumer's preference of processed matooke flour. Benchmarking the findings against previous FTNS surveys allows to evaluate factor solutions, compare standardized FTNS scores and further lends support for the multidimensionality of the FTNS. Being the first application in a developing country context, this study provides a case for examining food technology neophobia for processed staple crops in various regions and cultures. Nevertheless, research is needed to replicate this method and evaluate the external validity of our findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Diabetes Knowledge Translation Status in Developing Countries: A Mixed Method Study Among Diabetes Researchers in Case of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valinejadi, Ali; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Salehi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable investment in research, the existing research evidence is frequently not implemented and/or leads to useless or detrimental care in healthcare. The knowledge-practice gap proposed as one of the main causes of not achieving the treatment goals in diabetes. Iran also is facing a difference between the production and utilization of the knowledge of diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the status of diabetes knowledge translation (KT) in Iran. This was a survey that executed in 2015 by concurrent mixed methods approach in a descriptive, cross-sectional method. The research population was 65 diabetes researchers from 14 diabetes research centers throughout Iran. The research was carried out via the self-assessment tool for research institutes (SATORI), a valid and reliable tool. Focus group discussions were used to complete this tool. The data were analyzed using quantitative (descriptive method by Excel software) and qualitative approaches (thematic analysis) based on SATORI-extracted seven themes. The mean of scores "the question of research," "knowledge production," "knowledge transfer," "promoting the use of evidence," and all aspects altogether were 2.48, 2.80, 2.18, 2.06, and 2.39, respectively. The themes "research quality and timeliness" and "promoting and evaluating the use of evidence" received the lowest (1.91) and highest mean scores (2.94), respectively. Except for the theme "interaction with research users" with a relatively mediocre scores (2.63), the other areas had scores below the mean. The overall status of diabetes KT in Iran was lower than the ideal situation. There are many challenges that require great interventions at the organizational or macro level. To reinforce diabetes KT in Iran, it should hold a more leading and centralized function in the strategies of the country's diabetes research system.

  18. Using the Lives Saved Tool to aid country planning in meeting mortality targets: a case study from Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keita, Youssouf; Sangho, Hamadoun; Roberton, Timothy; Vignola, Emilia; Traoré, Mariam; Munos, Melinda

    2017-11-07

    Mali is one of four countries implementing a National Evaluation Platform (NEP) to build local capacity to answer evaluation questions for maternal, newborn, child health and nutrition (MNCH&N). In 2014-15, NEP-Mali addressed questions about the potential impact of Mali's MNCH&N plans and strategies, and identified priority interventions to achieve targeted mortality reductions. The NEP-Mali team modeled the potential impact of three intervention packages in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) from 2014 to 2023. One projection included the interventions and targets from Mali's ten-year health strategy (PDDSS) for 2014-2023, and two others modeled intervention packages that included scale up of antenatal, intrapartum, and curative interventions, as well as reductions in stunting and wasting. We modeled the change in maternal, newborn and under-five mortality rates under these three projections, as well as the number of lives saved, overall and by intervention. If Mali were to achieve the MNCH&N coverage targets from its health strategy, under-5 mortality would be reduced from 121 per 1000 live births to 93 per 1000, far from the target of 69 deaths per 1000. Projections 1 and 2 produced estimated mortality reductions from 121 deaths per 1000 to 70 and 68 deaths per 1000, respectively. With respect to neonatal mortality, the mortality rate would be reduced from 39 to 32 deaths per 1000 live births under the current health strategy, and to 25 per 1000 under projections 1 and 2. This study revealed that achieving the coverage targets for the MNCH&N interventions in the 2014-23 PDDSS would likely not allow Mali to achieve its mortality targets. The NEP-Mali team was able to identify two packages of MNCH&N interventions (and targets) that achieved under-5 and neonatal mortality rates at, or very near, the PDDSS targets. The Malian Ministry of Health and Public Hygiene is using these results to revise its plans and strategies.

  19. Foreign direct investment strategies: Least-developed countries and foreign firms. A case study of Sudan and Chevron Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    The least-developed countries (LDCS) are politically underdeveloped. They often have autocratic authoritarian regimes that give less than appropriate attention to their societies' development. Being vulnerable and fairly unstable, such regimes are more occupied with their own survival than with developing pragmatic plans that cater to supplying their nations with missing economic resources needed through Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). Internal and external pressures on LDCS with such primitive political structures have greatly confused their leaderships and have resulted in the lack of institutionalization in these countries. Foreign firms normally choose to serve world markets through direct operations rather than exporting or licensing because the former maximize their gains more than the two other alternatives. This is why benefits to host countries may not match a host country's expectations when it allows FDI penetration. It is the contention of this research that Sudan failed to formulate a right policy towards FDI, and came short of maximizing its scarce resource returns. On the other hand, Chevron Oil, with a global overall profit-maximization strategy, succeeded in running its subsidiary in Sudan in accordance with its global outlook.

  20. Corporate Social Responsibility in the Oil Industry-Comparative Case Studies Of Chinese Oil Enterprises In Five Latin American Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenyuan

    This dissertation evaluates and compares social and environmental records of Chinese national oil companies (NOCs) operating in Latin America from the early 21st century to 2015. Five countries representing the entirety of Chinese NOCs' physical presence are selected: Peru, Ecuador, Argentina, Colombia, and Venezuela. The project discovers that Chinese NOCs demonstrate the highest level of social responsibility in Peru and the lowest in Venezuela, with the other three countries constituting intermediate observations. The differences in social responsibility records are then causally traced to variances in the host countries' regulatory frameworks and civil society capacities. Chinese NOCs are found to be most willing to commit to social responsibility under an enabling regulatory environment in which the host government facilitates competitiveness and decentralization in its hydrocarbons industry while upholding inclusive policies regarding its civil society. Moreover, these NOCs are most likely to follow through on their CSR commitments when faced with a unified and collaborative civil society. These major findings yield important policy lessons for both the host government and the civil society in developing countries with abundance in energy resources.

  1. Risk of cardiac valvulopathy with use of bisphosphonates: a population-based, multi-country case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M. Coloma (Preciosa); M.A.J. de Ridder (Maria); I. Bezemer (Irene); R.M.C. Herings (Ron); R. Gini (Rosa); S. Pecchioli (Serena); L. Scotti (Lorenza); P.R. Rijnbeek (Peter); M. Mosseveld (Mees); J. van der Lei; G. Trifirò (Gianluca); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractSummary: Analyses of healthcare data from 30 million individuals in three countries showed that current use of bisphosphonates may be associated with a small increased risk of cardiac valvulopathy (vs. those not exposed within the previous year), although confounding cannot be entirely

  2. Scaling up specialist training in developing countries: lessons learned from the first 12 years of regional postgraduate training in Fiji – a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In 1997, regional specialist training was established in Fiji, consisting of one-year Postgraduate Diplomas followed by three-year master’s degree programs in anesthesia, internal medicine, obstetrics/gynecology, pediatrics and surgery. The evolution of these programs during the first 12 years is presented. Case description A case study utilizing mixed methods was carried out, including a prospective collection of enrolment and employment data, supplemented by semi-structured interviews. Between 1997 and 2009, 207 doctors (113 from Fiji and 94 from 13 other countries or territories in the Pacific) trained to at least the Postgraduate Diploma level. For Fiji graduates, 29.2% migrated permanently to developed countries, compared to only 8.5% for regional graduates (P Fiji is having an increasingly positive impact on the specialist workforce in the Pacific. With forethought, many of the difficulties we encountered may have been avoidable. Our experiences may help others who are establishing or expanding postgraduate training in developing countries to optimize the benefit of postgraduate training on their national and regional workforces. PMID:23270525

  3. Using the Lives Saved Tool to aid country planning in meeting mortality targets: a case study from Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssouf Keita

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mali is one of four countries implementing a National Evaluation Platform (NEP to build local capacity to answer evaluation questions for maternal, newborn, child health and nutrition (MNCH&N. In 2014-15, NEP-Mali addressed questions about the potential impact of Mali’s MNCH&N plans and strategies, and identified priority interventions to achieve targeted mortality reductions. Methods The NEP-Mali team modeled the potential impact of three intervention packages in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST from 2014 to 2023. One projection included the interventions and targets from Mali’s ten-year health strategy (PDDSS for 2014-2023, and two others modeled intervention packages that included scale up of antenatal, intrapartum, and curative interventions, as well as reductions in stunting and wasting. We modeled the change in maternal, newborn and under-five mortality rates under these three projections, as well as the number of lives saved, overall and by intervention. Results If Mali were to achieve the MNCH&N coverage targets from its health strategy, under-5 mortality would be reduced from 121 per 1000 live births to 93 per 1000, far from the target of 69 deaths per 1000. Projections 1 and 2 produced estimated mortality reductions from 121 deaths per 1000 to 70 and 68 deaths per 1000, respectively. With respect to neonatal mortality, the mortality rate would be reduced from 39 to 32 deaths per 1000 live births under the current health strategy, and to 25 per 1000 under projections 1 and 2. Conclusions This study revealed that achieving the coverage targets for the MNCH&N interventions in the 2014-23 PDDSS would likely not allow Mali to achieve its mortality targets. The NEP-Mali team was able to identify two packages of MNCH&N interventions (and targets that achieved under-5 and neonatal mortality rates at, or very near, the PDDSS targets. The Malian Ministry of Health and Public Hygiene is using these results to revise its plans

  4. Blended Learning Possibilities in Enhancing Education, Training and Development in Developing Countries: A Case Study in Graphic Design Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Atef

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Blended learning is not a new concept; recently, there has been a renewed focus on this learning strategy, both in the education and corporate sectors. Although the definition of blended learning is somewhat inchoate, it is generally described as an environment that includes the use of different modes of teaching and learning. Blended learning holds particular promise for developing countries because it can make availability of resources, regional, and international educational institutions. The perspective we adopt in this paper, where we aim to take a realistic look at the potential of blended learning in developing countries, giving consideration to the various possibilities and most importantly, to the accessibility of technology both today and in the future.

  5. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 3, India and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Ravindranath, N.H.; Somashekhar, B.S.; Gadgil, M. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore, (India). Center for Ecological Sciences and ASTRA; Deying, Xu [Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, (China). Research Inst. of Forestry

    1992-08-01

    As part of the effort to understand the sources of carbon dioxide and other major greenhouse gases, the Tropical Forestry and Global Climate Change Research Network (F-7) was established. The countries taking part in the F-7 Network -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria and Thailand -- possess large tracts of tropical forests and together experience the bulk of large scale tropical deforestation. Integreation of work of indigenous researchers and institutions from the participating countries should allow for the gathering of on-site information into the more general and universally available base of knowledge. The information contained in this report represents the results of the first phase of the F-7 project, which had the explicit aim of providing quantitative data on forestry-related carbon emissions from India and China.

  6. MULTIPLE SELECTIONS OF ALTERNATIVES UNDER CONSTRAINTS: CASE STUDY OF EUROPEAN COUNTRIES IN AREA OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Furková

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is given over to a multicriteria evaluation approach to the issue of international comparison of research and development indicators. The policy activities in R&D (Research & Development area are significant parts of many national programs of many EU member states. There are several reasons for governments to take active role in stimulation investment in R&D. R&D are generally considered to be the main engine of long-run economic growth. Also The European Commission pays more attention to R&D activities and provides more and more resources to these activities through Community Framework Programs. We decided to exploit multi-attribute decision-making to evaluate R&D indicators of European countries. As multi-attribute decision-making method Topsis method was applied. Topis method has provided us complete ranking of the countries taking into account indicators such as patent applications, total intramural R&D expenditure, human resources in science and technology, employment in knowledge-intensive activities and business enterprise R&D expenditure. Having these results in a hand; we proceed to making multiple selections of countries under constraints. Our main goal was to suggest an optimization model for resources distribution - subsides for R&D encouragement, i.e. to find an optimal selection of several alternatives given a set of constraints. To make a decision concerning proper countries selection we employed optimization model inspired by Promethee V, which enables us to take into account the results of previous empirical part and, at the same time, to take into account defined constraints. Formulated binary linear programming model could be useful support decision making tool in the process of resources distribution - subsides for R&D encouragement.

  7. The effect of female labour force in economic growth and sustainability in transition economies - case study for SEE countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majlinda Mazalliu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper, the main theoretical arguments for discussions are as following: female labour force participation in transition countries, female employment in economic sectors and their main barriers, and the contributions of female labour force in economic growth. In methodology, the secondary data are used, and they are calculated through STATA program. The main analysis include: descriptive statistic, regression analysis and correlation matrix. Based on empirical results, the regression analysis has found that economic growth and government effectiveness has a negative impact on female labour force. Financial market development, enterprises reforms, and innovation have a positive impact on female labour force in SEE (South Eastern European countries. In T-statistic analysis all independent variables have shown a negative significance (T <2 on female labour force. In correlation, economic growth and financial development market have negative correlation on female labour force, but other variables have shown positive correlation. SEE countries should develop the female labour force in their economies, so their role may be crucial toward different economic problems and challenges in the modern economy.

  8. Mild clinical behaviour of Crohn disease in elderly patients in a Latin American country: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto-Furusho, Jesús K; Sarmiento-Aguilar, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Crohn disease is characterized by fluctuating clinical behaviour, which is influenced by various factors. There are no data from Latin America that evaluate the clinical behaviour of Crohn disease in elderly patients. To evaluate the clinical course of elderly onset Crohn disease compared with younger onset in the Mexican population. The present analysis was a case-control study that included 132 patients with a histopathological diagnosis of Crohn disease between 1983 and 2013 in an inflammatory bowel disease clinic of a tertiary care centre. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 17 (IBM Corporation, USA) and descriptive statistics, χ2 and Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and Student's t test for numerical variables. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to identify associated risk factors and OR was calculated. A total of 132 patients (73 men and 59 women) were divided into two groups according to age at diagnosis: 27 cases (>60 years of age) and 105 controls (≤60 years of age). Factors influencing the clinical course of Crohn disease in the elderly were: female sex (OR 2.55 [95% CI 1.06 to 6.10]; P=0.02); colonic location (OR 0.22 [95% CI 0.03 to 0.89]; P=0.02); mild clinical behaviour of disease (OR 10.08 [95% CI 3.74 to 27.17]; P=0.0001); response to medical treatment (OR 2.85 [95% CI 1.08 to 7.48]; P=0.02); frequent use of sulfasalazine (OR 4.46 [95% CI 1.22 to 16.28]; P=0.03); less use of azathioprine (OR 0.38 [95% CI 0.13 to 1.03]; P=0.04); and long-term remission (OR 4.96 [95% CI 1.70 to 14.48]; P=0.002). Elderly patients with Crohn disease had a mild clinical course characterized by the lack of escalation to immunosuppressive and anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy, as well as long-term remission.

  9. Social and economic consequences of diabetes in women from low-income countries: a case study from Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahtab, Hajera; Habib, Samira H

    2009-03-01

    Diabetes poses a serious threat to low-income countries such as Bangladesh. It is one of the leading causes of premature morbidity and mortality, and requires life-long healthcare services. Women with diabetes are affected in all stages of their lives. Uniquely, diabetes affects the health of mothers and their unborn children. Poverty, ignorance, and gender discrimination adversely affect women with diabetes. However, the Diabetic Association of Bangladesh has played an increasingly effective role in providing comprehensive socio-medicare and life-long follow-up of diabetic women, free of charge. This is reflected by the increasing attendance of women with diabetes, especially from rural areas.

  10. Ethnic Chinese Remigration from Southeast Asian Countries since 1960s: A Case Study of Malaysian Chinese Outflows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kang Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    .... As for the case of Malaysia, large number of Malaysian Chinese remigrated to Singapore, United Kingdom, United States, Canada and Australia for new residence since the end of the Second World War...

  11. Climate policies: what if emerging country baseline were not so optimistic? A case study related to India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathy, Sandrine; Guivarch, Celine (Centre International de Recherche sur l' Environnement et le Developpement, Nogent-sur-Marne (France))

    2009-07-01

    One of the current main objective of international negotiations on climate change aims at enlarging the coordination regime to developing countries (DCs), and particularly to emerging countries. The international coordination system built at the Kyoto Conference relies on a coordination system based on a purely climate centric approach which shows irreconcilable contradictions between climate and development issues. This article aims at evaluating possible pathways implementing synergies between climate policies and development policies in order to create an incentive towards DCs to take part in climate mitigation. We focus on an illustrative example on India. When most reference scenarios postulate rapid energy decoupling of the GDP and rapid decarbonisation of DCs economies in the future, this article elaborates, with the IMACLIM-R model, a baseline taking into account weaknesses and current disequilibria of the Indian technico-economic system such as the high dependency on imported energy, or the structural shortage in electricity. We show why a purely climate centric approach (quota allocation), adopted to commit with a world objective of stabilization to 550ppm, induce very high transition costs in spite of significant financial transfers. On the contrary, a strategy based on the research of synergies between the reduction of these disequilibria, and the mitigation of GHG emissions is investigated in the power sector, which presents the biggest potential of no-regret measures. This permits to drop down transition costs applied to the Indian economy by improving the overall energy efficiency. An economic and environmental evaluation of this alternative scenario is lead.

  12. Convergence of ecological footprint and emergy analysis as a sustainability indicator of countries: Peru as case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siche, Raúl; Pereira, Lucas; Agostinho, Feni; Ortega, Enrique

    2010-10-01

    In the last decade, two scientific tools have been extensively used worldwide to measure the human impact on nature: ecological footprint (EF) and emergy analysis (EA). Papers trying to combine the strong points of EF and EA, and obtain more accurate results have appeared in scientific literature, in which Zhao's et al. (2005) [61] approach is an important one. Unfortunately, some weak points of the original methods still remain on the new approaches proposed. The aim of this present work is to discuss some weak points found in Zhao's approach, trying to overcome them through a new approach called emergetic ecological footprint (EEF). The main difference between Zhao's approach and EEF is that the last one accounted for the internal storage of capital natural in the biocapacity calculation. Besides that, soil loss and water for human consume were considered as additional categories in the footprint calculation. After discussing it through comparisons with other approaches, EEF was used to assess Peru as a case study, resulting in a biocapacity of 51.76 gha capita-1 and a footprint of 12.23 gha capita-1, with 2004 data; that resulted in an ecological surplus of 39.53 gha capita-1. The load capacity factor obtained was 4.23, meaning that Peru can support a population 4.23 times bigger considering the life style of 2004. The main limitations of the EEF are: (i) it is impossible to make comparisons between the biocapacity and footprint for each category; (ii) a need for a handbook with emergy intensity factors with good quality. On the other hand, the main positive points are: (i) its easiness of application in global and national scales; (ii) its final indicators account for all the previous energy (or emergy) used to make something; (iii) internal natural capital storage was accounted for in the biocapacity calculation, which can be a valid step towards the evaluation and assess of services provided by nature.

  13. Environmental impact assessment on the construction and operation of municipal solid waste sanitary landfills in developing countries: China case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Lü, Fan

    2014-01-01

    An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through...... life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between...... landfill C&O and the total landfilling technology implies that the contribution of C&O to overall landfill emissions is not negligible. The non-toxic impacts induced by C&O can be attributed mainly to the consumption of diesel used for daily operation, while the toxic impacts are primarily due to the use...

  14. Estimating and explaining the effect of education and income on head and neck cancer risk: INHANCE consortium pooled analysis of 31 case-control studies from 27 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, David I; Brenner, Darren R; McMahon, Alex D; Macpherson, Lorna M D; Agudo, Antonio; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Bosetti, Cristina; Brenner, Hermann; Castellsague, Xavier; Chen, Chu; Curado, Maria Paula; Curioni, Otávio A; Dal Maso, Luigino; Daudt, Alexander W; de Gois Filho, José F; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Edefonti, Valeria; Fabianova, Eleonora; Fernandez, Leticia; Franceschi, Silvia; Gillison, Maura; Hayes, Richard B; Healy, Claire M; Herrero, Rolando; Holcatova, Ivana; Jayaprakash, Vijayvel; Kelsey, Karl; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Koifman, Sergio; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lagiou, Pagona; Lazarus, Philip; Levi, Fabio; Lissowska, Jolanta; Luce, Daniele; Macfarlane, Tatiana V; Mates, Dana; Matos, Elena; McClean, Michael; Menezes, Ana M; Menvielle, Gwenn; Merletti, Franco; Morgenstern, Hal; Moysich, Kirsten; Müller, Heiko; Muscat, Joshua; Olshan, Andrew F; Purdue, Mark P; Ramroth, Heribert; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Rudnai, Peter; Schantz, Stimson; Schwartz, Stephen M; Shangina, Oxana; Simonato, Lorenzo; Smith, Elaine; Stucker, Isabelle; Sturgis, Erich M; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Talamini, Renato; Thomson, Peter; Vaughan, Thomas L; Wei, Qingyi; Winn, Deborah M; Wunsch-Filho, Victor; Yu, Guo-Pei; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Zheng, Tongzhang; Znaor, Ariana; Boffetta, Paolo; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Ghodrat, Marianoosh; Amy Lee, Yuan-Chin; Hashibe, Mia; Brennan, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Low socioeconomic status has been reported to be associated with head and neck cancer risk. However, previous studies have been too small to examine the associations by cancer subsite, age, sex, global region and calendar time and to explain the association in terms of behavioral risk factors. Individual participant data of 23,964 cases with head and neck cancer and 31,954 controls from 31 studies in 27 countries pooled with random effects models. Overall, low education was associated with an increased risk of head and neck cancer (OR = 2.50; 95% CI = 2.02 - 3.09). Overall one-third of the increased risk was not explained by differences in the distribution of cigarette smoking and alcohol behaviors; and it remained elevated among never users of tobacco and nondrinkers (OR = 1.61; 95% CI = 1.13 - 2.31). More of the estimated education effect was not explained by cigarette smoking and alcohol behaviors: in women than in men, in older than younger groups, in the oropharynx than in other sites, in South/Central America than in Europe/North America and was strongest in countries with greater income inequality. Similar findings were observed for the estimated effect of low versus high household income. The lowest levels of income and educational attainment were associated with more than 2-fold increased risk of head and neck cancer, which is not entirely explained by differences in the distributions of behavioral risk factors for these cancers and which varies across cancer sites, sexes, countries and country income inequality levels. © 2014 UICC.

  15. Estimating and explaining the effect of education and income on head and neck cancer risk: INHANCE consortium pooled analysis of 31 case-control studies from 27 countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, David I.; Brenner, Darren R.; McMahon, Alex D.; Macpherson, Lorna M.D.; Agudo, Antonio; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Bosetti, Cristina; Brenner, Hermann; Castellsague, Xavier; Chen, Chu; Curado, Maria Paula; Curioni, Otávio A.; Maso, Luigino Dal; Daudt, Alexander W.; de Gois Filho, José F.; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Edefonti, Valeria; Fabianova, Eleonora; Fernandez, Leticia; Franceschi, Silvia; Gillison, Maura; Hayes, Richard B.; Healy, Claire M.; Herrero, Rolando; Holcatova, Ivana; Jayaprakash, Vijayvel; Kelsey, Karl; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Koifman, Sergio; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lagiou, Pagona; Lazarus, Philip; Levi, Fabio; Lissowska, Jolanta; Luce, Daniele; Macfarlane, Tatiana V.; Mates, Dana; Matos, Elena; McClean, Michael; Menezes, Ana M; Menvielle, Gwenn; Merletti, Franco; Morgenstern, Hal; Moysich, Kirsten; Müller, Heiko; Muscat, Joshua; Olshan, Andrew F.; Purdue, Mark P.; Ramroth, Heribert; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Rudnai, Peter; Schantz, Stimson; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Shangina, Oxana; Simonato, Lorenzo; Smith, Elaine; Stucker, Isabelle; Sturgis, Erich M.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Talamini, Renato; Thomson, Peter; Vaughan, Thomas L.; Wei, Qingyi; Winn, Deborah M.; Wunsch-Filho, Victor; Yu, Guo-Pei; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Zheng, Tongzhang; Znaor, Ariana; Boffetta, Paolo; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Ghodrat, Marianoosh; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hashibe, Mia; Brennan, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Low socioeconomic status has been reported to be associated with head and neck cancer risk. However, previous studies have been too small to examine the associations by cancer subsite, age, sex, global region and calendar time and to explain the association in terms of behavioral risk factors. Individual participant data of 23,964 cases with head and neck cancer and 31,954 controls from 31 studies in 27 countries pooled with random effects models. Overall, low education was associated with an increased risk of head and neck cancer (OR = 2.50; 95% CI = 2.02 – 3.09). Overall one-third of the increased risk was not explained by differences in the distribution of cigarette smoking and alcohol behaviors; and it remained elevated among never users of tobacco and nondrinkers (OR = 1.61; 95% CI = 1.13 – 2.31). More of the estimated education effect was not explained by cigarette smoking and alcohol behaviors: in women than in men, in older than younger groups, in the oropharynx than in other sites, in South/Central America than in Europe/North America and was strongest in countries with greater income inequality. Similar findings were observed for the estimated effect of low versus high household income. The lowest levels of income and educational attainment were associated with more than 2-fold increased risk of head and neck cancer, which is not entirely explained by differences in the distributions of behavioral risk factors for these cancers and which varies across cancer sites, sexes, countries and country income inequality levels. PMID:24996155

  16. Towards a web-based GIS for teaching geo-informatics at under-graduate level in developing countries: a case study of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobasheri, A.; Vahidi, H.; Guan, Q.

    2014-04-01

    In developing countries, the number of experts and students in geo-informatics domain are very limited compared to experts and students of sciences that could benefit from geo-informatics. In this research, we study the possibility of providing an online education system for teaching geo-informatics at under-graduate level. The hypothesis is that in developing countries, such as Iran, a web-based geo-education system can greatly improve the quantity and quality of knowledge of students in undergraduate level, which is an important step that has to be made in regard of the famous "Geo for all" motto. As a technology for conducting natural and social studies, geo-informatics offers new ways of viewing, representing and analysing information for transformative learning and teaching. Therefore, we design and present a conceptual framework of an education system and elaborate its components as well as the free and open source services and software packages that could be used in this framework for a specific case study: the Web GIS course. The goal of the proposed framework is to develop experimental GI-services in a service-oriented platform for education purposes. Finally, the paper ends with concluding remarks and some tips for future research direction.

  17. How Health in All Policies are developed and implemented in a developing country? A case study of a HiAP initiative in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayatzadeh-Mahani, Akram; Sedoghi, Zeynab; Mehrolhassani, Mohammad Hossein; Yazdi-Feyzabadi, Vahid

    2016-12-01

    Population health is influenced by many factors beyond the control of health system which should be addressed by other sectors through inter-sectoral collaboration (ISC). Countries have adopted diverse initiatives to operationalize ISC for health such as establishment of Councils of Health and Food Security (CHFSs) and development of provincial Health Master Plans (HMPs) in Iran. The literature, however, provides meager information on how these initiatives have been moved into the top policy agenda, how and by whom they have been formulated and what factors enable or inhibit their implementation. In addressing these knowledge gaps, we employed a qualitative case study approach, incorporating mixed methods: in-depth interviews and a textual analysis of policy documents. Iran founded the Supreme Council of Health and Food Security (SCHFS) at national level in 2006 followed by provincial and district CHFSs to ensure political commitment to ISC for health and Health in All Policies (HiAPs). In 2009, the SCHFS mandated all provincial CHFSs across the country to develop provincial HMP to operationalize the HiAP approach and Kerman was among the first provinces which responded to this call. We selected Kerman province HMP as a case study to investigate the research questions raised in this study. The study revealed two types of leverage, which played crucial role in agenda setting, policy formulation and implementation of HMP including politics (political commitment) and policy entrepreneurs. The multiple streams model was found to be informative for thinking about different stages of a policy cycle including agenda setting, policy formulation and policy implementation. It was also found to be a useful framework in analyzing HiAP initiatives as these policies do not smoothly and readily reach the policy agenda. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Feasibility of a rapid response mechanism to meet policymakers' urgent needs for research evidence about health systems in a low income country: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijumbi, Rhona M; Oxman, Andrew D; Panisset, Ulysses; Sewankambo, Nelson K

    2014-09-10

    Despite the recognition of the importance of evidence-informed health policy and practice, there are still barriers to translating research findings into policy and practice. The present study aimed to establish the feasibility of a rapid response mechanism, a knowledge translation strategy designed to meet policymakers' urgent needs for evidence about health systems in a low income country, Uganda. Rapid response mechanisms aim to address the barriers of timeliness and relevance of evidence at the time it is needed. A rapid response mechanism (service) designed a priori was offered to policymakers in the health sector in Uganda. In the form of a case study, data were collected about the profile of users of the service, the kinds of requests for evidence, changes in answers, and courses of action influenced by the mechanism and their satisfaction with responses and the mechanism in general. We found that in the first 28 months, the service received 65 requests for evidence from 30 policymakers and stakeholders, the majority of whom were from the Ministry of Health. The most common requests for evidence were about governance and organization of health systems. It was noted that regular contact between the policymakers and the researchers at the response service was an important factor in response to, and uptake of the service. The service seemed to increase confidence for policymakers involved in the policymaking process. Rapid response mechanisms designed to meet policymakers' urgent needs for research evidence about health systems are feasible and acceptable to policymakers in low income countries.

  19. Becoming an EFL Teacher in a developing country : a qualitative case study from the Republic of Niger

    OpenAIRE

    Ousseini, Hamissou

    2016-01-01

    This research study examined the effectiveness of initial English as a foreign language (EFL) teacher education in a Sub-Saharan African context (Niger). It draws on theoretical perspectives from Stenhouse (1967; 1975), Schön (1987; 1991), Vygotsky (1978) and Freire (2000), who defined effective teaching as a process of sharing experience, posing problems, reflecting-in-action and creating meaningful interaction with and for learners. The study therefore situates effective teacher learning as...

  20. Countdown to 2015 country case studies: systematic tools to address the “black box” of health systems and policy assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha S. Singh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluating health systems and policy (HSP change and implementation is critical in understanding reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH progress within and across countries. Whilst data for health outcomes, coverage and equity have advanced in the last decade, comparable analyses of HSP changes are lacking. We present a set of novel tools developed by Countdown to 2015 (Countdown to systematically analyse and describe HSP change for RMNCH indicators, enabling multi-country comparisons. Methods International experts worked with eight country teams to develop HSP tools via mixed methods. These tools assess RMNCH change over time (e.g. 1990–2015 and include: (i Policy and Programme Timeline Tool (depicting change according to level of policy; (ii Health Policy Tracer Indicators Dashboard (showing 11 selected RMNCH policies over time; (iii Health Systems Tracer Indicators Dashboard (showing four selected systems indicators over time; and (iv Programme implementation assessment. To illustrate these tools, we present results from Tanzania and Peru, two of eight Countdown case studies. Results The Policy and Programme Timeline tool shows that Tanzania’s RMNCH environment is complex, with increased funding and programmes for child survival, particularly primary-care implementation. Maternal health was prioritised since mid-1990s, yet with variable programme implementation, mainly targeting facilities. Newborn health only received attention since 2005, yet is rapidly scaling-up interventions at facility- and community-levels. Reproductive health lost momentum, with re-investment since 2010. Contrastingly, Peru moved from standalone to integrated RMNCH programme implementation, combined with multi-sectoral, anti-poverty strategies. The HSP Tracer Indicators Dashboards show that Peru has adopted nine of 11 policy tracer indicators and Tanzania has adopted seven. Peru costed national RMNCH plans pre-2000, whereas

  1. Effects of research tool patents on biotechnology innovation in a developing country: a case study of South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung-Nam; Ryu, Tae-Kyu; Lee, Yoon-Sik

    2009-03-26

    Concerns have recently been raised about the negative effects of patents on innovation. In this study, the effects of patents on innovations in the Korean biotech SMEs (small and medium-sized entrepreneurs) were examined using survey data and statistical analysis. The survey results of this study provided some evidence that restricted access problems have occurred even though their frequency was not high. Statistical analysis revealed that difficulties in accessing patented research tools were not negatively correlated with the level of innovation performance and attitudes toward the patent system. On the basis of the results of this investigation in combination with those of previous studies, we concluded that although restricted access problems have occurred, this has not yet deterred innovation in Korea. However, potential problems do exist, and the effects of restricted access should be constantly scrutinized.

  2. Effects of research tool patents on biotechnology innovation in a developing country: A case study of South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryu Tae-Kyu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concerns have recently been raised about the negative effects of patents on innovation. In this study, the effects of patents on innovations in the Korean biotech SMEs (small and medium-sized entrepreneurs were examined using survey data and statistical analysis. Results The survey results of this study provided some evidence that restricted access problems have occurred even though their frequency was not high. Statistical analysis revealed that difficulties in accessing patented research tools were not negatively correlated with the level of innovation performance and attitudes toward the patent system. Conclusion On the basis of the results of this investigation in combination with those of previous studies, we concluded that although restricted access problems have occurred, this has not yet deterred innovation in Korea. However, potential problems do exist, and the effects of restricted access should be constantly scrutinized.

  3. Country Branding and Country Image: Insights, Challenges and Prospects. The Case of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Same Siiri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gaining understanding about customers ’mindset and information on their experiences is a precondition for the formulation of an effective country branding strategy. What potential tourists might learn and how they can be made to feel about a place can help small and not very well-known countries compete with bigger and more popular tourist destinations. The article focuses on the effectiveness of Brand Estonia and claims that it is still a challenge, despite the existence of an ongoing strategy. It also favors the revision of the brand identity selection and the promotion of Estonian brand, and supports a customer-based approach for their assessment. Documentary and empirical evidence show that the image of Estonia among its most important target audiences in the field of tourism does not match the Estonian brand identity. The gap in-between was evidenced by the results and content analysis of 24 in-depth interviews made with a selected group of people well acquainted with the country as well as some branding experts. This article contributes to the existing case study literature with findings that also manifest opportunities to strengthen the country brand, if its formulation develops a realistic brand identity and its promotion is based on accurate, unique and appealing ideas. It proposes academic support to innovative or alternative concepts for the country branding, and comments on applications of this study to more specific fields and further research.

  4. ATTITUDE OF CORPORATE MANAGERS AND STOCKHOLDERS WITH RESPECT TO GOOD GOVERNANCE IN A DEVELOPING COUNTRY: A CASE STUDY OF BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Z. Mamun

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study showed the perceptional differences between corporate managers1 and stockholders2 regarding good governance. The study is conducted among 25 pairs of senior managers and stockholders from 25 randomly chosen corporations3 in Bangladesh. Different statistical tools like numeric scale, discriminant analysis, descriptive analysis, t-test, F-test were used for the comparative analysis. Regarding good governance, it is found that the corporate managers and stockholders possess opposing view. While managers of the studied firms find governance of their companies is quite well but stockholders view that it is very poor. This happened especially in terms of turnover, production, capital, leverage, debt service, credit policy, solvency, human resource, recruitment, technology, customer satisfaction, internal control, strength, opportunity, competition, industry position, collective bargaining agent (CBA issues and economic remedies which the study found the groups differ in perception; whereas, they have similar view in terms of adequacy of research fund, company weaknesses and threats, contingency plans, presence of political influence. The managers think that the companies do not have enough retained earnings and these should not be distributed among stockholders, but the stockholders think otherwise. Managers always perceive that they are underpaid whereas stockholders express the opposite view. Each group believes that it is the other group that dominates the decision-making. While both the groups want to have mutual interaction but stockholders want to interact more than the mangers. No doubt this attitudinal differences are not good for smooth functioning of the corporations, what is needed is openness, more dialogues, mutual trust and understanding of each other. The study also noted that corporate managers' tenure is more with the company than a stockholder's holding of stock. It is also found that the managers are better educated than

  5. Sports tourism and new opportunities in developing countries: A case study of sport tourism in the province of Ardebil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl A. Tajzadeh Namin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sport tourism plays an important role on developing economy and it can create tremendous opportunities for developing non-industrial regions. It is also the fastest growing sector in the global travel industry and generates hundreds of billions of dollars per year. The proposed study of this paper surveys different factors influencing sport tourist activities. The study distributes a questionnaire among 100 randomly chosen tourists in the province of Ardebil, Iran and the results are analyzed. The results indicate that Cronbach Alpha is 87.7 percents, which validates the reliability of our results. Based on the results, the region has tremendous opportunities for sport tourism such as water treatment. There are other opportunities in the province such as beautiful nature, historical monuments, mountains, etc. Unfortunately, the survey reveals that people are not aware of these places and governmental media must spend more efforts on introducing these opportunities.

  6. International technology sourcing between a developing country and the rest of the world. A case study of China

    OpenAIRE

    Nepelski, Daniel; De Prato, Giuditta

    2014-01-01

    We study the patterns and drivers of international technology transfer to and from China and the rest of the world. Our analysis makes use of patent-based measures of cross-border ownership of inventions. To quantify these technology flows, we a patent database providing a worldwide coverage of patents. We use a gravity model to explain the drivers of the international technology transfer. Although China exhibits a large deficit in international technology transfer, the flow of technology fro...

  7. To what extent are medicinal plants shared between country home gardens and urban ones? A case study from Misiones, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Violeta; Kujawska, Monika; Hilgert, Norma Ines; Pochettino, María Lelia

    2016-09-01

    Context Worldwide ethnobotanical research has shown the importance of home gardens as sources of medicinal plants. These resources are worthy of further study in the Argentinean Atlantic Forest due to the richness of medicinal flora and their importance for local people. Objective We studied richness, composition, cultural importance and medicinal uses of plants in home gardens of rural, semirural and urban areas in the Iguazú Department (Misiones, Argentina). Our hypothesis claims that people living in different environments have a similar array of medicinal plants in their gardens and they use them in a similar way. Materials and methods The analysis was based on 76 interviews and plant inventories of home gardens. During guided walks in gardens, voucher specimens were collected. To analyse composition, Simpson similarity index was applied and a new index was proposed to measure culturally salient species. Results All the environments had similar species composition with species differing in less than 30% of them. The most culturally salient taxa were Mentha spicata L. (Lamiaceae), in rural, Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae), in semirural, and Aloe maculata All. (Xanthorrhoeaceae), in urban areas. The body systems treated with medicinal plants were similar across study sites. Discussion The results suggest a "core repertoire" of medicinal plants and a widespread exchange of plants among local population. The cultural importance index informs us about plant adaptability, based on the efficacy and the versatility of medicinal resources. Conclusion In this changing context where mobility and migrations constitute everyday life, medicinal plants in home gardens are part of local healthcare sovereignty.

  8. Quality of health news disseminated in the print media in developing countries: a case study in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashorkhani Mahnaz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass media play an important role in keeping people up-to-date with the latest health news. This study aims at investigating the quality of health news disseminated in the print media, its course of production and factors affecting its quality. Methods In the quantitative section of the study, 410 health-related news items, published during a six-month span in the Iranian public press, underwent content analysis. In the qualitative section, focus group discussions were held with journalists, editors-in-chief and news gatekeepers. Results The quantitative phase showed that 18% of the news articles were not fit for dissemination in public. The qualitative phase illustrated that multiple factors at various levels affect the quality of news, namely poor knowledge, inadequate motivations and context-related barriers. Conclusions The quality of health news reporting is not desirable. Educational interventions need to be carried out to raise awareness among researchers and journalists. Also, certain steps should be taken to increase motivations and strengthen infrastructures, including designing guidelines and monitoring news.

  9. More Women in Science and Technology: A Commitment to Sustainable Development Goals in Developing Countries: Sudan as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suad M. Sulaiman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The debate on the fact that there are very fewwomen (less than 10% in the leading researchinstitutions was raised more than four decades ago. This has triggered several studies to document thecontribution of women to science and scientificdiscoveries. In 2010, the Royal Society of Londoncelebrated its 350th anniversary; but the historic absence of women scientists from the seminars,exhibitions and publications was noted. Although the Royal Society was founded in 1660, women were not permitted by statute to become fellows until 285 years later, in 1945. An exception was made for Queen Victoria, who was made a royal fellow. This situation was not unique for theBritish; it was the same for other elite science academies.....

  10. Children's perceptions and behavior with respect to glass littering in developing countries: a case study in Palestine's Nablus district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A

    2009-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the current situation regarding glass litter on the streets and children's attitudes, and behavior concerning glass litter. Out of 240 interviewed children, 41.7% admitted glass littering. This was reflected in the high incidence of injuries caused by street glass among children; 140 (58.3%) of the children interviewed had been injured by broken glass at least once while walking outdoors and 95 of the children had received professional medical care for the lacerations. As reported by the children who admitted to glass littering, the most effective elements (29.6%) in preventing them from littering the streets with glass were moral and religious convictions, and the next most effective practice (20.4%) was improved street cleanliness. Preventive measures such as encouraging moral and religious convictions among children, more effective street cleaning by local authorities, improved footwear, education, and glass recycling incentives, as well as engaging the community in street cleaning campaigns, are all needed to address this public health hazard. More recreational facilities should be provided. Public awareness initiatives led by environmentalists, social workers, primary health care providers or home healthcare providers may also help educate children to wear shoes, prevent glass injuries and increase glass litter awareness.

  11. Clean Development Mechanism” projects in the developing countries within the Kyoto protocol: problem analysis of a case study in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaglioppa P

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available An internship period spent in the north of Morocco kingdom (Tetouan gave a contribute to the organization activity in promoting sustainable development in the rural areas under the Kyoto Protocol. The multitasking project will increase biodiversity planting trees for wood, forage and fruits productions. The paper show a first step study to evaluate the possibility to reach an agreement with the propriety and the manager of these areas in a multifunctional reforestation project. The eligible site suitable for reforestation in accordance with the CDM international scheme is a large plateau (more than 5000 hectares 600 meters high on the sea level far from the Cannabis crops area. The evaluation of the project costs and of the social benefits for the population consider (using different species the indigenous communities necessity. The evaluation of carbon sequestration show the small scale of the reforestation project on behalf of the Kyoto Protocol, but give also an idea about the people rights and necessities. The normal afforestation and reforestation projects, under the Kyoto Protocol, try to maximize the CO2 sequestration in a short time, than business laws usually require. A small scale project could be self-managing, less expensive (international certification costs and more interesting for local communities.

  12. The way forward in capacity building in developing countries: space research center at Minoufiyia University, Egypt, as case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosalam Shaltout, M. A.

    With the starting the year 2002 the Menoufiyia University Council taked an Issue by construction Space Research Center, as a first Center for Space Research in the Egyptian Universities (20 Universities), as a part from the Desert Environment Research Institute for temporal time, then after the growth, it will be independent center. The green area of Egypt (Nile Valley and Delta) are 4% only from the total area of Egypt, the remain 96% is desert area. The most useful thing is to study the desert from space. For that the suggested projects to be performed in this new center are: 1. Monitoring the storage tanks of the underground water in the Egyptian Desert (Sahara) by artificial satellites as GRACE of NASA and DLR. 2. Building 32 meter Radio telescope at Abu-Simbel in the South of Egypt as part of the European VLBI network (EVN) to cover the gab between the radio telescope in the western Europe and the radio telescope at Hartebessthock in South Africa. The cooperation of International interested institutions is being explored for this important project of Egypt. 3. Solar activity and the climatic changes through the 21st century as clarified by global solar radiation data at Khargha Oases at the western desert of Egypt. 4. Testing of the Martian exploration instruments for 2005 space trips to Mars in the western desert of Egypt, as it is the driest area in the world, where are similarity between the dry atmosphere of Sahara and the atmosphere of Mars, also in the soil, and dry valleys. In collaboration with NASA and ESA. 5. Studding the eastern structure, due to meteoric impact in the western desert of Egypt since 28 Million years. Also, studding the meteors chemistry, for meteors found in the Egyptian desert, and the origin of life as meteor (Nachlet) in collaboration with NASA and ESA. 6. Solar energy and humidity distribution over Sahara from artificial Satellite Meteostat observations.

  13. Understanding differences in the local food environment across countries: A case study in Madrid (Spain) and Baltimore (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Julia; Bilal, Usama; Cebrecos, Alba; Buczynski, Amanda; Lawrence, Robert S; Glass, Thomas; Escobar, Francisco; Gittelsohn, Joel; Franco, Manuel

    2016-08-01

    Places where we buy food influence dietary patterns, making local food environments a good example of a mass influence on population diets. Cross-cultural studies, using reliable methods, may help understanding the relationship between food environments and diet-related health outcomes. We aimed to understand cross-national differences in the local food environment between Madrid and Baltimore by comparing an average neighborhood in each city in terms of food store types, healthy food availability, and residents' pedestrian access. During 2012-2013, we assessed one neighborhood (~15,000 residents) in each city selecting median areas in terms of socio-demographic characteristics (segregation, education, aging, and population density). We collected on-field data on (a) number and types of all food stores, (b) overall healthy food availability and (c) specific availability of fruits & vegetables. Throughout a street network analysis (200m, 400m and 800m) of food stores with high healthy food availability, we estimated residents' pedestrian accessibility. We found 40 stores in Madrid and 14 in Baltimore. Small food stores carrying fresh foods in Madrid contrasted with the high presence of corner and chain convenience stores in Baltimore. In Madrid, 77% of the residents lived within less than 200m from a food store with high healthy food availability. In contrast, 95% of Baltimore's residents lived further than 400m from these stores. Our results may help promoting interventions from local city agencies to allocate resources to existing small-sized food stores, and to improve walkable urban environments. These actions may influence food choices, especially for those residents lacking access to private vehicles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Multi crop model climate risk country-level management design: case study on the Tanzanian maize production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, E.

    2015-12-01

    Future climate projections indicate that a very serious consequence of post-industrial anthropogenic global warming is the likelihood of the greater frequency and intensity of extreme hydrometeorological events such as heat waves, droughts, storms, and floods. The design of national and international policies targeted at building more resilient and environmentally sustainable food systems needs to rely on access to robust and reliable data which is largely absent. In this context, the improvement of the modelling of current and future agricultural production losses using the unifying language of risk is paramount. In this study, we use a methodology that allows the integration of the current understanding of the various interacting systems of climate, agro-environment, crops, and the economy to determine short to long-term risk estimates of crop production loss, in different environmental, climate, and adaptation scenarios. This methodology is applied to Tanzania to assess optimum risk reduction and maize production increase paths in different climate scenarios. The simulations carried out use inputs from three different crop models (DSSAT, APSIM, WRSI) run in different technological scenarios and thus allowing to estimate crop model-driven risk exposure estimation bias. The results obtained also allow distinguishing different region-specific optimum climate risk reduction policies subject to historical as well as RCP2.5 and RCP8.5 climate scenarios. The region-specific risk profiles obtained provide a simple framework to determine cost-effective risk management policies for Tanzania and allow to optimally combine investments in risk reduction and risk transfer.

  15. Performance evaluation of reverse osmosis desalination plants for rural water supply in a developing country--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, P S; Joshi, V A; Ansari, M H; Manivel, U

    2003-12-01

    Performance evaluation of two reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plants (DSP) at villages: Melasirupodhu (30 m3 day(-1)) and Sikkal (50 m3 day(-1)) in Ramanathpuram district, Tamil Nadu (India) were studied so as to bring out the state-of-art of their operation and maintenance (O&M). Detailed information on plant design and engineering, water quality, plant personnel, and cost of O&M was collected for a period of three years after commissioning of the two plants. Feed water was brackish, the TDS varied in the range of 6500-8500 mg L(-1) at Melasirupodhu and 5300-7100 mg L(-1) at Sikkal villages. The product water quality was observed to be gradually deteriorating as the salt rejection by the membranes decreased with time. The salt rejection was 97-99% at the time of commissioning of the plants, and came down to 89-90% at the end of 3 years of operation. Product water TDS soon after installation of the plants was excellent and within desirable limits of BIS. After three years of operation, few parameters exceeded the desirable limits, however, they were found to be within permissible limits of BIS. The analyses of the data showed that both plants were operated only at 30-36% of the design capacity. Plant shut-down due to inadequate and erratic power supply, and plant break-down and inherent delay in repairs due to lack of adequate infrastructure were found to be the major causes for the low utilization of the plants. Consequently the recurring cost of product water production enhanced to Rs. 25.0/m3 at Melasirupodhu and Rs. 17.5 m(-3) at Sikkal, as against the estimated cost of Rs. 15.0/m3 and Rs. 11.0/m3, respectively, as per the design. Over the years, the energy consumption for the product water output increased reflecting higher operational pressures needed with the aging of the membranes.

  16. Lifetime occupational exposure to metals and welding fumes, and risk of glioma: a 7-country population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Marie-Elise; Turner, Michelle C; Lavoué, Jérôme; Richard, Hugues; Figuerola, Jordi; Kincl, Laurel; Richardson, Lesley; Benke, Geza; Blettner, Maria; Fleming, Sarah; Hours, Martine; Krewski, Daniel; McLean, David; Sadetzki, Siegal; Schlaefer, Klaus; Schlehofer, Brigitte; Schüz, Joachim; Siemiatycki, Jack; van Tongeren, Martie; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2017-08-25

    Brain tumor etiology is poorly understood. Based on their ability to pass through the blood-brain barrier, it has been hypothesized that exposure to metals may increase the risk of brain cancer. Results from the few epidemiological studies on this issue are limited and inconsistent. We investigated the relationship between glioma risk and occupational exposure to five metals - lead, cadmium, nickel, chromium and iron- as well as to welding fumes, using data from the seven-country INTEROCC study. A total of 1800 incident glioma cases and 5160 controls aged 30-69 years were included in the analysis. Lifetime occupational exposure to the agents was assessed using the INTEROCC JEM, a modified version of the Finnish job exposure matrix FINJEM. In general, cases had a slightly higher prevalence of exposure to the various metals and welding fumes than did controls, with the prevalence among ever exposed ranging between 1.7 and 2.2% for cadmium to 10.2 and 13.6% for iron among controls and cases, respectively. However, in multivariable logistic regression analyses, there was no association between ever exposure to any of the agents and risk of glioma with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) ranging from 0.8 (0.7-1.0) for lead to 1.1 (0.7-1.6) for cadmium. Results were consistent across models considering cumulative exposure or duration, as well as in all sensitivity analyses conducted. Findings from this large-scale international study provide no evidence for an association between occupational exposure to any of the metals under scrutiny or welding fumes, and risk of glioma.

  17. The use of students as participants in a study of eating disorders in a developing country: case study in the ethics of mental health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassenaar, Douglas Richard; Mamotte, Nicole

    2012-03-01

    This article describes the ethical analysis of an eating disorder study in which a university-based researcher in South Africa set out to establish the cross-cultural validity of the Eating Disorders Inventory. The following ethical issues are considered in the analysis: study design, social value, study population, risks and benefits, oversight, informed consent, and posttrial obligations. The ethics analysis is based on an adaptation of the structured framework proposed by Emanuel et al. (The Oxford textbook of clinical research ethics; pp. 123-133, 2008) for ethical research in developing countries. The analysis reveals that research that, on superficial analysis, seems to be low risk and noninterventional can result in adverse psychosocial effects and complexities for research participants and researchers alike. The study underlines the need for special ethics scrutiny of mental health-related research proposals involving students as research participants, especially when conducted by their own teachers.

  18. Voluntary agreements, implementation and efficiency. Swedish country study report. Covering the EKO-Energi programme. With case studies in pulp and paper and heavy vehicle manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaagstroem, Jonas; Aastrand, Kerstin; Helby, Peter

    2000-03-01

    The VAIE research project is concerned with voluntary agreements for improvement of industrial energy efficiency in five European countries. This national report deals with the Swedish EKO-Energi agreements. It includes case studies in pulp and paper and heavy vehicle manufacturing. The first chapter presents the principal aspects of the Swedish EKO-Energi programme, explains the selection of companies for case studies, and summarises the results of the national study. The chapter shows the EKO-Energi programme to be directed at a fairly exclusive part of Swedish industry, namely environmental front-runners striving for EMAS or ISO 14001 certification. It provides them with paid energy audits and with marketing support. It requires them to establish an energy management system, i.e. to include energy efficiency issues in their certification process. The agreements are 'soft' in the sense that they address mainly organisational issues, are based much on trust in the companies own dedication to improvement, and are very informal in the monitoring. On the balance, the EKO-Energi programme would seem to be a small, but reasonably effective programme, contributing particularly to such organisational developments as are important for long-term trends in industrial energy efficiency. The second chapter provides a brief introduction to the whole VAIE project and outlines the methodology of the study, explained in more detail in a separate report. The third chapter describes the progress of the EKO-Energi programme from policy formulation to implementation, and assesses a number of hypotheses concerning this process. Support is found for the hypotheses (a) that voluntary agreements tend to exclude the influence of third parties, (b) that they tend to continue the logic of previous policies, and (c) that expected short term energy savings tend to be very close to the baseline scenario. The fourth chapter describes how agreements with individual companies are made

  19. Measuring turbidity, and indicator to evaluate drinkability of waters in Southern countries? Approaches from Burkina Faso, Sudan and Argentina case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie, Emilie; Robert, Elodie

    2013-04-01

    The relationship between proportion of suspended solids, dissolved oxygen and bacteriology has long been proven (Brock, 1966; Lechevallier et al., 1985; Bustina and Levallois, 2003; Chang and Liao, 2012), bacteria need coarse elements to hang on and develop. However, water bacteriology analyses are difficult to implement in southern countries. They are expensive and require sterile equipment, transport in cold conditions and a nearby laboratory, which remains difficult in remote areas under these hot latitudes. Yet, simple measurement devices allow to know in a few minutes the water turbidity. Is turbidity an efficient tool to evaluate the drinkability of water when no bacteriological analyses are possible? The results proposed here are taken from three different studies whose purposes were to measure different physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters of water used for human and/or animal consumption. One of the finalities was to propose a method, at lower cost, to evaluate the drinkability of water for consumption. Four case studies were chosen: the basin of the Doubegue River in Burkina Faso is a rural area of a developing country, where drinking water is taken from the alluvial aquifer close to the surface. Furthermore, the laundry is washed and the children play in running streams. Major expansion of the cultivated lands since 1980s has brought important soils losses, thus a chronicle contamination of surface water with suspended solids (Robert, 2012). The Mendoza and Tunuyán Rivers Basins in Argentina, an emerging country, have snow-glaciar regimes with naturally turbid waters. They supply drinking water to two towns, Mendoza and Tunuyán cities, respectively 1 million and 40,000 inhabitants. However, these two streams -whose watersheds are common- do not present the same managements: the Mendoza River has been equipped with large hydraulic infrastructures, moving the turbid waters into clear and erosive ones (Lavie, 2009), while the Tunuyán River

  20. Simulating partially illegal markets of private tanker water providers on the country level: A multi-agent, hydroeconomic case-study of Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassert, C. J. A.; Yoon, J.; Gawel, E.; Klauer, B.; Sigel, K.; Talozi, S.; Lachaut, T.; Selby, P. D.; Knox, S.; Gorelick, S.; Tilmant, A.; Harou, J. J.; Mustafa, D.; Medellin-Azuara, J.; Rajsekhar, D.; Avisse, N.; Zhang, H.

    2016-12-01

    In arid countries around the world, markets of private small-scale water providers, mostly delivering water via tanker trucks, have emerged to balance the shortcomings of public water supply systems. While these markets can provide substantial contributions to meeting customers' water demands, they often partially rely on illegal water abstractions, thus imposing an unregulated and unmonitored strain on ground and surface water resources. Despite their important impacts on water users' welfare and resource sustainability, these markets are still poorly understood. We use a multi-agent, hydroeconomic simulation model, developed as part of the Jordan Water Project, to investigate the role of these markets in a country-wide case-study of Jordan. Jordan's water sector is characterized by a severe and growing scarcity of water resources, high intermittency in the public water network, and a strongly increasing demand due to an unprecedented refugee crisis. The tanker water market serves an important role in providing water from rural wells to households and commercial enterprises, especially during supply interruptions. In order to overcome the lack of direct data about this partially illegal market, we simulate demand and supply for tanker water. The demand for tanker water is conceptualized as a residual demand, remaining after a water user has depleted all available cheap and qualitatively reliable piped water. It is derived from residential and commercial demand functions on the basis of survey data. Tanker water supply is determined by farm simulation models calculating the groundwater pumping cost and the agricultural opportunity cost of tanker water. A market algorithm is then used to match rural supplies with users' demands, accounting for survey data on tanker operators' transport costs and profit expectations. The model is used to gain insights into the size of the tanker markets in all 89 subdistricts of Jordan and their responsiveness to various policy

  1. Using the Green Infrastructure as an Economic Sustainable Tool for Improving Urban Life in Emerging Countries Urban Poverty Areas Greater Cairo Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Khaled Ahmed Elewa

    2014-01-01

    Through the last decades rapid urbanization in the emerging countries was producing bad urban quality. This urbanization of poverty is responsible of the phenomenon of the current spreading of slums in those countries main cities, Yet the common urban solutions for improving the urban life in those areas always require a high-cost budget which usuallysurpassing the financial ability of the local governments. The study main objective is to evaluate the possibility of using the Green Infrastruc...

  2. Perinatal profile of very low birthweight infants under a universal newborn hearing screening programme in a developing country: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O

    2010-01-01

    To determine the perinatal profile and developmental risks of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (country. A case-control study of VLBW survivors matched by date of birth and sex with normal birth weight (>or=2500 g) infants delivered in an inner-city maternity hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Hearing status was determined by two-stage screening with transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) followed by automated auditory brainstem response (AABR). Maternal and infant factors associated with VLBW were determined using unconditional and conditional multivariable logistic regression analyses. All 45 VLBW singletons (mean weight 1.3 +/- 0.1 kg) during the study period were matched with 225 controls (mean weight 3.4 +/- 0.5 kg). VLBW was associated with maternal occupation, lack of antenatal care, low 5-minute Apgar score and hyperbilirubinemia based on unmatched and matched analyses. Additionally, VLBW infants were significantly associated with failed or incomplete hearing screening outcomes. Four (10.5%) of the 38 infants tested with AABR failed, but none returned for diagnostic evaluation and one child had previously passed TEOAE. VLBW infants in resource-poor settings are associated with the risk of sensorineural hearing loss and other perinatal outcomes that may potentially compromise their optimal development in early childhood.

  3. The country of origin effect in modern-day marketing communication : an empirical case study of Josef Manner & Comp AG and Almdudler A. & S. Klein GmbH & Co KG

    OpenAIRE

    Eder, Nicola Christina

    2012-01-01

    The following thesis seeks to explore the application and underlying motivation of companies to integrate the country of origin information as an essential part of their marketing communication efforts. Based on research on the theoretical frameworks and concepts developed with relevance to the “country-origin-effect”, the empirical analysis conducted through qualitative research of two companies originating from Austria serve as case studies. The research strives to illustr...

  4. How much might a society spend on life-saving interventions at different ages while remaining cost-effective? A case study in a country with detailed data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvizhinadze, Giorgi; Wilson, Nick; Nair, Nisha; McLeod, Melissa; Blakely, Tony

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the maximum intervention cost (EMIC) a society could invest in a life-saving intervention at different ages while remaining cost-effective according to a user-specified cost-effectiveness threshold. New Zealand (NZ) was used as a case study, and a health system perspective was taken. Data from NZ life tables and morbidity data from a burden of disease study were used to estimate health-adjusted life-years (HALYs) gained by a life-saving intervention. Health system costs were estimated from a national database of all publicly funded health events (hospitalizations, outpatient events, pharmaceuticals, etc.). For illustrative purposes we followed the WHO-CHOICE approach and used a cost-effectiveness threshold of the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (NZ$45,000 or US$30,000 per HALY). We then calculated EMICs for an "ideal" life-saving intervention that fully returned survivors to the same average morbidity, mortality, and cost trajectories as the rest of their cohort. The EMIC of the "ideal" life-saving intervention varied markedly by age: NZ$1.3 million (US$880,000) for an intervention to save the life of a child, NZ$0.8 million (US$540,000) for a 50-year-old, and NZ$0.235 million (US$158,000) for an 80-year-old. These results were predictably very sensitive to the choice of discount rate and to the selected cost-effectiveness threshold. Using WHO data, we produced an online calculator to allow the performance of similar calculations for all other countries. We present an approach to estimating maximal cost-effective investment in life-saving health interventions, under various assumptions. Our online calculator allows this approach to be applied in other countries. Policymakers could use these estimates as a rapid screening tool to determine if more detailed cost-effectiveness analyses of potential life-saving interventions might be worthwhile or which proposed life-saving interventions are very unlikely to benefit from such additional

  5. Regional impact assessment of land use scenarios in developing countries using the FoPIA approach: findings from five case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Hannes Jochen; Uthes, Sandra; Schuler, Johannes; Zhen, Lin; Purushothaman, Seema; Suarma, Utia; Sghaier, Mongi; Makokha, Stella; Helming, Katharina; Sieber, Stefan; Chen, Le; Brouwer, Floor; Morris, Jake; Wiggering, Hubert

    2013-09-01

    The impact of land use changes on sustainable development is of increasing interest in many regions of the world. This study aimed to test the transferability of the Framework for Participatory Impact Assessment (FoPIA), which was originally developed in the European context, to developing countries, in which lack of data often prevents the use of data-driven impact assessment methods. The core aspect of FoPIA is the stakeholder-based assessment of alternative land use scenarios. Scenario impacts on regional sustainability are assessed by using a set of nine regional land use functions (LUFs), which equally cover the economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainability. The cases analysed in this study include (1) the alternative spatial planning policies around the Merapi volcano and surrounding areas of Yogyakarta City, Indonesia; (2) the large-scale afforestation of agricultural areas to reduce soil erosion in Guyuan, China; (3) the expansion of soil and water conservation measures in the Oum Zessar watershed, Tunisia; (4) the agricultural intensification and the potential for organic agriculture in Bijapur, India; and (5) the land degradation and land conflicts resulting from land division and privatisation in Narok, Kenya. All five regions are characterised by population growth, partially combined with considerable economic development, environmental degradation problems and social conflicts. Implications of the regional scenario impacts as well as methodological aspects are discussed. Overall, FoPIA proved to be a useful tool for diagnosing regional human-environment interactions and for supporting the communication and social learning process among different stakeholder groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Birthing on Country (in Our Community): a case study of engaging stakeholders and developing a best-practice Indigenous maternity service in an urban setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kildea, Sue; Hickey, Sophie; Nelson, Carmel; Currie, Jody; Carson, Adrian; Reynolds, Maree; Wilson, Kay; Kruske, Sue; Passey, Megan; Roe, Yvette; West, Roianne; Clifford, Anton; Kosiak, Machellee; Watego, Shannon; Tracy, Sally

    2017-04-07

    case example of the experience of setting up one such best-practice, community-engaged and informed partnership model of maternity and child healthcare in south-east Queensland. We share our experience using a World Café to facilitate community engagement, service delivery and workforce planning.What are the implications for practitioners? Health professionals providing maternity care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander families are encouraged to incorporate Birthing on Country principles into their model of care to address the specific needs and demands of the local Indigenous community and improve maternal and infant health outcomes.

  7. Economic analysis of scaling up access to modern family planning methods in low and middle-income countries; case studies for Indonesia and Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakiyah, N.; Van Asselt, A.; Cao, Q.; Setiawan, D.; Roijmans, F.; Postma, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Family planning is one of the initial strategies to improve maternal health in low and middle-income countries (L-MICs), where unmet need can still be high. The aim of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of improved access to family planning in L-MICs, with Indonesia and

  8. Climate and Health Co-Benefits in Low-Income Countries: A Case Study of Carbon Financed Water Filters in Kenya and a Call for Independent Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Amy J; Arnold, Benjamin F; Dentz, Holly N; Colford, John M; Null, Clair

    2017-03-01

    The recent global climate agreement in Paris aims to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions while fostering sustainable development and establishes an international trading mechanism to meet this goal. Currently, carbon offset program implementers are allowed to collect their own monitoring data to determine the number of carbon credits to be awarded. We summarize reasons for mandating independent monitoring of greenhouse gas emission reduction projects. In support of our policy recommendations, we describe a case study of a program designed to earn carbon credits by distributing almost one million drinking water filters in rural Kenya to avert the use of fuel for boiling water. We compare results from an assessment conducted by our research team in the program area among households with pregnant women or caregivers in rural villages with low piped water access with the reported program monitoring data and discuss the implications. Our assessment in Kenya found lower levels of household water filter usage than the internal program monitoring reported estimates used to determine carbon credits; we found 19% (n = 4,041) of households reported filter usage 2-3 years after filter distribution compared to the program stated usage rate of 81% (n = 14,988) 2.7 years after filter distribution. Although carbon financing could be a financially sustainable approach to scale up water treatment and improve health in low-income settings, these results suggest program effectiveness will remain uncertain in the absence of requiring monitoring data be collected by third-party organizations. Independent monitoring should be a key requirement for carbon credit verification in future international carbon trading mechanisms to ensure programs achieve benefits in line with sustainable development goals. Citation: Pickering AJ, Arnold BF, Dentz HN, Colford JM Jr., Null C. 2017. Climate and health co-benefits in low-income countries: a case study of carbon financed water filters in Kenya and a

  9. THE EFFECT OF MAQĀṢID-BASED DEVELOPMENT VARIABLES ON ECONOMIC GROWTH BASED ON UMER CHAPRA’S PERSPECTIVE (CASE STUDY: NINE SELECTED OIC COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    salman al parisi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Human Development Index (HDI has multidimensional aspects of life. In fact, HDI measures only physical aspects that are needed by human such as education, health and wealth. Accordingly, discussing on human must cover material, physical and spiritual aspects. Maqāṣid is needed as a wasilah (medium to promote the benefit of human (maslahat, which contains of daruriyyat, hajiyat and tahsiniyat. By then, this study aims to analyze maqāṣid based development variables of Umer Chapra perspective on economic growth in 9 selected OIC member countries.Method: The methodology of the study used mixed methods: qualitative and quantitative. The quantitative applies panel data regression analysis with 9 selected OIC countries (Indonesia, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mesir, Pakistan, Togo, Turkey and Uzbekistan with time series from 2004 to 2013. For qualitative applies content analysis approach by using tafsir of Ibnu Katsir.Results: The finding shows that all independent variables, which are literacy rate, enrollment of school, poverty rate, gini index, life expectancy at birth, rule of law and voice accountability have significant effect on economic growth in 9 selected OIC member countries, both simultaneously and individually.Conclusion: This study concludes that HDI which is bounded by maqāṣid approach affects on increasing of economic growth in 9 of OIC member countries significantly.

  10. Integrated community case management of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea across three African countries: A qualitative study exploring lessons learnt and implications for further scale up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Strachan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies highlight the effectiveness of an integrated approach for the management of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea at the community level. There has however been little study on lessons learnt from implementation in practice and stakeholder experiences which could inform future programmatic planning and evaluation frameworks. A participatory, qualitative evaluation was conducted in the three varied settings of South Sudan, Uganda and Zambia, which have seen the scale up of integrated community case management (iCCM over the last five years. All key in–country stakeholders were consulted on study design, with a particular focus on scope and methodology. Data collection methods included stakeholder consultations (key informant interviews, focus group discussions, and a review of project and Ministry of Health documentation. Data analysis followed the Framework Approach. Results suggest that iCCM implementation generally followed national pre–agreed guidelines. Overarching key programmatic recommendations included: collaboration with implementing partners in planning stages to positively impact on community acceptance and ownership; adoption of participatory training methods adapted to low literacy populations; development of alternative support supervision methods such as peer support groups; full integration of community level data into the health management information system and emphasizing data analysis, use and feedback at all levels; strengthened supply chains through improved quantification and procurement of commodities in conjunction with the national distribution network; community engagement to establish a support system for community health workers to increase their motivation; enhanced sensitisation and behaviour change communication to raise awareness and usage of appropriate health services; and advocacy at the national level for funding and logistical support for the continuation and integration of iCCM. This

  11. CASE STUDY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BY TOXOPLASMOSIS. CASE STUDY. Christine Katusiime1, MB ChB, PGDPPM. Ponsiano Ocama2, MB ChB, MMed. Andrew Kambugu1, MB ChB, MMed. 1Makerere University, College of Health Sciences, Infectious Diseases Institute, Kampala, Uganda. 2Makerere University, College of Health Sciences, Department of ...

  12. CASE STUDY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-02

    AIDS Control Programme, Sri Lanka. CASE STUDY. A 49-year-old male security supervisor was admitted to hospital with recurrent chest infections. He was found to be HIV positive with a CD4 count of 60 cells/µl, and was.

  13. Increasing Access to Oral Anticancer Medicines in Middle-Income Countries: A Case Study of Private Health Insurance Coverage in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massard da Fonseca, Elize; Bastos, Francisco Inácio; Lopes, Gilberto

    2016-02-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that approximately 60% of the world's new annual cancer cases occur in Asia, Africa, and Central and South America, and that 70% of cancer deaths occur in these regions. Although oral chemotherapy is a promising intervention for cancer treatment, given its high cost, it is usually unavailable in middle-income countries. In 2013, after strong lobbying from civil society, Brazil's Congress passed legislation mandating that all private health insurance companies provide access to oral antineoplastic treatment. The decision to scale up the provision of oral chemotherapy was a watershed event in the regulation of private health insurance in Brazil. Until then, private insurers, which cover 25% of the population, were exempted from the provision of pharmaceutical drugs for home care treatments. This article explores the political process involved in regulating the provision of oral chemotherapy medicines by private health insurers. Elements of this successful advocacy case included investment in strategic communication, specialized knowledge of regulatory policy, and the ability to act via democratic channels of political representation. In turn, the receptiveness of government branches such as the Congress and regulating bodies, as well as the Cancer Awareness Month campaign, opened a window of opportunity. However, prospects for expanded access to such medicines in the public health system are bleak in the short term because of the ongoing political and economic crisis.

  14. Impact of a critical health workforce shortage on child health in Zimbabwe: a country case study on progress in child survival, 2000–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Connie A; Vermund, Sten H; Moyo, Precious; Madzima, Bernard; Kanyowa, Trevor; Desta, Teshome; Mwinga, Kasonde; Brault, Marie A

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Despite notable progress reducing global under-five mortality rates, insufficient progress in most sub-Saharan African nations has prevented the achievement of Millennium Development Goal four (MDG#4) to reduce under-five mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. Country-level assessments of factors underlying why some African countries have not been able to achieve MDG#4 have not been published. Zimbabwe was included in a four-country study examining barriers and facilitators of under-five survival between 2000 and 2013 due to its comparatively slow progress towards MDG#4. A review of national health policy and strategy documents and analysis of qualitative data identified Zimbabwe’s critical shortage of health workers and diminished opportunities for professional training and education as an overarching challenge. Moreover, this insufficient health workforce severely limited the availability, quality, and utilization of life-saving health services for pregnant women and children during the study period. The impact of these challenges was most evident in Zimbabwe’s persistently high neonatal mortality rate, and was likely compounded by policy gaps failing to authorize midwives to deliver life-saving interventions and to ensure health staff make home post-natal care visits soon after birth. Similarly, the lack of a national policy authorizing lower-level cadres of health workers to provide community-based treatment of pneumonia contributed to low coverage of this effective intervention and high child mortality. Zimbabwe has recently begun to address these challenges through comprehensive policies and strategies targeting improved recruitment and retention of experienced senior providers and by shifting responsibility of basic maternal, neonatal and child health services to lower-level cadres and community health workers that require less training, are geographically broadly distributed, and are more cost-effective, however the impact of these

  15. Paying for Mitigation: A Multiple Country Study

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Kataria, Mitesh; Krupnick, Alan; Lampi, Elina; Lofgren, Asa; Qin, Ping; Chung, Susie; Sterner, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Unique survey data from a contingent valuation study conducted in three different countries (China, Sweden, and the United States) were used to investigate the ordinary citizen’s willingness to pay (WTP) for reducing CO2 emissions. We found that a large majority of the respondents in all three countries believe that the mean global temperature has increased over the last 100 years and that humans are responsible for the increase. A smaller share of Americans, however, believes these statement...

  16. Casing study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, P.

    2000-12-01

    An unorthodox method of casing drilling used by Tesco Corporation at a gas well in Wyoming to drill deeper using casings as drillpipe is discussed. The process involves either rotating the casing as drill string or using a downhole mud motor to rotate the bit. In this instance, the surface hole and the production hole were casing-drilled to a record 8,312 feet by rotating the casing. The 8 1/2-inch surface hole was drilled with 7-inch casing to 1,200 feet using a Tesco underreamer and a polycrystalline pilot bit; drilling and cementing was completed in 12 1/2 hours. The 6 1/4-inch production hole was drilled with 4 1/2-inch casing and the bottomhole assembly was retrieved after 191 hours rotating. This case was the first in which the entire well was casing-drilled from surface to TD. Penetration rate compared favorably with conventional methods: 12 1/2 hours for casing-drilling to 18.9 hours for conventional drilling, despite the fact that the casing-drilling technology is still in its infancy. It is suggested that casing-drilling has the potential to eliminate the need for the drillpipe entirely. If these expectations were to be realised, casing-drilling could be one of the most radical drilling changes in the history of the oil and gas industry. 1 photo.

  17. Day case surgery and developing countries- A review | Ojo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While it has witnessed a boom in the continents of America and Europe culminating in the establishment of Freestanding and autonomous units, the developing countries still largely practice hospital based day cases with relatively limited scope and utilization. This article reviews the evolution, scope, safety, organisation ...

  18. CASE STUDY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to as Juvenile Tropical Pancreatitis Syndrome when it affects children, has been described in many parts of the world [1]. This Syndrome consists of pancreatic calcification associated with both exocrine and endocrine impairment singly or in combination and is commonly found in the tropical countries [2-4]. This condition is.

  19. Capacity for ethical and regulatory review of herbal trials in developing countries: a case study of Moringa oleifera research in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monera-Penduka, Tsitsi G; Maponga, Charles C; Morse, Gene D; Nhachi, Charles F B

    2017-01-01

    Lack of regulatory capacity limits the conduct of ethical and rigorous trials of herbal medicines in developing countries. Sharing ethical and regulatory experiences of successful herbal trials may accelerate the field while assuring human subjects protection. The methods and timelines for the ethical and regulatory review processes for the first drug regulatory authority approved herbal trial in Zimbabwe are described in this report. The national drug regulatory authority and ethics committee were engaged for pre-submission discussions. Six applications were submitted. Application procedures and communications with the various regulatory and ethics review boards were reviewed. Key issues raised and timelines for communications were summarized. There was no special framework for the approval of herbal trials. One local institutional review committee granted an exemption. Key issues raised for revision were around pre-clinical efficacy and safety data, standardization and quality assurance of the intervention as well as consenting procedures. Approval timelines ranged between eight and 72 weeks. In the absence of a defined framework for review of herbal trials, approval processes can be delayed. Dialogue between researchers and regulators is important for successful and efficient protocol approval for herbal trials in developing countries. The study was registered prospectively on August 3, 2011 with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01410058).

  20. A conceptual and analytical approach to comparative analysis of country case studies: HIV and TB control programmes and health systems integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coker, Richard; Balen, Julie; Mounier-Jack, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    systems analysis are rare and difficult to formulate. In this paper we propose a conceptual framework and an analytical methodology which might be used to comparatively analyse a series of case studies that explore health systems, communicable diseases programmes and concepts of integration in order...

  1. Injury incidence, reactivity and ease of handling of horses kept in groups: A matched case control study in four Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keeling, L.J.; Bøe, K.E.; Christensen, Janne Winther

    2016-01-01

    horses from groups and horses’ reactivity to a fearful stimulus. Using a matched case control design, 61 groups of horses were studied in Denmark, Norway, Finland and Sweden. They were allocated into groups of similar or different age and sex or where membership changed regularly or remained stable...

  2. Using standardized methods for research on HIV and injecting drug use in developing/transitional countries: case study from the WHO Drug Injection Study Phase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stimson Gerry V

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful cross-national research requires methods that are both standardized across sites and adaptable to local conditions. We report on the development and implementation of the methodology underlying the survey component of the WHO Drug Injection Study Phase II – a multi-site study of risk behavior and HIV seroprevalence among Injecting Drug Users (IDUs. Methods Standardized operational guidelines were developed by the Survey Coordinating Center in collaboration with the WHO Project Officer and participating site Investigators. Throughout the duration of the study, survey implementation at the local level was monitored by the Coordinating Center. Surveys were conducted in 12 different cities. Prior rapid assessment conducted in 10 cities provided insight into local context and guided survey implementation. Where possible, subjects were recruited both from drug abuse treatment centers and via street outreach. While emphasis was on IDUs, non-injectors were also recruited in cities with substantial non-injecting use of injectable drugs. A structured interview and HIV counseling/testing were administered. Results Over 5,000 subjects were recruited. Subjects were recruited from both drug treatment and street outreach in 10 cities. Non-injectors were recruited in nine cities. Prior rapid assessment identified suitable recruitment areas, reduced drug users' distrust of survey staff, and revealed site-specific risk behaviors. Centralized survey coordination facilitated local questionnaire modification within a core structure, standardized data collection protocols, uniform database structure, and cross-site analyses. Major site-specific problems included: questionnaire translation difficulties; locating affordable HIV-testing facilities; recruitment from drug treatment due to limited/selective treatment infrastructure; access to specific sub-groups of drug users in the community, particularly females or higher income groups

  3. A poor country clothing the rich countries: case of garment trade in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mahboob Ali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ready-made garment industry of Bangladesh is one of the largest formal manufacturing sectors. It has played a key role in the country’s process of industrialisation, empowerment of women, export oriented development and growth. Workers from poor socio-economic backgrounds are working in the garment industry. Their health, safety and working conditions are very poor and not protected. There is a lack of regular inspection and compliance with local law in buildings and factories. This led to the collapse of the eight story Rana Plaza building in the capital Dhaka on the 24th of April 2013, “killing 1,100 workers and 2,500 injured”2 . The main aim of the study is to assess the impact of Rana Plaza Tragedy, where RMG workers make garments for multinational brands of Australia, Europe and USA, and the advantage which took these companies of the absence of labour laws, workplace health and safety standards, building standards, long working hours and low wages in Bangladesh. The study used both primary and secondary data including related case studies. The practical application of the study is to develop formal ethical, labour-law, health and safety standards for a factory worker; construction; institutions and courts for monitoring the supplier’s behaviour onshore and large multinational firms offshore. The study recommends to protect the rights of women workers who are sowing garments for the fashion conscious consumers from the developed countries. Future research will explore inclusive growth for workers and how to stimulate inclusive sustainable business for export led garment industry.

  4. Country Report: Civics Courses in the German Democratic Republic (GDR: A Case Study in the History of Curriculum and Educational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benita Blessing

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Civics courses in the German Democratic Republic (GDR, or East Germany were intended to educate students to become socialist personalities. The didactical and ideological structure of the course, however, created internal contradictions that turned civics into an “impossible” course. This case study offers a model for conducting educational research into a single course curriculum using a multi-perspective analysis.

  5. Factors Affecting Customer’s Perception of Service Quality: Comparing Differences among Countries - Case study: Beauty salons in Bandung and Tokyo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Nakashima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines a holistic study of analyzing several factors affecting service quality andtheir correlation with characteristic of customers based on value and life style. Furthermore,customer’s perception of service quality can be drawn from those relationships. Exploratoryfactor analysis and quantitative analysis is employed with case study of beauty salon serviceat Bandung and Tokyo. The results indicate how the quality of services is perceived differentlyby customers who have different value and life style, and also describe significant relationshipbetween value and life style with the affecting factors of service quality.Key words : service quality, value and life style, customer perception, beauty salon.

  6. Area Handbook Series: Egypt: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    condemned the orthodox as 139 Egypt: A Country Study "pulpit parrots " committed to a formalist practice of Islam but not to its spirit. The social origins of...suspected of politi- cal violence, drug smugglers , and illegal curr.ncy dealers. It also allowed detention of striking workers, pro-Palestinian student

  7. Area Handbook Series: Zaire: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Nacional para a Independencia Total de Angola-UNITA)- 265 __________________ Zaire: A Country Study could bring a peaceful transition to Angolan...550-185 Persian Gulf States 550-89 Tunisia 550-42 Peru 550-80 Turkey 550-72 Philippines 550-74 Uganda 550-162 Poland 550-97 Uruguay 550-181 Portugal 550

  8. A Feasibility Study of Biogas Technology to Solving Peri-urban Sanitation Problems in Developing Countries. A Case for Harare, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Sibanda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the feasibility of converting organic waste into energy using biogas technology to address sanitation problems in peri-urban suburbs of Harare, Zimbabwe.These suburbs with an estimated population of 156.975 are unique in that they are not connected to the Harare main water sewer system. A baseline survey was conducted to determine the quantity of biodegradable human and kitchen waste (N=60. Biodigester sizing and costing was done for various scenarios mainly household standalone, single centralised suburb and combined suburbs centralised biogas models. In addition potential biogas conversion to electricity was done for single centralised suburb and combined suburbs centralised biogas models. This was followed by a cost benefit analysis of employing combined suburbs biogas technology. A combined suburbs centralised biogas model was found to be the most feasible scenario producing 7378 m3 of biogas per day with electricity production capacity of 384 kW .There was a potential of wood savings of 6129 tonnes/year, paraffin savings of 2.556 tonnes/year and greenhouse benefits of 980 tonnes of CO2 equivalent emissions/ year and which would attract U$2940 from carbon credits sales per year. The study recommended the adoption of the biogas technology because of its potential toaddress both economic and sanitation challenges being faced by local authorities in developing countries particularly, improved hygienic conditions, energy supply chronic epidemics and sewerreticulation.

  9. Outward FDI and home country economic growth: a Malaysian case

    OpenAIRE

    Koi Nyen Wong

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore the causality relationship between outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) and home country economic growth using Malaysia as a case. The main findings do not advocate the OFDI-led growth hypothesis. In order to promote OFDI-led growth, the home government should prepare the private sector for increasing competition in the era of globalization so that linkages can be forged with Malaysian multinationals, and to facilitate home sourcing for OFDI activities. Howe...

  10. Application of AHP for the development of waste management systems that minimize infection risks in developing countries: Case studies Lesotho and South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brent, AC

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the establishment of waste management systems that minimize infection risks in the context of sustainable development in the developing country situations. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), a known multi-criteria decision...

  11. Emigration, Immigration, and Skill Formation: The Case of a Midstream Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Kondoh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study theoretically investigates the economy of a small country that exports skilled labor to higher developed countries and simultaneously imports unskilled labor from lower developed countries. Compared with the free immigration case, if this country adopts an optimally controlled immigration policy by imposing income tax on immigrants to maximize national income, skills formation is negatively affected and the number of domestic unskilled workers increases. Moreover, under certain conditions, we can assert the counter-intuitive possibility that the wage rate of domestic unskilled workers may decrease but that of skilled workers may increase owing to the restriction of foreign unskilled workers.

  12. Using participatory methods to design an mHealth intervention for a low income country, a case study in Chikwawa, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Rebecca; Dixon, Diane; Morse, Tracy; Beattie, Tara K; Kumwenda, Save; Mpemberera, Grant

    2017-07-05

    mHealth holds the potential to educate rural communities in developing countries such as Malawi, on issues which over-burdened and under staffed health centres do not have the facilities to address. Previous research provides support that mHealth could be used as a vehicle for health education campaigns at a community level; however the limited involvement of potential service users in the research process endangers both user engagement and intervention effectiveness. This two stage qualitative study used participatory action research to inform the design and development of an mHealth education intervention. First, secondary analysis of 108 focus groups (representing men, women, leadership, elderly and male and female youth) identified four topics where there was a perceived health education need. Second, 10 subsequent focus groups explored details of this perceived need and the acceptability and feasibility of mHealth implementation in Chikwawa, Malawi. Stage 1 and Stage 2 informed the design of the intervention in terms of target population, intervention content, intervention delivery and the frequency and timing of the intervention. This has led to the design of an SMS intervention targeting adolescents with contraceptive education which they will receive three times per week at 4 pm and will be piloted in the next phase of this research. This study has used participatory methods to identify a need for contraception education in adolescents and inform intervention design. The focus group discussions informed practical considerations for intervention delivery, which has been significantly influenced by the high proportion of users who share mobile devices and the intervention has been designed to allow for message sharing as much as possible.

  13. Case Study: Testing with Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2015-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses using case studies to test for knowledge or lessons learned.

  14. Country specific comparison for profile of chlorinated, brominated and phosphate organic contaminants in indoor dust. Case study for Eastern Romania, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirtu, Alin C; Ali, Nadeem; Van den Eede, Nele; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2012-11-15

    We have evaluated the levels and specific profiles of several organohalogenated contaminants, including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and flame retardants (FRs), such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), novel brominated FRs (NBFRs), and organophosphate FRs (OPFRs), in 47 indoor dust samples collected in 2010 from urban locations from Iasi, Eastern Romania. The dominant contaminants found in the samples were OPFRs (median sum OPFRs 7890 ng/g). Surprisingly, OCPs were also measured at high levels (median 1300 ng/g). Except for BDE 209 (median 275 ng/g), PBDEs were present in dust samples at relatively low levels (median sum PBDEs 8 ng/g). PCBs were also measured at low levels (median sum PCBs 35 ng/g), while NBFRs were only occasionally detected, showing a low usage in goods present on the Romanian market. The results of the present study evidence the existence of a multitude of chemical formulations in indoor dust. FRs are usually associated to human exposure via ingestion of dust, but other chemicals, such as OCPs, are not commonly reported in such matrix. Although OCPs were found at comparable levels with OPFRs in Romanian dust, OCPs possess a higher risk to human health due to their considerably lower reference dose (RfD) values. Indeed, the OCP exposure calculated for various intake scenarios was only 2-fold lower than the corresponding RfD. Therefore, the inclusion of OCPs as target chemicals in the indoor environment becomes important for countries where elevated levels in other environmental compartments have been previously shown. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The European I-MOVE Multicentre 2013-2014 Case-Control Study. Homogeneous moderate influenza vaccine effectiveness against A(H1N1)pdm09 and heterogenous results by country against A(H3N2).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Valenciano, Marta

    2015-06-04

    In the first five I-MOVE (Influenza Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe) influenza seasons vaccine effectiveness (VE) results were relatively homogenous among participating study sites. In 2013-2014, we undertook a multicentre case-control study based on sentinel practitioner surveillance networks in six European Union (EU) countries to measure 2013-2014 influenza VE against medically-attended influenza-like illness (ILI) laboratory-confirmed as influenza. Influenza A(H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses co-circulated during the season.

  16. A Thailand case study based on quantitative assessment: does a national lead agency make a difference in pre-hospital care development in middle income countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Tansirisithikul, Rassamee

    2014-12-12

    Emergency Medical Institute of Thailand (EMIT) has been established as a national lead agency to improve emergency medical service systems since December 2008. However up to now, there has not been any published systematic assessment of its performance to guide further policy decisions. This study assesses the 4-year pre-hospital care coverage and performance in Thailand after EMIT establishment. The assessment makes use of 1,171,564 records from a national data set for pre-hospital care i.e., Information Technology for Emergency Medical Service System (ITEMS) in 2012. Comparing with historical data, we found evidence indicating the national lead agency making differences in two basic requirements of pre-hospital care i.e., the coverage was increased by at least 1.4 times higher than the majority reported figures among 11 out of the total 13 regions of the country at baseline; and mean total response time for critical-coded patients, the longest in our study, is 1.6 times shorter than previously reported figure in 2008 (48.46 minutes). Analysis of the national data set also revealed quite substantial missing values indicating a need for further improvement. When historical data was not available, we compared our findings with international figures. Over triage rate of 28.4% for advanced life support (ALS) ambulance was found which is roughly a third of that reported in Taiwan. Almost all patients were stabilized and/or treated regardless of being transferred to hospitals in contrast to the scenarios in the U.S. systems which may probably be due to different payment mechanism. Relying on circumstantial evidences, we identified probable stagnation in pre-hospital care coverage for patients visiting emergency department after the establishment of the lead agency. This national data assessment shows progression in certain basic pre-hospital care requirements in Thailand. However, it needs regular systematic evaluation and there is still room for improvement of pre

  17. The Transfer of Training at Macro Level in Least Developed Countries: A Case Study of the "Brain-Drain" in Eritrea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessema, Mussie T.; Winrow, Brian P.; Teclezion, Mussie M.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past four decades, governments in the least developed countries (LDCs--a categorization adopted by the United Nations) have been attempting to improve the skills and knowledge of their public servants by providing local and international training programs. Despite these training activities, however, many LDCs continue to experience acute…

  18. Institutional perceptions, adaptive capacity and climate change response in a post-conflict country: a case study from Central African Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, H.C.P.; Smit, B.; Somorin, O.A.; Sonwa, D.J.; Ngana, F.

    2013-01-01

    The Central African Republic (CAR) faces increased vulnerability to climate change because it is a low-income country with low adaptive capacity; a situation that is exacerbated by recent civil conflict. This research analysed the perceptions of decision-makers within, and the response of diverse

  19. Facebook as a Learning Tool? A Case Study on the Appropriation of Social Network Sites from Mobile Phones in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimmer, Christoph; Linxen, Sebastian; Grohbiel, Urs

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory research investigates how students and professionals use social network sites (SNSs) in the setting of developing and emerging countries. Data collection included focus groups consisting of medical students and faculty as well as the analysis of a Facebook site centred on medical and clinical topics. The findings show how users,…

  20. Area Handbook Series: Israel: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    unchanged, cities such as Jerusalem rapidly adopted the Greek language, sponsored games and sports , and in more subtle ways adopted and absorbed the culture...were laid 35 Israel: A Country Study out at the San Remo Conference of April 1920. The terms of the British Mandate were approved by the League of...At the San Remo Conference, the French also were assured of a mandate over Syria. They drove Faysal out of Damascus in the summer; the British

  1. Area Handbook Series: Brazil: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Sul Courtesy P.A. Miuck Rural grocery store, Curitiba, Parand Courtesy WORLD BANK PHOTO/ Tomas Sen nett 113 Brazil: A Country Study a fazendeiro...Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais Courtesy WORLD BANK PHOTO! Tomas Sennett than that needed to meet the 1985 goal. By 1982 contracts for alcohol... Aquino Ferreira, until his fall from grace in late 1981. Before that time he and the other five officials were referred to as the "palace group" (grupo

  2. Area Handbook Series: Morocco: A Country Study,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    promote French economic penetration. Urban development on European models-the so-called new towns ( villes nouvelles)--mushroomed during the 1920s and 1930s...monopolized by the state-owned Tobacco Authority (RC-gies des Tabacs ). The textile industry produced cotton, wool, and synthetic 213 Morocco: A Country...Drama, 1900)-1955. San Francisco: American Academy of Asian Studies, 1956. . Morocco. New York: Putnam’s Sons, 1967. Laroui, Abdallah. The Crisis of the

  3. ROMANIAN TERMINOLOGY IN THE METEOROLOGY OF SEVERE WEATHER – CASE STUDY OF THE SUPERCELL FROM ARAD COUNTRY ON THE 14TH OF JUNE 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. SCRIDONESI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Romanian terminology in the meteorology of severe weather – Case study of the supercell from the 14th of June 2010. Using the ingredients-based methodology, the low precipitation supercell storm from the 14th of June 2010 in the Arad county is analyzed in terms of conditions of development, evolution and structure. To address such a topic an important issue is the lack of meteorological terms in the Romanian language to enable the completion of such analysis of supercell storms or other severe weather phenomena. Finding terms that correspond to the best of the English language during the analysis is performed either by direct translation into romanian, either by replacing the terms that best fit the context and the use of each term is motivated.

  4. Considering health equity when moving from evidence-based guideline recommendations to implementation: a case study from an upper-middle income country on the GRADE approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier; Mosquera, Paola; Alzate, Juan Pablo; Pottie, Kevin; Welch, Vivian; Akl, Elie A; Jull, Janet; Lang, Eddy; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Morton, Rachel; Thabane, Lehana; Shea, Bev; Stein, Airton T; Singh, Jasvinder; Florez, Ivan D; Guyatt, Gordon; Schünemann, Holger; Tugwell, Peter

    2017-12-01

    The availability of evidence-based guidelines does not ensure their implementation and use in clinical practice or policy making. Inequities in health have been defined as those inequalities within or between populations that are avoidable, unnecessary and also unjust and unfair. Evidence-based clinical practice and public health guidelines ('guidelines') can be used to target health inequities experienced by disadvantaged populations, although guidelines may unintentionally increase health inequities. For this reason, there is a need for evidence-based clinical practice and public health guidelines to intentionally target health inequities experienced by disadvantaged populations. Current guideline development processes do not include steps for planned implementation of equity-focused guidelines. This article describes nine steps that provide guidance for consideration of equity during guideline implementation. A critical appraisal of the literature followed by a process to build expert consensus was undertaken to define how to include consideration of equity issues during the specific GRADE guideline development process. Using a case study from Colombia we describe nine steps that were used to implement equity-focused GRADE recommendations: (1) identification of disadvantaged groups, (2) quantification of current health inequities, (3) development of equity-sensitive recommendations, (4) identification of key actors for implementation of equity-focused recommendations, (5) identification of barriers and facilitators to the implementation of equity-focused recommendations, (6) development of an equity strategy to be included in the implementation plan, (7) assessment of resources and incentives, (8) development of a communication strategy to support an equity focus and (9) development of monitoring and evaluation strategies. This case study can be used as model for implementing clinical practice guidelines, taking into account equity issues during guideline

  5. Metabolic syndrome and risk of acute myocardial infarction a case-control study of 26,903 subjects from 52 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim; Islam, Shofiqul; McQueen, Matthew J; Tanomsup, Supachai; Onen, Churchill L; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Anand, Sonia S

    2010-05-25

    This study examines the risk of acute myocardial infarction (MI) conferred by the metabolic syndrome (MS) and its individual factors in multiple ethnic populations. The risk of the MS on MI has not been well characterized, especially in multiple ethnic groups. Participants in the INTERHEART study (n = 26,903) involving 52 countries were classified using the World Health Organization (WHO) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria for MS, and their odds ratios (ORs) for MI were compared with the individual MS component factors. The MS is associated with an increased risk of MI, both using the WHO (OR: 2.69; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.45 to 2.95) and IDF (OR: 2.20; 95% CI: 2.03 to 2.38) definitions, with corresponding population attributable risks of 14.5% (95% CI: 12.7% to 16.3%) and 16.8% (95% CI: 14.8% to 18.8%), respectively. The associations are directionally similar across all regions and ethnic groups. Using the WHO definition, the association with MI by the MS is similar to that of diabetes mellitus (OR: 2.72; 95% CI: 2.53 to 2.92) and hypertension (OR: 2.60; 95% CI: 2.46 to 2.76), and significantly stronger than that of the other component risk factors. The clustering of > or =3 risk factors with subthreshold values is associated with an increased risk of MI (OR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.24 to 1.81) compared with having component factors with "normal" values. The IDF definition showed similar results. In this large-scale, multi-ethnic, international investigation, the risk of MS on MI is generally comparable to that conferred by some, but not all, of its component risk factors. The characterization of risk factors, especially continuous variables, as dichotomous will underestimate risk and decrease the magnitude of association between MS and MI. Copyright (c) 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The influence of nitrate leaching through unsaturated soil on groundwater pollution in an agricultural area of the Basque country: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, José Miguel Sánchez; Antiguedad, Iñaki; Arrate, Iñaki; García-Linares, Cristina; Morell, Ignacio

    2003-12-30

    The average nitrate concentration in the groundwater of the Vitoria-Gasteiz (Basque Country) quaternary aquifer rose from 50 mg NO3-/l during 1986 to over 200 mg/l in 1995, which represents an increase of some 20 mg NO3-/l per year. From 1995 to 2002, the nitrate concentration of the groundwater slightly decreased. Nitrate groundwater pollution during the period 1986-1993 was the result of the abusive use of fertilizers and of the modification in the recharge patterns of the aquifer from surface water sources. From 1993 onwards, apart from a possible rationalization in fertilizer use, the change in the origin of water for irrigation and wetland restoration (water is taken now from artificial pools outside the quaternary aquifer) must be explained in order to account for the observed decrease in nitrate concentration in the groundwater. The water of the aquifer and of the unsaturated zone were studied in two experimental plots (one of them cultivated and the other uncultivated) for 18 months (January 1993-June 1994), during the period of maximum contamination, to evaluate the effect of fertilizers on soil water and on the water in the saturated zone. The soil water was sampled using soil lysimeters at various depths. The volumetric water content of the soil was measured at the same depths using time domain reflectrometry (TDR) probes. Samples of groundwater were taken from a network of wells on the aquifer scale, two located close to the two experimental plots. The temporal evolution of nitrate concentrations in soil solutions depends on the addition of fertilizers and on soil nitrate leaching by rain. During episodes of intense rain (>50 mm in a day), the groundwater deposits are recharged with water coming from the leaching of interstitial soil solutions, causing an increase in the groundwater nitrate concentrations. The mass of nitrate leached from the cultivated zone is five times higher than that of the nitrate leached from the uncultivated zone (1147 kg NO3

  7. How Are New Vaccines Prioritized in Low-Income Countries? A Case Study of Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Wallace

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background To date, research on priority-setting for new vaccines has not adequately explored the influence of the global, national and sub-national levels of decision-making or contextual issues such as political pressure and stakeholder influence and power. Using Kapiriri and Martin’s conceptual framework, this paper evaluates priority setting for new vaccines in Uganda at national and sub-national levels, and considers how global priorities can influence country priorities. This study focuses on 2 specific vaccines, the human papilloma virus (HPV vaccine and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV. Methods This was a qualitative study that involved reviewing relevant Ugandan policy documents and media reports, as well as 54 key informant interviews at the global level and national and sub-national levels in Uganda. Kapiriri and Martin’s conceptual framework was used to evaluate the prioritization process. Results Priority setting for PCV and HPV was conducted by the Ministry of Health (MoH, which is considered to be a legitimate institution. While respondents described the priority setting process for PCV process as transparent, participatory, and guided by explicit relevant criteria and evidence, the prioritization of HPV was thought to have been less transparent and less participatory. Respondents reported that neither process was based on an explicit priority setting framework nor did it involve adequate representation from the districts (program implementers or publicity. The priority setting process for both PCV and HPV was negatively affected by the larger political and economic context, which contributed to weak institutional capacity as well as power imbalances between development assistance partners and the MoH. Conclusion Priority setting in Uganda would be improved by strengthening institutional capacity and leadership and ensuring a transparent and participatory processes in which key stakeholders such as program implementers

  8. Differential impact of statin on new-onset diabetes in different age groups: a population-based case-control study in women from an asian country.

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    Chih-Wei Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Statins reduce cardiovascular risks but increase the risk of new-onset diabetes (NOD. The aim of this study is to determine what effect, if any, statins have on the risk of NOD events in a population-based case-control study. An evaluation of the relationship between age and statin-exposure on NOD risks was further examined in a female Asian population. METHOD: In a nationwide case-controlled study, the authors assessed 1065 female NOD patients and 10650 controls with matching ages, genders and physician visit dates. The impact of statin-exposure on NOD was examined through multiple logistic regression models. Subgroup analysis for exploring the risk of NOD and statin-exposure in different age groups was performed. RESULTS: Statin-exposure was statistically significantly associated with increased new-onset diabetes risks using multivariate analysis. Interaction effect between age and statin-exposure on NOD risk was noted. For atorvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 8.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.57-24.90. For rosuvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 40-54 year-olds (adjusted OR, 14.8; 95% CI, 2.27-96.15. For simvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted OR, 15.8; 95% CI, 5.77-43.26. For pravastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted OR, 14.0; 95% CI, 1.56-125.18. CONCLUSIONS: This population-based study found that statin use is associated with an increased risk of NOD in women. The risk of statin-related NOD was more evident for women aged 40-64 years compared to women aged 65 or more, and was cumulative-dose dependent. The use of statins should always be determined by weighing the clinical benefits and potential risks for NOD, and the patients should be continuously monitored for adverse effects.

  9. A comparative study in disaster planning in selected countries

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    Mahmode M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessment of different strategic in disaster planning in selected countries. According to the international report indicating that IRAN is among the seven countries most susceptible to disaster, experiencing 31 known disasters out of 40 in the world, occurrence of 1536 moderate to severe earthquake, during 1370-80 and 712 other disasters at the same period it seems necessary to design a disaster plan."nMethods: This research is a comparative-descriptive and case based study in which the researcher used random sampling process in selecting the statistical society from both developed and developing countries. In this goal oriented research the necessary information are extracted from valid global reports, articles and many questionnaires which were subjected to scientific analysis."nResults: Studying different countries (which includes: Canada, Japan, India, USA, Turkey, Pakistan and Iran shows that there is a direct relationship between the level of countries development and their success in disaster planning and management (including preventive measures and confrontation. In most of the studied countries, decentralized planning caused many professional planners participate in different levels of disaster management which ultimately led to development of efficient and realistic plans which in turn decreased the catastrophic effects of disasters dramatically. The results of the aforementioned countries showed that a balanced approach to disaster plan with investment in prophylactic area is very important."nConclusion: As our country uses a centralized strategy for disaster management which has proven its ineffectiveness, the researcher suggests that we should change our approach in disaster management and let our planners participate from all levels include: provincial, rural and etc. This will led to a reality based planning and using all potential capacities in disaster management. According to this study it will be possible to use

  10. Human Health Risk Assessment due to Global Warming – A Case Study of the Gulf Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Rafi Chaudhary

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated global warming is predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC due to increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The climate changes are anticipated to have a long-term impact on human health, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, water resources and vegetation. Due to rising sea levels, low lying coastal regions will be flooded, farmlands will be threatened and scarcity of fresh water resources will be aggravated. This will in turn cause increased human suffering in different parts of the world. Spread of disease vectors will contribute towards high mortality, along with the heat related deaths. Arid and hot climatic regions will face devastating effects risking survival of the fragile plant species, wild animals, and other desert ecosystems. The paper presents future changes in temperature, precipitation and humidity and their direct and indirect potential impacts on human health in the coastal regions of the Gulf countries including Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, and Bahrain. The analysis is based on the long-term changes in the values of temperature, precipitation and humidity as predicted by the global climatic simulation models under different scenarios of GHG emission levels. Monthly data on temperature, precipitation, and humidity were retrieved from IPCC databases for longitude 41.25°E to 61.875°E and latitude 9.278°N to 27.833°N. Using an average of 1970 to 2000 values as baseline, the changes in the humidity, temperature and precipitation were predicted for the period 2020 to 2050 and 2070 to 2099. Based on epidemiological studies on various diseases associated with the change in temperature, humidity and precipitation in arid and hot regions, empirical models were developed to assess human health risk in the Gulf region to predict elevated levels of diseases and mortality rates under different emission scenarios as developed by the IPCC.The preliminary

  11. Synthetic Scenarios from CMIP5 Model Simulations for Climate Change Impact Assessments in Managed Ecosystems and Water Resources: Case Study in South Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandhi, A.; Omani, N.; Chaubey, I.; Horton, R.; Bader, D.; Nanjundiah, R. S.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing population, urbanization, and associated demand for food production compounded by climate change and variability have important implications for the managed ecosystems and water resources of a region. This is particularly true for south Asia, which supports one quarter of the global population, half of whom live below the poverty line. This region is largely dependent on monsoon precipitation for water. Given the limited resources of the developing countries in this region, the objective of our study was to empirically explore climate change in south Asia up to the year 2099 using monthly simulations from 35 global climate models (GCMs) participating in the fifth phase of the Climate Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) for two future emission scenarios (representative concentration pathways RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) and provide a wide range of potential climate change outcomes. This was carried out using a three-step procedure: calculating the mean annual, monsoon, and non-monsoon precipitation and temperatures; estimating the percent change from historical conditions; and developing scenario funnels and synthetic scenarios. This methodology was applied for the entire south Asia region; however, the percent change information generated at 1.5deg grid scale can be used to generate scenarios at finer spatial scales. Our results showed a high variability in the future change in precipitation (-23% to 52%, maximum in the non-monsoon season) and temperature (0.8% to 2.1%) in the region. Temperatures in the region consistently increased, especially in the Himalayan region, which could have impacts including a faster retreat of glaciers and increased floods. It could also change rivers from perennial to seasonal, leading to significant challenges in water management. Increasing temperatures could further stress groundwater reservoirs, leading to withdrawal rates that become even more unsustainable. The high precipitation variability (with higher propensity for

  12. Capacity for ethical and regulatory review of herbal trials in developing countries: a case study of Moringa oleifera research in HIV-infected patients

    OpenAIRE

    Monera-Penduka, Tsitsi G.; Maponga, Charles C.; Morse, Gene D.; Nhachi, Charles F. B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Lack of regulatory capacity limits the conduct of ethical and rigorous trials of herbal medicines in developing countries. Sharing ethical and regulatory experiences of successful herbal trials may accelerate the field while assuring human subjects protection. The methods and timelines for the ethical and regulatory review processes for the first drug regulatory authority approved herbal trial in Zimbabwe are described in this report. Methods The national drug regulatory authority ...

  13. DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE. THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIOVANA IUHASZ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the past years, developing countries have become extremely interesting for researchers, as well as for capital investors. Dominated by growth and industrialization, but lacking macroeconomic indicator stability or sufficiently mature financial markets, these countries make it acutely necessary to identify measures that will stimulate foreign investors to invest and that will ensure the financial stability for SMEs. One such measure is increasing the quality of corporate governance at the level of small and medium-sized enterprises, where it is currently almost absent. This article aims to help raise awareness of the need to implement good corporate management practices at the level of companies in developing countries and especially in Romania. This paper uses a questionnaire in order to evaluate the state of the corporate governance in Timis county and offers some suggestions on what should be done for a higher corporate governance quality in the case of small and medium-sized companies in Romania, with the purpose of establishing a connection between governance quality and business performance of SMEs

  14. Using causal loop diagrams for the initialization of stakeholder engagement in soil salinity management in agricultural watersheds in developing countries: a case study in the Rechna Doab watershed, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inam, Azhar; Adamowski, Jan; Halbe, Johannes; Prasher, Shiv

    2015-04-01

    Over the course of the last twenty years, participatory modeling has increasingly been advocated as an integral component of integrated, adaptive, and collaborative water resources management. However, issues of high cost, time, and expertise are significant hurdles to the widespread adoption of participatory modeling in many developing countries. In this study, a step-wise method to initialize the involvement of key stakeholders in the development of qualitative system dynamics models (i.e. causal loop diagrams) is presented. The proposed approach is designed to overcome the challenges of low expertise, time and financial resources that have hampered previous participatory modeling efforts in developing countries. The methodological framework was applied in a case study of soil salinity management in the Rechna Doab region of Pakistan, with a focus on the application of qualitative modeling through stakeholder-built causal loop diagrams to address soil salinity problems in the basin. Individual causal loop diagrams were developed by key stakeholder groups, following which an overall group causal loop diagram of the entire system was built based on the individual causal loop diagrams to form a holistic qualitative model of the whole system. The case study demonstrates the usefulness of the proposed approach, based on using causal loop diagrams in initiating stakeholder involvement in the participatory model building process. In addition, the results point to social-economic aspects of soil salinity that have not been considered by other modeling studies to date. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Occupational exposure to wood dust and risk of nasal and nasopharyngeal cancer: A case-control study among men in four nordic countries-With an emphasis on nasal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, Sie Sie; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Sparén, Pär; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Pukkala, Eero

    2017-12-15

    The current study aims to provide stronger evidence to aid in our understanding of the role of cumulative occupational exposure to (softwood-dominated) mixed wood dust in aetiology of nasal cancer. We included broad exposure occurred in a range of wood-processing occupation across varied industries in four Nordic countries. A population-based case-control study was conducted on all male cases with nasal adenocarcinoma (393 cases), other types of nasal cancer (2,446) and nasopharyngeal cancer (1,747) diagnosed in Finland, Sweden, Norway and Iceland between 1961 and 2005. For each case, five male controls, who were alive at the time of diagnosis of the case (index date), were randomly selected, matched by birth-year and country. Cumulative exposures (CE)s to wood dust and formaldehyde before the index date were quantified based on a job-exposure matrix linked to occupational titles derived from population censuses. Hazard ratios (HRs) for the CE of wood dust were estimated by conditional logistic regression, adjusted for CE to formaldehyde and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. There was an increasing risk of nasal adenocarcinoma related to wood dust exposure. The HR in the highest CE category of wood dust (≥ 28.82 mg/m(3) -years) was 16.5 (95% CI 5.05-54.1). Neither nonadenocarcinoma of the nose nor nasopharyngeal cancer could be linked to wood dust exposure. CE to softwood-dominated mixed wood dusts is strongly linked with elevated risk in nasal adenocarcinoma but not with other types of nasal or nasopharyngeal cancer. © 2017 UICC.

  16. How does new demand for a natural resource impact the economic growth of developing countries endowed with it? Case study of lithium and rare earth elements

    OpenAIRE

    Roels, Barthélemy

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, we are facing a new-technology era that is affecting the world economy. These new technologies use an extensive amount of natural resource. Consequently, we can ask ourself how the shift of demand from “old” to “new” natural resources (such as lithium and rare earth elements) can impact the economy of countries that are endowed with it. This thesis reviews the existing literature on natural resource impact (the blessing and the curse) and try to assess the demand increase in lithium...

  17. Area Handbook Series. Liberia: A Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    considleration. Onl July 26, 1847, del - egates to tihe convention rep~resenltinlg the three counties issued tihe Liberian D~eclaration of lndepeilcence...IIIII- W"I lii uso 15 1112-2 13 2110 Liberia: A Country Study l)at readiness at any time and to declare a state of emergency when there is "’a clear aiid...of’ prison- ers by guards, widely reported after the coup, continued to occur occasionally four years later. The government did not condone such harsh

  18. Solid waste deposits as a significant source of contaminants of emerging concern to the aquatic and terrestrial environments - a developing country case study from Owerri, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arukwe, Augustine; Eggen, Trine; Möder, Monika

    2012-11-01

    In developing countries, there are needs for scientific basis to sensitize communities on the problems arising from improper solid waste deposition and the acute and long-term consequences for areas receiving immobilized pollutants. In Nigeria, as in many other African countries, solid waste disposal by way of open dumping has been the only management option for such wastes. Herein, we have highlighted the challenges of solid waste deposit and management in developing countries, focusing on contaminants of emerging concern and leaching into the environment. We have analyzed sediments and run-off water samples from a solid waste dumping site in Owerri, Nigeria for organic load and compared these with data from representative world cities. Learning from previous incidents, we intend to introduce some perspective for awareness of contaminants of emerging concerns such as those with potential endocrine disrupting activities in wildlife and humans. Qualitative and quantitative data obtained by gas chromatography and mass spectrometric analysis (GC-MS) provide an overview on lipophilic and semi-polar substances released from solid waste, accumulated in sediments and transported via leachates. The chromatograms of the full scan analyses of the sediment extracts clearly point to contamination related to heavy oil. The homologous series of n-alkanes with chain lengths ranging between C16 and C30, as well as detected polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds such as anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene support the assumption that diesel fuel or high boiling fractions of oil are deposited on the site. Targeted quantitative analysis for selected compounds showed high concentration of substances typically released from man-made products such as plastics, textiles, household and consumer products. Phthalate, an integral component of plastic products, was the dominant compound group in all sediment samples and run-off water samples. Technical nonylphenols (mixture of

  19. Lipdubs as a tool to conquer social influence. A study of four paradigmatic cases made in Quebec, USA, Catalonia and the Basque Country

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    Txema Ramírez-de-la-Piscina-Martínez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the principal conclusions of an investigation carried out by the author into lipdub as an instrument used in order to get more social influence. The analyzed lipdubs are the following: “I gotta feeling-UQAM”, performed by students of Communication in Quebec, (in early 2012, it was the most viewed lipdub on the Internet; “The Grand Rapids” (this lipdub holds the record for hits per day on the web; “Lipddub Indepèndencia” (it held the world record for the number of participants – 5,771 and, finally, “Lipdub Kukutza”, the most viewed lipdub in the Basque Country. This work claims that, at this time, a good lipdub can be a crucial tool for social movements in order to overcome the invisibility with which the mass-media often punishes any expression which challenges mainstream tendencies.

  20. Spatial inequity in access to healthcare facilities at a county level in a developing country: a case study of Deqing County, Zhejiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng; Cheng, Jianquan; Lu, Yuqi; Huang, Zhenfang; Cao, Fangdong

    2015-08-19

    The inequities in healthcare services between regions, urban and rural, age groups and diverse income groups have been growing rapidly in China. Equal access to basic medical and healthcare services has been recognized as "a basic right of the people" by Chinese government. Spatial accessibility to healthcare facilities has received huge attention in Chinese case studies but been less studied particularly at a county level due to limited availability of high-resolution spatial data. This study is focused on measuring spatial accessibility to healthcare facilities in Deqing County. The spatial inequity between the urban (town) and rural is assessed and three scenarios are designed and built to examine which scenario is instrumental for better reducing the spatial inequity. This study utilizes highway network data, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), location of hospitals and clinics, 2010 census data at the finest level - village committee, residential building footprint and building height. Areal weighting method is used to disaggregate population data from village committee level to residential building cell level. Least cost path analysis is applied to calculate the travel time from each building cell to its closest healthcare facility. Then an integral accessibility will be calculated through weighting the travel time to the closest facility between three levels. The spatial inequity in healthcare accessibility between the town and rural areas is examined based on the coverages of areas and populations. The same method is used to compare three scenarios aimed at reducing such spatial inequity - relocation of hospitals, updates of weighting values, and the combination of both. 50.03% of residents can reach a county hospital within 15 min by driving, 95.77% and 100% within 30 and 60 min respectively. 55.14% of residents can reach a town hospital within 5 min, 98.04% and 100% within 15 and 30 min respectively. 57.86% of residential building areas can reach a village

  1. Exploring English-Language Teachers' Professional Development in Developing Countries: Cases from Syria and Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayoub, Ruba; Bashiruddin, Ayesha

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to present the findings of a study carried out in Pakistan that explored English-language teachers' professional development in developing countries. The main guiding question for the study was: How do English-language teachers at secondary schools learn to teach and develop professionally in Syria and Pakistan? Two cases were…

  2. An Investigation of a new Concept of World- Class Clusters in Europe – A Case Study of the Visegrad Group of Countries

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    Bialic-Davendra Magdalena

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in order to successfully compete on a global level, it has become crucial for clusters to search for new alternative solutions to enable them stay competitive. One of these solutions is the need for the creation of a wider scale of networking – which is where the new idea of “clustering the clusters” appears. This paper aims at investigating the development of a new concept of World-Class Clusters and inter-cluster collaboration in Europe with focus on the Visegrad Group of countries i.e. Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. The type and subject/area of clusters’ cooperation is one of the focal points. Hence, this paper conducts a detailed examination of the reasons why certain clusters are willing to cooperate (the benefits of collaboration while others are not interested in this type of collaboration at all (restrictions, barriers of collaboration. Additionally, the positive (opportunities and negative (threats aspects of inter-cluster cooperation are distinguished.

  3. Different countries, same needs: tracking quality of care in the US and Italy. Case study: the US National Healthcare Quality Report and the Italian Osservasalute Report

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    Edward Kelley

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Tracking health system performance is an issue that has commanded more and more attention within scientific and policy circles across the world in recent years.

    The monitoring of quality of care in both the US and Europe has risen on the national agenda to the point that major national efforts have been undertaken to measure and report on quality of health care delivery.

    The basic purpose behind national reporting efforts like the Osservasalute Report and the US National Healthcare Quality Report, is answering two main questions: what is the quality of care offered to the population? Are we getting better or worse quality of care out of our system? The analysis reported in the paper shows many similarities between the two reports. The growing need for clinically specific information on the performance of health care systems is at the heart of the mandate for these two reports.

    Even though there are differences between the reports in terms of the specific indicators chosen and the presentation structure and style, there are many similarities in terms of the condition areas tracked in the report and the findings regarding variability across Italy and the US in terms of the quality of care offered in different states or regions of each country.

    The two reports are similar in that their development teams at Observatory on Health in the Italian Regions and AHRQ continue to work with a broad group of stakeholders to ensure that the reports are used as a tool to improve quality.

  4. A new concept of irrigation response units for effective management of surface and groundwater resources: a case study from the multi-country Fergana Valley, Central Asia

    KAUST Repository

    Awan, Usman Khalid

    2016-09-09

    When estimating canal water supplies for large-scale irrigation schemes and especially in arid regions worldwide, the impact of all factors affecting the gross irrigation requirements (GIR) are not properly accounted for, which results in inefficient use of precious freshwater resources. This research shows that the concept of irrigation response units (IRU)—areas having unique combinations of factors effecting the GIR—allows for more precise estimates of GIR. An overlay analysis of soil texture and salinity, depth and salinity of groundwater, cropping patterns and irrigation methods was performed in a GIS environment, which yielded a total of 17 IRUs combinations of the Oktepa Zilol Chashmasi water consumers’ association in multi-country Fergana Valley, Central Asia. Groundwater contribution, leaching requirements, losses in the irrigation system through field application and conveyance and effective rainfall were included in GIR estimates. The GIR varied significantly among IRUs [average of 851 mm (±143 mm)] with a maximum (1051 mm) in IRU-12 and a minimum (629 mm) in IRUs-15, 16. Owing to varying groundwater levels in each IRU, the groundwater contribution played a key role in the estimation of the GIR. The maximum groundwater contribution occurred in IRUs dominated by cotton–fallow rotations as evidenced by an average value of 159 mm but a maximum of 254 mm and a minimum of 97 mm. Percolation losses depended on irrigation methods for different crops in their respective IRUs. The novel approach can guide water managers in this and similar regions to increase the accuracy of irrigation demands based on all the factor effecting the GIR. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  5. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 2, Greenhouse gas emissions from deforestration in the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Fearnside, P.M. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Departmento de Ecologia

    1992-08-01

    Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia in 1990 was releasing approximately 281--282 X 10{sup 6} metric tons (MT) of carbon on conversion to a landscape of agriculture, productive pasture, degraded pasture, secondary forest and regenerated forest in the proportions corresponding to the equilibrium condition implied by current land-use patterns. Emissions are expressed as ``committed carbon,`` or the carbon released over a period of years as the carbon stock in each hectare deforested approaches a new equilibrium in the landscape that replaces the original forest. To the extent that deforestation rates have remained constant, current releases from the areas deforested in previous years will be equal to the future releases from the areas being cleared now. Considering the quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide, NO{sub x} and non-methane hydrocarbons released raises the impact by 22--37%. The relative impact on the greenhouse effect of each gas is based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculations over a 20-year time period (including indirect effects). The six gases considered have a combined global warming impact equivalent to 343 to 386 million MT of C0{sub 2}-equivalent carbon, depending on assumptions regarding the release of methane and other gases from the various sources such as burning and termites. These emissions represent 7--8 times the 50 million MT annual carbon release from Brazil`s use of fossil fuels, but bring little benefit to the country. Stopping deforestation in Brazil would prevent as much greenhouse emission as tripling the fuel efficiency of all the automobiles in the world. The relatively cheap measures needed to contain deforestation, together with the many complementary benefits of doing so, make this the first priority for funds intended to slow global warming.

  6. The role of insurance in the achievement of universal coverage within a developing country context: South Africa as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heever, Alex M

    2012-01-01

    Achieving universal coverage as an objective needs to confront the reality of multiple mechanisms, with healthcare financing and provision occurring in both public and private settings. South Africa has both large and mature public and private health systems offering useful insights into how they can be effectively harmonized to optimise coverage. Private healthcare in South Africa has also gone through many phases and regulatory regimes which, through careful review, can help identify potential policy frameworks that can optimise their ability to deepen coverage in a manner that complements the basic coverage of public arrangements. Using South Africa as a case study, this review examines whether private health systems are susceptible to regulation and therefore able to support an extension and deepening of coverage when complementing a pre-existing publicly funded and delivered health system? The approach involves a review of different stages in the development of the South African private health system and its response to policy changes. The focus is on the time-bound characteristics of the health system and associated policy responses and opportunities. A distinction is consequently made between the early, largely unregulated, phases of development and more mature phases with alternative regulatory regimes. The private health system in South Africa has played an important supplementary role in achieving universal coverage throughout its history, but more especially in the post-Apartheid period. However, the quality of this role has been erratic, influenced predominantly by policy vacillation.The private system expanded rapidly during the 1980s mainly due to the pre-existence of a mature health insurance system and a weakening public hospital system which could accommodate and facilitate an increased demand for private hospital services. This growth served to expand commercial interest in health insurance, in the form of regulated medical schemes, which until

  7. Case Study: Writing a Journal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue describes incorporating a journal article into the classroom by first converting it into a case study.

  8. Avoidable cancer cases in the Nordic countries - The impact of overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Therese M-L; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Engholm, Gerda; Lund, Anne-Sofie Q; Olafsdottir, Elinborg; Pukkala, Eero; Stenbeck, Magnus; Storm, Hans

    2017-07-01

    Several types of cancers are causally linked to overweight and obesity, which are increasing in the Nordic countries. The aim of this study was to quantify the proportion of the cancer burden linked to overweight and obesity in the Nordic countries and estimate the potential for cancer prevention. Under different prevalence scenarios of overweight and obesity, the number of cancer cases in the Nordic countries in the next 30 years (i.e. 2016-2045) was estimated for 13 cancer sites and compared to the projected number of cancer cases if the prevalence stayed constant. The Prevent macro-simulation model was used. Over the period 2016-2045, 205,000 cancer cases out of the 2.1 million expected for the 13 cancer sites (9.5%) that have been studied, could be avoided in the Nordic countries by totally eliminating overweight and obesity in the target population. The largest proportional impact was found for oesophageal adenocarcinoma (24%), and the highest absolute impact was observed for colon (44638) and postmenopausal breast cancer (41135). Decreased prevalence of overweight and obesity would reduce the cancer burden in the Nordic countries. The results from this study form an important step to increase awareness and priorities in cancer control by controlling overweight and obesity in the population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. US country studies program: Results from mitigation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the U.S. Country Studies Program which was implemented to support the principles and objectives of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). There were three principle objectives in this program: to enhance capabilities to conduct climate change assessments, prepare action plans, and implement technology projects; to help establish a process for developing and implementing national policies and measures; to support principles and objective of the FCCC. As a result, 55 countries are completing studies, more than 2000 analysts engaged in the studies have been trained, and there is a much broader understanding and support for climate change concerns. The article describes experiences of some countries, and general observations and conclusions which are broadly seperated into developed countries and those with economies in transition.

  10. Sustainable development and climate change: Lessons from country studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Shukla, P.; Garg, A.

    2008-01-01

    Sustainable development has been suggested as a framework for integrating development and climate change policies in developing countries. Mainstreaming climate change into sustainable development policies would allow these countries to achieve their development goals while addressing climate...... change. A number of research programmes have investigated how potential synergies could be achieved at national level and what kind of trade-offs between the various aspects of sustainable development have to be faced. An overview of these studies is provided, focusing on national case studies...... opportunities exist for integrated policies to achieve development goals while engaging with climate change. The energy and transportation sector studies identified many alternative national low-cost policies with much lower GHG emissions than the business-as-usual policy. Opportunities are identified...

  11. Inclusion Education and the Developing Countries: The Case of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibria, Gholam

    2005-01-01

    Following the trends of "Inclusion" movement in the USA and some Western countries, a number of Developing countries have been imbued with the philosophy of inclusion education. Some of these countries have enacted laws to safeguard the educational rights and welfare of children with disabilities, and others have been trying to initiate…

  12. Regional impact assessment of land use scenarios in developing countries using the FoPIA approach: Findings from five case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    König, H.J.; Uthes, S.; Schuler, J.; Zhen, L.; Purushothaman, S.; Suarma, U.; Sghaier, M.; Makokha, S.; Helming, K.; Sieber, S.; Chen, L.; Brouwer, F.M.; Morris, J.; Wiggering, H.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of land use changes on sustainable development is of increasing interest in many regions of the world. This study aimed to test the transferability of the Framework for Participatory Impact Assessment (FoPIA), which was originally developed in the European context, to developing

  13. Microelectronics: The Nature of Work, Skills and Training. An Analysis of Case Studies from Developed and Developing Countries. Training Discussion Paper No. 51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acero, Liliana

    Microelectronic technologies have had an impact on the nature of work in industry for both white-collar and blue-collar workers. Evidence from sector- and enterprise-level studies shows changes in skills and job content for blue-collar workers involved with numerically controlled machine tools, robots, and other microelectronics applications.…

  14. Cost-price estimation of clinical laboratory services based on activity-based costing: A case study from a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouseli, Ali; Barouni, Mohsen; Amiresmaili, Mohammadreza; Samiee, Siamak Mirab; Vali, Leila

    2017-04-01

    It is believed that laboratory tariffs in Iran don't reflect the real costs. This might expose private laboratories at financial hardship. Activity Based Costing is widely used as a cost measurement instrument to more closely approximate the true cost of operations. This study aimed to determine the real price of different clinical tests of a selected private clinical laboratory. This study was a cross sectional study carried out in 2015. The study setting was the private laboratories in the city of Kerman, Iran. Of 629 tests in the tariff book of the laboratory (relative value), 188 tests were conducted in the laboratory that used Activity Based Costing (ABC) methodology to estimate cost-price. Analyzing and cost-price estimating of laboratory services were performed by MY ABCM software Version 5.0. In 2015, the total costs were $641,645. Direct and indirect costs were 78.3% and 21.7% respectively. Laboratory consumable costs by 37% and personnel costs by 36.3% had the largest share of the costing. Also, group of hormone tests cost the most $147,741 (23.03%), and other tests group cost the least $3,611 (0.56%). Also after calculating the cost of laboratory services, a comparison was made between the calculated price and the private sector's tariffs in 2015. This study showed that there was a difference between costs and tariffs in the private laboratory. One way to overcome this problem is to increase the number of laboratory tests with regard to capacity of the laboratories.

  15. Low cost friction seismic base-isolation of residential new masonry buildings in developing countries: A small masonry house case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habieb, A. B.; Milani, G.; Tavio, T.; Milani, F.

    2017-07-01

    A Finite element model was established to examine performance of a low-cost friction base-isolation system in reducing seismic vulnerability of rural buildings. This study adopts an experimental investigation of the isolation system which was conducted in India. Four friction isolation interfaces, namely, marble-marble, marble-high-density polyethylene, marble-rubber sheet, and marble-geosynthetic were involved. Those interfaces differ in static and dynamic friction coefficient obtained through previous research. The FE model was performed based on a macroscopic approach and the masonry wall is assumed as an isotropic element. In order to observe structural response of the masonry house, elastic and plastic parameters of the brick wall were studied. Concrete damage plasticity (CDP) model was adopted to determine non-linear behavior of the brick wall. The results of FE model shows that involving these friction isolation systems could much decrease response acceleration at roof level. It was found that systems with marble-marble and marble-geosynthetic interfaces reduce the roof acceleration up to 50% comparing to the system without isolation. Another interesting result is there was no damage appearing in systems with friction isolation during the test. Meanwhile a severe failure was clearly visible for a system without isolation.

  16. Area Handbook Series: Angola: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    Socialist Policies One of the priorities of the Neto regime after independence was to repair the country’s infrastructure, which had been shattered by the...Nevertheless, such aid did not meet food requirements, and in 1986 the country experienced a cereal shortfall of more than 100,000 tons. In addi- tion...tion of cereals . Production was stagnating because of marketing and transport difficulties; shortages of seed, fertilizer, and consumer goods for trade

  17. Area Handbook Series: Ethiopia. A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    tor. Principal crops coffee, pulses, oilseeds, cereals , potatoes, sugar- cane, and vegetables. Livestock population believed largest in Africa... shattered country. In his first public speech after the EPRDF had captured Addis Ababa, Meles Zenawi indicated that Ethiopia’s coffers were empty...the country’s main areas where pulses and oilseeds were produced. Second, because peasants faced food shortages, they gave priority to cereal staples to

  18. The Impact of Different Regimes in Estimating the Effects of Aerosols on Clouds. A Case Study over the Baltic Sea Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saponaro, G.

    2015-12-01

    The present study investigates the use of long-term satellite data to assess the influence of aerosols upon cloud parameters over the Baltic Sea region. This particular area offers the contrast of a very clean environment (Fennoscandia) against a more polluted one (Germany, Poland). The datasets used in this study consist of Collection 6 Level 3 daily observations from 2002 to 2014 retrieved from observations by the NASA's Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) instrument on-board the Aqua platform. The MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol index (AI) products are used as a proxy for the number concentration of aerosol particles while the cloud effective radius (CER) and cloud optical thickness (COT) describe cloud microphysical and optical properties respectively. Through the analysis of a 12-years dataset, distribution maps provide information on a regional scale about the first aerosol indirect effect (AIE) by determining the aerosol-cloud interaction (ACI). The ACI is defined as the change in cloud optical depth or effective radius as a function of aerosol load, for which AI is used as a proxy, for a fixed liquid water path (LWP). Reanalysis data from ECMWF, namely ERA-Interim, are used to estimate meteorological settings on a regional scale. The relative humidity (RH) and specific humidity (SH) are chosen at the pressure level of 950 hPa and they are linearly interpolated to match MODIS resolution of 1 x 1 deg. The Lower Tropospheric Stability (LTS) is computed from the ERA- Interim reanalysis data as the difference between the potential temperature at 700hPa and the surface. In order to better identify and interpret the AIE, this study proposes a framework where the interactions between aerosols and clouds are estimated by dividing the dataset into different regimes. Regimes are defined by: Liquid Water Path (LWP). The discrimination by LWP allows assessing the Twomey effect. The AIE is more evident when the LWP is lower. Aerosol loading

  19. Population structure and dynamics and habitat conditions of the native crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes in a pond : a case study in Basque Country (Northern Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RALLO A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A natural and in appearance healthy population of the native crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes inhabiting a pond near Bilbao has been studied for three years, together with abiotic conditions of their habitat. The population occupies a littoral fringe (100 m length, 6 m width and approximately 1.5 m maximum depth, and has an estimated average density of 1.67 specimen/m2. Despite the very high conductivity of the water (all values are above 1,750 µS/cm, total net production in the period 94-96 was 2,571 . ± 460.0 g (4.3 ± 0.8 g/m2, with a productivity rate of 0.18 ± 0.04 measured as Production/Biomass (P/B index. We think that population equilibrium with the carrying capacity of the pond ecosystem is reached.

  20. Business School Accreditation in Developing Countries: A case in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Perryer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available International accreditation of business schools has become dominated by the ‘big three’ of accreditation agencies – AACSB, EQUIS, and AMBA. Accreditation provides public notification that an institution or program meets benchmark standards, and reflects an institution committed to self-study, external peer-review, and continuous improvement. However, from the perspective of the more than 12,000 business schools worldwide that do not, and most likely will never, meet ‘big three’ imposed benchmarks, accreditation is an exclusion mechanism providing comparative advantage to accredited schools. This is more than a differentiator between accredited and non-accredited business schools – it reinforces the economic ‘great divide’ between developed and less-developed countries, since over 90% of accredited business schools are in developed countries. Consequently, accreditation becomes a moral and ethical imperative that should sit uneasy with anyone concerned with equality and social justice. In response, the Asian Forum on Business Education (AFBE has designed an inclusive international accreditation system that is affordable, and fosters quality improvement at institutions that may initially be some considerable distance from meeting ‘big three’ standards. This paper provides an insight into one such accreditation process at a business school in Kazakhstan, and demonstrates the remarkable progress that can be achieved when quality improvement, rather than mere certification, is the guiding principle.

  1. Regional-Scale High Spatial Resolution Mapping of Aboveground Net Primary Productivity (ANPP from Field Survey and Landsat Data: A Case Study for the Country of Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J. Tebbs

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an alternative approach for high spatial resolution vegetation productivity mapping at a regional scale, using a combination of Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI imagery and widely distributed ground-based Above-ground Net Primary Production (ANPP estimates. Our method searches through all available single-date NDVI imagery to identify the images which give the best NDVI–ANPP relationship. The derived relationships are then used to predict ANPP values outside of field survey plots. This approach enables the use of the high spatial resolution (30 m Landsat 8 sensor, despite its low revisit frequency that is further reduced by cloud cover. This is one of few studies to investigate the NDVI–ANPP relationship across a wide range of temperate habitats and strong relationships were observed (R2 = 0.706, which increased when only grasslands were considered (R2 = 0.833. The strongest NDVI–ANPP relationships occurred during the spring “green-up” period. A reserved subset of 20% of ground-based ANPP estimates was used for validation and results showed that our method was able to estimate ANPP with a RMSE of 15–21%. This work is important because we demonstrate a general methodological framework for mapping of ANPP from local to regional scales, with the potential to be applied to any temperate ecosystems with a pronounced green up period. Our approach allows spatial extrapolation outside of field survey plots to produce a continuous surface product, useful for capturing spatial patterns and representing small-scale heterogeneity, and well-suited for modelling applications. The data requirements for implementing this approach are also discussed.

  2. Incidence and case-fatality of varicella-zoster virus infection among pediatric cancer patients in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Rohit P; Stallings-Smith, Sericea; Aviles-Robles, Martha J; Gomez, Sergio; Somarriba, María Mercedes; Caniza, Miguela A

    2016-04-01

    Limited evidence is available about varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection among pediatric cancer patients in developing countries, which raises questions about the generalizability of VZV vaccine recommendations for pediatric cancer patients (derived from developed countries) to these settings. We assessed the incidence and case-fatality of VZV infection at three institutions in developing countries (Argentina, Mexico, and Nicaragua). Individuals eligible for our study were aged pediatric cancer patients, of whom 64 % were aged pediatric cancer patients in three developing countries. VZV vaccine recommendations for pediatric cancer patients in developed countries may be generalizable to developing countries. • Current recommendations, based on evidence from pediatric cancer patients in developed countries, contraindicate varicella-zoster virus (VZV) vaccination until completion of cancer-directed therapy and recovery of immune function. • The generalizability of these VZV vaccine recommendations to pediatric cancer patients in developing countries is unknown because of limited information about the incidence and case-fatality of VZV in these settings. What is New: • Our results suggest low incidence and case-fatality of VZV infections among pediatric cancer patients in three developing countries. • VZV vaccine recommendations based on evidence from pediatric cancer patients in developed countries may be generalizable to pediatric cancer patients in developing countries.

  3. developing countries: case study of china and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary products na 35 13 19 l8 16. Foods na 15 4 6 5 3. Share of rural population 83 81 76 72 71 70. Source: State Statistical Bureau, China Statistical Yearbook, various issues; and China Rural Statistical Yearbook, various issues. Generally, the importance of China's agriculture is seen in the challenge of meeting the ...

  4. Country Branding and Country Image: Insights, Challenges and Prospects. The Case of Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Same Siiri; Solarte-Vasquez Maria Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Gaining understanding about customers ’mindset and information on their experiences is a precondition for the formulation of an effective country branding strategy. What potential tourists might learn and how they can be made to feel about a place can help small and not very well-known countries compete with bigger and more popular tourist destinations. The article focuses on the effectiveness of Brand Estonia and claims that it is still a challenge, despite the existence of an ongoing strate...

  5. Case Study Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the history of case study teaching, types of cases, and experimental data supporting their effectiveness. It also describes a model for comparing the efficacy of the various case study methods. (Contains 1 figure.)

  6. Country's image as judged by international indices: Case of Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presented various international indices and how Tanzania is judged by them. The purpose was to reveal to different stakeholders and policy makers how this country is perceived by outsiders such as foreign donor countries, investors, tourist or international bodies. The methodology involved empirical review of ...

  7. Southern Cone Countries Primary Healthcare Study | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus Research Program. A new funding opportunity on Zika virus is responding to the virus outbreak and the health threat it represents for the affected populations in the hardest hit countries in Latin America and the... View moreCanada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus ...

  8. Association between plasma triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and microvascular kidney disease and retinopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a global case-control study in 13 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Frank M; Hermans, Michel P; Fioretto, Paola; Valensi, Paul; Davis, Timothy; Horton, Edward; Wanner, Christoph; Al-Rubeaan, Khalid; Aronson, Ronnie; Barzon, Isabella; Bishop, Louise; Bonora, Enzo; Bunnag, Pongamorn; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Deerochanawong, Chaicharn; Goldenberg, Ronald; Harshfield, Benjamin; Hernández, Cristina; Herzlinger-Botein, Susan; Itoh, Hiroshi; Jia, Weiping; Jiang, Yi-Der; Kadowaki, Takashi; Laranjo, Nancy; Leiter, Lawrence; Miwa, Takashi; Odawara, Masato; Ohashi, Ken; Ohno, Atsushi; Pan, Changyu; Pan, Jiemin; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Reiner, Zeljko; Rotella, Carlo Maria; Simo, Rafael; Tanaka, Masami; Tedeschi-Reiner, Eugenia; Twum-Barima, David; Zoppini, Giacomo; Carey, Vincent J

    2014-03-04

    Microvascular renal and retinal diseases are common major complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The relation between plasma lipids and microvascular disease is not well established. The case subjects were 2535 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with an average duration of 14 years, 1891 of whom had kidney disease and 1218 with retinopathy. The case subjects were matched for diabetes mellitus duration, age, sex, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to 3683 control subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus who did not have kidney disease or retinopathy. The study was conducted in 24 sites in 13 countries. The primary analysis included kidney disease and retinopathy cases. Matched analysis was performed by use of site-specific conditional logistic regression in multivariable models that adjusted for hemoglobin A1c, hypertension, and statin treatment. Mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration was 2.3 mmol/L. The microvascular disease odds ratio increased by a factor of 1.16 (95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.22) for every 0.5 mmol/L (≈1 quintile) increase in triglycerides or decreased by a factor of 0.92 (0.88-0.96) for every 0.2 mmol/L (≈1 quintile) increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. For kidney disease, the odds ratio increased by 1.23 (1.16-1.31) with triglycerides and decreased by 0.86 (0.82-0.91) with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Retinopathy was associated with triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in matched analysis but not significantly after additional adjustment. Diabetic kidney disease is associated worldwide with higher levels of plasma triglycerides and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol among patients with good control of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Retinopathy was less robustly associated with these lipids. These results strengthen the rationale for studying dyslipidemia treatment to prevent diabetic microvascular disease.

  9. Project management case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kerzner, Harold R

    2013-01-01

    A new edition of the most popular book of project management case studies, expanded to include more than 100 cases plus a ""super case"" on the Iridium Project Case studies are an important part of project management education and training. This Fourth Edition of Harold Kerzner''s Project Management Case Studies features a number of new cases covering value measurement in project management. Also included is the well-received ""super case,"" which covers all aspects of project management and may be used as a capstone for a course. This new edition:Contains 100-plus case studies drawn from re

  10. Area Handbook Series: Spain: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    of Labor (Confederaci6n Nacional del Trabajo -CNT), was able on several occasions to shut down Barcelona. The aim of the anarchists was not to take...Outsiders who still thought of Spain as socially restrained and conservative were surprised to note the public changes in sexual attitudes in the country...government policy for some years remained quite distant from social practice in two important areas related to private sexual behavior, contraception

  11. Feasibibility study - cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede Kloster; Sukkumnoed, Decharut

    2004-01-01

    The chapter presents two case studies to show the tools of feasibiliy studies within the context of technological innovation.......The chapter presents two case studies to show the tools of feasibiliy studies within the context of technological innovation....

  12. Investments Attractiveness. The Case Of The Visegrad Group Countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomasz Dorożyński; Anetta Kuna-Marszałek

    2016-01-01

    .... Next we discuss the investment attractiveness of New Member States of the European Union in selected international rankings, paying special attention to the positions occupied by the four analysed countries...

  13. Global National Qualifications Framework Inventory: Country Cases from EU and ETF Partner Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Certificates, diplomas and titles are commonly known as qualifications. Their purpose is to show employers, training providers, and individuals what the person holding the qualification has learned and can do. Every country issues many different qualifications, but for the European labor market to work as intended--that is for European citizens to…

  14. Mergers and Acquisitions in the Banking Sector: The Case of Western Balkan Countries / BKT Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulzim Rashiti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explain the financial system which is the engine force for the development of a trade economy. This system ensures payment means in economy and has an impact on its real activity, through the implementation of financial intermediation, acquisitions and mergers in the banking industry that have occurred in recent years in the Western Balkan countries, and monetary policy transmission in these countries. In developing countries, among which are also: Serbia, Macedonia, Albania, Montenegro, etc., banking industry is o" en almost the most important area in the financial system. Therefore, this paper will focus on the way the acquisitions and mergers occurred in the banking system, by assuming that many of the conclusions are applicable to the entire financial system in the Western Balkans. This paper will elaborate on this aspect a case study that deals with the acquisition of Banka Kombetare Tregtare (National Commercial Bank in Albania by the Turkish company Calik Holding (Akif Bank.

  15. Globalization of the pharmaceutical industry and the growing dependency of developing countries: the case of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semin, Semih; Güldal, Dilek

    2008-01-01

    In developing countries, the effect of globalization on the pharmaceutical sector has resulted in a decrease in exportation and domestic production, accompanied by an increase in importation of pharmaceuticals and a rise in prices and expenditures. As an example of a developing country, Turkey has been facing the long-standing and increasing pressure of global regulations placed on its pharmaceutical sector. This has led to an increasing dependency on multinational companies and a gradual deterioration of an already weakened domestic pharmaceutical sector. This case study of Turkey offers points to consider in the world of increasing globalization, as it offers lessons on ways of examining the effects of globalization on the pharmaceutical industry of developing countries.

  16. How to define and measure informal employment in developed countries? A case of Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Nikulin, Dagmara

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this article is to point out the possible measures of how to improve the study of informal employment in developed countries. We choose the case of Poland to examine whether the existing definitions and measurement methods are suitable for indicating the prevalence of informal employment. Firstly, we present the most popular definitions of informal employment, secondly we show the existing research on informal employment in Poland, and thirdly we assess th...

  17. Individual Characteristics of Entrepreneurs in Transition Countries. The Albanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areti Stringa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The transition process in Albania, as in other ex-communist countries, stopped the enterprise development. The increasing number of small and medium enterprises is the most promising consequence of the transition process. Several researches in western countries have demonstrated that entrepreneurship involves objective and subjective factors and is interrelated with environmental objective factors and individual subjective ones. Our research examines clear characteristics of the businesses’ analysis, the performance of the entrepreneurs themselves (their background and personal characteristics, their motivation to start a business and the perceptions of the different characteristics and the aspects of the businesses they run.

  18. Five years MIQE guidelines: the case of the Arabian countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afif M Abdel Nour

    Full Text Available The quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR has become a key molecular enabling technology with an immense range of research, clinical, forensic as well as diagnostic applications. Its relatively moderate instrumentation and reagent requirements have led to its adoption by numerous laboratories, including those located in the Arabian world, where qPCR, which targets DNA, and reverse transcription qPCR (RT-qPCR, which targets RNA, are widely used for region-specific biotechnology, agricultural and human genetic studies. However, it has become increasingly apparent that there are significant problems with both the quality of qPCR-based data as well as the transparency of reporting. This realisation led to the publication of the Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE guidelines in 2009 and their more widespread adoption in the last couple of years. An analysis of the performance of biomedical research in the Arabian world between 2001-2005 suggests that the Arabian world is producing fewer biomedical publications of lower quality than other Middle Eastern countries. Hence we have analysed specifically the quality of RT-qPCR-based peer-reviewed papers published since 2009 from Arabian researchers using a bespoke iOS/Android app developed by one of the authors. Our results show that compliance with 15 essential MIQE criteria was low (median of 40%, range 0-93% and few details on RNA quality controls (22% compliance, assays design (12%, RT strategies (32%, amplification efficiencies (30% and the normalisation process (3%. These data indicate that one of the reasons for the poor performance of Arabian world biomedical research may be the low standard of any supporting qPCR experiments and identify which aspects of qPCR experiments require significant improvements.

  19. Factors influencing trainee doctor emigration in a high income country: a mixed methods study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clarke, Nicholas

    2017-09-25

    The Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel focuses particularly on migration of doctors from low- and middle-income countries. Less is understood about migration from high-income countries. Recession has impacted several European countries in recent years, and in some cases emigration has reached unprecedented levels. This study measures and explores the predictors of trainee doctor emigration from Ireland.

  20. On the Appropriateness of Incident Management Systems in Developing Countries: A Case from the UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faouzi Kamoun

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic incidents are eliciting growing public concerns due to their devastating social, economical, and environmental impacts. The severity of these random events is particularly alarming in developing countries, where the situation is just worsening. Recently, Incident Management Systems (IMSs have been proposed as powerful tools to enhance the coordination and management of rescue operations during traffic accidents. However, most of the available commercial IMS solutions are designed for large metropolitan cities and within the contexts of developed nations. This paper explores the issues of appropriateness and customization of IMS solutions in developing countries through an exploratory inquiry consisting of a case study from the United Arab Emirates (UAE. The paper also explores the important issues related to managing the organizational changes that an IMS introduces to the operations of the command and control room. This contribution calls for the development of more comprehensive theoretical frameworks that can guide towards the implementation of appropriate IMS solutions in developing countries. Our research highlights the need for developing countries to acquire appropriate IMS solutions that are tailored to the local organizational work context in which these systems will be used. The experience reported herein can also inspire other public safety agencies in developing countries to consider the option of developing customized IMS solutions that best suit their needs.

  1. Industrial biotechnology for developing countries: The case for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attempts to diversify the energy portfolios of developed countries with green technologies have brought competition between food and fuel for crop production resources to the forefront of public policy debates. Biofuel policies in the European Union (EU) and the United States (US) mandate the long-term use of renewable ...

  2. Creative economy policy in developing countries : The case of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahmi, Fikri Zul; McCann, Philip; Koster, Sierdjan

    This paper investigates how the creative economy discourse is interpreted and implemented in the context of Indonesia as a developing country. Our main conclusion is that the discourse is interpreted differently across localities. Bandung appears to be the only locality whose interpretation aligns

  3. Country's Image as Judged by International Indices: Case of Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    info

    There are various international indices which signify the global appearance of a country. These are such as human development index, Worldwide Governance. Indices (Voice and Accountability, ... of development policy making, as government agencies, international organizations, and the non-profit sector advocate the ...

  4. Creative economy policy in developing countries: The case of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahmi, Fikri Zul; McCann, Philip; Koster, Sierdjan

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how the creative economy discourse is interpreted and implemented in the context of Indonesia as a developing country. Our main conclusion is that the discourse is interpreted differently across localities. Bandung appears to be the only locality whose interpretation aligns

  5. Cracking the Case (Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarolis, Sabrina

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how technical communicators can get their clients to participate in case studies (for use in marketing the technical communicator's services) by analyzing the case study strategy, selecting appropriate clients, understanding their concerns, and developing a professional presentation. (RS)

  6. Area Handbook Series: Italy, A Country Study,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Rinehart and Winston, 1965. Procacci, (Giuliano. History of the Italian People. (Trans.. Anthonv Paul) New York: Harper and Row. 1970. Putnam , Robert...Smithsonian Insti- tution. 1985. Silverman. Sydel. Three Bells " (.’icilization. Ne% York: C olumnbia University Press. 1975. Steedman. Hilary . -The...Helm, 1981. Putnam , Robert D., et al. "Explaining Institutional Success: The Case of Italian Regional Government, American Political Sci- ence Review

  7. Transformative learning through study abroad in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronda, Cynthia; Belknap, Ruth Ann

    2012-01-01

    Study abroad in low-income countries is an emerging trend in nursing education, yet student outcomes vary from positive to negative. Study abroad in low-income countries can be transformative because it has the potential to increase student awareness of socioeconomic relations, structural oppression, and human connectedness. The authors discuss 10 strategies to facilitate transformative learning in students who study abroad.

  8. Case study research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ruth; Thomas-Gregory, Annette

    2015-06-10

    This article describes case study research for nursing and healthcare practice. Case study research offers the researcher an approach by which a phenomenon can be investigated from multiple perspectives within a bounded context, allowing the researcher to provide a 'thick' description of the phenomenon. Although case study research is a flexible approach for the investigation of complex nursing and healthcare issues, it has methodological challenges, often associated with the multiple methods used in individual studies. These are explored through examples of case study research carried out in practice and education settings. An overview of what constitutes 'good' case study research is proposed.

  9. Transfer of military technology to developing countries: the Turkish case

    OpenAIRE

    Akgul, Aziz

    1989-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited There is a switch from direct arms sales to military technology transfer to produce arms in the name of selfsufficiency. The value of domestic arms production at the beginning of the 1980s was about 500 times higher than that at the beginning of the 1950s. By the early 1980s, more than 50 developing countries were producing weapons . The evidence indicates that Turkey has relatively enough arms production potential...

  10. Regional Integration and Foreign Investment: The Case of Asean Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel O. Nwosu; Anthony Orji; Nathaniel Urama; Joseph I. Amuka

    2013-01-01

    The importance of regional integration in stimulating foreign direct investment cannot be overemphasized. With a special focus on the ASEAN countries, this research paper investigates the role of regional integration in attracting foreign direct investment. We bring a novelty to this paper by dividing foreign direct investment into Inter-and Intra-ASEAN to see if both are determined by the same set of factors. If economic integration drives intra-ASEAN FDI we would expect such FDI to be unrel...

  11. Exploring synergistic interactions and catalysts in complex interventions: longitudinal, mixed methods case studies of an optimised multi-level suicide prevention intervention in four european countries (Ospi-Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona M. Harris

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Medical Research Council (MRC Framework for complex interventions highlights the need to explore interactions between components of complex interventions, but this has not yet been fully explored within complex, non-pharmacological interventions. This paper draws on the process evaluation data of a suicide prevention programme implemented in four European countries to illustrate the synergistic interactions between intervention levels in a complex programme, and to present our method for exploring these. Methods A realist evaluation approach informed the process evaluation, which drew on mixed methods, longitudinal case studies. Data collection consisted of 47 semi-structured interviews, 12 focus groups, one workshop, fieldnoted observations of six programme meetings and 20 questionnaires (delivered at six month intervals to each of the four intervention sites. Analysis drew on the framework approach, facilitated by the use of QSR NVivo (v10. Our qualitative approach to exploring synergistic interactions (QuaSIC also developed a matrix of hypothesised synergies that were explored within one workshop and two waves of data collection. Results All four implementation countries provided examples of synergistic interactions that added value beyond the sum of individual intervention levels or components in isolation. For instance, the launch ceremony of the public health campaign (a level 3 intervention in Ireland had an impact on the community-based professional training, increasing uptake and visibility of training for journalists in particular. In turn, this led to increased media reporting of OSPI activities (monitored as part of the public health campaign and also led to wider dissemination of editorial guidelines for responsible reporting of suicidal acts. Analysis of the total process evaluation dataset also revealed the new phenomenon of the OSPI programme acting as a catalyst for externally generated (and funded

  12. Exploring synergistic interactions and catalysts in complex interventions: longitudinal, mixed methods case studies of an optimised multi-level suicide prevention intervention in four european countries (Ospi-Europe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Fiona M; Maxwell, Margaret; O'Connor, Rory; Coyne, James C; Arensman, Ella; Coffey, Claire; Koburger, Nicole; Gusmão, Ricardo; Costa, Susana; Székely, András; Cserhati, Zoltan; McDaid, David; van Audenhove, Chantal; Hegerl, Ulrich

    2016-03-15

    The Medical Research Council (MRC) Framework for complex interventions highlights the need to explore interactions between components of complex interventions, but this has not yet been fully explored within complex, non-pharmacological interventions. This paper draws on the process evaluation data of a suicide prevention programme implemented in four European countries to illustrate the synergistic interactions between intervention levels in a complex programme, and to present our method for exploring these. A realist evaluation approach informed the process evaluation, which drew on mixed methods, longitudinal case studies. Data collection consisted of 47 semi-structured interviews, 12 focus groups, one workshop, fieldnoted observations of six programme meetings and 20 questionnaires (delivered at six month intervals to each of the four intervention sites). Analysis drew on the framework approach, facilitated by the use of QSR NVivo (v10). Our qualitative approach to exploring synergistic interactions (QuaSIC) also developed a matrix of hypothesised synergies that were explored within one workshop and two waves of data collection. All four implementation countries provided examples of synergistic interactions that added value beyond the sum of individual intervention levels or components in isolation. For instance, the launch ceremony of the public health campaign (a level 3 intervention) in Ireland had an impact on the community-based professional training, increasing uptake and visibility of training for journalists in particular. In turn, this led to increased media reporting of OSPI activities (monitored as part of the public health campaign) and also led to wider dissemination of editorial guidelines for responsible reporting of suicidal acts. Analysis of the total process evaluation dataset also revealed the new phenomenon of the OSPI programme acting as a catalyst for externally generated (and funded) activity that shared the goals of suicide prevention

  13. Policy Measures to Support Palliative Care at Home: A Cross-Country Case Comparison in Three European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maetens, Arno; Beernaert, Kim; Deliens, Luc; Aubry, Régis; Radbruch, Lukas; Cohen, Joachim

    2017-10-01

    The proportion of people in need of palliative care worldwide is rising, and the majority wish to receive this care at home. Many countries have created policy measures to support palliative care at home. To list and compare existing policy measures designed to support palliative care at home in addition to available primary care services in Belgium, France, and Germany. A cross-country case comparison based on expert consultation, governmental policy documents, and relevant scientific literature. All three countries have policy measures that allow informal caregivers to adapt their working patterns or take leave of absence to provide care without losing employee rights; however, only Belgium offers specific paid palliative care leave. All three countries offer various allowances to people who are dying at home and their caregivers. Cost-reductions for out-of-pocket expenses are available, based on the level of care dependency in Germany and on prognosis in Belgium, but are not provided in France. Mobile home support teams exist in all three countries and are free of charge for patients and caregivers; but only in Belgium and Germany, there are specialist multidisciplinary palliative home care teams. Belgium and Germany provide respite care for palliative patients. European countries with similar contextual characteristics offer comparable policy measures to support palliative care at home in addition to the available primary care services. However, important differences exist in the criteria for access and the extent of what is offered. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Multi-objective, multi-level, multi-dimensional least-cost planning for long-term electric power generation development in the least-developing countries: A case study of Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhag, Hussein Adam

    problem under question, a M&barbelow;ulti-Ḻevel approach was developed to classify these objectives in three group-levels each with a specific weight of importance. MOMDM model uses a graphical representation method to measure the effectiveness of five future alternative scenarios in fulfilling the stated objectives. It has the capability of generating a single optimum future alternative plan which is practically difficult to achieve through conventional multi-objective models. Since the success of a multi-objective decision-making model is ultimately judged by the degree to which it satisfies the stated objectives, the MOMDM model successfully does that by comparing and ranking how much satisfaction each attribute gets for each alternative with respect to each objective. Efficacy of the theoretical framework and validity of the models are tested by a case study on Sudan as a typical LDC example. In order to refine the outcome of the MOMDM model, i.e., the selection of the optimum long-term alternative, a series of sensitivity analyses were conducted for the most detrimental factors in power generation planning. Results of this operation proved the validity of the MOMDM model and guaranteed the selection of an optimum future plan in similar cases including those in advanced developed countries.

  15. The case study approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The case study approach allows in-depth, multi-faceted explorations of complex issues in their real-life settings. The value of the case study approach is well recognised in the fields of business, law and policy, but somewhat less so in health services research. Based on our experiences of conducting several health-related case studies, we reflect on the different types of case study design, the specific research questions this approach can help answer, the data sources that tend to be used, and the particular advantages and disadvantages of employing this methodological approach. The paper concludes with key pointers to aid those designing and appraising proposals for conducting case study research, and a checklist to help readers assess the quality of case study reports. PMID:21707982

  16. Case management: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dring, R; Hiott, B; Elliott, K

    1994-06-01

    Prior to institution of case management Mr. G would have remained on the neuroscience acute care unit until nursing home placement could be arranged, a process which often took a year because of the severe shortage of Medicaid beds in South Carolina. Because case managers collaborated to identify and resolve the problem, the outcome for those such as Mr. G has changed. Case management facilitates movement of patients with complex problems from acute care to successful community reentry in a cost-effective manner.

  17. Area Handbook Series: Lebanon: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    at Takfir at Ta’ifi (An Introduction to the Negation of Sectarian Thought). Beirut: Dar al Farabi , 1985. Armstrong, Lincoln. "Demographic...Asbab alHarb alAhliyyahfi Lubnan (A Study of the Causes of the Civil War in Lebanon). Beirut: Dar al Farabi , 1979. Arab Information Center (ed

  18. 77 FR 76941 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Qualifying Country-Poland (DFARS Case 2012...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... Regulation Supplement: New Qualifying Country--Poland (DFARS Case 2012-D049) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition... beneficial and consistent with national laws, regulations, policies, and international obligations. The agreement does not cover construction or construction material. Poland is already a designated country under...

  19. SASPEN Case Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correspondence to: Ms A Prinsloo, e-mail: annettep@ananzi.co.za. SASPEN Case Study. This case study was presented and discussed at the recent SASPEN 2010 Congress by Prof O Goulet, University of Paris Descartes. The summarised discussion of the proceedings was prepared by Annette Prinsloo. Patient's course.

  20. Intercultural communication in business between China and Arabic countries : Case company: Zhejiang Lianmei Co., Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Rong

    2012-01-01

    Intercultural communication plays a very important role in international commercial intercourse. China and Arabic countries both have a long history and unique culture. With the process of globalization, the contact between China and Arabic countries become more and more frequent, especially in business intercourses. In that case, business meetings the between two parties are inevitable. The main purpose of this thesis was to give theoretical cultural knowledge and practical case informat...

  1. EIA in the Baltic countries. The case of three oil terminals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm-Hansen, J. [ed.

    1995-12-31

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in the Baltic Countries: The Case of Three Oil Terminals is the second phase of a research and exchange project that has been going on between Baltic and Nordic experts on Environmental Impact Assessment since 1992. The objective of the projects is to contribute to the capability of the Baltic states in carrying out EIAs. By scrutinizing the processes of the EIAs carried out for three Baltic oil terminals, working groups consisting of both Nordic and Baltic EIA experts have sought to highlight the practical implications of the `EIA vocabulary` eagerly taught by Western experts and perhaps even more eagerly studied by their `Eastern` counterparts during the last few years. The three cases were: Lithuania, Oil Port of Klaipeda; Latvia, Oil Terminal in Liepaja; Estonia, Muuga Port. (au)

  2. Origins of Social Security in Developing Countries: the Case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... arrangements or schemes have developed in the way they have, nor has there been an in depth analysis of the structure of the current institutions, the range and scope of covers, as well as the process of benefit delivery. The paper attempts such a study. African Journal of Finance and Management Vol.7(1) 1998: 61-68 ...

  3. Six Heliport Case Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peisen, Deborah

    1997-01-01

    .... This report evaluates the dynamics of heliport development and operation in order to achieve greater success rate in the future through the case study investigation of six heliports that have both succeeded and failed...

  4. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  5. The moral case for the routine vaccination of children in developed and developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Angus

    2011-06-01

    In developed countries some parents have decided not to provide routine vaccinations for their children, while in many developing countries there are inadequate rates of vaccination for various reasons. The consequences for children, and members of the community in which they live, can be significant and even tragic. Although some parents may worry that vaccines will harm their child, there is a broader moral case for vaccination that parents and policy makers should consider. This case has four components: benefits and harms, best interests, community benefits, and justice. This moral case should be central to deliberations about vaccination by parents and policy makers.

  6. Farmer’s views and values to focus on cattle conservation policies: the case of eight European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandini, G.; Martin-Collado, D.; Colinet, F.; Duclos, D.; Hiemstra, S.J.; Soini, K.; Diaz, C.

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to identify elements useful in designing policies and programmes for conservation of farm animal genetic resources, taking as case study a group of European local cattle breeds. We first investigated the implications of differences among countries in the policies and programmes to be

  7. Chaitanya case study

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    lremy

    “Those Who Dream Make a Difference”. Some of Kalpana's written work includes, a study titled Sexual Harassment in. University Campus, published in the TISS Journal; a national level study on Federations coordinated by Sa_dhan;. Networking of SHGs - a case study of Devoshi village, published in Swaskhati journal; etc ...

  8. [Study on usage of pesticides in various countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Miyako; Toda, Miou; Tanaka, Keiko; Sugita, Takiko; Sasaki, Shiho; Uneyama, Chikako; Morikawa, Kaoru

    2007-01-01

    Usage of pesticides in food items in export countries was studied, focusing items which Japan imports in large quantity. Japan has imported field crops such as wheat, corn and soy bean, and also grapefruit in large quantity on a weight base, mainly from United States, Australia and Canada. While, Japan has imported various kinds of vegetables in which China had the largest share. We collected usage data of pesticides for 44 food items of 17 countries of 2004. Pesticides which were used frequently (usage rank within top ten in each item/country) were dichlorvos, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate (insecticides), mancozeb, carbendazim, thiophanate-methyl, chlorthalonil (fungicides), glyphosate, 2,4-D, paraquat, acetochlor (herbicides). Carbendazim, thiophanate-methyl, acetochlor and dichlorvos were mainly used in China. Dithiocarbamates are used frequently in various food items in various countries, and also frequently detected in monitoring in foreign countries. Some pesticides such as bisultap, monosultap, etaboxam and triazmate were used only in certain countries, and available information on toxicity or analytical method was very limited. Some of pesticides described above have not been analyzed in the pesticide residue monitoring in Japan before 2005,however, many of them are subjects of analysis for import food after 2006 with the enforcement of positivelist system for residues of pesticide and veterinary medicines in food in Japan.

  9. Is the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Impacting Mental Health Laws and Policies in High-Income Countries? A Case Study of Implementation in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven J; Sritharan, Lathika; Tejpar, Ali

    2016-11-11

    Persons with psychosocial disabilities face disparate access to healthcare and social services worldwide, along with systemic discrimination, structural inequalities, and widespread human rights abuses. Accordingly, many people have looked to international human rights law to help address mental health challenges. On December 13, 2006, the United Nations formally adopted the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) - the first human rights treaty of the 21st century and the fastest ever negotiated. This study assesses the CRPD's potential impact on mental health systems and presents a legal and public policy analysis of its implementation in one high-income country: Canada. As part of this analysis, a critical review was undertaken of the CRPD's implementation in Canadian legislation, public policy, and jurisprudence related to mental health. While the Convention is clearly an important step forward, there remains a divide, even in Canada, between the Convention's goals and the experiences of Canadians with disabilities. Its implementation is perhaps hindered most by Canada's reservations to Article 12 of the CRPD on legal capacity for persons with psychosocial disabilities. The overseeing CRPD Committee has stated that Article 12 only permits "supported decision-making" regimes, yet most Canadian jurisdictions maintain their "substitute decision-making" regimes. This means that many Canadians with mental health challenges continue to be denied legal capacity to make decisions related to their healthcare, housing, and finances. But changes are afoot: new legislation has been introduced in different jurisdictions across the country, and recent court decisions have started to push policymakers in this direction. Despite the lack of explicit implementation, the CRPD has helped to facilitate a larger shift in social and cultural paradigms of mental health and disability in Canada. But ratification and passive implementation are not enough. Further

  10. Country branding emerging from citizens’ emotions and the perceptions of competitive advantage: the case of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Norbani CHE-HA; Nguyen, Bang; Yahya, Wan Kalthom; Melewar, T. C.; Chen, Yeo Pei

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to examine the elements of country branding from the perspectives of a country’s citizens. In this exploration, the study constructs their views toward the country using both emotion (affect) and perceptions of competitive advantage and subsequently conceptualizes and tests a framework of internal country-branding elements. Using a survey approach, the study generated a total sample of 445 respondents across Malaysia. Structural equation modeling was employed to analyze the ...

  11. Country of Origin as a Brand: The Case of New Zealand Lamb

    OpenAIRE

    Roxanne Clemens; Bruce A. Babcock

    2004-01-01

    New Zealand has used country-of-origin labeling (COOL) as a "country brand" to differentiate New Zealand lamb in international markets and increase consumer awareness of this lamb as a high-quality imported product. The case of New Zealand lamb is especially interesting as an unsubsidized commodity product competing against subsidized lamb in some of the most competitive and sophisticated retail markets in the world. Given New Zealand's dependence on international markets, producers, processo...

  12. Impact of global health governance on country health systems: the case of HIV initiatives in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chima, Charles Chikodili; Homedes, Nuria

    2015-06-01

    Three global health initiatives (GHIs) - the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, and the World Bank Multi-Country HIV/AIDS Program - finance most HIV services in Nigeria. Critics assert that GHIs burden fragile health systems in resource-poor countries and that health system limitations in these countries constrain the achievement of the objectives of GHIs. This study analyzed interactions between HIV GHIs and the Nigerian Health System and explored how the impact of the GHIs could be optimized. A country case study was conducted using qualitative methods, including: semi-structured interviews, direct observation, and archival review. Semi-structured interviews were held with key informants selected to reach a broad range of stakeholders including policymakers, program managers, service providers, representatives of donor agencies and their implementing partners; the WHO country office in Nigeria; independent consultants; and civil society organizations involved in HIV work. The fieldwork was conducted between June and August 2013. HIV GHIs have had a mixed impact on the health system. They have enhanced availability of and access to HIV services, improved quality of services, and strengthened health information systems and the role of non-state actors in health care. On the negative end, HIV donor funding has increased dependency on foreign aid, widened disparities in access to HIV services, done little to address the sustainability of the services, crowded out non-HIV health services, and led to the development of a parallel supply management system. They have also not invested significantly in the production of new health workers and have not addressed maldistribution problems, but have rather contributed to internal brain drain by luring health workers from the public sector to non-governmental organizations and have increased workload for existing health workers. There is poor policy direction

  13. Impact of global health governance on country health systems: the case of HIV initiatives in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Chikodili Chima

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Three global health initiatives (GHIs – the US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, and the World Bank Multi–Country HIV/AIDS Program – finance most HIV services in Nigeria. Critics assert that GHIs burden fragile health systems in resource–poor countries and that health system limitations in these countries constrain the achievement of the objectives of GHIs. This study analyzed interactions between HIV GHIs and the Nigerian Health System and explored how the impact of the GHIs could be optimized. Methods: A country case study was conducted using qualitative methods, including: semi–structured interviews, direct observation, and archival review. Semi–structured interviews were held with key informants selected to reach a broad range of stakeholders including policymakers, program managers, service providers, representatives of donor agencies and their implementing partners; the WHO country office in Nigeria; independent consultants; and civil society organizations involved in HIV work. The fieldwork was conducted between June and August 2013. Findings: HIV GHIs have had a mixed impact on the health system. They have enhanced availability of and access to HIV services, improved quality of services, and strengthened health information systems and the role of non–state actors in health care. On the negative end, HIV donor funding has increased dependency on foreign aid, widened disparities in access to HIV services, done little to address the sustainability of the services, crowded out non–HIV health services, and led to the development of a parallel supply management system. They have also not invested significantly in the production of new health workers and have not addressed maldistribution problems, but have rather contributed to internal brain drain by luring health workers from the public sector to non–governmental organizations and have

  14. Use of butter and cheese in 10 European countries - A case of contrasting educational differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prattala, R. S.; Groth, Margit Velsing; Oltersdorf, U. S.

    2003-01-01

    studies on socioeconomic differences in food habits in Europe over the period 1985-1997 was performed. Twenty studies from 10 countries included information on cheese and butter. A simple directional vote-counting method was used to register the association between educational level add consumption......,of cheese and butter (animal fat) for each study. FAO's food balance sheets were used to classify the countries according to consumption trends of these foodstuffs. Results: In all countries higher social classes used more cheese than lower classes. The results for butter were less consistent. In the Nordic...... countries higher social classes used less butter than lower ones. In the other countries an opposite pattern or no differences could be observed. However, in countries where the use of both butter and animal fats could be analysed, animal fats were used more by the lower social classes. Conclusions: Higher...

  15. International trends in clozapine use : A study in 17 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachmann, C. J.; Aagaard, L.; Bernardo, M.; Brandt, L.; Cartabia, M.; Clavenna, A.; Coma Fuste, A.; Furu, K.; Garuoliene, K.; Hoffmann, F.; Hollingworth, S.; Huybrechts, K. F.; Kalverdijk, L. J.; Kawakami, K.; Kieler, H.; Kinoshita, T.; Lopez, S. C.; Machado-Alba, J. E.; Machado-Duque, M. E.; Mahesri, M.; Nishtala, P. S.; Piovani, D.; Reutfors, J.; Saastamoinen, L. K.; Sato, I.; Schuiling-Veninga, C. C. M.; Shyu, Y. -C.; Siskind, D.; Skurtveit, S.; Verdoux, H.; Wang, L. -J.; Yahni, C. Zara; Zoega, H.; Taylor, D.

    Objective: There is some evidence that clozapine is significantly underutilised. Also, clozapine use is thought to vary by country, but so far no international study has assessed trends in clozapine prescribing. Therefore, this study aimed to assess clozapine use trends on an international scale,

  16. HIV case reporting in the countries of North Africa and the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Bozicevic

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to provide an overview of HIV case reporting data for the year 2011 from the countries of the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region (WHO EMR.Fourteen countries provided data for the year 2011 and reported a total of 4263 HIV cases of which 66.8% were men. The highest number of reported HIV cases in men per 100,000 population was in Oman (5.8, Somalia (5.5 and Iran (3.3, while in women in Somalia (7.6, Oman (3.9 and Morocco (2.4.In the majority of the countries, the most common reported mode of transmission was heterosexual. This could be due to under-reporting of male-to-male transmission and more frequent testing of men than women.

  17. Cross-Country Entrepreneurial Intentions Study: The Danube Region Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban Šebjan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we investigate how entrepreneurial intentions of individuals in the eight countries of the Danube region are shaped by different components of individuals’ personal attitudes, the subjective norm and personal behavioral control. We analyze the internal structure of these components as well as some demographic and human capital factors. Cultural and developmental differences influencing variation in causal effects among variables in the model are analyzed. Structural equation modeling is used for data obtained by adult population surveys within the GEM research. Results of our study show that the entrepreneurial intention model is applicable across countries and that the internal effects among components of motivational antecedents exist, although not all hypothesized relationships are confirmed. Our study suggests that the process from perception to intention is similarly shaped across the eight countries of the Danube region, although there are several differences in the magnitude of causal effects as well as differences regarding influential factors.

  18. Objectivist case study research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner; Fachner, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    In order to comprehend the impact of music therapy or music therapy processes, a researcher might look for an approach where the topic under investigation can be understood within a broader context. This calls for a rich inclusion of data and consequently a limited number of participants and may...... be achieved through the use of objectivist case study research. The strength of the case study design is that it allows for uncovering or suggesting causal relationships in real-life settings through an intensive and rich collection of data. According to Hilliard (1993), the opposite applies for extensive...... designs, in which a small amount of data is gathered on a large number of subjects. With the richness of data, the intensive design is ―the primary pragmatic reason for engaging in single-case or small N research‖ (p. 374) and for working from an idiographic rather than a nomothetic perspective....

  19. A cross-country study on urban inequality and poverty

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Involuntary Resettlement: A Cross-Country Study on Urban Inequality and Poverty. Involuntary displacement in urban areas takes place when people are forced to leave and do not have the option to stay. It can be caused by development projects, conflict, or natural disasters. It is a traumatic process because it can involve ...

  20. Friendly and Hostile Country Perceptions of Prospective Social Studies Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Beytullah; Topçu, Ersin

    2017-01-01

    Peace education requires that students have a correct and academic perception regarding other countries. These perceptions of students, who acquire certain perceptions starting from primary school to university, need to be based on real facts and should not contain extravagance. This study aims to determine whether 3rd year Prospective Social…

  1. The scientific studies on smart grid in selected European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Serhat Orkun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart grid is a power system consisting of many transmission and distribution systems subjected to an automation which are efficient, reliable and coordinated with each other. As a nature friendly technology, Smart grid come into prominence due to the increasing energy consumption and limited renewable energy sources around the world. In the near future, the use of renewable energy sources is not expected to grow rapidly; but the transmission and distribution systems will be enhanced by Smart grid technologies. Considering these significant benefits, the studies have been increased on Smart grid technologies to meet the energy requirement in each country. Herewith, the aim of this study is to analyse the scientific studies in developed European countries such as Italy, Germany, United Kingdom, France and Spain to find out the increment rate of the importance devoted to the Smart grid technologies in academicals manner. The scientific researches on Smart grid are achieved from the Web of Science database and the statistical analysis have been made by utilizing proper SQL queries in combination with Excel Power Pivot for these countries. The correlation between the scientific studies on smart grid and the virtual smart grid applications are also outlined for each selected country.

  2. HIV/AIDS Monitor Country Studies | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2006-09-01

    Outputs. Journal articles. How long will we depend on the US for HIV money? Reports. HIV/AIDS monitor : country studies; final technical progress report, September 1, 2006 - September 1, 2010. Papers. Trickle or a Flood: Commitments and Disbursement for HIV/AIDS from the Global Fund, PEPFAR, and the World Bank's ...

  3. A Psychobiographical Case Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The secondary objective was to illustrate and test the relevance of Levinsonian theory as applied .... Levinson's theory was selected for this psychobiographical case study due to (a) its focus on the individual's entire lifespan,. (b) its amalgamation of other theories, ...... ship with an object has great meaning (as did Jobs's.

  4. 425 Case study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marinda

    Case Study. 29. SAJAA 2009;15(3) • Jun/Jul. Anaesthesia management of acute aortic dissection type B in Marfan syndrome complicating end-stage pregnancy a Laudanski K, MD, b Robicsek S, MD, PhD a Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Beth Israel and Deaconess Hospital, Harvard Medical School, ...

  5. Two African Case Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cyril I. Obi: Resources, Population and Conflicts: Two African Case Studies 57 social relations, which worsen existing ethnic tensions. It resorts to violence, coercion and ... utilisation away from local needs and local markets towards the demands of the international market”. The alienation of the peasants from their land–the ...

  6. ALTER-GLOBALISM AND DEVELOPMENT IN MIGRATION CONDITIONS. THE CASE OF AN EAST EUROPEAN COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina HALLER

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation is a process that brings advantages and disadvantages to all states, regardless of their stage of development. The relative deprivation, especially the financial one, of the developing countries is a reason of frustration, which motivates the emigration decision; hence our orientation to alter-globalism. In this paper, I intend to highlight by means of analysis, synthesis, deduction, induction, and statistic data, the causes and types of migration in Romania’s case, one of the main European countries where the immigrants originate from. We will see how globalisation manifests itself in a twofold manner in the economy and the society of a developing country, just like migration. We will show why a poor country is avoided by immigrants and deserted, as a result of immigration, by its own population, while, just like the developed states, it is likely to face the same demographic, economic and social problems, considering that the process of demographic transition is already manifested.

  7. Is age at menarche a good predictor of future body fat? The case of a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Kitae

    2016-11-01

    Age at menarche has been proposed to serve as a predictor of future body fat for the developed world. Our aim in this study is to determine whether this is also the case for a developing country-Indonesia. We analyze nationally representative data, concerning 9,543 women aged 15-62 in 2007-2008, and find that the relationship between age at menarche and body mass index is negative and statistically significant. The size of the relationship, however, is negligible. It thus appears that age at menarche is not a good predictor of future body fat in Indonesia and possibly other developing countries.

  8. Viewpoint: medical infertility care in low income countries: the case for concern in policy and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zandvoort, H.; de Koning, K.; Gerrits, T.

    2001-01-01

    Based on published, 'grey' and anecdotal information, this paper explores some aspects of infertility, its medical treatment and their burden in poor countries. Many cases of infertility result from sexually transmitted infections (STI) and unsafe abortion and there is no doubt that their prevention

  9. equipment grafting in telecommunication industry (case study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    EQUIPMENT GRAFTING IN TELECOMMUNICATION INDUSTRY (CASE STUDY NIGERIA PSTN). Figur e 4. Design Layout. 4.0 O N - G O I N G E Q U I P M E N T. GRAFTING EFFORTS. For instance, the NITEL network covers the whole country with an extensive terrestrial network. It represents the PSTN (public switched ...

  10. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  11. Qualitative Case Study Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    methods in public relations and marketing communications. New York, Routledge 166-185 13. Denzin , N. K. (1978) The Research Act: A Theoretical...Introduction to Sociological Methods. 2nd ed. New York, McGraw-Hill 14. Denzin , N. K. and Lincoln, Y. S. (2011) The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative...The Art of Science. In: Denzin , N. K. and Lincoln, Y. S. (eds.) Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, Sage 19. GAO (1990) Case Study

  12. The Influence of the Country of Origin Image on Brand Equity: A Study of Spanish Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Alves Prado

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As there are few studies on the influence of the country of origin image on brand equity for services companies (as it is the case of financial institutions, the aim of this paper is to analyze the influence of the country of origin image on the brand equity of Spanish banks. A descriptive and quantitative research was employed, using the survey method to verify the hypothesis that the country of origin image (Spain positively influences the brand equity of Spanish banks. The main statistical analyzes were the  factor analysis and the multiple regression analysis. As a result, it was found that the Attitude dimension underlying the variable Brand equity of Spanish banks suffered more influence than the Awareness dimension. Furthermore, it was found that the country of origin image positively influences the brand equity of Spanish banks. The technical aspects, in general, influence more than friendly aspects, thus implying a direction for the Spain brand development strategy focused on these aspects. Limitations of this study include the use of a non-probability sample and the use of Spanish banks as the object of study. We suggest the development of new works in the services area, in different categories and with different countries of origin, in order to provide further discussion and theoretical basis for future studies and strategic actions, aiming to create and improve the image of countries.

  13. Case studies of nurseries in Malawi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namoto, M.; Likoswe, M.G.

    This study of 42 case studies of nurseries was made as part of a major sample survey of 360 nurseries in 6 districts in Malawi. The purpose of the study was to let the small nurseries in the country explain in their own words how they source seed, how and for whom they produce seedlings......, and to explain about their problems and opportunities in the nursery business. The assessment was made within the framework of Improved Seed Supply for Agroforestry in African Countries (ISSAAC), a Danida supported programme implemented in cooperation between Forest & Landscape Denmark and World Agroforestry...

  14. An uncommon cause of seizures in children living in developed countries: neurocysticercosis -a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denegri Federica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neurocysticercosis represents an important cause of seizures in children in endemic countries, such as Latin America, Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, while in Europe, especially in Italy, the cases of neurocysticercosis are anectodal. We report the case of a 6 year old boy, born and lived for four years in Cameroon, who presented a right emiconvulsion. The diagnosis was neurocysticercosis. This case accentuates the need to consider neurocysticercosis in a child presenting with non febrile seizures, mainly if he emigrated from an area of high prevalence or if he had long-term stay in endemic regions.

  15. Inbreeding Depression and IQ in a Study of 72 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    In this ecological study, a robust negative correlation of r = - 0.62 (P less than 0.01) is reported between national IQs and consanguinity as measured by the log10 transformed percentage of consanguineous marriages for 72 countries. This correlation is reduced in magnitude, when IQ is controlled for GDP per capita (r = - 0.41, P less than 0.01);…

  16. Area Handbook Series: North Korea, A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    North Korean written materials: an assumption that Korea is the center of the world, radiating outward the rays of chuch’e, especially to Third World...Changgun (General Kim II Sung: The Sun of Our Nation), 3. P’y6ngyang: Inmin Kwa- haksa, 1971. Bradbury , John. "Sino-Soviet Competition in North Korea...Korea: A Country Study Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, 1970. Suh, Dae-Sook. Kim I1 Sung. A Biography . Honolulu: University of

  17. Practical guidance material for the development, energy and climate country studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Garg, A.; Olhoff, A.; Denton, F.

    2006-10-15

    The document is developed as part of the Development, Energy and Climate project in order to facilitate methodological consistency and the use of common assumptions in national case studies in Bangladesh, Brazil, China, India, Senegal and South Africa that are conducted as part of the project. In addition to this document the project and country studies are also based on in depth thematic work in three areas namely; 1) Development pathways and climate change; 2) Assessment of Policy Instruments in the Context of Current Market Structure, Institutional Capacities and Risks in Developing Countries; 3) Climate change impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation in the energy sector with a special emphasis given to linkages between adaptation and mitigation policies. The Development, Energy, and Climate project will identify promising energy policy options in the participating countries that are consistent with their national sustainable development objectives. The project teams from Bangladesh, Brazil, China, India, South Africa and Senegal will examine how energy sector policies can be evaluated using specific sustainable development indicators and existing analytical approaches and tools relevant to the countries. The country studies will address energy sector issues, adaptation policies, and alternative scenarios for technology penetration processes. The policy options and the sustainable development impacts of implementing these will be discussed in national stakeholder dialogues with broad participation of government, private sector and NGOs. Cross-country interactions about conceptual and common methodological issues will be covered in three thematic papers. The project will produce a synthesis of the country case studies as an input to various international processes in order to build support for approaches that integrate sustainable development, energy and climate policies. (au)

  18. Case study: Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baktybek Abdrisaev

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The paper discusses the importance of Open Source (OS hereinafter technology for national Information Communication Technology (ICT hereinafter development and E-Government for developing countries as a general strategy for overcoming the digital divide. The paper highlights the opportunities presented to the developing countries by the growing world-wide movement for use of OS systems, namely, the ability to promote the transfer of technological know-how and the growth of local IT professionals, the possibility of providing IT solutions within the limited financial means of a developing country, and the ability to strengthen the legal use of software. The paper

  19. TOURISM AND POVERTY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. THE CASE OF INDIA AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel BADULESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable tourism has become lately an important issue addressing the question of over-exploiting and degradation of resources. The topic is quite more challenging and presents particular importance in the case of developing countries, facing also social issues and the poverty of large segments of population. This paper investigates, based on surveying experts’ opinion, the impact of mass tourism vs. voluntary tourism vs. pro-poor tourism in India and Romania, two very different countries but facing similar challenges, and it highlights the similar issues but also the differences concerning the economic, social and environmental effects of these forms of tourism.

  20. Country variations in depressive symptoms profile in Asian countries: Findings of the Research on Asia Psychotropic Prescription (REAP) studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Kok-Yoon; Tripathi, Adarsh; Avasthi, Ajit; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Sim, Kang; Si, Tian-Mei; Kanba, Shigenobu; He, Yan-Ling; Lee, Min-Soo; Fung-Kum Chiu, Helen; Yang, Shu-Yu; Kuga, Hironori; Udormatn, Pichet; Kallivayalil, Roy A; Tanra, Andi J; Maramis, Margarita; Grover, Sandeep; Chin, Loi-Fei; Dahlan, Rahima; Mohamad Isa, Mohd Fadzli; Ebenezer, Esther Gunaseli M; Nordin, Norhayati; Shen, Winston W; Shinfuku, Naotaka; Tan, Chay-Hoon; Sartorius, Norman

    2015-09-01

    This study was to assess differences in the symptom profile of depressive illness across various countries/territories in Asia. The study was a part of the Research on Asia Psychotropic Prescription project. The participating countries/territories include China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand. The pattern of depressive symptoms in 1,400 subjects with depressive disorder from 42 psychiatric centers in 10 Asian countries/territories was assessed. We collected information on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics with a standardized protocol and data collection procedure. The most common presentations of depressive symptoms were persistent sadness, loss of interest, and insomnia. Similar findings were found regardless of the region, country, or its income level. Patients with depressive disorder from high-income countries presented significantly more with vegetative symptom cluster (P patients with depressive symptoms had significantly less mood symptom cluster (P patients, across different countries/territories, core depressive symptoms remain the same. Variations have been found in presentation of depressive symptoms with regards to the level of income of countries. Physical or vegetative symptoms were reported more by centers in higher income countries, while depressive cognition and suicidal thoughts/acts were more frequently reported from lower income countries. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. COUNTRY-OF-ORIGIN EFFECTS ON PURCHASING DOMESTIC PRODUCTS: THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana-Denisa STOENESCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies revealed that ethnocentric consumers are more willing to purchase a domestic product. Furthermore, country-of-origin has a direct impact on consumers’ decision to buy a product in such a manner that a positive country image can substitute other missing qualities of the product. On the other hand, a strong brand is not expected to compensate for a negative country-of-origin perception. Many brands rely on their home country as a warranty for quality and prestige, in order to gain consumers’ interest and attention. This paper examines the moderating role of variables such as perceived quality, ethnocentrism and familiarity in determining a consumer to buy a domestic product. Through exploratory research, this study aims to investigate to what extent Romania, as country-of-origin for its local products, influences consumers’ decision making process. The major contributions of the study consist of identifying the elements that play a role in consumers’ product evaluation based on the country-of-origin and to improve the understanding of country image effects on the buying intention.

  2. A CROSS-COUNTRY ANALYSIS OF THE BANKS’ FINANCIAL SOUNDNESS: THE CASE OF THE CEE-3 COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sargu Alina Camelia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The European integration process has a direct impact on all the components of the macroeconomic environment. The existence of a well functioning and sound banking sector becomes of great importance for the integration process as the European Union economy is financed especially through this channel. The banking sectors of the new EU member countries have undergone through tremendous changes in the last decade, both from an ownership and also from a business strategy point of view, these changes having a direct impact on their financial soundness. Thus, the aim of our research is to empirically examine the financial soundness of the banks operating in Bulgaria, Czech Republic and Romania, three EU members countries from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE-3. In order to achieve this we have employed a combine quantitative analysis based on the CAMELS framework (namely Capital Adequacy, Asset quality, Management soundness, Earnings, Liquidity, Sensitivity to market risk and the Z-score, thus being able to underline simultaneously the financial soundness and the possibility of default for the banks from our sample. The analysed period is 2004-2011 providing us with an evaluation of the impact that the EU ascension and also the global financial crisis had on the financial soundness of the analysed banks. Our sample is composed from 40 commercial banks that operate in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic and Romania, that overall own over 75% of the total banking assets, making this study one of the most comprehensive undertaken to this date. The data that we have employed in our research is obtained from the Bureau Van Dijk Bankscope database and the annual financial statements of the banks from our sample. The paper through its original dual approach contributes to the academic debate by providing not only insight into the financial soundness of the banks operating in the CEE-3 countries but also underling their financial strength through the usage of the Z

  3. Five case studies of multifamily weatherization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, L; Wilson, T.; Lewis, G. [Synertech Systems Corp. (United States); MacDonald, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The multifamily case studies that are the subject of this report were conducted to provide a better understanding of the approach taken by program operators in weatherizing large buildings. Because of significant variations in building construction and energy systems across the country, five states were selected based on their high level of multifamily weatherization. This report summarizes findings from case studies conducted by multifamily weatherization operations in five cities. The case studies were conducted between January and November 1994. Each of the case studies involved extensive interviews with the staff of weatherization subgrantees conducting multifamily weatherization, the inspection of 4 to 12 buildings weatherized between 1991 and 1993, and the analysis of savings and costs. The case studies focused on innovative techniques which appear to work well.

  4. Case Study - Alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Leybourne

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study was developed from an actual scenario by Dr. Steve Leybourne of Boston University.  The case documents the historical evolution of an organization, and has been used successfully in courses dealing with organizational and cultural change, and the utilization of ‘soft skills’ in project-based management. This is a short case, ideal for classroom use and discussion.  The issues are easily accessible to students, and there is a single wide ranging question that allows for the inclusion of many issues surrounding strategic decision-making, and behavioural and cultural change. Alpha was one of the earlier companies in the USA to invest in large, edge-of-town superstores, with plentiful free vehicle parking, selling food and related household products. Alpha was created in the 1950s as a subsidiary of a major publicly quoted retail group.  It started business by opening a string of very large discount stores in converted industrial and warehouse premises in the south of the United States. In the early days shoppers were offered a limited range of very competitively priced products. When Alpha went public in 1981 it was the fourth largest food retailer in the US, selling an ever-widening range of food and non-food products.  Its success continued to be based on high volume, low margins and good value for money, under the slogan of ‘Alpha Price.’

  5. Cost-effectiveness of female human papillomavirus vaccination in 179 countries: a PRIME modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Brisson, Marc; Portnoy, Allison; Hutubessy, Raymond

    2014-07-01

    Introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in settings with the highest burden of HPV is not universal, partly because of the absence of quantitative estimates of country-specific effects on health and economic costs. We aimed to develop and validate a simple generic model of such effects that could be used and understood in a range of settings with little external support. We developed the Papillomavirus Rapid Interface for Modelling and Economics (PRIME) model to assess cost-effectiveness and health effects of vaccination of girls against HPV before sexual debut in terms of burden of cervical cancer and mortality. PRIME models incidence according to proposed vaccine efficacy against HPV 16/18, vaccine coverage, cervical cancer incidence and mortality, and HPV type distribution. It assumes lifelong vaccine protection and no changes to other screening programmes or vaccine uptake. We validated PRIME against existing reports of HPV vaccination cost-effectiveness, projected outcomes for 179 countries (assuming full vaccination of 12-year-old girls), and outcomes for 71 phase 2 GAVI-eligible countries (using vaccine uptake data from the GAVI Alliance). We assessed differences between countries in terms of cost-effectiveness and health effects. In validation, PRIME reproduced cost-effectiveness conclusions for 24 of 26 countries from 17 published studies, and for all 72 countries in a published study of GAVI-eligible countries. Vaccination of a cohort of 58 million 12-year-old girls in 179 countries prevented 690,000 cases of cervical cancer and 420,000 deaths during their lifetime (mostly in low-income or middle-income countries), at a net cost of US$4 billion. HPV vaccination was very cost effective (with every disability-adjusted life-year averted costing less than the gross domestic product per head) in 156 (87%) of 179 countries. Introduction of the vaccine in countries without national HPV vaccination at present would prevent substantially more cases

  6. OBSESSIONS: CASE REPORT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Židanik

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obsessions are one of the most refractory psychiatric disorders. The therapeutic guidelines include a psychopharmacotherapy and the use of behavioural and supportive psychotherapy.Methods. This case report study presents a patient with a homicide obsessions at the forefront and narcissistic personality disorder in background. The use of analytical oriented psychotherapy, which helped to resolve axis-1 symptoms, is described.Conclusions. In the therapy of patients it is important to have the knowledge about the national therapeutic guidelines and critical distance toward them as well. Which therapy to use should be decided by the individual patient’s needs.

  7. Issues of construction health and safety in developing countries: a case of Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhair Zaid Alkilani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is widely regarded as one of the most significant interms of its impact on health and safety (H&S. Recent findings suggestthat in developing countries H&S awareness and performance is low. In this paper,the current state of H&S on construction sites in Jordan was explored usinga two-part investigation. The first part introduces the area of research in aliterature based study of on-site safety. The second part is a case study onthe Jordanian construction industry and its current H&S practices. Primary datawas collected from field visits, expert interviews and semi-structuredquestionnaires. Supporting secondary data was collected from archival studiesand related research literature. The research findings highlight a lack of governmentcommitment exemplified by regulations, policies and legal constraints thatlimit the operational efficiency of those government departments responsiblefor H&S management, and hindering the development of good H&S practice.Research results also highlight the key constraints of good H&S practice fromthe perspective of construction contractors.The study concludes with discussion ofpotential solutions toimprove H&S performance on construction sites in Jordan.

  8. Major correlates of male height: A study of 105 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasgruber, P; Sebera, M; Hrazdíra, E; Cacek, J; Kalina, T

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the main correlates of male height in 105 countries in Europe & overseas, Asia, North Africa and Oceania. Actual data on male height are compared with the average consumption of 28 protein sources (FAOSTAT, 1993-2009) and seven socioeconomic indicators (according to the World Bank, the CIA World Factbook and the United Nations). This comparison identified three fundamental types of diets based on rice, wheat and milk, respectively. The consumption of rice dominates in tropical Asia, where it is accompanied by very low total protein and energy intake, and one of the shortest statures in the world (∼162-168cm). Wheat prevails in Muslim countries in North Africa and the Near East, which is where we also observe the highest plant protein consumption in the world and moderately tall statures that do not exceed 174cm. In taller nations, the intake of protein and energy no longer fundamentally rises, but the consumption of plant proteins markedly decreases at the expense of animal proteins, especially those from dairy. Their highest consumption rates can be found in Northern and Central Europe, with the global peak of male height in the Netherlands (184cm). In general, when only the complete data from 72 countries were considered, the consumption of protein from the five most correlated foods (r=0.85) and the human development index (r=0.84) are most strongly associated with tall statures. A notable finding is the low consumption of the most correlated proteins in Muslim oil superpowers and highly developed countries of East Asia, which could explain their lagging behind Europe in terms of physical stature. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Do new Access and Benefit Sharing procedures under the Convention on Biological Diversity threaten the future of biological control? Supplemental material (case studies, natural enemy releases, country views concerning ABS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cock, M.J.W.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Brodeur, J.; Barratt, I.P.; Bigler, F.; Bolckmans, K.; Cônsoli, F.L.; Haas, F.; Mason, P.G.; Parra, J.R.P.

    2010-01-01

    Under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) countries have sovereign rights over their genetic resources. Agreements governing the access to these resources and the sharing of the benefits arising from their use need to be established between involved parties [i.e. Access and Benefit Sharing

  10. ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF PUBLIC DEBT. THE CASE OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina BILAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to empirically assess, using panel data estimation techniques, the effects of public indebtedness on economic growth for a group of 11 Central and Eastern European countries and over the period 1994-2013. Our hypothesis is that, although public indebtedness may fuel economic growth, once public debt breaches a certain threshold the effects are reversed and public indebtedness negatively affects GDP growth rates. The results of our study confirm this kind of relationship, with a maximum debt threshold for all countries of about 45-55% of GDP, lower for the less developed (like Romania and Bulgaria and higher for the more developed ones. Also, the threshold for Central and Eastern European countries is found to be lower than the one identified in other empirical studies for developed EU countries, as the former enjoy lower credibility, higher vulnerability to shocks and depend more on external capital transfers.

  11. Hybrid renewable energy systems for the supply of services in rural settlements of mediterranean partner countries. The HYRESS project - the case study of the hybrid system - microgrid in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadakis, G.; Mohamed, E.S.; Kyriakarakos, G. [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece); Kassem, A.W.S. [Alexandria Univ., El Chatbi (Egypt). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Hybrid renewable energy systems is one of the most promising application of renewable energy technologies in remote areas, where the cost of grid extension is prohibitive and the price of fossil fuels increase drastically with the remoteness of the location. Applications of hybrid systems range from small power supplies for remote households providing electricity for lighting or water pumping and water supply to village electrification for remote communities. The strategic objective of the HYRESS project is to remove the knowledge barriers against the installation of Renewable Energy Systems and creation of micro grids. In order to fulfill this objective, three different modular hybrid systems with the generating technologies connected to the AC side were designet, installed and evaluated in three selected remote sites far away from the grid in Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. This paper describes the hybrid system installed in Egypt as a case study and presents first operation results. (orig.)

  12. International Development Partnerships and Diffusion of Renewable Energy Technologies in Developing Countries: Cases in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonova, Inna

    Access to energy is vital for sustainable development and poverty alleviation, yet billions of people in developing countries continue to suffer from constant exposure to open fires and dangerous fuels, such as kerosene. Renewable energy technologies are being acknowledged as suitable solutions for remote rural communities in much of the developing world and international development non-governmental organizations (NGOs) increasingly play important roles in the diffusion of these technologies via development partnerships. While these partnerships are widely promoted, many questions related to their functioning and effectiveness remain open. To advance the theory and practice, this interdisciplinary exploratory research provides in-depth insights into the nature of international NGO-driven development partnerships in rural renewable energy and their effectiveness based on the case studies in Talamanca, Costa Rica and Cajamarca, Peru. The analysis of the nature of development partnerships shows that partnerships in the case studies differ in structure, size and diversity of actors due to differentiation in the implementation strategies, technological complexities, institutional and contextual factors. A multi-theoretical approach is presented to explain the multiple drivers of the studied development partnerships. The research highlights partnership constraints related to the provision of rural renewable energy, the organizational type and institutional environments. Based on the case studies this research puts forward theoretical propositions regarding the factors that affect the effectiveness of the partnerships. In terms of the partnership dynamics dimension, several key factors of success are confirmed from the existing literature, namely shared values and goals, complementary expertise and capacities, confidence and trust, clear roles and responsibilities, effective communication. Additional factors identified are personality match and continuity of staff. In

  13. Corporate governance in developing and emerging countries. The case of Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Giurca Vasilescu, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The experiences of the developed countries reveals that a good corporate governance could reduces risk, stimulates performance, improves access to capital markets, enhances the marketability of goods and services, improves leadership, increases the value of the corporations, enables the corporation to acquire external finances more easily and at a lower cost. In the case of developing and emerging economies the need for corporate governance extends beyond resolving problems resulting from...

  14. Implementation of renewable technologies - Opportunities and barriers. Zimbabwe country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Renewable Energy Technologies (RETS) have over the years become an integral part of the energy supply chain in most developed countries. Recent projections show that 13.5% of the world's primary energy supply comes from renewable and this figure has an aggregated annual growth rate of 16%. Wind has the highest annual growth rate of 22% while the least annual growth rate of 2% is for hydropower. The main push for renewable like wind in the OECD countries are environmental concerns and the business aspect in power generation. The situation is however completely different in Africa, where the thrust for RETs is developmental based. Although the continent has abundant renewable energy resources like solar, biomass, wind and hydro potential, they have remained largely unexploited. Several efforts have been made to help African countries like Zimbabwe to exploit such resources. The main objectives of this country study included review of Zimbabwe's development of past RETs, establish barriers related lessons learnt from such projects and currently running RETs projects, identify barriers experienced by other projects and then select a few barrier removal projects and then develop them with the help of all stake holders in the country. The methodology of this study involved a review of past RETs projects to establish barriers faced and barriers related lessons learnt. An examination of the policy instruments related to RETs was done to establish how they promote the dissemination of the technologies as well as their adequacy. A survey of all possible RETs projects in the country was carried out and in this survey the end-users were visited and interviewed by the research team. An initial workshop, which was attended by all stake holders, was held in November 1999. An Advisory committee on RETs in Zimbabwe was then set up comprising of various stake holders from government, the private sector, research institutions, interviewed end-users and the NGO community

  15. Far better to serve in heaven than to reign in hell : the logic of incorporation in the European communities by a very small developing country : Malta, a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Baldacchino, Godfrey; University of Prince Edward Island. Institute of Island Studies; ; An island living : patterns of autonomy and dependence in the small islands of the North Atlantic

    1992-01-01

    In spite of the rhetoric of viability and endogenously led growth and development, small states are generally resigned to a status of dependency, surviving as rentier economies and remi ttance societies. Most appear determined today that their best (and only?) bet is for even better integration within the world economic order. They may have decolonised but they have no intention to disengage. To do so effectively, they often seek to establish a life-line to richer countri...

  16. Effective coverage and systems effectiveness for malaria case management in sub-Saharan African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Galactionova

    Full Text Available Scale-up of malaria preventive and control interventions over the last decade resulted in substantial declines in mortality and morbidity from the disease in sub-Saharan Africa and many other parts of the world. Sustaining these gains will depend on the health system performance. Treatment provides individual benefits by curing infection and preventing progression to severe disease as well as community-level benefits by reducing the infectious reservoir and averting emergence and spread of drug resistance. However many patients with malaria do not access care, providers do not comply with treatment guidelines, and hence, patients do not necessarily receive the correct regimen. Even when the correct regimen is administered some patients will not adhere and others will be treated with counterfeit or substandard medication leading to treatment failures and spread of drug resistance. We apply systems effectiveness concepts that explicitly consider implications of health system factors such as treatment seeking, provider compliance, adherence, and quality of medication to estimate treatment outcomes for malaria case management. We compile data for these indicators to derive estimates of effective coverage for 43 high-burden Sub-Saharan African countries. Parameters are populated from the Demographic and Health Surveys and other published sources. We assess the relative importance of these factors on the level of effective coverage and consider variation in these health systems indicators across countries. Our findings suggest that effective coverage for malaria case management ranges from 8% to 72% in the region. Different factors account for health system inefficiencies in different countries. Significant losses in effectiveness of treatment are estimated in all countries. The patterns of inter-country variation suggest that these are system failures that are amenable to change. Identifying the reasons for the poor health system performance and

  17. Effective coverage and systems effectiveness for malaria case management in sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galactionova, Katya; Tediosi, Fabrizio; de Savigny, Don; Smith, Thomas; Tanner, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Scale-up of malaria preventive and control interventions over the last decade resulted in substantial declines in mortality and morbidity from the disease in sub-Saharan Africa and many other parts of the world. Sustaining these gains will depend on the health system performance. Treatment provides individual benefits by curing infection and preventing progression to severe disease as well as community-level benefits by reducing the infectious reservoir and averting emergence and spread of drug resistance. However many patients with malaria do not access care, providers do not comply with treatment guidelines, and hence, patients do not necessarily receive the correct regimen. Even when the correct regimen is administered some patients will not adhere and others will be treated with counterfeit or substandard medication leading to treatment failures and spread of drug resistance. We apply systems effectiveness concepts that explicitly consider implications of health system factors such as treatment seeking, provider compliance, adherence, and quality of medication to estimate treatment outcomes for malaria case management. We compile data for these indicators to derive estimates of effective coverage for 43 high-burden Sub-Saharan African countries. Parameters are populated from the Demographic and Health Surveys and other published sources. We assess the relative importance of these factors on the level of effective coverage and consider variation in these health systems indicators across countries. Our findings suggest that effective coverage for malaria case management ranges from 8% to 72% in the region. Different factors account for health system inefficiencies in different countries. Significant losses in effectiveness of treatment are estimated in all countries. The patterns of inter-country variation suggest that these are system failures that are amenable to change. Identifying the reasons for the poor health system performance and intervening to tackle

  18. Randomized Trials in Developing Countries: Different Priorities and Study Design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Benoît; Agbota, Gino Cédric; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Boumédiene, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Clinical trials are increasingly conducted in the field of neurology in developing countries. To our knowledge, no review has been performed to date about the temporal evolution, geographical distribution, pathological fields, and types of trials conducted. Besides, the validity of those clinical trials needs to be evaluated. Our main aim was to describe, using a systematic literature review, the clinical trials performed in the field of neurology in developing countries. The specific objectives were (1) to describe the pathologic fields, (2) to evaluate the methodology, and (3) to assess the validity of neurological clinical trials performed in developing countries. A systematic review of the literature was conducted accessing PubMed, Pascal, ScienceDirect, African Journal Online, and the Virtual Library of African Neurology. The 145 studies included allowed us to identify (1) an exponential evolution of the number of clinical trials, (2) the strong contributions from Asia, followed by Africa and Latin America, (3) a fairly good coverage of pathologic fields including noncommunicable diseases, (4) an increasing diversity of intervention type, (5) the lack of early-phase trials (phases I and IIa), and (5) the need of improvement for some critical methodological issues. There is a need (1) to develop structures dedicated to the early investigation of interventions in humans, and (2) for sustaining the development of structures specialized in the methodology of clinical research and of dedicated courses for researchers in tropical areas about good practice in clinical trials. This would help in improving methodological quality, appropriateness of data management, and statistical analysis. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Addressing mitigation options within the South African country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Gina [Eskom (South Africa)

    1998-10-01

    The South African Country Study Programme is being executed under the auspices of the South African Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAandT). The full study comprises the following four components, each headed by a technical coordinator: the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory; a study of South Africa`s vulnerability to climate change and possible adaptation strategies; potential mitigation actions and; policy development. Ideally, these components should be executed in sequence. However, in view of South Africa`s commitments in terms of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and the need to draw up a national communication, it was decided to execute the components simultaneously, with an emphasis on coordination between the components. (EG)

  20. Patterns of clinical mentorship in undergraduate nurse education: A comparative case analysis of eleven EU and non-EU countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolska, Beata; McGonagle, Ian; Kane, Roslyn; Jackson, Christine S; Kegl, Barbara; Bergin, Michael; Cabrera, Esther; Cooney-Miner, Dianne; Di Cara, Veronika; Dimoski, Zvonko; Kekus, Divna; Pajnkihar, Majda; Prlić, Nada; Sigurdardottir, Arun K; Wells, John; Palese, Alvisa

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the number of studies available in the field and policy documents developed both at the national and the international levels, there is no reliable data available regarding the variation of roles occupied by clinical mentors (CMs) across countries. To describe and compare the CM's role; responsibilities; qualifications; employment requirements and experience in undergraduate nurse education as enacted in 11 European Union (EU) and non- EU countries. A case study design. A panel of expert nurse educators from 11 countries within and outside of the EU (Croatia, Czech Republic, England, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Poland, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, and the USA). A questionnaire containing both quantitative and qualitative questions was developed and agreed by the panel using a Nominal Group Technique (NGT); four cycles of data collection and analysis were conducted involving key experts in nursing education in each country. In all countries, there are at least two types of clinical mentorship dedicated to undergraduate nursing students: the first is offered by higher education institutions, and the second is offered by health care providers. Variation was noted in terms of profile, responsibilities and professional requirements to act as a CM; however, the CM role is mainly carried out by registered nurses, and in most countries there are no special requirements in terms of education and experience. Those who act as CMs at the bedside continue to manage their usual caseload, thus the role adds to their work burden. Whilst it is imperative to have respect for the different national traditions in undergraduate nurse education, the globalisation of the nursing workforce and greater opportunities for student mobility during the course of their undergraduate education suggests that in areas such as clinical mentorship, jurisdictions, particularly within the EU, should work towards greater system harmonisation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effect of the Financial Sector development on Growth: The case of the MENA Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medjahed Kenza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to examine the impact of financial development on economic growth in the context of the MENA countries. The study considers a number of measures of financial development that are: private credit to GDP, M2/GDP, the ratio of commercial bank assets to the total of commercial bank assets and central bank assets. We also take growth rate of real GDP as dependent variable and few core control variables of economic growth. This study employs as well panel time series data over the year of 1980-2012 for each indicator for a split sample of 11 MENA countries. In order to measure the impact, this study analyzes the data by applying panel autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL framework of pooled mean group (PMG, mean group (MG and Dynamic fixed effect (DFE estimators. The result obtained from PMG estimators demonstrates that the financial intermediary has a negative effect on the growth rate in the MENA countries in the short and long run. The paper concludes by pointing out directions to improve financial development in the MENA countries by applying more financial reforms to promote competition in the financial sector and financial structure expansion that reflects in the improvement of the quality and quantity of financial services. On the other hand, taking further steps to create an appropriate legal environment may further help the MENA countries to reap the utmost benefits by maximizing the potential role of the financial system in the real sector.

  2. The economics of soil conservation in developing countries: the case of crop residue mulching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erenstein, O.C.A.

    1999-01-01

    The study contributes to the search for a methodology to assess soil conservation, particularly in developing countries. The study first assesses the economics of soil conservation in general - with special emphasis on the relationships between technology, economic analysis and policy implications.

  3. Human resources and health outcomes: cross-country econometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Sudhir; Bärnighausen, Till

    Only a few studies have investigated the link between human resources for health and health outcomes, and they arrive at different conclusions. We tested the strength and significance of density of human resources for health with improved methods and a new WHO dataset. We did cross-country multiple regression analyses with maternal mortality rate, infant mortality rate, and under-five mortality rate as dependent variables. Aggregate density of human resources for health was an independent variable in one set of regressions; doctor and nurse densities separately were used in another set. We controlled for the effects of income, female adult literacy, and absolute income poverty. Density of human resources for health is significant in accounting for maternal mortality rate, infant mortality rate, and under-five mortality rate (with elasticities ranging from -0.474 to -0.212, all p values human resources for health is important in accounting for the variation in rates of maternal mortality, infant mortality, and under-five mortality across countries. The effect of this density in reducing maternal mortality is greater than in reducing child mortality, possibly because qualified medical personnel can better address the illnesses that put mothers at risk. Investment in human resources for health must be considered as part of a strategy to achieve the Millennium Development Goals of improving maternal health and reducing child mortality.

  4. Implementation of renewable energy technology - Opportunities and barriers. Summary of country studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painuly, J.P.; Fenhann, J.V.

    2002-07-01

    The project was launched to identify barriers to the implementation of renewable energy technologies (RETs) and explore measures to overcome the identified barriers. National institutions in Egypt, Ghana and Zimbabwe carried out the country studies based on the basic methodological framework provided by the UNEP Centre. The objectives of the project included strengthening institutional capacity for analysis and implementation of RET projects in the participating countries and bring out experiences on RETs barriers and removal measures for dissemination so that others can benefit from the knowledge so gained. An important highlight of the studies was involvement of stake holders in the process of identification of barriers and measures to remove them. A preliminary identification of relevant RETs for their countries was done by the country teams in the initial stage of the project. After that, national workshops involving various stake holders were held between July and September 1999 to discuss the RETs and barriers to their implementation. Based on the discussions, a few important RETs were identified for more detailed study. PV systems for rural electrification, solar water heating systems and large-scale biogas system were identified and analysed for barriers in the Egypt country study. Economic, information and policy barriers were identified as major barriers for these technologies. Solar water pumps, biogas and small hydro were the focus of study in Ghana. In this case also, economic, information and policy barriers were found to be the important barriers for the selected technologies. In the case of Zimbabwe, focus was on identification of primary and secondary barriers to RETs dissemination. The primary barriers included lack of capacity to develop proposals, lack of information for policy making and framework for information dissemination. The study concluded that the secondary barriers as seen and experienced by the stake holders are due to primary

  5. LiveDiverse: Case study area, Greater Kruger South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nortje, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Livelihoods and Biodiversity in Developing Countries Case study area: Greater Kruger, South Africa January 2011 Kolhapur, India Where are we? HARDSHIP LIVELIHOODS NATURE & BIODIVERSITY BELIEFS & CULTURAL PRACTISE threesansinv foursansinv onesansinv...

  6. Financing universal coverage in Malaysia: a case study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chua, Hong Teck; Cheah, Julius Chee Ho

    2012-01-01

    .... Using Malaysia as a case study, this paper seeks to evaluate the progress and capacity of a middle income country in terms of health financing for universal coverage, and also to highlight some...

  7. Scaling Information Infrastructures: the Case of the Medical Licensing System in a Southeast Asian Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Ngoc Nguyen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Scaling health information system from small scale pilots to national systems in developing countries poses a key challenge to system designers and health managers. As a consequence, many projects dissolve and die before they reach the scale where they are useful for information management. The concept of bootstrapping from the Information Infrastructure literature has proven useful to discuss and understand how to initiate and grow large-scale, complex and networked information systems from scratch. We use this concept to analyze and discuss an empirical case of building a large scale medical licensing system in a Southeast Asian country. Beyond describing the process leading up to the success of the licensing system, we contribute by identifying a range of factors influencing the bootstrapping process and we suggest extensions to make the bootstrapping strategy relevant in this context.

  8. Termination: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, Ahron L

    2015-12-01

    In this article I posit and examine certain criteria and qualities for ending an analysis. The case study describes the end phase of a four-year psychoanalysis in which the patient's decision to move to another area forced the end of his analysis. We continued to explore and work through his core neurotic conflicts that included issues of competitive rivalry, dominance and submission, control, and anxiety about birth and death. A shift in the transference from me as a negative father to me as a supportive but competitive older brother was also examined in the context of ending treatment as well as other aspects of the transference. In addition, we analyzed the meaning of his ending treatment based on an extra-analytic circumstance. In discussing this phase of treatment, the definition and history of the term "termination" and its connotations are reviewed. Various criteria for completing an analysis are examined, and technical observations about this phase of treatment are investigated. It was found that while a significant shift in the transference occurred in this phase of the patient's analysis, conflicts related to the transference were not "resolved" in the classical sense. Terminating treatment was considered as a practical matter in which the patient's autonomy and sense of choice were respected and analyzed.

  9. Compulsory admission and treatment in schizophrenia: a study of ethical attitudes in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Tilman; Lepping, Peter; Baranyai, Réka; Hoffmann, Markus; Leherr, Herbert

    2005-08-01

    This study was conducted to compare attitudes of psychiatrists, other professionals, and laypeople towards compulsory admission and treatment of patients with schizophrenia in different European countries. Three case reports of patients with schizophrenia were presented to N=1,737 persons: 235 in England, 622 in Germany, 319 in Hungary, and 561 in Switzerland; 298 were psychiatrists, 687 other psychiatric or medical professionals, and 752 laypeople. The case reports presented typical clinical situations with refusal of consent to treatment (first episode and social withdrawal, recurrent episode and moderate danger to others and patient with multiple episodes and severe self-neglect). The participants were asked whether they would agree with compulsory admission and compulsory neuroleptic treatment. The rates of agreement varied between 50.8 and 92.1% across countries and between 41.1 and 93.6% across the different professional groups. In all countries, psychologists and social workers supported compulsory procedures significantly less than the psychiatrists who were in tune with laypeople and nurses. Country differences were highly significant showing more agreement with compulsion in Hungary and England and less in Germany and Switzerland (odds ratios up to 4.33). Own history of mental illness and having mentally ill relatives had no major impact on the decisions. Evidence suggests that compulsory procedures are based on traditions and personal attitudes to a considerable degree. Further research should provide empirical data and more definite criteria for indications of compulsive measures to achieve a common ethical framework for those critical decisions across Europe.

  10. Natural Learning Case Study Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Natural Learning Case Study Archives (NLCSA) is a research facility for those interested in using case study analysis to deepen their understanding of common sense knowledge and natural learning (how the mind interacts with everyday experiences to develop common sense knowledge). The database comprises three case study corpora based on experiences…

  11. Cost-effectiveness of introducing a rotavirus vaccine in developing countries: The case of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez Juan-Pablo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developing countries rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhoea and diarrhoeal deaths in children under 5. Vaccination could greatly alleviate that burden, but in Mexico as in most low- and middle-income countries the decision to add rotavirus vaccine to the national immunisation program will depend heavily on its cost-effectiveness and affordability. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of including the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in Mexico's national immunisation program. Methods A cost-effectiveness model was developed from the perspective of the health system, modelling the vaccination of a hypothetical birth cohort of 2 million children monitored from birth through 60 months of age. It compares the cost and disease burden of rotavirus in an unvaccinated cohort of children with one vaccinated as recommended at 2, 4, and 6 months. Results Including the pentavalent vaccine in the national immunisation program could prevent 71,464 medical visits (59%, 5,040 hospital admissions (66%, and 612 deaths from rotavirus gastroenteritis (70%. At US$10 per dose and a cost of administration of US$13.70 per 3-dose regimen, vaccination would cost US$122,058 per death prevented, US$4,383 per discounted life-year saved, at a total net cost of US$74.7 million dollars to the health care system. Key variables influencing the results were, in order of importance, case fatality, vaccine price, vaccine efficacy, serotype prevalence, and annual loss of efficacy. The results are also very sensitive to the discount rate assumed when calculated per life-year saved. Conclusion At prices below US $15 per dose, the cost per life-year saved is estimated to be lower than one GNP per capita and hence highly cost effective by the WHO Commission on Macroeconomics and Health criteria. The cost-effectiveness estimates are highly dependent upon the mortality in the absence of the vaccine, which suggests that the vaccine

  12. Africa OR / TA Project II supporting studies in several countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-01

    During the first 6 months, the Africa OR/TA (Operations Research and Technical Assistance) Project II has helped in generating OR country strategic workplans in various sub-Saharan African countries. Project staff has spent much time collaborating with the Navrongo Health Research Centre (NHRC) in the rural Kassena Nankana district in Ghana in designing the Navrongo Community Health and Family Planning (FP) Project. This area has high fertility and mortality rates. The people hold strong pronatal beliefs. Contraceptive use is low among the mostly unschooled women. If this FP/community health project can effectively deliver FP here, it can be successful elsewhere in Africa. Africa OR/TA Project staff are helping design a FP OR experimental field station. They aim to help the Government of Kenya and USAID Nairobi to lower national fertility levels and the incidence of sexually transmitted HIV in some target groups. The Family Planning Association of Kenya will collaborate with the Project on OR/TA activities which include a national situation analysis study, a study examining the impact of quality of services, and community based distribution (CBD) studies. Project staff would like to see integration of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and FP services. OR activities strengthen the clinic- and community-based portions of the FP program in Tanzania. Staff will help with the evaluation of the effectiveness of the CBD models. The FP program aims to meet the reproductive health needs of men and young adults and to integrate STD/AIDS and FP. Project staff will also help the Botswana Population Assistance Project document and monitor the integration of FP, STD management, and AIDS prevention procedures.

  13. Carbon Market and Integrated Waste Solutions : a Case Study of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Carbon Market and Integrated Waste Solutions : a Case Study of Indonesia. The Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) was established in 1997 with the dual purpose of helping developing countries achieve sustainable development (as defined nationally) and industrialized countries achieve compliance ...

  14. The location of creative industries in a developing country : The case of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahmi, Fikri Zul; Koster, Sierdjan; van Dijk, Jouke

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the occurrence and spatial patterns of creative industries in the context of a developing country, specifically Indonesia. Our findings show that, in the context of Indonesia, it is crucial to distinguish between innovative creative industries and traditional cultural industries.

  15. THE MAGNITUDE AND DETERMINANTS OF CAPITAL FLIGHT - THE CASE FOR 6 SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN COUNTRIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HERMES, N; LENSINK, R

    1992-01-01

    Most studies treat capital flight as an exclusively Latin American problem. This paper estimates capital flight for six African countries and shows that the emphasis on Latin American capital flight is not correct. It appears that the burden of capital flight is also important for many African

  16. Cross-country Differences in Reporting Practices – the Case of Provisions for Liabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Klimczak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the study was to explore and compare reporting practices on provisions for liabilities in different countries. Methodology: The research was limited to the types of provisions that are addressed in the International Accounting Standard 37 - Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets. For the purpose of the study, financial statements of the biggest public companies in Great Britain, Germany and Poland have been chosen to be taken into consideration. The following detailed issues have been explored: - Presentation of the types of provisions in a statement of financial position and additional notes to a financial statement, - Presentation of the amounts of provisions made, used, and reversed during a given period and the effects of changes in the discount rate, - Scope and quality of descriptions of the nature of obligations presented by entities. The results of the analysis have been viewed from two perspectives - the areas of compliance and non-compliance of reporting on provisions with IFRS have been identified and a comparison of the extent of compliance with particular requirements between companies from different countries has been developed. Findings: The results of the analysis have revealed that companies from selected countries demonstrate different levels of compliance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS. Substantial differences in the scope and the quality of descriptive disclosures on provisions have been also identified. Originality/value: The study contributes to the research on cross-country differences in reporting practices and indicates the need for a further analysis of the underlying determinants

  17. Comparison of temporal realistic telecommunication base station exposure with worst-case estimation in two countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouz, Zaher; Verloock, Leen; Joseph, Wout; Tanghe, Emmeric; Gati, Azeddine; Wiart, Joe; Lautru, David; Hanna, Victor Fouad; Martens, Luc

    2013-12-01

    The influence of temporal daily exposure to global system for mobile communications (GSM) and universal mobile telecommunications systems and high speed downlink packet access (UMTS-HSDPA) is investigated using spectrum analyser measurements in two countries, France and Belgium. Temporal variations and traffic distributions are investigated. Three different methods to estimate maximal electric-field exposure are compared. The maximal realistic (99 %) and the maximal theoretical extrapolation factor used to extrapolate the measured broadcast control channel (BCCH) for GSM and the common pilot channel (CPICH) for UMTS are presented and compared for the first time in the two countries. Similar conclusions are found in the two countries for both urban and rural areas: worst-case exposure assessment overestimates realistic maximal exposure up to 5.7 dB for the considered example. In France, the values are the highest, because of the higher population density. The results for the maximal realistic extrapolation factor at the weekdays are similar to those from weekend days.

  18. The Role of Small Countries in Post-Soviet Territorial Restructuring: the Baltic Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This author analyses the 2013 Lithuanian presidency of the EU in the context of the Ukrainian crisis and evaluates the contribution of Latvia and Estonia (the former Soviet republics set to preside over the EU in 2015 and 2018 to the shift in the power balance in the post-Soviet space. Through assessing the actions of small countries in promoting the Eastern Partnership programme with an emphasis on the anti-Russian agenda, the author concludes that they will inflict harm on the EU in a long-term perspective. These former Soviet republics no longer rely on mere diplomacy, but resort to a whole new problematic narrative, where Russia is described as an “aggressive and unpredictable neighbour” that poses the “threat from the East.” Being more mobile, small countries are able to concentrate power and resources in one or several key areas. This makes it possible for these countries to take advantage of international politics (even if the consequences of such steps are miscalculated and “feed” on it through — so metimes consciously — creating “conflict nodes” in the relations between major players. This is especially true in the case of states that do not bear responsibility for global stability.

  19. 425 Case study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marinda

    provides superior pain control, acceptable haemodynamic stability and good fetal outcome if carefully titrated. The risk of spinal anaesthesia is hypotension, infection, and bleeding.8 The latter complication is important if cardiopulmonary bypass will have to be used. In that case the intrathecal catheter should be retained.

  20. Ranking structures and Rank-Rank Correlations of Countries. The FIFA and UEFA cases

    CERN Document Server

    Ausloos, Marcel; Gadomski, Adam; Vitanov, Nikolay K

    2014-01-01

    Ranking of agents competing with each other in complex systems may lead to paradoxes according to the pre-chosen different measures. A discussion is presented on such rank-rank, similar or not, correlations based on the case of European countries ranked by UEFA and FIFA from different soccer competitions. The first question to be answered is whether an empirical and simple law is obtained for such (self-) organizations of complex sociological systems with such different measuring schemes. It is found that the power law form is not the best description contrary to many modern expectations. The stretched exponential is much more adequate. Moreover, it is found that the measuring rules lead to some inner structures, in both cases.

  1. Ranking structures and rank-rank correlations of countries: The FIFA and UEFA cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausloos, Marcel; Cloots, Rudi; Gadomski, Adam; Vitanov, Nikolay K.

    2014-04-01

    Ranking of agents competing with each other in complex systems may lead to paradoxes according to the pre-chosen different measures. A discussion is presented on such rank-rank, similar or not, correlations based on the case of European countries ranked by UEFA and FIFA from different soccer competitions. The first question to be answered is whether an empirical and simple law is obtained for such (self-) organizations of complex sociological systems with such different measuring schemes. It is found that the power law form is not the best description contrary to many modern expectations. The stretched exponential is much more adequate. Moreover, it is found that the measuring rules lead to some inner structures in both cases.

  2. The Digital Divide in Developing Countries: A Case for Distance Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth E. Paprock

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Although distance education is catching up in almost all countries in the world, it is still little known and less studied in many of the developing countries. Given such a lack of coverage even in the Western educational literature, the possibilities of finding in-depth exchanges concerning distance education in developing countries are very limited. This presentation presents the existing 'digital gap' in the world, and focuses on three important barriers to distance education or learning are: 1 the lack of resources 2 lack of infrastructures, and 3 lack of recurrent funding necessary to acquire or develop appropriate software and courseware on a continuous basis, and maintain, service and replace the equipment. Technologists and educators need to enter the developing world, study the market and then modify their wares according to local needs with the help of local industry and labor-force. This is one important way of building meaningful collaborations and partnerships between the developed and developing countries.

  3. Invited Commentary: 30-Year Perspective on the Seven Countries Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Henry

    2017-06-01

    In a 1986 article (Am J Epidemiol. 1986;124(6):903-915), Keys et al. described and discussed 15-year findings from 15 cohorts of the Seven Countries Study (SCS), the first systematic study of diet, risk characteristics, disease-specific death rates, and their ecologic and individual associations both among and within whole populations of working men in regions with contrasting traditional diets. The SCS findings included 30-fold cohort differences in rates of death from coronary heart disease and 3-fold differences in rates of death from all causes, along with strong ecologic associations among diet, risk factors, and disease rates. These results have motivated a generation of causal research conducted using bench, clinical, and population strategies. The study has contributed to survey methods, preventive practice, nutrition science, and policy on health, food and agriculture, and diet. The article is a succinct and accessible account by Ancel Keys, near the end of his long career, of the SCS design, conduct, and findings, with his discussion and interpretation of their importance. My commentary deals with the extent, validity, and historical meaning of SCS findings, as well as their influence and the influence of the 1986 article itself on epidemiologic thought and on public health. Students of epidemiology and of history should read this rich original source. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Health checkup and telemedical intervention program for preventive medicine in developing countries: verification study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Yasunobu; Kai, Eiko; Ghosh, Partha Pratim; Islam, Rafiqul; Ahmed, Ashir; Kuroda, Masahiro; Inoue, Sozo; Hiramatsu, Tatsuo; Kimura, Michio; Shimizu, Shuji; Kobayashi, Kunihisa; Baba, Yukino; Kashima, Hisashi; Tsuda, Koji; Sugiyama, Masashi; Blondel, Mathieu; Ueda, Naonori; Kitsuregawa, Masaru; Nakashima, Naoki

    2015-01-28

    The prevalence of non-communicable diseases is increasing throughout the world, including developing countries. The intent was to conduct a study of a preventive medical service in a developing country, combining eHealth checkups and teleconsultation as well as assess stratification rules and the short-term effects of intervention. We developed an eHealth system that comprises a set of sensor devices in an attaché case, a data transmission system linked to a mobile network, and a data management application. We provided eHealth checkups for the populations of five villages and the employees of five factories/offices in Bangladesh. Individual health condition was automatically categorized into four grades based on international diagnostic standards: green (healthy), yellow (caution), orange (affected), and red (emergent). We provided teleconsultation for orange- and red-grade subjects and we provided teleprescription for these subjects as required. The first checkup was provided to 16,741 subjects. After one year, 2361 subjects participated in the second checkup and the systolic blood pressure of these subjects was significantly decreased from an average of 121 mmHg to an average of 116 mmHg (Plearning technique (random forest method) using the medical interview, subject profiles, and checkup results as predictor to avoid costly measurements of blood sugar, to ensure sustainability of the program in developing countries. The results of this study demonstrate the benefits of an eHealth checkup and teleconsultation program as an effective health care system in developing countries.

  5. Emotion, Engagement, and Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Terry, David R.; Lemons, Paula; Armstrong, Norris; Brickman, Peggy; Ribbens, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Three college faculty taught large general biology classes using case studies and personal response systems (clickers). Each instructor taught the same eight cases in two different sections, except the questions within the cases differed. In one section the questions were lower order (LO) factual inquiries, and in the other they were largely…

  6. Does Cyberbullying Prevalence Among Adolescents Relate With Country Socioeconomic and Development Indicators? An Ecological Study of 31 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Sara; Brochado, Sandra; Barros, Henrique; Fraga, Sílvia

    2017-10-01

    In addition to individual characteristics, it is also important to evaluate how the environment may influence the dynamics of cyberbullying. We aim to study the correlation between cyberbullying prevalence among adolescents and selected country-level indicators. We used two different data sources: data from a previously published literature review, to identify information on cyberbullying prevalence across countries, and data from the World Bank databases, to extract information on country-level indicators. A correlation matrix was used to present the association between the selected country-level indicators and the prevalence of cyberbullying. We observed a statistically significant negative correlation between cyberbullying victimization (cybervictims and cyberbully-victims, respectively) and gross domestic product (r = -.474 and -.842), gross national income (r = -.485 and -.758), enrollment in secondary (r = -.446 and -.898) and tertiary education (r = -.222 and -.881), the number of secure Internet servers (r = -.118 and -.794), and the number of Internet users (r = -.190 and -.818). A country's educational level seems to be an important contributor to the occurrence of cyberbullying.

  7. Theory Testing Using Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke; Dissing Sørensen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    testing using case studies, including the associated research goal, analysis, and generalisability. We argue that research designs for theory testing using case studies differ from theorybuilding case study research designs because different research projects serve different purposes and follow different......The appropriateness of case studies as a tool for theory testing is still a controversial issue, and discussions about the weaknesses of such research designs have previously taken precedence over those about its strengths. The purpose of the paper is to examine and revive the approach of theory...... research paths....

  8. Cluster Policy in the Light of Institutional Context—A Comparative Study of Transition Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Lehmann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The business environment in transition countries is often extraordinarily challenging for companies. The transition process these countries find themselves in leads to constant changes in the institutional environment. Hence, institutional voids prevail. These institutional voids cause competitive disadvantages for small and medium enterprises. Cluster policy can address these competitive disadvantages. As cluster policy generally aims at supporting companies’ competitive advantage by spurring innovation and productivity, it can help to bridge institutional voids. This article’s research question aims at analyzing and comparing cluster policies in the institutional context of two transition countries (Serbia and Tunisia and analyzes to what extent cluster policies in these two countries are adapted to institutional voids prevailing there. The case studies offer insights into apparent difficulties of clusters in bridging formal institutional voids, as well as, notably, into the informal void of skill mismatches in the labor market. Still, for some specific voids, clusters do at least implicitly assume a bridging role. While the cluster policies examined do not explicitly target the institutional voids identified, cluster management can—in the course of time—align its service offering more closely with these voids. Bottom-up designed cluster policies can play an especially important role in such an evolution towards bridging institutional voids.

  9. Facebook use and acculturation: The case of overseas Chinese professionals in western countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Yuping; Qian, Yuxia

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe emergence of social network sites has provided new opportunities for intercultural communication. This study is one of the first to explore the role of Facebook on the acculturation of Chinese professionals overseas. Through qualitative interviews, we explored how overseas Chinese professionals use Facebook to maintain their social networks, manage their multicultural identities, and adapt to Western culture in their host countries. Our research reveals that overseas Chinese p...

  10. Marketing channels for wild and cultivated edible mushrooms in developing countries: the case of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    D. Martínez Carrera; D. Nava; M. Sobal; M. Bonilla; Y. Mayett

    2005-01-01

    Food products require efficient marketing systems to move from producers to consumers keeping high quality and price. In many developing countries, although mushroom production is well established and increasing, the marketing systems are poorly understood. During 1999-2004, we studied the channels of distribution for wild and cultivated mushrooms in central Mexico following an institutional approach (550 interviews). Most wild and cultivated mushrooms are marketed within this ...

  11. E-GOVERNMENT SUCCESS FACTORS FROM A BUSINESSES PERSPECTIVE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A CASE OF JORDAN

    OpenAIRE

    Anas Ghassan Kanaan; Shahizan Bin Hassan

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a study which examines several e-government success factors in Jordan. Due to the pace of globalization and rapid global growth of technology and the Internet information, many governments around the world have turned their services from traditional services into e-government services. Were the citizens, business organizations and other stakeholders are served via the internet. Jordan is one of the rare countries in the Middle East with a history of commitment to good gove...

  12. Gender Inequality and Growth : The Case of Rich vs. Poor Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, Mohammad; Kuntchev, Veselin; Schmidt, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses cross-section data for 107 countries to explore the relationship between gender inequality and economic growth. The paper departs from the literature by using a broad measure of gender inequality that goes well beyond gender inequality in education, which has been the focus of most studies. Another novelty of the paper lies in exploring heterogeneity in the growth-gender in...

  13. Tax Policy Debate Over Tax Incentives in Developing Countries: the Case of Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Abdellatif, Mahmoud M.; Tran-Nam, Binh

    2016-01-01

    Tax policy is normally formulated and implemented during politically stable periods. The collapse of the Soviet Union and Eastern bloc countries in the early 1990s have allowed researchers to study tax policy reform in transition economies with changing political and economic systems. This article aims to examine tax policy challenges in Egypt as a result of the revolution in 2011. Egypt has been chosen because of its importance in the Arab world and its interesting tax reform, including a ra...

  14. An Investigation of Determinants Global Entrepreneurship: Multi-Country Panel Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riznaldi Akbar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the validity of governmental supports and policies; and financing for entrepreneurs in the context of global entrepreneurial activities. Our studies are based on the rich datasets of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM database covering 108 countries from 2001 to 2014. In this study, we examine whether countries with more favorable policies and supports towards entrepreneurship and availability of financing for entrepreneurs would result in the higher country’s entrepreneurial activities. We use total early-stage entrepreneurial activity (TEA, a percentage of 18 - 64 year old population who are either a nascent entrepreneur or an owner manager of a new business, as our dependent variable to represent country’s entrepreneurial activities. There are two main explanatory variables used in the study: governmental supports and financing for entrepreneurs. The governmental supports represents the extent to which public policies support entrepreneurship as a relevant economic issue, while financing for entrepreneurs indicates the availability of financial resources for small and medium enterprises (SMEs including grants and subsidies. We also include three control variables of basic school entrepreneurial education and training; physical and services infrastructure; and cultural and social norms to test the significance of these factors to the country’s entrepreneurial activities. This study adopts panel regression model augmented with control variables. We favor Random Effect model as opposed to Fixed Effect or Pooled OLS model as Hausman and Breusch–Pagan test suggest. Our results suggest that there is no evident that government supports have significant contribution to country’s entrepreneurial activities.  In other words, entrepreneurial activities are more flourished in a country that has not set entrepreneurship as relevant economic issues as it might be the case for many emerging countries. The availability of

  15. Self-regulation and the new challenges in journalism: Comparative study across European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Karmasin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to compare the self-regulatory systems of the journalistic profession in Austria, Germany, Denmark, Estonia, Spain, France and Poland. Based on the analysis of the different cases and situations in these seven countries, we offer a comparative analysis of the existence of: ethical codes, pro-consumers associations, print and audiovisual press councils, level of organization and unionism among journalists. The results reveal deficiencies in the European systems as well as progressions in the implementation of self-regulation tools in the journalistic profession, mainly in the field of print and audiovisual media. In most European countries under study, online newspapers lack self-regulatory tools, except for the regulation coming from their parent print or broadcast media companies.

  16. MIGRANTS' REMITTANCES: ECONOMIC LIFELINE BUT FRAGILE SUPPORT FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. THE CASE OF BELARUS, MOLDOVA AND UKRAINE (A MACROECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Burnete

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Today's economic development on a global scale is highly dependent on the free movement of factors of production across national borders in search of highest return in case of capital, highest compensation in case of technological and managerial capabilities, biggest pay envelope, in case of physical labor and so on. Although the latter has long been hampered from moving owing, on the one hand, to deterrence policies pursued by home countries' governments, and on the other hand, to barriers erected against immigration by host countries, legions of workers of various skills and abilities managed to shift to developed countries in order to find better-paid jobs. People heading for the West generally succeeded in saving significant shares of their earnings, which they would send to their families at home. The paper contains a comparative analysis aimed at ascertaining the effects of remittances on the economies of three ex-Soviet countries: Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine.

  17. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN POST-CONFLICT COUNTRIES: THE CASE OF IRAQ’S OIL AND ELECTRICITY SECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan Faraj Hanna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investment is new phenomenon to Iraq, a post conflict country with abundance of natural resources. With dominant state-controlled public sector, attracting foreign investment is an added challenge to an economy devastated by years of wars. A qualitative case study was conducted to assess determinants of foreign direct investment in Iraq’s energy sector. Data was collected from interviews with business and government subject matter experts, and a review of publically available documents. Lack of security, political instability, corruption, and inadequate government policies towards foreign direct investment as symptoms found and typically shared by other post-conflict countries. The persistence of violence was not seen as a deterrent; however, foreign direct investment activity in the energy sector was virtually limited to the semi-autonomous region of Kurdistan. Investments were either wholly-owned or joint-venture enterprises. Implications to other post conflict countries, using Kuwait and Nigeria as illustrative examples, are presented and recommendations made.

  18. Does Innovation Performance Depend on Economic Growth?: The Case of a Country in Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej H Jasinski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to analyze a possible influence of economic growth on innovation performance. Econometric model based on principal component analysis is the research tool. Poland, as a country in transition, is here a case-study. The analysis has confirmed an interesting pattern: in 1989-2007, corporate innovation performance was changing, in principle, in the same direction as macro-economic changes but with a one-to-two-year delay. This is some proof that the innovation activity followed the cyclical development of the national economy. Innovation performance was demand-driven, i.e., pulled by demand resulting from the economy's recovery and high economic growth. So, technological innovation appeared to be highly sensitive to the general economic situation in Poland as a transitional economy. Economic growth seems to be a kind of tag-boat pulling innovation activities in the business sector.Este artículo intenta analizar una posible influencia del crecimiento económico en el desempeño de la innovación. La herramienta de investigación empleada es el modelo econométrico basado en un componente principal de análisis. El estudio de caso es Polonia, una economía en transición. El análisis ha confirmado un patrón interesante: durante el periodo 1989-2007, el desempeño de la innovación cambió, en principio, en la misma dirección que los cambios macroeconómicos pero con un retraso de uno a dos años. Esto muestra de algún modo que la actividad innovadora correspondió al desarrollo cíclico de la economía nacional. El desempeño innovador se orientó por la demanda, es decir, una demanda impulsada por la recuperación económica y el alto crecimiento económico. Por lo tanto, la innovación tecnológica parece ser muy sensible a la situación económica en general de Polonia, como economía en transición. El crecimiento económico parece ser una especie de motor que impulsa las actividades innovadoras del sector de negocios.

  19. Nested case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernster, V L

    1994-09-01

    The nested case-control study design (or the case-control in a cohort study) is described here and compared with other designs, including the classic case-control and cohort studies and the case-cohort study. In the nested case-control study, cases of a disease that occur in a defined cohort are identified and, for each, a specified number of matched controls is selected from among those in the cohort who have not developed the disease by the time of disease occurrence in the case. For many research questions, the nested case-control design potentially offers impressive reductions in costs and efforts of data collection and analysis compared with the full cohort approach, with relatively minor loss in statistical efficiency. The nested case-control design is particularly advantageous for studies of biologic precursors of disease. To advance its prevention research agenda, NIH might be encouraged to maintain a registry of new and existing cohorts, with an inventory of data collected for each; to foster the development of specimen banks; and to serve as a clearinghouse for information about optimal storage conditions for various types of specimens.

  20. The re-emergence of dengue virus in non-endemic countries: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonsenso, Danilo; Barone, Giovanni; Onesimo, Roberta; Calzedda, Roberta; Chiaretti, Antonio; Valentini, Piero

    2014-09-03

    Dengue has been designated a major international public health problem by the World Health Organization. It is endemic in most tropical and sub-tropical countries, which are also popular tourist destinations. Travelers are at significant risk of acquiring the disease and also contribute to its spread to non-endemic countries where the vector is present. Children represent a particular susceptible category, since they have a higher risk than adults of developing severe dengue. We describe 3 cases of imported dengue fever in Italy in three children (two born in the Philippines and one of Bangladeshi ethnicity) who acquired dengue fever during a recent travel to Southeast Asia, initially not-recognized because of the low index of suspicion of physicians not working in dengue endemic areas. Clinical presentations, differential diagnosis and management of these children are presented and discussed. Due to global urbanization and increased air travel, it is nowadays important that physicians who practice outside of traditionally dengue endemic areas are adept at the recognition of potentially fatal reemerging infectious diseases such as dengue.

  1. Theory testing using case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing Sørensen, Pernille; Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina

    Case studies may have different research goals. One such goal is the testing of small-scale and middle-range theories. Theory testing refers to the critical examination, observation, and evaluation of the 'why' and 'how' of a specified phenomenon in a particular setting. In this paper, we focus...... on the strengths of theory-testing case studies. We specify research paths associated with theory testing in case studies and present a coherent argument for the logic of theoretical development and refinement using case studies. We emphasize different uses of rival explanations and their implications for research...... design. Finally, we discuss the epistemological logic, i.e., the value to larger research programmes, of such studies and, following Lakatos, conclude that the value of theory-testing case studies lies beyond naïve falsification and in their contribution to developing research programmes in a progressive...

  2. 451 Case studies Cardiac

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marinda

    There appears to be a general agreement that 2% lignocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine should be used whenever possible specially while using volatile anaesthetics like halothane. Various studies were done comparing varying doses of epinephrine in combination with local anaesthetics and studying their effects.

  3. Corruption costs lives: evidence from a cross-country study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; An, Lian; Xu, Jing; Baliamoune-Lutz, Mina

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of corruption on health outcomes by using cross-country panel data covering about 150 countries for the period of 1995 to 2012. We employ ordinary least squares (OLS), fixed-effects and two-stage least squares (2SLS) estimation methods, and find that corruption significantly increases mortality rates, and reduces life expectancy and immunization rates. The results are consistent across different regions, gender, and measures of corruption. The findings suggest that reducing corruption can be an effective method to improve health outcomes.

  4. Online Collaborative Case Study Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    Case study learning was integrated into a course designed to improve students' potential for academic success and increase student retention. Case studies related to self-regulation of behavior, motivation, and cognition for academic tasks were used to prompt students' critical thinking and facilitate deep learning of self-regulation topics,…

  5. 473 case studies.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case Studies: Systemic complications following absolute alcohol embolisation of scalp arteriovenous malformation. 2010;16(2). S Afr J Anaesthesiol Analg. Case study: Systemic complications following absolute alcohol embolisation of scalp arteriovenous malformation a AgrawalS, MD, PDCC a Payal YS, MD b BurathokiS ...

  6. Fuzzy-Set Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Kim Sass

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary case studies rely on verbal arguments and set theory to build or evaluate theoretical claims. While existing procedures excel in the use of qualitative information (information about kind), they ignore quantitative information (information about degree) at central points of the analysis. Effectively, contemporary case studies rely on…

  7. Non-specific beneficial effect of measles immunisation: analysis of mortality studies from developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, P.; Samb, B.; Simondon, F.; Seck, A. M.; Knudsen, K.; Whittle, H.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine whether the reduction in mortality after standard titre measles immunisation in developing countries can be explained simply by the prevention of acute measles and its long term consequences. DESIGN--An analysis of all studies comparing mortality of unimmunised children and children immunised with standard titre measles vaccine in developing countries. STUDIES--10 cohort and two case-control studies from Bangladesh, Benin, Burundi, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Senegal, and Zaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Protective efficacy of standard titre measles immunisation against all cause mortality. Extent to which difference in mortality between immunised and unimmunised children could be explained by prevention of measles disease. RESULTS--Protective efficacy against death after measles immunisation ranged from 30% to 86%. Efficacy was highest in the studies with short follow up and when children were immunised in infancy (range 44-100%). Vaccine efficacy against death was much greater than the proportion of deaths attributed to acute measles disease. In four studies from Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, and Burundi vaccine efficacy against death remained almost unchanged when cases of measles were excluded from the analysis. Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and polio vaccinations were not associated with reduction in mortality. CONCLUSION--These observations suggest that standard titre measles vaccine may confer a beneficial effect which is unrelated to the specific protection against measles disease. PMID:7647643

  8. Recent sedimentary study of the shelf of the Basque country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouanneau, J.-M.; Weber, O.; Champilou, N.; Cirac, P.; Muxika, I.; Borja, A.; Pascual, A.; Rodríguez-Lázaro, J.; Donard, O.

    2008-07-01

    The Northern Iberian margin of the Spanish Basque country (provinces of Gipuzkoa and Viscaia) is characterized by a narrow continental platform, which receives inputs of riverine particulate matter from the numerous riverine systems located within the Basque country. This particulate matter is subsequently deposited within the Bay of Biscay, and Gouf de Capbreton [Frouin, R., Fiuza, A.F.G., Ambar, I., Boyd, T.J., 1990. Observations of a poleward surface current off the coasts of Portugal and Spain during winter. Journal of Geophysical Research 95 (C1), 679-691]. The main goal of this study is to establish a map of the surface sediment distribution of the Basque continental shelf and more specifically to map the muddy patch located at the eastern side of that continental shelf. Three oceanographic cruises were conducted in 2003 and 2004. From these campaigns 340 surface samples, 12 short cores and 3 gravity cores have been collected over the mid and outer shelf from depths ranging between 50 m and 150 m deep. 3 seismic profiles were obtained across the shelf mud patch using a Sparker device. Sediment grain-size analyses were performed by the classical physical method of sieving and use of settling columns. The POC (Particular Organic Carbon) amounts in sediment and water samples were determined using the Strickland and Parsons' method [Strickland, J.D.H., Parsons, T.R., 1972. Determination of particulate carbon. In : A practical handbook of seawater analysis. Fisheries ResearchBoard of Canada, Ottawa, pp. 207-211] as adapted by Etcheber [Etcheber, H., 1981. Comparaison des diverses méthodes d'évaluation des teneurs en matières en suspension et en carbone organique particulaire des eaux marines du plateau continental aquitain. Journal de Recherche Océanographique VI (2), 37-42]. Radioisotopic measurements ( 210Pb exc) were made using a semi-planar germanium detector coupled to a multichannel analyser. Radiographical analysis was performed with an X-ray equipment

  9. The Graduate Experience: Living and Studying Abroad (A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Hernández Castañeda

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is a qualitative case study describing the experience of Angélica an international graduate student from Latin America, who received her doctorate at the University of New Mexico in the United States. Her case demonstrated how administrators and faculty learn about the experience and struggles endured by international students, especially those who learned English a short time before admission to graduate studies. While a single case is understandably idiographic in nature and inevitably requires a larger sample, from the analysis of Angélica’s case and the analysis of the relevant literature common topics emerged persuading me to conclude that the issues that commonly impact the life of international students have to do with: 1 second language problems; 2 the quality of academic advisement received; 3 the availability of financial support; 4 the level of integration into their academic program; and 5 the level of cultural adjustment in their host country.

  10. PROFESSIONAL JUDGMENT AND CREATIVE ACCOUNTING UNDER IFRS IN EX-COMMUNIST COUNTRIES: CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEGAN Ovidiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The accounting rules from each country evolve in time in order to respond the social, cultural and economical environment needs. After some communist countries (as Romania, Bulgaria, Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovenia, Estonia, Lithuania, s.o. joined the European Union an important number of local companies became to apply accounting regulation according with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS. This paper surveys the theoretical and empirical literature on the possible risks for companies management from ex-communist counties by applying (mandatory or voluntary International Financial Reporting Standards reporting regulation and professional judgment. Under the pressure of economic globalization all the ex-communist countries ware obliged to adopt International Financial Reporting Standards in the field of accounting. The main objective of this paper is to find out from the experience of different companies who already adopted IFRS which are the risks related to professional judgment application under IFRS on the financial statement users. As research methodology we integrated theoretical and empirical studies from accounting and law (especially from Romanian experience in order to contribute to the cross-fertilization of our field of interest. As final results of our paper we find that the biggest risk of applying professional judgment prescribed by IFRS in ex-communist countries is to appear different creative accounting techniques which influence in a negative way the decision-making process for the financial statements users. During worldwide financial crisis the majority of Romanian companies tried to use in the most appropriate way the professional judgment in order to arrange their financial reports and to save company's money (in relation with local government or to show higher performance (in relation with financial institutions for the fund-raising process We identified several motivations including the existence

  11. Country leadership and policy are critical factors for implementing laboratory accreditation in developing countries: a study on Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opio, Alex; Wafula, Winnie; Amone, Jackson; Kajumbula, Henry; Nkengasong, John N

    2010-09-01

    Accreditation of laboratories is one means to promote quality laboratory services, underscoring the need to document factors that facilitate laboratory accreditation. A desk review and key informant's interviews were conducted to determine the roles of country leadership and policies in laboratory accreditation. Overall, the review revealed that Uganda has enabling factors for laboratory accreditation, putting the country in a state of accreditation-readiness and including strong leadership that provides stewardship and availability of a national health laboratory policy with an explicit statement on laboratory accreditation. A National Laboratory Technical and Policy Committee coordinated the development of the policy. Laboratory training schools provide leadership in training laboratory professionals, while the Association of Medical Laboratory Technologists provides professional leadership. Although there is no national accreditation system, some laboratories are participating in international laboratory accreditation. Key informants expressed strong support for and observed that laboratory accreditation is beneficial and can be implemented in Uganda. Lessons from this study can benefit countries planning to implement laboratory accreditation. Countries that have not developed national laboratory policies and strategic plans should do so to guide the strengthening of laboratory systems and services as a part of health systems strengthening, which would be a springboard for laboratory accreditation.

  12. Information Security in the Digital Age: The Case of Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iguehi Joy Ikenwe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Information security is an important issue and a growing concern that affects all sectors in this digital age. Lack of information security can lead to confidential information being accessed by unauthorized persons or integrity of information being compromised. In light of these, the present study addresses information security in developing countries. There are six objectives to guide the study. Findings reveal that information security is an important area, worthy of attention. As such, awareness should be enhanced among all stakeholders in information management. Possible challenges to information security are stated and recommendations proffered.

  13. national Case study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    expansive orientation to knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge is required, if quality education is to emerge. The study provides a revised conceptual framework for the Teacher. Development Network (TEDN) programme, with guidance on key elements necessary to take the programme forward in Phase 2.

  14. Southern Appalachian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles C. van Sickle

    1999-01-01

    The Southern Appalachian study covers a region of 37.4 million acres. Its mountains, foothills, and valleys stretch from northern Virginia and northern West Virginia to northern Georgia and Alabama. When Native Americans came to the region, forests dominated the landscape and they still do, covering 70% of the land (Figure 32.1). Terrain characteristics are...

  15. Case study: Tourism marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Kennell, James

    2014-01-01

    Tourism can be a challenging subject for students because it is both dynamic and susceptible to economic turbulence and shifts in trends. Tourism: A Modern Synthesis is an essential textbook for tourism students looking for a clear and comprehensive introduction to their studies which helps overcome these challenges. The authors apply a strong business approach to the subject reflecting developments in the teaching and content of modern courses and the text covers both key principles and cont...

  16. IVHS institutional issues and case studies : Travtek case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    This operational test case study is one of six performed in response to a Volpe : National Transportation Systems Center technical task directive (TTD) to : Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) entitled, IVHS : Institutional Issue...

  17. IVHS institutional issues and case studies : ADVANCE case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    This operational test case study is one of six performed in response to a Volpe : National Transportation Systems Center technical task directive (TTD) to : Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) entitled, IVHS : Institutional Issue...

  18. Sustainable housing for developing countries: A case study in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, Sandra L [Arizona (United States)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the project of a home designed for a middle class Mexican family. The project emphasizes the use of low energy building design to reduce the impact of new construction upon the environment, natural resources, and the building occupants. [Spanish] Este articulo presenta el proyecto arquitectonico de una casa habitacional disenado para una familia de clase media en Mexico. El proyecto intenta promover el diseno de edificios de bajo consumo energetico, con objeto de reducir el impacto de la construccion sobre el medio ambiente, los recursos naturales y los ocupantes del espacio en cuestion.

  19. Types and Outcome of Fetal Urinary Anomalies in Low Resource Setting Countries: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Hend; Hemida, Reda; Nabil, Hanan; Ibrahim, Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract in the developing countries have a poor prognosis due to limited experience in antenatal and postnatal management. A 3-year retrospective study was carried out from January 2011 to December 2013. The following data were collected and analyzed: maternal age, gravidity, parity, gestational age at diagnosis, and ultrasonography findings. Final diagnosis after birth, the performed surgeries, follow-up data, as well as survival at one year were also analyzed. The mean age of the included patients was 28 years (range 20-35 years). The mean parity was 1.7 (range 0-4). The mean gestational age at diagnosis was 26 weeks (range 15-36 weeks). Consanguinity was reported in 10 cases (24.4 %). There were 25 males and 16 females. Bilateral renal agenesis was the commonest type (19.5 %). The anomalies of kidneys and urinary tract in our cases were associated with other anomalies in 8 cases (19.5 %). Oligohydramnios was detected in bilateral renal agenesis and posterior urethral valve. Surgical interference during the first 6 months was performed in 6 cases; pyeloplasty for unilateral or bilateral hydronephrosis was performed in 5 cases; and excision of solitary renal cyst performed in one case. By the end of the first year, two of the three cases with chronic renal disease, who were under peritoneal dialysis, died, and three cases who had undergone pyeloplasty were lost to follow-up. Among the 41 cases with antenatally diagnosed renal and urinary malformations; bilateral renal agenesis was the commonest anomaly (19.5 %). There were high rates of induction of abortion, IUFD, and neonatal deaths. The poor outcome may be due to lack of experience in performing invasive therapeutic fetal procedures.

  20. Case Studies in Science Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Karen

    2010-03-01

    Everyone in science should have ethics education training. I have seen graduate students taken advantage of by their mentors. Many of us have seen misconduct...but what should we do about it? Young scientists are often unaware of the rules in science and make mistakes because of their ignorance of the rules in that particular field of study. Then there are an increasing number of cases in the news of overt cases of misrepresentation in science. All are welcome to attend this discussion of case studies. A case study on topics such as: how to treat data properly, how our values in science affect our work, who gets authorship on scientific papers, who is first author on a paper, what you should do if you uncover misconduct or plagiarism in your university, and we will discuss the scientist's role in society. This will be a painless, non-confrontational small group, then large group discussion of each case

  1. Final report on case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungberg, Daniel; McKelvey, Maureen; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2012-01-01

    Case study as a research design means investigating a single or multiple instance(s) or setting(s) (i.e. a case) and its entire context to explain a phenomenon and its processes. This is achieved through detailed understanding, usually comprised of multiple sources of information. In this way, ca...

  2. Determining factors affecting tourism demand for Malaysia using ARDL modeling: A case of Europe countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhan, Nurbaizura; Arsad, Zainudin

    2016-10-01

    Tourism industry is the second largest foreign exchange earner after manufacturing in Malaysia. With regards to the importance of tourism industry in Malaysia, any factors that influence tourism demand should be considered cautiously by the government and tourism authorities in order to attract more international tourists in the near future. The purpose of this study is to investigate the dynamic long-run and short-run relationship between the number of international tourist arrivals from six European countries and four selected economic variables. The economic variables used in this study are exchange rate, gross domestic product, relative price and substitute relative price. This study also examines the impact of the European Sovereign crisis on the number of arrivals from the selected European countries to Malaysia. The data covers the period from quarter 1 (Q1) of 1999 to quarter 3 (Q3) of 2014 and employs the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach proposed by Pesaran et al. (2001). The results of unit root test show a mixture of integrated at level and order one, I(0) and I(1). The results show that there exist long-run cointegration between the number of international tourist arrivals and exchange rate, level of income, tourism price and substitute tourism price for all countries. Generally, the results show that level of income is in line with the economic theory and Thailand is a competing destination for the tourism industry in Malaysia. Surprisingly, relative price is found to have positive impact on the number of arrivals to Malaysia and this suggests that an increase in the price level in Malaysia is unexpectedly increase the number of international tourist arrivals to Malaysia. Therefore the Malaysian government and tourism authorities should continue the efforts to withstand the growth of the tourism industry.

  3. Metrology in Pharmaceutical Industry - A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvamoto, Priscila D.; Fermam, Ricardo K. S.; Nascimento, Elizabeth S.

    2016-07-01

    Metrology is recognized by improving production process, increasing the productivity, giving more reliability to the measurements and consequently, it impacts in the economy of a country. Pharmaceutical area developed GMP (Good Manufacture Practice) requeriments, with no introduction of metrological concepts. However, due to Nanomedicines, it is expected this approach and the consequent positive results. The aim of this work is to verify the level of metrology implementation in a Brazilian pharmaceutical industry, using a case study. The purpose is a better mutual comprehension by both areas, acting together and governmental support to robustness of Brazilian pharmaceutical area.

  4. East Asia and the Pacific Region Urban Sanitation Review : Philippines Country Study

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This Philippines country study forms part of the East Asia and the Pacific region urban sanitation review that focuses on three of the emerging middle income countries of East Asia: Indonesia, Philippines, and Vietnam. The regional review aims to develop a strategic framework to help guide national urban sanitation programs and their implementation in these emerging middle income countries...

  5. Hosting mega sport events in a small country: The (real impact on the development - cases of Croatia and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šimić-Banović Ružica

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Majority of studies on the impact of the sports events on country's development are produced before the events take place and as such are in favour of the bidding process. When comparing these ex ante analyses to the ex post evidence, it has been in most cases obvious that they have been overly optimistic. This paper analyses the ex ante analysis provided by the Croatian bidding committee for the European Football Championship 2012. In addition to that, the ex ante study for the World Handball Championship 2009 in Croatia and (insufficient data for the handball championships that took place in Serbia were analysed as well. This paper contributes both to the debate on the realistic approach of several failed and won bids, and the debate on the future bids for the other sport events.

  6. What’s Wrong with the Study of China/Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans KUIJPER

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the thesis is submitted that there is something fundamentally amiss in Western Sinology (Zhōngguóxué, as distinct from Hànxué, which is a kind of old-fashioned philology: ‘China experts’ either pretend to be knowledgeable about everything related to China, in which case they cannot be taken seriously, or–– eventually––admit not to be scientific all-rounders with respect to the country, in which case they cannot be called ‘China experts’. The author expects no tenured professor of Chinese Studies/History to share this view. Having exposed the weakness, indeed the scandal of old-style Sinology, he also points out the way junior Sinologists should go. The fork in that road is two-pronged: translating or collaborating.

  7. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES (CHICAGO, IL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  8. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES (DENVER PRESENTATION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  9. Hydrogeologic Case Studies (Seattle, WA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  10. Comparative Study of Physics Curriculum in Iran with Several Other Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekarbaghani, Ashrafoalsadat

    2016-01-01

    This article is a qualitative study, which was done in 2013-2014. In this study using a comparative study was conducted to compare physics curriculum elements of Iran with the countries studied. Countries studied: Singapore, Turkey, India, England and Australia have diverse educational system. In this study, the structure of the educational…

  11. Implementation of deinstitutionalization of child care institutions in post-soviet countries: The case of Azerbaijan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huseynli, Aytakin

    2018-02-01

    Institutional care has proven to be detrimental for child development. This study examined the status of the State Program on Deinstitutionalization and Alternative Care (SPDAC), a public policy aimed at transforming 55 institutions covering 14,500 children during 2006-2016 in Azerbaijan. The success of this public policy was crucial for the country's entire child welfare system. The study used a crosssectional, descriptive, exploratory, and qualitative method. Data were collected through in-depth, semistructured interviews and archival resources. Twenty key informants were selected through a purposive sampling strategy. They led projects or were heads of departments related to implementing the SPDAC at government agencies, national or international nongovernmental organizations, UNICEF, or as social workers in newly established alternative services. Interviews were analyzed in TAMSAnalyzer. Themes supporting possible explanations such as lack of political will, weak child protection systems, weak civil society, illequipped human resources, absence of alternative services, and low levels of knowledge of children's rights emerged in the analysis. The findings could contribute to research on child welfare reform and reflect hidden factors behind policies to guide practice in former Soviet Union states and countries rich in natural resources such oil, gas, and minerals. The primary finding of a lack of political will raises the question of how to create political will and how to motivate government officials to invest in the welfare of children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Investment case for improving maternal and child health: results from four countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez Soto, Eliana; La Vincente, Sophie; Clark, Andrew; Firth, Sonja; Morgan, Alison; Dettrick, Zoe; Dayal, Prarthna; Aldaba, Bernardino M; Kosen, Soewarta; Kraft, Aleli D; Panicker, Rajashree; Prasai, Yogendra; Trisnantoro, Laksono; Varghese, Beena; Widiati, Yulia

    2013-06-21

    Without addressing the constraints specific to disadvantaged populations, national health policies such as universal health coverage risk increasing equity gaps. Health system constraints often have the greatest impact on disadvantaged populations, resulting in poor access to quality health services among vulnerable groups. The Investment Cases in Indonesia, Nepal, Philippines, and the state of Orissa in India were implemented to support evidence-based sub-national planning and budgeting for equitable scale-up of quality MNCH services. The Investment Case framework combines the basic setup of strategic problem solving with a decision-support model. The analysis and identification of strategies to scale-up priority MNCH interventions is conducted by in-country planners and policymakers with facilitation from local and international research partners. Significant variation in scaling-up constraints, strategies, and associated costs were identified between countries and across urban and rural typologies. Community-based strategies have been considered for rural populations served predominantly by public providers, but this analysis suggests that the scaling-up of maternal, newborn, and child health services requires health system interventions focused on 'getting the basics right'. These include upgrading or building facilities, training and redistribution of staff, better supervision, and strengthening the procurement of essential commodities. Some of these strategies involve substantial early capital expenditure in remote and sparsely populated districts. These supply-side strategies are not only the 'best buys', but also the 'required buys' to ensure the quality of health services as coverage increases. By contrast, such public supply strategies may not be the 'best buys' in densely populated urbanised settings, served by a mix of public and private providers. Instead, robust regulatory and supervisory mechanisms are required to improve the accessibility and

  13. Childhood Sexual Violence Against Boys: A Study in 3 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Steven A; Mercy, James A; Buluma, Robert; Mwangi, Mary W; Marcelin, Louis H; Kheam, They; Lea, Veronica; Brookmeyer, Kathryn; Kress, Howard; Hillis, Susan D

    2016-05-01

    Globally, little evidence exists on sexual violence against boys. We sought to produce the first internationally comparable estimates of the magnitude, characteristics, risk factors, and consequences of sexual violence against boys in 3 diverse countries. We conducted nationally representative, multistage cluster Violence Against Children Surveys in Haiti, Kenya, and Cambodia among males aged 13 to 24 years. Differences between countries for boys experiencing sexual violence (including sexual touching, attempted sex, and forced/coerced sex) before age 18 years were examined by using χ(2) and logistic regression analyses. In Haiti, Kenya, and Cambodia, respectively, 1459, 1456, and 1255 males completed surveys. The prevalence of experiencing any form of sexual violence ranged from 23.1% (95% confidence Interval [CI]: 20.0-26.2) in Haiti to 14.8% (95% CI: 12.0-17.7) in Kenya, and 5.6% (95% CI: 4.0-7.2) in Cambodia. The largest share of perpetrators in Haiti, Kenya, and Cambodia, respectively, were friends/neighbors (64.7%), romantic partners (37.2%), and relatives (37.0%). Most episodes occurred inside perpetrators' or victims' homes in Haiti (60.4%), contrasted with outside the home in Kenya (65.3%) and Cambodia (52.1%). The most common time period for violence in Haiti, Kenya, and Cambodia was the afternoon (55.0%), evening (41.3%), and morning (38.2%), respectively. Adverse health effects associated with violence were common, including increased odds of transactional sex, alcohol abuse, sexually transmitted infections, anxiety/depression, suicidal ideation/attempts, and violent gender attitudes. Differences were noted between countries in the prevalence, characteristics, and risk factors of sexual violence, yet associations with adverse health effects were pervasive. Prevention strategies tailored to individual locales are needed. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Comparative Analysis between WiMAX and Fiber Optics Backhaul Network Deployment in Developing Countries - The Case of Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjin, Daniel Michael Okwabi; Williams, Idongesit

    to deploy than mobile technologies. But in many developing countries, there is preference for the deployment of fiber optics rather than a broadband wireless solution for the deployment of broadband internet. Argument is made in this paper using the Expectation Confirmation Theory to reveal the level...... of satisfaction of mobile WiMAX compared to what Fiber optics would bring to rural areas in terms of broadband provisioning, Cost of access, Cost of deployment, Network accessibility and availability. The case of investigation is Northern Ghana due to the proliferation of rural areas in that region...... broadband users have no access to the existing Fibre Optic Cable backhaul access network in the rural due to lack of coverage. Finally, the contribution from this study is that, it is possible to deploy the 2.3GHz -2.6 GHz band of WiMAX Backhaul Access Network Technologies to provide Wireless Broadband...

  15. How much incident lung cancer was missed globally in 2012? An ecological country-level study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benn Sartorius

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer incidence is increasing in many low-to-middle-income countries and is significantly under-reported in Africa, which could potentially mislead policy makers when prioritising disease burden. We employed an ecological correlation study design using countrylevel lung cancer incidence data and associated determinant data. Lagged prevalence of smoking and other exposure data were used to account for exposure-disease latency. A multivariable Poisson model was employed to estimate missed lung cancer in countries lacking incidence data. Projections were further refined to remove potential deaths from infectious/external competing causes. Global lung cancer incidence was much lower among females vs males (13.6 vs 34.2 per 100,000. Distinct spatial heterogeneity was observed for incident lung cancer and appeared concentrated in contiguous regions. Our model predicted a revised global lung cancer incidence in 2012 of 23.6 compared to the Globocan 2012 estimate of 23.1, amounting to ~38,101 missed cases (95% confidence interval: 28,489-47,713. The largest relative under-estimation was predicted for Africa, Central America and the Indian Ocean regions (Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mayotte, Reunion, Seychelles. Our results suggest substantial underreporting of lung cancer incidence, specifically in developing countries (e.g. Africa. The missed cost of treating these cases could amount to >US$ 130 million based on recent developing setting costs for treating earlier stage lung cancer. The full cost is not only under-estimated, but also requires substantial additional social/family inputs as evidenced in more developed settings like the European Union. This represents a major public health problem in developing settings (e.g. Africa with limited healthcare resources.

  16. How much incident lung cancer was missed globally in 2012? An ecological country-level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Benn; Sartorius, Kurt

    2016-05-31

    Lung cancer incidence is increasing in many low-to-middle-income countries and is significantly under-reported in Africa, which could potentially mislead policy makers when prioritising disease burden. We employed an ecological correlation study design using countrylevel lung cancer incidence data and associated determinant data. Lagged prevalence of smoking and other exposure data were used to account for exposure-disease latency. A multivariable Poisson model was employed to estimate missed lung cancer in countries lacking incidence data. Projections were further refined to remove potential deaths from infectious/external competing causes. Global lung cancer incidence was much lower among females vs males (13.6 vs 34.2 per 100,000). Distinct spatial heterogeneity was observed for incident lung cancer and appeared concentrated in contiguous regions. Our model predicted a revised global lung cancer incidence in 2012 of 23.6 compared to the Globocan 2012 estimate of 23.1, amounting to ~38,101 missed cases (95% confidence interval: 28,489-47,713). The largest relative under-estimation was predicted for Africa, Central America and the Indian Ocean regions (Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mayotte, Reunion, Seychelles). Our results suggest substantial underreporting of lung cancer incidence, specifically in developing countries (e.g. Africa). The missed cost of treating these cases could amount to >US$ 130 million based on recent developing setting costs for treating earlier stage lung cancer. The full cost is not only under-estimated, but also requires substantial additional social/family inputs as evidenced in more developed settings like the European Union. This represents a major public health problem in developing settings (e.g. Africa) with limited healthcare resources.

  17. Refugee Problem in Europe – Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esztella Varga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The European refugee problem has grown dramatically in the last few months, putting a considerable amount of pressure on the European countries. Not only are they facing migrants from North Africa, but from the Middle East as well.In March 2011 the Arab Spring has reached Syria, causing a huge number of Syrians to flee their country and seek asylum in Turkey, and possibly going further to the EU. The refugees who fled Syria as well as those who are leaving North Africa (mostly the failed state of Libya are aiming to reach European soil, but Italy, Greece or Turkey is not ready to handle the amount of refugees. The cooperation of the Mediterranean countries and Europe has not been able to slow down the flow of refugees, and the Mediterranean and Aegean seas have become dangerous routes for the desperate migrants who attempt the sea-crossing. In my analysis I would like to highlight the role of the so-called elements of ‘soft power’ in the way of dealing with the refugee problem. According to my hypothesis, the issue can’t be successfully addressed using only the means of the ‘soft power’. No real solution for the crisis has been offered yet, and I would like to give case studies of the different ways of dealing with the problem – inside (Greece, Italy and outside (Turkey of the European Union.

  18. The paradoxes of gender mainstreaming in developing countries: The case of health care in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprell, Gina; Greenfield, David; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Gender mainstreaming developed as the global strategy for gender equality nearly two decades ago. Since then it has faced criticism for its technocratic application, and its role in the de-politicisation and neutralisation of the women's movement in gender policy-making. In the health sector, this incongruity is exacerbated by a traditional bio-medical approach to women's issues. In this paper, we ask whether gender mainstreaming can be made to work in the health sectors of developing countries where these challenges, as well as women's poor health status, are further complicated by a raft of local traditional, cultural, political and socioeconomic barriers. To answer these questions, we present a case study of Papua New Guinea (PNG), one of the world's most disadvantaged and politically challenging countries. We review data on women's health in PNG and analyse PNG's aspirational and actual performance on gender mainstreaming, looking at: international commitments; political will and capacity; national policies and programmes; and the women's movement along with civil society's participation. We find numerous paradoxes between the aims of gender mainstreaming and the necessary conditions for its success.

  19. Epidemiological patterns of leukaemia in 184 countries: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Filho, Adalberto; Piñeros, Marion; Ferlay, Jacques; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Monnereau, Alain; Bray, Freddie

    2018-01-01

    Leukaemia is a heterogeneous group of haemopoietic cancers that comprises a number of diverse and biologically distinct subgroups. We examine the leukaemia burden worldwide and highlight the distinct incidence patterns in order to elucidate explanatory factors that may support preventive measures and health resource planning. We aimed to estimate the global burden of leukaemia incidence according to the four major subtypes stratified by age and sex. In this population-based study, we assessed leukaemia incidence for the major subtypes using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents Volume X (CI5-X), which includes data from 290 cancer registries in 68 countries covering the diagnostic period 2003-07, for all ages and both sexes. We then extracted counts and incidence rates in 184 countries for the year 2012 from IARC's GLOBOCAN database of national estimates. We calculated age-specific incidence rates per 100 000 person-years and age-standardised rates (ASRs) using the world standard population by country, sex, age group, and where applicable, by major subtypes. We excluded from all analyses registries for which the total number of leukaemia cases was less than 100 or the proportion of microscopically verified (MV%) cases was less than 80% (2572 cases). 717 863 cases between 2003-07 were included in this analysis. More than 350 000 new leukaemia cases were estimated in 2012. We observed substantial variation in incidence between and within world regions. The highest leukaemia incidence rates for both sexes were estimated in Australia and New Zealand (ASR per 100 000 11·3 in males and 7·2 in females), Northern America (10·5 in males and 7·2 in females), and western Europe (9·6 in males and 6·0 in females), and the lowest was in in western Africa (1·4 in males and 1·2 in females). Rates were generally higher in males than females with an overall male to female ratio of 1·4. In children, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia was the main subtype in all studied

  20. Determinants of Foreign Direct Investments Outflow From a Developing Country: the Case of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Onder

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investments (FDI outflows of Turkey have remarkably been raising over the last decade. This rapid increase brings about the need for questioning the determinants of FDI outflows. The aim of this paper is to estimate the factors affecting outflow FDI from Turkey from 2002 to 2011 by using Prais-Winsten regression analysis. According to estimation results, population, infrastructure, percapita gross domestic product of the host country, and home country exports to the host country are the factors having positive effects on outflow FDI. We found, on the other hand, that the annual inflation rate of the host country, its tax rate collected from commercial profit, and its distance from Turkey have a negative relation with investment outflows. Moreover our results show that while investment outflows to developed countries are in the form of horizontal investments, investment outflows to developing countries are in the form of vertical investments.