WorldWideScience

Sample records for country analysis briefs

  1. Country analysis briefs: 1994. Profiles of major world energy producers, consumers, and transport centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Country Analysis Briefs: 1994 is a compilation of country profiles prepared by the Energy Markets and Contingency Information Division (EMCID) of the Office of Energy Markets and End Use. EMCID maintains Country Analysis Briefs (CABs) for specific countries or geographical areas that are important to world energy markets. As a general rule, CABs are prepared for all members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), major non-OPEC oil producers (i.e., the North Sea, Russia), major energy transit areas (i.e., Ukraine), and other areas of current interest to energy analysts and policy makers. As of January 1995, EMCID maintained over 40 CABs, updated on an annual schedule and subject to revision as events warrant. This report includes 25 CABs updated during 1994. All CABs contain a profile section, a map showing the country`s location, and a narrative section. The profile section includes outlines of the country`s economy, energy sector, and environment. The narrative provides further information and discussion of these topics. Some CABs also include a detailed map displaying locations of major oil and gas fields, pipelines, ports, etc. These maps were created as a result of special individual requests and so are not typically a standard feature of the CABs. They are presented here wherever available as a supplement to the information contained in the CABs.

  2. War, Disillusionment and Courage—A Brief Analysis of In Another Country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔燕

    2012-01-01

      This short essay gives a general introduction and analysis of one of Hemingway’s short stories—In Another Country. By depicting the physically injured soldiers in a hospital in Milan because of the war, the story shows the damaging psychological and physical effects of World War I, which will never been recovered. It also examines people’s disillusionment of old faiths and views of the world, and their courage to face the tragedy and reality.

  3. Educational Access in India. Country Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online Submission, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This Policy Brief describes and explains patterns of access to schools in India. It outlines policy and legislation on access to education and provides an analysis of access, vulnerability and exclusion. The quantitative data is supported by a review of research which explains the patterns of access and exclusion. It is based on findings from the…

  4. 试析《雪国》中的虚无思想%Brief Analysis of Nihilism in Snow Country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋会芳

    2012-01-01

    Japan's first Nobel Prize winner,Yasunari Kawabata,was strongly influenced by Japanese classical literature since childhood,the impermanence in Buddhism,and his unique life experiences.All these form his nihilism,which was impermanences,emptiness,no-self,and something from nothing.His nihilism has a complete manifestation in his masterwork Snow Country.%日本首位诺贝尔文学奖获奖者川端康成,自幼深受日本古典文学的熏陶,佛教中的无常思想对其影响深刻,加之他自身特殊的生活经历,从而形成了他人生无常、万事皆空、灭我为无、无中生有的虚无思想。川端康成的这一思想在他的登峰之作《雪国》中有充分表现,本文对此进行了相关探讨。

  5. Kosovo : Country Environmental Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    A Kosovo CEA is a World Bank analytical tool used to integrate environmental issues into development assistance strategies, programs, and projects. To that end, the CEA synthesizes environmental issues, highlights the environmental and economic implications of development policies, and evaluates the country's environmental management capacity. Kosovo is landlocked and possesses many minera...

  6. EU TYPE OF AUSTERITY: BRIEF ANALYSIS AND CRITICISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONELA BALTATESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Although it has become a common place to blame austerity policies for lengthening the economic downturn of EU economies, the figures reveal that public spending increased in most of the EU countries between 2007 and 2013. Although budget deficits from EU countries were indeed reduced in the last 4 years, the cutbacks were more the result of increasing government revenues and hiking taxes than of decreasing public expenditures. The article will feature: (1 a brief analysis of the evolution of public spending compared to government revenues in EU countries and also, (2 a concise literature review on austerity, highlighting some of the most important theoretical controversies on this topic. The main thesis defended in the article is that – although EU type of austerity, narrowly focusing on fiscal consolidation, drove indeed to unfavorable economic consequences – the criticism formulated by pro stimulus economists is rather flimsy, given the fact that public expenditures actually increased in most of the EU countries.

  7. A Brief Analysis of Araby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严静

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Araby, is one of the fifteen short stories in James Joyce’s collection Dubliners. It is a simple story of a boy pursuing romantic love and finally disillusioned. Like many other short stories in Dubliners, Joyce uses many techniques to make the story more fascinating. And the witting is very beautiful and thoughtful. All the stories in Dubliners is connected with one another, they are like a person ’s life. All the stories make up a mirror to show the dumb and paralysis life of the Irish people. This paper will mainly focus on the techniques of sym⁃bolism and epiphany in Araby to make a detailed analysis, and hope to help the readers of Joyce to have a more profound interpretation of Araby.

  8. Less Developed Countries Energy System Network Simulator, LDC-ESNS: a brief description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisman, A; Malone, R

    1978-04-01

    Prepared for the Brookhaven National Laboratory Developing Countries Energy Program, this report describes the Less Developed Countries Energy System Network Simulator (LDC-ESNS), a tool which provides a quantitative representation of the energy system of an LDC. The network structure of the energy supply and demand system, the model inputs and outputs, and the possible uses of the model for analysis are described.

  9. Gastronomy Tourism in Several Neighbor Countries of Indonesia: a Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniasih Sukenti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastronomy tourism, also called culinary tourism or food tourism, is a kind of tourism that provide attractions based on the culinary aspect owned by a country, region, or area. It is not only offers food and beverages as the main objects in its attractions, but also everything related to food activities ranging from food ingredients, preparation, processing, serving, as well as the cultural and local values. A well-managed culinary tourism will be a supportive program in developing and enhancing the tourism sector in a country. The objective of this paper is to describe the profile of gastronomy tourism in several neighbor countries of Indonesia, i.e. Hongkong, Singapore, Thailand, and Malaysia. This brief review is also discussed the potential of Indonesia gastronomy in supporting government’s tourism program. Basically, Indonesia has more enormous potential asset in managing its cultural heritages in term of culinary than its neighbor countries. A well-managed gastronomy tourism plays not only an important role in enhancing the economic sector, but also contribute in preserving the natural and cultural resources. Keywords: gastronomy tourism, culinary tourism, food tourism.

  10. Web Portal Analysis of Asian Region Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Chander

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The number of online services provided by Government and private sectors is increasing these days. On the same pattern various countries have their own portals to provide basic services to the citizens and other people of the world. Analysis of portals in Asia is the main theme of the paper. There are various indicators or attributes necessary for the implementation of e-services .Some of the indicators may be frequency of use of services, number of users, visitors, site hits, searchable option, accessibility, language option, performance, functionality, broken links, traffic analysis, and feedback. Out of these metrics taken into consideration here are Traffic analysis, feedback, accessibility, security and language option. The countries taken into consideration are India, China and Pakistan. Web portals of these countries will be analyzed in detail.

  11. A Brief Analysis on William Blake's London

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉; 尚彦飞

    2014-01-01

    William Blake (1757-1827) is a renowned British poet in the 18th century. His lyric poems display the characteristics of romantic spirit, and he is regarded as the forefather of the British Romanticism. His London is a well-known lyric poetry, which is thought to be the best vesicle in the West. This paper will analyse this poem in terms of its form, theme, and im-age and then draw a brief conclusion for the characteristics of William Blake's poem.

  12. A brief analysis on English etymology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明珠

    2015-01-01

    In the process of learning English, proficiency in vocabulary is the key point to study a language well. Obviously, it’s very crucial to know about the origin and history of the words. Research on English etymology is conducive to memory, interpretation and understanding of the words. Generally speaking, English etymology is closely connected with British history. Western culture also has exerted profound impact on English etymology, which leads to considerable borrowings pouring into English vocabulary. In brief, this dissertation will inquire into English etymology preliminarily.

  13. A Brief Analysis of the Formation Background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏林

    2013-01-01

    The Bauhaus School of design, is the world's first College set up for the development of design education, it focused on the exploration and practice of design the European countries had during the beginning of twentieth Century, which had made a great impact on modern design and its education in Germany and even in the world.

  14. Briefs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    3 More competitive According to the Global Competitiveness Report 2011-12,China’s competitiveness ranking rose from 27th to 26th among 142 economies in the world this year, continuing to lead the way among large developing economies.The report said China is one of the world’s least indebted countries,boasts a savings rate of some 53 percent of GDP,and runs only moder ate budget deficits.However,China’s fairly poor results in the financial market development and technological readiness pillars pull down its overall competitiveness performance,said the report.

  15. Factors Effecting Unemployment: A Cross Country Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurangzeb

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates macroeconomic determinants of the unemployment for India, China and Pakistan for the period 1980 to 2009. The investigation was conducted through co integration, granger causality and regression analysis. The variables selected for the study are unemployment, inflation, gross domestic product, exchange rate and the increasing rate of population. The results of regression analysis showed significant impact of all the variables for all three countries. GDP of Pakistan showed positive relation with the unemployment rate and the reason of that is the poverty level and underutilization of foreign investment. The result of granger causality showed that bidirectional causality does not exist between any of the variable for all three countries. Co integration result explored that long term relationship do exist among the variables for all the models. It is recommended that distribution of income needs to be improved for Pakistan in order to have positive impact of growth on the employment rate.

  16. Brief analysis of Blog Websites' business models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏娟

    2009-01-01

    Analysis continues using this framework of several major Blogs or Blog websites. From this analysis, three main weblog business models that are currently in operation will be introduced as well as described. As a part of this framework, this paper will also analyze the future viability of the models.

  17. Efficacy of Brief Interventions in Reducing Hazardous or Harmful Alcohol Use in Middle-Income Countries: Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jaison; Basu, Debasish

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to systematically review the efficacy of alcohol brief intervention in middle-income countries. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of face-to-face brief motivational intervention aimed at reducing heavy alcohol use conducted in middle-income countries were identified through electronic databases: Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane Library published up to and including 2015. Methodological quality assessment of the RCTs was made by using two validated tools. Nine RCTs of alcohol brief intervention in middle-income countries met the review's inclusion criteria. The results of five trials suggest a benefit for brief intervention in reducing self-reported hazardous or harmful alcohol use. Methodological quality was found to be adequate using a standard tool, without any serious methodological issues or biases in more than half of the selected trials. The content of brief intervention was based on the principles of motivational interviewing and was delivered by trained nurses in almost all the trials. This systematic review of RCTs on alcohol brief intervention conducted in middle-income countries suggests that brief intervention can help reduce self-reported hazardous or harmful alcohol use in primary-care population. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  18. Feasibility and effectiveness of a brief, intensive phylogenetics workshop in a middle-income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollett, S; Leguia, M; Nelson, M I; Maljkovic Berry, I; Rutherford, G; Bausch, D G; Kasper, M; Jarman, R; Melendrez, M

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing role for bioinformatic and phylogenetic analysis in tropical medicine research. However, scientists working in low- and middle-income regions may lack access to training opportunities in these methods. To help address this gap, a 5-day intensive bioinformatics workshop was offered in Lima, Peru. The syllabus is presented here for others who want to develop similar programs. To assess knowledge gained, a 20-point knowledge questionnaire was administered to participants (21 participants) before and after the workshop, covering topics on sequence quality control, alignment/formatting, database retrieval, models of evolution, sequence statistics, tree building, and results interpretation. Evolution/tree-building methods represented the lowest scoring domain at baseline and after the workshop. There was a considerable median gain in total knowledge scores (increase of 30%, p<0.001) with gains as high as 55%. A 5-day workshop model was effective in improving the pathogen-applied bioinformatics knowledge of scientists working in a middle-income country setting.

  19. A Brief Analysis on Slips of Tongue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆瑜

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of slips of tongue is very common in our daily life.And it is closely related to some psychological reasons.This paper aims to introduce the research about this phenomenon, to present the types of slips of tongue and some analysis on it.

  20. Brief culturally adapted CBT for psychosis (CaCBTp): A randomized controlled trial from a low income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Farooq; Saeed, Sofiya; Irfan, Muhammad; Kiran, Tayyeba; Mehmood, Nasir; Gul, Mirrat; Munshi, Tariq; Ahmad, Sohail; Kazmi, Ajmal; Husain, Nusrat; Farooq, Saeed; Ayub, Muhammad; Kingdon, David

    2015-05-01

    Evidence for the effectiveness of Culturally adapted CBT for psychosis in Low And Middle Income Countries (LAMIC) is limited. Therefore, brief Culturally adapted CBT for psychosis (CaCBTp) targeted at symptoms of schizophrenia for outpatients plus treatment as usual (TAU) is compared with TAU. A total of 116 participants with schizophrenia were recruited from 2 hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan, and randomized into two groups with 1:1 allocation (CaCBTp plus TAU=59, TAU=57). A brief version of CaCBTp (6 individual sessions with the involvement of main carer, plus one session for the family) was provided over 4months. Psychopathology was measured using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale of Schizophrenia (PANSS), Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS), and the Schedule for Assessment of Insight (SAI) at baseline and end of therapy. Participants in treatment group, showed statistically significant improvement in all measures of psychopathology at the end of the study compared with control group. Participants in treatment group showed statistically significant improvement in Positive Symptoms (PANSS, Positive Symptoms Subscale; p=0.000), Negative Symptoms (PANSS, Negative Symptoms subscales; p=0.000), Delusions (PSYRATS, Delusions Subscale; p=0.000), Hallucinations (PSYRATS, Hallucination Subscale; p=0.000) and Insight (SAI; p=0.007). The results suggest that brief, Culturally adapted CBT for psychosis can be an effective treatment when provided in combination with TAU, for patients with schizophrenia in a LAMIC setting. This is the first trial of CBT for psychosis from outside the western world. These findings need replicating in other low and middle income countries.

  1. Analysis of how the country's divorce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Abdi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Adverse effects and consequences of divorce for the couple, their families, and the many factors that may cause the various planning and training can take forward these adverse outcomes. Therefore, this study in order to identify areas of acute, as well as plans to reduce divorce and its aftermath in various provinces of the country, has been done. In this study, we first mapped matrix provinces, each province based on the divorce rate in the country, was discussed. Therefore, according to the first field studies and library, established the potential matrix, a matrix with 10 columns, including indicators, and 30 lines, including the provinces of the country. Then, using component-based methods, hierarchical cluster analysis, the provinces, based on the divorce to happen, it was graded. Compare returns shown that among the provinces, the provinces (Kerman, Sistan and Baluchestan, Hormozgan, Southern Khorasan, Yazd, Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari, kohgiluyeh and Boyer Ahmad, North Khorasan, Golestan and Ilam, has the lowest divorce and Tehran and Semnan provinces, have the highest divorce rate. The result of this was possible is that, in the context of tribal and ethnic yet they are strong, strong family ties, and that of the more modern, have tended, and Tradition tribal beliefs, they have been forgotten, with more divorce, and family ties are low, but economic, social, political, cultural, particularly those involved, and in small towns, marriage more and less divorce, and large cities, high divorce, and marriage are less than another. So, do research and applied research and adaptive, in the context of family, plus the sum of values ​​in previous studies, and their meta-analysis, to solve family problems, and the formulation of Islamic patterns - Iranian family, is inevitable.

  2. Analysis and Verification of Service Interaction Protocols - A Brief Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Salaün, Gwen

    2010-01-01

    Modeling and analysis of interactions among services is a crucial issue in Service-Oriented Computing. Composing Web services is a complicated task which requires techniques and tools to verify that the new system will behave correctly. In this paper, we first overview some formal models proposed in the literature to describe services. Second, we give a brief survey of verification techniques that can be used to analyse services and their interaction. Last, we focus on the realizability and conformance of choreographies.

  3. A Brief Analysis on Empty Categories in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Shao-li

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to give a brief analysis on the Empty Categories in Chinese. It will first illustrate Chomsky ’s classifica-tion of EC as well as the constraints the subject to briefly, then basing on this classification the author will state some of Chinese scholars’study and research including Xu Liejiong , Huang Zhengde and Hu Jianjun. Finally, the author will compare these clas-sic frameworks and attempt to.

  4. Libraries, Literacy and Development: Combined Libraries as an Option for Developing Countries: A Brief Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Rebecca

    1994-01-01

    Argues that combining public and school libraries may overcome the scarcity that slows library development in third world countries. The relationship between libraries and development, factors contributing to successful combined libraries, and the ability of libraries to support literacy efforts are discussed. (Contains 29 references.) (KRN)

  5. Teacher Incentives in Developing Countries: Experimental Evidence from Kenya. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In "Teacher Incentives in Developing Countries: Experimental Evidence from Kenya"--a paper presented at the National Center on Performance Incentives research to policy conference in February--Paul Glewwe (University of Minnesota), Nauman Illias (The Brattle Group), and Michael Kremer (Harvard University) review findings from recent…

  6. Analysis and enhancement of country singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Matthew; Smith, Mark J. T.

    2003-04-01

    The study of human singing has focused extensively on the analysis of voice characteristics. At the same time, a substantial body of work has been under study aimed at modeling and synthesizing the human voice. The work on which we report brings together some key analysis and synthesis principles to create a new model for digitally improving the perceived quality of an average singing voice. The model presented employs an analysis-by-synthesis overlap-add (ABS-OLA) sinusoidal model, which in the past has been used for the analysis and synthesis of speech, in combination with a spectral model of the vocal tract. The ABS-OLA sinusoidal model for speech has been shown to be a flexible, accurate, and computationally efficient representation capable of producing a natural-sounding singing voice [E. B. George and M. J. T. Smith, Trans. Speech Audio Processing 5, 389-406 (1997)]. A spectral model infused in the ABS-OLA uses Generalized Gaussian functions to provide a simple framework which enables the precise modification of spectral characteristics while maintaining the quality and naturalness of the original voice. Furthermore, it is shown that the parameters of the new ABS-OLA can accommodate pitch corrections and vocal quality enhancements while preserving naturalness and singer identity. Examples of enhanced country singing will be presented.

  7. Brief notes in advanced DSP Fourier analysis with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Grigoryan, Artyom M

    2009-01-01

    Based on the authors' research in Fourier analysis, Brief Notes in Advanced DSP: Fourier Analysis with MATLAB® addresses many concepts and applications of digital signal processing (DSP). The included MATLAB® codes illustrate how to apply the ideas in practice.The book begins with the basic concept of the discrete Fourier transformation and its properties. It then describes lifting schemes, integer transformations, the discrete cosine transform, and the paired transform method for calculating the discrete Hadamard transform. The text also examines the decomposition of the 1D signal by so-calle

  8. Gastronomy Tourism in Several Neighbor Countries of Indonesia: a Brief Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kurniasih Sukenti

    2014-01-01

    Gastronomy tourism, also called culinary tourism or food tourism, is a kind of tourism that provide attractions based on the culinary aspect owned by a country, region, or area. It is not only offers food and beverages as the main objects in its attractions, but also everything related to food activities ranging from food ingredients, preparation, processing, serving, as well as the cultural and local values. A well-managed culinary tourism will be a supportive program in developing and enhan...

  9. Development and psychometric validation of the Brief Intellectual Disability Scale for use in low-health resource, high-burden countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammen, Priya; Russell, Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar; Nair, Muttathu K C; Russell, Sushila; Kishore, Catherine; Shankar, Satyaraj

    2013-01-01

    To develop and validate a concise, parent-completed Brief Intellectual Disability Scale (BIDS) for children in low-disability resource and high-disability care burden countries. In this prospective cross-sectional study of 124 children recruited from a facility for intellectual disability (ID), the newly developed BIDS as the measure for validation as well as for the gold standard and convergent and divergent validities was administered by independent raters. Tests for diagnostic accuracy, reproducibility, and validity were conducted at the item and scale levels. The BIDS scores of ≥5 (sensitivity [Sn] = 71.43%, specificity [Sp] = 80.95%) and ≥11 (Sn = 4.29%, Sp = 100%), with area under the curve of 0.79, are suggested, respectively, for screening and diagnostic use in Indian populations. The inter-rater reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.96) and test-retest reliability at 4 weeks (ICC = 0.95) for BIDS are strong. Besides the adequate face and content validities, BIDS demonstrates good internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.80) and item-total correlation. There is moderate convergent validity with Binet-Kamat Test of Intelligence or Gesell's Developmental Schedule (r = -0.66, P = 0.001) as well as with adaptive behavior measure of Vineland Social Maturity Scale (r =-0.52, P = 0.001) and low divergent validity with the subscales of Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: Comprehensive Teacher Rating Scale ( r = -0.11, P = 0.7; r = 0.18, P = 0.5; r = 0.13, P = 0.6; r = 0.08, P = 0.7). An exploratory factor analysis demonstrated a three-factor structure, explaining 60% of variance. The BIDS shows promise as a psychometrically adequate, yet brief measure for identifying ID in countries with low disability care resources and high disability-related burden. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An analysis of the healthcare informatics and systems in Southeast Asia: a current perspective from seven countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Q T; Naguib, R N G; Abd Ghani, M K; Bali, R K; Lee, I M

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the healthcare systems in Southeast Asia, with a focus on the healthcare informatics development and deployment in seven countries, namely, Singapore, Cambodia, Malaysia, Thailand, Laos, the Philippines and Vietnam. Brief geographic and demographic information is provided for each country, followed by a historical review of the national strategies for healthcare informatics development. An analysis of the state-of-the-art healthcare infrastructure is also given, along with a critical appraisal of national healthcare provisions.

  11. Geovisualization and analysis of the Good Country Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, C.; Dramowicz, K.

    2016-04-01

    The Good Country Index measures the contribution of a single country in the humanity and health aspects that are beneficial to the planet. Countries which are globally good for our planet do not necessarily have to be good for their own citizens. The Good Country Index is based on the following seven categories: science and technology, culture, international peace and security, world order, planet and climate, prosperity and equality, and health and well-being. The Good Country Index is focused on the external effects, in contrast to other global indices (for example, the Human Development Index, or the Social Progress Index) showing the level of development of a single country in benefiting its own citizens. The authors verify if these global indices may be good proxies as potential predictors, as well as indicators of a country's ‘goodness’. Non-spatial analysis included analyzing relationships between the overall Good Country Index and the seven contributing categories, as well as between the overall Good Country Index and other global indices. Data analytics was used for building various predictive models and selecting the most accurate model to predict the overall Good Country Index. The most important rules for high and low index values were identified. Spatial analysis included spatial autocorrelation to analyze similarity of index values of a country in relation to its neighbors. Hot spot analysis was used to identify and map significant clusters of countries with high and low index values. Similar countries were grouped into geographically compact clusters and mapped.

  12. Cote d'Ivoire - Country Environmental Analysis : Executive Summary

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this country environmental analysis (CEA) is to assist the Government of Cote d'Ivoire, development partners and civil society to integrate environmental issues into policy dialogues and country programming through: a) assessing environmental priorities in Cote d'Ivoire, b) identifying environmental implications of key policies, c) evaluating the country's institutional capa...

  13. A Brief Analysis to the 3-Step Translation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丘胜祥

    2009-01-01

    With the development of science and technology,the culture of translation still is multiplied continuously.However.how can you translate a good target text quickly and accurately?We should master transhtion skills and seep basic steps in translating.As the matter of fact,translation is expressed language actives through using a language to another language exchanged with the accuracy and integrity of thinking.Some call it an art,and yet some others take it as a career.but no matter what the purpose is,the process oftranslation has its certain steps.A translator will have to understand the source text fust.and then conduct her/his translation and then,proofread the source text.In addition,translation standard,which is Faithfulness,Expressiveness,Elegance,phy an important role in the translation process.A brief analysis of the problems mentioned above is made.

  14. Identifying Effective Spelling Interventions Using a Brief Experimental Analysis and Extended Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, Merilee; Clure, Lynne F.; Bleck, Amanda A.; Schmitz, Stephanie L.

    2016-01-01

    Spelling is an important skill that is crucial to effective written communication. In this study, brief experimental analysis procedures were used to examine spelling instruction strategies (e.g., whole word correction; word study strategy; positive practice; and cover, copy, and compare) for four students. In addition, an extended analysis was…

  15. Identifying Effective Spelling Interventions Using a Brief Experimental Analysis and Extended Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, Merilee; Clure, Lynne F.; Bleck, Amanda A.; Schmitz, Stephanie L.

    2016-01-01

    Spelling is an important skill that is crucial to effective written communication. In this study, brief experimental analysis procedures were used to examine spelling instruction strategies (e.g., whole word correction; word study strategy; positive practice; and cover, copy, and compare) for four students. In addition, an extended analysis was…

  16. The moral legalization analysis in our country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解小平

    2013-01-01

    the moral legalization is a controversial topic, but the proper moral legalization has become a consensus. China Is in the period of social transition , the moral anomie problem has become the wounds of the state and society, through analyzing the problems existing in the moral legalization at the present stage,.proposed to fol ow the tradition and reality, try to find the ethics which is suitable for our country, The cycle of the legislation, law enforcement and judicial wil help the moral legalization, so as to create a more harmonious society.

  17. Risk analysis. HIV / AIDS country profile: Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Mozambique's National STD/AIDS Control Program (NACP) estimates that, at present, about 8% of the population is infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The epidemic is expected to peak in 1997. By 2001, Mozambique is projected to have 1,650,000 HIV-positive adults 15-49 years of age, of whom 500,000 will have developed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and 500,000 AIDS orphans. Incidence rates are highest in the country's central region, the transport corridors, and urban centers. The rapid spread of HIV has been facilitated by extreme poverty, the social upheaval and erosion of traditional norms created by years of political conflict and civil war, destruction of the primary health care infrastructure, growth of the commercial sex work trade, and labor migration to and from neighboring countries with high HIV prevalence. Moreover, about 10% of the adult population suffers from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including genital ulcers. NACP, created in 1988, is attempting to curb the further spread of HIV through education aimed at changing high-risk behaviors and condom distribution to prevent STD transmission. Theater performances and radio/television programs are used to reach the large illiterate population. The integration of sex education and STD/AIDS information in the curricula of primary and secondary schools and universities has been approved by the Ministry of Education. Several private companies have been persuaded to distribute condoms to their employees. Finally, the confidentiality of HIV patients has been guaranteed. In 1993, the total AIDS budget was US $1.67 million, 50% of which was provided by the European Union. The European Commission seeks to develop a national strategy for managing STDs within the primary health care system.

  18. Publishing Patterns in BRIC Countries: A Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel R. Guevara

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available How similar are the publishing patterns of among Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC countries in comparison with other countries? This is a question that we addressed by using networks as a tool to analyze the structure of similarities and disparities between countries. We analyzed the number of publications from 2006 to 2015 that are reported by SCImago Journal and Country Rank. With this information, we created a network in order to find the closest countries to BRIC ones, and also to find communities of similar countries favoring data analysis. We found that Brazil, China and Russia are not that close to the core cluster of countries that are more diversified. In opposition, India is closer to a community of countries that are more diverse in terms of publishing patterns. Furthermore, we found that, for different network topologies, Brazil acts as a bridge to connect developing countries and that Russia practices patterns that tend to isolate it from most of the countries.

  19. Resilience Analysis of Countries under Disasters Based on Multisource Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Huang, Hong

    2017-04-06

    Disasters occur almost daily in the world. Because emergencies frequently have no precedent, are highly uncertain, and can be very destructive, improving a country's resilience is an efficient way to reduce risk. In this article, we collected more than 20,000 historical data points from disasters from 207 countries to enable us to calculate the severity of disasters and the danger they pose to countries. In addition, 6 primary indices (disaster, personal attribute, infrastructure, economics, education, and occupation) including 38 secondary influencing factors are considered in analyzing the resilience of countries. Using these data, we obtained the danger, expected number of deaths, and resilience of all 207 countries. We found that a country covering a large area is more likely to have a low resilience score. Through sensitivity analysis of all secondary indices, we found that population density, frequency of disasters, and GDP are the three most critical factors affecting resilience. Based on broad-spectrum resilience analysis of the different continents, Oceania and South America have the highest resilience, while Asia has the lowest. Over the past 50 years, the resilience of many countries has been improved sharply, especially in developing countries. Based on our results, we analyze the comprehensive resilience and provide some optimal suggestions to efficiently improve resilience. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Environmental Performance in Countries Worldwide: Determinant Factors and Multivariate Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Gallego-Alvarez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the environmental performance of countries and the variables that can influence it. At the same time, we performed a multivariate analysis using the HJ-biplot, an exploratory method that looks for hidden patterns in the data, obtained from the usual singular value decomposition (SVD of the data matrix, to contextualize the countries grouped by geographical areas and the variables relating to environmental indicators included in the environmental performance index. The sample used comprises 149 countries of different geographic areas. The findings obtained from the empirical analysis emphasize that socioeconomic factors, such as economic wealth and education, as well as institutional factors represented by the style of public administration, in particular control of corruption, are determinant factors of environmental performance in the countries analyzed. In contrast, no effect on environmental performance was found for factors relating to the internal characteristics of a country or political factors.

  1. Competitive destination analysis in Southern European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Águas, Paulo; Veiga, Célia; Reis, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the competitiveness of the European Union Member States of Southern Europe (France, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain) as tourist destinations for European Union Member States of Central and Northern Europe (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, The Netherlands, Ireland, Sweden and the UK). Design/methodology/approach – Application of the market share analysis tool, initially developed by Faulkner, using secondary data from Eurosta...

  2. Country Social Analysis : Ethnicity and Development in Vietnam - Main Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    This report " Country Social Analysis (CSA) " focused on ethnicity and development in Vietnam is a provocative analysis of marginality in contemporary Southeast Asia. It seeks to understand the macro social and political processes, and provides an analysis of how social, political, and cultural factors influence the opportunities and constraints to more equitable, inclusive development. Th...

  3. Country Social Analysis : Ethnicity and Development in Vietnam - Summary report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    This report " Country Social Analysis (CSA) " focused on ethnicity and development in Vietnam is a provocative analysis of marginality in contemporary Southeast Asia. It seeks to understand the macro social and political processes, and provides an analysis of how social, political, and cultural factors influence the opportunities and constraints to more equitable, inclusive development. Th...

  4. EMERGING ECONOMIES: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MIST AND IBSA COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Oguz Gok

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Post Second World War liberal economic order and its institutions have been challenged with the rapidly growing powerful economies of some Asian and Latin American countries in the last decade. Yet, there is ambiguity in international political economy field with regard to conceptualizing and categorizing these emerging economies. This study mainly aims to ravel out this obstacle by offering a new quantitative benchmarking framework. In other words, this study proposes a new evaluation criteria set for assessing emerging economies with combining testable domestic and systematic factors. Accordingly, this study presents the cross-country comparison by using quantitative benchmarking analysis between IBSA -India, Brazil and South Africa- and MIST -Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea and Turkey- countries over the period 2008- 2012. We compare these countries based on the criteria of economic growth, human development index, foreign direct investment, and official development assistance. This study also aims to evaluate the group performance of these newly emerging economies- namely the rise of IBSA and MIST countries-in a comparative perspective. In conclusion, the performance of these countries -from both group-of-country and individual-country perspectives- are discussed in light of the results

  5. Country Risk Analysis: A Survey of the Quantitative Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Hiranya K Nath

    2008-01-01

    With globalization and financial integration, there has been rapid growth of international lending and foreign direct investment (FDI). In view of this emerging trend, country risk analysis has become extremely important for the international creditors and investors. This paper briefly discusses the concepts and definitions, and presents a survey of the quantitative methods that are used to address various issues related to country risk. It also gives a summary review of selected empirical st...

  6. Victim countries of transnational terrorism: an empirical characteristics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbakidze, Levan; Jin, Yanhong

    2012-12-01

    This study empirically investigates the association between country-level socioeconomic characteristics and risk of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. We find that a country's annual financial contribution to the U.N. general operating budget has a positive association with the frequency of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. In addition, per capita GDP, political freedom, and openness to trade are nonlinearly related to the frequency of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. A Brief Comparison of Chinese and Western Thinking Patterns:Synthesis, Analysis, and Antithesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭笑

    2013-01-01

    A brief comparison of Chinese and Western thinking patterns reflects in synthesis and analysis, which including tortuous thinking pattern and straightforward thinking pattern. These two different thinking patterns influence our social life everywhere.

  8. No Place Like Home: Place and Community Identity among North Country Youth. New England Issue Brief No. 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Genevieve R.; Tucker, Corinna Jenkins

    2011-01-01

    This brief explores the link between rural youths' identification with their community, their self-esteem, and their future plans. The panel study of New Hampshire's Coos County youth offers a snapshot into the dynamics of a population that is developing its identity in a region that is undergoing an identity transformation of its own. Place…

  9. Polyvariant Cardinality Analysis for Non-strict Higher-order Functional Languages: Brief Announcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstoep, Hidde; Hage, J

    2015-01-01

    In this brief announcement we outline work we have done on defining a polyvariant cardinality analysis for a non-strict higherorder language equipped with user defined datatypes and explicit strictness that includes sharing analysis, absence analysis, strictness analysis and uniqueness typing as a s

  10. Information systems for mental health in six low and middle income countries: cross country situation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Jordans, Mark J D; Abdulmalik, Jibril; Ahuja, Shalini; Alem, Atalay; Hanlon, Charlotte; Kigozi, Fred; Kizza, Dorothy; Lund, Crick; Semrau, Maya; Shidhaye, Rahul; Thornicroft, Graham; Komproe, Ivan H; Gureje, Oye

    2016-01-01

    Research on information systems for mental health in low and middle income countries (LMICs) is scarce. As a result, there is a lack of reliable information on mental health service needs, treatment coverage and the quality of services provided. With the aim of informing the development and implementation of a mental health information sub-system that includes reliable and measurable indicators on mental health within the Health Management Information Systems (HMIS), a cross-country situation analysis of HMIS was conducted in six LMICs (Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa and Uganda), participating in the 'Emerging mental health systems in low and middle income countries' (Emerald) research programme. A situation analysis tool was developed to obtain and chart information from documents in the public domain. In circumstances when information was inadequate, key government officials were contacted to verify the data collected. In this paper we compare the baseline policy context, human resources situation as well as the processes and mechanisms of collecting, verifying, reporting and disseminating mental health related HMIS data. The findings suggest that countries face substantial policy, human resource and health governance challenges for mental health HMIS, many of which are common across sites. In particular, the specific policies and plans for the governance and implementation of mental health data collection, reporting and dissemination are absent. Across sites there is inadequate infrastructure, few HMIS experts, and inadequate technical support and supervision to junior staff, particularly in the area of mental health. Nonetheless there are also strengths in existing HMIS where a few mental health morbidity, mortality, and system level indicators are collected and reported. Our study indicates the need for greater technical and resources input to strengthen routine HMIS and develop standardized HMIS indicators for mental health, focusing in

  11. Food retailers' buying behaviour: An analysis in 16 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans; Blunch, Niels Johan

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents results from a study on food retailer buying behaviour, i.e., how the retailers judge product and vendor attributes when choosing a new supplier of a product category that is already well known to them. A conjoint analysis was conducted in 16 Western European countries...

  12. Agricultural Value Chains in Developing Countries; a Framework for Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a framework for developing country value chain analysis made up of three components. The first consists of identifying major constraints for value chain upgrading: market access restrictions, weak infrastructures, lacking resources and institutional voids. In the second component

  13. Agricultural Value Chains in Developing Countries; a Framework for Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a framework for developing country value chain analysis made up of three components. The first consists of identifying major constraints for value chain upgrading: market access restrictions, weak infrastructures, lacking resources and institutional voids. In the second component

  14. Uptake of a team briefing in the operating theatre: a Burkean dramatistic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Sarah; Cartmill, Carrie; Gardezi, Fauzia; Reznick, Richard; Orser, Beverley A; Doran, Diane; Lingard, Lorelei

    2009-12-01

    Communication among healthcare professionals is a focus for research and policy interventions designed to improve patient safety, but the challenges of changing interprofessional communication patterns are rarely described. We present an analysis of 756 preoperative briefings conducted by general surgery teams (anesthesiologists, nurses, and surgeons) at four urban Canadian hospitals in the context of two research studies conducted between August 2004 and December 2007. We ask the questions: how and why did briefings succeed, how and why did they fail, and what did they mean for different participants? Ethnographic fieldnotes documenting the coordination and performance of team briefings were analyzed using Kenneth Burke's concepts of motive and attitude. The language and behaviour of participants were interpreted as purposive and situated actions which reveal perceptions, beliefs and values. Motives and attitudes varied both within and across sites, professions, individuals, and briefings. They were contingent on the organizational, medical and social scenes in which the briefings took place and on participants' multiple perceived purposes for participating (protecting patient safety, exchanging information, engaging with the team, fulfilling professional commitments, participating in research, and meeting social expectations). Participants' attitudes reflected their recognition (or rejection) of specific purposes, the briefings' perceived effectiveness in serving these purposes, and the briefings' perceived alignment (or conflict) with other priorities. Our findings illustrate the intrinsically rhetorical and variable nature of change.

  15. 浅析我国竞技体育优势项目在第29届夏季奥运会的表现%Brief Analysis Our Country Athletics Sports Superiority Project at 29th Session of Summer Olympics' Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宝全

    2012-01-01

    This article mainly uses the literature material law and the mathematical method of average,participates in the gold medal situation which to our country the 23-29th Olympic Games superiority project obtains to carry on the statistical analysis,finally indicated: The gold medal project mainly concentrates in gymnastics,the weight lifting,the diving,the fire,the pingpong,the badminton,the female Judo and so on"seven big superiority projects." This article studies mainly take"seven big superiority projects" in the 29th session of summer Olympics' performance as a breach,is for the purpose of inquiring about that the superiority project in Olympic Games' tremendous role,the better strengthened superiority project's status,is in 2012 the London Olympic Games prepares%本研究主要采用文献资料法和数理统计法,对我国所参加的第23~29届奥运会优势项目所获得的金牌情况进行统计分析,结果表明:夺金项目主要集中在体操、举重、跳水、射击、乒乓球、羽毛球、女子柔道等"七大优势项目"上.本研究主要以"七大优势项目"在第29届夏季奥运会中的表现为突破口,旨在探寻优势项目在奥运会中的巨大作用,来更好的强化优势项目的地位,为2012年伦敦奥运会做准备.

  16. Determinants of FDI in BRICS Countries: A panel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakumar, N.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the factors determining FDI inflows of BRICS countries using annual dataset from the period 1975 to 2007 (for Russia required data set is available from 1990 onwards. The study employs Panel data analysis and finds that the selected variables Market size, Labour cost, Infrastructure, Currency value and Gross Capital formation as the potential determinants of FDI inflows of BRICS countries. The Economic Stability and Growth prospects (measured by inflation rate and Industrial production respectively, Trade openness (measured by the ratio of total trade to GDP are seems to be the insignificant determinant of FDI inflows of the BRICS countries. The empirical results are robust in general for alternative variables determining FDI flows.

  17. Measuring Coping Behavior in Liver Transplant Candidates: A Psychometric Analysis of the Brief COPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoyal, Nicole; Fernandez, Anne C; Ng, Reuben; Fehon, Dwain C

    2016-09-01

    Liver transplant candidates must cope with significant physiological and psychological challenges. The Brief COPE is a frequently used measure of coping behavior; however, knowledge of the scale's factor structure and construct validity is limited with regard to liver transplant candidates. This study assessed the validity of the Brief COPE in 120 liver transplant candidates using exploratory factor analysis. Results revealed a 6-factor solution, only 2 of which were consistent with the original scale assignments. Construct validity of the 6 Brief COPE scales yielded in this study was demonstrated. The results indicate that the Brief COPE is valid, reliable, and can be meaningfully interpreted in liver transplant patients. Future research should confirm this factor structure and examine its predictive validity prior to widespread use among liver transplant patients. Suggestions are presented for enhancing the care of transplant candidates by promoting the use of adaptive coping mechanisms to manage distress.

  18. A BRIEF ANALYSIS OF THE SHADOW ECONOMY IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Maftei

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Shadow economy affects all country around the world. European countries are affected by undeclared work, under-reporting and tax evasion. This phenomenon increases from West to East, the most affected being the Balkan area. The size of shadow economy is growing due to government actions, such as regulation and tax implementation. From a macroeconomic perspective, the economic cycle sustain the shadow economy levels. To combat this phenomenon it is necessary to adopt electronic payments, to reduce tax implementations and social contributions, to bring encouragement in cash deposits use and broaden credit cards.

  19. Analysis of Lithuanian Direct Investment into European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelina Zigmantavičiūtė

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the valuation of macroeconomic factors influencing the Lithuanian direct investment into European Union was conducted. The problem of this paper is the different chosen macroeconomic factors influencing foreign direct investment. The object of this paper is Lithuanian direct investment. The methods of this paper include: comparative literature analysis, correlation regression analysis, paired regression analysis. After conducting a research of dependency of Lithuanian direct investment to EU countries from price changes, government sector income, gross domestic product, inflation, jobless rate results, it is found that gross domestic product and government sector income have the most influence on the changes of Lithuanian direct investment.

  20. Economic Efficiency Analysis for Information Technology in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan F. Issa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The introduction of Information Technology (IT to government institutions in developing countries bears a great deal of risk of failure. The lack of qualified personnel, lack of financial support and the lack of planning and proper justification are just few of the causes of projects failure. Study presented in this study focused on the justification issue of IT projects through the application of Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA as part of a comprehensive Economic Efficiency Analysis (EEA of IT Projects, thus providing management with a decision making tool which highlights existing and future problems and reduces the risk of failure. Approach: Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA based on Economic Efficiency Analysis (EEA was performed on selected IT projects from ministries and key institutions in the government of Jordan using a well established approach employed by the Federal Government of Germany (KBSt approach. The approach was then modified and refined to suit the needs of developing countries so that it captured all the relevant elements of cost and benefits both quantitatively and qualitatively and includes a set of guidelines for data collection strategy. Results: When IT projects were evaluated using CBA, most cases yielded negative Net Present Value (NPV, even though, some cases showed some reduction in operation cost starting from the third year of project life. However, when the CBA was applied as a part of a comprehensive EEA by introducing qualitative aspects and urgency criteria, proper justification for new projects became feasible. Conclusion: The modified EEA represented a systematic approach which was well suited for the government of Jordan as a developing country. This approach was capable of dealing with the justification issue, evaluation of existing systems and the urgency of replacing legacy systems. This study explored many of the challenges and inherited problems existing in the public sectors of developing

  1. Analysis of Final Energy Consumption Patterns in 10 Arab Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hinti, I.; Al-Ghandoor, A.

    2009-08-01

    This study presents an analysis of the energy consumption patterns in 10 Arab countries: Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria. Commonalities and variations between these countries are discussed and explained through key economic and energy indicators, and the relationship between the overall final energy consumption per capita and the GDP per capita is examined. The distribution of the final energy consumption across different sectors is also analysed, and the patterns of consumption in the industrial, transportation, and residential sectors are discussed with focus on the types of energy consumed, and the main drivers of this consumption. The findings and the conclusions of this study are believed to be beneficial to the national energy policy planners in identifying possible strengths, weaknesses, and areas of emphasis and improvement in their strategic energy plans.

  2. Attitudes Toward Same-Gender Adoption and Parenting: An Analysis of Surveys from 16 Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Darrel Montero

    2014-01-01

    Globally, little progress has been made toward the legalization of same-gender adoption. Of the nearly 200 United Nations members, only 15 countries with populations of 3 million or more have approved LGBT adoption without restrictions. The objectives of this paper are, first, to provide a brief background of the obstacles confronting same-gender adoption including the role of adoption agencies and parenting issues; second, to discuss the current legal status of the 15 countries which have ap...

  3. Attitudes Toward Same-Gender Adoption and Parenting: An Analysis of Surveys from 16 Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Darrel Montero

    2014-01-01

    Globally, little progress has been made toward the legalization of same-gender adoption. Of the nearly 200 United Nations members, only 15 countries with populations of 3 million or more have approved LGBT adoption without restrictions. The objectives of this paper are, first, to provide a brief background of the obstacles confronting same-gender adoption including the role of adoption agencies and parenting issues; second, to discuss the current legal status of the 15 countries which have ap...

  4. Immigration, unemployment and GDP in the host country: Bootstrap panel Granger causality analysis on OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Boubtane, Ekrame; Rault, C; Coulibaly, Dramane

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the causality relationship between immigration, unemployment and economic growth of the host country. We employ the panel Granger causality testing approach of Konya (2006) that is based on SUR systems and Wald tests with country specific bootstrap critical values. This approach allows to test for Granger-causality on each individual panel member separately by taking into account the contemporaneous correlation across countries. Using annual data over the 1980-2005 period ...

  5. The Utility of a Brief Experimental Analysis for Problem Behavior Maintained by Escape from Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jonathan D.; Shanholtzer, Alison; Mezhoudi, Nabil; Scherbak, Bailey; Kahng, SungWoo

    2014-01-01

    Brief experimental analysis (BEA) is a useful tool for quickly evaluating intervention strategies for individuals with academic deficits and minor behavior problems. However, there is a lack of research investigating BEA for intervention strategies with individuals who emit severe problem behavior to avoid academic demands. For the current study,…

  6. Integrating Psychology and Philosophy: A Brief Analysis of "The Blessing of a Skinned Knee"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yali

    2016-01-01

    A brief analysis of "The Blessing of a Skinned Knee" gives a glimpse of beliefs and practices cherished by the family that attempts to employ Jewish teachings to raise children. The child nurturing and rearing practices are in a degree enlightening and supplementing the existing literature in education. Prevention with the inspiration…

  7. Examination of a One-Trial Brief Experimental Analysis to Identify Reading Fluency Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Melissa N.; Daly, Edward J., III; Young, Nicholas D.

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate whether a one-trial brief experimental analysis (OTBEA) would reliably and validly identify effective treatments to improve oral reading fluency for 6 elementary school students referred for reading problems. An OTBEA was conducted with each participant to assess the effects of skill- and performance-based treatment…

  8. CORRUPTION AND WELFARE: A SIMPLE ECONOMETRIC ACROSS COUNTRIES ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Mariyono

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to measure the impact of corruption on welfare, and to compare the magnitude of impact between high-income and low-income countries. Corruption perception index is used as a proxy of corruption level; human development index is used to represent welfare. Natural resource endowment and international trade are included in analysis to control robustness of corruption. The results show that corruption has negative impact on welfare. The impact in low-income countries is more destructive. Natural resource endowment and trade also have significant impacts, particularly for low-income countries. Since the corruption is destructive, government should eradicate corruption using preventive and repressive actions. Keywords:Economic development, corruption, low income countries, human development indexJEL classification numbers: D73, D31, I31AbstrakKajian ini bertujuan untuk mengukur dampak korupsi pada kesejahteraan, dan untuk membandingkan besarnya dampak antara negara-negara berpenghasilan tinggi dan berpenghasilan rendah. Indeks persepsi korupsi digunakan sebagai proksi tingkat korupsi; indeks pembangunan manusia digunakan sebagai pendekatan kesejahteraan. Sumber daya alam dan perdagangan internasional dimasukkan dalam analisis untuk mengontrol kekuatan variabel korupsi. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahwa korupsi berdampak negatif pada kesejahteraan. Dampak korupsi di negara-negara miskin lebih buruk dari pada di negara-negara kaya. Sumber daya alam dan perdagangan juga memiliki dampak yang signifikan, terutama untuk negara-negara miskin. Karena korupsi bersifat merusak, pemerintah harus memberantas korupsi menggunakan tindakan preventif maupun represif.Kata kunci: Pembangunan ekonomi, korupsi, negara berpenghasilan rendah, IPMJEL classification numbers: D73, D31, I31

  9. Food retailers' buying behaviour: An analysis in 16 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans; Blunch, Niels Johan

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents results from a study on food retailer buying behaviour, i.e., how the retailers judge product and vendor attributes when choosing a new supplier of a product category that is already well known to them. A conjoint analysis was conducted in 16 Western European countries....... The study encompassed the retailers' buying behaviour for fish and cheese products. The results demonstrate that the traditional four P's are losing ground to some previously neglected attributes, which now demand consideration by retail suppliers of products and services and by researchers....

  10. A Brief Discussion on Pragmatic Analysis and Classroom Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷月洪

    2012-01-01

    Pragmatics is the study of language in use; pragmatic analysis is one of the research perspectives in pragmatic studies. So far, a number of researchers have developed different theories to investigate how language is used in different contexts. Among these theories are Speech Act, Cooperative Principle, and Politeness Principle, etc. These theories have helped the development of pragmatic analysis and its implications are evident in language teaching and learning. This paper is an effort to briefly outline some theories in pragmatic analysis and the classroom implications.

  11. THE WHITE-SELGIN MODEL - A BRIEF ANALYSIS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    BOGDAN BĂDESCU

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the model proposed by Professor White and further developed by professor Selgin and an analysis of the possibility of its implementation as a reform of the current monetary system...

  12. A brief review of risk-factors for growth and developmental delay among preschool children in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Sadat Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the highly prevalent risk factors influencing growth and development among pre-school children in rural population of developing countries. A child′s brain during the first 3 years of life is rapidly developing through generation of neurons, synaptogenesis, axonal, and dendric growth and synaptic pruning each of which build upon each other. Any interruption in this process, such as trauma, stress, under-nutrition or lack of nutrients can have long-term effects on the brain′s structure and on the child′s socio-emotional development. Children′s development is essentially cumulative in nature and hence, the early years of life are the foundation for later development. A Med-line search was done to review relevant articles in English literature on evaluation of risk factors influencing child development. Data were constructed and issues were reviewed from there. Influences upon children′s development tend to be specific in nature and developmental influences rarely operate in isolation from each other. Developmental risk factors tend to cluster together thereby, interventions designed to facilitate development must be multifocal in nature, integrating influences from different domains.

  13. [Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief - Likert format: Factor structure analysis in general population in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferchiou, A; Todorov, L; Lajnef, M; Baudin, G; Pignon, B; Richard, J-R; Leboyer, M; Szöke, A; Schürhoff, F

    2016-09-16

    The main objective of the study was to explore the factorial structure of the French version of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B) in a Likert format, in a representative sample of the general population. In addition, differences in the dimensional scores of schizotypy according to gender and age were analyzed. As the study in the general population of schizotypal traits and its determinants has been recently proposed as a way toward the understanding of aetiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia, consistent self-report tools are crucial to measure psychometric schizotypy. A shorter version of the widely used Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ-Brief) has been extensively investigated in different countries, particularly in samples of students or clinical adolescents, and more recently, a few studies used a Likert-type scale format which allows partial endorsement of items and reduces the risk of defensive answers. A sample of 233 subjects representative of the adult population from an urban area near Paris (Créteil) was recruited using the "itinerary method". They completed the French version of the SPQ-B with a 5-point Likert-type response format (1=completely disagree; 5=completely agree). We examined the dimensional structure of the French version of the SPQ-B with a Principal Components Analysis (PCA) followed by a promax rotation. Factor selection was based on Eigenvalues over 1.0 (Kaiser's criterion), Cattell's Scree-plot test, and interpretability of the factors. Items with loadings greater than 0.4 were retained for each dimension. The internal consistency estimate of the dimensions was calculated with Cronbach's α. In order to study the influence of age and gender, we carried out a simple linear regression with the subscales as dependent variables. Our sample was composed of 131 women (mean age=52.5±18.2 years) and 102 men (mean age=53±18.1 years). SPQ-B Likert total scores ranged from 22 to 84 points (mean=43.6

  14. A Brief Analysis to Informal Chatting on the Phone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金晓瑜

    2005-01-01

    An analysis to the telephoning chat is often ignored by analysts as it is very common and very colloquial.In my opinion,however,it differs to the spoken language life in some aspects. For example, it has two parties connected by a line, the speakers talks in deferent places and may do different things.So in analyzing the discourse,such as field, tenor, and mode, skipping and coherence, reference and presupposition in to analyze the informal chatting on the phone.It also mentlors some practical applications of the analysis to this style of discourse in the conclusion part.

  15. Ranking and clustering countries and their products; a network analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Caldarelli, Guido; Gabrielli, Andrea; Pietronero, Luciano; Scala, Antonio; Tacchella, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the network of countries and products from UN data on country production. We define the country-country and product-product networks and we introduce a novel method of community detection based on elements similarity. As a result we find that country clustering reveals unexpected socio-geographic links among the most competing countries. On the same footings the products clustering can be efficiently used for a bottom-up classification of produced goods. Furthermore we define a procedure to rank different countries and their products over the global market. These analyses are a good proxy of country GDP and therefore could be possibly used to determine the robustness of a country economy.

  16. A Brief Analysis to Informal Chatting on the Phone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金晓瑜

    2005-01-01

    An analysis to the telephoning chat is often ignored by analysts as it is very common and very colloquial. In my opinion, however, it differs to the spoken language in daily life in some aspects. For example, it has two parties connected by a line, the speakers talks in deferent places and may do different things. So in analyzing the discourse, such factors as field, tenor, and mode, skipping and coherence, reference and presupposition in study the context are to be emphasized. The third part of this paper gives an example to show one method to analyze the informal chatting on the phone. It also mentions some practical applications of the analysis to this style of discourse in the conclusion part.

  17. Seatbelt wearing rates in middle income countries: a cross-country analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecino-Ortiz, Andres I; Bishai, David; Chandran, Aruna; Bhalla, Kavi; Bachani, Abdulgafoor M; Gupta, Shivam; Slyunkina, Ekaterina; Hyder, Adnan A

    2014-10-01

    In settings with low seatbelt use prevalence, self-reported seatbelt use estimates often lack validity, and routine observational studies are scarce. In this paper, we aim to describe the prevalence of seatbelt use and associated factors in drivers and front-seat passengers across eight sites in four countries (Egypt, Mexico, Russia, Turkey) using observational studies as well as to produce estimates of country-level and site-level variance. As part of the Bloomberg Philanthropies Global Road Safety Program, data on driver and passenger seatbelt use across four middle-income countries was collected between October 2010 and May 2011 (n=122,931 vehicles). Logistic regression and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient analyses for sites- and country-level clustering were performed. We found high variability of seatbelt wearing rates ranging from 4 to 72% in drivers and 3-50% in front-seat passengers. Overall, average seatbelt wearing rates were low (under 60% in most sites). At the individual level, older and female drivers were more likely to wear seatbelts, as well as drivers of vehicles transiting at times of increased vehicle flow. We also found that 26-32% and 37-41% of the variance in seatbelt use among drivers and front-seat passengers respectively was explained by differences across sites and countries. Our results demonstrate that there is room for improvement on seatbelt use in middle-income countries and that standardized cross-country studies on road safety risk factors are feasible, providing valuable information for prevention and monitoring activities.

  18. Metastudy analysis on 2050 energy scenarios. Policy briefing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerster, Hannah; Healy, Sean; Loreck, Charlotte; Matthes, Felix [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Fischedick, Manfred; Lechtenboehmer, Stefan; Samadi, Sascha; Venjakob, Johannes [Wuppertal Institut (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    The need for an ''Energy Roadmap 2050'' triggered a multitude of studies that were conducted between 2009 and 2011, which again contained a multitude of decarbonisation scenarios, which achieve the EU's long-term emission mitigation target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by at least 80% until 2050 (relative to 1990 emissions). The variety of important analysis is difficult to compare and utilize for specific and timely policy decisions. Thus the Smart Energy for Europe Platform (SEFEP) has commissioned a comparative study of relevant energy scenario studies for Europe. The findings of this comparative study are summarized here briefly.

  19. Economic Growth and Budget Constraints: EU Countries Panel Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimčík Petr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify the impacts of different taxes and expenditures on economic growth. The research is focused on 20 selected European Union Member States. These countries are equally divided into four groups based on their average tax burden as presented in the World Tax Index. A comparison of fiscal attributes among these groups is important for the analysis. Annual government finance data from the years 1995 to 2012 are used for an empirical study. The indicators observed are real GDP change, the composition and volume of total government expenditures, tax quotas of individual taxes and total budget balance. These indicators are used within an endogenous growth model together with capital stock and an approximation of human capital. A panel regression with fixed effects is used as an analytic tool. The main results are that an increase in social contributions, property, production and personal income tax quotas has an adverse effect on economic growth.

  20. COUNTRY IMAGE VS. COUNTRY BRAND: DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa Adriana COTÎRLEA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article was written in order to provide an overview regarding the differences and similarities regarding two congruent, yet different concepts: country brand and country image. The geopolitical context and, implicitly, the current global context require a redefinition – or a more complex circumscription – of the “country image” and “country branding” concepts. In this paper, the author aimed to highlight the characteristics and particularities of the approached concepts in order to shape a framework of the context within these two operate; a brief analysis of the literature is presented, trying to emphasize the slight difference between the approached concepts

  1. Information systems for mental health in six low and middle income countries : Cross country situation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Jordans, Mark J D; Abdulmalik, Jibril; Ahuja, Shalini; Alem, Atalay; Hanlon, Charlotte; Kigozi, Fred; Kizza, Dorothy; Lund, Crick; Semrau, Maya; Shidhaye, Rahul; Thornicroft, Graham; Komproe, Ivan H.; Gureje, Oye

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research on information systems for mental health in low and middle income countries (LMICs) is scarce. As a result, there is a lack of reliable information on mental health service needs, treatment coverage and the quality of services provided. Methods: With the aim of informing the

  2. Information systems for mental health in six low and middle income countries : Cross country situation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Jordans, Mark J D; Abdulmalik, Jibril; Ahuja, Shalini; Alem, Atalay; Hanlon, Charlotte; Kigozi, Fred; Kizza, Dorothy; Lund, Crick; Semrau, Maya; Shidhaye, Rahul; Thornicroft, Graham; Komproe, Ivan H.; Gureje, Oye

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research on information systems for mental health in low and middle income countries (LMICs) is scarce. As a result, there is a lack of reliable information on mental health service needs, treatment coverage and the quality of services provided. Methods: With the aim of informing the dev

  3. Child Malnutrition and Mortality in Developing Countries: Evidence from a Cross-Country Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriele, Alberto; Schettino, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we propose and test an interpretative framework on the social and economic determinants of child malnutrition and child mortality, two key human development indicators. The paper is organized as follows. Section 1 illustrates the main economic and social factors causing child malnutrition and mortality. Section 2 identifies the main clusters of food insecure and vulnerable households and briefly describes their livelihood profiles. Section 3 exposes our cross-country estimatio...

  4. Migration between home country and diaspora: an economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercowitz, Z; Pines, D

    1997-07-01

    "This paper investigates the distribution of a population group between a home country and diaspora, given sequential decision-making regarding migration at the individual level. The home country is attractive to the members of the group, yet their presence there requires a fixed amount of public spending (e.g., on defense). The per-capita tax burden depends then on the size of the domestic population, reflecting a case of ¿fiscal externality'. This results in an inefficient distribution of the group between the home country and the diaspora. Encouraging immigration to the home country is an interest not only of those individuals who are currently in the home country but also of those residing in the diaspora. However, only when the burden of public spending in the home country is large enough do the latter volunteer to bear part of it. Even then, in general, this part is smaller than socially optimal."

  5. Faster Horses...An Analysis of Country-Western Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippard, Paula

    This paper reports on a study of the content of the lyrics of 100 country-western songs. It presents findings concerning the primary subject matter of the songs, female and male roles portrayed, and the value system implicit in the song lyrics. Among the findings were that the single most-valued subject in country-western music is romantic love;…

  6. Economic Freedom and Life Satisfaction : A Cross Country Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, J.J.; Compen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper estimates the relationship between various sub-indicators of economic freedom and life satisfaction for 122 countries. The estimation results show that life satisfaction is positively related to the quality of the legal system and protection of property rights. For poor countrie

  7. Political Regime and Human Capital: A Cross-Country Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    2013-03-01

    We examine the relationship between different dimensions of the political regime in place and human capital using a two-step structural equation model. In the first step, we employ factor analysis on 16 human capital indicators to construct two new human capital measures (basic and advanced human capital). In the second step, we estimate the impact of our political variables on human capital, using a cross-sectional structural model for some 100 countries. We conclude that democracy is positively related to basic human capital, while regime instability has a negative link with basic human capital. Governance has a positive relationship with advanced human capital, while government instability has a negative link with advanced human capital. Finally, we also find an indirect positive effect of governance and democracy on both types of human capital through their effect on income. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11205-011-9983-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  8. Bibliometric analysis of rheumatology research in the Arab countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayoumy, Karim; MacDonald, Ross; Dargham, Soha Roger; Arayssi, Thurayya

    2016-08-08

    The Arab world has seen an increase in the burden of musculoskeletal diseases. No bibliometric studies have characterized rheumatology research in the Arab world. This study evaluates the productivity and impact of rheumatology research in the Arab world. We searched the Web of Science Core Collection for rheumatology publications, from 1976 to 2014, for each of the Arab League (AL) countries, North America, Europe and Asia. For the AL countries, the overall trend of publications and citations was analyzed, while considering the paper type and collaborations. The AL countries published 944 rheumatology papers over the period studied. The number of publications increased by a factor of 2.77 (95 % CI, 2.75-2.78) each decade, and citations increased by a factor of 2.36 (95 % CI, 0.96-5.82). The absolute number of papers included in the top-10 rheumatology journals remained constant but the proportion decreased. Papers involving collaboration among AL countries were found to increase over time. Overall, the AL countries lag in research productivity and impact compared to other regions. Three countries are responsible for the majority of publications, while four countries receive the majority of citations.

  9. International analysis of the countries where Brazilian franchise chains operate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Lucas de Resende Melo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to demonstrate which external environment factors are involved in the international commitment of Brazilian franchise chains. Our objectives herein are to understand which external country characteristics lead to international franchising operations and to ascertain the influence of such characteristics in the commitment of franchise chains in each country they operate in. The database has 54 Brazilian franchise chains with international operations in 26 countries, which implies in 157 franchises operating abroad. Regarding external environment factors, the independent variables form a group divided into market opportunity and business efficiency – trust and ease to doing business. The result of the three distinct clusters show how the market opportunity and the business efficiency (trust and ease in doing business work as drivers to the international operation of Brazilian franchises. The paper shows that the franchise chains operating in the USA (cluster 3 have an inferior international commitment in comparison with the franchises which operate in developed countries and in small Latin American countries (cluster 2. It is also possible to notice a large number of franchises that operate in underdeveloped countries from Latin America and Africa (cluster 1 with worse business efficiency due to the advantage of learning how to operate in a country that could have some similarities with Brazil

  10. Electricity consumption and economic growth: A cross-country analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Seung-Hoon, E-mail: shyoo@hoseo.ed [Department of International Area Studies, Hoseo University, 268 Anseo-Dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joo-Suk, E-mail: leejoosuk@hoseo.ed [Department of International Area Studies, Hoseo University, 268 Anseo-Dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    Electricity has been the foundation of economic growth, and constitutes one of the vital infra-structural inputs in socio-economic development. The world faces a surge in demand for electricity that is driven by such powerful forces as population growth, extensive urbanization, industrialization, and the rise in the standard of living. This paper attempts to ascertain whether there is a systematic relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth. To this end, we use a large set of data that spans 88 countries during the period, 1975-2004. A statistically significant inverted-U-shaped relationship between per-capita consumption of electricity and per-capita income is detected. Nevertheless, by using a purchasing power parity that is much higher than the per-capita income of all the countries in the world, the level of per-capita income is estimated at the peak point of per-capita electricity consumption to be $61,379 in 2000 constant international dollars. Moreover, we segment the sample into Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries and non-OECD countries, and separately analyze the developed and developing countries. The separate estimation shows that even though the peak income is higher than the average per-capita income, a statistically significant inverted-U-shaped relationship is found in OECD and developed countries but not in non-OECD and developing countries.

  11. Electricity consumption and economic growth. A cross-country analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Joo-Suk [Department of International Area Studies, Hoseo University, 268 Anseo-Dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-713 (Korea)

    2010-01-15

    Electricity has been the foundation of economic growth, and constitutes one of the vital infra-structural inputs in socio-economic development. The world faces a surge in demand for electricity that is driven by such powerful forces as population growth, extensive urbanization, industrialization, and the rise in the standard of living. This paper attempts to ascertain whether there is a systematic relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth. To this end, we use a large set of data that spans 88 countries during the period, 1975-2004. A statistically significant inverted-U-shaped relationship between per-capita consumption of electricity and per-capita income is detected. Nevertheless, by using a purchasing power parity that is much higher than the per-capita income of all the countries in the world, the level of per-capita income is estimated at the peak point of per-capita electricity consumption to be $61,379 in 2000 constant international dollars. Moreover, we segment the sample into Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries and non-OECD countries, and separately analyze the developed and developing countries. The separate estimation shows that even though the peak income is higher than the average per-capita income, a statistically significant inverted-U-shaped relationship is found in OECD and developed countries but not in non-OECD and developing countries. (author)

  12. Brief Alcohol Interventions for Adolescents and Young Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E.; Lipsey, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports findings from a meta-analysis summarizing the effectiveness of brief alcohol interventions for adolescents (age 11-18) and young adults (age 19-30). We identified 185 eligible study samples using a comprehensive literature search and synthesized findings using random-effects meta-analyses with robust standard errors. Overall, brief alcohol interventions led to significant reductions in alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems among adolescents (ḡ = 0.27 and ḡ = 0.19) and young adults (ḡ = 0.17 and ḡ = 0.11). These effects persisted for up to one year after intervention and did not vary across participant demographics, intervention length, or intervention format. However, certain intervention modalities (e.g., motivational interviewing) and components (e.g., decisional balance, goal-setting exercises) were associated with larger effects. We conclude that brief alcohol interventions yield beneficial effects on alcohol-related outcomes for adolescents and young adults that are modest but potentially worthwhile given their brevity and low cost. PMID:25300577

  13. Comparative analysis of harmonized forest area stimates for European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seebach, Lucia Maria; Strobl, P.; Miguel-Ayanz, J. San

    2011-01-01

    contain uncertainties, which must be quantified and included in the error budget. This is a prerequisite for combining and comparing data. The purpose of this study is to compare, taking into account uncertainties, forest area estimates for year 2000 derived from four different harmonized satellite...... the best accordance with official statistics due to its focus on land use. The other maps overestimated the forest area in mountainous countries and showed underestimation in countries with large forest area or open forest formations....

  14. A Review and Meta-Analysis of Country-of-Origin Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlegh, P.W.J.; Steenkamp, J.E.B.M.

    1999-01-01

    Despite a large body of research, country-of-origin effects are still poorly understood. Combining the strengths of a narrative review with those of a quantitative meta-analysis, our study seeks to establish a firm grounding for country-of-origin research. We review previous country-of-origin

  15. A Review and Meta-Analysis of Country-of-Origin Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlegh, P.W.J.; Steenkamp, J.E.B.M.

    1999-01-01

    Despite a large body of research, country-of-origin effects are still poorly understood. Combining the strengths of a narrative review with those of a quantitative meta-analysis, our study seeks to establish a firm grounding for country-of-origin research. We review previous country-of-origin resear

  16. A procedure for automated analysis of brief pumping tests of domestic wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klusman, Kate

    2004-01-01

    A new computer program has been developed to automate analysis of brief single-well pumping tests. Adapted from a procedure developed by Picking (1994) that does not require measurement of the pumping rate, this new program is menu-driven and eliminates one significant source of imprecision in Picking's original method, namely, selection of "well function of u" values by interpolation in a lookup table. This new program has been applied to tests of 25 domestic wells penetrating bedrock, each pumped for <2 min.

  17. A Brief Analysis of Misconceptions and Problems of Educational Narrative Inquiry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙颖琼

    2013-01-01

    As a qualitative research method, the educational narrative inquiry is widely used in educational research. However, there exists some misconceptions about what is narrative inquiry and how to do educational narrative inquiry among the begin⁃ners who are interested in this method. Educational narrative research can not invent education event, nor is seen as a convention⁃al research method. And the narrative inquiry should not be considered equivalent to ordinary way of telling stories. This paper will make a brief analysis of misconceptions and problems of educational narrative inquiry to help the beginners to better under⁃stand narrative inquiry and do this kind of research in a proper way.

  18. A Brief Analysis of Ambiguity of Words’Meaning in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Liu

    2016-01-01

    As you can see from the title, we try to provide a brief analysis of ambiguity of words’meaning in translation practice, namely, what is ambiguity of a meaning of a word and how it is caused, and how it affects translation. What effective methods are available to help us achieve a successful translation? Although a perfect solution for the problems presented by the ambiguity of words’meaning is difficult to find, we try to do what it can to contribute to the solution and draw people’s attention to those problems.

  19. Foregrounded Beauty:A Brief Analysis of Cummings’Typical Poems from the Perspective of Stylistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文荣

    2014-01-01

    E. E. Cummings is one of the representatives of American modern experimental poets whose poems are well-known for the unique style. Cummings endeavors to make his poems be different from other poets’. He broke the traditional way of writing poems, invented in the changing of lines of the poem and the spelling of the words in the poem, thus to make his personal poem style distinctive. Therefore, standing on the stylistic point of view, this paper makes a brief analysis on Cummings’typical poems from foregrounding perspective.

  20. Attitudes Toward Same-Gender Adoption and Parenting: An Analysis of Surveys from 16 Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrel Montero

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Globally, little progress has been made toward the legalization of same-gender adoption. Of the nearly 200 United Nations members, only 15 countries with populations of 3 million or more have approved LGBT adoption without restrictions. The objectives of this paper are, first, to provide a brief background of the obstacles confronting same-gender adoption including the role of adoption agencies and parenting issues; second, to discuss the current legal status of the 15 countries which have approved same-gender adoption without restrictions; third, to report on recent public opinion regarding the legalization of same-gender adoption and parenting, drawing from previously published surveys conducted in 16 countries; and, fourth, to explore the implications for social work practice including social advocacy and social policy implementation.

  1. [Costly drugs: analysis and proposals for the Mercosur countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Gustavo H; Polach, María Andrea

    2011-08-01

    Determine how the Mercosur countries access, regulate, and finance costly drugs and propose joint selection and financing strategies at the subregional level. Qualitative design, using content analyses of primary and secondary sources, document reviews, interviews, focus groups, and case studies. The variables selected included: selection criteria, access, financing, and regulations in the various countries. Costly drugs were divided into those that do not alter the natural course of the disease and those with demonstrated efficacy, using the defined daily dose to compare the costs of classical treatments and those involving costly drugs. The Mercosur countries generally lack formal strategies for dealing with the demand for costly drugs, and governments and insurers wind up financing them by court order. The case studies show that there are costly drugs whose efficacy has not been established but that nonetheless generate demand. The fragmentation of procurement, international commitments with regard to intellectual property, and low negotiating power exponentially increase the price of costly drugs, putting health system finances in jeopardy. Costly drugs must be regulated and rationally selected so that only those that substantively benefit people are accepted. To finance the drugs so selected, common country strategies are needed that include such options as flexible in trade agreements, the creation of national resource funds, or joint procurement by countries to enhance their negotiating power.

  2. Analysis of Tsunami Culture in Countries Affected by Recent Tsunamis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esteban, M.; Tsimopoulou, V.; Shibayama, T.; Mikami, T.; Ohira, K.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2004 there is a growing global awareness of the risks that tsunamis pose to coastal communities. Despite the fact that these events were already an intrinsic part of the culture of some countries (such as Chile and Japan), in many other places they had been virtually unheard of before 2004.

  3. Economic Freedom and Life Satisfaction : A Cross Country Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, J.J.; Compen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper estimates the relationship between various sub-indicators of economic freedom and life satisfaction for 122 countries. The estimation results show that life satisfaction is positively related to the quality of the legal system and protection of property rights. For poor

  4. Analysis of Tsunami Culture in Countries Affected by Recent Tsunamis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esteban, M.; Tsimopoulou, V.; Shibayama, T.; Mikami, T.; Ohira, K.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2004 there is a growing global awareness of the risks that tsunamis pose to coastal communities. Despite the fact that these events were already an intrinsic part of the culture of some countries (such as Chile and Japan), in many other places they had been virtually unheard of before 2004. Ne

  5. Child Mortality in a Developing Country: A Statistical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md. Jamal; Hossain, Md. Zakir; Ullah, Mohammad Ohid

    2009-01-01

    This study uses data from the "Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS] 1999-2000" to investigate the predictors of child (age 1-4 years) mortality in a developing country like Bangladesh. The cross-tabulation and multiple logistic regression techniques have been used to estimate the predictors of child mortality. The…

  6. Sociality in Diverse Societies: A Regional Analysis Across European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Koster (Ferry)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractFor a long time, researchers investigate the impact of diversity on society. To measure diversity, either archival data at the national level of census data at the neighborhood level, within a single country are used. Both approaches are limited. The first approach does not allow to inve

  7. National Innovation System And Culture A Cross-Country Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Gogodze

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the relationship between Hofstedes cultural dimensions and the constituents of a National Innovation System NIS. We consider an NIS as a special kind of intangible latent asset and identify its two constituents input and output capital. These are extracted through a modern NIS measurement model based on the Global Innovation Index. Using structural equation models we show that power distance and uncertainty avoidance and long-term orientation and indulgence vs. restraint act through the latent constructs PDUA and LTIV respectively. Moreover individualism IDV and NIS constituents are directly and negatively affected by PDUA. IDV and LTIV directly and positively affect the NIS constituents. Further the results show that masculinity vs. femininity significantly and negatively affects the NIS input constituent and significantly affects the NIS output constituent but its impact is negative for high-income countries and positive for non-high income countries.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Food Price Policies in the Developed Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linrong; LI

    2015-01-01

    As the basis for maintenance of national security and global strategic material,food has always captured the attention of governments in the world.After reaching a certain stage of industrialization,most countries will take the food support and protection measures,and the policy objectives and policy tools have evolved into a set of policy systems through continuous adjustment,but the intervention in food price has always been present.The food price intervention only plays a role in regulating food market supply and demand and guaranteeing minimum income for grain producers,and it can not reflect the cost of food production and continuously improve grain producers’ income,but because of its simple operation,low cost and immediate effect,it is suitable for the countries with a large number of grain producers but small operation scale in the short term.

  9. The Environmental Kuznets Curve. An empirical analysis for OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgiev, E.

    2008-09-15

    This paper tests the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis for four local (SOx, NOx, CO, VOC) and two global (CO2, GHG) air pollutants. Using a new panel data set of thirty OECD countries, the paper finds that the postulated inverted U-shaped relationship between income and pollution does not hold for all gases. A meaningful Environmental Kuznets Curve exists only for CO, VOC and NOx, where for CO2 the curve is monotonically increasing. For GHG there is indication of an inverted U-shaped relationship between income and pollution, but still most countries are on the increasing path of the curve and hence the future development of the curve is uncertain. For SOx it was found that emissions follow an U-shaped curve. Based on the empirical results, the paper concludes that the Environmental Kuznets Curve does not hold for all gases, it is rather an empirical artefact than a regularity.

  10. Sociality in Diverse Societies: A Regional Analysis Across European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Ferry

    2013-04-01

    For a long time, researchers investigate the impact of diversity on society. To measure diversity, either archival data at the national level of census data at the neighborhood level, within a single country are used. Both approaches are limited. The first approach does not allow to investigate variation in diversity within countries and the second approach misses the possibility to investigate cross national differences. The present study aims at bringing these two approaches closer together by constructing diversity measures based on the European Social Survey (ESS). The ESS is collected every 2 years since 2002 and includes individual level data that allow replicating earlier measures of ethnic, linguistic, and religious diversity for 30 European countries. Furthermore, since respondents are asked to indicate in what region they live, measured with the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics classification, it is possible to construct disaggregated measures. Comparing the new indicators with existing diversity scores leads to the following conclusions. First, the new and old measures are strongly correlated at the national level. Secondly, investigating the relationship between diversity and different kinds of sociality (interpersonal trust, institutional trust, and support for government redistribution) shows that regional diversity is more strongly related to them than diversity at the national level.

  11. Analysis of industrial pollution prevention programs in selected Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.]|[East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Industrialization in developing countries is causing increasing environmental damage. Pollution prevention (P2) is an emerging environmental concept that could help developing countries achieve leapfrog goals, bypassing old and pollutive technologies and minimizing traditional control practices. The current P2 promotion activities in Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand are discussed. These programs, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into five categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technical assistance, and financial incentives. All important at the early stages of P2 promotion, these programs should inform industries of the benefits of P2 and help them identify applicable P2 measures. Participation in these programs is voluntary. The limited data indicate that adoption of P2 measures in these countries is not yet widespread. Recommendations for expanding P2 promotion activities include (1) strengthening the design and enforcement of environmental regulations; (2) providing P2 training and education to government workers, nongovernmental organizations and labor unions officials, university faculties, and news media; (3) tracking the progress of P2 programs; (4) implementing selected P2 mandatory measures; (5) identifying cleaner production technologies for use in new facilities; (6) implementing special programs for small and medium enterprises; and (7) expanding P2 promotion to other sectors, such as agriculture and transportation, and encouraging green design and green consumerism.

  12. Identifying Interventions for Improving Letter Formation: A Brief Experimental Analysis of Students with Intellectual Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rüya ÖZMEN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As a group, students with intellectual disabilities display difficulties in a wide range of academic skills, including the acquisition of basic academic skills such as literacy. Early writing and reading skills must be supported to prepare students with intellectual disabilities to learn to read and write. The goal of this study was to replicate and extend the current research on Brief Experimental Analysis with letter formation. Three students with intellectual disabilities participated in the study. A brief multi-element design was used to test effectiveness of four interventions on letter formation. These interventions included goal setting plus contingent reinforcement, graphical feedback, error correction and modeling. For one student, modeling was effective; for the two remaining students, goal setting plus contingent reinforcement was effective. The results of this study extend the BEA literature by investigating the effects of interventions for improving letter formation in students with intellectual disabilities. The study findings suggest that using BEA to assess the relative contribution of each intervention can identify the most effective interventions for improving letter formation in students with intellectual disabilities.

  13. Risk Factors for Childhood Stunting in 137 Developing Countries: A Comparative Risk Assessment Analysis at Global, Regional, and Country Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodarz Danaei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stunting affects one-third of children under 5 y old in developing countries, and 14% of childhood deaths are attributable to it. A large number of risk factors for stunting have been identified in epidemiological studies. However, the relative contribution of these risk factors to stunting has not been examined across countries. We estimated the number of stunting cases among children aged 24-35 mo (i.e., at the end of the 1,000 days' period of vulnerability that are attributable to 18 risk factors in 137 developing countries.We classified risk factors into five clusters: maternal nutrition and infection, teenage motherhood and short birth intervals, fetal growth restriction (FGR and preterm birth, child nutrition and infection, and environmental factors. We combined published estimates and individual-level data from population-based surveys to derive risk factor prevalence in each country in 2010 and identified the most recent meta-analysis or conducted de novo reviews to derive effect sizes. We estimated the prevalence of stunting and the number of stunting cases that were attributable to each risk factor and cluster of risk factors by country and region. The leading risk worldwide was FGR, defined as being term and small for gestational age, and 10.8 million cases (95% CI 9.1 million-12.6 million of stunting (out of 44.1 million were attributable to it, followed by unimproved sanitation, with 7.2 million (95% CI 6.3 million-8.2 million, and diarrhea with 5.8 million (95% CI 2.4 million-9.2 million. FGR and preterm birth was the leading risk factor cluster in all regions. Environmental risks had the second largest estimated impact on stunting globally and in the South Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and East Asia and Pacific regions, whereas child nutrition and infection was the second leading cluster of risk factors in other regions. Although extensive, our analysis is limited to risk factors for which effect sizes and country-level exposure data

  14. FRENCH BRANDS: ANALYSIS FROM THE COUNTRY OF TRADE ARCHETYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmir Kuazaqui

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the importance of the country to mark the construction of an identification mark in international scenarios. The construction of a brand of a product takes into account several factors related to compliance with market needs, where the assessment is closely related to marketing and finance. However, the identification by the consumer qualities and benefits come from a land and its transfer to the brand can open up the entry of a company and their products, reducing costs, expenses and possible barriers to entry and maintenance in international markets. Through quantitative and qualitative research, we obtained a picture of the perceptions of French brands in Brazil.

  15. Biomechanical analysis of cross-country skiing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G A

    1992-09-01

    The development of new techniques for cross-country skiing based on skating movements has stimulated biomechanical research aimed at understanding the various movement patterns, the forces driving the motions, and the mechanical factors affecting performance. Research methods have evolved from two-dimensional kinematic descriptions of classic ski techniques to three-dimensional analyses involving measurement of the forces and energy relations of skating. While numerous skiing projects have been completed, most have focused on either the diagonal stride or the V1 skating technique on uphill terrain. Current understanding of skiing mechanics is not sufficiently complete to adequately assess and optimize an individual skier's technique.

  16. Analysis on the status of Plutonium utilization in various countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-01

    Generally, spent fuel reprocessing/MOX fuel fabricating capacity goes on expanding, and so does the plutonium recycling accordingly. With priority given to LWRs as pivotal reactor type for it. Such countries as France, the U.K., Japan, Germany, Belgium, Switzerland and Russia are taking very positive attitudes towards plutonium recycling, whilst Canada, China, India and the Ukraine are also seeking the possibilities. In order to promote plutonium utilization, necessity of which is recognized in various aspects, it is prerequisite for worldwide nuclear industry to create international-political environment for it. As for Korea, efforts are necessary to secure maximum choice alternatives corresponding to national benefit, by exercising initiative in the new development of surrounding situation these days. 24 refs., 4 tabs. (Author) (Author) .new.

  17. AN ANALYSIS OF THE SHADOW ECONOMY IN EU COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brindusa Mihaela Tudose

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at analysing the dimension of the underground economy in the EU states between 2003 and 2015. In order to achieve this goal, we use qualitative and quantitative methods. In the first two sections of the study we resort to conceptualisation and bring up to date scientific contributions in the field of the shadow economy both in terms of its definition and the methods of quantifying the phenomenon. In the third section, based on the results of the latest research, we identify the dynamics of the underground economy on three levels: the EU-15 (before and after 2005; the EU-10 (before and after the accession of 10 countries in 2005 and the EU-3 (before and after 2007. The main conclusion is that regardless of the reporting level (national, European, world, the real size of the underground economy remains unknown.

  18. An analysis of oil production by OPEC countries: Persistence, breaks, and outliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestana Barros, Carlos, E-mail: cbarros@iseg.utl.p [Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao and Research Unit on Complexity and Economics, Technical University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal); Gil-Alana, Luis A., E-mail: alana@unav.e [University of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Payne, James E., E-mail: jepayne@ilstu.ed [Department of Economics, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61790-4200 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    This study examines the time series behaviour of oil production for OPEC member countries within a fractional integration modelling framework recognizing the potential for structural breaks and outliers. The analysis is undertaken using monthly data from January 1973 to October 2008 for 13 OPEC member countries. The results indicate there is mean reverting persistence in oil production with breaks identified in 10 out of the 13 countries examined. Thus, shocks affecting the structure of OPEC oil production will have persistent effects in the long run for all countries, and in some cases the effects are expected to be permanent. - Research Highlights: {yields}Mean reverting persistence in oil production with breaks identified in 10 out of the 13 countries examined. {yields} Standard analysis based on cointegration techniques and involving oil production should be examined in the more general context of fractional cointegraton. {yields} Analysis of outliers did not alter the main conclusions of the study.

  19. Conflict or Cooperation Over Global Warming Policy? AN Analysis Based on the Interaction of Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Daniel Michael

    Response to climatic change due to global warming, rather than being the common response of humankind to a common problem, may well be the product of decisions made by countries with diverse and possibly divergent interests. This dissertation analyzes the interactions of countries with diverse interests. Each country's economic production is assumed to increase at a decreasing rate with respect to the country's own fossil fuel use and the country's climatic damage is assumed to increase at an increasing rate with respect to the sum of all countries' fossil fuel uses. Each country is assumed to seek to maximize its production minus its climatic damage. The analysis begins with a one-period, two-country case with a single fossil fuel and without binding agreements, without side-payments between countries, and without prior history of fossil fuel use. The cases implied by relaxing restrictions are then analyzed. The dissertation shows explictly how countries' global warming policy decisions could define a prisoners' dilemma game. It characterizes "cooperative" outcomes such as the Nash bargaining solution and Coasean bargaining. The dissertation compares non-side-payment outcomes with the side-payment outcomes implied by tradeable carbon emission quotas. In addition to qualitative results, the dissertation has the following quantitative analysis. First, it conducts a two-country simulation of a tradeable emission quota agreement. The simulation illustrates a case where reduction in carbon emissions, even with significant increase in world population, results in economic growth and manageable climatic damage. Second, based on World Resource Institute data on carbon emissions, carbon elasticities of GNP are estimated for 138 countries. The small estimated elasticities suggest that economic growth may not be greatly reduced by restricting fossil fuel use and that economic growth may depend primarily on non-fossil fuel factors. Overall, the dissertation creates a

  20. An analysis of oil production by OPEC countries. Persistence, breaks, and outliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Carlos Pestana [Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao and Research Unit on Complexity and Economics, Technical University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal); Gil-Alana, Luis A. [University of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Payne, James E. [Department of Economics, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61790-4200 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    This study examines the time series behaviour of oil production for OPEC member countries within a fractional integration modelling framework recognizing the potential for structural breaks and outliers. The analysis is undertaken using monthly data from January 1973 to October 2008 for 13 OPEC member countries. The results indicate there is mean reverting persistence in oil production with breaks identified in 10 out of the 13 countries examined. Thus, shocks affecting the structure of OPEC oil production will have persistent effects in the long run for all countries, and in some cases the effects are expected to be permanent. (author)

  1. The Double Edged Sword: A Brief Comparison of IT and Internet Development in Malaysia and Some Few Neighboring Countries in the Context of Digital Divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Ramli Abdul

    This paper shows that, although a digital divide exists between developed and developing countries, the development of information technology (IT) and the Internet has had a profound political, social, and economic impact on developing countries. IT and the Internet revolution are shaping the world into new polarized entities due to the uneven…

  2. ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC VOTING SYSTEM IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available India is the world’s largest democracy with a population of more than 1 billion; India has an electorate of more than 668 million and covers 543 parliamentary constituencies. Voting is the bridge between the governed and government. The last few years have brought a renewed focus on to the technology used in the voting process. The current voting system has many security holes, and it is difficult to prove even simple security properties about them. A voting system that can be proven correct has many concerns. There are some reasons for a government to use electronic systems are to increase elections activities and to reduce the elections expenses. Still there is some scope of work in electronic voting system because there is no way of identification by the electronic voting system whether the user is authentic or not and securing electronic voting machine from miscreants. This paper provides an overview of the experiences of other countries using electronic voting machine. The comparative focus is on the adoption of electronic voting systems adopted at the international level.

  3. Analysis of prospects for advanced nuclear reactors in western countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Sapia, R. [ENEA, Rome (Italy). Area Energetica; Foskolos, K. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1994-05-01

    Nuclear energy deployment faces stagnation in western european and north american countries as a result of barriers that have appeared over the years. Such barriers were identified in the domains of economics, public acceptance, energy policy, technology, licensing and regulations as well as environment and waste disposal. It is to the nuclear community and particularly the industry to take the initiative and the leadership role for the most significant approaches to overcome these barriers. These approaches include concetration of efforts, lowering of costs and financial risks and extensive use of the experience accumulated so far; clear setting of priorities and long-term global consideration of the energy issue; encouraging an appropriate, stable regulatory environment and harmonisation of general safety objectives and principles, and adequate, globally consistent and clear information to the public. Also within the prime responsability of the nuclear community belong the safe operation of existing plants; making available all necessary information to the public, the media and the political leaders, supporting the development and execution of national energy polcies; supporting authorities in improving regulatory processes; taking all measures to improve economics of nuclear power; pursuing plans for the safe disposal of radioactive wastes. Governments should place energy issues in the appropriate priority level and encourage the establishment of an equally favourable environment for nuclear energy, including a greater consensus among controversial opinion representatives. Finally, authorities should established reasonable, transparent and predictable regulatory enviroments. This paper describes the barriers in a systematic way and proposes appropriate measures to overcame them.

  4. Attitudes and Learning through Practice Are Key to Delivering Brief Interventions for Heavy Drinking in Primary Health Care: Analyses from the ODHIN Five Country Cluster Randomized Factorial Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Anderson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we test path models that study the interrelations between primary health care provider attitudes towards working with drinkers, their screening and brief advice activity, and their receipt of training and support and financial reimbursement. Study participants were 756 primary health care providers from 120 primary health care units (PHCUs in different locations throughout Catalonia, England, The Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden. Our interventions were training and support and financial reimbursement to providers. Our design was a randomized factorial trial with baseline measurement period, 12-week implementation period, and 9-month follow-up measurement period. Our outcome measures were: attitudes of individual providers in working with drinkers as measured by the Short Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaire; and the proportion of consulting adult patients (age 18+ years who screened positive and were given advice to reduce their alcohol consumption (intervention activity. We found that more positive attitudes were associated with higher intervention activity, and higher intervention activity was then associated with more positive attitudes. Training and support was associated with both positive changes in attitudes and higher intervention activity. Financial reimbursement was associated with more positive attitudes through its impact on higher intervention activity. We conclude that improving primary health care providers’ screening and brief advice activity for heavy drinking requires a combination of training and support and on-the-job experience of actually delivering screening and brief advice activity.

  5. The Brief Analysis of Faux Amis in Chinese-English Translation---Taking Two Sets of Words for Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜杨

    2014-01-01

    Taking “个人主义”& “individualism” and “封建”&“feudal” for example, this paper gives the brief analysis of faux amis in Chinese-English translation, and puts forward some measures to avoid them in translation.

  6. Question Utilization in Solution-Focused Brief Therapy: A Recursive Frame Analysis of Insoo Kim Berg's Solution Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Recursive frame analysis (RFA) was used to conduct a single case investigation of Insoo Kim Berg's question utilization talk in a solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT) session. Due to the lack of process research that explores how SFBT questions facilitate change, the author investigated how Berg's solution language influenced a client to respond…

  7. Time-frequency analysis of event-related potentials: a brief tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Christoph S; Rach, Stefan; Vosskuhl, Johannes; Strüber, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) reflect cognitive processes and are usually analyzed in the so-called time domain. Additional information on cognitive functions can be assessed when analyzing ERPs in the frequency domain and treating them as event-related oscillations (EROs). This procedure results in frequency spectra but lacks information about the temporal dynamics of EROs. Here, we describe a method-called time-frequency analysis-that allows analyzing both the frequency of an ERO and its evolution over time. In a brief tutorial, the reader will learn how to use wavelet analysis in order to compute time-frequency transforms of ERP data. Basic steps as well as potential artifacts are described. Rather than in terms of formulas, descriptions are in textual form (written text) with numerous figures illustrating the topics. Recommendations on how to present frequency and time-frequency data in journal articles are provided. Finally, we briefly review studies that have applied time-frequency analysis to mismatch negativity paradigms. The deviant stimulus of such a paradigm evokes an ERO in the theta frequency band that is stronger than for the standard stimulus. Conversely, the standard stimulus evokes a stronger gamma-band response than does the deviant. This is interpreted in the context of the so-called match-and-utilization model.

  8. Co-word analysis for the non-scientific information example of Reuters Business Briefings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Delecroix

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-word analysis is based on a sociological theory developed by the CSI and the SERPIA (Callon, Courtial, Turner, 1991 in the mid eighties. This method, originally dedicated to scientific fields, measures the association strength between terms in documents to reveal and visualise the evolution of scientific fields through the construction of clusters and strategic diagram. This method has since been successfully applied to investigate the structure of many scientific areas. Nowadays it occurs in many software systems which are used by companies to improve their business, and define their strategy but its relevance to this kind of application has not been proved yet. Using the example of economic and marketing information on DSL technologies from Reuters Business Briefing, this presentation gives an interpretation of co-word analysis for this kind of information. After an overview of the software we used (Sampler and after an outline of the experimental protocol, we investigate and explain each step of the co-word analysis process: terminological extraction, computation of clusters and the strategic diagram. In particular, we explain the meaning of each parameter of the method: the choice of variables and similarity measures is discussed. Finally we try to give a global interpretation of the method in an economic context. Further studies will be added to this work in order to allow a generalisation of these results.

  9. Determinants of Human Development Index: A Cross-Country Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Smit

    2016-01-01

    The Human Development Index is a statistical tool used to measure countries overall achievements in its social and economic dimensions. This paper tried to find out major factors affecting Human Development Index like health index, education index and income index. The objective of this study is found out the empirical findings and trend of human development across countries, regression analysis of determinants factors and region wise analysis of human development index.

  10. Political Regime and Human Capital: A Cross-Country Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    We examine the relationship between different dimensions of the political regime in place and human capital using a two-step structural equation model. In the first step, we employ factor analysis on 16 human capital indicators to construct two new human capital measures (basic and advanced human capital). In the second step, we estimate the…

  11. Political Regime and Human Capital: A Cross-Country Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    We examine the relationship between different dimensions of the political regime in place and human capital using a two-step structural equation model. In the first step, we employ factor analysis on 16 human capital indicators to construct two new human capital measures (basic and advanced human capital). In the second step, we estimate the…

  12. Political regime and human capital : A cross-country analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.; de Haan, J.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the relationship between different dimensions of the political regime in place and human capital using a two-step structural equation model. In the first step, we employ factor analysis on 16 human capital indicators to construct two new human capital measures (basic and advanced human ca

  13. Political regime and human capital: A cross-country analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.; Haan, de J.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the relationship between different dimensions of the political regime in place and human capital using a two-step structural equation model. In the first step, we employ factor analysis on 16 human capital indicators to construct two new human capital measures (basic and advanced human ca

  14. Political regime and human capital : A cross-country analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.; de Haan, J.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the relationship between different dimensions of the political regime in place and human capital using a two-step structural equation model. In the first step, we employ factor analysis on 16 human capital indicators to construct two new human capital measures (basic and advanced human ca

  15. Political regime and human capital: A cross-country analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.; Haan, de J.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the relationship between different dimensions of the political regime in place and human capital using a two-step structural equation model. In the first step, we employ factor analysis on 16 human capital indicators to construct two new human capital measures (basic and advanced human ca

  16. A network analysis of countries' export flows: firm grounds for the building blocks of the economy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Caldarelli

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the bipartite network of countries and products from UN data on country production. We define the country-country and product-product projected networks and introduce a novel method of filtering information based on elements' similarity. As a result we find that country clustering reveals unexpected socio-geographic links among the most competing countries. On the same footings the products clustering can be efficiently used for a bottom-up classification of produced goods. Furthermore we mathematically reformulate the "reflections method" introduced by Hidalgo and Hausmann as a fixpoint problem; such formulation highlights some conceptual weaknesses of the approach. To overcome such an issue, we introduce an alternative methodology (based on biased Markov chains that allows to rank countries in a conceptually consistent way. Our analysis uncovers a strong non-linear interaction between the diversification of a country and the ubiquity of its products, thus suggesting the possible need of moving towards more efficient and direct non-linear fixpoint algorithms to rank countries and products in the global market.

  17. Journal portfolio analysis for countries, cities, and organizations: Maps and comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Heimeriks, G.; Rotolo, D.

    Using Web of Science data, portfolio analysis in terms of journal coverage can be projected onto a base map for units of analysis such as countries, cities, universities, and firms. The units of analysis under study can be compared statistically across the 10,000+ journals. The interdisciplinarity

  18. Journal Portfolio Analysis for Countries, Cities, and Organizations : Maps and Comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, Loet; Heimeriks, Gaston|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/291061664; Rotolo, Daniele

    Using Web-of-Science data, portfolio analysis in terms of journal coverage can be projected on a base map for units of analysis such as countries, cities, universities, and firms. The units of analysis under study can be compared statistically across the 10,000+ journals. The interdisciplinarity of

  19. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES IN SOME EU COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Raluca Goldbach

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of organizational structures highlights similarities and differences between different factors influencing a company in its way of operation with the internal and/or external environment. The paper analyzes the organizational structures of some top companies from England, France and Romania that influence/determine the cultural organizational values and the norms elaborated and implemented, which, in time, become moral values and norms that acquire a social meaning, which means that they have been accepted by all the members of the organization.

  20. Welfare state regimes, gender, and depression: a multilevel analysis of middle and high income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Haejoo; Ng, Edwin; Ibrahim, Selahadin; Karlsson, Björn; Benach, Joan; Espelt, Albert; Muntaner, Carles

    2013-03-28

    Using the 2002 World Health Survey, we examine the association between welfare state regimes, gender and mental health among 26 countries classified into seven distinct regimes: Conservative, Southeast Asian, Eastern European, Latin American, Liberal, Southern/Ex-dictatorship, and Social Democratic. A two-level hierarchical model found that the odds of experiencing a brief depressive episode in the last 12 months was significantly higher for Southern/Ex- dictatorship countries than for Southeast Asian (odds ratio (OR) = 0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05-0.27) and Eastern European (OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.22-0.58) regimes after controlling for gender, age, education, marital status, and economic development. In adjusted interaction models, compared to Southern/Ex-dictatorship males (reference category), the odds ratios of depression were significantly lower among Southeast Asian males (OR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.08-0.34) and females (OR = 0.23, 95% CI 0.10-0.53) and Eastern European males (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.26-0.63) and significantly higher among females in Liberal (OR = 2.00, 95% CI 1.14-3.49) and Southern (OR = 2.42, 95% CI 1.86-3.15) regimes. Our results highlight the importance of incorporating middle-income countries into comparative welfare regime research and testing for interactions between welfare regimes and gender on mental health.

  1. A CROSS-COUNTRY ANALYSIS OF THE BANKS’ FINANCIAL SOUNDNESS: THE CASE OF THE CEE-3 COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sargu Alina Camelia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The European integration process has a direct impact on all the components of the macroeconomic environment. The existence of a well functioning and sound banking sector becomes of great importance for the integration process as the European Union economy is financed especially through this channel. The banking sectors of the new EU member countries have undergone through tremendous changes in the last decade, both from an ownership and also from a business strategy point of view, these changes having a direct impact on their financial soundness. Thus, the aim of our research is to empirically examine the financial soundness of the banks operating in Bulgaria, Czech Republic and Romania, three EU members countries from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE-3. In order to achieve this we have employed a combine quantitative analysis based on the CAMELS framework (namely Capital Adequacy, Asset quality, Management soundness, Earnings, Liquidity, Sensitivity to market risk and the Z-score, thus being able to underline simultaneously the financial soundness and the possibility of default for the banks from our sample. The analysed period is 2004-2011 providing us with an evaluation of the impact that the EU ascension and also the global financial crisis had on the financial soundness of the analysed banks. Our sample is composed from 40 commercial banks that operate in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic and Romania, that overall own over 75% of the total banking assets, making this study one of the most comprehensive undertaken to this date. The data that we have employed in our research is obtained from the Bureau Van Dijk Bankscope database and the annual financial statements of the banks from our sample. The paper through its original dual approach contributes to the academic debate by providing not only insight into the financial soundness of the banks operating in the CEE-3 countries but also underling their financial strength through the usage of the Z

  2. A brief review of models of DC-DC power electronic converters for analysis of their stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewniak, Piotr; Grzesik, Bogusław

    2014-10-01

    A brief review of models of DC-DC power electronic converters (PECs) is presented in this paper. It contains the most popular, continuous-time and discrete-time models used for PEC simulation, design, stability analysis and other applications. Both large-signal and small-signal models are considered. Special attention is paid to models that are used in practice for the analysis of the global and local stability of PECs.

  3. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the first of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 1 provides a general overview of key issues.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Energy Sectors in Some Countries of Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Zaharia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of energy sectors of countries all over the world is vital in a context of globalization and economic, social and environmental crises, because represents a way of identifying the problems and finding solutions that were implemented and worked in other countries. Our paper aims to compare the energetic sector of 6 Eastern European countries by analyzing the trend of energy production, consumption, prices and the main indicators needed to assess the achievement of required targets of 2020 Europe Strategy in the energy sector. The results show that each country has strong points or weaknesses in a smaller or a greater extent, but is important that authorities learn from each one of them and, on their basis, to create a sustainable management in the energy sector in each country.

  5. Multidimensional scaling analysis of the dynamics of a country economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenreiro Machado, J A; Mata, Maria Eugénia

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Portuguese short-run business cycles over the last 150 years and presents the multidimensional scaling (MDS) for visualizing the results. The analytical and numerical assessment of this long-run perspective reveals periods with close connections between the macroeconomic variables related to government accounts equilibrium, balance of payments equilibrium, and economic growth. The MDS method is adopted for a quantitative statistical analysis. In this way, similarity clusters of several historical periods emerge in the MDS maps, namely, in identifying similarities and dissimilarities that identify periods of prosperity and crises, growth, and stagnation. Such features are major aspects of collective national achievement, to which can be associated the impact of international problems such as the World Wars, the Great Depression, or the current global financial crisis, as well as national events in the context of broad political blueprints for the Portuguese society in the rising globalization process.

  6. Briefing and debriefing in the cardiac operating room. Analysis of impact on theatre team attitude and patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaspyros, Sotiris C; Javangula, Kalyana C; Adluri, Rajeshwara Krishna Prasad; O'Regan, David J

    2010-01-01

    Error in health services delivery has long been recognised as a significant cause of inpatient morbidity and mortality. Root-cause analyses have cited communication failure as one of the contributing factors in adverse events. The formalised fighter pilot mission brief and debrief formed the basis of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) crew resource management (CRM) concept produced in 1979. This is a qualitative analysis of our experience with the briefing-debriefing process applied to cardiac theatres. We instituted a policy of formal operating room (OR) briefing and debriefing in all cardiac theatre sessions. The first 118 cases were reviewed. A trouble-free operation was noted in only 28 (23.7%) cases. We experienced multiple problems in 38 (32.2%) cases. A gap was identified in the second order problem solving in relation to instrument repair and maintenance. Theatre team members were interviewed and their comments were subjected to qualitative analysis. The collaborative feeling is that communication has improved. The health industry may benefit from embracing the briefing-debriefing technique as an adjunct to continuous improvement through reflective learning, deliberate practice and immediate feedback. This may be the initial step toward a substantive and sustainable organizational transformation.

  7. Cross-Country Skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Guy E.

    1980-01-01

    The cross-country ski program offered at Clarkson College in New York is described, including a brief outline of the course, necessary equipment, and suggestions for developing a similar course at other campuses. (JMF)

  8. Multivariate Analysis of Countries according to Subdimensions of Human Development and Gender Inequality Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selay Giray

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Human Development Index (HDI is an index aiming to measure human development by taking into account a long and healthy life, access to knowledge and a decent standard of living. The 2013 Human Development Report presents HDI values and ranks, the Inequality-adjusted HDI the Gender Inequality Index (GII and the Multidimensional Poverty Index. The aim of this study is to evaluate countries according to their similarities and differences using the indicators contained in the 2013 human development report. A figure created in two dimensional space was used by evaluation. Locations of Turkey, OECD and Eurasian countries are analyzed and interpreted elaborately. Multidimensional scaling is a statistical technique provides visual representation of the objects using proximity patterns. The most recent data of countries were analyzed by Multidimensional Scaling analysis (MDS. Stress value obtained from metric multidimensional scaling application was found in desired range. Also it was determined that we can trust the interpretations made of the map. To begin with, comparison by country groups was made, then remarkable points were interpreted on the basis of country. As examination of the map obtained from MDS application with HDI and GII indexes, it was remarked that OECD countries were grouped on the left hand side and Eurasian countries were grouped on the right hand side. Turkey, a member of OECD, located far away from other OECD countries and located closer to Eurasian countries. According to HDI and GII indexes Mexico is closest country to Turkey. Also Mexico is the country, which is perceived similar to Turkey.

  9. Inequalities in maternal health care utilization in sub-Saharan African countries: a multiyear and multi-country analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmul Alam

    Full Text Available To assess social inequalities in the use of antenatal care (ANC, facility based delivery (FBD, and modern contraception (MC in two contrasting groups of countries in sub-Saharan Africa divided based on their progress towards maternal mortality reduction. Six countries were included in this study. Three countries (Ethiopia, Madagascar, and Uganda had 4.5% average annual reduction rate while another three (Cameroon, Zambia, and Zimbabwe had >550 MMR in 2010 with only <1.5% average annual reduction rate. All of these countries had at least three rounds of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS before 2012. We measured rate ratios and differences, as well as relative and absolute concentration indices in order to examine within-country geographical and wealth-based inequalities in the utilization of ANC, FBD, and MC. In the countries which have made sufficient progress (i.e. Ethiopia, Madagascar, and Uganda, ANC use increased by 8.7, 9.3 and 5.7 percent, respectively, while the utilization of FBD increased by 4.7, 0.7 and 20.2 percent, respectively, over the last decade. By contrast, utilization of these services either plateaued or decreased in countries which did not make progress towards reducing maternal mortality, with the exception of Cameroon. Utilization of MC increased in all six countries but remained very low, with a high of 40.5% in Zimbabwe and low of 16.1% in Cameroon as of 2011. In general, relative measures of inequalities were found to have declined overtime in countries making progress towards reducing maternal mortality. In countries with insufficient progress towards maternal mortality reduction, these indicators remained stagnant or increased. Absolute measures for geographical and wealth-based inequalities remained high invariably in all six countries. The increasing trend in the utilization of maternal care services was found to concur with a steady decline in maternal mortality. Relative inequality declined overtime in countries

  10. Comparative Analysis of the Corporate Governance Codes of the Five BRICS Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Colares Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare the codes of good corporate governance (CG practices adopted by the five BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa using the set of practices recommended by the United Nations (UN as categories of analysis. The present study was exploratory (our comparison of the CG codes of the five BRICS countries in light of the UN recommended practices has no precedent in the literature. Its nature is qualitative because we performed a multiple case study focused on a specific group of countries – BRICS – and used the content analysis technic to analyze and cross data with the literature reviewed. The research is documental because it is based on a review of documents and the literature. Among the five BRICS countries, the Corporate Governance codes of Brazil, Russia and South Africa are those most closely aligned with the recommendations set forth by the UN. It was observed that although these countries are developing their codes of good corporate governance practices focused on the requirements of international investors, corporate governance and codes in these countries are at very different stages. In comparison, the low level of convergence of the Chinese and Indian codes with the UN recommendations suggests a greater concern in those countries with the local context than with international standards.

  11. Empirical analysis of the environmental and energy policies in some developing countries using widely employed macroeconomic indicators: the cases of Brazil, China and India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focacci, Antonio [Bologna Univ., Business and Management Dept., Bologna (Italy)

    2005-03-01

    This paper proposes an empirical analysis concerning the environmental and energy policies of some important developing countries (Brazil, China and India) today present in the international scenario with very different features than in the past. The research is carried out using two of the most important macroeconomic indicators several times proposed in the field of policy analysis: emission-intensity ratio and energy-intensity ratio. Moreover, the emission-intensity ratio is used in order to verify the empirical existence of the so-called 'Environmental Kuznets Curve' for the three countries. For what concerns this last point, final results do not correspond closely to the theoretical strict formulations hypothesised in the classical Environmental Kuznets Curve model. This paper follows (completing and concluding) the previous one carried out by the same author for some industrialised countries. After a brief, but ineluctable, premise considering the theoretical basic assumptions to define the question and regarding general statements, the specific cases are analysed. Main findings show that resulting trends in these developing countries are different and, furthermore, they differ from those already observed in industrialised ones. (Author)

  12. A Brief Analysis of Willy Loman’s Tragic Fate in Death of a Salesman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁瑾

    2014-01-01

    Arthur Miller was considered as the most famous dramatist in America after the World War II, and his representative work Death of a Salesman was recognized as the best play in America during the post-war years. It was also considered to be one of the best three plays in the history of American drama; with A Streetcar Named Desire and Long Day's Journey into Night. Through the failure of two generations, this play addressed the painful conflicts within one family, and it also tackled greater is⁃sues regarding to Americans’national values.As an average person, Willy Loman had experienced hopes and pains, struggles and frustrations as well as dreams and disillusions, at last he chose to commit suicide. Based on the existent materials, the predecessor ’s researches as well as her own thinking, the author of this paper gives a brief analysis of the leading role ’s tragic fate, which mainly elaborates three important stages of Willy Loman’s tragic life:disillusion of the American Dream, the abandonment and the be⁃trayal, aiming to decode the root of Loman’s tragedy from the perspectives of society, family and the protagonist’s character. In conclusion, the paper tries to explore Arthur Miller’s inner world and the resources of his creation as far as possible, hoping to give readers of this paper certain inspiration.

  13. Executive Functioning in Children with ASD: An Analysis of the BRIEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blijd-Hoogewys, E. M.; Bezemer, M. L.; van Geert, P. L.

    2014-01-01

    The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF) screens for executive function deficits in 5- to 18-year-olds. Data of three autism subgroups, according to DSM-IV-TR criteria (N = 35 Autistic Disorder, N = 27 Asperger's Disorder and N = 65 PDD-NOS), were analyzed. The total group has elevated scores on almost all BRIEF scales.…

  14. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest developments in the field of renewables at country level around the world. Each profile combines analysis by IRENA's specialists with the latest available country data and additional information from a wide array of sources. The resulting reports provide a brief yet comprehensive picture of the situation with regard to renewable energy, including energy supply, electrical generation and grid capacity, and access. Energy policies, targets and projects are also considered, along with each country's investment climate and endowment with renewable energy resources. The energy statistics presented here span the period from 2009 until 2012, reflecting varying timelines in the source material. Since data availability differs from country to country, wider regional comparisons are possible only for the latest year with figures available for every country included. Despite the time lag in some cases, the evident differences and disparities between countries and regions around the world remain striking. The current package of country profiles is just a starting point. The geographic scope will continue to expand, and existing profiles will be enhanced with new indicators, with the whole series maintained as a live product on the IRENA website (www.irena.org)

  15. The stoma appliances market in five European countries: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornago, Dante; Garattini, Livio

    2002-01-01

    This comparative exercise analysed the domestic market for stoma appliances in five European countries--Denmark, France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom. National legislation, prescription procedures, delivery modalities and the market were investigated in each country. The analysis involved reviewing national and international literature on stoma appliances and interviewing a selected expert panel of market operators in each country comprising at least one health authority representative, one distributor of medical devices and one manufacturer. No specific relationship was found between the health care system framework and the stoma market, except for a greater inclination towards home care in national health services. All five countries reimburse stoma bags, but the distribution of these appliances varies widely, ranging from Denmark, where home delivery is mandatory, to Italy, where any channel can be used. The comparative analysis underlined two important features of the stoma bag market: the discretion of enterostomists in directing patients towards a specific brand of bags, and the patients' high brand loyalty. Despite that, the analysis did not identify any single country that could be considered a benchmark for stoma bag regulation. Each country deals with stoma appliances in different ways, making this a very fragmented market.

  16. A new assessment tool for patients with multiple sclerosis from Spanish-speaking countries: validation of the Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanotti, Sandra; Smerbeck, Audrey; Benedict, Ralph H B; Caceres, Fernando

    2016-10-01

    The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis (BICAMS) is an international assessment tool for monitoring cognitive function in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. BICAMS comprises the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), the California Verbal Learning Test - Second Edition (CVLT II) and the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test - Revised (BVMT-R). Our objective was to validate and assess the reliability of BICAMS as applied in Argentina and to obtain normative data in Spanish for this population. The sample composed of 50 MS patients and 100 healthy controls (HC). In order to test its reliability, BICAMS was re-administered in a subset of 25 patients. The sample's average age was 43.42 ± 10.17 years old, and average years of schooling were 14.86 ± 2.78. About 74% of the participants were women. The groups did not differ in age, years of schooling, or gender. The MS group performed significantly worse than the HC group across the three neuropsychological tests, yielding the following Cohen's d values: SDMT: .85; CVLT I: .87; and BVMT-R: .40. The mean raw scores for Argentina normative data were as follows: SDMT: 56.71 ± 10.85; CVLT I: 60.88 ± 10.46; and BVMT-R: 23.44 ± 5.84. Finally, test-retest reliability coefficients for each test were as follows: SDMT: r = .95; CVLT I: r = .87; and BVMT-R: r = .82. This BICAMS version is reliable and useful as a monitoring tool for identifying MS patients with cognitive impairment.

  17. IT Implementation in a Developing Country Municipality: A SocioCognitive Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanford, Clive Carlton; Bhattacherjee, Anol

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an interpretive analysis of the key problems and challenges to technology implementation in developing countries, based on a three-year case analysis of an IT project in a city government in Ukraine.  We employ the concept of technological frames of reference as an analytical...

  18. Association between earthquake events and cholera outbreaks: a cross-country 15-year longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Steven A; Turner, Elizabeth L; Thielman, Nathan M

    2013-12-01

    Large earthquakes can cause population displacement, critical sanitation infrastructure damage, and increased threats to water resources, potentially predisposing populations to waterborne disease epidemics such as cholera. Problem The risk of cholera outbreaks after earthquake disasters remains uncertain. A cross-country analysis of World Health Organization (WHO) cholera data that would contribute to this discussion has yet to be published. A cross-country longitudinal analysis was conducted among 63 low- and middle-income countries from 1995-2009. The association between earthquake disasters of various effect sizes and a relative spike in cholera rates for a given country was assessed utilizing fixed-effects logistic regression and adjusting for gross domestic product per capita, water and sanitation level, flooding events, percent urbanization, and under-five child mortality. Also, the association between large earthquakes and cholera rate increases of various degrees was assessed. Forty-eight of the 63 countries had at least one year with reported cholera infections during the 15-year study period. Thirty-six of these 48 countries had at least one earthquake disaster. In adjusted analyses, country-years with ≥10,000 persons affected by an earthquake had 2.26 times increased odds (95 CI, 0.89-5.72, P = .08) of having a greater than average cholera rate that year compared to country-years having cholera infections appeared to weaken as higher levels of cholera rate increases were tested. A trend of increased risk of greater than average cholera rates when more people were affected by an earthquake in a country-year was noted. However these findings did not reach statistical significance at traditional levels and may be due to chance. Frequent large-scale cholera outbreaks after earthquake disasters appeared to be relatively uncommon.

  19. Economic Inequalities and the Level of Decentralization in European Countries: Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laboutková Šárka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This submitted article identifies relations between the degree of decentralization and economic imbalances on the basis of a cluster (exploratory analysis. Two indicators have been chosen for measuring economic inequalities: an indicator of dispersion of regional GDP per capita as representative of the performance imbalances within countries (it measures the economic development gap among regions in European countries; and a multidimensional inequality-adjusted human development index as representative of inequalities in the distribution of wealth in the countries. Decentralization is measured by means of a decentralization index, which contains both quantitative and qualitative components. Although groups of countries characterised by a high degree of decentralization do not necessarily show the lowest degrees of economic imbalances, it is however possible to conclude that the countries in groups with a higher degree of decentralization are among those countries with more favourable values of the economic imbalances indicators monitored. As a part of the research, two clusters of countries were identified which are identical in their degree of decentralization, but differ in the results connected with economic imbalances. The differences are caused by different institutional qualities in the two groups.

  20. Cross-country Analysis of ICT and Education Indicators: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, Ahmad R.

    2017-03-01

    This paper explores the relationship between world ICT and education indicators by using the latest available data from World Bank and UNESCO in range of 2011-2014 with the help of different exploratory methods such as principal component analysis (PCA), factor analysis (FA), cluster analysis, and ordinary least square (OLS) regression. After dealing with all missing values, 119 countries were included in the final dataset. The findings show that most ICT and education indicators are highly associated with income of the respective country and therefore confirm the existence of digital divide in ICT utilization and participation gap in education between rich and poor countries. It also indicates that digital divide and participation gap is highly associated with each other. Finally, the findings also confirm reverse causality in ICT and education; higher participation rate in education increases technology utilization, which in turn helps promote better outcomes of education.

  1. Brief psychological therapies for anxiety and depression in primary care: meta-analysis and meta-regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cape John

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological therapies provided in primary care are usually briefer than in secondary care. There has been no recent comprehensive review comparing their effectiveness for common mental health problems. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of different types of brief psychological therapy administered within primary care across and between anxiety, depressive and mixed disorders. Methods Meta-analysis and meta-regression of randomized controlled trials of brief psychological therapies of adult patients with anxiety, depression or mixed common mental health problems treated in primary care compared to primary care treatment as usual. Results Thirty-four studies, involving 3962 patients, were included. Most were of brief cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT; n = 13, counselling (n = 8 or problem solving therapy (PST; n = 12. There was differential effectiveness between studies of CBT, with studies of CBT for anxiety disorders having a pooled effect size [d -1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI -1.31 to -0.80] greater than that of studies of CBT for depression (d -0.33, 95% CI -0.60 to -0.06 or studies of CBT for mixed anxiety and depression (d -0.26, 95% CI -0.44 to -0.08. Counselling for depression and mixed anxiety and depression (d -0.32, 95% CI -0.52 to -0.11 and problem solving therapy (PST for depression and mixed anxiety and depression (d -0.21, 95% CI -0.37 to -0.05 were also effective. Controlling for diagnosis, meta-regression found no difference between CBT, counselling and PST. Conclusions Brief CBT, counselling and PST are all effective treatments in primary care, but effect sizes are low compared to longer length treatments. The exception is brief CBT for anxiety, which has comparable effect sizes.

  2. Local level epidemiological analysis of TB in people from a high incidence country of birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massey Peter D

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The setting for this analysis is the low tuberculosis (TB incidence state of New South Wales (NSW, Australia. Local level analysis of TB epidemiology in people from high incidence countries-of-birth (HIC in a low incidence setting has not been conducted in Australia and has not been widely reported. Local level analysis could inform measures such as active case finding and targeted earlier diagnosis. The aim of this study was to use a novel approach to identify local areas in an Australian state that have higher TB rates given the local areas’ country of birth profiles. Methods TB notification data for the three year period 2006–2008 were analysed by grouping the population into those from a high-incidence country-of-birth and the remainder. Results During the study period there were 1401 notified TB cases in the state of NSW. Of these TB cases 76.5% were born in a high-incidence country. The annualised TB notification rate for the high-incidence country-of-birth group was 61.2/100,000 population and for the remainder of the population was 1.8/100,000. Of the 152 Local Government Areas (LGA in NSW, nine had higher and four had lower TB notification rates in their high-incidence country-of-birth populations when compared with the high-incidence country-of-birth population for the rest of NSW. The nine areas had a higher proportion of the population with a country of birth where TB notification rates are >100/100,000. Those notified with TB in the nine areas also had a shorter length of stay in Australia than the rest of the state. The areas with higher TB notification rates were all in the capital city, Sydney. Among LGAs with higher TB notification rates, four had higher rates in both people with a high-incidence country of birth and people not born in a high-incidence country. The age distribution of the HIC population was similar across all areas, and the highest differential in TB rates across areas was in the 5–19

  3. [Childhood cancer: a comparative analysis of incidence, mortality, and survival in Goiania (Brazil) and other countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Patrícia Emília; Latorre Md, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Curado, Maria Paula

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of cancer incidence, mortality, and survival rates can yield geographic and temporal trends that are useful for planning and evaluating health interventions. This article reviews cancer incidence and mortality rates and respective trends around the world in children under 15 years old, as well as their 5-year survival rates in developed and developing countries. We conclude that even though increasing or stable childhood cancer incidence rates and decreasing mortality rates have been observed in developed countries, the trends remain unknown in developing countries. Data from the city of Goiania, Brazil, show stable childhood cancer incidence and mortality rates. Five-year survival rates (48%) in Goiania are similar to those seen in underdeveloped regions and lower than those reported in developed countries (64-70%).

  4. The political economy of AIDS leadership in developing countries: an exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor, Jacob

    2007-04-01

    The commitment of high-level government leaders is widely recognized as a key factor in curbing national AIDS epidemics. But where does such leadership come from? This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the determinants of AIDS leadership in 54 developing countries, using the 2003 AIDS Program Effort Index "political support" score as an indicator of political commitment. Explanatory variables include measures of political institutions as well as economic development and integration. Models developed in the analysis explain over half of the variation in commitment across the countries in the sample. In particular, press freedoms, income equality, and HIV prevalence stand out as determinants of political commitment.

  5. Welfare State Regimes, Gender, and Depression: A Multilevel Analysis of Middle and High Income Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Muntaner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Using the 2002 World Health Survey, we examine the association between welfare state regimes, gender and mental health among 26 countries classified into seven distinct regimes: Conservative, Southeast Asian, Eastern European, Latin American, Liberal, Southern/Ex-dictatorship, and Social Democratic. A two-level hierarchical model found that the odds of experiencing a brief depressive episode in the last 12 months was significantly higher for Southern/Ex- dictatorship countries than for Southeast Asian (odds ratio (OR = 0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.05–0.27 and Eastern European (OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.22–0.58 regimes after controlling for gender, age, education, marital status, and economic development. In adjusted interaction models, compared to Southern/Ex-dictatorship males (reference category, the odds ratios of depression were significantly lower among Southeast Asian males (OR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.08–0.34 and females (OR = 0.23, 95% CI 0.10–0.53 and Eastern European males (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.26–0.63 and significantly higher among females in Liberal (OR = 2.00, 95% CI 1.14–3.49 and Southern (OR = 2.42, 95% CI 1.86–3.15 regimes. Our results highlight the importance of incorporating middle-income countries into comparative welfare regime research and testing for interactions between welfare regimes and gender on mental health.

  6. Characteristics of the Entrepreneurial Environment in European Union Countries: a Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Diana Rusu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The major importance of entrepreneurship for economic growth, competitiveness, creating jobs and innovation is widely recognized. The objectives of our paper are to realize a comparative analyze of the characteristics of entrepreneurship in the EU countries, as well as to identify the perceptions about it. For our analysis we use the values for the key indicators obtained from data base and reports of Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. Also, in order to realize the comparison we use the classification of EU countries according to their development level. The results obtained show that there are important differences between the EU countries regarding entrepreneurial activity, but also among the countries in the same group. The countries with a higher economic development have a better entrepreneurial environment than those less developed. Regarding the perception about entrepreneurship, our results show that almost half of working age population from EU observe good opportunities in the region for starting a business, but almost as many of them affirm that a big constrain in starting a business would be their fear of failure. Overall, the results of our research allow identifying the measures that would be required to be taken by policy makers to stimulate entrepreneurship in European countries.

  7. Activity Sectors and Energy Intensity: Decomposition Analysis and Policy Implications for European Countries (1991–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Ramos-Real

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the change in Energy Intensity (EI of the main economic activities in the EU15 countries, which represents approximately 45% of their final energy consumption. The purpose is, first, to measure the different patterns between the countries by establishing differentiated typologies, and second, to investigate those reasons that explain the different trends by country. To attain our objective, the changes in EI are decomposed into their structural and efficiency components for EU15 countries for the period 1991–2005. Results reveal four different typologies for this set of countries, and show the importance of identifying those economic activities which, due to their special impact, are key to reducing energy consumption. The changes in the structural component are due mainly to a transformative process in which the importance of industry in the economy as a whole drops, while the opposite holds for services. However, the changes in the efficiency component do not seem to be linked to this same process. It does not appear as though the services sector resulted in a more efficient use of final energy. We have detected significant evidence of convergence for EI in the service sector that would help to understand the recent worsen evolution of EI in this sector (and in overall EI of Southern European countries. It can also be concluded that an analysis of global EI change without distinguishing among its components can result in misleading conclusions and in improperly conceived Energy Policies.

  8. ANALYSIS OF THE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT EFFICIENCIES OF EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeliz EKİNCİ

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Research and Development (R&D activities of the countries are of crucial importance in order to compete in the emerging market. Although this importance is widely recognized, the efficiency of these activities has been rarely examined in the literature. Therefore, this study is an attempt to analyze the R&D efficiencies of European Union (EU member countries. EU countries are selected for this study since the competition between these countries is very high and they invest a significant amount of resources in this area. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA is used in order to measure the relative efficiency scores. Then, the effect of political and regulatory environment on R&D efficiencies of EU countries is analyzed via hypothesis testing. The relative efficiency scores and hypothesis test results give valuable information for social policy makers in making decisions about planning R&D activities. The findings will also be useful for the countries aiming to participate the union, such as Turkey.

  9. Correlation between colorectal cancer and Helicobacter pylori infection in different countries: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-xia DONG

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the relationship between Helicobacter pylori (Hp infection and colorectal cancer in different continents or economic conditions. Methods Published case-control studies dealing with the correlation of colorectal cancer with Hp infection were retrieved from PubMed, EMBASE, High Wire Press, Ovid, Medline and EBSCO. Meta-analysis was performed by using RevMan 5.3 software. We selected the OR and 95% CI as indicators of the analysis according to different continents (Asia, Europe, and America and economic conditions (developed countries and developing countries. Results A total of 23 studies dealing with the correlation of colorectal cancer with Hp infection were included in the present meta-analysis, and there was a total sample of 182,561 patients, including 88,378 cases in Hp positive group and 94,183 cases in Hp negative group. The results of meta-analysis showed the OR was 1.42 (95%CI 1.38-1.46. Geographically, the correlation was low in Asian countries (OR=1.29, 95%CI 1.13-1.48, and was highest in American countries (OR=1.44, 95%CI 1.39-1.48. According to the economic conditions, the correlation was low in developing countries (OR=1.17, 95%CI 1.01-1.37, and was higher in developed countries (OR=1.43, 95%CI 1.39-1.47. Conclusions Hp infection is a risk factor for colorectal cancer. It seems that there is a close relation ship between its incidence and geography, and also economic condition. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.03.13

  10. Analysis of innovativeness, as a determinant of competitiveness of the selected European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despotović Danijela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the premise that the phenomenon of innovation is at the heart of modern economic policies, the focus of the paper is on the most innovative and least innovative European countries, based on the values of the 12th pillar of the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI - Innovation. The research centres on the analysis of the selected countries, observing them as 10 innovation leaders and 10 innovation learners of Europe in 2013. Cluster analysis of the selected countries shows the depth of the gap between the formed clusters of innovation leaders and innovation learners. By applying the method of visualisation, the paper examines the components of the pillar Innovation in respect of these countries. With regard to the clusters formed and a big difference between them, the further course of the research includes the time dimension and analyses the trend of innovativeness in the studied groups of countries for the period 2006 - 2015. The time series graphs for each of the clusters, according to indicators of Innovation, with average values per cluster have been constructed, showing also the trend lines for each of the clusters. Bearing in mind that the majority of macroeconomic time series exhibits time dependence, dynamic relations between them are analysed using the VAR model. Statistically significant interdependence is established between the observed series. Furthermore, through simple linear regression, the impact of innovativeness on GDP per capita of the observed group of countries is examined. It can be concluded that, in addition to the pronounced gap between the achieved levels of innovativeness of the observed groups of countries, there is a positive impact of innovativeness on the achieved level of GDP per capita, expressed in the purchasing power of the domestic currency on the part of the group of innovation 'learners' in the reporting time period.

  11. Executive Functioning in Children with ASD : An Analysis of the BRIEF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijd-Hoogewys, E. M. A.; Bezemer, M. L.; van Geert, P. L. C.

    2014-01-01

    The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF) screens for executive function deficits in 5- to 18-year-olds. Data of three autism subgroups, according to DSM-IV-TR criteria (N = 35 Autistic Disorder, N = 27 Asperger's Disorder and N = 65 PDD-NOS), were analyzed. The total group has el

  12. Ex-Ante Impact Assessment & Value Network Analysis for SI: SIMPACT Policy Brief 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhondt, S.; Ven, H. van de; Cressey, P.; Kaderabkova, A.; Luna, Á.; Moghadam Saman, S.; Castro Spila, J.; Terstriep, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this Policy Brief, a conceptual framework is presented to conduct an ex-ante impact assessment for social innovation. The building blocks for an ex-ante impact assessment are goal formulation; developing the relationships between inputs, outputs and outcomes; determining the role of stakeholders

  13. Comparison and cost analysis of drinking water quality monitoring requirements versus practice in seven developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Jonny; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-07-18

    Drinking water quality monitoring programs aim to support provision of safe drinking water by informing water quality management. Little evidence or guidance exists on best monitoring practices for low resource settings. Lack of financial, human, and technological resources reduce a country's ability to monitor water supply. Monitoring activities were characterized in Cambodia, Colombia, India (three states), Jordan, Peru, South Africa, and Uganda according to water sector responsibilities, monitoring approaches, and marginal cost. The seven study countries were selected to represent a range of low resource settings. The focus was on monitoring of microbiological parameters, such as E. coli, coliforms, and H2S-producing microorganisms. Data collection involved qualitative and quantitative methods. Across seven study countries, few distinct approaches to monitoring were observed, and in all but one country all monitoring relied on fixed laboratories for sample analysis. Compliance with monitoring requirements was highest for operational monitoring of large water supplies in urban areas. Sample transport and labor for sample collection and analysis together constitute approximately 75% of marginal costs, which exclude capital costs. There is potential for substantive optimization of monitoring programs by considering field-based testing and by fundamentally reconsidering monitoring approaches for non-piped supplies. This is the first study to look quantitatively at water quality monitoring practices in multiple developing countries.

  14. The Effect on Developing Countries of Hosting an International Conference: A Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Rebecca

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the common practice whereby international organizations rotate conference venues and schedule conferences in developing countries. Based on a study of the International Association of School Librarianship, a content analysis of conference proceedings revealed that the venue had an impact on conference topics and themes. (Author/LRW)

  15. A Developmental Analysis of Caregiving Modalities across Infancy in 38 Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Bradley, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Caregiving is requisite to wholesome child development from the beginning of life. A cross-sectional microgenetic analysis of six caregiving practices across the child's 1st year (0-12 months) in 42,539 families from nationally representative samples in 38 low- and middle-income countries is reported. Rates of caregiving varied tremendously within…

  16. Explaining Differences in Civic Knowledge: Multi-Level Regression Analysis of Student Data from 27 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Wolfram

    Differences in student knowledge about democracy, institutions, and citizenship and students skills in interpreting political communication were studied through multilevel regression analysis of results from the second International Education Association (IEA) Study. This study provides data on 14-year-old students from 28 countries in Europe,…

  17. Effects of "Sesame Street": A Meta-Analysis of Children's Learning in 15 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Marie-Louise; Pan, Zhongdang

    2013-01-01

    "Sesame Street" is broadcast to millions of children globally, including in some of the world's poorest regions. This meta-analysis examines the effects of children's exposure to international co-productions of "Sesame Street", synthesizing the results of 24 studies, conducted with over 10,000 children in 15 countries. The results indicated…

  18. Cluster structure of EU-15 countries derived from the correlation matrix analysis of macroeconomic index fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligor, M.; Ausloos, M.

    2007-05-01

    The statistical distances between countries, calculated for various moving average time windows, are mapped into the ultrametric subdominant space as in classical Minimal Spanning Tree methods. The Moving Average Minimal Length Path (MAMLP) algorithm allows a decoupling of fluctuations with respect to the mass center of the system from the movement of the mass center itself. A Hamiltonian representation given by a factor graph is used and plays the role of cost function. The present analysis pertains to 11 macroeconomic (ME) indicators, namely the GDP (x1), Final Consumption Expenditure (x2), Gross Capital Formation (x3), Net Exports (x4), Consumer Price Index (y1), Rates of Interest of the Central Banks (y2), Labour Force (z1), Unemployment (z2), GDP/hour worked (z3), GDP/capita (w1) and Gini coefficient (w2). The target group of countries is composed of 15 EU countries, data taken between 1995 and 2004. By two different methods (the Bipartite Factor Graph Analysis and the Correlation Matrix Eigensystem Analysis) it is found that the strongly correlated countries with respect to the macroeconomic indicators fluctuations can be partitioned into stable clusters.

  19. ANALYSIS OF TENDENCIES IN AGRIBUSINESS NETWORKING COOPETITION IN POLAND AND IN THE PARTNER COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar BOJAR

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper following the case of Spain, Greece, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Lithuania and Poland development tendencies of SME agri-food networking organizations in the light of coopetition were presented. Supporting development of those organizations using the EU funds is to ensure sustainable development of rural areas and it is attempted to defy domination of huge food processing and distributing corporations through integration and strengthening market power of agricultural producers. It results from the analysis that important role in new the EU member countries are played by endogenous factors as institutional undergrowth and low social capital level, what deteriorates the development of SME networks in those countries. Experience of Andalusia region in Spain benchmarked to organizations in new the EU member countries can give desired effects in the scope of improvement of co-operation with public sector, product marketing and promotion and also in facing expectations of consumers for safe and healthy food in international markets.

  20. Educational assortative mating and economic inequality: a comparative analysis of three Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torche, Florencia

    2010-05-01

    Educational assortative mating and economic inequality are likely to be endogenously determined, but very little research exists on their empirical association. Using census data and log-linear and log-multiplicative methods, I compare the patterns of educational assortative mating in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico, and explore the association between marital sorting and earnings inequality across countries. The analysis finds substantial variation in the strength of specific barriers to educational intermarriage between countries, and a close association between these barriers and the earnings gaps across educational categories within countries. This finding suggests an isomorphism between assortative mating and economic inequality. Furthermore, educational marital sorting is remarkably symmetric across gender in spite of the different resources that men and women bring to the union. This study highlights the limitations of using single aggregate measures of spousal educational resemblance (such as the correlation coefficient between spouses' schooling) to capture variation in assortative mating and its relationship with socioeconomic inequality.

  1. An Analysis of Conditional Dependencies of Covariance Matrices for Economic Processes in Selected EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janiga-Ćmiel Anna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at the issues related to the research on and assessment of the contagion effect. Based on several examinations of two selected EU countries, Poland paired with one of the EU member states; it presents the interaction between their economic development. A DCC-GARCH model constructed for the purpose of the study was used to generate a covariance matrix Ht, which enabled the calculation of correlation matrices Rt. The resulting variance vectors were used to present a linear correlation model on which a further analysis of the contagion effect was based. The aim of the study was to test a contagion effect among selected EU countries in the years 2000–2014. The transmission channel under study was the GDP of a selected country. The empirical studies confirmed the existence of the contagion effect between the economic development of the Polish and selected EU economies.

  2. Inequities in access to healthcare: analysis of national survey data across six Asia-Pacific countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Samantha B; Luong, Tini C N; Mamerow, Loreen; Ward, Paul R

    2013-07-01

    Evidence suggests that there is a link between inequitable access to healthcare and inequitable distribution of illness. A recent World Health Organization report stated that there is a need for research and policy to address the critical role of health services in reducing inequities and preventing future inequities. The aim of this manuscript is to highlight disparities and differences in terms of the factors that distinguish between poor and good access to healthcare across six Asia-Pacific countries: Australia, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. A population survey was undertaken in each country. This paper is a secondary analysis of these existing data. Data were collected in each country between 2009 and 2010. Four variables related to difficulties in access to healthcare (distance, appointment, waiting time, and cost) were analysed using binomial logistic regression to identify socio- and demographic predictors of inequity. Consistent across the findings, poor health and low income were identified as difficulties in access. Country specific indicators were also identified. For Thailand, the poorest level of access appears to be for respondents who work within the household whereas in Taiwan, part-time work is associated with difficulties in access. Within Hong Kong, results suggest that older (above 60) and retired individuals have the poorest access and within Australia, females and married individuals are the worst off. Recognition of these inequities, from a policy perspective, is essential for health sector policy decision-making. Despite the differences in political and economic climate in the countries under analysis, our findings highlight patterns of inequity which require policy responses. Our data should be used as a means of deciding the most appropriate policy response for each country which includes, rather than excludes, socially marginalised population groups. These findings should be of interest to those involved in health

  3. Analysis of Fertility in Ten Central And Eastern European Countries After 1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dănuţ-Vasile JEMNA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of democracy in the communist countries, which generated profound social and economic transformation, was accompanied by a decline in fertility. We attempt to provide an overall survey on fertility since 1989 in ten Central and Eastern European Countries, members of the European Union, and to identify the variables which explain the fertility decline. We will use univariate and multivariate statistical analysis to identify disparities between the ten countries, and the variables which explain these differences. Also, we developed a panel econometric model to confirm the hypothesis of a similar pattern of evolution for fertility in these countries and that the decline in fertility can be explained both through demographic and economic variables. The decline in fertility can be explained by economic growth, marriage, divorce, abortion, and migration. The empirical evidence presented in this paper supports the view that the decline in fertility over the 1989s represents the continuation of a longstanding trend of the previous period, according to the demographic transition theory, but its speed and magnitude has been influenced by the new social and economic landscape. These results can be useful for public authorities of the CEE countries to rethinking demographic policies and to ensure the sustainability of demographic growth.

  4. Economic openness and economic growth: A cointegration analysis for ASEAN-5 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimis Vogiatzoglou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers three channels of economic openness, namely FDI, imports, and exports, and examines their short-run and long-run effects on the economic growth in the five founding member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN over the period from 1980 to 2014. Besides the impact on the economic growth, the authors analyze all possible causal interrelationships to discern patterns and directions of causality among FDI, imports, exports, and GDP. The quantitative analysis, which is based on the vector error correction co-integration framework, is conducted separately for each country in order to assess their individual experiences and allow for a comparative view. Although the precise details differ across countries, the findings indicate that there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between economic openness and GDP in all ASEAN-5 economies. FDI, imports and exports have a significantly positive short-run and long-run impact on the economic growth. Our results also show that export-led growth is the most important economic growth factor in most countries, followed by FDI-led growth. Another crucial finding is the bi-directional causality between exports and FDI across the ASEAN-5 countries. This indicates the presence of direct and indirect effects on GDP and a self-reinforcing process of causality between those two variables, which strengthens their impact on the economic growth.

  5. Prices, Costs, and Affordability of New Medicines for Hepatitis C in 30 Countries: An Economic Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swathi Iyengar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available New hepatitis C virus (HCV medicines have markedly improved treatment efficacy and regimen tolerability. However, their high prices have limited access, prompting wide debate about fair and affordable prices. This study systematically compared the price and affordability of sofosbuvir and ledipasvir/sofosbuvir across 30 countries to assess affordability to health systems and patients.Published 2015 ex-factory prices for a 12-wk course of treatment were provided by the Pharma Price Information (PPI service of the Austrian public health institute Gesundheit Österreich GmbH or were obtained from national government or drug reimbursement authorities and recent press releases, where necessary. Prices in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD member countries and select low- and middle-income countries were converted to US dollars using period average exchange rates and were adjusted for purchasing power parity (PPP. We analysed prices compared to national economic performance and estimated market size and the cost of these drugs in terms of countries' annual total pharmaceutical expenditure (TPE and in terms of the duration of time an individual would need to work to pay for treatment out of pocket. Patient affordability was calculated using 2014 OECD average annual wages, supplemented with International Labour Organization median wage data where necessary. All data were compiled between 17 July 2015 and 25 January 2016. For the base case analysis, we assumed a 23% rebate/discount on the published price in all countries, except for countries with special pricing arrangements or generic licensing agreements. The median nominal ex-factory price of a 12-wk course of sofosbuvir across 26 OECD countries was US$42,017, ranging from US$37,729 in Japan to US$64,680 in the US. Central and Eastern European countries had higher PPP-adjusted prices than other countries: prices of sofosbuvir in Poland and Turkey (PPP$101,063 and PPP$70

  6. Comparison and Cost Analysis of Drinking Water Quality Monitoring Requirements versus Practice in Seven Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny Crocker

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drinking water quality monitoring programs aim to support provision of safe drinking water by informing water quality management. Little evidence or guidance exists on best monitoring practices for low resource settings. Lack of financial, human, and technological resources reduce a country’s ability to monitor water supply. Monitoring activities were characterized in Cambodia, Colombia, India (three states, Jordan, Peru, South Africa, and Uganda according to water sector responsibilities, monitoring approaches, and marginal cost. The seven study countries were selected to represent a range of low resource settings. The focus was on monitoring of microbiological parameters, such as E. coli, coliforms, and H2S-producing microorganisms. Data collection involved qualitative and quantitative methods. Across seven study countries, few distinct approaches to monitoring were observed, and in all but one country all monitoring relied on fixed laboratories for sample analysis. Compliance with monitoring requirements was highest for operational monitoring of large water supplies in urban areas. Sample transport and labor for sample collection and analysis together constitute approximately 75% of marginal costs, which exclude capital costs. There is potential for substantive optimization of monitoring programs by considering field-based testing and by fundamentally reconsidering monitoring approaches for non-piped supplies. This is the first study to look quantitatively at water quality monitoring practices in multiple developing countries.

  7. Longitudinal Patent Analysis for Nanoscale Science and Engineering: Country, Institution and Technology Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zan; Chen, Hsinchun; Yip, Alan; Ng, Gavin; Guo, Fei; Chen, Zhi-Kai; Roco, Mihail C.

    2003-08-01

    Nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) and related areas have seen rapid growth in recent years. The speed and scope of development in the field have made it essential for researchers to be informed on the progress across different laboratories, companies, industries and countries. In this project, we experimented with several analysis and visualization techniques on NSE-related United States patent documents to support various knowledge tasks. This paper presents results on the basic analysis of nanotechnology patents between 1976 and 2002, content map analysis and citation network analysis. The data have been obtained on individual countries, institutions and technology fields. The top 10 countries with the largest number of nanotechnology patents are the United States, Japan, France, the United Kingdom, Taiwan, Korea, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Italy and Australia. The fastest growth in the last 5 years has been in chemical and pharmaceutical fields, followed by semiconductor devices. The results demonstrate potential of information-based discovery and visualization technologies to capture knowledge regarding nanotechnology performance, transfer of knowledge and trends of development through analyzing the patent documents.

  8. Prices, Costs, and Affordability of New Medicines for Hepatitis C in 30 Countries: An Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay-Teo, Kiu; Vogler, Sabine; Beyer, Peter; Wiktor, Stefan; de Joncheere, Kees; Hill, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction New hepatitis C virus (HCV) medicines have markedly improved treatment efficacy and regimen tolerability. However, their high prices have limited access, prompting wide debate about fair and affordable prices. This study systematically compared the price and affordability of sofosbuvir and ledipasvir/sofosbuvir across 30 countries to assess affordability to health systems and patients. Methods and Findings Published 2015 ex-factory prices for a 12-wk course of treatment were provided by the Pharma Price Information (PPI) service of the Austrian public health institute Gesundheit Österreich GmbH or were obtained from national government or drug reimbursement authorities and recent press releases, where necessary. Prices in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member countries and select low- and middle-income countries were converted to US dollars using period average exchange rates and were adjusted for purchasing power parity (PPP). We analysed prices compared to national economic performance and estimated market size and the cost of these drugs in terms of countries’ annual total pharmaceutical expenditure (TPE) and in terms of the duration of time an individual would need to work to pay for treatment out of pocket. Patient affordability was calculated using 2014 OECD average annual wages, supplemented with International Labour Organization median wage data where necessary. All data were compiled between 17 July 2015 and 25 January 2016. For the base case analysis, we assumed a 23% rebate/discount on the published price in all countries, except for countries with special pricing arrangements or generic licensing agreements. The median nominal ex-factory price of a 12-wk course of sofosbuvir across 26 OECD countries was US$42,017, ranging from US$37,729 in Japan to US$64,680 in the US. Central and Eastern European countries had higher PPP-adjusted prices than other countries: prices of sofosbuvir in Poland and Turkey (PPP

  9. Exploring the existence of Kuznets curve in countries' environmental efficiency using DEA window analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halkos, George Emm.; Tzeremes, Nickolaos G. [Department of Economics, University of Thessaly, Korai 43, 38333, Volos (Greece)

    2009-05-15

    This paper, using data envelopment (DEA) window analysis and generalized method of moments (GMM) estimators, examines the existence of a Kuznets type relationship between countries' environmental efficiency and national income. Specifically, it measures the environmental efficiency of 17 OECD countries by constructing environmental efficiency ratios for the time period 1980-2002. The analysis with the application of dynamic panel data reveals that there isn't a Kuznets type relationship between environmental efficiency and income. Allowing for dynamic effects we find that the adjustment to the target ratio is instantaneous. We also find that increased economic activity does not always ensure environmental protection and thus the path of growth is important in addition to the growth itself. (author)

  10. Cost-effectiveness analysis of interventions for migraine in four low- and middle-income countries

    OpenAIRE

    Linde, Mattias; Steiner, Timothy J.; Chisholm, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence of the cost and effects of interventions for reducing the global burden of migraine remains scarce. Our objective was to estimate the population-level cost-effectiveness of evidence-based migraine interventions and their contributions towards reducing current burden in low- and middle-income countries. Methods: Using a standard WHO approach to cost-effectiveness analysis (CHOICE), we modelled core set intervention strategies for migraine, taking account of cov...

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis of interventions for migraine in four low- and middle-income countries

    OpenAIRE

    Linde, Mattias; Steiner, Timothy J.; Chisholm, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence of the cost and effects of interventions for reducing the global burden of migraine remains scarce. Our objective was to estimate the population-level cost-effectiveness of evidence-based migraine interventions and their contributions towards reducing current burden in low- and middle-income countries. Methods Using a standard WHO approach to cost-effectiveness analysis (CHOICE), we modelled core set intervention strategies for migraine, taking account of coverage and effi...

  12. Saving, growth, and investment: a macroeconomic analysis using a panel of countries

    OpenAIRE

    Attanasio, O.; L. Picci; A. E. Scorcu

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides a descriptive analysis of the long- and short-run correlations among saving, investment, and growth rates for 123 countries over the period 1961-94. Three results are robust across data sets and estimation methods: i) lagges saving rates are positively related to investment rates; ii) investment rates Granger cause growth rates with a negative sign; iii) growth rates Granger-cause investment with a positive sign.

  13. A Brief Analysis of Amharic NLP: From POS Tagging to Question Answering

    OpenAIRE

    Seid Muhie Yimam

    2016-01-01

    In the first part of my talk, I will discuss some NLP research and applications done for Amharic so far. I specifically discuss POS tagging [http://aflat.org/files/HLTD201109.pdf ], Morphological processing [HornMorpho, see http://homes.soic.indiana.edu/gasser/L3/horn2.5.pdf ], Spell checking, Named entity recognition, and Questions Answering [http://etd.aau.edu.et/bitstream/123456789/8587/1/Brook%20Eshetu%20Bete.pdf ]. A brief list of the challenges in Amharic NLP will be also discussed, rel...

  14. [Brief analysis of professor YAN Jie's academic thought on functional dyspepsia treated with acupuncture and moxibustion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tao; Yan, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The brief discussion is introduced in the paper on the academic thought of professor YAN Jie, the contemporary famous TCM doctor, on functional dyspepsia treated with acupuncture and moxibustion. Treatment based on "the three-regional acupoint selection" is applied to professor YAN's treatment for functional dyspepsia, in which, acupuncture is on Sibai (ST 2), Liangmen (ST 21) and Zusanli (ST 36), and the supplementary points are added accordingly. The academic thought is described as the combination of acupuncture and moxibustion based on strengthening healthy qi, supplemented by soothing the liver and psychological counseling. Also, an example is provided.

  15. A Brief Analysis on Stylistics and Its Great Importance to College English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾凡华

    2015-01-01

    As any other legal language does,legal English features a wealth of complex legal concepts as w el as plenty of highly and unique professional terms and complicated syntax. Proper translation of legal English texts into legal Chinese ones wil throw a great social and economic impact on the society. Accordingly “accuracy” has always been regarded as the primary principle of legal English translation. This paper aims at giving a brief introduction of the legal English translation to the readers. It is hoped that translators would be able to understand legal English accurately and overcome the obstacles of legal translation.

  16. Education is a key determinant of health in Europe: a comparative analysis of 11 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Cecilia; Davia, María A

    2011-06-01

    This paper has contributed to confirming the link between education and health in developed countries. The analysis is based on 11 European Union countries. We estimate country-specific health functions, where the dependent variable is self-reported health status and the education attainment is one of the main inputs. All eight waves (1994-2001) of the European Community Household Panel are deployed. A random effects ordered probit is estimated in order to control, to a given extent, for unobserved heterogeneity. Explanatory variables are both time invariant (education attainment and gender) and time varying (gross wages, hours of work, age and living alone). Results confirm the positive impact of secondary education on health in most cases and tertiary education in all cases, even after controlling for other inputs in the health function and taking unobserved heterogeneity into account. Secondary education has an impact on health in all countries in the sample except for The Netherlands and UK. The effect does not differ between secondary and tertiary education in France, Ireland and Greece. The correlation between education and health is interpreted in different but complementary ways by diverse approaches and we may not disentangle the precise mechanism that connects health with education from our results. Anyway, it seems clear that better coordination is needed between education and health policies to effectively improve health literacy. Other relevant results from our study are that women register poorer health than men, age contributes to worsening health status and wages contribute positively to health.

  17. Determinants of Participation in Global Volunteer Grids: A Cross-Country Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Junseok; Altmann, Jörn; Mohammed, Ashraf Bany

    Volunteer Grids, in which users share computing resources altruistically, play a critical role in fostering research. Sharing and collaboration in Volunteer Grids is determined by many factors. These determinants define the participation in Grids and the amount of contribution to such Grids. Whereas previous studies focused on explaining researchers’ and countries’ willingness to share resources in Volunteer Grids based on social sharing theory, this research argues that without the appropriate technological capabilities, countries or researcher cannot implement their willingness. Based on the literature review, this paper defines the influential determinants for participating in global Volunteer Grids. Besides, this research employs a multiple regression analysis of these determinants, using a total of 130 observations collected from international data repositories. Our results show that R&D and Internet connection type (broadband or dial-up) are significant determinates for participating in Volunteer Grids. This result explains why developed countries are active and enjoy the benefits from Volunteer Grids, while developing countries still lag behind. Therefore, an increased participation in Grids cannot be solely achieved by interconnecting with developing countries through high-speed Internet backbones.

  18. Life satisfaction in the new country: a multilevel longitudinal analysis of effects of culture and 5-HTT allele frequency distribution in country of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Emiko S; Kent, Stephen; Kashima, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Life satisfaction of migrants to Australia from 17 countries, assessed at 4-5 months, 16-17 months and 3½ years after arrival, was analyzed with a longitudinal, multilevel analysis. The results indicated that migrants were more satisfied, if the national average life satisfaction was higher in their country of origin, after adjustment for individual-level income, age, and sex and a linear temporal trend. Simultaneously, the migrants were also happier if people in their country of origin had a higher frequency of 5-HTT long allele, a genotype known to be associated with resilience under life stresses. These two relationships were independent, suggesting that both culture and gene matter in international transitions.

  19. Non-performing loans and systemic risk: comparative analysis of Serbia and countries in transition CESEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimir Vukovic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the research on the impact of non-performing loans to the systemic risk in the domestic banking system and a comparison with other countries in transition, as well as on certain EU countries. It is important to metion that the extreme bank-centricity caused the extension of the analysis to the entire financial sector of Serbia. Therefore, macroeconomic and macro-financial component of systemic risk were separated. In order to more precisely determine the main effects of non-performing loans in the propagation of systemic risk, the authors have created and used two new synthetic indicators in the research. The first is the macroeconomic contagion with non-performing loans (problematic loans expressed as a percentage of GDP, and the second is the infection of financial sector with non-performing loans (the proportional share of these loans in the assets of the financial sector. Analysis of the period just before and during the current financial crisis and the recession (2007-2012 showed that the NPLs (non-performing loans are the main generator of systemic risk in the financial and real sectors of Serbia. In addition, the survey results show that the applied synthetic indicators measure total system risk and its basic components more accurately then the analytical, which have only been in use until now. Comparative analysis showed similar results, not only in the countries in transition, but also in developed ones. The results of this study provide guidance and represent an important input for economic policymakers, because the systemic risk is the greatest immediate threat to economic prosperity and financial stability of each country

  20. Network Resilience Analysis: Review Of Concepts And A Country-Level. Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Kamola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the rationale behind performing an analysis of Internet resilience in the sense of maintaining a connection of autonomous systems in the presence of failures or attacks — on a level of a single country. Next, the graph of a network is constructed that represents interconnections between autonomous systems. The connectivity of the graph is examined for cases of link or node failure. Resilience metrics are proposed, focusing on a single autonomous system or on overall network reliability. The process of geographic location of networking infrastructure is presented, leading to an analysis of network resilience in the case of a joint failure of neighboring autonomous systems.

  1. IT Implementation in a Developing Country Municipality: A SocioCognitive Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanford, Clive Carlton; Bhattacherjee, Anol

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an interpretive analysis of the key problems and challenges to technology implementation in developing countries, based on a three-year case analysis of an IT project in a city government in Ukraine.  We employ the concept of technological frames of reference as an analytical......-scale system implementation projects often create an unexpected, dysfunctional, and politically charged implementation environment, ultimately leading to project failures, even if the project enjoys a high level of financial and management support.  This, in turn, creates unique challenges for technology...

  2. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  3. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  4. Government, politics and health policy: A quantitative analysis of 30 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenbach, Johan P; McKee, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Public health policies are often dependent on political decision-making, but little is known of the impact of different forms of government on countries' health policies. In this exploratory study we studied the association between a wide range of process and outcome indicators of health policy and four groups of political factors (levels of democracy, e.g. voice and accountability; political representation, e.g. voter turnout; distribution of power, e.g. constraints on the executive; and quality of government, e.g. absence of corruption) in contemporary Europe. Data on 15 aspects of government and 18 indicators of health policy as well as on potential confounders were extracted from harmonized international data sources, covering 30 European countries and the years 1990-2010. In a first step, multivariate regression analysis was used to relate cumulative measures of government to indicators of health policy, and in a second step panel regression with country fixed effects was used to relate changes in selected measures of government to changes in indicators of health policy. In multivariate regression analyses, measures of quality of democracy and quality of government had many positive associations with process and outcome indicators of health policy, while measures of distribution of power and political representation had few and inconsistent associations. Associations for quality of democracy were robust against more extensive control for confounding variables, including tests in panel regressions with country fixed effects, but associations for quality of government were not. In this period in Europe, the predominant political influence on health policy has been the rise of levels of democracy in countries in the Central & Eastern part of the region. In contrast to other areas of public policy, health policy does not appear to be strongly influenced by institutional features of democracy determining the distribution of power, nor by aspects of political

  5. A Comparison of Four Reading Interventions from Struggling Elementary Students Using Brief Experimental Analysis and Extended Intervention Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mong, Kristi W.; Mong, Michael D.; Henington, Carlen; Doggett, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    Brief experimental analyses (BEA) have been used to identify reading interventions to increase the oral reading fluency (ORF) of students having difficulty learning to read. Four interventions, repeated reading, listening passage preview, phrase drill, and contingent reinforcement were implemented with four elementary aged students performing…

  6. The efficiency of health care production in OECD countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-country comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varabyova, Yauheniya; Müller, Julia-Maria

    2016-03-01

    There has been an ongoing interest in the analysis and comparison of the efficiency of health care systems using nonparametric and parametric applications. The objective of this study was to review the current state of the literature and to synthesize the findings on health system efficiency in OECD countries. We systematically searched five electronic databases through August 2014 and identified 22 studies that analyzed the efficiency of health care production at the country level. We summarized these studies with view on their sample, methods, and utilized variables. We developed and applied a checklist of 14 items to assess the quality of the reviewed studies along four dimensions: reporting, external validity, bias, and power. Moreover, to examine the internal validity of findings we meta-analyzed the efficiency estimates reported in 35 models from ten studies. The qualitative synthesis of the literature indicated large differences in study designs and methods. The meta-analysis revealed low correlations between country rankings suggesting a lack of internal validity of the efficiency estimates. In conclusion, methodological problems of existing cross-country comparisons of the efficiency of health care systems draw into question the ability of these comparisons to provide meaningful guidance to policy-makers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cluster structure of EU-15 countries derived from the correlation matrix analysis of macroeconomic index fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Gligor, M

    2006-01-01

    The statistical distances between countries, calculated for various moving average time windows, are mapped into the ultrametric subdominant space as in classical Minimal Spanning Tree methods. The Moving Average Minimal Length Path (MAMLP) algorithm allows a decoupling of fluctuations with respect to the mass center of the system from the movement of the mass center itself. A Hamiltonian representation given by a factor graph is used and plays the role of cost function. The present analysis pertains to 11 macroeconomic (ME) indicators, namely the GDP (x1), Final Consumption Expenditure (x2), Gross Capital Formation (x3), Net Exports (x4), Consumer Price Index (y1), Rates of Interest of the Central Banks (y2), Labour Force (z1), Unemployment (z2), GDP/hour worked (z3), GDP/capita (w1) and Gini coefficient (w2). The target group of countries is composed of 15 EU countries, data taken between 1995 and 2004. By two different methods (the Bipartite Factor Graph Analysis and the Correlation Matrix Eigensystem Anal...

  8. Key trends of climate change in the ASEAN countries. The IPAT decomposition analysis 1980-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehmas, J.; Luukkanen, J.; Kaivo-oja, J.; Panula-Ontto, J.; Allievi, F.

    2012-07-01

    Decomposition analyses of energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions have mainly focused on effects of changes in economic activity, energy intensity and fuel mix, and structural changes in energy consumption in different countries or different sectors of the economy. This e-Book introduces a different perspective by identifying five globally relevant factors affecting CO{sub 2} emissions. Changes in carbon intensity of primary energy, efficiency of the energy system, energy intensity of the economy, level of economic development, and the amount of population have been identified by extending the well-known IPAT identity. Empirical part focuses on CO{sub 2} emissions from fuel combustion in the ASEAN countries between the years 1980 and 2005. CO{sub 2} emissions are considerable low in many ASEAN countries but have increased in recent years due to the rapid economic growth and increased reliance on fossil fuels. Emission and energy intensities have increased during the industrialization process, but with a shift towards a more service-oriented economy and the increase in GDP per capita, the intensities have started to decrease in some ASEAN countries. However, these changes have not been able to slow down the rapid increase in CO{sub 2} emissions due to the growth of both the economy and the population. With the rapid economic development of the member countries of the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and nations such as China and India since the mid-1980s, the Asia-Pacific region has emerged as the growth centre of the global economy. However, many countries in the region have, instead of being successful, faced serious social and environmental problems, particularly with regard to deforestation, land degradation and the loss of biological diversity. Climate change has been regarded one of the major environmental threats to developing countries. The need to develop theoretical and empirical research in the field of climate and energy policy analysis

  9. Religion, religiosity, and the attitudes toward homosexuality--a multilevel analysis of 79 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäckle, Sebastian; Wenzelburger, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Although attitudes toward homosexuality have become more liberal, particularly in industrialized Western countries, there is still a great deal of variance in terms of worldwide levels of homonegativity. Using data from the two most recent waves of the World Values Survey (1999-2004, 2005-2009), this article seeks to explain this variance by means of a multilevel analysis of 79 countries. We include characteristics on the individual level, as age or gender, as well as aggregate variables linked to specificities of the nation-states. In particular, we focus on the religious denomination of a person and her religiosity to explain her attitude toward homosexuality. We find clear differences in levels of homonegativity among the followers of the individual religions.

  10. Macrologistic approach to analysis of the interregional goods trading streams in the country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentyn Smyrychynskyi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available National economy system of Ukraine is an open system which interacts with the world economic system providing equivalent, equal in rights and mutually profitable relations between the national market participants in the external turnover through the set of state regulations. Objective conditions of transformational processes in the development of Ukraine predetermine its goal to dynamically join the world economy system. This process will definitely encourage the increase of goods trading operations between Ukraine and other countries of the European Union. That is why the article gives the macrologistic analysis of the interregional goods trading streams in the country. It has been suggested to develop and implement logistic approaches to direction management of resources streams between regions and branches of the national economy. The concept of interregional market, which can be defined according to the structure of competition as monopolistic or oligopolic, has been suggested.

  11. Immigrant students' emotional and cognitive engagement at school: a multilevel analysis of students in 41 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ming Ming; Pong, Suet-ling; Mori, Izumi; Chow, Bonnie Wing-Yin

    2012-11-01

    Central to student learning and academic success, the school engagement of immigrant children also reflects their adaptation to a primary institution in their new country. Analysis of questionnaire responses of 276,165 fifteen-year-olds (50 % female) and their 10,789 school principals in 41 countries showed that school engagement has distinct, weakly-linked cognitive and emotional components. Native students had weaker attitudes toward school (cognitive engagement) but greater sense of belonging at school (emotional engagement) than immigrant students or students who spoke a foreign language at home. Students with better teacher-student relationships, teacher support or a classroom disciplinary climate often had a greater sense of belonging at school and had better attitudes toward school than other students. While immigrant students often have solid attitudes toward school, teachers can help them feel a greater sense of belonging at school.

  12. A Brief Analysis of Discrimination in Language Classroom--from the Perspecti ve of Soci oli ngui sti cs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹志勇

    2014-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that sociolinguistics is the study of language in certain context concerned with our soci-ety. Sociolinguistics and linguistics are intrinsically related to each other, but there has been difference as well. Linguistics research deals with language system itself, which belongs to the micro lev-el on the one hand; many phenomena reflect discrimination in language classroom, these discrimination are caused by social fac-tors to a certain degree. This paper makes a brief analysis of dis-crimination in language classroom from the perspective of socio-linguistics, which deals with many issues such as depiction of lan-guage discrimination、analysis of phenomenon and accordingly-solved measures.

  13. Using Cluster Analysis to Group Countries for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis: An Application to Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Louise B; Bhanot, Gyan; Kim, Sun-Young; Sinha, Anushua

    2017-08-01

    To explore the use of cluster analysis to define groups of similar countries for the purpose of evaluating the cost-effectiveness of a public health intervention-maternal immunization-within the constraints of a project budget originally meant for an overall regional analysis. We used the most common cluster analysis algorithm, K-means, and the most common measure of distance, Euclidean distance, to group 37 low-income, sub-Saharan African countries on the basis of 24 measures of economic development, general health resources, and past success in public health programs. The groups were tested for robustness and reviewed by regional disease experts. We explored 2-, 3- and 4-group clustering. Public health performance was consistently important in determining the groups. For the 2-group clustering, for example, infant mortality in Group 1 was 81 per 1,000 live births compared with 51 per 1,000 in Group 2, and 67% of children in Group 1 received DPT immunization compared with 87% in Group 2. The experts preferred four groups to fewer, on the ground that national decision makers would more readily recognize their country among four groups. Clusters defined by K-means clustering made sense to subject experts and allowed a more detailed evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of maternal immunization within the constraint of the project budget. The method may be useful for other evaluations that, without having the resources to conduct separate analyses for each unit, seek to inform decision makers in numerous countries or subdivisions within countries, such as states or counties.

  14. Therapeutic Hypothermia for Neonatal Encephalopathy in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Although selective or whole body cooling combined with optimal intensive care improves outcomes following neonatal encephalopathy in high-income countries, the safety and efficacy of cooling in low-and middle-income countries is not known. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of all published randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials of cooling therapy for neonatal encephalopathy in low-and middle-income countries. RESULTS: Seven trials, comprising ...

  15. Cointegration and Error Correction Modelling in Time-Series Analysis: A Brief Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Thome

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Criminological research is often based on time-series data showing some type of trend movement. Trending time-series may correlate strongly even in cases where no causal relationship exists (spurious causality. To avoid this problem researchers often apply some technique of detrending their data, such as by differencing the series. This approach, however, may bring up another problem: that of spurious non-causality. Both problems can, in principle, be avoided if the series under investigation are “difference-stationary” (if the trend movements are stochastic and “cointegrated” (if the stochastically changing trendmovements in different variables correspond to each other. The article gives a brief introduction to key instruments and interpretative tools applied in cointegration modelling.

  16. Brief Analysis of the Utitity Vatue of Chinese Folk Vest in Modern Age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Huie; Gao Mengchu; Gu Qiyi

    2011-01-01

    This paper, taking the modern folk vest of our country since the late Qing period as an example, addresses the practical value, applicable value and using value of vest dress. And it points out the significance and developing trends of the vest's construction research.

  17. Comparative analysis of eu membership candidate countries legal economic framework (Ukraine, Georgia, Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Zharova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The article represents the results of analytical review and comparative analysis of EU membership candidate countries legal economic framework for Ukraine, Georgia and Moldova. The aim of the research is to show opportunities and illuminate the gaps for timely fulfillment of obligation in framework of euro integration process. The results of the analysis. The choice of countries is determined by similarity of political, economic, and social conditions including, inter alia: 1 the aftermath of the global economic crisis; 2 political crisis; 3 threat to sovereignty and territorial integrity, including the risk of armed conflict (the unlawful annexation of the Crimea and Sevastopol and destabilization in the Eastern Ukraine; occupation of Abkhazia and South Ossetia in Georgia; and the Transnistria conflict in Moldova. Economic growth based on more efficient use of available scarce resources is the key to successful withstanding and overcoming these adverse factors. It implies that implementing the Association Agreement is closely linked with the transition toward a green economy. The comparative analysis determined some similarities in positive shifts for all countries. The following positive shifts characterizing the progress achieved by the countries can be highlighted: demonstration of proactive efforts toward meeting their commitments under the Association Agreement; existing policies, practices and programmes aiming to support the sustainable industrial and business development; reflection of the sustainable development and green economy issues in the official development strategies and their considering to be a priority; activation of effort to develop a system of specific indicators including those that can be used for measuring the efficiency of national policies; incorporation sustainable development objectives in the local development agendas and environmental action plans; taking active part in the international

  18. Analysis of typical world countries' wind power and PV industry policies and their enlightenment to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ming; Yang, Lijun; Qiu, Hongji; Li, Yuanfei; Peng, Lilin

    2017-01-01

    The wind power and PV are the key fields of clean energy development in China in recent years. However, there are still many aspects of problems in wind power and PV industries at present, such as the insufficient consumptive ability and the limitation of market competition capability. The effective leading and support of government in the aspect of policies is especially needed in order to solve these problems. Based on the analysis of main policies system of wind power and PV in our country, Spain, the United Kingdom and Germany are chosen as typical countries because of their wind power and PV industries are relatively developed. Their policies of wind power and PV industries are studied respectively from five aspects, namely macroscopic laws, development planning, administrative policies, fiscal and tax policies and price policies. Then the comparison among typical countries and China is made and the exiting problems in China's policies of wind power and PV industries are summed up. Finally, the suggestions to promote China's wind power and PV industries development are presented.

  19. Are country reputations for good and bad leadership on AIDS deserved? An exploratory quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattrass, Nicoli

    2008-12-01

    Some countries (e.g. Brazil) have good reputations on AIDS policy, whereas others, (notably South Africa) have been criticized for inadequate leadership. Cross-country regression analysis reveals that these 'poster children' for AIDS leadership have indeed performed better or worse than expected given their economic and institutional constraints and the demographic and health challenges facing them. Regressions were run on HAART coverage (number on highly active antiretroviral therapy as percentage of total need) and MTCTP coverage (pregnant HIV+ women accessing mother-to-child-transmission prevention services as percentage of total need). Brazil, Cambodia, Thailand and Uganda (all of whom have established reputations for good leadership on AIDS performed consistently better than expected-as did Burkina-Faso, Suriname, Paraguay Costa Rica, Mali and Namibia. South Africa, which has the worst reputation for AIDS leadership, performed significantly below expectations-as did Uruguay and Trinidad and Tobago. The paper thus confirms much of the conventional wisdom on AIDS leadership at country level and suggests new areas for research.

  20. European consumers’ interest toward nutritional information on wine labeling: A cross-country analysis*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annunziata Azzurra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores, through an empirical analysis European consumers’ interest toward nutritional information on wine labels, examining interest, knowledge and understanding of these information. In this regard, results from direct survey with a cross-country sample of 500 wine consumers (i.e. respondents drinking at least once a month living in Italy, France and Spain are presented and discussed. Preliminary results reveal that consumers are quite confused about the nutritional aspects of wine and tend to be interested in receiving nutritional information on wine labels. However, the interest expressed towards this kind of information differ from country to country and is influenced by other socio-demographic variables. Findings from current research should be valuable to contribute to the debate on updating international and national standards on wine labelling concerning nutrition. At the same time, the research provides a number of useful indications for policy makers in defining future development of wine nutritional labelling programs and in implementing strategies focused in enhancing efficacy and readability of labels.

  1. Size of government and entrepreneurship. Analysis of three groups of countries with different economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Díaz Casero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the impact of the "size of government" in entrepreneurial activity for countries with different levels of economical development. It has been used the variables "size of government" of the economic freedom indices released by the Economic Freedom Network (2000-2009 and by The Heritage Foundation (2000-2011, and the variables of "entrepreneurship" released by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. Furthermore, the same analysis has been carried out grouping the countries by development level, following the classification elaborated by the World Economic Forum. Statistical analyses of correlations have shown that the “size of government” is related to entrepreneurship. The variables "Size of Government: Expenditures, Taxes and Enterprises" and " Government Size” have revealed a positive correlation with the total, opportunity and necessity entrepreneurial activity indices for the economies based on efficiency and innovation, thus less taxes on income and lower government spending, increase the entrepreneurship of the country. In “factor driven economies”, there is no relationship between the size of government and entrepreneurship

  2. Impulse-response analysis of monetary policy – Visegád group countries case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Myšková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on comparability of monetary policies of Visegrád group countries (V4. Main objective of central banks function in V4 countries lies in maintaining price stability. For this purpose, inflation targeting regime is realized in a medium-term focus in V4, which means that there is a certain lag between monetary policy operation and its influence on an inflation target. Central bank does not have a direct impact on its ultimate goals. Therefore, any monetary policy analysis and assumption of its effectiveness comes out from an essential existence of a working transmission mechanism. Thus, changes in settings of monetary policy instruments have to be able to inflict causal changes on intermediary markets and via these markets on target markets. This situation can be modeled by the vector autoregressive (VAR model with suitable variables. Our main task is to compare a relationship between VAR model responses to predefined impulses for all V4 pairs. We use calibration technique for this purpose. Specifically, we will utilize one-dimensional calibration model with a linear calibration function for deriving unknown parameters. Moreover, we will test a significance of estimated parameters. We distinguish between model parameters for before-crisis- and during-crisis- data, because we suppose that financial crisis affects VAR model parameters significantly. Different responses in each country can mean the inability of the common monetary policy for V4 at present.

  3. Analysis on productivity of clinical studies across -- Asian countries a case comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K; Sengoku, S; Kimura, H

    2007-08-01

    In an era of increasing global competition and an increased interest in global clinical studies Japan has been concerned with the risk of losing its attractiveness due to perceived longer execution times and higher cost structure. In contrast, other Asian countries particularly China and Singapore are widely recognized as potential key centers for fast conduction of global clinical studies. We conducted a case comparison based on two clinical studies performed by a multinational pharmaceutical company in order to measure the productivity of clinical studies by region and country. We focused on the site-related study cost which constituted the largest portion of the cost breakdown and also impacted both time and quality management. For investigation of the productivity we propose a breakdown model with two Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), enrollment efficiency and site-related cost efficiency, for the comparison of the number of enrolled subject per site and cost, respectively. Through the comparative analysis we found that the Asian countries (excluding Japan) on average achieved higher efficiency than Japan in both indicators. In the Asian group, China and Singapore stood out as the most efficient on both speed and site-related cost. However, when the site-related cost efficiency was adjusted for Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) the cost advantage in China disappeared, implying the price level was critical for productivity management. Although quality aspects remain to be investigated we postulate that introducing a comparative approach based on a productivity framework would be useful for an accurate productivity comparison.

  4. A Comparative Analysis of the Price Index in Transition Countries in the Time of Globalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović Igor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation with all its features can be divided in two segments - good and bad. When we look at the good side of globalisation, it is obvious that it has erased boundaries between countries in terms of trade, education, knowledge sharing, and other new technologies, while on the other hand, the bad side is that it has created a considerable gap between developed and developing countries, then different types of commercial, political and other conditioning, and dependence on strong, developed states. A great contribution to the negative part of globalisation was of economic instability that occurred at the beginning of this century and which consequences are still present in the world. In this article, we presented the impact of economic instability on the price index trough a comparative analysis of transition countries such as Montenegro, Serbia and Croatia over a period of five years (Croatia has just recently become a member of the European Union and due to that fact it was included in this study. The survey covered price indices relating to the prices of industrial products for the domestic markets, consumer price indices, indices of the hospitality services and the prices of the agricultural products.

  5. Analysis of Bordetella pertussis clinical isolates circulating in European countries during the period 1998-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gent, M; Heuvelman, C J; van der Heide, H G; Hallander, H O; Advani, A; Guiso, N; Wirsing von Kőnig, C H; Vestrheim, D F; Dalby, T; Fry, N K; Pierard, D; Detemmerman, L; Zavadilova, J; Fabianova, K; Logan, C; Habington, A; Byrne, M; Lutyńska, A; Mosiej, E; Pelaz, C; Gröndahl-Yli-Hannuksela, K; Barkoff, A M; Mertsola, J; Economopoulou, A; He, Q; Mooi, F R

    2015-04-01

    Despite more than 50 years of vaccination, pertussis is still an endemic disease, with regular epidemic outbreaks. With the exception of Poland, European countries have replaced whole-cell vaccines (WCVs) by acellular vaccines (ACVs) in the 1990s. Worldwide, antigenic divergence in vaccine antigens has been found between vaccine strains and circulating strains. In this work, 466 Bordetella pertussis isolates collected in the period 1998-2012 from 13 European countries were characterised by multi-locus antigen sequence typing (MAST) of the pertussis toxin promoter (ptxP) and of the genes coding for proteins used in the ACVs: pertussis toxin (Ptx), pertactin (Prn), type 2 fimbriae (Fim2) and type 3 fimbriae (Fim3). Isolates were further characterised by fimbrial serotyping, multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The results showed a very similar B. pertussis population for 12 countries using ACVs, while Poland, which uses a WCV, was quite distinct, suggesting that ACVs and WCVs select for different B. pertussis populations. This study forms a baseline for future studies on the effect of vaccination programmes on B. pertussis populations.

  6. Kangaroo mother care: a multi-country analysis of health system bottlenecks and potential solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Preterm birth is now the leading cause of under-five child deaths worldwide with one million direct deaths plus approximately another million where preterm is a risk factor for neonatal deaths due to other causes. There is strong evidence that kangaroo mother care (KMC) reduces mortality among babies with birth weight hospital discharge with follow-up. The World Health Organization has endorsed KMC for stabilised newborns in health facilities in both high-income and low-resource settings. The objectives of this paper are to: (1) use a 12-country analysis to explore health system bottlenecks affecting the scale-up of KMC; (2) propose solutions to the most significant bottlenecks; and (3) outline priority actions for scale-up. Methods The bottleneck analysis tool was applied in 12 countries in Africa and Asia as part of the Every Newborn Action Plan process. Country workshops involved technical experts to complete the survey tool, which is designed to synthesise and grade health system "bottlenecks", factors that hinder the scale-up, of maternal-newborn intervention packages. We used quantitative and qualitative methods to analyse the bottleneck data, combined with literature review, to present priority bottlenecks and actions relevant to different health system building blocks for KMC. Results Marked differences were found in the perceived severity of health system bottlenecks between Asian and African countries, with the former reporting more significant or very major bottlenecks for KMC with respect to all the health system building blocks. Community ownership and health financing bottlenecks were significant or very major bottlenecks for KMC in both low and high mortality contexts, particularly in South Asia. Significant bottlenecks were also reported for leadership and governance and health workforce building blocks. Conclusions There are at least a dozen countries worldwide with national KMC programmes, and we identify three pathways to scale: (1

  7. Medicine prices, availability, and affordability in 36 developing and middle-income countries: a secondary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, A; Ewen, M; Ross-Degnan, D; Ball, D; Laing, R

    2009-01-17

    WHO and Health Action International (HAI) have developed a standardised method for surveying medicine prices, availability, affordability, and price components in low-income and middle-income countries. Here, we present a secondary analysis of medicine availability in 45 national and subnational surveys done using the WHO/HAI methodology. Data from 45 WHO/HAI surveys in 36 countries were adjusted for inflation or deflation and purchasing power parity. International reference prices from open international procurements for generic products were used as comparators. Results are presented for 15 medicines included in at least 80% of surveys and four individual medicines. Average public sector availability of generic medicines ranged from 29.4% to 54.4% across WHO regions. Median government procurement prices for 15 generic medicines were 1.11 times corresponding international reference prices, although purchasing efficiency ranged from 0.09 to 5.37 times international reference prices. Low procurement prices did not always translate into low patient prices. Private sector patients paid 9-25 times international reference prices for lowest-priced generic products and over 20 times international reference prices for originator products across WHO regions. Treatments for acute and chronic illness were largely unaffordable in many countries. In the private sector, wholesale mark-ups ranged from 2% to 380%, whereas retail mark-ups ranged from 10% to 552%. In countries where value added tax was applied to medicines, the amount charged varied from 4% to 15%. Overall, public and private sector prices for originator and generic medicines were substantially higher than would be expected if purchasing and distribution were efficient and mark-ups were reasonable. Policy options such as promoting generic medicines and alternative financing mechanisms are needed to increase availability, reduce prices, and improve affordability.

  8. Networks of reader and country status: an analysis of Mendeley reader statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Haunschild

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of papers published in journals indexed by the Web of Science core collection is steadily increasing. In recent years, nearly two million new papers were published each year; somewhat more than one million papers when primary research papers are considered only (articles and reviews are the document types where primary research is usually reported or reviewed. However, who reads these papers? More precisely, which groups of researchers from which (self-assigned scientific disciplines and countries are reading these papers? Is it possible to visualize readership patterns for certain countries, scientific disciplines, or academic status groups? One popular method to answer these questions is a network analysis. In this study, we analyze Mendeley readership data of a set of 1,133,224 articles and 64,960 reviews with publication year 2012 to generate three different networks: (1 The network based on disciplinary affiliations of Mendeley readers contains four groups: (i biology, (ii social sciences and humanities (including relevant computer sciences, (iii bio-medical sciences, and (iv natural sciences and engineering. In all four groups, the category with the addition “miscellaneous” prevails. (2 The network of co-readers in terms of professional status shows that a common interest in papers is mainly shared among PhD students, Master’s students, and postdocs. (3 The country network focusses on global readership patterns: a group of 53 nations is identified as core to the scientific enterprise, including Russia and China as well as two thirds of the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries.

  9. Comparative Analysis of Selected Factors Affecting Heating Costs of Schools in Selected Balkan Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koppitz David

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to carry out a comparative analysis of heating of school facilities under the administration of municipalities in Macedonia, Moldova and Kosovo and to test the factors that affect the heating costs of school facilities. For a definition of the theoretical fundament parts of the theory of fiscal federalism are used. Subsequently five hypotheses are put forward that are verified using the method of benchmarking. The theoretical conclusions and recommendations may be used for a more effective implementation of public policies within the surveyed countries.

  10. Is inequality harmful for the environment? An empirical analysis applied to developing and transition countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Matthieu; Meunie, Andre

    2010-01-01

    The object of this article is to examine the relation between social inequalities and pollution. First of all we provide a survey demonstrating that, from a theoretical point of view, a decrease in inequality has an uncertain impact on the environment. Second, on the basis of these conceptual considerations, we propose an econometric analysis based on panel data (fixed-effects and dynamic panel data models) concerning developing and transition countries for the 1988-2003 period. We examine specifically the effect of inequality on the extent of local pollution (sulphur dioxide emissions and organic water pollution) by integrating the Gini index into the formulation of the environmental Kuznets' curve.

  11. Benefits of global partnerships to facilitate access to medicines in developing countries: a multi-country analysis of patients and patient outcomes in GIPAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandoros Sotiris

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Access to medicines in developing countries continues to be a significant problem due to lack of insurance and lack of affordability. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML, a rare disease, can be treated effectively, but the pharmaceutical treatment available (imatinib is costly and unaffordable by most patients. GIPAP, is a programme set up between a manufacturer and an NGO to provide free treatment to eligible CML patients in 80 countries worldwide. Objectives To discuss the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of patients participating in GIPAP; to research the impact GIPAP is having on health outcomes (survival of assistance-eligible CML patients; and to discuss the determinants of such outcomes and whether there are any variations according to socio-economic, demographic, or geographical criteria. Methods Data for 13,568 patients across 15 countries, available quarterly, were analysed over the 2005-2007 period. Ordered Probit panel data analysis was used to analyze the determinants of a patient's progress in terms of participation in the programme. Four waves of patients entering quarterly in 2005 were used to evaluate patient survival over the sample period. Results All patients in the sample are eligible to receive treatment provided they report to a facility quarterly. 62.3% of patients were male and 37.7% female. The majority (84.4% entered during the chronic phase of the disease and their average age was 38.4 years. Having controlled for age, location and occupation, the analysis showed that patients were significantly much more likely to move towards a better health state after receiving treatment irrespective of their disease stage at the point of entry to the program (OR = 30.5, α = 1%; and that the larger the gap between diagnosis and approval for participation in the program, the more likely it is that patients' condition deteriorates (OR = 0.995, α = 1%, due to absence of treatment. Regressions to account

  12. A Brief History of the Philosophical Foundations of Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulaik, Stanley A.

    1987-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis derives its key ideas from many sources, including Aristotle, Francis Bacon, Descartes, Pearson and Yule, and Kant. The conclusions of exploratory factor analysis are never complete without subsequent confirmatory factor analysis. (Author/GDC)

  13. Are there any top FDI performers among EU-15 and CEE countries? A comparative panel data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Mateev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the major determinants of foreign direct investment (FDI inflows in 26 European Union (EU countries using panel data. Our empirical study takes a different approach by separating European countries into two groups: Western (EU-15 countries and Central and Eastern European (CEE countries. The results from the panel data analysis of FDI inflows to 26 EU countries for the period 1994-2012 show that: (1 traditional location variables such as market size, trade openness, unemployment, infrastructure, tax rate and unit labour costs are able, to a large extent, to explain FDI flows to both groups of countries; (2 there are country-specific factors such as economic growth, unit labour costs and credit risk that contribute to the differences in FDI patterns across EU-15 and CEECs; and (3 policy and institutional quality factors are found to play an important role for both groups of countries. When analyzing host countries based on their relative level of performance, we find that the top ten FDI performers are able to attract a significant amount of FDI because of their macroeconomic stability and high level of institutional development, while for EU countries with low FDI dominance, policy and institutional risk factors play a more important role.

  14. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: Investment Treaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the second of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 2 explains how investment treaties between states work to protect and promote foreign investment.

  15. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: Investment Treaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the second of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 2 explains how investment treaties between states work to protect and promote foreign investment.

  16. Brief Analysis of the Translation of English Advertisement%浅析广告英语的翻译

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚艳

    2011-01-01

    广告作为一种应用语言,是当今社会广泛使用的交流媒介。文章从词汇、句法等几方面分析了广告英语的语言特点,并对英语广告的翻译原则做了粗浅的分析。%As an applied language,advertisement is a communication medium which is widely used in the society.The characteristic of the language of English advertisement such as words and syntax is analyzed in the paper and give a brief analysis of translation principles of English advertisement.

  17. Performance analysis for waste repositories in the nordic countries. Report for project AFA-1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuori, S. [VTT Energy (Finland); Broden, K. [Studsvik RadWaste AB (Sweden); Carugati, S.; Brodersen, K. [Forskningscenter Risoe (Denmark); Walderhaug, T. [Icelandic Radiation Protection Institute (Iceland); Helgason, J. [Ekra Geological Consulting (Iceland); Sneve, M.; Hornkjoel, S. [Norwegian Radiation Protection (Norway); Backe, S. [IFE (Norway)

    1997-02-01

    The Nordic Nuclear Safety Research (NKS) project (AFA-1) focused on safety in the final disposal of long-lived low and medium level radioactive waste and its sub project (AFA-1.2), where this report has been produced, is dealing with the performance analysis of the engineered barrier system (near-field) of the repositories for low-and medium level wastes. The topic intentionally excludes the discussion of the characteristics of the geological host medium. Therefore a more generic discussion of the features of performance analysis is possible independent of the fact that different host media are considered in the Nordic countries. The different waste management systems existing and planned in the Nordic countries are shortly described in the report. In the report main emphasis is paid on the general repositories. Some of the phenomena and interactions relevant for a generic type of repository are discussed as well. Among the different approaches for the development of scenarios for safety and performance analyses one particular method - the Rock Engineering System (RES) - was chosen to be demonstratively tested in a brainstorming session, where the possible interactions and their safety significance were discussed employing a simplified and generic Nordic repository system as the reference system. As an overall impression, the AFA-project group concludes that the use of the RES approach is very easy to learn even during a short discussion session. The use of different ways to indicate the safety significance of various interactions in a graphical user interface increases the clarity. Within the project a simple software application was developed employing a generally available spread sheet programme. The developed tool allows an easy opportunity to link the cell specific comments readily available for the `reader` of the obtained results. A short review of the performance analyses carried out in the Nordic countries for actual projects concerning repositories for

  18. The Analysis of the Real Convergence of the Countries from Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Badircea

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This thesis treats extremely present aspects regarding the evolutions of the emerging economies within the new member states of the European Union insisting on the analysis of the convergence process from a real perspective. Beside the achievement of a monetary union, one of the fundamental objectives of the European Union is represented by the reducing of the disparities regarding the level of development among the member states. One of the ways of appreciating the reduction of the disparities between the economies involve a reduction of the gap as far as the GDP level/inhabitant is concerned or in other words, a real convergence. A series of statistic data are analysed in order to point out the extent to which the central ad East-European states have managed to reduce the gap in report to the developed member states of the EMU, using indicators for the appreciation of the real convergence: the GDP per inhabitant, the monthly average salary, the poverty rate, the contribution of the main sectors of the economy in the formation of the GDP and the unemployment rate. From the analysis of the statistic data one can observe that the highest degree of real convergence is held by Slovenia, which distanced a lot from the other EEC states, followed by the Czech Republic. Regarding from the point of view of the evolution of the EEC countries during the entire analysed period, based on the dynamics of the indicators and of the speed of catching up the gaps we can also notice the performance of the Baltic countries. Unfortunately, Romania and Bulgaria are way behind the other EEC countries.

  19. Efficacy of brief alcohol screening intervention for college students (BASICS: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

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    Fachini Alexandre

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies reported that brief interventions are effective in reducing excessive drinking. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a protocol of brief intervention for college students (BASICS, delivered face-to-face, to reduce risky alcohol consumption and negative consequences. Methods A systematic review with meta-analysis was performed by searching for randomized controlled trials (RCTs in Medline, PsycInfo, Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases. A quality assessment of RCTs was made by using a validated scale. Combined mean effect sizes, using meta-analysis random-effects models, were calculated. Results 18 studies were included in the review. The sample sizes ranged from 54 to 1275 (median = 212. All studies presented a good evaluation of methodological quality and four were found to have excellent quality. After approximately 12 months of follow-up, students receiving BASICS showed a significant reduction in alcohol consumption (difference between means = −1.50 drinks per week, 95% CI: -3.24 to −0.29 and alcohol-related problems (difference between means = −0.87, 95% CI: -1.58 to −0.20 compared to controls. Conclusions Overall, BASICS lowered both alcohol consumption and negative consequences in college students. Gender and peer factors seem to play an important role as moderators of behavior change in college drinking. Characteristics of BASICS procedure have been evaluated as more favorable and acceptable by students in comparison with others interventions or control conditions. Considerations for future researches were discussed.

  20. Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers and their contribution to health: An Analysis of Three Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Sam

    2011-06-01

    Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) represent the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) most recent initiative for reducing the plight of the poor. This paper examines whether the PRSPs for Liberia, Afghanistan and Haiti follow World Bank guidance on health. The health data, analysis and strategy content of the three PRSPs are assessed with respect to the 'Health, Nutrition and Population' chapter of the World Bank's PRSP Sourcebook. This guidance states that PRSPs should include: health data on the poor and a clear analysis showing the determinants of ill health and pro-poor health strategies. Unfortunately, none of the PRSPs analysed comply with the guidance and, consequently, do not adequately portray the health situation within their countries. Thus health is not given a high priority in the PRSP process and is seemingly low on the agenda of both poor country governments and the International Financial Institutions (IFIs). If the situation for the world's poorest people is to improve, health and the right to health need to be promoted within PRSPs.

  1. Informing policy makers about future health spending: a comparative analysis of forecasting methods in OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astolfi, Roberto; Lorenzoni, Luca; Oderkirk, Jillian

    2012-09-01

    Concerns about health care expenditure growth and its long-term sustainability have risen to the top of the policy agenda in many OECD countries. As continued growth in spending places pressure on government budgets, health services provision and patients' personal finances, policy makers have launched forecasting projects to support policy planning. This comparative analysis reviewed 25 models that were developed for policy analysis in OECD countries by governments, research agencies, academics and international organisations. We observed that the policy questions that need to be addressed drive the choice of forecasting model and the model's specification. By considering both the level of aggregation of the units analysed and the level of detail of health expenditure to be projected, we identified three classes of models: micro, component-based, and macro. Virtually all models account for demographic shifts in the population, while two important influences on health expenditure growth that are the least understood include technological innovation and health-seeking behaviour. The landscape for health forecasting models is dynamic and evolving. Advances in computing technology and increases in data granularity are opening up new possibilities for the generation of system of models which become an on-going decision support tool capable of adapting to new questions as they arise. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Meta-Analysis of Risky Sexual Behaviour among Male Youth in Developing Countries

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    Yifru Berhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the association between risky sexual behaviour and level of education and economic status in male youth. Previous tests of the association of risky sexual behaviour with levels of education and economic status have yielded inconsistent results. Using data from 26 countries, from both within and outside Africa, we performed a meta-analysis with a specific focus on male youths’ risky sexual behaviour. We applied a random effects analytic model and calculated a pooled odds ratio. Out of 19,148 males aged 15–24 years who reported having sexual intercourse in the 12 months preceding the survey, 75% engaged in higher-risk sex. The proportion of higher-risk sex among male youth aged 15–19 years was nearly 90% in 21 of the 26 countries. The pooled odds ratio showed a statistically significant association of higher-risk sex with male youth younger than 20 years, living in urban centers, well educated, and of a high economic status. The overall proportion of condom use during youths’ most recent higher-risk sexual encounter was 40% and 51% among 15–19-year-olds and 20–24-year-olds, respectively. Our findings suggest that male youth’s socioeconomic status is directly related to the likelihood that they practice higher-risk sex. The relationship between income and sexual behaviour should be explored further.

  3. Journalism as a cultural practice: a brief historical analysis of the journalism values of Globo and BBC networks

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Mauricio Silva

    2011-01-01

    This article consists of a comparative analysis between the news broadcasting of two major networks: Brazil’s Rede Globo and that of the British Broadcasting Company (BBC), both considered references in the field of journalism in their respective countries. It examines the historical relations these broadcasters have established with the basic premises of journalism (public service, vigilance, the “fourth power”, objectivity, actuality) and also outlines the historical development of both net...

  4. Is health aid reaching the poor? Analysis of household data from aid recipient countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eran Bendavid

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent to which the narrowing of child mortality across wealth gradients has been related to foreign aid to the health sector in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: Mortality and wealth data on 989,901 under-5 children from 957,674 households in 49 aid recipient countries in Africa, Asia, South America, and the Caribbean between 1993 and 2012 were used in the analysis. Declines in under-5 mortality in the four poorest wealth quantiles were compared to the decline among the wealthiest at varying levels of health aid per capita using fixed effects multivariable regression models and controlling for maternal education, urbanization, and domestic spending on health among recipient countries. RESULTS: Each additional dollar in total health aid per capita was associated with 5.7 fewer deaths per 10,000 child-years among children in the poorest relative to the wealthiest households (p<0.001. This was also true when measured in percent declines (1.90% faster decline in under-5 mortality among the poorest compared with the wealthiest with each dollar in total health aid, p = 0.008. The association was stronger when using health aid specifically for malaria than total health aid, 12.60% faster decline among the poorest compared with the wealthiest with each dollar in malaria aid, p = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Foreign aid to the health sector is preferentially related to reductions in under-5 mortality among the poorest compared with the wealthiest. Health aid addressing malaria, which imposes a disproportionate burden among the poor, may explain the observed effect.

  5. Bio-medicolegal scientific research in Europe. A country-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viel, Guido; Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Cecchi, Rossana; Bajanowski, Thomas; Vieira, Nuno Duarte; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2011-09-01

    The European mosaic of socio-cultural, economic and legal realities is reflected in forensic and legal medicine, in which a great variety of operational modes of forensic medical services, organisational systems, structures, functional competences and scientific research strategies can be observed. The present work analyses the European bio-medicolegal scientific output of the last 5.5 years (exact time window, January 1, 2005-June 1, 2010), categorising papers by nationality of the corresponding author and forensic sub-discipline in question, in order to identify the peculiarities of national sub-specialised competences and to build up international research projects. This country-based bibliometric analysis, based on the number of articles and the impact factor produced by each European country, also considering its economic profile (gross domestic product and per capita gross domestic product), highlights the prevailing productive role of Western and Southern Europe (Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Switzerland, Spain and France). Categorising scientific output by forensic sub-discipline and branch, significant in terms of impact factor are contributions from Germany (coming first in Pathology, Toxicology, Genetics, Anthropology and Biological Criminalistics), Great Britain (first in Clinical Forensic Medicine, Malpractice and Invalidity-Social Insurance), Switzerland (first in Criminology), Italy (second in Toxicology, Anthropology and Invalidity-Social Insurance), The Netherlands (third in Clinical Forensic Medicine and Medical Law and Ethics), Spain (third in Genetics, Criminalistics and Invalidity-Social Insurance) and France (third in Toxicology and Malpractice). Interestingly, several countries with low gross domestic product, such as Poland, Turkey and other Eastern European nations, show notable scientific production in specific sub-disciplines such as Pathology, Toxicology and Forensic Genetics, suggesting that fruitful international cooperation could be

  6. Measurement and Analysis of Child Well-Being in Middle and High Income Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almas Heshmati

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the recent UNICEF publications on child poverty in the developed countries, which received a wide audience in the political and scientific world, in this paper we further analyze the UNICEF study data base and present three composite indices that are multidimensional and quantitative measures of child well-being. While the original UNICEF studies simply added together the ranks on different measurement scales, we present a much more sophisticated approach, with the first of our indicators being a non-parametric measure, while the remaining two are parametric. In the non-parametric index of child welfare, the well-being indicators are given the same weights in their aggregation to form different components from which an overall index is being constructed. Two different forms of the parametric index are estimated by using principal component analysis. The first model uses a pool of all indicators without classification of the indicators by type of well-being, while the second model estimates first the sub-components separately and then uses the share of variance explained by each principal component to compute the weighted average of each component and their aggregation into an index of overall child well-being. The indices indicate which countries have the best system of child welfare and show how child well-being varies across countries and regions. The indices are composed of six well-being components including material, health and safety, educational well-being, family and peer relationships, behaviours and risks and subjective well-being. Each of the components is generated from a number of well-being sub-indicators.

  7. Measurement properties of the brief resilient coping scale in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus using rasch analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Pina, José-Antonio; Meseguer-Henarejos, Ana-Belén; Gascón-Cánovas, Juan-José; Navarro-Villalba, Dérlis-Julián; Sinclair, Vaughn G; Wallston, Kenneth A

    2016-09-13

    Resilience has been defined as the capacity or the ability to rebound from and positively adapt to significant stressors, despite experiences of significant adversity or trauma. To capture to what extent an individual copes with stress in a resilient fashion the Brief Resilient Coping Scale (BRCS) was developed. This tool was validated in people with chronic disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis using standard psychometric techniques of classical test theory, but not yet in patients with Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The aim of this study was to explore the psychometric properties of the Brief Resilient Coping Scale in patients with SLE using Rasch analysis. This study used cross-sectional data. The BRCS was administered to 232 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. The aspects analyzed were unidimensionality, local independence and differential item functioning (DIF) to construct an interpretative scale of scores with the Rasch model. Rating scale mode (RSM) showed that the four categories used in the items of the BRCS are properly ordered. The four items provided a good fit to the polytomous Rasch model. Moreover, the parameters were sufficiently separated to measure resilience in patients with SLE. BRCS is a unidimensional scale (eigenvalue = 1.843) of resilience and the items were locally independent. There was no DIF between males and females in the sample. Only marginally significant differences depending on the level of education were found. The BRCS showed adequate discriminant validity between groups of scores. BRCS is a suitable scale for measuring resilience in patients with SLE. This scale might be useful for clinicians to obtain information concerning the degree of resilience that each patient has, allowing individuals with low resilience to be identified who need interventions aimed at developing coping skills.

  8. When is The Best Time of Stem Cell Transplantation for Treating Acute Myocardial Infarction——A Brief Meta-analysis of Current Clinic Trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The best time of stem cells transplantation for treating acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is still to be followed with interest and a focus issue for clinical cardiologist. A brief meta-analysis of clinical trials about timing-window and therapeutic effects of stem cell transplantation for treating AMI will be made out in this article.

  9. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the "World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire--Brief Version" for Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Susan M.; Chan, Fong; Ferrin, James M.; Lin, Chen-Ping; Chan, Jacob Y. C.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the factorial structure of the "World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire--Brief Version" in a community sample of Canadians with spinal cord injuries. A confirmatory factor analysis provides evidence that the instrument is a multidimensional measure of quality of life. Additionally, the questionnaire is…

  10. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the "World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire--Brief Version" for Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Susan M.; Chan, Fong; Ferrin, James M.; Lin, Chen-Ping; Chan, Jacob Y. C.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the factorial structure of the "World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire--Brief Version" in a community sample of Canadians with spinal cord injuries. A confirmatory factor analysis provides evidence that the instrument is a multidimensional measure of quality of life. Additionally, the questionnaire is…

  11. Transversal analysis of public policies on user fees exemptions in six West African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridde Valéry

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While more and more West African countries are implementing public user fees exemption policies, there is still little knowledge available on this topic. The long time required for scientific production, combined with the needs of decision-makers, led to the creation in 2010 of a project to support implementers in aggregating knowledge on their experiences. This article presents a transversal analysis of user fees exemption policies implemented in Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, Togo and Senegal. Methods This was a multiple case study with several embedded levels of analysis. The cases were public user fees exemption policies selected by the participants because of their instructive value. The data used in the countries were taken from documentary analysis, interviews and questionnaires. The transversal analysis was based on a framework for studying five implementation components and five actors’ attitudes usually encountered in these policies. Results The analysis of the implementation components revealed: a majority of State financing; maintenance of centrally organized financing; a multiplicity of reimbursement methods; reimbursement delays and/or stock shortages; almost no implementation guides; a lack of support measures; communication plans that were rarely carried out, funded or renewed; health workers who were given general information but not details; poorly informed populations; almost no evaluation systems; ineffective and poorly funded coordination systems; low levels of community involvement; and incomplete referral-evacuation systems. With regard to actors’ attitudes, the analysis revealed: objectives that were appreciated by everyone; dissatisfaction with the implementation; specific tensions between healthcare providers and patients; overall satisfaction among patients, but still some problems; the perception that while the financial barrier has been removed, other barriers persist; occasionally a

  12. A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of sustainable household water treatment interventions in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihombing, Daniel; Pande, Saket; Rietveld, Luuk

    2017-04-01

    One of the sub-goals of United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 6 is to achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all by 2030. Household water treatment (HWT; such as boiling, chlorination, solar or UV disinfection with lamps, etc.) is one of the technologies that can be used to reach this target. However, there is a big challenge to scale up the widespread implementation of this technology. Even though there are many HWT products on the market, sustainable uptake of this method (compliance) is unsatisfying. Researchers have shown that its compliance rate has often declined over time. Since there are many factors that influence the compliance rate, it is desirable to know the best combination of causal factors (pathway) that give the highest compliance based on the success stories reported in the literature. The motivation of this research is to find the pathways characteristic of local people that influence the compliance rate of HWT, using QCA (Qualitative Comparative Analysis). The comparative analysis is essentially a meta-analysis of HWT interventions and factors, possibly, behind successful or unsuccessful HWT uptake reported in literature. This thus helps to identify the characteristics of target communities that are willing to adopt HWT intervention, irrespective of the type of HWT. Out of 102 case studies reported in literature, 36 are selected from developing countries where an HWT intervention lasted for at least 12 months were selected and analyzed. Factors such as education level, perception about water quality, local beliefs, sanitation coverage, existing water treatment, type of water source, ability to pay, willingness to pay, existing local supply chain, and accessibility to water treatment were examined. Preliminary results show that 1) a combination of no prior HWT intervention in the community with a general perception of water quality being poor often leads to uptake of HWT technology, 2) education

  13. Cointegration analysis on trading behavior in four SELECTED asean countries BEFORE MONETARY CRISIS

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    R. Budi Prawoto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze Indonesian position among the trading behavior in four selected ASEAN countries (according to their import-and-export products using cointegration analysis. The demands for export and import are estimated before the monetary crisis erupted (1963 – 1995 using the dynamic OLS (DOLS method. The Johansen Maximum Likelihood (JML approach is also employed to compare the results obtained. The results show that foreign income has a significant impact on export demand, suggesting that foreign disturbance in the form of economic activities is likely to be transmitted to these countries. The Marshall Lerner conditions are easily met for the cases of Malaysia and Thailand (DOLS and JML. For Indonesia and the Philippines, the sum of the price elasticities of export and import demand are less than unity. This can be explained by the J-curve, in which the currency depreciations will first worsen the trade balance before it improves, and it takes a long time to affect the trade balance.

  14. Treatment of neonatal infections: a multi-country analysis of health system bottlenecks and potential solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simen-Kapeu, Aline; Seale, Anna C; Wall, Steve; Nyange, Christabel; Qazi, Shamim A; Moxon, Sarah G; Young, Mark; Liu, Grace; Darmstadt, Gary L; Dickson, Kim E; Lawn, Joy E

    2015-01-01

    Around one-third of the world's 2.8 million neonatal deaths are caused by infections. Most of these deaths are preventable, but occur due to delays in care-seeking, and access to effective antibiotic treatment with supportive care. Understanding variation in health system bottlenecks to scale-up of case management of neonatal infections and identifying solutions is essential to reduce mortality, and also morbidity. A standardised bottleneck analysis tool was applied in 12 countries in Africa and Asia as part of the development of the Every Newborn Action Plan. Country workshops involved technical experts to complete a survey tool, to grade health system "bottlenecks" hindering scale up of maternal-newborn intervention packages. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to analyse the data, combined with literature review, to present priority bottlenecks and synthesise actions to improve case management of newborn infections. For neonatal infections, the health system building blocks most frequently graded as major or significant bottlenecks, irrespective of mortality context and geographical region, were health workforce (11 out of 12 countries), and community ownership and partnership (11 out of 12 countries). Lack of data to inform decision making, and limited funding to increase access to quality neonatal care were also major challenges. Rapid recognition of possible serious bacterial infection and access to care is essential. Inpatient hospital care remains the first line of treatment for neonatal infections. In situations where referral is not possible, the use of simplified antibiotic regimens for outpatient management for non-critically ill young infants has recently been reported in large clinical trials; WHO is developing a guideline to treat this group of young infants. Improving quality of care through more investment in the health workforce at all levels of care is critical, in addition to ensuring development and dissemination of national

  15. A Corpus-Based Discourse Information Analysis of Chinese EFL Learners' Autonomy in Legal Case Brief Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinshi

    2017-01-01

    Legal case brief writing is pedagogically important yet insufficiently discussed for Chinese EFL learners majoring in law. Based on process genre approach and discourse information theory (DIT), the present study designs a corpus-based analytical model for Chinese EFL learners' autonomy in legal case brief writing and explores the process of case…

  16. California Student Vote 1972; A Brief Analysis of the Student Vote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Bruce; And Others

    This study of the impact of the student vote in California was based on a comprehensive analysis of 54,000 student votes. The precinct analysis method was utilized to examine the voting returns of precincts which contain very close to 100% student populations. Results of the study encompassed an overview of the student vote; voter turnout;…

  17. Comparative Analysis of Football Efficiency Among Two Small European Countries: Portugal and Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANNIS DOUVIS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates changes in total productivity, breaking this down into technically efficient change and technological change by means of data envelopment analysis(DEA applied to a representative sample of football clubs operating in the two small European countries: Portugal and Greece. The aim of this procedure is to seek out those best practices that will lead to improved performance in the market. We rank the football clubs according to their change in total productivity for the period 1999/2000 to 2002/2003,concluding that some clubs experienced productivity growth while others experienced a decrease in productivity. The implications arising from the study are considered in terms of managerial policy.

  18. Trade Openness and Economic Growth: A Panel Cointegration and Causality Analysis for the Newest EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Dritsakis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between trade openness and economic growth using data for the thirteen newest European Union members. The study covers the period of 1995–2013. We have applied panel cointegration and causality approaches to examine the long-run and the causal relationship between the variables. Empirical results confirm the presence of a cointegrating vector between trade openness and economic growth, in this group of the thirteen countries. An error correction model (ECM, followed by the two steps of Engle and Granger was used to capture the short and long-run dynamics. The impact of economic growth and trade openness is found to be positive. Finally, the panel Granger causality analysis reveals a unidirectional causal relationship running from trade openness to economic growth, both in the short and in the long-run

  19. Survival analysis of car travel time near a bus stop in developing countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG XiaoBao; GAO ZiYou; GUO HongWei; HUAN Mei

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an important investigation into car travel time affected by mixed traffic flow near a bus stop on the basis of survival analysis theory.Travel time data associated with mixed traffic characteristics near a bus stop were collected by video cameras.A hazard-based duration model was introduced to analyze the effects of mixed traffic flow on car travel time.The results indicate that mixed traffic flow impacts car travel time significantly.And the presence of bus berthing violation would delay car travel time.The proposed model can be used to forecast temporal shifts in car travel time due to changes in mixed traffic flow.The influential factors related to mixed traffic flow should be given full consideration in the planning and designing of bus stops in developing countries.

  20. Briefing Executives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    in order to move forward. You have to report some bad news. Or maybe it is just an information brief to someone with a reputation for asking hard...face value . He or she will undoubtedly have many questions for you to answer and clarify, and, in the end, the executive may decide on a different...misunderstanding, and we were able to move on. Getting up the nerve to push back wasn’t easy—Meyer had a reputation for gruffness and great technical

  1. Visual analysis in single case experimental design studies: brief review and guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Justin D; Gast, David L

    2014-01-01

    Visual analysis of graphic displays of data is a cornerstone of studies using a single case experimental design (SCED). Data are graphed for each participant during a study with trend, level, and stability of data assessed within and between conditions. Reliable interpretations of effects of an intervention are dependent on researchers' understanding and use of systematic procedures. The purpose of this paper is to provide readers with a rationale for visual analysis of data when using a SCED, a step-by-step guide for conducting a visual analysis of graphed data, as well as to highlight considerations for persons interested in using visual analysis to evaluate an intervention, especially the importance of collecting reliability data for dependent measures and fidelity of implementation of study procedures.

  2. A systematic review and meta-analysis of a brief delay in clamping the umbilical cord of preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabe, Heike; Reynolds, Graham; Diaz-Rossello, Jose

    2008-01-01

    The optimal timing of clamping the umbilical cord in preterm infants at birth is the subject of continuing debate. To investigate the effects of a brief delay in cord clamping on the outcome of babies born prematurely. A retrospective meta-analysis of randomised trials in preterm infants was conducted. Data were collected from published studies identified by a structured literature search in EMBASE, PubMed, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library. All infants born below 37 weeks gestation and enrolled into a randomised study of delayed cord clamping (30 s or more) versus immediate cord clamping (less than 20 s) after birth were included. Systematic search and analysis of the data were done according to the methodology of the Cochrane collaboration. Ten studies describing a total of 454 preterm infants were identified which met the inclusion and assessment criteria. Major benefits of the intervention were higher circulating blood volume during the first 24 h of life, less need for blood transfusions (p = 0.004) and less incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage (p = 0.002). The procedure of a delayed cord clamping time of at least 30 s is safe to use and does not compromise the preterm infant in the initial post-partum adaptation phase. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. A brief introduction to multivariate methods in grape and wine analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Cozzolino

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available D Cozzolino1, W U Cynkar1, N Shah1, R G Dambergs2, P A Smith11The Australian Wine Research Institute, Urrbrae, Glen Osmond, SA, Australia; 2The Australian Wine Research Institute, Tasmanian Institute of Agricultural Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, AustraliaAbstract: Real-world systems are usually multivariate and hence usually cannot be adequately described by one selected variable without the risk of serious misrepresentation. Analyzing the effect of one variable at a time by analysis of variance techniques can give useful descriptive information, but this will not give specific information about relationships among variables and other important relationships in the entire matrix. Multivariate data analysis was developed in the late 1960s, and used by a number of research groups in analytical and physical organic chemistry due to the introduction of instrumentation giving multivariate responses for each sample analyzed. Development of such methods was also made possible by the availability of computers. Multivariate data analysis involves the use of mathematical and statistical techniques to extract information from complex data sets. The objective of this paper is to briefly describe and illustrate some multivariate data analysis methods used for grape and wine analysis.Keywords: multivariate analysis, data mining, wine, grape 

  4. Countries population determination to test rice crisis indicator at national level using k-means cluster analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Y.; Purwandari, T.; Sukono; Ariska, Y. D.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to obtain information on the population of the countries which is have similarities with Indonesia based on three characteristics, that is the democratic atmosphere, rice consumption and purchasing power of rice. It is useful as a reference material for research which tested the strength and predictability of the rice crisis indicators Unprecedented Restlessness (UR). The similarities countries with Indonesia were conducted using multivariate analysis that is non-hierarchical cluster analysis k-Means with 38 countries as the data population. This analysis is done repeatedly until the obtainment number of clusters which is capable to show the differentiator power of the three characteristics and describe the high similarity within clusters. Based on the results, it turns out with 6 clusters can describe the differentiator power of characteristics of formed clusters. However, to answer the purpose of the study, only one cluster which will be taken accordance with the criteria of success for the population of countries that have similarities with Indonesia that cluster contain Indonesia therein, there are countries which is sustain crisis and non-crisis of rice in 2008, and cluster which is have the largest member among them. This criterion is met by cluster 2, which consists of 22 countries, namely Indonesia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Fiji, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, India, Jamaica, Japan, Korea South, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mali, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Suriname.

  5. Prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in low– and middle–income countries: A systematic review and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rudan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is an autoimmune disorder that affects the small joints of the body. It is one of the leading causes of chronic morbidity in high–income countries, but little is known about the burden of this disease in low– and middle–income countries (LMIC. Methods: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of RA in six of the World Health Organization's (WHO regions that harbour LMIC by identifying all relevant studies in those regions. To accomplish this aim various bibliographic databases were searched: PubMed, EMBASE, Global Health, LILACS and the Chinese databases CNKI and WanFang. Studies were selected based on pre–defined inclusion criteria, including a definition of RA based on the 1987 revision of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR definition. Results: Meta–estimates of regional RA prevalence rates for countries of low or middle income were 0.40% (95% CI: 0.23–0.57% for Southeast Asian, 0.37% (95% CI: 0.23–0.51% for Eastern Mediterranean, 0.62% (95% CI: 0.47–0.77% for European, 1.25% (95% CI: 0.64–1.86% for American and 0.42% (95% CI: 0.30–0.53% for Western Pacific regions. A formal meta–analysis could not be performed for the sub–Saharan African region due to limited data. Male prevalence of RA in LMIC was 0.16% (95% CI: 0.11–0.20% while the prevalence in women reached 0.75% (95% CI: 0.60–0.90%. This difference between males and females was statistically signifcant (P<0.0001. The prevalence of RA did not differ significantly between urban and rural settings (P=0.353. These prevalence estimates represent 2.60 (95% CI: 1.85–3.34% million male sufferers and 12.21 (95% CI: 9.78–14.67% million female sufferers in LMIC in the year 2000, and 3.16 (95% CI: 2.25–4.05% million affected males and 14.87 (95% CI: 11.91–17.86% million affected females in LMIC in the year 2010. Conclusion: Given that majority of the world’s population resides in LMIC, the number of

  6. Prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudan, Igor; Sidhu, Simrita; Papana, Angeliki; Meng, Shi-Jiao; Xin-Wei, Yu; Wang, Wei; Campbell-Page, Ruth M; Demaio, Alessandro Rhyll; Nair, Harish; Sridhar, Devi; Theodoratou, Evropi; Dowman, Ben; Adeloye, Davies; Majeed, Azeem; Car, Josip; Campbell, Harry; Wang, Wei; Chan, Kit Yee

    2015-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder that affects the small joints of the body. It is one of the leading causes of chronic morbidity in high-income countries, but little is known about the burden of this disease in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of RA in six of the World Health Organization's (WHO) regions that harbour LMIC by identifying all relevant studies in those regions. To accomplish this aim various bibliographic databases were searched: PubMed, EMBASE, Global Health, LILACS and the Chinese databases CNKI and WanFang. Studies were selected based on pre-defined inclusion criteria, including a definition of RA based on the 1987 revision of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) definition. Meta-estimates of regional RA prevalence rates for countries of low or middle income were 0.40% (95% CI: 0.23-0.57%) for Southeast Asian, 0.37% (95% CI: 0.23-0.51%) for Eastern Mediterranean, 0.62% (95% CI: 0.47-0.77%) for European, 1.25% (95% CI: 0.64-1.86%) for American and 0.42% (95% CI: 0.30-0.53%) for Western Pacific regions. A formal meta-analysis could not be performed for the sub-Saharan African region due to limited data. Male prevalence of RA in LMIC was 0.16% (95% CI: 0.11-0.20%) while the prevalence in women reached 0.75% (95% CI: 0.60-0.90%). This difference between males and females was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of RA did not differ significantly between urban and rural settings (P = 0.353). These prevalence estimates represent 2.60 (95% CI: 1.85-3.34%) million male sufferers and 12.21 (95% CI: 9.78-14.67%) million female sufferers in LMIC in the year 2000, and 3.16 (95% CI: 2.25-4.05%) million affected males and 14.87 (95% CI: 11.91-17.86%) million affected females in LMIC in the year 2010. Given that majority of the world's population resides in LMIC, the number of affected people is substantial, with a projection to increase in the coming

  7. Brief Report: Multilevel Analysis of School Smoking Policy and Pupil Smoking Behaviour in Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiium, Nora; Burgess, Stephen; Moore, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    A multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data from a survey involving 1941 pupils (in grades 10 and 11) and policy indicators developed from interviews with staff from 45 secondary schools in Wales examined the hypotheses that pupil smoking prevalence would be associated with: restrictive staff and pupil smoking policies; dissemination of school…

  8. A Brief Review: The Z-curve Theory and its Application in Genome Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ren; Zhang, Chun-Ting

    2014-04-01

    In theoretical physics, there exist two basic mathematical approaches, algebraic and geometrical methods, which, in most cases, are complementary. In the area of genome sequence analysis, however, algebraic approaches have been widely used, while geometrical approaches have been less explored for a long time. The Z-curve theory is a geometrical approach to genome analysis. The Z-curve is a three-dimensional curve that represents a given DNA sequence in the sense that each can be uniquely reconstructed given the other. The Z-curve, therefore, contains all the information that the corresponding DNA sequence carries. The analysis of a DNA sequence can then be performed through studying the corresponding Z-curve. The Z-curve method has found applications in a wide range of areas in the past two decades, including the identifications of protein-coding genes, replication origins, horizontally-transferred genomic islands, promoters, translational start sides and isochores, as well as studies on phylogenetics, genome visualization and comparative genomics. Here, we review the progress of Z-curve studies from aspects of both theory and applications in genome analysis.

  9. Making Connections: Using Social Network Analysis for Program Evaluation. Issue Brief. Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Todd

    2009-01-01

    Social network analysis (SNA) is a methodological approach to measuring and mapping relationships. It can be used to study whole networks, all of the ties within a defined group, or connections that individuals have in their personal communities. The resulting graph-based structures illustrate the composition and effectiveness of networks on a…

  10. Rasch Analysis of the Locus-of-Hope Scale. Brief Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadiana, Leny G.; David, Adonis P.

    2015-01-01

    The Locus-of-Hope Scale (LHS) was developed as a measure of the locus-of-hope dimensions (Bernardo, 2010). The present study adds to the emerging literature on locus-of-hope by assessing the psychometric properties of the LHS using Rasch analysis. The results from the Rasch analyses of the four subscales of LHS provided evidence on the…

  11. Reproducing Gender Inequality: A Critical Discourse Analysis of a Turkish Adult Literacy Textbook. Research Brief #7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungor, Ramazan; Prins, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Adult education curricula such as literacy textbooks present blueprints for living, including different ways of being and relating as men and women. However, educators and scholars seldom consider the underlying assumptions about gender in literacy workbooks, especially in international settings. This study used Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA)…

  12. A Brief Comparative Analysis of the Images of Don JuanandWeiXiaobao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦盼泓

    2012-01-01

      Don Juan and The Deer and the Cauldron , these two works reflect the views of the society, especially their fight against tra-ditional values. This article makes a deeper analysis of the two heroes who live in different time and spaces.

  13. Comparative meta-analysis of tuberculosis contact investigation interventions in eleven high burden countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blok, Lucie; Sahu, Suvanand; Creswell, Jacob; Alba, Sandra; Stevens, Robert; Bakker, Mirjam I

    2015-01-01

    Screening of household contacts of tuberculosis (TB) patients is a recommended strategy to improve early case detection. While it has been widely implemented in low prevalence countries, the most optimal protocols for contact investigation in high prevalence, low resource settings is yet to be determined. This study evaluated contact investigation interventions in eleven lower and middle income countries and reviewed the association between context or program-related factors and the yield of cases among contacts. We reviewed data from nineteen first wave TB REACH funded projects piloting innovations to improve case detection. These nineteen had fulfilled the eligibility criteria: contact investigation implementation and complete data reporting. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the percentage yield and case notifications for each project. Implementation strategies were delineated and the association between independent variables and yield was analyzed by fitting a random effects logistic regression. Overall, the nineteen interventions screened 139,052 household contacts, showing great heterogeneity in the percentage yield of microscopy confirmed cases (SS+), ranging from 0.1% to 6.2%). Compared to the most restrictive testing criteria (at least two weeks of cough) the aOR's for lesser (any TB related symptom) and least (all contacts) restrictive testing criteria were 1.71 (95%CI 0.94-3.13) and 6.90 (95% CI 3.42-13.93) respectively. The aOR for inclusion of SS- and extra-pulmonary TB was 0.31 (95% CI 0.15-0.62) compared to restricting index cases to SS+ TB. Contact investigation contributed between <1% and 14% to all SS+ cases diagnosed in the intervention areas. This study confirms that high numbers of active TB cases can be identified through contact investigation in a variety of contexts. However, design and program implementation factors appear to influence the yield of contact investigation and its concomitant contribution to TB case detection.

  14. Analysis of field reports from anaesthesia volunteers in low- to middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieczynski, Lauren M; Laudanski, Krzysztof; Speck, Rebecca M; McCunn, Maureen

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify key experiences and common motifs of volunteer doctors who have participated in anaesthesia-related volunteer experiences abroad through the Health Volunteers Overseas (HVO) programme. An additional goal was to understand the effects of medical volunteerism in developing countries on the volunteers themselves. After a medical mission with HVO, anaesthesia volunteers submit a post-experience report. Twenty-five reports were randomly selected from the 58 available trip reports, including five from each of the five countries collaborating with HVO. Data in the reports were analysed using a modified grounded theory and constant comparative technique until thematic saturation was achieved. Three major discoveries emerged from the analysis of post-experience reports: (i) anaesthesia residents and attending physicians find their volunteer experiences in the developing world to be personally rewarding and positive; (ii) most participants feel their educational interventions have a positive impact on local students and anaesthesia providers, and (iii) global volunteerism poses challenges, primarily caused by lack of resource availability and communication issues. Our results give new insight into the experiences of and challenges faced by a cohort of HVO-sponsored anaesthesia volunteers while abroad and validates the positive effects these global health experiences have on the volunteers themselves. This group of anaesthesia volunteers was able to further their personal and professional growth, sharpen their physical diagnosis and clinical reasoning skills in resource-poor environments and, most importantly, provide education and promote an exchange of ideas and information. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Comparative meta-analysis of tuberculosis contact investigation interventions in eleven high burden countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Blok

    Full Text Available Screening of household contacts of tuberculosis (TB patients is a recommended strategy to improve early case detection. While it has been widely implemented in low prevalence countries, the most optimal protocols for contact investigation in high prevalence, low resource settings is yet to be determined. This study evaluated contact investigation interventions in eleven lower and middle income countries and reviewed the association between context or program-related factors and the yield of cases among contacts.We reviewed data from nineteen first wave TB REACH funded projects piloting innovations to improve case detection. These nineteen had fulfilled the eligibility criteria: contact investigation implementation and complete data reporting. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the percentage yield and case notifications for each project. Implementation strategies were delineated and the association between independent variables and yield was analyzed by fitting a random effects logistic regression.Overall, the nineteen interventions screened 139,052 household contacts, showing great heterogeneity in the percentage yield of microscopy confirmed cases (SS+, ranging from 0.1% to 6.2%. Compared to the most restrictive testing criteria (at least two weeks of cough the aOR's for lesser (any TB related symptom and least (all contacts restrictive testing criteria were 1.71 (95%CI 0.94-3.13 and 6.90 (95% CI 3.42-13.93 respectively. The aOR for inclusion of SS- and extra-pulmonary TB was 0.31 (95% CI 0.15-0.62 compared to restricting index cases to SS+ TB. Contact investigation contributed between <1% and 14% to all SS+ cases diagnosed in the intervention areas.This study confirms that high numbers of active TB cases can be identified through contact investigation in a variety of contexts. However, design and program implementation factors appear to influence the yield of contact investigation and its concomitant contribution to TB case detection.

  16. Country of Origin Image and Foreign Markets Strategy: Analysis of the Brazilian Cosmetics Company Natura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Bassi Sutter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the use of country of origin image (COI by an emerging market multinational (EMMN on their internationalization process. To this end, we integrate COI literature with the attributes that make up Brazil’s image abroad. This study conducts a qualitative and descriptive approach using the single case study on the case of the Brazilian company Natura Cosméticos S.A. Case analysis, relying on discourse analysis, allowed us to find out that the company uses COI as part of its international strategy; COI attributes can be used positively by an EMMN and might contribute to their image abroad. About the first finding, the study also points out ways Natura integrates Brazilianness attributes into its international marketing strategy, since Natura’s competitive differential is sustained on product development based on the biodiversity of Brazilian fauna and flora. Our study shows ways how an EMMN might use COI concept into their international marketing strategy in order to build their image abroad and differentiate itself positively.

  17. A Brief Analysis of Clym in the Return of the Native

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敬双

    2009-01-01

    <正>Thomas Hardy is an important novelist,prose writer and poet in 19th century.The Return of the Native is one of his famous works.It was written in 1878,and it changed the style of Hardy’ s writing in the late 19th century.In this essay the author will focus on the analysis of Clym-one of the leading characters in the novel.

  18. A Brief Analysis of Harriet the Spy’s Literary Features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立萍

    2014-01-01

    Louise Fitzhugh(1928-1974) was an American author and illustrator of young adult and children’s literature.Harriet the Spy was her groundbreaking first children’s novel.It demonstrates a sharp perception of exactly what it is like to be young in a world of grown-ups.This paper is to analysis the literary stylistic features of Harriet the Spy from characters’ language, heroine’s notes and illustrations.

  19. A Brief Analysis of Harriet the Spy’s Literary Features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立萍

    2014-01-01

    Louise Fitzhugh(1928-1974) was an American author and illustrator of young adult and children's literature. Harriet the Spy was her groundbreaking first children’s novel. It demonstrates a sharp perception of exactly what it is like to be young in a world of grown-ups.This paper is to analysis the literary stylistic features of Harriet the Spy from characters’ language, heroine’s notes and illustrations.

  20. A Brief Analysis of Modem Proposition Flower Arrangement%现代命题插花浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈兰芬

    2012-01-01

    Modern theme flower arrangements usually express feeling and emotion through certain scenery combining with the characteristic of the time. In summary, there are five themes: beauty of nature, affection of hometown, happiness of holidays, extols of the time and love of hmnan world. This article generalizes some theories and analyses examples to conduct a brief analysis to theme flower arrangements. It aims to throw out a minnow to catch a whale, accelerate the innovation and development of modern theme flower arrangement.%现代命题插花多结合时代特色造景传情,其命题内容归纳起来主要有自然美、故乡恋、节日贺、时代颂、人间情五大类。通过理论归纳、实例分析的方式对命题插花的创作进行简单分析,旨在抛砖引玉,促进现代命题插花的创新发展。

  1. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Brief Versus Ultrabrief Right Unilateral Electroconvulsive Therapy for Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tor, Phern-Chern; Bautovich, Alison; Wang, Min-Jung; Martin, Donel; Harvey, Samuel B; Loo, Colleen

    2015-09-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective depression treatment, but it has potential cognitive side effects. Ultrabrief pulse (UBP) right unilateral (RUL) ECT is an increasingly used treatment option that can potentially combine efficacy with lesser cognitive side effects. However, current trials are underpowered or have conflicting results. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the relative efficacy and cognitive effects of brief pulse (BP) and UBP RUL ECT. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CENTRAL, DARE, and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched with the search terms ECT, electroconvulsive therapy, electroconvulsive shock, electroconvulsive shock therapy, electrical stimulation, electroconvulsive combined with brief, ultra*, pulse, and trial in English, all fields including title, abstract, subject heading, and full text up to June 20, 2013, for studies comparing BP and UBP RUL ECT in depressed patients that reported formalized mood ratings for depression. Six studies met the inclusion criteria, comprising a total of 689 patients. Efficacy, cognitive, response, and remission outcomes were extracted from each publication or obtained directly from authors. BP RUL ECT was significantly more efficacious in treating depression than UBP RUL ECT (standardized mean difference = 0.25; 95% CI, 0.08–0.41; P = .004) but showed significantly more cognitive side effects in all cognitive domains examined (global cognition, anterograde learning and recall, retrograde memory) (P < .01). The mean number of treatment sessions given was 8.7 for BP ECT and 9.6 for UBP ECT (P < .001). UBP had a lower remission rate (OR = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.51–0.99; P = .045), with a number needed to treat of 12.1. BP compared with UBP RUL ECT was slightly more efficacious in treating depression and required fewer treatment sessions, but led to greater cognitive side effects. The decision of whether to use BP or UBP RUL ECT should be made on an

  2. Region-specific versus country-specific poverty lines in analysis of poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Mogstad, Magne; Langørgen, Audun; Aaberge, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: The standard practice in most OECD countries is to measure and evaluate poverty on the basis of a poverty line defined as a specific proportion of the median equivalent income within a country. However, this approach disregards regional differences in prices and needs within a country and may, therefore, provide an incomplete and even an incorrect picture of the extent as well as the geographical and demographical composition of the poor. To account for differences in...

  3. What Explains the ICT Diffusion Gap Between the Major Industrialized Countries: An Empirical Analysis?

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert Cette; Jimmy Lopez

    2008-01-01

    Over the last few years, a large body of literature has shown that the level of information and communications technology (ICT) diffusion, and, as a result, the favorable effects of this diffusion on productivity, differ greatly between the major advanced countries, with the United States the country where ICT diffusion is strongest. This study aims to explain empirically this gap. Annual macroeconomic panel data are used for the period 1981-2005 and cover eleven OECD countries: Austria, Denm...

  4. Tax Capacity and Tax Effort : Extended Cross-Country Analysis from 1994 to 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Tuan Minh; Moreno-Dodson, Blanca; Bayraktar, Nihal

    2012-01-01

    One of the important factors for economic development is the existence of an effective tax system. This paper deals with the concept and empirical estimation of countries' taxable capacity and tax effort. It employs a cross-country study from a sample of 110 developing and developed countries during 1994-2009. Taxable capacity refers to the predicted tax-to-gross domestic product ratio tha...

  5. The Impact of Public Policies on Skill Mismatch : cross-country analysis in OECD economies

    OpenAIRE

    Mauriès, Arthur-Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Governments aim at reducing skill mismatch because of the adverse effects that it can trigger at the individual and firm level as well as at the country level. Skill mismatch has been defined as a persistent phenomenon with long lasting cross-country differences (Mavromaras et al., 2013). This phenomenon could thus be explained by equivalent cross-country differences in national public policies. The purpose of this thesis is to test the impact of public policies on the probability of being sk...

  6. Comparative analysis of business sophistication of Serbia and its neighboring countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetanović Slobodan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Innovation of an economy refers to the ability of a national economy to create and use knowledge in the production of new products, services and processes. In the economy of knowledge, innovation represents a key determinant of the competition of a country at the world market. Metrics Global Innovation Index is valuable for countries such as Serbia because it is a good indicator of its speed and direction of movement in relation to the proclaimed goals of economic development policy. This paper analyzes the business sophistication, as one of the five determinants of innovativeness of countries measured by the methodology of the Global Innovation Index, Serbia and neighboring countries.

  7. Confidence in Government and Attitudes toward Bribery: A Country-Cluster Analysis of Demographic and Religiosity Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Benk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we try to classify the countries by the levels of confidence in government and attitudes toward accepting bribery by using the data of the sixth wave (2010–2014 of the World Values Survey (WVS. We are also interested in which demographic, attitudinal, and religiosity variables affect each class of countries. For these purposes cluster analysis, linear regression analysis, and ordered logistic regression analysis were used. The study found that countries could be grouped into two clusters which had varying levels of opposition to bribe taking and confidence in government. Another finding was that certain demographic, attitudinal, and religiosity variables that were significant in one cluster might not be significant in another cluster.

  8. Research Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfelder, Erin; McCabe, Connor; Fife, Aurora; Herzig, Lisa; Ahrens, Kym

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents with ADHD are at risk of functional problems that may be mitigated by consistent ADHD treatment. This study pilots a brief intervention for adolescents with ADHD and their parents to increase treatment knowledge and family motivation to seek treatment. The 3-hr curriculum was developed by a multidisciplinary team and included psychoeducation, goal setting, and motivational interviewing. Fifteen adolescents and 20 caregivers participated in the workshop, completed pre- and post-test assessments, and reported on acceptability. Acceptability and satisfaction with the intervention were high. Perceived knowledge of ADHD increased post intervention; stigma was unchanged. Parents reported more acceptability of stimulant medications and less willingness to use special diets or cognitive games. Family feedback informed modifications to the curriculum. The Teen ADHD Workshop is a feasible and acceptable intervention to increase knowledge of ADHD and evidence-based treatments. Further research will evaluate effects on treatment participation.

  9. Traditional Medicine Through the Filter of Modernity: A brief historical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rabarihoela Razafimandimby

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional medicines still prevail in current Malagasy context. A careful historical analysis shows however that Malagasy traditional medicine has been screened through many filters before being accepted in a global context. Traditional medicine in its authentic form has been more or less rejected with the advent of  modern medicine – although not without reaction. This paper will retrace the historical encountering of the modern and traditional to determine the extent to which traditional medicine is acknowledged and used in the current prevailing modern, rational and scientific global context.

  10. Brief Analysis of Biblical Style in The Old Man and the Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高岩

    2012-01-01

    Based on the Bible,we can see influence on Hemingway and his work.Through biblical style's influence on the Old Man and the Sea in relation to theme,word,language,the language structure and writing techniques,we will be able to see clearly how the biblical style shows in the novella.A textual analysis of this novella from biblical style will result not only in our awareness of the style of Ernest Hemingway's in last period but also in our recognition that he is one of the most celebrated and influential lit...

  11. Brief Analysis of the Tragic Sense of Society in The Great Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄二靓

    2016-01-01

    F. Scott. Fitzgerald is famous recorder and spokesman of Jazz Age. He is known for the sensitive perspective of the society and the domination of tragic sense in his works. The Great Gatsby is Fitzgerald''s masterpiece. In the novel, Fitzgerald expresses a disillusive feeling and tragic sense of society. Through analysis of connotation of tragic sense of society and its reflection in The Great Gatsby, a further and comprehensive understanding of tragic sense of society in Fitzgerald''s works can be achieved.

  12. BRIEF ANALYSIS ON THEORETIC EVIDENCE OF FOUR-GATE POINTS IN TREATMENT OF DISEASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In the present paper, the authors expound the approaches of four-gate points on treatment of diseases and the relevant theoretic evidence. The analysis and discussion were carried on in the aspects of the origins of four-gate points and the relationships of four-gate points with primary qi, running course of meridian, qi and blood and biaoben qijie of meridian and collateral. Being the major points in clinic, fourgate points provide extensive indications and good therapeutic effects, which are supported thoroughly by the theoretic evidence.

  13. Genital Chlamydia Prevalence in Europe and Non-European High Income Countries: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redmond, S; Woodhall, S; van den Broek, I;

    2015-01-01

    /EEA) Member States and non-European high income countries from January 1990 to August 2012. We examined results in forest plots, explored heterogeneity using the I2 statistic, and conducted random effects meta-analysis if appropriate. Meta-regression was used to examine the relationship between study...... characteristics and chlamydia prevalence estimates. Results: We included 25 population-based studies from 11 EU/EEA countries and 14 studies from five other high income countries. Four EU/EEA Member States reported on nationally representative surveys of sexually experienced adults aged 18–26 years (response...... consistent with those in other high income countries (I2 0% for women, 6% for men). There was statistical evidence of an association between survey response rate and estimated chlamydia prevalence; estimates were higher in surveys with lower response rates, (p = 0.003 in women, 0.018 in men)....

  14. Measuring Carbon Emissions Performance in 123 Countries: Application of Minimum Distance to the Strong Efficiency Frontier Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have proposed a general approach to obtain a projection of the nearest targets and minimum distance for a given unit. The method takes undesirable output into account. The idea behind it is that nearest targets and minimum distance lead to less variation in inputs and outputs of the inefficient decision making units (DMUs being evaluated to reach the production possibility set (PPS frontier. Our results have shown that the carbon emissions comprehensive performance indexes (CECPIs of developing countries are lower than those of developed countries, and that the inefficiency shares of energy consumption, capital stock and desirable output are declining while those of labor force and undesirable output are climbing. Further, using cluster analysis, we have shown that nine countries, including Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Iraq, should take severe measures to save energy and reduce carbon emissions. Moreover, the gap in CECPIs among the 123 countries is narrowing by kernel density estimation.

  15. Tracking progress towards global drinking water and sanitation targets: A within and among country analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, James A; Goldstick, Jason; Bartram, Jamie; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2016-01-15

    Global access to safe drinking water and sanitation has improved dramatically during the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) period. However, there is substantial heterogeneity in progress between countries and inequality within countries. We assessed countries' temporal patterns in access to drinking water and sanitation using publicly available data. We then classified countries using non-linear modeling techniques as having one of the following trajectories: 100% coverage, linear growth, linear decline, no change, saturation, acceleration, deceleration, negative acceleration, or negative deceleration. We further assessed the degree to which temporal profiles follow a sigmoidal pattern and how these patterns might vary within a given country between rural and urban settings. Among countries with more than 10 data points, between 15% and 38% showed a non-linear trajectory, depending on the indicator. Overall, countries' progress followed a sigmoidal trend, but some countries are making better progress and some worse progress than would be expected. We highlight several countries that are not on track to meet the MDG for water or sanitation, but whose access is accelerating, suggesting better performance during the coming years. Conversely, we also highlight several countries that have made sufficient progress to meet the MDG target, but in which access is decelerating. Patterns were heterogeneous and non-linearity was common. Characterization of these heterogeneous patterns will help policy makers allocate resources more effectively. For example, policy makers can identify countries that could make use of additional resources or might be in need of additional institutional capacity development to properly manage resources; this will be essential to meet the forthcoming Sustainable Development Goals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Does Maternal Country of Birth Matter for Understanding Offspring's Birthweight? A Multilevel Analysis of Individual Heterogeneity in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shai Mulinari

    Full Text Available Many public health and epidemiological studies have found differences between populations (e.g. maternal countries of birth in average values of a health indicator (e.g. mean offspring birthweight. However, the approach based solely on population-level averages compromises our understanding of variability in individuals' health around the averages. If this variability is high, the exclusive study of averages may give misleading information. This idea is relevant when investigating country of birth differences in health.To exemplify this concept, we use information from the Swedish Medical Birth Register (2002-2010 and apply multilevel regression analysis of birthweight, with babies (n = 811,329 at the first, mothers (n = 571,876 at the second, and maternal countries of birth (n = 109 at the third level. We disentangle offspring, maternal and maternal country of birth components of the total offspring heterogeneity in birthweight for babies born within the normal timespan (37-42 weeks. We found that of such birthweight variation about 50% was at the baby level, 47% at the maternal level and only 3% at the maternal countries of birth level.In spite of seemingly large differences in average birthweight among maternal countries of birth (range 3290-3677 g, knowledge of the maternal country of birth does not provide accurate information for ascertaining individual offspring birthweight because of the high inter-offspring heterogeneity around country averages. Our study exemplifies the need for a better understanding of individual health diversity for which group averages may provide insufficient and even misleading information. The analytical approach we outline is therefore relevant to investigations of country of birth (and ethnic differences in health in general.

  17. Minimum Wage and Overweight and Obesity in Adult Women: A Multilevel Analysis of Low and Middle Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Annalijn I; Ponce, Ninez A; Frank, John; Nandi, Arijit; Heymann, Jody

    2016-01-01

    To describe the relationship between minimum wage and overweight and obesity across countries at different levels of development. A cross-sectional analysis of 27 countries with data on the legislated minimum wage level linked to socio-demographic and anthropometry data of non-pregnant 190,892 adult women (24-49 y) from the Demographic and Health Survey. We used multilevel logistic regression models to condition on country- and individual-level potential confounders, and post-estimation of average marginal effects to calculate the adjusted prevalence difference. We found the association between minimum wage and overweight/obesity was independent of individual-level SES and confounders, and showed a reversed pattern by country development stage. The adjusted overweight/obesity prevalence difference in low-income countries was an average increase of about 0.1 percentage points (PD 0.075 [0.065, 0.084]), and an average decrease of 0.01 percentage points in middle-income countries (PD -0.014 [-0.019, -0.009]). The adjusted obesity prevalence difference in low-income countries was an average increase of 0.03 percentage points (PD 0.032 [0.021, 0.042]) and an average decrease of 0.03 percentage points in middle-income countries (PD -0.032 [-0.036, -0.027]). This is among the first studies to examine the potential impact of improved wages on an important precursor of non-communicable diseases globally. Among countries with a modest level of economic development, higher minimum wage was associated with lower levels of obesity.

  18. Bibliometric analysis of nutrition and dietetics research activity in Arab countries using ISI Web of Science database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweileh, Waleed M; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sawalha, Ansam F; Zyoud, Sa'ed H

    2014-01-01

    Reducing nutrition-related health problems in Arab countries requires an understanding of the performance of Arab countries in the field of nutrition and dietetics research. Assessment of research activity from a particular country or region could be achieved through bibliometric analysis. This study was carried out to investigate research activity in "nutrition and dietetics" in Arab countries. Original and review articles published from Arab countries in "nutrition and dietetics" Web of Science category up until 2012 were retrieved and analyzed using the ISI Web of Science database. The total number of documents published in "nutrition and dietetics" category from Arab countries was 2062. This constitutes 1% of worldwide research activity in the field. Annual research productivity showed a significant increase after 2005. Approximately 60% of published documents originated from three Arab countries, particularly Egypt, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and Tunisia. However, Kuwait has the highest research productivity per million inhabitants. Main research areas of published documents were in "Food Science/Technology" and "Chemistry" which constituted 75% of published documents compared with 25% for worldwide documents in nutrition and dietetics. A total of 329 (15.96%) nutrition - related diabetes or obesity or cancer documents were published from Arab countries compared with 21% for worldwide published documents. Interest in nutrition and dietetics research is relatively recent in Arab countries. Focus of nutrition research is mainly toward food technology and chemistry with lesser activity toward nutrition-related health research. International cooperation in nutrition research will definitely help Arab researchers in implementing nutrition research that will lead to better national policies regarding nutrition.

  19. Minimum Wage and Overweight and Obesity in Adult Women: A Multilevel Analysis of Low and Middle Income Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalijn I Conklin

    Full Text Available To describe the relationship between minimum wage and overweight and obesity across countries at different levels of development.A cross-sectional analysis of 27 countries with data on the legislated minimum wage level linked to socio-demographic and anthropometry data of non-pregnant 190,892 adult women (24-49 y from the Demographic and Health Survey. We used multilevel logistic regression models to condition on country- and individual-level potential confounders, and post-estimation of average marginal effects to calculate the adjusted prevalence difference.We found the association between minimum wage and overweight/obesity was independent of individual-level SES and confounders, and showed a reversed pattern by country development stage. The adjusted overweight/obesity prevalence difference in low-income countries was an average increase of about 0.1 percentage points (PD 0.075 [0.065, 0.084], and an average decrease of 0.01 percentage points in middle-income countries (PD -0.014 [-0.019, -0.009]. The adjusted obesity prevalence difference in low-income countries was an average increase of 0.03 percentage points (PD 0.032 [0.021, 0.042] and an average decrease of 0.03 percentage points in middle-income countries (PD -0.032 [-0.036, -0.027].This is among the first studies to examine the potential impact of improved wages on an important precursor of non-communicable diseases globally. Among countries with a modest level of economic development, higher minimum wage was associated with lower levels of obesity.

  20. Reflecting through the designing: a brief analysis of the teacher’s planning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Anello

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the conditions in which teachers plan and execute educational actions in the classroom and to find out which difficulties they encountered during the development of the planned teaching action. The “concrete operations” that 15 teachers in the Palermo area had accomplished, were highlighted before, during and after every structured activity to promote the pupils’ oral expression. Specifically, the research, which is collocated in the case study, had the function of verifying forty descriptors. These were grouped in the five cardinal points of the ADDIE model (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, Evaluation, with a motivated group of teachers that were formed during the action-research. To check intentions and behaviors of teachers, tools for self-analysis were built, individual notes and shared reports of the practice were used. The teachers found that the proposed projected device, initially, designed with 40 descriptors was not practical and chose only 20 of these. A simplified and flexible model is now available for the didactical preparation of the activities.Riflettere attraverso la progettazione: breve analisi del processo di programmazione didattica dell’insegnanteL’obiettivo del contributo è indagare le condizioni in cui gli insegnanti pianificano e realizzano un intervento in classe, e quali difficoltà incontrano nelle fasi di sviluppo dell’azione didattica programmata. Sono state evidenziate le “operazioni concrete” che 15 insegnanti del territorio di Palermo hanno compiuto prima, durante e dopo un’attività strutturata per promuovere negli alunni l’espressione orale. Nello specifico la ricerca, che si colloca nella tipologia dello studio di caso, si è occupata di verificare la funzionalità di 40 descrittori, raggruppati nei cinque punti cardine del modello ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, Evaluation, con un gruppo motivato di insegnanti che si

  1. A BRIEF ANALYSIS OF THE TOURISM SECTOR - CURRENT TRENDS AND ISSUES IN THE BULGARIAN TOURIST BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostadin Valkov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thе analysis presented in current article deepens and summarizes the results of an economic study focused on the management of human resources in the sector "Tourism". The expected changes in organizational and technological terms are taken into account. The law on tourism in the Republic of Bulgaria and the types of taxes that directly and indirectly affect those employed in tourism are considered. Leading accents are the current trends and issues that arise from the lack of skilled workers in this sector and their deficit caused by the seasonal nature of employment. Growing gray economy is concerned as a major obstacle to development of the tourism industry and its future.

  2. Molecular markers for biodiversity analysis of wildlife animals: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif, I. A.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Molecular markers are indis­pensable tools for determining the genetic variation and biodiversity with high levels of accuracy and repro­ducibility. These markers are mainly classified into two types; mitochondrial and nuclear markers. The widely used mitochondrial DNA markers with decreasing order of conserved sequences are 12S rDNA > 16S rDNA > cytochrome b > control region (CR; thus the 12S rDNA is highly conserved and the CR is highly variable. The most commonly used nuclear markers for DNA fingerprinting include random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP and microsatellites. This short review narrates the application of these molecular markers for biodiversity analysis of wildlife animals.

  3. The Impact of Skills Development on Competitiveness: Empirical Evidence from a Cross-Country Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsomu, Eldah N.; Ngware, Moses W.; Manda, Damiano K.

    2010-01-01

    In the past half-century, most countries have emphasized the development of human capital as an instrument for economic growth, sustainable development, and improved global competitiveness. However, limited evidence exists on the link between skills development and a country's competitiveness. This paper examines the contribution and association…

  4. Country and consumer segmentation : Multi-level latent class analysis of financial product ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, THA; Paas, LJ; Vermunt, JK

    2004-01-01

    The financial services sector has internationalized over the last few decades. Important differences and similarities in financial behavior can be anticipated between both consumers within a particular country and those living in different countries. For companies in this market, the appropriate cho

  5. Country and Consumer Segmentation : Multi-Level Latent Class Analysis of Financial Product Ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, T.H.A.; Paas, L.J.; Vermunt, J.K.

    2003-01-01

    The financial services sector has internationalized over the last few decades.Important differences and similarities in financial behavior can be anticipated between both consumers within a particular country and those living in different countries.For companies in this market, the appropriate choic

  6. A Comparative Analysis of the Impact of Agricultural Exports on Economic Growth of ECOWAS Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Kojo Edeme

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Towards the acceleration of the attainment of sustainable growth, most countries have focused on agricultural exports as a means of driving their economy. Developing countries of Africa are highly dependent on the agricultural sector and agricultural exports are a major determinant of economic growth of these countries. However, the impact of agricultural exports on economic growth of ECOWAS countries remains unclear. This study therefore evaluates the impact of agricultural exports on the economic growth of fifteen ECOWAS countries using panel data for the period 1980–2013. Variables employed are labour force participation rate, capital stock, agricultural exports, non-agricultural exports, inflation and economic growth. The results of the fixed-effect model show that agricultural exports have not impacted significantly on the economic growth of ECOWAS countries such as Côte d’Ivoire and Nigeria with respect to the Republic of Benin, which is the selected baseline. The study also analysed the country combined effect of the agricultural exports and found that it was significant but the rate of impact was weak. The study recommends, among others, that even though agricultural exports had a significant impact on economic growth, there is still a need for ECOWAS governments to improve their agricultural sector as its significance is more noticeable in some countries such as Côte d’Ivoire and Nigeria.

  7. Cost effectiveness of vaccination against pandemic influenza in European countries : mathematical modelling analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugner, A.K.; van Boven, Michiel; de Vries, Robin; Postma, M.J.; Wallinga, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether a single optimal vaccination strategy exists across countries to deal with a future influenza pandemic by comparing the cost effectiveness of different strategies in various pandemic scenarios for three European countries. Design Economic and epidemic modelling study

  8. How few countries will do? Comparative survey analysis from a Bayesian perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hox, Joop; van de Schoot, Rens; Matthijsse, Suzette

    2012-01-01

    Meuleman and Billiet (2009) have carried out a simulation study aimed at the question how many countries are needed for accurate multilevel SEM estimation in comparative studies. The authors concluded that a sample of 50 to 100 countries is needed for accurate estimation. Recently, Bayesian estimati

  9. Country and Consumer Segmentation : Multi-Level Latent Class Analysis of Financial Product Ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, T.H.A.; Paas, L.J.; Vermunt, J.K.

    2003-01-01

    The financial services sector has internationalized over the last few decades.Important differences and similarities in financial behavior can be anticipated between both consumers within a particular country and those living in different countries.For companies in this market, the appropriate

  10. Country and consumer segmentation : Multi-level latent class analysis of financial product ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, THA; Paas, LJ; Vermunt, JK

    2004-01-01

    The financial services sector has internationalized over the last few decades. Important differences and similarities in financial behavior can be anticipated between both consumers within a particular country and those living in different countries. For companies in this market, the appropriate

  11. The Economic Impact of Community College Capacity Development in Developing Countries: A Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyndorf, Darryl M., Jr.; Glass, Chris R.

    2017-01-01

    Developing countries have significantly expanded efforts to import more flexible short-cycle institutions based on the United States community college model. The U.S. community college model addresses human capital needs of the labor market in developing countries by increasing access to an affordable education. However, there is limited research…

  12. BRICS countries and scientific excellence: a bibliometric analysis of most frequently cited papers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bornmann, L.; Wagner, C.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2015-01-01

    The BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) are notable for their increasing participation in science and technology. The governments of these countries have been boosting their investments in research and development to become part of the group of nations doing research at

  13. Educational Outcomes and Socioeconomic Status: A Decomposition Analysis for Middle-Income Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Sandra; Ramos, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the factors that explain the gap in educational outcomes between the top and bottom quartile of students in different countries, according to their socioeconomic status. To do so, it uses PISA microdata for 10 middle-income and 2 high-income countries, and applies the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method. Its results show that…

  14. Statistical approach, Sensory analysis, brief application of Bioinformatics Tool, Melanin, Allicin and Glucosinolate presence in Mango pulp for Pharmacological Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saranya Chitturi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Information on important flavor components for fruit and vegetables is lacking and would be useful for breeders and molecular biologists . In this study five acid treatments, were formulated and the effects of Citric Acid (CA and Malic Acid (MA levels on canned mango pulp (Mangifera indica L. flavor perception was evaluated . Depiction of pulp components was executed in the Rasmol V 2 7.1 visualizing pectin, melanin and allinase compounds as a part of brief bioformatic analysis of the pulp. Melanin content, allicin and glucosinolate’s presence were assessed and their % concentration variations against different treatments was depicted . As we correlated the values of TSS and pH by different statistical analysis methods like Pearson’s correlation coefficient, Spearman’s and Regression plots by a statistical software we found that these two variables are positively correlated to each other. We have the alternate hypothesis H1 with p value < 0.05 being accepted for the sensory quality estimation based on Larmond’s 9-point hedonic scale sensory evaluation. The lowest levels of allicin was found in T2 about 0.14% where as the highest was noted to be about 4.28% in T3. The T5 treatment showed low concentration of melanin about 3.98% and the highest was about 9.43% in T4.The glucosinolate concentrations also varied according to the treatment administered. Low level of about 3.34% in T3 and about 7.9% concentration was observed in T4 . All these findings can further invariably help in extending the shelf life and increasing the marketability of the mango based products

  15. An empirical analysis of gasoline price convergence for 20 OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentzen, J.

    2003-07-01

    Two decades have passed now since the oil price shocks of the 1970s and since then energy prices have - apart from short periods of price instability - evolved relatively smoothly in the industrialized countries. Energy taxes in many countries differ markedly thereby causing differences in final energy prices, but as similar tax levels are becoming more common, e.g. in the European Union, convergence concerning energy prices might be expected to appear. In the present paper national gasoline price data covering the time period since the 1970s for a sample of OECD countries are used in order to test for this often addressed topic of convergence. The empirical part of the paper applies different time series based tests of convergence, where gasoline prices exhibit convergence for most OECD-Europe countries in the case where US$ is used for measurement of the energy prices indicating a convergence or tax harmonization process is taking place for these countries. (au)

  16. How few countries will do? Comparative survey analysis from a Bayesian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joop J.C.M. Hox

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Meuleman and Billiet (2009 have carried out a simulation study aimed at the question how many countries are needed for accurate multilevel SEM estimation in comparative studies. The authors concluded that a sample of 50 to 100 countries is needed for accurate estimation. Recently, Bayesian estimation methods have been introduced in structural equation modeling which should work well with much lower sample sizes. The current study reanalyzes the simulation of Meuleman and Billiet using Bayesian estimation to find the lowest number of countries needed when conducting multilevel SEM. The main result of our simulations is that a sample of about 20 countries is sufficient for accurate Bayesian estimation, which makes multilevel SEM practicable for the number of countries commonly available in large scale comparative surveys.

  17. Analysis of internationalization process of Bric countries with the Grubel and Lloyd index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Raffy Vartanian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to show the internationalization of the BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China through the application of the Grubel and Lloyd index in the period 1994-2009. The hypothesis is that the BRIC countries have shown a growth in the internationalization process, as reflected by increased levels of productive investment in other countries. The research is the application method of the Grubel and Lloyd index in the flows of foreign direct investment and foreign investment by residents abroad in the period 1994-2009, in the BRIC countries. The results showed an increase in the Grubel and Lloyd index related to foreign investment flows, which suggests that companies from the BRIC countries have been increasing productive investment in other countries by the same way that the companies from the advanced economies in order to maximize profits through internationalization.

  18. The value of hygiene promotion: cost-effectiveness analysis of interventions in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijbesma, Christine; Christoffers, Trea

    2009-11-01

    Hygiene promotion can greatly improve the benefits of water and sanitation programmes in developing countries at relatively limited costs. There are, however, few studies with hard data on the costs and effectiveness of individual programmes and even fewer have compared the cost-effectiveness of different promotional approaches. This article argues that objectively measured reductions of key sanitation and hygiene risks are better than DALYs for evaluating hygiene and sanitation promotion programmes. It presents a framework for the cost-effectiveness analysis of such programmes, which is used to analyse six field programmes. At costs ranging from US dollar 1.05 to US dollar 1.74 per person per year in 1999 US dollar values, they achieved (almost) complete abandonment of open defecation and considerable improvements in keeping toilets free from faecal soiling, safe disposal of child faeces, and/or washing hands with soap after defecation, before eating and after cleaning children's bottoms. However, only two studies used a quasi-experimental design (before and after studies in the intervention and - matched - control area) and only two measured costs and the degree to which results were sustained after the programme had ended. If the promotion of good sanitation and hygiene is to receive the political and managerial support it deserves, every water, sanitation and/or hygiene programme should give data on inputs, costs, processes and effects over time. More and better research that reflects the here-presented model is also needed to compare the cost-effectiveness of different promotional approaches.

  19. Comparative analysis of management plans of the Marine Protected Areas of four European Atlantic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Alvarez Fernandez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Management plans for Marine Protected Areas (MPA in four European Atlantic countries (UK, France, Portugal and Spain were analyzed comparatively. The information used in the analysis was related to the development and the content of the plans, as governance, control and enforcement. It was collected through questionnaires from a total of 125 management plans, corresponding to 234 marine protected areas. The overall priority goal in all of the management plans was biodiversity conservation and restoration, except in Spain were management of exploited natural resources was always present as an objective. In general the management plans have more objectives than described in the MPA designation, as to improve environment education and raising of public awareness or to maintain key ecological functions. However these objectives are qualitative in all of the management plans and only 15% of them have quantitative objectives, mainly in France and Portugal. Over 70% of the management plans studied provided a regular monitoring program and approximately half provided indicators to monitor each of the MPA objectives, except in the case of Portugal (15%.

  20. Gene detection, virus isolation, and sequence analysis of avian leukosis viruses in Taiwan country chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Wei; Hsu, Meng-Fang; Wang, Ching-Ho

    2013-06-01

    Avian leukosis virus (ALV) infection in Taiwan Country chickens (TCCs) was investigated by using gene detection, virus isolation, and sequence analysis. The blood samples of 61 TCC flocks at market ages from a slaughter house were screened for exogenous ALVs using polymerase chain reaction to investigate the ALV infection status. The buffy coats from three breeder and four commercial chicken flocks were cocultured with DF-1 cells to isolate the virus. The full proviral DNA genomes of two ALV isolates were sequenced, analyzed, and compared with reference ALV strains. The gene detection results showed that 60 and 43 of the 61 flocks were infected with subgroup A of ALV (ALV-A) and subgroup J of ALV (ALV-J), respectively. Virus isolation results showed that five ALV-As and two ALV-Js were isolated from those seven TCC flocks. The full sequences of the isolates showed that isolate TW-3577 possessed a myeloblastosis-associated virus 1 gp85 coding region and an ALV-J 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) and was similar to ordinary ALV-A. However, TW-3593 was unique. The 3'UTR of this isolate displayed high identity to endogenous counterpart sequence and its gp85 was different from all subgroups. This unique ALV is common in Taiwan.

  1. A brief analysis of patients suffering from stomach or duodenal ulcers in Almaty hospital №1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryzbekova Aliya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Peptic ulcers are a serious problem worldwide, and affect about 4 million people each year. Their etiology is connected with the presence of Helicobacter pylori, the act of smoking, drinking alcohol, being stress, and taking excessively nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, as well as steroids. The most common symptoms are abdominal pain, nausea, chest pain and fatigue, while less frequent symptoms include vomiting and weight loss. Helicobacter pylori is responsible for about 80% of gastric and 90% of duodenal ulcer cases. In this work, an analysis is made of a correlation between stomach or duodenal ulcer and gender, residence and number of patients hospitalized in the Almaty hospital №1, from 2009-2012, in order to learn about trends in the incidence of these diseases in Kazakhstan. A total number of 950 patients with stomach and duodenal ulcers, in 2009-2012, were questioned. The patient’s residence, gender and stomach or duodenal ulcer problem were taken into account in the study. The result of this work reveals that the largest amount of hospitalized patients suffering from stomach or duodenal ulcers came from urban areas. Moreover, more women than men suffered from peptic ulcers. Furthermore, the number of patients admitted to the hospital due to duodenal ulcers did not show any variation throughout the study. However, the least number of patients suffering from gastric ulcers was noticed in December 2009, and the greatest was in October and November 2011. The obtained data show that ulcers are a serious problem in Kazakhstan.

  2. A Brief Analysis of"Shaxian Snacks"%浅析“沙县小吃”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何新强; 周佺; 邵晓明

    2012-01-01

    Shaxian snacks with great success is a small business. Shaxian snacks set an example to low-cost catering in management and operation.The promoter,Deng Shiqi,becomes a grassroots hero, inspiring a lot of people.There are a number of factors. It is praise to the national brand,is the collaboration of government and people, but also a multi-faceted analysis of the event.%沙县小吃年销售达40亿,小生意大成功。在经营管理上给低成本食品行当树立了榜样。沙县小吃的发起人邓世奇也因不懈的努力成为草根英雄,其经历鼓舞了不少人。一个传奇的铸就,有多方面的因素。本文是对民族品牌的赞扬,是对政府和民众一心协作的推崇,也是对一个事件的多面剖析。

  3. A Brief Analysis of the Absurd Element in One Hundred Years of Solitude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋红英

    2012-01-01

      One Hundred Years of Solitude is a history of the isolated town of Macondo and the Buendia family. In the novel,the town has no contact with the outside world for years, except for the gypsies who occasionally visit there, peddling the so-called technical items like ice and telescopes. The members of the family live in solitude. After outside civilization comes to the town, Macondo changes from an idyllic, magic, and sheltered place to a town irrevocably connected to the outside world. By expressing the wax and wane of Macondo and the description of everybody’s extreme loneliness and hollowness, the essay dissects the reason for Latin America’s poverty and backwardness. Even more broadly, the essay is about Latin America’s struggles with colonialism and its own emergence and modernity. Through the analysis of absurdity in the novel, this essay aims at unfolding a panorama of the diverse cultures, religious beliefs, historical events as well as the national spirits to readers. Thus, readers can enjoy a grand, magic and mysterious painting of Latin America through One Hundred Years of Solitude.

  4. Brief analysis of anti-gout drugs%浅析抗痛风药物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏惠红

    2015-01-01

    痛风为嘌呤代谢紊乱和(或)尿酸排泄障碍所致血尿酸增高的一组异质性疾病,主要表现为高尿酸血症及痛风性关节炎。本文综述了抗痛风药物临床应用进展,根据抗痛风药作用方式不同对五类抗痛风药进行分析,对抗痛风药物的临床合理使用有十分重要的帮助。%Gout is a heterogeneous disease with increased blood uric acid, induced by purine metabolic disorder and (or) uric acid acatharsia. Its main manifestations include hyperuricemia and gouty arthritis. Progress in clinical application of anti-gout drugs was summarized in this paper. Analysis was made on five kinds of anti-gout drugs by their different operation modes, and that provided important assistance for clinical rational use of anti-gout drugs.

  5. Health systems context(s) for integrating mental health into primary health care in six Emerald countries: a situation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugisha, James; Abdulmalik, Jibril; Hanlon, Charlotte; Petersen, Inge; Lund, Crick; Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Ahuja, Shalini; Shidhaye, Rahul; Mntambo, Ntokozo; Alem, Atalay; Gureje, Oye; Kigozi, Fred

    2017-01-01

    Mental, neurological and substance use disorders contribute to a significant proportion of the world's disease burden, including in low and middle income countries (LMICs). In this study, we focused on the health systems required to support integration of mental health into primary health care (PHC) in Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa and Uganda. A checklist guided by the World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS) was developed and was used for data collection in each of the six countries participating in the Emerging mental health systems in low and middle-income countries (Emerald) research consortium. The documents reviewed were from the following domains: mental health legislation, health policies/plans and relevant country health programs. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Three of the study countries (Ethiopia, Nepal, Nigeria, and Uganda) were working towards developing mental health legislation. South Africa and India were ahead of other countries, having enacted recent Mental Health Care Act in 2004 and 2016, respectively. Among all the 6 study countries, only Nepal, Nigeria and South Africa had a standalone mental health policy. However, other countries had related health policies where mental health was mentioned. The lack of fully fledged policies is likely to limit opportunities for resource mobilization for the mental health sector and efforts to integrate mental health into PHC. Most countries were found to be allocating inadequate budgets from the health budget for mental health, with South Africa (5%) and Nepal (0.17%) were the countries with the highest and lowest proportions of health budgets spent on mental health, respectively. Other vital resources that support integration such as human resources and health facilities for mental health services were found to be in adequate in all the study countries. Monitoring and evaluation systems to support the integration of mental

  6. Cost risk benefit analysis to support chemoprophylaxis policy for travellers to malaria endemic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coutinho Francisco AB

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a number of malaria endemic regions, tourists and travellers face a declining risk of travel associated malaria, in part due to successful malaria control. Many millions of visitors to these regions are recommended, via national and international policy, to use chemoprophylaxis which has a well recognized morbidity profile. To evaluate whether current malaria chemo-prophylactic policy for travellers is cost effective when adjusted for endemic transmission risk and duration of exposure. a framework, based on partial cost-benefit analysis was used Methods Using a three component model combining a probability component, a cost component and a malaria risk component, the study estimated health costs avoided through use of chemoprophylaxis and costs of disease prevention (including adverse events and pre-travel advice for visits to five popular high and low malaria endemic regions and malaria transmission risk using imported malaria cases and numbers of travellers to malarious countries. By calculating the minimal threshold malaria risk below which the economic costs of chemoprophylaxis are greater than the avoided health costs we were able to identify the point at which chemoprophylaxis would be economically rational. Results The threshold incidence at which malaria chemoprophylaxis policy becomes cost effective for UK travellers is an accumulated risk of 1.13% assuming a given set of cost parameters. The period a travellers need to remain exposed to achieve this accumulated risk varied from 30 to more than 365 days, depending on the regions intensity of malaria transmission. Conclusions The cost-benefit analysis identified that chemoprophylaxis use was not a cost-effective policy for travellers to Thailand or the Amazon region of Brazil, but was cost-effective for travel to West Africa and for those staying longer than 45 days in India and Indonesia.

  7. Trend Analysis of the Pharmaceutical Market in Iran; 1997–2010; Policy Implications for Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Kebriaeezadeh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:So far, no detailed study of the Iranian pharmaceutical market has been conducted, and only a few studies have analyzed medicine consumption and expenditure in Iran. Pharmaceutical market trend analysis remains one of the most useful instruments to evaluate the pharmaceutical systems efficiency. An increase in imports of medicines, and a simultaneous decrease in domestic production prompted us to investigate the pharmaceutical expenditure structure. On the other hand, analyzing statistics provides a suitable method to assess the outcomes of national pharmaceutical policies and regulations.Methods:This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study which investigates the Iranian pharmaceutical market over a 13-year period (1997–2010. This study used the Iranian pharmaceutical statistical datasheet published by the Iranian Ministry of Health. Systematic searches of the relevant Persian and English research literature were made. In addition, official government documents were analyzed as sources of both data and detailed statements of policy.Results:Analysis of the Iranian pharmaceutical market in the 13-year period shows that medicine consumption sales value growth has been 28.38% annually. Determination of domestic production and import reveals that 9.3% and 42.3% annual growth, respectively, have been experienced.Conclusions:The Iranian pharmaceutical market has undergone great growth in comparison with developing countries and the pharmerging group, and the market is expanding quickly while a major share goes to biotechnology drugs, which implies the need to commercialization activities in novel fields like pharmaceutical biotechnology. This market expansion has been in favor of imported medicine in sales terms, caused by the reinforcement of suspicious policies of policy makers that necessitates fundamental rearrangements.

  8. Software tool for a comparative analysis of Romanian fiscality with other country in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logica BANICA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The corporation activity represents a factor of major interest for the economies of all the States due to the economic and social effects that it generates. The conditions of tax nature have an influence on corporations’ investment localization decisions and capital flows so that the policy of each sate in the field of corporative income tax payment must constitute the object of a very careful analysis. Thus, the companies choose to carry out their activity in the countries where they can obtain the biggest net profit after carrying out their specific operations. Reducing taxation rates of the corporate incomes in various member states of the European Union, as an effect of the tax competition, represents the compliance with an international trend, being only to a small extent the result of the government will. In the European Union, Romania has one of the lowest income tax rates as compared to other member states. Starting with 2005, the income tax rate that applies to the taxable profit is of 16%. Analysis of economic and financial performances of subsidiaries of transnational companies active in Romania, considered as representative for their fields of activity, allowed us to formulate judgments about the prospects of investment in the Romanian economy produced by firms with trans-borders business.An information system can have a major impact on corporate strategy and organizational success. The involvement of managers and decision makers in all aspects of information systems is a major factor for organizational success, including higher profits and lower costs. Some of the benefits business organizations seek to achieve through information systems include: better safety, competitive advantage, fewer errors, greater accuracy, higher quality products, improved communications, increased efficiency and productivity, more efficient administration, superior financial and managerial decision making.

  9. Comparison of Electric Utility Restructuring in Major Foreign Countries: Empirical Analysis on the Pool Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, W.C. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    The object of this study is to suggest policy directions about the market structure and the trading system of TWBP (two-way bidding pool) under the ongoing electric power restructuring scheme in Korea. For this purpose, major foreign countries' restructuring experiences, especially the market forms and trading systems, were reviewed. Based on the review, I suggested the introduction of electricity contract markets and the short- and long-term policy alternatives for adopting them. In order to test the feasibility of the policy alternatives, an empirical analysis was performed on the comparative advantage between gross pool and net pool. The data used in the empirical analysis includes simulation results of year 2000 from KPX (Korea Power Exchange), six generators' fuels costs, etc. A supply function model was modified to an operational model to calculate the generators' bidding prices and quantities, and their variable profits. In addition, the effects of introducing contracts for differences (CfDs) and bilateral contracts were analyzed in terms of market efficiency. In this study, the criteria of market efficiency are the means and the standard deviations of generators' bidding prices and their variable profits. Based on the empirical results, the following policy implications were proposed. As a short-term alternative, it would be necessary to incorporate the concept of hedging contracts into current gross pool mechanism. Related to this, through the promotion of contract markets it should be induced to decrease the general levels of bidding prices and to manage the volatility of market prices. As a long-term alternative, the possibility to transfer gross pool into net pool should be considered. (author). 53 refs., 32 figs., 38 tabs.

  10. Political economy analysis for tobacco control in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bump, Jesse B; Reich, Michael R

    2013-03-01

    Tobacco is already the world's leading cause of preventable death, claiming over 5 million lives annually, and this toll is rising. Even though effective tobacco control policies are well researched and widely disseminated, they remain largely unimplemented in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). For the most part, control attempts by advocates and government regulators have been frustrated by transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) and their supporters. One reason tobacco is so difficult to control is that its political economy has yet to be adequately understood and addressed. We conducted a review of the literature on tobacco control in LMICs using the databases PubMed, EconLit, PsychInfo and AGRICOLA. Among the over 2500 papers and reports we identified, very few explicitly applied political economy analysis to tobacco control in an LMIC setting. The vast majority of papers characterized important aspects of the tobacco epidemic, including who smokes, the effects of smoking on health, the effectiveness of advertising bans, and the activities of TTCs and their allies. But the political and economic dynamics of policy adoption and implementation were not discussed in any but a handful of papers. To help control advocates better understand and manage the process of policy implementation, we identify how political economy analysis would differ from the traditional public health approaches that dominate the literature. We focus on five important problem areas: information problems and the risks of smoking; the roles of domestic producers; multinational corporations and trade disputes in consumption; smuggling; the barriers to raising taxes and establishing spatial restrictions on smoking; and incentive conflicts between government branches. We conclude by discussing the political economy of tobacco and its implications for control strategies.

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis of interventions for migraine in four low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Mattias; Steiner, Timothy J; Chisholm, Dan

    2015-02-18

    Evidence of the cost and effects of interventions for reducing the global burden of migraine remains scarce. Our objective was to estimate the population-level cost-effectiveness of evidence-based migraine interventions and their contributions towards reducing current burden in low- and middle-income countries. Using a standard WHO approach to cost-effectiveness analysis (CHOICE), we modelled core set intervention strategies for migraine, taking account of coverage and efficacy as well as non-adherence. The setting was primary health care including pharmacies. We modelled 26 intervention strategies implemented during 10 years. These included first-line acute and prophylactic drugs, and the expected consequences of adding consumer-education and provider-training. Total population-level costs and effectiveness (healthy life years [HLY] gained) were combined to form average and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. We executed runs of the model for the general populations of China, India, Russia and Zambia. Of the strategies considered, acute treatment of attacks with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) was by far the most cost-effective and generated a HLY for less than US$ 100. Adding educational actions increased annual costs by 1-2 US cents per capita of the population. Cost-effectiveness ratios then became slightly less favourable but still less than US$ 100 per HLY gained for ASA. An incremental cost of > US$ 10,000 would have to be paid per extra HLY by adding a triptan in a stepped-care treatment paradigm. For prophylaxis, amitriptyline was more cost-effective than propranolol or topiramate. Self-management with simple analgesics was by far the most cost-effective strategy for migraine treatment in low- and middle-income countries and represents a highly efficient use of health resources. Consumer education and provider training are expected to accelerate progress towards desired levels of coverage and adherence, cost relatively little to implement, and can

  12. Systematic reviews addressing identified health policy priorities in Eastern Mediterranean countries: a situational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Akl, Elie A; Karroum, Lama Bou; Kdouh, Ola; Akik, Chaza; Fadlallah, Racha; Hammoud, Rawan

    2014-08-20

    Systematic reviews can offer policymakers and stakeholders concise, transparent, and relevant evidence pertaining to pressing policy priorities to help inform the decision-making process. The production and the use of systematic reviews are specifically limited in the Eastern Mediterranean region. The extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities in the region is still unknown. This situational analysis exercise aims at assessing the extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities identified by policymakers and stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean region countries. It also provides an overview about the state of systematic review production in the region and identifies knowledge gaps. We conducted a systematic search of the Health System Evidence database to identify published systematic reviews on policy-relevant priorities pertaining to the following themes: human resources for health, health financing, the role of the non-state sector, and access to medicine. Priorities were identified from two priority-setting exercises conducted in the region. We described the distribution of these systematic reviews across themes, sub-themes, authors' affiliations, and countries where included primary studies were conducted. Out of the 1,045 systematic reviews identified in Health System Evidence on selected themes, a total of 200 systematic reviews (19.1%) addressed the priorities from the Eastern Mediterranean region. The theme with the largest number of systematic reviews included was human resources for health (115) followed by health financing (33), access to medicine (27), and role of the non-state sector (25). Authors based in the region produced only three systematic reviews addressing regional priorities (1.5%). Furthermore, no systematic review focused on the Eastern Mediterranean region. Primary studies from the region had limited contribution to systematic reviews; 17 systematic reviews (8.5%) included primary

  13. Conventional Oil and Gas Technologies. IEA ETSAP technology brief P01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seljom, Pernille [IFE (Norway)], E-mail: pernille.seljom@ife.no

    2010-05-15

    This technology brief on conventional oil and gas technologies is part of a series produced by the IEA ETSAP agreement called the energy technology data source (E-Tech-DS). The E-Tech-DS series consists of a number of 5-10 page technology briefs similar to the IEA Energy Technology Essentials. Based on the data collected for the models that the Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme (ETSAP) is known for, ETSAP also prepares technology briefs, called E-TechDS. The E-TechDS briefs are standardized presentations of basic information (process, status, performance, costs, potential, and barriers) for key energy technology clusters. Each brief includes an overview of the technology, charts and graphs, and a summary data table, and usually ending with some key references and further information. The E TechDS briefs are intended to offer essential, reliable and quantitative information to energy analysts, experts, policymakers, investors and media from both developed and developing countries. This specific brief focuses on the state of oil and gas exploration, development, and production/recovery technologies.

  14. A Brief Analysis on Main Characters of Two Short Stories-“Hands”and“Adven-ture”in Winesburg, Ohio from Freud’s Tripartite Personality Structure Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘豆

    2014-01-01

    Sherwood Anderson’s masterpiece Winesburg, Ohio is often considered to be the first real modern American novel.“Hands”and“Adventure”are two representative stories of this novel. In this article, the author tries to do a brief analysis on the protagonists of the two stories by using the tripartite personality structure theory of Freud, aiming to get a deeper interpretation and the profound connotation of the stories.

  15. A comparative analysis of policies addressing rural oral health in eight English-speaking OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocombe, Leonard A; Goldberg, Lynette R; Bell, Erica; Seidel, Bastian

    2017-01-01

    Oral health is fundamental to overall health. Poor oral health is largely preventable but unacceptable inequalities exist, particularly for people in rural areas. The issues are complex. Rural populations are characterised by lower rates of health insurance, higher rates of poverty, less water fluoridation, fewer dentists and oral health specialists, and greater distances to access care. These factors inter-relate with educational, attitudinal, and system-level issues. An important area of enquiry is whether and how national oral health policies address causes and solutions for poor rural oral health. The purpose of this study was to examine a series of government policies on oral health to (i) determine the extent to which such policies addressed rural oral health issues, and (ii) identify enabling assumptions in policy language about problems and solutions regarding rural communities. Eight current oral health policies were identified from Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the USA, England, Scotland, Northern Ireland, and Wales. Validated content and critical discourse analyses were used to document and explore the concepts in these policy documents, with a particular focus on the frequency with which rural oral health was mentioned, and the enabling assumptions in policy language about rural communities. Seventy-three concepts relating to oral health were identified from the textual analysis of the eight policy documents. The rural concept addressing oral health issues occurred in only 2% of all policies and was notably absent from the oral health policies of countries with substantial rural populations. It occurred most frequently in the policy documents from Australia and Scotland, less so in the policy documents from Canada, Wales, and New Zealand, and not at all in the oral health policies from the US, England, and Northern Ireland. Thus, the oral health needs of rural communities were generally not the focus of, nor included in, the oral health policy

  16. HIV Spending as a Share of Total Health Expenditure: An Analysis of Regional Variation in a Multi-Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amico, Peter; Aran, Christian; Avila, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Background HIV has devastated numerous countries in sub-Saharan Africa and is a dominant health force in many other parts of the world. Its undeniable importance is reflected in the establishment of Millennium Development Goal No. 6. Unprecedented amounts of funding have been committed and disbursed over the past two decades. Many have argued that this enormous influx of funding has been detrimental to building stronger health systems in recipient countries. This paper examines the funding share for HIV measured against the total funding for health. Methodology/Principal Findings A descriptive analysis of HIV and health expenditures in 2007 from 65 countries was conducted. Comparable data from individual countries was used by applying a consistent definition for HIV expenditures and total health expenditures from NHAs to align them with National AIDS Assessment Reports. In 2007, the total public and international expenditure in LMICs for HIV was 1.6 percent of the total spending on health, while the share in SSA was 19.4 percent. HIV prevalence was six-fold higher in SSA than the next highest region and it is the only region whose share of HIV spending exceeded the burden of HIV DALYs. Conclusions/Significance The share of HIV spending across the 65 countries was quite moderate considering that the estimated share of deaths attributable to HIV stood at 3.8 percent and DALYs at 4.4 percent. Several high spending countries are using a large share of their total health spending for HIV health, but these countries are the exception rather than representative of the average SSA country. There is wide variation between regions, but the burden of disease also varies significantly. The percentage of HIV spending is a useful indicator for better understanding health care resources and their allocation patterns. PMID:20885986

  17. HIV spending as a share of total health expenditure: an analysis of regional variation in a multi-country study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Amico

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV has devastated numerous countries in sub-Saharan Africa and is a dominant health force in many other parts of the world. Its undeniable importance is reflected in the establishment of Millennium Development Goal No. 6. Unprecedented amounts of funding have been committed and disbursed over the past two decades. Many have argued that this enormous influx of funding has been detrimental to building stronger health systems in recipient countries. This paper examines the funding share for HIV measured against the total funding for health. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A descriptive analysis of HIV and health expenditures in 2007 from 65 countries was conducted. Comparable data from individual countries was used by applying a consistent definition for HIV expenditures and total health expenditures from NHAs to align them with National AIDS Assessment Reports. In 2007, the total public and international expenditure in LMICs for HIV was 1.6 percent of the total spending on health, while the share in SSA was 19.4 percent. HIV prevalence was six-fold higher in SSA than the next highest region and it is the only region whose share of HIV spending exceeded the burden of HIV DALYs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The share of HIV spending across the 65 countries was quite moderate considering that the estimated share of deaths attributable to HIV stood at 3.8 percent and DALYs at 4.4 percent. Several high spending countries are using a large share of their total health spending for HIV health, but these countries are the exception rather than representative of the average SSA country. There is wide variation between regions, but the burden of disease also varies significantly. The percentage of HIV spending is a useful indicator for better understanding health care resources and their allocation patterns.

  18. Cultural Diplomacy of Slavic European Union Member States: A Cross-country Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udovič Boštjan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the role of cultural diplomacy in Slavic EU Member States. Its basic idea is to present the main characteristics of cultural diplomacy as a field of possible cooperation between the Slavic EU member countries. The conclusions of the research are three: firstly, the cultural diplomacy of the Slavic EU Member States is fragmented and diversified. Secondly, each country promotes its own cultural diplomacy and there is almost no cooperation between countries in the cultural field. Finally, cultural diplomacy is still an omitted instrument of Slavic EU Member States and a fertile ground for future collaboration within the EU and in the region of Central Europe.

  19. Analysis of Grid Emission Factors for the Electricity Sector in Caribbean Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinostroza, Miriam L.; Desgain, Denis DR; Perez Martín, David

    by undertaking a study to calculate standardized grid emissionfactors (GEF) for sixteen independent nations or groups of countries in the Caribbean region as a basis to the further identification of mitigation activities such as CDM PoAs or any other market-related instrument to be approved by the UNFCCC....... The study analyses the following topics: – Status of the calculation and adoption of grid emissionfactors for each country in the region. – Characteristics of electricity generation units in thedifferent Caribbean countries. – Application of the CDM methodological tool forcalculating a standardized grid......, studies of the electricity sector in the region and public information issued by electric utilities....

  20. The Impact of Sea Level Rise on Developing Countries: A Comparative Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, S. [World Bank, Washington, DC (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Sea-level rise (SLR) due to climate change is a serious global threat: The scientific evidence is now overwhelming. In this paper, Geographic Information System software has been used to overlay the best available, spatially-disaggregated global data on land, population, agriculture, urban extent, wetlands, and GDP, to assess the consequences of continued SLR for 84 coastal developing countries. Estimates suggest that even a one-meter rise in sea level in coastal countries of the developing world would submerge 194,000 square kilometers of land area, and turn at least 56 million people into environmental refugees. At the country level results are extremely skewed.

  1. The Impact of Sea Level Rise on Developing Countries: A Comparative Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Susmita (World Bank, Washington, DC (United States))

    2008-07-01

    Sea-level rise (SLR) due to climate change is a serious global threat: The scientific evidence is now overwhelming. In this paper, Geographic Information System software has been used to overlay the best available, spatially-disaggregated global data on land, population, agriculture, urban extent, wetlands, and GDP, to assess the consequences of continued SLR for 84 coastal developing countries. Estimates suggest that even a one-meter rise in sea level in coastal countries of the developing world would submerge 194,000 square kilometers of land area, and turn at least 56 million people into environmental refugees. At the country level results are extremely skewed

  2. Globalization, Development and International Migration: A Cross-National Analysis of Less-Developed Countries, 1970-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Matthew R.; Kentor, Jeffrey D.

    2009-01-01

    It is widely argued that globalization and economic development are associated with international migration. However, these relationships have not been tested empirically. We use a cross-national empirical analysis to assess the impact of global and national factors on international migration from less-developed countries. An interdisciplinary…

  3. A Comparative Analysis of the Intended Curriculum and Its Presentation in 10th Grade Chemistry Textbooks from Seven Arabic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaddoor, Rouba; Al-Amoush, Siham; Eilks, Ingo

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the nature of intended secondary chemistry curricula, as they are represented by chemistry textbooks, from seven Arabic countries: Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Palestine, Saudi Arabia and Syria. The curricula are evaluated through analysis of the officially approved 10th grade chemistry textbooks used nationwide in all…

  4. Globalization, Development and International Migration: A Cross-National Analysis of Less-Developed Countries, 1970-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Matthew R.; Kentor, Jeffrey D.

    2009-01-01

    It is widely argued that globalization and economic development are associated with international migration. However, these relationships have not been tested empirically. We use a cross-national empirical analysis to assess the impact of global and national factors on international migration from less-developed countries. An interdisciplinary…

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Graduate Employment Prospects in European Labour Markets: A Study of Graduate Recruitment in Four Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branine, Mohamed; Avramenko, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of higher education and the graduate labour markets in selected European countries (France, Germany, Spain and United Kingdom) in the context of the expectations of graduates and prospective employers, and respective recruitment and selection practices. Expectations of graduating students…

  6. The Relationship between English Language Adoption and Global Digital Inequality: A Cross-Country Analysis of ICT Readiness and Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui-Wen Vivian; Yin, Mu-Shang; Sheu, Ru-Shuo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether differences in information and communication technology (ICT) readiness and access across countries were fundamentally related to the variable of English language adoption. A one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was utilized to comparatively examine the developments of ICT readiness…

  7. Differences in economic development in rural regions of advanced countries: an overview and critical analysis of theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terluin, I.J.

    2003-01-01

    This article provides an overview and critical analysis of theories on economic development in rural regions in advanced countries. For this purpose, we have consulted literature in regional economics and the multidisciplinary field of rural studies. In order to analyse to which extent these theorie

  8. Differences in economic development in rural regions of advanced countries: an overview and critical analysis of theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terluin, I.J.

    2003-01-01

    This article provides an overview and critical analysis of theories on economic development in rural regions in advanced countries. For this purpose, we have consulted literature in regional economics and the multidisciplinary field of rural studies. In order to analyse to which extent these

  9. Religious attendance in cross-national perspective : a multilevel analysis of 60 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, S.; Tubergen, F.A. van

    2009-01-01

    Why are some nations more religious than others? This article proposes a multilevel framework in which country differences in religious attendance are explained by contextual, individual, and crosslevel interaction effects. Hypotheses from different theories are simultaneously tested with data from

  10. The Use of Cost‐Effectiveness Analysis for Pediatric Immunization in Developing Countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    GAUVREAU, CINDY LOW; UNGAR, WENDY J; KÖHLER, JILLIAN CLARE; ZLOTKIN, STANLEY

    2012-01-01

    Context:  Developing countries face critical choices for introducing needed, effective, but expensive new vaccines, especially given the accelerated need to decrease the mortality of children under age five...

  11. How Does the Majority Public React to Multiculturalist Policies? A Comparative Analysis of European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooghe, Marc; de Vroome, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Migration and ethnic minority integration remain heavily contested issues in numerous European countries. Over the past decade, researchers and political commentators have observed an apparent retreat from multiculturalist policies related to a belief that multiculturalism has lost support among the

  12. The Role Of LMX In Employees Job Motivation, Satisfaction, Empowerment, Stress And Turnover: Cross Country Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maria Malik; Difang Wan; Muhammad Ishfaq Ahmad; Muhammad Akram Naseem; Ramiz ur Rehman

    2015-01-01

      We investigated the effect of Leader Member Exchange (LMX) quality relationship on employee motivation, stress, turnover, satisfaction and Psychological Empowerment with a sample of 1500 employees across four countries...

  13. Financial Development and Economic Growth in European Countries: Bootstrap Causality Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuat Lebe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, it was investigated whether there was a causality relationship between financial development and economic growth for sixteen European countries. Data from the period of 1988-2012 was analyzed using the bootstrap panel causality test, which takes cross-section dependence and heterogeneity into account. The results of the test showed that there was a strong causality relationship between financial development and economic growth in European countries. In European countries, there was a causality relationship from economic growth to financial development and from financial development to economic growth. These results support both the supply-leading and the demand-following hypotheses. Therefore, it can be said that the feedback hypothesis is valid for European countries.

  14. Competitive capabilities among manufacturing plants in developing, emerging, and industrialized countries : A comparative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenherr, T.; Power, D.; Narasimhan, R.; Samson, D.

    2012-01-01

    Competitive capabilities have been defined as a plant's actual performance relative to its competitors, with the most commonly investigated capabilities being quality, delivery, flexibility, and cost. However, most research in this realm has investigated capabilities within developed countries, and

  15. Genetic analysis of Phytophthora infestans populations in the Nordic European countries reveals high genetic variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brurberg, May Bente; Elameen, Abdelhameed; Le, Ving Hong

    2011-01-01

    Late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is the most important disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum). The pathogen is highly adaptable and to get an overview of the genetic variation in the Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden we have analyzed 200 isolates from...... different fields using nine simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Forty-nine alleles were detected among the nine SSR loci and isolates from all four Nordic countries shared the most common alleles across the loci. In total 169 multilocus genotypes (based on seven loci) were identified among 191 isolates....... The genotypic diversities, quantified by a normalized Shannon’s diversity index (Hs), were 0.95 for the four Nordic countries. The low FST value of 0.04 indicates that the majority of variation is found within the four Nordic countries. The large number of genotypes and the frequency distribution of mating...

  16. Analysis of the agricultural and rural development policies of the Western Balkan countries

    OpenAIRE

    BAJRAMOVIĆ Sabahudin; Bogdanov, Natalija; BUTKOVIĆ Jakub; DIMITROVSKI Dragi; Erjavec, Emil; GJECI Grigor; GJOKAJ Ekrem; HOXHA Bekim; STOMENKOVSKA Ivana Janeska; KONJEVIĆ Darko; KOTEVSKA Ana; MARTINOVIĆ Aleksandra; MIFTARI Iliriana; Nacka, Marina; OGNJENOVIĆ Dragana

    2016-01-01

    This report was prepared by a team of academic experts from Western Balkan (WB) countries coordinated by the Regional Rural Development Standing Working Group (SWG) in South-East Europe. The study targets EU candidate and potential candidate countries from the Western Balkan region (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Kosovo*). The main objectives of the study is the monitoring and evaluation of agricultural policies in the period 2012-2014 and assessment of the...

  17. Determinants of economic growth and bank intermediation: empirical analysis for Latin American countries

    OpenAIRE

    Carton, Christine; Ronquillo, Cely

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to evaluate the contribution of the banking sector to the economic growth of 16 Latin American countries, from 1979 to 2006. The econometric procedure is based on a panel data technique with fixed effects, classifying the countries in two samples according to their income level. Findings tend to corroborate the positive effects of banking expansion on growth rates, according to the predictions of endogenous growth models. However, they also indicate that credit acti...

  18. The Effect of Product Country of Origin: An Empirical Study Using Conjoint Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kowsar, Ali Mohammad; Ishii, Kenichi

    2007-01-01

    This article extends cue utilization theory with the help of the idea of cue diagnosticity. Themain objective of this study is to evaluate the strength of country of origin (COO) effect asa high scope cue during consumer choice decision for personal computers. Two conjointanalyses were done on the data collected by a questionnaire survey of 65 respondents. Fromthe data we found that the influence of the cues, like-price, brand name, country of origin,product character and warranty, on the bra...

  19. State and Trend Analysis of Industrial Plantation Development in Foreign Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The paper firstly reviewed industrial plantation development in the main forestry countries worldwide, and then summarized the state and trend of the R & D of industrial plantation in foreign countries in terms of genetic improvement, breeding techniques, site evaluation techniques, density control techniques, long-term productivity maintenance techniques and diseases and pests control techniques. In the meantime, the three management models employed in industrial plantations abroad was introduced, i.e. int...

  20. Analysis of the features of the entrepreneurship and leadership in the Asian and Latin American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Martín Moreno Zacarías

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of the necessary skills to transform entrepreneurial activities into business largely depends on the so-called "Triple Helix development ¨. This is the relationship University-Industry-Government. This relationship leads to the transformation of business ideas, into real companies, through education, economic and financial support and the support given to businesses experiences. This article reviews the concepts and definitions of various authors regarding the importance of entrepreneurial activities and the leadership approach to carry out such business. The article takes the examples of activities undertaken in this regard in different countries of Asia and Latin America, including Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile in Latin America and Japan, Malaysia and the Philippines in Asia. These countries are included in international systems of measurement of entrepreneurship worldwide. According to the information available, such ratings are declining in Asia whilst increasing in Latin America. It is important to note however that in both groups of countries there is a different entrepreneurial development. In the countries of Asia, the entrepreneurs seek to achieve business innovation while Latin American countries, the entrepreneurs are moved by the economic necessity to seek other options to complete their consumption needs. In a general basis, the triple helix could be observed in the entrepreneurial activity in most Asian countries.

  1. Alternative method of highway traffic safety analysis for developing countries using delphi technique and Bayesian network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbakwe, Anthony C; Saka, Anthony A; Choi, Keechoo; Lee, Young-Jae

    2016-08-01

    Highway traffic accidents all over the world result in more than 1.3 million fatalities annually. An alarming number of these fatalities occurs in developing countries. There are many risk factors that are associated with frequent accidents, heavy loss of lives, and property damage in developing countries. Unfortunately, poor record keeping practices are very difficult obstacle to overcome in striving to obtain a near accurate casualty and safety data. In light of the fact that there are numerous accident causes, any attempts to curb the escalating death and injury rates in developing countries must include the identification of the primary accident causes. This paper, therefore, seeks to show that the Delphi Technique is a suitable alternative method that can be exploited in generating highway traffic accident data through which the major accident causes can be identified. In order to authenticate the technique used, Korea, a country that underwent similar problems when it was in its early stages of development in addition to the availability of excellent highway safety records in its database, is chosen and utilized for this purpose. Validation of the methodology confirms the technique is suitable for application in developing countries. Furthermore, the Delphi Technique, in combination with the Bayesian Network Model, is utilized in modeling highway traffic accidents and forecasting accident rates in the countries of research.

  2. Male circumcision, religion, and infectious diseases: an ecologic analysis of 118 developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klausner Jeffrey D

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both religious practices and male circumcision (MC have been associated with HIV and other sexually-transmitted infectious diseases. Most studies have been limited in size and have not adequately controlled for religion, so these relationships remain unclear. Methods We evaluated relationships between MC prevalence, Muslim and Christian religion, and 7 infectious diseases using country-specific data among 118 developing countries. We used multivariate linear regression to describe associations between MC and cervical cancer incidence, and between MC and HIV prevalence among countries with primarily sexual HIV transmission. Results Fifty-three, 14, and 51 developing countries had a high (>80%, intermediate (20–80%, and low ( Conclusion Male circumcision was significantly associated with lower cervical cancer incidence and lower HIV prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa, independent of Muslim and Christian religion. As predicted, male circumcision was also strongly associated with lower HIV prevalence among countries with primarily heterosexual HIV transmission, but not among countries with primarily homosexual or injection drug use HIV transmission. These findings strengthen the reported biological link between MC and some sexually transmitted infectious diseases, including HIV and cervical cancer.

  3. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE COUNTRY BRAND FOR TOURISM: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN ROMANIA AND GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela-Valeria POPESCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The country brand is becoming an ever more important topic considering that, as is the case of a company, the brand is what makes the difference between the product that each country proposes to its consumers, its characteristic features, the values it relates to and the image it promotes. The aim of the work is to outline the role that the country brand holds for tourism, analyzing the situation of two European states with high tourist potential. Moreover, throughout its summary, the work follows the extent to which, by having a strong country brand, it is possible to create a tourist brand reflecting the representative elements of the promoted country, and a clear image of the destination. The research consists of identifying the results obtained by Romania and Greece, following the outlining of a country brand, the implications it has on the economy, and the future directions that can be taken in the development of tourism according to the most important values of each such state.

  4. Service innovation management practices in the telecommunications industry: what does cross country analysis reveal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Syed Abidur; Taghizadeh, Seyedeh Khadijeh; Ramayah, T; Ahmad, Noor Hazlina

    2015-01-01

    Service innovation management practice is currently being widely scrutinized mainly in the developed countries, where it has been initiated. The current study attempts to propose a framework and empirically validate and explain the service innovation practices for successful performance in the telecommunications industry of two developing countries, Malaysia and Bangladesh. The research framework proposes relationships among organisational culture, operating core (innovation process, cross-functional organisation, and implementation of tools/technology), competition-informed pricing, and performance. A total of 176 usable data from both countries are analysed for the purpose of the research. The findings show that organisational culture tends to be more influential on innovation process and cross-functional organisation in Malaysian telecommunication industry. In contrast, implementation of tools/technology plays a more instrumental role in competition-informed pricing practices in Bangladesh. This study revealed few differences in the innovation management practices between two developing countries. The findings have strategic implications for the service sectors in both the developing countries regarding implementation of innovative enterprises, especially in Bangladesh where innovation is the basis for survival. Testing the innovation management practices in the developing countries perhaps contains uniqueness in the field of innovation management.

  5. Cross-National Analysis of Beliefs and Attitude Toward Mental Illness Among Medical Professionals From Five Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanovics, Elina; He, Hongbo; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Cavalcanti, Maria Tavares; Rocha Neto, Helio; Makanjuola, Victor; Ighodaro, Adesuwa; Leddy, Meaghan; Rosenheck, Robert

    2016-03-01

    This quantitative study sought to compare beliefs about the manifestation, causes and treatment of mental illness and attitudes toward people with mental illness among health professionals from five countries: the United States, Brazil, Ghana, Nigeria, and China. A total of 902 health professionals from the five countries were surveyed using a questionnaire addressing attitudes towards people with mental illness and beliefs about the causes of mental illness. Chi-square and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used to compare age and gender of the samples. Confirmatory factor analysis was employed to confirm the structure and fit of the hypothesized model based on data from a previous study that identified four factors: socializing with people with mental illness (socializing), belief that people with mental illness should have normal roles in society (normalizing), non-belief in supernatural causes (witchcraft or curses), and belief in bio-psycho-social causes of mental illness (bio-psycho-social). Analysis of Covariance was used to compare four factor scores across countries adjusting for differences in age and gender. Scores on all four factors were highest among U.S. professionals. The Chinese sample showed lowest score on socializing and normalizing while the Nigerian and Ghanaian samples were lowest on non-belief in supernatural causes of mental illness. Responses from Brazil fell between those of the U.S. and the other countries. Although based on convenience samples of health professional robust differences in attitudes among health professionals between these five countries appear to reflect underlying socio-cultural differences affecting attitudes of professionals with the greater evidence of stigmatized attitudes in developing countries.

  6. Telemedicine: A brief analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani Gupta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reveals the present status of wireless telemedicine system for m-health application. Wireless telemedicine network equipped with mobile, computer and telecommunication technologies which provide medical data, information and services from distant locations. Telemedicine opens a world of healthcare delivery by building clinical bridges between patients and available healthcare by integrating Information and Communication Technology, Biomedical Engineering, Medical Science, etc. using minimum costs, effective development and utilization of ancillary infrastructure and services. We have studied 130 research papers on telemedicine and its aspects, this paper is an extraction which emphasized on wireless technologies like GSM, General Packet Radio Services, EDGE, 3G, 4G, 5G, Cognitive Radio Network, World Wide interoperability of Microwave Access, Wireless Local Area Network, Wireless Body Area Network, Very Small Aperture Terminal, Satellite communication and WPAN (Bluetooth used for m-health application. It also gives the details of storage, security, protocols, optimum bandwidth and fair scheduling schemes used for transmission of medical signals, images and videos.

  7. Performance of power sectors in developing countries - a study of efficiency and World Bank policy using data development analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawdon, D.

    1996-08-01

    A substantial proportion of investment in the electric power sectors of developing countries has historically consisted of World Bank loans. At the same time, power sector lending has played a large part in the total lending of the World Bank itself. This paper uses data envelopment analysis (DEA) to construct performance measures for 82 developing countries power sectors in order to evaluate World Bank policy. It examines the effectiveness of World bank lending activity in relation to measured technical, scale and congestion efficiencies. Policies promoting the privatisation of electricity generation and the increased emphasis on lending to Sub Saharan Africa are also evaluated. 11 tabs.

  8. Rural water supply and related services in developing countries — Comparative analysis of several approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajard, Y.; Draper, M.; Viens, P.

    1981-05-01

    The proposed paper deals with a comparative analysis of several approaches possible and actually used for a joint action of local institutions and foreign aid in the field of water supply and related services such as sanitation to villages and small rural agglomerations (market towns, etc.) in developing countries. This comparative analysis is based on examples of actual programmes in this field. The authors have participated in most of the programmes selected as examples, at various levels and in various capacities, from conception to design, implementation and/or evaluation (i.e. rural development programmes in Ivory Coast, Ghana (upper region), Benin and Ethiopia. The authors were not involved in other examples such as water supply and/or sanitation to small urban centres in Benin, Ivory Coast, etc. They have, however, witnessed them directly and have obtained, therefore, first-hand information on their organization, execution and results. Several typical examples of actual projects are briefly defined and characterized. The paper undertakes, then, to compare, in a clinical fashion, the advantages and drawbacks of the approaches taken in the various examples presented. The paper finally proposes a recommendation for a realistic approach to joint action between local/domestic and foreign financing/assistance agencies and executing bodies (consultants, contractors) in the field of rural water supply, sanitation, and more generally, health improvement. The definition of this line of approach is made in terms of logical framework, i.e. goals, purposes, outputs and inputs at the various stages of the project, up to actual evaluation of execution and impact if possible; description of practical indicators of the two types of evaluation. A particular attention is given to the problems of technological choices, in view of the constraints imposed by the natural environment, by the human and social patterns; in view also of the institutions and the economy. Another point

  9. Nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in OECD countries: Cross-sectionally dependent heterogeneous panel causality analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazlioglu, Saban, E-mail: snazlioglu@pau.edu.tr [Department of Econometrics, Pamukkale University, Denizli (Turkey); Lebe, Fuat, E-mail: fuat.lebe@bozok.edu.tr [Department of Economics, Bozok University, Yozgat (Turkey); Kayhan, Selim, E-mail: selim.kayhan@bozok.edu.tr [Department of Economics, Bozok University, Yozgat (Turkey)

    2011-10-15

    The purpose of this study is to determine the direction causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in OECD countries. The empirical model that includes capital and labor force as the control variables is estimated for the panel of fourteen OECD countries during the period 1980-2007. Apart from the previous studies in the nuclear energy consumption and economic growth relationship, this study utilizes the novel panel causality approach, which allows both cross-sectional dependency and heterogeneity across countries. The findings show that there is no causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in eleven out of fourteen cases, supporting the neutrality hypothesis. As a sensitivity analysis, we also conduct Toda-Yamamoto time series causality method and find out that the results from the panel causality analysis are slightly different than those from the time-series causality analysis. Thereby, we can conclude that the choice of statistical tools in analyzing the nature of causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth may play a key role for policy implications. - Highlights: > Causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth is examined for OECD countries. > Panel causality method, which allows cross-sectional dependency and heterogeneity, is utilized. > The neutrality hypothesis is supported.

  10. Radiology education in Europe: Analysis of results from 22 European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehani, Bhavya; Zhang, Yi C; Rehani, Madan M; Palkó, András; Lau, Lawrence; Lette, Miriam N Mikhail; Dillon, William P

    2017-01-01

    AIM To assess the state of radiology education across Europe by means of a survey study. METHODS A comprehensive 23-item radiology survey was distributed via email to the International Society of Radiology members, national radiological societies, radiologists and medical physicists. Reminders to complete the survey were sent and the results were analyzed over a period of 4 mo (January-April 2016). Survey questions include length of medical school and residency training; availability of fellowship and subspecialty training; number of residency programs in each country; accreditation pathways; research training; and medical physics education. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze and summarize data. RESULTS Radiology residency training ranges from 2-6 years with a median of 5 years, and follows 1 year of internship training in 55% (12 out of 22) European countries. Subspecialty fellowship training is offered in 55% (12 out of 22) European countries. Availability for specialization training by national societies is limited to eight countries. For nearly all respondents, less than fifty percent of radiologists travel abroad for specialization. Nine of 22 (41%) European countries have research requirements during residency. The types of certifying exam show variation where 64% (14 out of 22) European countries require both written and oral boards, 23% (5 out of 22) require oral examinations only, and 5% (1 out of 22) require written examinations only. A degree in medical physics is offered in 59% (13 out of 22) European countries and is predominantly taught by medical physicists. Nearly all respondents report that formal examinations in medical physics are required. CONCLUSION Comparative learning experiences across the continent will help guide the development of comprehensive yet pragmatic infrastructures for radiology education and collaborations in radiology education worldwide. PMID:28298965

  11. Radiology education in Europe: Analysis of results from 22 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehani, Bhavya; Zhang, Yi C; Rehani, Madan M; Palkó, András; Lau, Lawrence; Lette, Miriam N Mikhail; Dillon, William P

    2017-02-28

    To assess the state of radiology education across Europe by means of a survey study. A comprehensive 23-item radiology survey was distributed via email to the International Society of Radiology members, national radiological societies, radiologists and medical physicists. Reminders to complete the survey were sent and the results were analyzed over a period of 4 mo (January-April 2016). Survey questions include length of medical school and residency training; availability of fellowship and subspecialty training; number of residency programs in each country; accreditation pathways; research training; and medical physics education. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze and summarize data. Radiology residency training ranges from 2-6 years with a median of 5 years, and follows 1 year of internship training in 55% (12 out of 22) European countries. Subspecialty fellowship training is offered in 55% (12 out of 22) European countries. Availability for specialization training by national societies is limited to eight countries. For nearly all respondents, less than fifty percent of radiologists travel abroad for specialization. Nine of 22 (41%) European countries have research requirements during residency. The types of certifying exam show variation where 64% (14 out of 22) European countries require both written and oral boards, 23% (5 out of 22) require oral examinations only, and 5% (1 out of 22) require written examinations only. A degree in medical physics is offered in 59% (13 out of 22) European countries and is predominantly taught by medical physicists. Nearly all respondents report that formal examinations in medical physics are required. Comparative learning experiences across the continent will help guide the development of comprehensive yet pragmatic infrastructures for radiology education and collaborations in radiology education worldwide.

  12. Oil demand and price elasticity of energy consumption in the GCC countries: A panel cointegration analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Qaiser Alam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the cointegrating relationship between oil demand and price elasticity of energy consumption in the Gulf Co-operation Council (GCC countries during the period 1980-2010. The paper has applied the recently developed panel cointegration techniques, Dynamic Ordinary Least Squares (DOLS and panel DOLS in a panel of GCC countries. The region is being recognized as the major region of oil production and export in the global economy. In recent times, the region is emerging as a fastest growing oil consuming region globally. This fast increase in the level of oil consumption in the major oil exporting countries raises the energy security implications in the sphere of the growing oil demand in the world economy. This is likely to bring many pitfalls in the form of price distortions and reduced growth rates in and outside the oil export region. The empirical finding reveals a cointegrating relationship among the variables and indicates an income elastic and price inelastic demand for oil in the long-run in the GCC countries. The outcomes of income elastic and price inelastic demand for oil are also consistent in the short-run. The income and price inelastic demand for oil though exists for a full panel of countries but vary across the GCC countries. The result of the Granger Causality test also depicts a unidirectional causality running from income to oil consumption and bidirectional causality running between oil prices and income in the GCC countries. Moreover, the outcomes reveal that demand for oil varies positively with the growth of income and negatively with the price level in the economy.

  13. International Migration and Human Development in Destination Countries: A Cross-National Analysis of Less-Developed Countries, 1970-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary levels of international migration in less-developed countries are raising new and important questions regarding the consequences of immigration for human welfare and well-being. However, there is little systematic cross-national evidence of how international migration affects human development levels in migrant-receiving countries in…

  14. International Migration and Human Development in Destination Countries: A Cross-National Analysis of Less-Developed Countries, 1970-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary levels of international migration in less-developed countries are raising new and important questions regarding the consequences of immigration for human welfare and well-being. However, there is little systematic cross-national evidence of how international migration affects human development levels in migrant-receiving countries in…

  15. The Relationship between Youth Unemployment and Economic Growth in Central and Eastern European Countries: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman ERDAL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study has analyzed the relationship between youth unemployment and economic growth, in the context of Okun law, by using new generation panel data analysis and cointegration tests. In this study, 18 Central and Eastern European country have been selected as subject matter whose youth unemployment rate is above the EU-28 average (25 % for the period 2006-2012. The results show that, if youth unemployment is quite severe; even an exclusive economic growth will not be enough to reduce the youth unemployment rate in the country. It is recommended that the global and country-specific policies which are effective, result-driven on youth (Un employment and labour market issues, should be developed. This study is expected to make a significant contribution to the literature on unemployment and social conflict.

  16. Comparison of Macroeconomic Performance of Selected Asian Countries. An Econometric Analysis of China Economic Growth and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasret Benar Balcioglu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the key macroeconomics indicators for the selected countries: China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Korea, Rep. and India and also makes an econometric analysis for China for the period 1961-2007. These countries are chosen on the basis of comparability of data and time without measurement errors. This study also investigates six hypotheses considering the impact of several key macroeconomic variables such as domestic saving rate, domestic investment rate, and volatility of savings, volatility of inflation, growth rate of exports and growth rate of real GNP. By using suitable statistical and econometric tests, this paper finds that prevailing performance of China depends on its superior rates of domestic saving and exports. Policies are also suggested from the differentials between the economic performances of China and other chosen Asian countries.

  17. Causality between income and emission. A country group-specific econometric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coondoo, Dipankor [Economic Research Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 203 B.T. Road, 35 Kolkata (India); Dinda, Soumyananda [S.R. Fatepuria College, Beldanga, West Bengal, Murshidabad (India)

    2002-03-01

    Empirical studies of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) examine the presence or otherwise of an inverted U-shaped relationship between the level of pollution and the level of income. Customarily, in the diagram of EKC the level of income is shown on the horizontal axis and that of pollution on the vertical axis. Thus, it is presumed that the relationship between income and pollution is one of unidirectional causality with income causing environmental changes and not vice versa. The validity of this presumption is now being questioned. It is being asserted that the nature and direction of causality may vary from one country to the other. In this paper, we present the results of a study of income-CO{sub 2} emission causality based on a Granger causality test to cross-country panel data on per capita income and the corresponding per capita CO{sub 2} emission data. Briefly, our results indicate three different types of causality relationship holding for different country groups. For the developed country groups of North America and Western Europe (and also for Eastern Europe) the causality is found to run from emission to income. For the country groups of Central and South America, Oceania and Japan causality from income to emission is obtained. Finally, for the country groups of Asia and Africa the causality is found to be bi-directional. The regression equations estimated as part of the Granger causality test further suggest that for the country groups of North America and Western Europe the growth rate of emission has become stationary around a zero mean, and a shock in the growth rate of emission tends to generate a corresponding shock in the growth rate of income. In contrast, for the country groups of Central and South America, Oceania and Japan a shock in the income growth rate is likely to result in a corresponding shock in the growth rate of emission. Finally, causality being bi-directional for the country groups of Asia and Africa, the income and the

  18. Brief Analysis of Application of Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in Graduation Exams of Clinical Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yihua; Yu, Ke; Li, Xiaohong; Wang, Feng; Wang, Tingting

    2011-01-01

    This article gives a brief introduction to the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) and analyzes developmental progress of OSCE at both home and abroad and standardized patients' application in OSCE. Also, this article expounds application of OSCE in graduation exam of clinical medical students. Finally, this article summarizes…

  19. Seeking Missing Pieces in Science Concept Assessments: Reevaluating the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment through Rasch Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Discipline-based science concept assessments are powerful tools to measure learners' disciplinary core ideas. Among many such assessments, the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment (BEMA) has been broadly used to gauge student conceptions of key electricity and magnetism (E&M) topics in college-level introductory physics courses.…

  20. Seeking Missing Pieces in Science Concept Assessments: Reevaluating the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment through Rasch Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Discipline-based science concept assessments are powerful tools to measure learners' disciplinary core ideas. Among many such assessments, the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment (BEMA) has been broadly used to gauge student conceptions of key electricity and magnetism (E&M) topics in college-level introductory physics courses.…

  1. Democracy and self-rated health across 67 countries: A multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Patrick M; Dovel, Kathryn; Denney, Justin T

    2015-10-01

    Existing research has found a positive association between countries' level of democratic governance and the health of their populations, although that research is limited by the use of data from small numbers of high-income countries or aggregate data that do not assess individual-level health outcomes. We extend prior research by using multilevel World Health Survey (2002-2004) data on 313,554 individuals in 67 countries, and find that the positive association between democratic governance and self-rated health persists after adjusting for both individual- and country-level confounders. However, the mechanisms linking democracy and self-rated health remain unclear. Individual-level measures of socioeconomic status, and country-level measures of economic inequality and investments in public health and education, do not significantly mediate the association between democratic governance and self-rated health. The persistent association between democratic governance and health suggests that the political organization of societies may be an important upstream determinant of population health.

  2. Public, environmental, and occupational health research activity in Arab countries: bibliometric, citation, and collaboration analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweileh, Waleed M; Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sawalha, Ansam F

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze quantity, assess quality, and investigate international collaboration in research from Arab countries in the field of public, environmental and occupational health. Original scientific articles and reviews published from the 22 Arab countries in the category "public, environmental & occupational health" during the study period (1900 - 2012) were screened using the ISI Web of Science database. The total number of original and review research articles published in the category of "public, environmental & occupational health" from Arab countries was 4673. Main area of research was tropical medicine (1862; 39.85%). Egypt with 1200 documents (25.86%) ranked first in quantity and ranked first in quality of publications (h-index = 51). The study identified 2036 (43.57%) documents with international collaboration. Arab countries actively collaborated with authors in Western Europe (22.91%) and North America (21.04%). Most of the documents (79.9%) were published in public health related journals while 21% of the documents were published in journals pertaining to prevention medicine, environmental, occupational health and epidemiology. Research in public, environmental and occupational health in Arab countries is in the rise. Public health research was dominant while environmental and occupation health research was relatively low. International collaboration was a good tool for increasing research quantity and quality.

  3. Case Study for Effectiveness Analysis on Nuclear Regulatory Infrastructure Support for Emerging Nuclear Energy Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. E.; Byeon, M. J.; Yoo, J. W.; Lee, J. M.; Lim, J. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The donor countries need to make decisions on various steps such as whether to fully accept newcomers’ requests, the depth of support, and how the supportive action will be carried out. Such is not an easy task due to limited time, resources, manpower, etc. Thus, creating an infrastructure to support emerging nuclear energy countries is needed. This paper suggests the resource portfolio concept used in business management and aims to analyze the validity of supporting the new entrants’ development of regulatory infrastructure as a case study. This study tries to develop a very simple Excel-based tool for assessing the supporting strategy quantitatively and screening the activities that is projected to be less effective and attractive. There are many countries, so called newcomers, which have expressed interests in developing their own nuclear power program. It has been recognized by the international community that every country considering embarking upon their own nuclear power program should establish their nuclear safety infrastructure to sustain a high level of nuclear safety. The newcomers have requested for considerable assistance from the IAEA and they already have bilateral cooperation programs with the advanced countries with matured nuclear regulatory programs. Currently, the regulatory bodies that provide support are confronted with two responsibilities as follows; the primary objective of the regulatory bodies is to ensure that the operator fulfills the responsibility to protect human health.

  4. Quality of Spine Surgery Research from the Arab Countries: A Systematic Review and Bibliometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msaddi, Abdul Karim; Assaker, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the level of evidence (LOE) of spine surgery publications in the Arab countries and compare it with standard international literature in spine surgery and to determine the stand of the Arab nations academic production with that of the global one. Methods. An online search using “PubMed” and “Google Scholar” was carried out, using search terms related to spine surgery such as “Spine surgery,” “Scoliosis,” “Herniated disc.” Each article was reviewed and graded by two reviewers using Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (OCEBM) Levels of Evidence scale. Results. We have identified 434 articles that met the inclusion criteria; 56% were level IV studies. The most common study design was case reports (42%). The number of Arab countries with publications in spine surgery was 18 countries. The country with the highest rate of publications was Egypt (26%). The quantity of the published studies increased from 151 in (2000–2008) to 283 in (2009–2015). There is statistical significance between high and low LOE articles (p = 0.0007). Conclusion. We have observed that LOE has not changed significantly over the period of 15 years and that much of the publications are of a low LOE (levels III and IV). We, herein, emphasize the need for spine surgeons in the Arab countries to conduct studies of higher LOE. PMID:28316989

  5. Therapeutic hypothermia for neonatal encephalopathy in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreela S Pauliah

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Although selective or whole body cooling combined with optimal intensive care improves outcomes following neonatal encephalopathy in high-income countries, the safety and efficacy of cooling in low-and middle-income countries is not known. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of all published randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials of cooling therapy for neonatal encephalopathy in low-and middle-income countries. RESULTS: Seven trials, comprising a total of 567 infants were included in the meta-analysis. Most study infants had mild (15% or moderate encephalopathy (48% and did not receive invasive ventilation (88%. Cooling devices included water-circulating cooling caps, frozen gel packs, ice, water bottles, and phase-changing material. No statistically significant reduction in neonatal mortality was seen with cooling (risk ratio: 0.74, 95% confidence intervals: 0.44 to 1.25. Data on other neonatal morbidities and long-term neurological outcomes were insufficient. CONCLUSION: Cooling therapy was not associated with a statistically significant reduction in neonatal mortality in low-and middle-income countries although the confidence intervals were wide and not incompatible with results seen in high-income countries. The apparent lack of treatment effect may be due to the heterogeneity and poor quality of the included studies, inefficiency of the low technology cooling devices, lack of optimal neonatal intensive care, sedation and ventilatory support, overuse of oxygen, or may be due to the intrinsic difference in the population, for example higher rates of perinatal infection, obstructed labor, intrauterine growth retardation and maternal malnutrition. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of cooling in adequately powered randomised controlled trials is required before cooling is offered in routine clinical practice in low-and middle-income countries.

  6. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: International arbitration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the fifth of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 5 explains how international arbitration works to resolve disputes between foreign investors and host states, and outlines some of the problems associated with its use, from a sustainable development perspective.

  7. Sustainable Markets Investment Briefings: Foreign investment contracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2007-08-15

    This is the fourth of a series of briefings which discuss the sustainable development issues raised by legal arrangements for the protection of foreign investment. The briefings are based on legal research by IIED and its partners. The goal is to provide accessible but accurate information for human rights, development and environmental organisations working on issues raised by foreign investment in low- and middle-income countries. Briefing 4 sets out some of the ways in which foreign investment contracts can impact on sustainable development.

  8. An Analysis of China’s Trade Balances with Other Countries and Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余芳东

    2007-01-01

    This article utilizes a large amount of statistical data to analyze the global distribution of foreign trade in China since 1990,as well as the factors involved and the changes in trends.The research results indicate that China has gained a favourable balance against developed countries and a disadvantageous balance against developing countries;China enjoys a trade surplus with North American and European countries while suffering deficits with those in the Asia.pacific region,as well as with resource-abundant Australia,Africa and South America. With regard to trends,the structure of China’s foreign trade will not undergo fundamental changes in the short term,but in the long run will be transformed in line with restructuring of the growth pattern.

  9. ACCESS TO GOVERNMENT INFORMATION: EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF TRANSPARENCY POLICIES IN FOUR CENTRAL AMERICAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Ríos Cázares

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the functioning of public information access systems in four Central American countries (Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama based on the methodology used in the project Transparency Metric 2010, conducted by the Center for Economic Research and Teaching (CIDE. The specific objective is to identify common challenges, recurring issues and best practices in matter of access to governmental information in these four countries. The study shows that, although all four countries have made progress in consolidating a specialised Freedom of Information Legislation (FOI, significant challenges remain in institutionalising the operation of such system, as well as consolidating its ability to effectively make government information public, both proactively and in response to specific requests from citizens. The main challenge is to develop a public policy which allows structuring a coherent system for the access to information.

  10. Analysis of National Forest Programs for REDD+ Implementation in six South and Southeast Asia countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, A.J.; Inoue, M.; Shivakoti, G.P.; Nath, T.K.; Jashimuddin, M.; Zoysa, M.D.; Kaskoyo, H.; Pulhin, J.M.; Peras, R.J.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study. To facilitate REDD+ implementation and identify relevant attributes for robust REDD+ policies, this study evaluated and synthesized information from national forest programs in South and Southeast Asian countries. Area of study: Data was collected from six countries: Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Philippines, India and Thailand. Methods: The data sources for the evaluation was an in-depth desk review of relevant documents and focus group discussion among experts from each study country. Main Results: We found out that diverse factors may influence program feasibility and the ability to achieve ‘triple benefits’: the nature of the forest targeted by the policy, the characteristics of the population affected by the policy, attributes of the policy instrument and the different actors involved. Research highlights: We argue that national policies and programs targeted for REDD+ implementation should focus on the identified features to achieve REDD+ goals. (Author)

  11. Antiretrovirals for low income countries: an analysis of the commercial viability of a highly competitive market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakakeeto, Olive N; Elliott, Brian V

    2013-02-15

    The price of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) in low income countries declined steadily in recent years. This raises concerns about the commercial viability of the market of ARVs in low income countries. Using 2 costing scenarios, we modeled the production cost of the most commonly used ARVs in low income countries in 2010 and 2012, and assessed whether, at the median price paid by low income countries, their manufacturers would still make profits. By interviews we consulted 11 generic manufacturers on the current state of the ARV market, and on what would be required to ensure their continued commitment to supply ARVs to low income countries. Using the lowest prices for active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) quoted to WHO, and applying published assumptions about the production cost of ARVs, our baseline estimate was that Indian generic manufacturers would have made profits on only 1 out of 13 formulations of ARVs in both 2010 and 2012, and publicly owned manufacturers would have made profits on 5 and 3 out of 13 formulations in 2010 and 2012, respectively. We needed to assume a 20% and a 40% lower API cost for our model to predict that publicly owned and Indian manufacturers, respectively, would make profits on the sale of the majority of their ARVs. Between 2010 and 2012, we estimate that--across the ARV portfolio--the gross profit on sales of ARVs to low income countries decreased with between 6% and 7% of their sales price. Generic manufacturers consider that current prices are unsustainable. They suggested amendments to the tender procedures, simplified regulatory procedures, improved forecasting, and simplification of the ARV guidelines as critical improvements to maintain a viable ARV market. While recent price decreases indicate that there is still space for price reduction, our estimate that gross profit margin on sales decreased by 6 to 7% between 2010 and 2012 lends credibility to assertions by generic manufacturers that the ARV market in low income

  12. Antiretrovirals for low income countries: an analysis of the commercial viability of a highly competitive market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakakeeto Olive N

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The price of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs in low income countries declined steadily in recent years. This raises concerns about the commercial viability of the market of ARVs in low income countries. Methods Using 2 costing scenarios, we modeled the production cost of the most commonly used ARVs in low income countries in 2010 and 2012, and assessed whether, at the median price paid by low income countries, their manufacturers would still make profits. By interviews we consulted 11 generic manufacturers on the current state of the ARV market, and on what would be required to ensure their continued commitment to supply ARVs to low income countries. Results Using the lowest prices for active pharmaceutical ingredients (API quoted to WHO, and applying published assumptions about the production cost of ARVs, our baseline estimate was that Indian generic manufacturers would have made profits on only 1 out of 13 formulations of ARVs in both 2010 and 2012, and publicly owned manufacturers would have made profits on 5 and 3 out of 13 formulations in 2010 and 2012, respectively. We needed to assume a 20% and a 40% lower API cost for our model to predict that publicly owned and Indian manufacturers, respectively, would make profits on the sale of the majority of their ARVs. Between 2010 and 2012, we estimate that - across the ARV portfolio - the gross profit on sales of ARVs to low income countries decreased with between 6% and 7% of their sales price. Generic manufacturers consider that current prices are unsustainable. They suggested amendments to the tender procedures, simplified regulatory procedures, improved forecasting, and simplification of the ARV guidelines as critical improvements to maintain a viable ARV market. Conclusions While recent price decreases indicate that there is still space for price reduction, our estimate that gross profit margin on sales decreased by 6 to 7% between 2010 and 2012 lends credibility to

  13. On the mathematical analysis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever: deathly infection disease in West African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atangana, Abdon; Goufo, Emile Franc Doungmo

    2014-01-01

    For a given West African country, we constructed a model describing the spread of the deathly disease called Ebola hemorrhagic fever. The model was first constructed using the classical derivative and then converted to the generalized version using the beta-derivative. We studied in detail the endemic equilibrium points and provided the Eigen values associated using the Jacobian method. We furthered our investigation by solving the model numerically using an iteration method. The simulations were done in terms of time and beta. The study showed that, for small portion of infected individuals, the whole country could die out in a very short period of time in case there is not good prevention.

  14. Trends in confidence in public institutions: A comparative analysis of the Baltic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudžinskas Liutauras

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the variation of institutional confidence in the Baltic countries. Within of framework of qualitative comparative framework, it employs a historical approach to detect causes of divergence of trust in rule of law institutions between Estonia vis-à-vis other two Baltic states. While it observes a range of variables that could affect the differences, it emphasises the role of political leadership during critical junctures, which might explain both why Estonia forged ahead at the outset of the post-communist transformation and most recent positive developments in the Baltic countries since the financial crisis in 2008–2010.

  15. The global economic and regulatory determinants of household food waste generation: A cross-country analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalak, Ali; Abou-Daher, Chaza; Chaaban, Jad; Abiad, Mohamad G

    2016-02-01

    Food is generally wasted all along the supply chain, with an estimated loss of 35percent generated at the consumer level. Consequently, household food waste constitutes a sizable proportion of the total waste generated throughout the food supply chain. Yet such wastes vary drastically between developed and developing countries. Using data collected from 44 countries with various income levels, this paper investigates the impact of legislation and economic incentives on household food waste generation. The obtained results indicate that well-defined regulations, policies and strategies are more effective than fiscal measures in mitigating household food waste generation.

  16. Introducing E-Government in Developing Countries Analysis of Egyptian e-Government Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elaswad, Othoman; Jensen, Christian D.

    2016-01-01

    services that guarantee equal access to online services and an inclusive society. The study identifies strengths and weaknesses of the Egyptian e-Government and IDM services, which we believe are common to most NAC, since the NAC are quite similar in terms of social culture, citizen's education level...... identification and remote authentication in developing countries, such as the North Africa Countries (NAC), where a relatively large proportion of citizens are illiterate. Therefore, the design of a national IDM system in a NAC must explicitly consider illiteracy to allow this group of citizens to benefit from...

  17. “Click for Closer Care”: A Content Analysis of Community Pharmacy Websites in Four Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Combinations of professional and commercial communication are typically very controversial, particularly in health care communication on the Internet. Websites of licensed community pharmacies on the other hand tend to raise remarkably little controversy, although they typically contain controversial combinations of clinical and commercial services previously unprecedented in professional health care communication. Objective The aim of this study was to fill the void of knowledge about the combination of clinical and commercial services presented on the websites of licensed community pharmacies. Methods A content analysis of clinical and commercial services presented in a random sample of 200 licensed community pharmacy websites from Great Britain, the Netherlands, the Canadian provinces British Columbia and Manitoba, and the Australian states New South Wales and Western Australia was conducted. Results The top five specific services mentioned on the community pharmacy websites were cosmetic products (126/200, 63.0%), medication refill request options (124/200, 62.0%), over-the-counter medicine (115/200, 57.5%), complementary and alternative medicine (107/200, 53.5%), and home medical aids (98/200, 49.0%). On average, 72.5% (145/200) of the community pharmacy websites across the 4 countries included a combination of clinical and commercial services. A combination of clinical and commercial services was more often present on chain pharmacy websites (120/147, 82.8%) than single pharmacy websites (25/53, 47%; Ppharmacy websites, followed by the Australian, British, and Dutch pharmacy websites, respectively (Ppharmacies’ homepages contained a combination of clinical and commercial images (107/200, 53.5%), and almost half of the homepage menus contained a combination of clinical and commercial items (99/200, 49.5%). The latter were, again, more common on chain pharmacy than single pharmacy websites (Ppharmacies in Great Britain, the Netherlands, Canada, and

  18. "Click for Closer Care": A Content Analysis of Community Pharmacy Websites in Four Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwier, Sandra

    2017-06-14

    Combinations of professional and commercial communication are typically very controversial, particularly in health care communication on the Internet. Websites of licensed community pharmacies on the other hand tend to raise remarkably little controversy, although they typically contain controversial combinations of clinical and commercial services previously unprecedented in professional health care communication. The aim of this study was to fill the void of knowledge about the combination of clinical and commercial services presented on the websites of licensed community pharmacies. A content analysis of clinical and commercial services presented in a random sample of 200 licensed community pharmacy websites from Great Britain, the Netherlands, the Canadian provinces British Columbia and Manitoba, and the Australian states New South Wales and Western Australia was conducted. The top five specific services mentioned on the community pharmacy websites were cosmetic products (126/200, 63.0%), medication refill request options (124/200, 62.0%), over-the-counter medicine (115/200, 57.5%), complementary and alternative medicine (107/200, 53.5%), and home medical aids (98/200, 49.0%). On average, 72.5% (145/200) of the community pharmacy websites across the 4 countries included a combination of clinical and commercial services. A combination of clinical and commercial services was more often present on chain pharmacy websites (120/147, 82.8%) than single pharmacy websites (25/53, 47%; Ppharmacy websites, followed by the Australian, British, and Dutch pharmacy websites, respectively (Ppharmacies' homepages contained a combination of clinical and commercial images (107/200, 53.5%), and almost half of the homepage menus contained a combination of clinical and commercial items (99/200, 49.5%). The latter were, again, more common on chain pharmacy than single pharmacy websites (Ppharmacies in Great Britain, the Netherlands, Canada, and Australia combine clinical services

  19. Using Structured Observation and Content Analysis to Explore the Presence of Older People in Public Fora in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of research on the everyday lives of older people in developing countries. This exploratory study used structured observation and content analysis to examine the presence of older people in public fora and considered the methods' potential for understanding older people's social integration and inclusion. Structured observation occurred of public social spaces in six cities each located in a different developing country and in one city in the United Kingdom, together with content analysis of the presence of people in newspaper pictures and on television in the selected countries. Results indicated that across all fieldwork sites and data sources, there was a low presence of older people, with women considerably less present than men in developing countries. There was variation across fieldwork sites in older people's presence by place and time of day and in their accompanied status. The presence of older people in images drawn from newspapers was associated with the news/non-news nature of the source. The utility of the study's methodological approach is considered, as is the degree to which the presence of older people in public fora might relate to social integration and inclusion in different cultural contexts. PMID:25548675

  20. Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy and Brief Supportive Psychotherapy for Augmentation of Antidepressant Nonresponse in Chronic Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, James H.; Gelenberg, Alan J.; Rothbaum, Barbara O.; Klein, Daniel N.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Manber, Rachel; Keller, Martin B.; Leon, Andrew C.; Wisniewski, Steven R.; Arnow, Bruce A.; Markowitz, John C.; Thase, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Context Previous studies have found that few chronically depressed patients remit with antidepressant medications alone. Objective To determine the role of adjunctive psychotherapy in the treatment of chronically depressed patients with less than complete response to an initial medication trial. Design This trial compared 12 weeks of (1) continued pharmacotherapy and augmentation with cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy (CBASP), (2) continued pharmacotherapy and augmentation with brief supportive psychotherapy (BSP), and (3) continued optimized pharmacotherapy (MEDS) alone. We hypothesized that adding CBASP would produce higher rates of response and remission than adding BSP or continuing MEDS alone. Setting Eight academic sites. Participants Chronically depressed patients with a current DSM-IV–defined major depressive episode and persistent depressive symptoms for more than 2 years. Interventions Phase 1 consisted of open-label, algorithm-guided treatment for 12 weeks based on a history of antidepressant response. Patients not achieving remission received next-step pharmacotherapy options with or without adjunctive psychotherapy (phase 2). Individuals undergoing psychotherapy were randomized to receive either CBASP or BSP stratified by phase 1 response, ie, as nonresponders (NRs) or partial responders (PRs). Main Outcome Measures Proportions of remitters, PRs, and NRs and change on Hamilton Scale for Depression (HAM-D) scores. Results In all, 808 participants entered phase 1, of which 491 were classified as NRs or PRs and entered phase 2 (200 received CBASP and MEDS, 195 received BSP and MEDS, and 96 received MEDS only). Mean HAM-D scores dropped from 25.9 to 17.7 in NRs and from 15.2 to 9.9 in PRs. No statistically significant differences emerged among the 3 treatment groups in the proportions of phase 2 remission (15.0%), partial response (22.5%), and non-response (62.5%) or in changes on HAM-D scores. Conclusions Although 37.5% of the

  1. Design and development of computerized local and overall country's environmental data analysis network system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Gyu; Kang, Jong Gyu; Han, H.; Han, J. S.; Lee, Y. D.; Lee, S. R.; Kang, D. J.; Cho, Y. G.; Yun, S. H. [Daedeok College, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    In this development, we designed a integrated database for efficient data processing of radiation-environment data and developed the CLEAN (Computerized Local and overall country's Environmental data Analysis Network) system. The CLEAN system consists of local radiation-environment network, data analysis system, data open system. We developed the CLEAN system focused on building an integrated database, a data mart, and a CLEAN web site. It is expected that the developed system, which organizes the information related to environmental radiation data systematically, can be utilize for the accurate interpretation, analysis and evaluation.

  2. How Regressive Are Indirect Taxes? A Microsimulation Analysis for Five European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decoster, Andre; Loughrey, Jason; O'Donoghue, Cathal; Verwerft, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Shifting the tax burden from labor to consumption is proposed in many developed countries as a way to make the tax system more incentive compatible. This article deals with the simulation of such a policy change to sharpen the distributional picture. Expenditures are imputed into the EUROMOD microsimulation program. Then social security…

  3. Formal institutions, culture, and venture capital activity: A cross-country analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yong, L.; Zahra, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Why does the level of venture capital activity vary across countries? This study suggests that the variation can be attributed to the different levels of formal institutional development. Further, this study proposes that venture capitalists respond differently to the incentives provided by formal i

  4. Marriage, Cohabitation, and Happiness: A Cross-National Analysis of 27 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kristen Schultz; Ono, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated how the reported happiness of married and cohabiting individuals varies cross-nationally with societal gender beliefs and religious context. They used the 2002 International Social Survey Programme data from 27 countries (N = 36,889) and specified hierarchical linear models with macro-micro level interactions in order to…

  5. ANALYSIS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS BY COUNTRIES WITH ECONOMIES IN TRANSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zasadnyi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with experience of application of international financial reporting standards in different countries with economies in transition. The main advantages and disadvantages of the implementation of international financial reporting standards for financial reporting for Ukrainian companies are based on this experience.

  6. A comparative analysis of inter-industry wage differentials : industrialized versus developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erdil, E; Yetkiner, IH

    2001-01-01

    This study aims to compare the available evidence on inter-industry wage structure for industrialized and developing countries and to rnd whether the industry wage differentials are consistent and stable independent of time and space. Moreover, it tries to clarify some of the determinants of

  7. Analysis of farm specific risk factors for Campylobacter colonization of broilers in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Borck Høg, Birgitte; Larsen, Lars Stehr

    2016-01-01

    This study presents on-farm risk factors for the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter based on comparable data from six European countries: Denmark, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Spain, and the UK. The study includes explanatory variables from a large questionnaire concerning prod...

  8. Comparative Analysis of OECD Member Countries' Competitive Advantage in National Human Resource Development System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hunseok; Choi, Yeseul; Choi, Myungweon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess, evaluate, and compare the competitive advantages of the human resource development systems of advanced countries. The Global Human Resource Development Index was utilized for this study, since it has been validated through an expert panel's content review and analytic hierarchy process. Using a sample of 34…

  9. Asset Price Shocks, Real Expenditures, and Financial Structure : A Multi-Country Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chirinko, Robert S.; Haan, Leo de; Sterken, Elmer

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the response of the economies of 11 EU countries, Japan, and the United States to shocks in housing and equity prices. The effects are assessed with a Structural Vector Auto Regressive (SVAR) model, and four key findings emerge. First, the impacts of asset price shocks are hetero

  10. A standardized approach to qualitative content analysis of focus group discussions from different countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moretti, F.; Vliet, L. van; Bensing, J.; Deledda, G.; Mazzi, M.; Rimondini, M.; Zimmermann, C.; Fletcher, I.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the methodological procedures of a multi-centre focus group research for obtaining content categories also suitable for categorical statistical analyses. METHODS: Inductive content analyses were performed on a subsample of 27 focus groups conducted in three different countries

  11. Comparative Analysis of OECD Member Countries' Competitive Advantage in National Human Resource Development System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hunseok; Choi, Yeseul; Choi, Myungweon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess, evaluate, and compare the competitive advantages of the human resource development systems of advanced countries. The Global Human Resource Development Index was utilized for this study, since it has been validated through an expert panel's content review and analytic hierarchy process. Using a sample of 34…

  12. The Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries Organization: A Strategic Analysis as a Security Enhancement Intergovernmental Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    2. FELINO Exercises. ..........................................................................................80 Table 3. CPLP Strategic Interests...the standardization of doctrine and operational procedures between the armed forces of member countries. Continuation of the FELINO combined and...member states, approving and submitting military proposals to the National Defense Ministers, and planning the FELINO exercises.25 In 2008, a new series

  13. Health Systems' Responsiveness and Its Characteristics: A Cross-Country Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robone, Silvana; Rice, Nigel; Smith, Peter C

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Responsiveness has been identified as one of the intrinsic goals of health care systems. Little is known, however, about its determinants. Our objective is to investigate the potential country-level drivers of health system responsiveness. Data Source Data on responsiveness are taken from the World Health Survey. Information on country-level characteristics is obtained from a variety of sources including the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). Study Design A two-step procedure. First, using survey data we derive a country-level measure of system responsiveness purged of differences in individual reporting behavior. Secondly, we run cross-sectional country-level regressions of responsiveness on potential drivers. Principal Findings Health care expenditures per capita are positively associated with responsiveness, after controlling for the influence of potential confounding factors. Aspects of responsiveness are also associated with public sector spending (negatively) and educational development (positively). Conclusions From a policy perspective, improvements in responsiveness may require higher spending levels. The expansion of nonpublic sector provision, perhaps in the form of increased patient choice, may also serve to improve responsiveness. However, these inferences are tentative and require further study. PMID:21762144

  14. Improving Learning in Primary Schools of Developing Countries: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    I gathered 77 randomized experiments (with 111 treatment arms) that evaluated the effects of school-based interventions on learning in developing-country primary schools. On average, monetary grants and deworming treatments had mean effect sizes that were close to zero and not statistically significant. Nutritional treatments, treatments that…

  15. Marriage, Cohabitation, and Happiness: A Cross-National Analysis of 27 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kristen Schultz; Ono, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated how the reported happiness of married and cohabiting individuals varies cross-nationally with societal gender beliefs and religious context. They used the 2002 International Social Survey Programme data from 27 countries (N = 36,889) and specified hierarchical linear models with macro-micro level interactions in order to…

  16. Interethnic contacts : a dynamic analysis of interaction between immigrants and natives in Western countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinovic, B.

    2010-01-01

    This book studies social integration of immigrants (i.e. contacts between immigrants and natives in leisure time) from a dynamic perspective. The central objective is to examine how such interethnic contacts change during the immigrants’ stay in the host country (do they increase, stagnate or decrea

  17. A standardized approach to qualitative content analysis of focus group discussions from different countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moretti, F.; Vliet, L. van; Bensing, J.; Deledda, G.; Mazzi, M.; Rimondini, M.; Zimmermann, C.; Fletcher, I.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the methodological procedures of a multi-centre focus group research for obtaining content categories also suitable for categorical statistical analyses. METHODS: Inductive content analyses were performed on a subsample of 27 focus groups conducted in three different countries

  18. Comparative Analysis of OECD Member Countries' Competitive Advantage in National Human Resource Development System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hunseok; Choi, Yeseul; Choi, Myungweon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess, evaluate, and compare the competitive advantages of the human resource development systems of advanced countries. The Global Human Resource Development Index was utilized for this study, since it has been validated through an expert panel's content review and analytic hierarchy process. Using a sample…

  19. POPs analysis reveals issues in bringing laboratories in developing countries to a higher quality level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van S.P.J.; Bavel, van B.; Abad, E.; Leslie, H.A.; Fiedler, H.; Boer, de J.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the performance of laboratories in 18 developing countries in analyzing persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in environmental and human samples, as part of a capacity-building program with the goal of helping laboratories increase proficiency in the types of analyses required for the POP

  20. Health system frameworks and performance indicators in eight countries: A comparative international analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Hibbert, Peter; Blakely, Brette; Plumb, Jennifer; Hannaford, Natalie; Long, Janet Cameron; Marks, Danielle

    2017-01-01

    Performance indicators are a popular mechanism for measuring the quality of healthcare to facilitate both quality improvement and systems management. Few studies make comparative assessments of different countries' performance indicator frameworks. This study identifies and compares frameworks and performance indicators used in selected Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development health systems to measure and report on the performance of healthcare organisations and local health systems. Countries involved are Australia, Canada, Denmark, England, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Scotland and the United States. Identification of comparable international indicators and analyses of their characteristics and of their broader national frameworks and contexts were undertaken. Two dimensions of indicators - that they are nationally consistent (used across the country rather than just regionally) and locally relevant (measured and reported publicly at a local level, for example, a health service) - were deemed important. The most commonly used domains in performance frameworks were safety, effectiveness and access. The search found 401 indicators that fulfilled the 'nationally consistent and locally relevant' criteria. Of these, 45 indicators are reported in more than one country. Cardiovascular, surgery and mental health were the most frequently reported disease groups. These comparative data inform researchers and policymakers internationally when designing health performance frameworks and indicator sets.

  1. Propagation of economic shocks in input-output networks: a cross-country analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Martha G Alatriste; Fagiolo, Giorgio

    2014-12-01

    This paper investigates how economic shocks propagate and amplify through the input-output network connecting industrial sectors in developed economies. We study alternative models of diffusion on networks and we calibrate them using input-output data on real-world inter-sectoral dependencies for several European countries before the Great Depression. We show that the impact of economic shocks strongly depends on the nature of the shock and country size. Shocks that impact on final demand without changing production and the technological relationships between sectors have on average a large but very homogeneous impact on the economy. Conversely, when shocks change also the magnitudes of input-output across-sector interdependencies (and possibly sector production), the economy is subject to predominantly large but more heterogeneous avalanche sizes. In this case, we also find that (i) the more a sector is globally central in the country network, the larger its impact; (ii) the largest European countries, such as those constituting the core of the European Union's economy, typically experience the largest avalanches, signaling their intrinsic higher vulnerability to economic shocks.

  2. POPs analysis reveals issues in bringing laboratories in developing countries to a higher quality level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van S.P.J.; Bavel, van B.; Abad, E.; Leslie, H.A.; Fiedler, H.; Boer, de J.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the performance of laboratories in 18 developing countries in analyzing persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in environmental and human samples, as part of a capacity-building program with the goal of helping laboratories increase proficiency in the types of analyses required for the

  3. Prevalence of foodborne pathogens in food from selected African countries – a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paudyal, Narayan; Anihouvi, Victor; Hounhouigan, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Food safety information in the African region is insufficient and fragmented due to lack of surveillance, documentation and reporting, thereby resulting in inefficient utilization of resources, duplication of activities, and lack of synergy among the countries of the region. This paper reviews th...

  4. Formal institutions, culture, and venture capital activity: A cross-country analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yong, L.; Zahra, Shaker

    2012-01-01

    Why does the level of venture capital activity vary across countries? This study suggests that the variation can be attributed to the different levels of formal institutional development. Further, this study proposes that venture capitalists respond differently to the incentives provided by formal

  5. G7 country Gross Domestic Product (GDP) time correlations. A graph network analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mi'skiewicz, J

    2005-01-01

    The correlation between G7 countries has been analysed on the basis of Gross Domestic Product using different distance functions i.e. discrete, linear correlation and distribution distance. The distance matrics is analysed by various graph methods and the percolation threshold is calculated. The globalization process understood as increas of correlation has been observed. The applications of different distance function discussed.

  6. Measuring Africa's E-Readiness in the Global Networked Economy: A Nine-Country Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifinedo, Princely

    2005-01-01

    This paper assesses the integration of Africa into the global economy by computing the e-readiness for nine African countries. The measuring tool used is simple and incorporates a variety of indicators used by comparable tools. Overall, the mean e-readiness of Africa is poor in comparison to other economies. Particularly, Sub-Saharan Africa…

  7. The choice of exchange rate regimes in developing countries: A mulitnominal panal analysis

    OpenAIRE

    von Hagen, Jürgen; Zhou, Jizhong

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the choices of exchange rate regimes in developing countries since 1980. Static and dynamic random-effects multinominal panel models are estimated using simulation-based techniques. Explanatory variables include OCA fundamentals, stabilization considerations, currency crises factors, and political and institutional features. The results reveal strong state dependence in regime choices.

  8. Brief Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P. Schofield

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available When predominantly White participants in Western countries are asked to shoot individuals in a computer game who may carry weapons, they show a greater bias to shoot at outgroup members and people stereotyped as dangerous. The goal was to determine the extent to which shooter biases in the Middle East would vary as a function of target ethnicity and culturally appropriate or inappropriate headgear. Within a sample of 37 male Saudi Arabian residents, we examined shooter biases outside of Western nations for the first time. Targets in this task were either White or Middle Eastern in appearance, and wore either American style baseball caps or a Saudi Arabian style shemagh and igal. Our results replicated the bias to shoot racial outgroup members observed in Western samples; we found a bias to shoot White over Middle Eastern targets. Unexpectedly, we also found a bias for Saudi participants to shoot at people wearing culturally appropriate traditional Saudi headgear over Western style baseball caps. To explain this latter finding, we cautiously speculate that relative perceptions of dangerousness in the Middle East may be influenced by media exposure and changing social conditions in the region.

  9. Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS): a mid-term analysis of progress in 50 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamara, Lidija; Lydon, Patrick; Bilous, Julian; Vandelaer, Jos; Eggers, Rudi; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Meaney, William; Okwo-Bele, Jean-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Within the overall framework set out in the Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS) for the period 2006-2015, over 70 countries had developed comprehensive Multi-Year Plans (cMYPs) by 2008, outlining their plans for implementing the GIVS strategies and for attaining the GIVS Goals at the midpoint in 2010 or earlier. These goals are to: (1) reach ≥90% and ≥80% vaccination coverage at national and district level, respectively; and (2) reduce measles-related mortality by 90% compared with the 2000 level. Fifty cMYPs were analysed along the four strategic areas of the GIVS: (1) protecting more people in a changing world; (2) introducing new vaccines and technologies; (3) integrating immunization, other health interventions and surveillance in the health system context; and (4) immunizing in the context of global interdependence. By 2010, all 50 countries planned to have introduced hepatitis B (HepB) vaccine, 48 the Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) vaccine and only a few countries had firm plans to introduce pneumococcal or rotavirus vaccines. Countries seem to be inadequately prepared in terms of cold-chain requirements to deal with the expected increases in storage that will be required for vaccines, and in making provisions to establish a corresponding surveillance system for planned new vaccine introductions. Immunization contacts are used to deliver other health interventions, especially in the countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) Africa Region. The cost for the planned immunization activities will double to U$27 per infant, of which U$5 per infant is the expected shortfall. Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) funding is becoming the largest contributor to immunization programmes.

  10. Mortality and cause-of-death reporting and analysis systems in seven pacific island countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Karen L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality statistics are essential for population health assessment. Despite limitations in data availability, Pacific Island Countries are considered to be in epidemiological transition, with non-communicable diseases increasingly contributing to premature adult mortality. To address rapidly changing health profiles, countries would require mortality statistics from routine death registration given their relatively small population sizes. Methods This paper uses a standard analytical framework to examine death registration systems in Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, Palau, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu. Results In all countries, legislation on death registration exists but does not necessarily reflect current practices. Health departments carry the bulk of responsibility for civil registration functions. Medical cause-of-death certificates are completed for at least hospital deaths in all countries. Overall, significantly more information is available than perceived or used. Use is primarily limited by poor understanding, lack of coordination, limited analytical skills, and insufficient technical resources. Conclusion Across the region, both registration and statistics systems need strengthening to improve the availability, completeness, and quality of data. Close interaction between health staff and local communities provides a good foundation for further improvements in death reporting. System strengthening activities must include a focus on clear assignment of responsibility, provision of appropriate authority to perform assigned tasks, and fostering ownership of processes and data to ensure sustained improvements. These human elements need to be embedded in a culture of data sharing and use. Lessons from this multi-country exercise would be applicable in other regions afflicted with similar issues of availability and quality of vital statistics.

  11. Multi-Country analysis of palm oil consumption and cardiovascular disease mortality for countries at different stages of economic development: 1980-1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Brian K

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases represent an increasing share of the global disease burden. There is concern that increased consumption of palm oil could exacerbate mortality from ischemic heart disease (IHD and stroke, particularly in developing countries where it represents a major nutritional source of saturated fat. Methods The study analyzed country-level data from 1980-1997 derived from the World Health Organization's Mortality Database, U.S. Department of Agriculture international estimates, and the World Bank (234 annual observations; 23 countries. Outcomes included mortality from IHD and stroke for adults aged 50 and older. Predictors included per-capita consumption of palm oil and cigarettes and per-capita Gross Domestic Product as well as time trends and an interaction between palm oil consumption and country economic development level. Analyses examined changes in country-level outcomes over time employing linear panel regressions with country-level fixed effects, population weighting, and robust standard errors clustered by country. Sensitivity analyses included further adjustment for other major dietary sources of saturated fat. Results In developing countries, for every additional kilogram of palm oil consumed per-capita annually, IHD mortality rates increased by 68 deaths per 100,000 (95% CI [21-115], whereas, in similar settings, stroke mortality rates increased by 19 deaths per 100,000 (95% CI [-12-49] but were not significant. For historically high-income countries, changes in IHD and stroke mortality rates from palm oil consumption were smaller (IHD: 17 deaths per 100,000 (95% CI [5.3-29]; stroke: 5.1 deaths per 100,000 (95% CI [-1.2-11.0]. Inclusion of other major saturated fat sources including beef, pork, chicken, coconut oil, milk cheese, and butter did not substantially change the differentially higher relationship between palm oil and IHD mortality in developing countries. Conclusions Increased palm oil

  12. Determinants of government HIV/AIDS financing: a 10-year trend analysis from 125 low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Carlos; Loncar, Dejan; Amico, Peter; De Lay, Paul

    2013-07-19

    Trends and predictors of domestic spending from public sources provide national authorities and international donors with a better understanding of the HIV financing architecture, the fulfillment of governments' commitments and potential for long-term sustainability. We analyzed government financing of HIV using evidence from country reports on domestic spending. Panel data from 2000 to 2010 included information from 647 country-years amongst 125 countries. A random-effects model was used to analyze ten year trends and identify independent predictors of public HIV spending. Low- and middle-income countries spent US$ 2.1 billion from government sources in 2000, growing to US$ 6.6 billion in 2010, a three-fold increase. Per capita spending in 2010 ranged from 5 cents in low-level HIV epidemics in the Middle East to US$ 32 in upper-middle income countries with generalized HIV epidemics in Southern Africa. The average domestic public spending per capita was US$ 2.55. The analysis found that GDP per capita and HIV prevalence are positively associated with increasing levels of HIV-spending from public sources; a 10 percent increase in HIV prevalence is associated with a 2.5 percent increase in domestic funding for HIV. Additionally, a 10 percent increase in GDP per capita is associated with an 11.49 percent increase in public spending for HIV and these associations were highly significant. Domestic resources in low- and middle-income countries showed a threefold increase between 2000 and 2010 and currently support 50 percent of the global response with 41 percent coming from sub-Saharan Africa. Domestic spending in LMICs was associated with increased economic growth and an increased burden of HIV. Sustained increases in funding for HIV from public sources were observed in all regions and emphasize the increasing importance of government financing.

  13. The geography of imported malaria to non-endemic countries: a meta-analysis of nationally reported statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatem, Andrew J; Jia, Peng; Ordanovich, Dariya; Falkner, Michael; Huang, Zhuojie; Howes, Rosalind; Hay, Simon I; Gething, Peter W; Smith, David L

    2017-01-01

    Malaria remains a problem for many countries classified as malaria free through cases imported from endemic regions. Imported cases to non-endemic countries often result in delays in diagnosis, are expensive to treat, and can sometimes cause secondary local transmission. The movement of malaria in endemic countries has also contributed to the spread of drug resistance and threatens long-term eradication goals. Here we focused on quantifying the international movements of malaria to improve our understanding of these phenomena and facilitate the design of mitigation strategies. In this meta-analysis, we studied the database of publicly available nationally reported statistics on imported malaria in the past 10 years, covering more than 50 000 individual cases. We obtained data from 40 non-endemic countries and recorded the geographical variations. Infection movements were strongly skewed towards a small number of high-traffic routes between 2005 and 2015, with the west Africa region accounting for 56% (13 947/24 941) of all imported cases to non-endemic countries with a reported travel destination, and France and the UK receiving the highest number of cases, with more than 4000 reported cases per year on average. Countries strongly linked by movements of imported cases are grouped by historical, language, and travel ties. There is strong spatial clustering of plasmodium species types. The architecture of the air network, historical ties, demographics of travellers, and malaria endemicity contribute to highly heterogeneous patterns of numbers, routes, and species compositions of parasites transported. With global malaria eradication on the international agenda, malaria control altering local transmission, and the threat of drug resistance, understanding these patterns and their drivers is increasing in importance. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, National Institutes of Health, UK Medical Research Council, UK Department for International Development, Wellcome

  14. An analysis of GAVI, the Global Fund and World Bank support for human resources for health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujicic, Marko; Weber, Stephanie E; Nikolic, Irina A; Atun, Rifat; Kumar, Ranjana

    2012-12-01

    Shortages, geographic imbalances and poor performance of health workers pose major challenges for improving health service delivery in developing countries. In response, multilateral agencies have increasingly recognized the need to invest in human resources for health (HRH) to assist countries in achieving their health system goals. In this paper we analyse the HRH-related activities of three agencies: the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI); the Global Fund for Aids, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (the Global Fund); and the World Bank. First, we reviewed the type of HRH-related activities that are eligible for financing within each agency. Second, we reviewed the HRH-related activities that each agency is actually financing. Third, we reviewed the literature to understand the impact that GAVI, Global Fund and World Bank investments in HRH have had on the health workforce in developing countries. Our analysis found that by far the most common activity supported across all agencies is short-term, in-service training. There is relatively little investment in expanding pre-service training capacity, despite large health worker shortages in developing countries. We also found that the majority of GAVI and the Global Fund grants finance health worker remuneration, largely through supplemental allowances, with little information available on how payment rates are determined, how the potential negative consequences are mitigated, and how payments are to be sustained at the end of the grant period. Based on the analysis, we argue there is an opportunity for improved co-ordination between the three agencies at the country level in supporting HRH-related activities. Existing initiatives, such as the International Health Partnership and the Health Systems Funding Platform, could present viable and timely vehicles for the three agencies to implement this improved co-ordination.

  15. Can cross country differences in return-to-work after chronic occupational back pain be explained? An exploratory analysis on disability policies in a six country cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anema, J R; Schellart, A J M; Cassidy, J D; Loisel, P; Veerman, T J; van der Beek, A J

    2009-12-01

    There are substantial differences in the number of disability benefits for occupational low back pain (LBP) among countries. There are also large cross country differences in disability policies. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) there are two principal policy approaches: countries which have an emphasis on a compensation policy approach or countries with an emphasis on an reintegration policy approach. The International Social Security Association initiated this study to explain differences in return-to-work (RTW) among claimants with long term sick leave due to LBP between countries with a special focus on the effect of different disability policies. A multinational cohort of 2,825 compensation claimants off work for 3-4 months due to LBP was recruited in Denmark, Germany, Israel, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States. Relevant predictors and interventions were measured at 3 months, one and 2 years after the start of sick leave. The main outcome measure was duration until sustainable RTW (i.e. working after 2 years). Multivariate analyses were conducted to explain differences in sustainable RTW between countries and to explore the effect of different disability policies. Medical and work interventions varied considerably between countries. Sustainable RTW ranged from 22% in the German cohort up to 62% in the Dutch cohort after 2 years of follow-up. Work interventions and job characteristics contributed most to these differences. Patient health, medical interventions and patient characteristics were less important. In addition, cross-country differences in eligibility criteria for entitlement to long-term and/or partial disability benefits contributed to the observed differences in sustainable RTW rates: less strict criteria are more effective. The model including various compensation policy variables explained 48% of the variance. Large cross-country differences in sustainable RTW after chronic LBP are mainly

  16. Operational and implementation research within Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria grants: a situation analysis in six countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Sabine; Knoblauch, Astrid M; Steinmann, Peter; Barth-Jaeggi, Tanja; Vahedi, Mahnaz; Maher, Dermot; Utzinger, Jürg; Wyss, Kaspar

    2017-03-24

    Operational/implementation research (OR/IR) is a key activity to improve disease control programme performance. We assessed the extent to which malaria and tuberculosis (TB) grants from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria ("Global Fund") include support for OR/IR, and discuss the implications of the current Global Fund operating mechanisms for OR/IR support. The situation analysis focussed on malaria and TB, while HIV was excluded. Stakeholder interviews were conducted at the Global Fund secretariat and in six purposefully selected high disease burden countries, namely the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Myanmar and Zimbabwe. Interviewed in-country stakeholders included the relevant disease control programme managers, project implementation partners, representatives from international organisations with a stake in global health, academic and governmental research institutions, and other relevant individuals such as members of the country coordination mechanism. Additionally, documentation of grants and OR/IR obtained from the Global Fund was reviewed. The Global Fund provides substantial resources for malaria and TB surveys, and supports OR/IR if such support is requested and the application is well justified. We observed considerable variations from one country to another and between programmes with regards to need, demand, absorption capacity and funding for OR/IR related to malaria and TB. Important determinants for the extent of such funding are the involvement of national research coordination bodies, established research agendas and priorities, human and technical research capacity, and involvement of relevant stakeholders in concept note development. Efforts to disseminate OR/IR findings were generally weak, and the Global Fund does not maintain a central OR/IR database. When faced with a need to choose between procurement of commodities for disease control and supporting research, countries tend to seek

  17. One-dimensional V-Scope analysis of habituation to simulated cross-country skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candler, P D; Li, J C; Tipler, B J

    1995-07-01

    Responses to simulated cross-country skiing were measured using the V-Scope, a new telemetric ultrasound motion monitor. Ten young male adults performed a total of 45 minutes of distributed practice on a Nordic-Track ski simulator. Over a period of three 15-minute sessions cadence and velocity were unchanged. Step and stride lengths decreased significantly (p < 0.05) after the first 15-minute session and then remained unchanged. There were no left-right limb differences across all sessions indicating a normal gait. Response variability in velocity, step lengths and stride length was dramatically reduced after the first exposure period. This study demonstrates that the V-Scope system is a useful motion analysing device and, on the basis of the data presented in this preliminary investigation, at least two 15-minute habituation sessions are required for initial habituation to simulated cross-country skiing.

  18. Spurious synchronization of business cycles – Dynamic correlation analysis of V4 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svatopluk Kapounek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our paper is to define rules for decision of existence spurious synchronization of countries within the currency area. We devote this new methodological approach from an empirical research based on the variability of a dynamic correlation (correlation in frequency domain. We analyze the dynamic correlation in full range and in the business cycle frequencies as well. We also consider lags in economic activity co-movements. Contrary to the standard approach we show its insufficiency especially in case of time domain instruments. For this goal GDP values in quarters of the four Visegrad countries and the Eurozone in the period 1997/Q1–2011/Q1 are used.

  19. What influences government adoption of vaccines in developing countries? A policy process analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munira, Syarifah Liza; Fritzen, Scott A

    2007-10-01

    This paper proposes a framework for examining the process by which government consideration and adoption of new vaccines takes place, with specific reference to developing country settings. The cases of early Hepatitis B vaccine adoption in Taiwan and Thailand are used to explore the relevance of explanatory factors identified in the literature as well as the need to go beyond a variable-centric focus by highlighting the role of policy context and process in determining the pace and extent of adoption. The cases suggest the feasibility and importance of modeling 'causal diversity'-the complex set of necessary and sufficient conditions leading to particular decisional outcomes-in a broad range of country contexts. A better understanding of the lenses through which government decision-makers filter information, and of the arenas in which critical decisions are shaped and taken, may assist both analysts (in predicting institutionalization of new vaccines) and advocates (in crafting targeted strategies to accelerate their diffusion).

  20. An Econometric Analysis of the Relationship between Health and Economic Growth in OECD Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih YARDIMCIOĞLU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the long-run relationship between health (life expectancy and economic growth in the 25 OECD countries over the period from 1975 to 2008 by utilizing the Pedroni panel cointegration, Pedroni FMOLS and Canning-Pedroni causality methods. The cointegration test results show that there is a cointegration relationship between health and economic growth in the long run. According to Panel Panel FMOLS results the elasticity coefficient of health is % 0.18, the elasticity coefficient of economic growth is % 0.17. The results of Lamda-Pearson statistics indicate the long-run bilateral causality between health and economic growth. It is concluded that there is a strong cointegration relationship between health and economic growth in OECD Countries in the long run.

  1. Dynamics of FDI, Technological Transformation and Environmental Degradation in Developing Countries: A Panel Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farwa Amjad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between FDI, technology and environment with an assessment of aggregated relationship, by technical composition and the mode of technology transferability through FDI. A panel data for 19 developing countries has been used to for 14 years of data. The empirical results have suggested that FDI is the significant variable in explaining the carbon emission in developing countries followed by energy consumption and technology transformation. Our findings suggest that to manage both energy consumption and FDI flows via investment in research and development (RDY or energy efficiency demand to reduce CO2 emissions is not possible without stringent environmental regulations and without retaining the developing countries’ competitiveness.

  2. DEMAND FOR OIL PRODUCTS IN OPEC COUNTRIES: A PANEL COINTEGRATION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourah Al Yousef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing consumption of oil-refined products on OPEC countries will have its impact on the availability of oil exports. The goal of this paper is to examine the determinants of oil refined products’ consumption for a panel consisting of 7 OPEC countries, namely, Algeria, Kuwait, Libya, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Emirates and Iran for the period of 1980–2010, by employing the recently developed panel data unit root tests and panel data cointegration techniques. Furthermore, conditional on finding cointegration, the paper extends the literature by employing the Pedroni Panel Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS Dynamic OLS (DOLS procedure to generate. The study estimates the demand for Gasoline, Kerosene and Diesel. An attempt is also made to assess the impact of this demand on the future availability of OPEC oil exports.

  3. Cesarean section trends in the Nordic Countries - a comparative analysis with the Robson classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyykönen, Aura; Gissler, Mika; Løkkegaard, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The cesarean rates are low but increasing in most Nordic countries. Using the Robson classification, we analyzed which obstetric groups have contributed to the changes in the cesarean rates. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective population-based registry study including all deliveries...... (3,398,586) between 2000 and 2011 in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The Robson group distribution, cesarean rate and contribution of each Robson group were analyzed nationally for four three-year time periods. For each country, we analyzed which groups contributed to the change...... in the total cesarean rate. RESULTS: Between the first and the last time period studied, the total cesarean rates increased in Denmark (16.4-20.7%), Norway (14.4-16.5%) and Sweden (15.5-17.1%), but towards the end of our study, the cesarean rates stabilized or even decreased. The increase was explained mainly...

  4. Unemployment and Economic Growth of Developing Asian Countries: A Panel Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the new regression estimates of the relationship between unemployment and economic growth for 12 selected Asian countries over the period 1982-2011. Fixed effect and Pooled OLS techniques are used to analyze the panel data for measuring individual country effects, group effects and time effects while exploring the relationship between Unemployment rate and the Economic Growth. The results showed that higher unemployment rate has significant negative impact on GDP per capita growth (a proxy for economic growth. The results also investigated that economic growth seems to be significantly affected by traditional determinants such as Inflation (consumer price index, Population growth, Gross Capital Formation, Trade openness etc. Based on our results the author has concluded that reduction in unemployment rate would be a better option for more and sustained economic growth and also improving the welfare of the people.

  5. The impact of immigration on health systems: a legal analysis from a three-country perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, J; Carstens, P; Talib, N

    2005-06-01

    The focus of this paper will be on how health care systems in three countries, Malaysia, South Africa and the United States, are responding to the health needs of immigrants with a strong focus on the legal aspects of the respective national responses. The Malaysia portion emphasizes legal immigration and analyses as to how the country's Ministry of Health and the delivery system itself is responding to the demands of immigrant's health. In the context of South Africa, the paper explores implications of the South African Constitution, which establishes a right to access health care, and explores whether such a right can be extended to non-citizens, or can be tempered by economic constraints. In the American discussion the focus is on whether publicly supported health care programs can be accessed to provide coverage for undocumented residents, and highlights recent constraints in using government monies in this area.

  6. GLOBALISATION AND THE UNPREDICTABILITY OF CRISIS EPISODES: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF COUNTRY RISK INDEXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San-Martín-Albizuri, Nerea

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing globalisation process has not put an end to international financial crises. On the contrary, it seems to have contributed to their appearance and to accentuating their degrees of unpredictability. In this context, the main objective of the present study is to establish whether the values of the best-known and most widely used country risk indexes, namely, the Euromoney index and the International Country Risk Group (ICRG, and the values of their representative variables could have forecasted well in advance the crises that took place between 1994 and 2002, a period which is herein termed the ‘globalisation era’. The results show that, although the selected indexes and their representative variables were able to identify certain vulnerabilities, they could not accurately identify the political, economic, and/or financial factors that developed prior to these crisis episodes.

  7. INTENSITY OF USE HYPOTHESIS: ANALYSIS OF SELECTED ASIAN COUNTRIES WITH STRUCTURAL DIFFERENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Oladimeji Soile

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several efforts have been made to estimate the relationship between intensity of metal use and per capita income at different levels with results supporting the hypothesis that metal consumption per unit of GDP initially increases, peak and later decline with rising income per head. This paper estimates the intensity of copper use curves for three Asian countries with different economic structure to show that the I-U hypothesis significantly underplay the influence of economic structure and other technological innovations by its exclusive emphasis on per capital income. The results are in general conformity with the notion that the intensity of material use (I-U is higher for industrial and very low for service based economies. Though the finding is mixed in the agrarian country considered, the paper suggests the need for further research to corroborate this outcome.

  8. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2009 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  9. Sustainability of Public Debt and Budget Deficit: Panel cointegration analysis for the European Union Member countries

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we analyse the sustainability of fiscal policy of EU member countries within the panel cointegration and error-correction frameworks. Unlike the previous empirical papers in this area, we apply the test for panel cointegration between the primary budget deficit and the public debt defined in GDP ratios. Based on the cointegration test results, we conclude that the fiscal policy is consistent with the intertemporal budget constraint, i.e., it is sustainable in the panel of fifte...

  10. Over-urbanization and air pollution: a cross-country analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Raufan Salahodajev

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of overurbanization on different measures of air pollution in a diverse sample of developed and developing countries. The main finding is that overurbanization increases greenhouse gas emissions, measured by CO2, NOx and SO2 emissions per capita. This effect is robust to controlling for various antecedents of air pollution. Our findings provide a contribution to the ongoing debate over the role of urbanization in environmental changes.

  11. Construction Waste Management Profiles, Practices, and Performance: A Cross-Jurisdictional Analysis in Four Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Wing-Yan Tam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Construction waste management (CWM has received worldwide attention for some time. As a result, a plethora of research, investigating a wide array of CWM issues such as their profiles, practices, and performance, has been reported in individual economies around the globe. However, a cross-jurisdictional comparison of these issues is limitedly presented in the literature despite its importance to benchmarking performance and identifying best CWM practices in the context of globalization whereby knowledge sharing has already transcended traditional country boundaries. The aim of this ex post facto research is to compare CWM profiles, practices, and performance in Australia, Europe (Europe refers to EU-27 member countries in the European Union, including Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Denmark, Great Britain, Ireland, Portugal, Spain, Greece, Austria, Finland, Sweden, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Malta, Cyprus, Bulgaria, and Romania., Hong Kong, and the United Kingdom at a national-level, with a view to facilitating CWM knowledge sharing internationally. It does so by triangulating empirical data collected from various national statistical yearbooks with research papers and professional reports on CWM in these economies. It is found that in producing one million (US dollars’ work, construction contributes a volume of solid waste ranging from 28 to 121 tons among countries. Conscientious CWM practices can make a significant difference in reducing, reusing, or recycling construction waste, as evident in the large variation in the CWM performance. While it might be oversimplified to conclude that the best practices in one country can be applied in another, the research provides insightful references into sharing CWM knowledge across boundaries.

  12. A conjoint analysis of food retailers' buying behaviour of fish products in 14 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans; Blunch, Niels Johan

    This paper reports some initial findings from a large project on retail buying behaviour in 17 European countries. The study demonstrates that the traditional four P's as influencing factors are losing relative importance to some hitherto neglec factors, which retail suppliers have to take into a...... into account, and which could give rise to special problems for small and medium-sized sup-pliers. A segmentation of retail chains based on these new factors is also made....

  13. Working Conditions and Wellbeing: A multilevel analysis of 34 European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Stornes, Per

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of working conditions on wellbeing in 34 European countries. The background for the study is an interest in work as a social determinant of health, in this case mental health as captured in the concept of wellbeing.Working conditions are theorized at three levels. At the micro level, the psychosocial theories on stress and the work environment are reviewed; the demand-control-support model, effort-reward imbalance, organizational justice and emotional labour. Th...

  14. An analysis of CO{sub 2} emissions and economic activity in the MERCOSUR countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, S.M.G.; Berni, M.D. [State University of Campinas, Campinas (Brazil). Dept. of Energy

    1998-07-01

    The relationship between economic activity, energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emission is analyzed for the period from 1973 to 1993 in the countries forming the so called South Common Market MERCOSUR, made up of Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. The knowledge of the results obtained from these analyses is important for establishing energy policies that consider especially the aspects connected to CO{sub 2} emissions. 25 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. Income, financial barriers to health care and public health expenditure: A multilevel analysis of 28 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Jun; Vonneilich, Nico; Lüdecke, Daniel; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf

    2017-03-01

    International studies have repeatedly shown that people with lower income are more likely to experience difficulties to access medical services. Less is known on why these relations vary across countries. This study investigates whether the association between income and financial barriers to health care is influenced by national public health expenditures (PHE, in % of total health expenditure). Data from the International Social Survey Programme (2011) was used (28 countries, 23,669 respondents). Financial barriers were assessed by the individual experience of forgone care due to financial reasons. Monthly equivalent household income was included as the main predictor. Other individual-level control variables were age, gender, education, subjective health, insurance coverage and place of living. PHE was considered as a macro-level predictor, adjusted for total health expenditure. Statistically significant associations between income and forgone care were found in 21 of 28 examined countries. Multilevel analyses across countries revealed that people with lower income have a higher likelihood to forgo needed medical care (OR: 3.94, 95%-CI: 2.96-5.24). After adjustments for individual-level covariates, this association slightly decreased (OR: 2.94, 95%-CI: 2.16-3.99). PHE did not moderate the relation between income and forgone care. The linkage between health system financing and inequalities in access to health care seems to be more complex than initially assumed, pointing towards further research to explore how PHE affects the redistribution of health resources in different health care systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Income and functional limitations among the aged in Europe: a trend analysis in 16 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von dem Knesebeck, Olaf; Vonneilich, Nico; Lüdecke, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Analyses are focused on 3 research questions: (1) Are there absolute and relative income-related inequalities in functional limitations among the aged in Europe? (2) Did the absolute and relative income-related inequalities in functional limitations among the aged change between 2002 and 2014? (3) Are there differences in the changes of income-related inequalities between European countries? Data stem from 7 waves (2002-2014) of the European Social Survey. Samples of people aged 60 years or older from 16 European countries were analysed (N=63 024). Inequalities were measured by means of absolute prevalence rate differences and relative prevalence rate ratios of low versus high income. Meta-analyses with random-effect models were used to study the trends of inequalities in functional limitations over time. Functional limitations among people aged 60 years or older declined between 2002 and 2014 in most of the 16 European countries. Older people with a low income had higher rates of functional limitations and elevated rate ratios compared with people with high income. These inequalities were significant in many countries and were more pronounced among men than among women. Overall, absolute and relative income-related inequalities increased between 2002 and 2014, especially in Ireland, the Netherlands and Sweden. High-income groups are more in favour of the observed overall decline in functional limitations than deprived groups. Results point to potential income-related inequalities in compression of morbidity in the recent past in Europe. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. A conjoint analysis of food retailers' buying behaviour of fish products in 14 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans; Blunch, Niels Johan

    This paper reports some initial findings from a large project on retail buying behaviour in 17 European countries. The study demonstrates that the traditional four P's as influencing factors are losing relative importance to some hitherto neglec factors, which retail suppliers have to take...... into account, and which could give rise to special problems for small and medium-sized sup-pliers. A segmentation of retail chains based on these new factors is also made....

  18. Nuclear energy-economic growth nexus in OECD countries. A panel data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozcan, Burcu [Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey). Dept. of Economics; Ari, Ayse [Nigde Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Economics

    2016-01-15

    The relationship between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in 13 OECD countries from 1980 to 2012 is analyzed. The panel causality results supported the feedback hypothesis in both the short-run and long-run. There is a positive relationship between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth. As such, nuclear energy consumption and economic growth complement and reinforce each other. Nuclear energy conservation policies may negatively affect economic growth rates.

  19. Political Economy of Exchange Rate Regimes: A Panel Data Analysis of Selected European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Beşkaya, Ahmet; Havanur ERGÜN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of economic and political factors on the choice of exchange rate regimes. In order to achieve this goal, we apply for Binary Choice Panel Probit Model to examine the relationships between exchange rate regimes and financial depth, real exchange rate, capital inflow and democracy. Our data covers the period of 1980-2013 for the selected EU countries, namely, Austria, Germany, Belgium, France, Denmark, England, Sweden and Italy. Estimation res...

  20. Health system frameworks and performance indicators in eight countries: A comparative international analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Braithwaite

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Performance indicators are a popular mechanism for measuring the quality of healthcare to facilitate both quality improvement and systems management. Few studies make comparative assessments of different countries’ performance indicator frameworks. This study identifies and compares frameworks and performance indicators used in selected Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development health systems to measure and report on the performance of healthcare organisations and local health systems. Countries involved are Australia, Canada, Denmark, England, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Scotland and the United States. Methods: Identification of comparable international indicators and analyses of their characteristics and of their broader national frameworks and contexts were undertaken. Two dimensions of indicators – that they are nationally consistent (used across the country rather than just regionally and locally relevant (measured and reported publicly at a local level, for example, a health service – were deemed important. Results: The most commonly used domains in performance frameworks were safety, effectiveness and access. The search found 401 indicators that fulfilled the ‘nationally consistent and locally relevant’ criteria. Of these, 45 indicators are reported in more than one country. Cardiovascular, surgery and mental health were the most frequently reported disease groups. Conclusion: These comparative data inform researchers and policymakers internationally when designing health performance frameworks and indicator sets.

  1. Health system frameworks and performance indicators in eight countries: A comparative international analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Hibbert, Peter; Blakely, Brette; Plumb, Jennifer; Hannaford, Natalie; Long, Janet Cameron; Marks, Danielle

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Performance indicators are a popular mechanism for measuring the quality of healthcare to facilitate both quality improvement and systems management. Few studies make comparative assessments of different countries’ performance indicator frameworks. This study identifies and compares frameworks and performance indicators used in selected Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development health systems to measure and report on the performance of healthcare organisations and local health systems. Countries involved are Australia, Canada, Denmark, England, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Scotland and the United States. Methods: Identification of comparable international indicators and analyses of their characteristics and of their broader national frameworks and contexts were undertaken. Two dimensions of indicators – that they are nationally consistent (used across the country rather than just regionally) and locally relevant (measured and reported publicly at a local level, for example, a health service) – were deemed important. Results: The most commonly used domains in performance frameworks were safety, effectiveness and access. The search found 401 indicators that fulfilled the ‘nationally consistent and locally relevant’ criteria. Of these, 45 indicators are reported in more than one country. Cardiovascular, surgery and mental health were the most frequently reported disease groups. Conclusion: These comparative data inform researchers and policymakers internationally when designing health performance frameworks and indicator sets. PMID:28228948

  2. Perceived neighborhood safety and sleep quality: a global analysis of six countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Terrence D; Trinh, Ha Ngoc; Wen, Ming; Hale, Lauren

    2016-02-01

    Building on previous North American and European studies of neighborhood context and sleep quality, we tested whether several self-reported sleep outcomes (sleep duration, insomnia symptoms, sleepiness, lethargy, and overall sleep quality) vary according to the level of perceived neighborhood safety in six countries: Mexico, Ghana, South Africa, India, China, and Russia. Using data (n = 39,590) from Wave I of the World Health Organization's Longitudinal Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (2007-2010), we estimated a series of multinomial and binary logistic regression equations to model each sleep outcome within each country. Taken together, our results show that respondents who feel safe from crime and violence in their neighborhoods tend to exhibit more favorable sleep outcomes than respondents who feel less safe. This general pattern is especially pronounced in China and Russia, moderately evident in Mexico, Ghana, and South Africa, and sporadic in India. Perceptions of neighborhood safety are strongly associated with insomnia symptoms and poor sleep quality (past 30 days), moderately associated with sleepiness, lethargy, and poor sleep quality (past 2 days), and inconsistently associated with sleep duration (past two days). We show that perceived neighborhood safety is associated with more favorable self-reported sleep outcomes in six understudied countries. Additional research is needed to replicate our findings using longitudinal data, more reliable neighborhood measures, and more direct measures of sleep quality in these and other regions of the world. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Do GCI indicators predict SME creation? A Western Balkans cross-country comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fëllënza Lushaku

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In early stages SMEs were seen as insignificant supplement to large business supply, whereas today they have a very important social and economic role, because of their contribution to job creation. These contributions are very valuable in times of crises and rising unemployment. In Kosovo and the Western Balkan countries, including countries such as Albania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, the development of SMEs can contribute in facing many challenges, effects of inequality, high level of unemployment and demographic challenges. In addition, SME development can contribute to strengthening the competitiveness and productivity, while also promoting the growth of income per capita. Besides the positive perception the creation of small and medium enterprises has, it is also indispensable to consider their extinction rate, being the most affected category of businesses, especially in the initial stages. It is proved that the net SME creation and cross-country differences in the relationship between new businesses and extinct businesses, can serve as a recommendation for policy makers in order to create a favorable climate for small and medium enterprises. GCI indicators that measures global competitiveness are used to determine if the climate of competitiveness predicts the development of SMEs.

  4. Brief Analysis on Chinese Patents of Wearable Biomedical Devices%可穿戴式生物医疗设备国内专利技术浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉平

    2015-01-01

    Wearable biomedical devices are given wide atention in recent years. Through statistics and brief analysis on Chinese patents of this ifeld, the paper hopes to provide help for the industry enterprise on research and development strategy and strategic layout.%可穿戴式生物医疗设备在近年来受到广泛关注。本文通过对该领域国内专利技术进行统计和浅显的分析,希望对业内企业的研发策略和战略布局提供帮助。

  5. 光纤光缆主要的环境保护标准%Brief analysis of the main optical fiber and cable environmental protection standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁峰; 詹朗朗; 吴金华; 顾利国

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces several domestic and international environmental standards of protection of optical fiber and cable, and makes a brief analysis for standard. On this basis the paper mainly compares EU RoHS standard with ours, thus to adjust the direction of environmental protection and plan for the future development and progress of optical fiber and cable enterprises.%本文介绍了几种国内外的光纤光缆环境保护标准,并对于标准做了简要分析。在此基础上重点比较欧盟和国内的RoHS标准。

  6. The Problem with Briefs, in Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, Carrie L.

    2013-01-01

    Policy briefs written by academics--the kind typically published in "Education Finance and Policy"--should be a crucial source of information for policy makers. Yet too frequently these briefs fail to garner the consideration they deserve. Their authors are too focused on the potential objections of their fellow academics, who are…

  7. The Problem with Briefs, in Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, Carrie L.

    2013-01-01

    Policy briefs written by academics--the kind typically published in "Education Finance and Policy"--should be a crucial source of information for policy makers. Yet too frequently these briefs fail to garner the consideration they deserve. Their authors are too focused on the potential objections of their fellow academics, who are…

  8. Effect of corruption on healthcare satisfaction in post-soviet nations: A cross-country instrumental variable analysis of twelve countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibov, Nazim

    2016-03-01

    There is the lack of consensus about the effect of corruption on healthcare satisfaction in transitional countries. Interpreting the burgeoning literature on this topic has proven difficult due to reverse causality and omitted variable bias. In this study, the effect of corruption on healthcare satisfaction is investigated in a set of 12 Post-Socialist countries using instrumental variable regression on the sample of 2010 Life in Transition survey (N = 8655). The results indicate that experiencing corruption significantly reduces healthcare satisfaction. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Spatial Access to Emergency Services in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A GIS-Based Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansley, Gavin; Schuurman, Nadine; Amram, Ofer; Yanchar, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Injury is a leading cause of the global disease burden, accounting for 10 percent of all deaths worldwide. Despite 90 percent of these deaths occurring in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), the majority of trauma research and infrastructure development has taken place in high-income settings. Furthermore, although accessible services are of central importance to a mature trauma system, there remains a paucity of literature describing the spatial accessibility of emergency services in LMICs. Using data from the Service Provision Assessment component of the Demographic and Health Surveys of Namibia and Haiti we defined the capabilities of healthcare facilities in each country in terms of their preparedness to provide emergency services. A Geographic Information System-based network analysis method was used to define 5- 10- and 50-kilometer catchment areas for all facilities capable of providing 24-hour care, higher-level resuscitative services or tertiary care. The proportion of a country's population with access to each level of service was obtained by amalgamating the catchment areas with a population layer. A significant proportion of the population of both countries had poor spatial access to lower level services with 25% of the population of Haiti and 51% of the population of Namibia living further than 50 kilometers from a facility capable of providing 24-hour care. Spatial access to tertiary care was considerably lower with 51% of Haitians and 72% of Namibians having no access to these higher-level services within 50 kilometers. These results demonstrate a significant disparity in potential spatial access to emergency services in two LMICs compared to analogous estimates from high-income settings, and suggest that strengthening the capabilities of existing facilities may improve the equity of emergency services in these countries. Routine collection of georeferenced patient and facility data in LMICs will be important to understanding how spatial access

  10. Spatial Access to Emergency Services in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A GIS-Based Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Tansley

    Full Text Available Injury is a leading cause of the global disease burden, accounting for 10 percent of all deaths worldwide. Despite 90 percent of these deaths occurring in low and middle-income countries (LMICs, the majority of trauma research and infrastructure development has taken place in high-income settings. Furthermore, although accessible services are of central importance to a mature trauma system, there remains a paucity of literature describing the spatial accessibility of emergency services in LMICs. Using data from the Service Provision Assessment component of the Demographic and Health Surveys of Namibia and Haiti we defined the capabilities of healthcare facilities in each country in terms of their preparedness to provide emergency services. A Geographic Information System-based network analysis method was used to define 5- 10- and 50-kilometer catchment areas for all facilities capable of providing 24-hour care, higher-level resuscitative services or tertiary care. The proportion of a country's population with access to each level of service was obtained by amalgamating the catchment areas with a population layer. A significant proportion of the population of both countries had poor spatial access to lower level services with 25% of the population of Haiti and 51% of the population of Namibia living further than 50 kilometers from a facility capable of providing 24-hour care. Spatial access to tertiary care was considerably lower with 51% of Haitians and 72% of Namibians having no access to these higher-level services within 50 kilometers. These results demonstrate a significant disparity in potential spatial access to emergency services in two LMICs compared to analogous estimates from high-income settings, and suggest that strengthening the capabilities of existing facilities may improve the equity of emergency services in these countries. Routine collection of georeferenced patient and facility data in LMICs will be important to understanding

  11. Availability of family planning services and quality of counseling by faith-based organizations: a three country comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden-O'Fallon, Janine

    2017-05-08

    Faith-based organizations (FBOs) have a long history of providing health services in developing countries and are important contributors to healthcare systems. Support for the wellbeing of women, children, and families is evidenced through active participation in the field of family planning (FP). However, there is little quantitative evidence on the availability or quality of FP services by FBOs. The descriptive analysis uses facility-level data collected through recent Service Provision Assessments in Malawi (2013-14), Kenya (2010), and Haiti (2012) to examine 11 indicators of FP service and method availability and nine indicators of comprehensive and quality counseling. The indicators include measures of FP service provision, method mix, method stock, the provision of accurate information, and the discussion of reproductive intentions, client's questions/concerns, prevention of sexually transmitted infections, and return visits, among others. Pearson's Chi-square test is used to assess the selected indicators by managing authority (FBO, public, and other private sector) to determine statistical equivalence. Results show that FBOs are less likely to offer FP services than other managing authorities (p analysis indicate that there is room for improvement in the availability of FP services by FBOs in these countries. Quality of counseling should be improved by all managing authorities in the three countries, as indicated by low overall coverage for practices such as ensuring confidentiality (22% in Malawi, 47% in Kenya and 12% in Haiti), discussion of sexually transmitted infections (18%, 25%, 17%, respectively), and providing services to youth (53%, 27%, 32%, respectively).

  12. Compare the user interface of digital libraries\\' websites between the developing and developed countries in content analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Abbas Mousavi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study performed with goals of determining the Items in designing and developing the user interface of digital libraries' websites and to determine the best digital libraries' websites and discuss their advantages and disadvantages; to analyze and compare digital libraries' websites in developing countries with those in the developed countries. Methodology: to do so, 50 digital libraries' websites were selected by purposive sampling method. By analyzing the level of development of the countries in the sample regarding their digital libraries' websites, 12 websites were classified as belonging to developing and 38 countries to developed counties. Then, their content was studied by using a qualitative content analysis. The study was conducted by using a research-constructed checklist containing 12 main categories and 44 items, whose validity was decided by content validity method. The data was analyzed in SPSS (version 16. Findings: The results showed that in terms of “online resources”, “library collection,” and “navigation”, there is a significant relationship between the digital library' user interface design in both types of countries. Results: The items of “online public access catalogue (OPAC” and “visits statistics” were observed in more developing countries’ digital libraries' websites. However, the item of “menu and submenus to introduce library' sections” was presented in more developed countries’ digital libraries' websites. Moreover, by analyzing the number of items in the selected websites, “American Memory” with 44 items, “International Children Digital Library” with 40 items, and “California” with 39 items were the best, and “Berkeley Sun Site” with 10 items was the worst website. Despite more and better quality digital libraries in developed countries, the quality of digital libraries websites in developing countries is considerable. In general, some of the newly established

  13. Cesarean section trends in the Nordic Countries - a comparative analysis with the Robson classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyykönen, Aura; Gissler, Mika; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Bergholt, Thomas; Rasmussen, Steen C; Smárason, Alexander; Bjarnadóttir, Ragnheiður I; Másdóttir, Birna B; Källén, Karin; Klungsoyr, Kari; Albrechtsen, Susanne; Skjeldestad, Finn E; Tapper, Anna-Maija

    2017-05-01

    The cesarean rates are low but increasing in most Nordic countries. Using the Robson classification, we analyzed which obstetric groups have contributed to the changes in the cesarean rates. Retrospective population-based registry study including all deliveries (3 398 586) between 2000 and 2011 in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The Robson group distribution, cesarean rate and contribution of each Robson group were analyzed nationally for four 3-year time periods. For each country, we analyzed which groups contributed to the change in the total cesarean rate. Between the first and the last time period studied, the total cesarean rates increased in Denmark (16.4 to 20.7%), Norway (14.4 to 16.5%) and Sweden (15.5 to 17.1%), but towards the end of our study, the cesarean rates stabilized or even decreased. The increase was explained mainly by increases in the absolute contribution from R5 (women with previous cesarean) and R2a (induced labor on nulliparous). In Finland, the cesarean rate decreased slightly (16.5 to 16.2%) mainly due to decrease among R5 and R6-R7 (breech presentation, nulliparous/multiparous). In Iceland, the cesarean rate decreased in all parturient groups (17.6 to 15.3%), most essentially among nulliparous women despite the increased induction rates. The increased total cesarean rates in the Nordic countries are explained by increased cesarean rates among nulliparous women, and by an increased percentage of women with previous cesarean. Meanwhile, induction rates on nulliparous increased significantly, but the impact on the total cesarean rate was unclear. The Robson classification facilitates benchmarking and targeting efforts for lowering the cesarean rates. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. CLASSIFICATION OF EU COUNTRIES IN TERMS OF THE EVOLUTION OF THE GHG INDICATOR USING CLUSTER ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINOIU CRISTIAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gases are one of the main factors that influence the Earth's global temperature variation. As the result of both the beginning of the industrial revolution (the 1750’s and the intensificication and diversification of human activities, the volume of greenhouse gasses increases significantly. The risk of an accelerated global warming can be decreased by reducing the volume of greenhouse gasses emissions resulting from human activities. The annual volume of these emissions is reflected by the Greenhouse gas (GHG indicator. This work carries out a classification of EU countries on the basis of the evolution of the GHG indicator using Partitioning Around Medoids (PAM method.

  15. Spatial Quantile Regression In Analysis Of Healthy Life Years In The European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trzpiot Grażyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the impact of the selected factors on the healthy life years of men and women in the EU countries. The multiple quantile spatial autoregression models are used in order to account for substantial differences in the healthy life years and life quality across the EU members. Quantile regression allows studying dependencies between variables in different quantiles of the response distribution. Moreover, this statistical tool is robust against violations of the classical regression assumption about the distribution of the error term. Parameters of the models were estimated using instrumental variable method (Kim, Muller 2004, whereas the confidence intervals and p-values were bootstrapped.

  16. Comparative analysis of public service advertising regulation in Russian Federation and European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nureeva Maria, R.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern world public service advertising is a direct reflection of social values, humanistic relationships between people, level of cultural development of the society. The aim of PSA is to form social challenges in the society’s mind, to lead to reforms in social sphere. Underestimation and inattentiveness towards social problems could lead to loss of moral values, destruction of culture and forming the basis for aggravation in relation between different levels of society. The tasks of the research are the following: to analyze the legislative base of public service advertising, to determine their strengths and weaknesses; to find out typical problems arising while PSA realization in Russia and Europe; to determine the main obstacles, preventing from creation of efficient and qualitative PSA and to find out and provide the measures of creating an efficient and qualitative public service advertising. In the first part of the paper we compare PSA regulation, sort out PSA legislative and practical issues in Russia and Europe. In the second part we consider the process of efficient PSA realization. For this purpose there were investigated the main obstacles on the way of realization of PSA strategy in Russia and Europe, possibilities of application of marketing mix approach. Though the level of social activity has increased in Russia especially in recent years, PSA market is only in the process of formation – there are huge potentials for investigations, initiatives and improvements. We could conclude that modern PSA legal base of Russian Federation restrains the development of PSA in our country and puts obstacles in the way of PSA participants: government, non-commercial organizations and businesses. In comparison with EU our country fails behind European countries both in the level of legislative regulation and practical experience. The most important difference between PSA practice in Russia and in Europe is that in Europe there is clear

  17. How do country risk and national cultural differences between partners affect the survival of international alliances in emerging countries? Longitudinal analysis of 165 international joint ventures in Brazil 1974 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Xavier Meschi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at identifying the individual and joint impact of two « country-level variables », namely national distance and country risk, on the survival of international joint ventures in emerging countries. Research hypotheses predicting the negative impact of national distance and country risk on survival are formulated in this article. These research hypotheses are tested in a sample of 165 international joint ventures that were formed in Brazil between 1974 and 2003. These joint ventures were subjected to an event history analysis over a period of time ranging from 1974 to 2005. The empirical results show that the intercultural dynamics increases the instability of international joint ventures whereas the survival of these alliances does not seem to be affected by the economic and political uncertainty of Brazil. Furthermore, the national distance between local and foreign partners has effects on survival that are variable according to the life cycle of international joint ventures.

  18. Does economic, financial and institutional developments matter for environmental quality? A comparative analysis of EU and MEA countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Mehdi

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) with a sample of 58 MEA (Middle East & African) and 41 EU (European Union) countries for the period 1990 to 2011. The empirical analysis is carried out using the GMM-system method to solve the problem of endogenous variables. We focused on direct and indirect effects of institutional quality (through the efficiency of public expenditure, financial development, trade openness and foreign direct investment) and the income-emission relationship. We found a monotonically increasing relationship between CO2 emissions and GDP in both MEA and EU regions. The policy implication is clear: in order to have sustainable positive economic performance and to reduce carbon dioxide emission in the country at the same time, policy makers should regulate and enhance the role and efficiency of domestic institutions.

  19. Brief Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottenberg, J E; Courvoisier, D S; Hernandez, M V

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of rheumatoid factor (RF) status and anti-citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA) status as predictors of abatacept (ABA) effectiveness in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: We conducted a pooled analysis of data from 9 observational RA registries...... in Europe (ARTIS [Sweden], ATTRA [Czech Republic], BIOBADASER [Spain], DANBIO [Denmark], GISEA [Italy], NOR-DMARD [Norway], ORA [France], Reuma.pt [Portugal], and SCQM-RA [Switzerland]). Inclusion criteria were a diagnosis of RA, initiation of ABA treatment, and available information on RF and/or ACPA...... status. The primary end point was continuation of ABA treatment. Secondary end points were ABA discontinuation for ineffectiveness or adverse events and response rates at 1 year (good or moderate response according to the European League Against Rheumatism criteria with LUNDEX adjustment for treatment...

  20. A Comparative Analysis of Institutional Capacities for Implementing Disability Policies in East African Countries: Functions of National Councils for Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Yokoyama

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available During the “African Decade of Persons with Disabilities (2000-2009”, East African countries witnessed significant achievements, especially in the development of law, collection of statistics and in funding. However, many persons with disability are still marginalised from opportunities in education, healthcare and employment.Purpose: With the pre-supposition that the lack of institutional capacities for implementing disability policies is the one major stumbling-block which hinders widespread delivery of social services to persons with disabilities in low-income countries, this study makes a comparative analysis of institutional capacities in the disability sectors of Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania.Method: The research methods adopted were a literature survey and a field survey. The framework for analysis consists of: 1 capacities and functions of disability units in central governments, 2 relationships between central and local governments in the disability sector, and 3 relationships between governments and organisations of persons with disability (DPOs. Special attention is paid to the status, roles and functions of national councils for disability (NCDs, the independent statutory bodies recently established in each of the three countries, with clear authority and duties for the implementation of disability policies. The NCDs enable multi-sectoral stakeholders to be involved in the implementation of disability policies; therefore, positive relationships between the governments and DPOs are essential for the smooth functioning of the NCDs.Results: While the result of the field survey in Tanzania reveals several effective approaches for the smooth operation of the NCD, further study is needed to verify whether these approaches would be applicable to other East African countries such as Kenya and Uganda.doi 10.5463/DCID.v23i2.106

  1. Corruption and population health outcomes: an analysis of data from 133 countries using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factor, Roni; Kang, Minah

    2015-09-01

    The current study aims to develop a theoretical framework for understanding the antecedents of corruption and the effects of corruption on various health indicators. Using structural equation models, we analyzed a multinational dataset of 133 countries that included three main groups of variables--antecedents of corruption, corruption measures, and health indicators. Controlling for various factors, our results suggest that corruption rises as GDP per capita falls and as the regime becomes more autocratic. Higher corruption is associated with lower levels of health expenditure as a percentage of GDP per capita, and with poorer health outcomes. Countries with higher GDP per capita and better education for women have better health outcomes regardless of health expenditures and regime type. Our results suggest that there is no direct relationship between health expenditures and health outcomes after controlling for the other factors in the model. Our study enhances our understanding of the conceptual and theoretical links between corruption and health outcomes in a population, including factors that may mediate how corruption can affect health outcomes.

  2. Renewable energy, carbon emissions, and economic growth in 24 Asian countries: evidence from panel cointegration analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Cheng

    2017-09-23

    This article aims to investigate the relationship among renewable energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and GDP using panel data for 24 Asian countries between 1990 and 2012. Panel cross-sectional dependence tests and unit root test, which considers cross-sectional dependence across countries, are used to ensure that the empirical results are correct. Using the panel cointegration model, the vector error correction model, and the Granger causality test, this paper finds that a long-run equilibrium exists among renewable energy consumption, carbon emission, and GDP. CO2 emissions have a positive effect on renewable energy consumption in the Philippines, Pakistan, China, Iraq, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia. A 1% increase in GDP will increase renewable energy by 0.64%. Renewable energy is significantly determined by GDP in India, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Thailand, Turkey, Malaysia, Jordan, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, and Mongolia. A unidirectional causality runs from GDP to CO2 emissions, and two bidirectional causal relationships were found between CO2 emissions and renewable energy consumption and between renewable energy consumption and GDP. The findings can assist governments in curbing pollution from air pollutants, execute energy conservation policy, and reduce unnecessary wastage of energy.

  3. Media Use, Political Participation and the Level of Digitization. A Comparative Analysis of EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Splendore

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses six rounds of the European Social Surveys (from 2000 to 2012 to explore how 1 media uses, 2 unconventional and 3 conventional (i.e. voting forms of political participation have changed in sixteen European countries. Additionally, the research considers one of the latest surveys to investigate the relation between media use and participation in the contemporary period characterized by open data and e-government. The level of digitization in each country is assessed according to its infrastructure, the legal framework (namely the Freedom of Information Act, the quality of the data available from the public administration, and e-government development in terms of online services. The research question is whether use of the Internet and the level of national digitization affect unconventional forms of political participation. The results demonstrate that both the country’s level of digitization at the macro level and the use of the Web at the individual level are co-determinants of the forms of political participation considered. However, the level of digitization does not affect voting.

  4. Cervical cancer screening among immigrant Hispanics: an analysis by country of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Rachel C; Jandorf, Lina; King, Sheba; Thelemaque, Linda; Erwin, Deborah O

    2012-08-01

    As the largest and most diverse ethnic minority population in the U.S., it is important to examine differences in and correlates of Pap test adherence among Hispanics by country of origin. The data for these analyses are baseline responses from a Randomized Controlled Trial. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models were conducted among Hispanic immigrant women who identified as Mexican, Puerto Rican, Dominican, or Central/South American (n = 1,305). There were significant differences in Pap test adherence: Dominicans (81.6%), Mexicans (77.5%), Central/South Americans (71.2%), and Puerto Ricans (69.3%). In multivariable analyses, there were different correlates of Pap test adherence for each country of origin. For example, marriage status (P = .0001) and younger age (P = .006) were positively associated with adherence among Mexican women. This research provides insight into the variability that exists among Hispanics and can help improve understanding of important determinants that may influence Pap test screening among diverse Hispanics.

  5. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE COUNTRIES ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCE FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad POPOVIĆ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available That influences the inflow of foreign direct investments (FDIs into South-Eastern Europe (SEE, whereby main emphasis will be put on republics of Former Yugoslavia, but also with some references to Romania’s case.Choice of the countries for comparison is made upon assumption that they were characterized by relatively the same industrial, market and social development before they entered the process of transition, so comparisons from the aspect of achieved results is of scientific importance. Special attention will be directed to the result made by the Republic of Serbia in the process of attracting FDIs. First of all, main terms of foreign direct investments will be defined in this paper and we will give general review of literature related to allocation of foreign direct investments. Then, recent trends of foreign direct investments in south-astern Europe will be described. Finally, the factors that influence allocation of FDIs,as well as relationship between index of global competitiveness of observed countries and accumulated FDIs during period of transition will be analyzed.

  6. Biomechanical analysis of the herringbone technique as employed by elite cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, E; Stöggl, T; Pellegrini, B; Sandbakk, O; Ettema, G; Holmberg, H-C

    2014-06-01

    This investigation was designed to analyse the kinematics and kinetics of cross-country skiing at different velocities with the herringbone technique on a steep incline. Eleven elite male cross-country skiers performed this technique at maximal, high, and moderate velocities on a snow-covered 15° incline. They positioned their skis laterally (25 to 30°) with a slight inside tilt and planted their poles laterally (8 to 12°) with most leg thrust force exerted on the inside forefoot. Although 77% of the total propulsive force was generated by the legs, the ratio between propulsive and total force was approximately fourfold higher for the poles. The cycle rate increased with velocity (1.20 to 1.60 Hz), whereas the cycle length increased from moderate up to high velocity, but then remained the same at maximal velocity (2.0 to 2.3 m). In conclusion, with the herringbone technique, the skis were angled laterally without gliding, with the forces distributed mainly on the inside forefoot to enable grip for propulsion. The skiers utilized high cycle rates with major propulsion by the legs, highlighting the importance of high peak and rapid generation of leg forces.

  7. Renewable energy consumption and economic growth in nine OECD countries: bounds test approach and causality analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung-Pin, Lin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the short-run and long-run causality between renewable energy (RE) consumption and economic growth (EG) in nine OECD countries from the period between 1982 and 2011. To examine the linkage, this paper uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration test and vector error-correction models to test the causal relationship between variables. The co-integration and causal relationships are found in five countries-United States of America (USA), Japan, Germany, Italy, and United Kingdom (UK). The overall results indicate that (1) a short-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in Italy and UK; (2) long-run unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany, Italy, and UK; (3) a long-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in USA, and Japan; (4) both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany and UK; and (5) Finally, both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from EG to RE in only USA. Further evidence reveals that policies for renewable energy conservation may have no impact on economic growth in France, Denmark, Portugal, and Spain.

  8. A survival analysis of the contraction phases of business cycles in industrial countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yildirim Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tried to determine whether systematic changes have taken place in the size (amplitude and duration (length of business cycle phases in industrial countries over the past half century and to analyze, by using two parametric duration models, mainly, Gompertz and Weibull models, the possible effects of some macroeconomic variables, such as labor productivity growth, inflation, real interest rate, openness, oil prices, and gross saving rate, on the duration of the contraction phases of business cycles. The reference turning point chronology elaborated by the OECD for 23 industrial countries for the post-1956 period was used. The sample included 258 expansions and 267 contraction spells. The widespread belief that the length of expansions has, on average, become longer and that of contractions has become shorter over time was not supported in our sample. There is sufficient evidence of monotonically increasing hazard rates for both contraction and expansion durations; i.e., the spells are positively duration-dependent. Regarding the impacts of covariates on the hazard rate of contractions, the saving rate, openness, productivity growth, and size (depth were found to have significant positive impacts, whereas the real interest rates have a negative effect. Inflation, oil prices, and length of previous expansion period have no significant impact on contraction durations.

  9. Present status and perspective of radiochemical analysis of radionuclides in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Olsson, Mattias; Togneri, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Radiochemical analysis plays a critical role in the determination of pure beta and alpha emitting radionuclides for environmental monitoring, radioecology, decommissioning, nuclear forensics and geological dating. A remarkable development on radiochemical analysis has been achieved in the past...

  10. Value for Money analysis of DFID-funded WASH programmes in six countries: Synthesis Report

    OpenAIRE

    Tremolet, S; Prat, MA; Tincani, L.; Ross, I.; Mujica, A.; Burr, P.; Evans, BE

    2015-01-01

    This report presents summary findings from the Value for Money (VFM) analysis conducted for six DFID-funded programmes between September 2013 and April 2015. Based on these findings, the report formulates insights on how VFM analysis can be used to improve WASH programming. We identify challenges in doing such analysis and formulate recommendations to overcome these challenges to bring VFM analysis into the mainstream.

  11. How does corruption influence perceptions of the risk of nuclear accidents?: cross-country analysis after the 2011 Fukushima disaster in Japan.

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamura, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    Japan’s 2011 natural disasters were accompanied by a devastating nuclear disaster in Fukushima. This paper used cross-country data obtained immediately after the Japanese disaster to explore how, and the extent to which, corruption affects the perception of citizens regarding the risk of nuclear accidents. Endogeneity bias was controlled for using instrumental variables. The cross-country analysis showed that citizens in less corrupt countries tend to perceive there to be a lower possibility ...

  12. The correlation analysis of alert notifications in the rasff to food from the non-eea countries and from the eea countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Pigłowski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background: The RASFF (Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed is used to quickly mutual information of member countries of the European Economic Area (EEA on risks in food. A similar trend line course of alert notifications in the RASFF in time to food from the non-EEA countries and the EEA countries, as well as a very high value of the Pearson's r correlation coefficient (0.96 indicated an interdependence of alert notifications from these two groups of countries. Therefore, the goal of the article was to examine the strength of correlation within particular products categories and hazards categories. Methods: Data for the study came from the RASFF database from the years 1979-2013 covering 8175 alert notifications, including the 2540 notifications to food from the non-EEA countries and 5635 notifications to food from the EEA countries. Within each products category and hazards category examined whether there was a correlation (i.e. the value of calculated statistics t exceeded the value of critical statistics t0.05;n-2, and then calculated the Pearson's r correlation coefficient. Results: The value of Pearson's correlation coefficient indicated the occurrence of a very high correlation in the products category "Herbs and spices" (0.98, and the high correlation in the following categories: "Bivalve molluscs and products thereof" (0.70, "Dietetic foods, food supplements fortified foods" (0.86, "Fish and fish products" (0.79, "Food contact materials" (0.89, "Fruits and vegetables" (0.88 and "Meat and meat products (other than poultry" (0.72. However, in the case of hazards categories the very high correlation occurred in the category of "Food additives and flavourings" (0.93 and "Radiation" (0.94 and the high correlation in the case of "Composition" (0.89, "Foreign bodies" (0.88, "Heavy metals" (0.80, "Mycotoxins" (0.81  and "Pathogenic micro-organisms" (0.72. Conclusions: The results showed the need to pay particular attention by the border

  13. Incentives for telehealthcare deployment that support integrated care: a comparative analysis across eight European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lluch

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health care systems are struggling to deal with the increasing demands of an older population. In an attempt to find a solution to these demands, there has been a shift towards integrated care supported by information and communication technologies. However, little is understood about the role played by incentives and reimbursement schemes in the development of integrated care and information and communication technologies uptake. The objective of this paper is to investigate this question, specifically as regards telehealthcare.Methods: In order to identify the deployment of telehealthcare applications and their role in supporting integrated care, a case study approach was used. A clustering exercise was carried out and eight European countries were selected for in-depth study: Denmark, Estonia, Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and the UK. In total, 31 telehealthcare initiatives across eight countries involving over 20,000 patients were investigated.Results: Reflecting on specific examples in each initiative, drivers promoting integrated care delivery supported by telehealthcare mainstreaming and associated incentive mechanisms were identified. Attention was also paid to other factors which acted as barriers for widespread deployment.Discussion and conclusions: Trends towards telehealthcare mainstreaming were found in Denmark, the UK, and in some regions of Spain, Italy and France. Mainstreaming often went hand-in-hand with progress towards integrated care delivery and payment reforms.A general trend was found towards outcomes-based payments and bundled payment schemes, which aimed to promote integrated care supported by telehealthcare deployment. Their effectiveness in achieving these goals remains to be seen.In addition, a form of outpatient diagnostic-related group reimbursement for telehealthcare services was found to have emerged in a few countries. However, it is questionable how this incentive could promote

  14. Value of a statistical life in road safety: a benefit-transfer function with risk-analysis guidance based on developing country data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Craig; Kopp, Andreas; Dahdah, Said; Montufar, Jeannette

    2014-10-01

    We model a value of statistical life (VSL) transfer function for application to road-safety engineering in developing countries through an income-disaggregated meta-analysis of scope-sensitive stated preference VSL data. The income-disaggregated meta-analysis treats developing country and high-income country data separately. Previous transfer functions are based on aggregated datasets that are composed largely of data from high-income countries. Recent evidence, particularly with respect to the income elasticity of VSL, suggests that the aggregate approach is deficient because it does not account for a possible change in income elasticity across income levels. Our dataset (a minor update of the OECD database published in 2012) includes 123 scope-sensitive VSL estimates from developing countries and 185 scope-sensitive estimates from high-income countries. The transfer function for developing countries gives VSL=1.3732E-4×(GDP per capita)(∧)2.478, with VSL and GDP per capita expressed in 2005 international dollars (an international dollar being a notional currency with the same purchasing power as the U.S. dollar). The function can be applied for low- and middle-income countries with GDPs per capita above $1268 (with a data gap for very low-income countries), whereas it is not useful above a GDP per capita of about $20,000. The corresponding function built using high-income country data is VSL=8.2474E+3×(GDP per capita)(∧).6932; it is valid for high-income countries but over-estimates VSL for low- and middle-income countries. The research finds two principal significant differences between the transfer functions modeled using developing-country and high-income-country data, supporting the disaggregated approach. The first of these differences relates to between-country VSL income elasticity, which is 2.478 for the developing country function and .693 for the high-income function; the difference is significant at pcountries and positively in high

  15. Economic Education in Malaysia: A Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, C. A.

    1978-01-01

    This report provides a brief description of economic education in Malaysia and indicates interest, on the part of various Asian countries, i.e., Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Thailand, and the Philippines, in the establishment of economic education programs. (Editor/RK)

  16. Genre Identification of Very Brief Musical Excerpts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Sandra T.; Wagoner, Cynthia L.; Teachout, David J.; Hodges, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how well individuals were able to identify different music genres from very brief excerpts and whether musical training, gender and preference played a role in genre identification. Listeners were asked to identify genre from classical, jazz, country, metal, and rap/hip hop excerpts that were 125, 250, 500,…

  17. Economic Education in Malaysia: A Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, C. A.

    1978-01-01

    This report provides a brief description of economic education in Malaysia and indicates interest, on the part of various Asian countries, i.e., Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Thailand, and the Philippines, in the establishment of economic education programs. (Editor/RK)

  18. Genre Identification of Very Brief Musical Excerpts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Sandra T.; Wagoner, Cynthia L.; Teachout, David J.; Hodges, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how well individuals were able to identify different music genres from very brief excerpts and whether musical training, gender and preference played a role in genre identification. Listeners were asked to identify genre from classical, jazz, country, metal, and rap/hip hop excerpts that were 125, 250, 500,…

  19. Modeling Inter-Country Connection from Geotagged News Reports: A Time-Series Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Yihong

    2016-01-01

    The development of theories and techniques for big data analytics offers tremendous flexibility for investigating large-scale events and patterns that emerge over space and time. In this research, we utilize a unique open-access dataset "The Global Data on Events, Location and Tone" (GDELT) to model the image of China in mass media, specifically, how China has related to the rest of the world and how this connection has evolved upon time based on an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model. The results of this research contribute both in methodological and empirical perspectives: We examined the effectiveness of time series models in predicting trends in long-term mass media data. In addition, we identified various types of connection strength patterns between China and its top 15 related countries. This study generates valuable input to interpret China's diplomatic and regional relations based on mass media data, as well as providing methodological references for investigating international rel...

  20. Are performances in Governance Indicators Complementary to Corruption Abatement?: A Cross-Country Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Chandra Das

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Private use of public office for private gain could be a tentative connotation of corruption and most distasteful event of corruption is that it is not there, nor that it is pervasive, but it is socially acknowledged in the global economy, especially in the developing nations. In the present paper we attempt to assess the interrelationship between the Corruption perception index (CPI and the principal components of governance indicators as per World Bank Governance Indicators like Control of Corruption (CC, Rule of Law (RL, Regulatory Quality (RQ and Government Effectiveness (GE. Applying Granger Causality Test the study observes a mixed or inconclusive result. Only bilateral causal link between the CPI and CC works for UK, whereas there are unilateral causal links between the CPI and one or more governance indicators working for other countries for France, Japan, China, India, Thailand and South Africa. In no way causalities are observed for USA, Germany and Brazil.