WorldWideScience

Sample records for countries operating soviet-designed

  1. U.S. assistance enhancing safety culture in countries operating Soviet-designed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guppy, J.G.; Horak, W.C.; Reisman, A.W.

    1995-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (USDOE) is managing the International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP), which is aimed at providing assistance to enhance safety at commercial nuclear power plants (NPPS) in Russia and Ukraine, as well as Central European countries (CEC). The funding for this program has been provided by the US Agency for International Development (AID). Brookhaven National Laboratory has been assisting DOE in certain portions of this program. The enhancement of safety culture is one of the most important goals of the joint International Nuclear Safety Program. In terms of the INSP, safety culture is comprised of two major components; (1) an environment that is a function of regulations, management sensitivity and structure; and (2) an individual commitment to safety in the day to day execution of activities in terms of thought and accountability. The long term impact of the INSP activities can only be measured by the effectiveness of strengthening safety culture within our partner counties. The strengthening of this culture will manifest in reduced risk of a nuclear accident long after other evidence of the INSP activities has disappeared. One area within the INSP, which has already led to a number of successful specific projects, is under the plant safety upgrade activities. Here, the US and the partner countries jointly identify specific target areas for the INSP efforts. Each identified area has a major component involving safety culture enhancement. With any direct involvement in the particular assistance activities, areas are identified to include a need for training. As technical experts and management from the partner country are assisted in addressing the identified needs, the training programs are provided which will not only address the specific need at hand, but will also teach skills which can be applied to different, but related needs that may exist or develop

  2. International assistance to upgrade the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear power plants. Selected activities in Eastern and Central Europe and the countries of the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, V.

    1993-12-01

    The overview is merely a snapshot of nuclear safety activities to assist the countries of Eastern and Central Europe and the former Soviet Union. While many other activities are planned or ongoing, this publication is meant to provide a general overview of the world community's commitment to improving the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear reactors

  3. Nuclear safety cooperation for Soviet designed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisman, A.W.; Horak, W.C.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986 first alerted the West to the significant safety risks of Soviet designed reactors. Five years later, this concern was reaffirmed when the IAEA, as a result of a review by an international team of nuclear safety experts, announced that it did not believe the Kozloduy nuclear power plants in Bulgaria could be operated safely. To address these safety concerns, the G-7 summit in Munich in July 1992 outlined a five point program to address the safety problems of Soviet Designed Reactors: operational safety improvement; near-term technical improvements to plants based on safety assessment; enhancing regulatory regimes; examination of the scope for replacing less safe plants by the development of alternative energy sources and the more efficient use of energy; and upgrading of the plants of more recent design. As of early 1994, over 20 countries and international organizations have pledged hundreds of millions of dollars in financial assistance to improve safety. This paper summarizes these assistance efforts for Soviet designed reactors, draws lessons learned from these activities, and offers some options for better addressing these concerns

  4. Second ANS workshop on the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear power plants. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.A.

    1995-03-01

    The Second American Nuclear Society Workshop on the Safety of Soviet-Designed Nuclear Power Plants was held in Washington, DC, in November, 1994. The Workshop consisted of both plenary sessions and working sessions with three hundred participants overall. All countries with operating Soviet-Designed nuclear power plants were represented and representatives from several other countries also participated. In addition to the status and plans related to technical issues, the Workshop also included discussions of economic, political, legal, and social issues as they relate to the safety of these nuclear power plants

  5. Soviet-designed pressurized water reactor symptomatic emergency operating instruction analytical procedure: approach, methodology, development and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beelman, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    A symptom approach to the analytical validation of symptom-based EOPs includes: (1) Identification of critical safety functions to the maintenance of fission product barrier integrity; (2) Identification of the symptoms which manifest an impending challenge to critical safety function maintenance; (3) Development of a symptomatic methodology to delineate bounding plant transient response modes; (4) Specification of bounding scenarios; (5) Development of a systematic calculational approach consistent with the objectives of the methodology; (6) Performance of thermal-hydraulic computer code calculations implementing the analytical methodology; (7) Interpretation of the analytical results on the basis of information available to the operator; (8) Application of the results to the validation of the proposed operator actions; (9) Production of a technical basis document justifying the proposed operator actions. (author)

  6. Operational safety enhancement of Soviet-designed nuclear reactors via development of nuclear power plant simulators and transfer of related technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohut, P.; Epel, L.G.; Tutu, N.K.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), under the US government's International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP), is implementing a program of developing and providing simulators for many of the Russian and Ukrainian Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) manage and provide technical oversight of the various INSP simulator projects for DOE. The program also includes a simulator technology transfer process to simulator design organizations in Russia and Ukraine. Training programs, installation of new simulators, and enhancements in existing simulators are viewed as providing a relatively fast and cost-effective technology transfer that will result in measurable improvement in the safety culture and operation of NPPs. A review of this program, its present status, and its accomplishments are provided in this paper

  7. Summary of the contractor information exchange meeting for improving the safety of Soviet-Designed Nuclear Power Plants, February 19, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This report summarizes a meeting held on February 19, 1997, in Washington, D.C. The meeting was held primarily to exchange information among the contractors involved in the U.S. Department of Energy`s efforts to improve the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear power plants. Previous meetings have been held on December 5-6, 1995, and May 22, 1996. The meetings are sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and coordinated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The U.S. Department of Energy works with countries to increase the level of safety at 63 Soviet-designed nuclear reactors operating in Armenia, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Russia, Slovakia, and Ukraine. The work is implemented largely by commercial companies and individuals who provide technologies and services to the countries with Soviet-designed nuclear power plants. Attending the meeting were 71 representatives of commercial contractors, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of State, national laboratories, and other federal agencies. The presentations and discussions that occurred during the exchange are summarized in this report. While this report captures the general presentation and discussion points covered at the meeting, it is not a verbatim, inclusive record. To make the report useful, information presented at the meeting has been expanded to clarify issues, respond to attendees` requests, or place discussion points in a broader programmatic context. Appendixes A through F contain the meeting agenda, list of attendees, copies of presentation visuals and handouts, the Strategy Document discussed at the meeting, and a summary of attendees` post-meeting evaluation comments. As with past information exchanges, the participants found this meeting valuable and useful. In response to the participant`s requests, a fourth information exchange will be held later in 1997.

  8. Summary of the contractor information exchange meeting for improving the safety of Soviet-Designed Nuclear Power Plants, February 19, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    This report summarizes a meeting held on February 19, 1997, in Washington, D.C. The meeting was held primarily to exchange information among the contractors involved in the U.S. Department of Energy's efforts to improve the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear power plants. Previous meetings have been held on December 5-6, 1995, and May 22, 1996. The meetings are sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and coordinated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The U.S. Department of Energy works with countries to increase the level of safety at 63 Soviet-designed nuclear reactors operating in Armenia, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Russia, Slovakia, and Ukraine. The work is implemented largely by commercial companies and individuals who provide technologies and services to the countries with Soviet-designed nuclear power plants. Attending the meeting were 71 representatives of commercial contractors, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of State, national laboratories, and other federal agencies. The presentations and discussions that occurred during the exchange are summarized in this report. While this report captures the general presentation and discussion points covered at the meeting, it is not a verbatim, inclusive record. To make the report useful, information presented at the meeting has been expanded to clarify issues, respond to attendees' requests, or place discussion points in a broader programmatic context. Appendixes A through F contain the meeting agenda, list of attendees, copies of presentation visuals and handouts, the Strategy Document discussed at the meeting, and a summary of attendees' post-meeting evaluation comments. As with past information exchanges, the participants found this meeting valuable and useful. In response to the participant's requests, a fourth information exchange will be held later in 1997

  9. Technology transfer of the systematic approach to training to Soviet designed nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, S.B.; Yoder, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    International Nuclear Safety Program initiated by US DOE in 1992 in Russia and Ukraine was expanded to include Armenia (together with IAEA), Bulgaria, Lithuania and Slovak Republic. Presentation describes the background, objectives, activities and key accomplishments of technology transfer of SAT to Soviet designed NPPs. High level of cooperation between countries was achieved showing mutual commitment of US and the countries involved to improve the quality of training of NPP personnel. Technology transfer will succeed because of the efforts and dedication of personnel from the initial sites in Russia and Ukraine

  10. Assessment of the effectiveness of training technology transfer activities at soviet-designed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, S.; Shurberg, D.; Yoder, J.; Draper, D.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been working with personnel at Soviet-Designed Reactors (SDRs) to enhance management and operational safety by upgrading many areas of plant operations to levels that meet established international standards. Since 1992 this work has included activities related to training. The work initially focussed on the establishment of nuclear training centers in Russia and Ukraine and the transfer of U.S. training methodologies but has since expanded to include all Russian and Ukrainian nuclear power stations and training centers as well as SDRs within other countries. A key component to the work has been the determination of programmatic effectiveness. Of specific interest has been the success of the transfer of U.S. training methodologies to SDRs so the capability exists for independent expansion of training efforts. Of equal importance has been the question of whether the training programs being developed are having the desired impact on facility safety performance. While progress has been made in the evaluation of the impact of training on facility safety performance, the question has not yet been fully answered. The issue has been further confounded due to wide-ranging and concurrent changes being made beyond training to many aspects of facility operations and maintenance. This paper focuses on the selection of a strategy to upgrade and, as necessary, develop training programs to assist in the improvement of SDR safety. Difficulties encountered in the development of assessment strategies across all SDRs that are being worked with are discussed. In addition, measures collected related to the success of the overall program efforts and data indicating the success of the DOE efforts in the transfer and adoption by SDRs of an effective training methodology are outlined. (author)

  11. Lessons learned from the safety assistance program for soviet-designed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, N.

    1999-01-01

    Two examples of nuclear power situation were compared in this conference paper - the situation in Lithuania and the situation in the Ukraine. Based on the examples mentioned, author conclude that the effectiveness of the Multi-National Safety Assistance Program for Soviet -Designed Reactors in a given recipient country does not depend, in practice, on engineering issues. The principal aspects that determine this effectiveness are: first, the level of safety culture in the country, beginning at the Governmental level but also at the level of the senior managers of nuclear power. The other important factor which contributes is the availability of a well-developed national program for upgrading NPP safety. The economical well-being of nuclear power and of the country as a whole also has a major effect on the effectiveness of the western technical assistance programs that are trying to upgrade reactor safety in a particular recipient country. And finally, international community should have well coordinated and well substantiated safety assistance program for specific country

  12. Transfer of infrared thermography predictive maintenance technologies to Soviet-designed nuclear power plants: experience at Chernobyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Ray; Huff, Roy

    1999-03-01

    The importance of infrared (IR) technology and analysis in today's world of predictive maintenance and reliability- centered maintenance cannot be understated. The use of infrared is especially important in facilities that are required to maintain a high degree of equipment reliability because of plant or public safety concerns. As with all maintenance tools, particularly those used in predictive maintenance approaches, training plays a key role in their effectiveness and the benefit gained from their use. This paper details an effort to transfer IR technology to Soviet- designed nuclear power plants in Russia, Ukraine, and Lithuania. Delivery of this technology and post-delivery training activities have been completed recently at the Chornobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine. Many interesting challenges were encountered during this effort. Hardware procurement and delivery of IR technology to a sensitive country were complicated by United States regulations. Freight and shipping infrastructure and host-country customs policies complicated hardware transport. Training activities were complicated by special hardware, software and training material translation needs, limited communication opportunities, and site logistical concerns. These challenges and others encountered while supplying the Chornobyl plant with state-of-the-art IR technology are described in this paper.

  13. International analysis of the countries where Brazilian franchise chains operate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Lucas de Resende Melo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to demonstrate which external environment factors are involved in the international commitment of Brazilian franchise chains. Our objectives herein are to understand which external country characteristics lead to international franchising operations and to ascertain the influence of such characteristics in the commitment of franchise chains in each country they operate in. The database has 54 Brazilian franchise chains with international operations in 26 countries, which implies in 157 franchises operating abroad. Regarding external environment factors, the independent variables form a group divided into market opportunity and business efficiency – trust and ease to doing business. The result of the three distinct clusters show how the market opportunity and the business efficiency (trust and ease in doing business work as drivers to the international operation of Brazilian franchises. The paper shows that the franchise chains operating in the USA (cluster 3 have an inferior international commitment in comparison with the franchises which operate in developed countries and in small Latin American countries (cluster 2. It is also possible to notice a large number of franchises that operate in underdeveloped countries from Latin America and Africa (cluster 1 with worse business efficiency due to the advantage of learning how to operate in a country that could have some similarities with Brazil

  14. Technical Co-operation between developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In the plan of activities of the project Int/0/060 Technical Cooperation Between Developing Countries a Workshop on Public Awareness Promotional Literature was included with the purpose of preparing public and professional awareness literature and to develop a strategy which would enable Tissue Banks to present their mission to their public,professional health workers and clinical users.To identify the information to be provided to potential donors about the value of the donation.To prepare instructions to be given to potential users about the various types of grafts available.To develop a strategy wi ch would enable Tissue Banks to present themselves to their public and tissue users

  15. Technical co-operation for nuclear safety in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flakus, F.N.; Giuliani, P.

    1984-01-01

    The Agency's programme on technical co-operation for nuclear safety is, largely, responsive in character and the Agency's response is tailored to needs identified by developing countries. However, the Agency's assistance alone is not sufficient: technical co-operation can only be successful and is most effective when there is also a strong input from the counterpart body participating in a particular project. The commitment of national governments is fundamental to success. Technical co-operation is most fruitful if the Agency's assistance capabilities and the recipient country's co-operation capabilities match. Co-operation activities mostly take the form of single projects hosted by individual institutions within a single country; regional and inter-regional projects are also important

  16. International Co-operation: Industrialized and Industrializing Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib, H.

    1996-01-01

    Industrializing Countries are becoming increasingly important in the fossil fuels market. In their endeavour for development these countries need to be assisted by the industrialized countries in various problems of provision of capital, capacity building, technology transfer and protection to the environment. (author)

  17. Development of nuclear power plant simulators for Soviet-designed nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohut, P.; Tutu, N.K.; Cleary, E.J.; Erickson, K.G.; Yoder, J.; Kroshilin, A.

    2001-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (US DOE), under the US government's International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP), is implementing a program of developing and providing simulators for many of the Russian and Ukrainian Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) manage and provide technical oversight of the various INSP simulator projects for DOE. The program also includes a simulator technology transfer process to simulator design organizations in Russia and Ukraine. Training programs, installation of new simulators, and enhancements in existing simulators, are viewed as providing a relatively fast and cost-effective technology transfer that will result in measurable improvement in the safety culture and operation of NPPs. A review of this program, its present status, and its accomplishments are provided in this paper

  18. Operational Aspects of Fiscal Policy in Oil-Producing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Steven A Barnett; Rolando Ossowski

    2002-01-01

    Oil-producing countries face challenges arising from the fact that oil revenue is exhaustible, volatile, and uncertain, and largely originates from abroad. Reflecting these challenges, the paper proposes some important general principles for the formulation and assessment of fiscal policy in these countries. The main findings can be summarized in some key guidelines: the non-oil balance should feature prominently in the formulation of fiscal policy; it should generally be adjusted gradually; ...

  19. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission nuclear safety assistance to the CEE and NIS countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaha, J.

    2001-01-01

    NRC participates in bilateral and multilateral efforts to strengthen the regulatory authorities of countries in which Soviet design NPPs are operated. Countries involved are the New Independent States of the Soviet Union (Armenia, Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine) and of Central and Eastern Europe (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania and Slovak Republic). NRC's goal is to see that its counterparts receive the basic tools, knowledge and understanding needed to exercise effective regulatory oversight, consistent with internationally accepted norms and standards. The bilateral assistance started in 1991. $44 mill. are provided to the countries. The multilateral activities NRC participates in include: H-7 Nuclear Safety Working Group, EBRD - Administered Nuclear Safety Account and Chernobyl Sarcophagus Fund and IAEA

  20. Operational approach to the environmental problems in the developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amsyari, F

    1980-01-01

    Environmental programs associated with socioeconomic development are examined. In most developing countries, environmental problems affecting human health are connected with poverty, over-population, and biological pollutants. An analysis of the environmental problems associated with socioeconomic development in Surabaya City, Indonesia, is presented. An analytical methodology and a mathematical model for an integrated environmental program are described. (1 diagram, 5 references, 5 tables)

  1. Environmental regulation of exploration and mining operations in Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, J.; Naito, Koh; Pring, G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper offers a new perspective on the environmental laws in Asian nations affecting the exploration, mining, and reclamation activities of the mineral resource industry: the perspective of the senior government officials in those countries, whose job is to enforce these new environmental laws. The article presents the results of a 1998 survey of national environmental officials in Asia conducted by the Colorado School of Mines and the Metal Mining Agency of Japan. Officials in 10 diverse countries - Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam - responded to a detailed questionnaire covering applicable laws, agencies, protected areas, covered mineral activities, financial assurance, environmental impact assessment, public involvement, environmental standards, permit and reclamation requirements. The survey confirms that Asian nations are part of the global trend towards national government regulatory structures that balance mineral development objectives with environmental considerations. The survey also shows developing regulatory systems (some embryonic, some more mature) utilizing a combination of mining and environmental acts, and often an 'insider' perspective of the national officials administering the laws. While that perspective is not without its biases (not least the rigor of enforcement), it may nevertheless be of use in company planning. The emerging regulatory picture contradicts the conventional notion that it is the 'lower' level of regulation in Asia that is attracting foreign direct investment in mining. (author)

  2. 19 CFR 10.178 - Direct costs of processing operations performed in the beneficiary developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Direct costs of processing operations performed in... processing operations performed in the beneficiary developing country. (a) Items included in the direct costs of processing operations. As used in § 10.176, the words “direct costs of processing operations...

  3. Military co-operation with South Caucasus countries / Rafal Seniuch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Seniuch, Rafal

    2003-01-01

    Ettekanne Poola ja Lõuna-Kaukaasia vabariikide vahelisest sõjalis-poliitilisest koostööst 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO"

  4. Operational Research for Developing Countries - a case of transfer of technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui; Ravn, Hans V.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is concerned with some fundamental aspects of the process of transfer of operational research from the industrialized countries to the Third World. Two complementary conceptions of operational research are identified: technical and social operational research. The main contribution of ...... of this paper is to regard the discussion of operational research for developing countries as a case of transfer of technology. Finally, some proposals for action and further research will be briefly outlined.......This paper is concerned with some fundamental aspects of the process of transfer of operational research from the industrialized countries to the Third World. Two complementary conceptions of operational research are identified: technical and social operational research. The main contribution...

  5. Nuclear power plants in Europe 1995. Report about operation, construction, and planning in 18 European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Report about Operation, Construction, and Planning in 18 European Countries Eighteen European countries operate and build, respectively, nuclear power plants in 1995. The ''Nuclear Power Plants in Europe 1995'' atw report singles out the main events and lines of development. As per August 1995, 214 (1994: 215) nuclear generating units (which means power reactors for the purposes of this report) with an aggregate 177,010 (176,322) MWe installed gross capacity are in operation in seventeen countries, and 26 (30) units with 24,786 (28,086) MWe are under construction in seven countries. This adds up to a total of 240 (245) nuclear generating units with an aggregate 201,796 (204,408) MWe. In the nuclear power plants in Europe, some 1048 TWh of nuclear power was converted into electric power in 1994; 792 TWh of this aggregate was converted in 137 units in the European Union (EU). In the EU the share of nuclear power in the public supply of electricity was 36%. Lithuania, with 77%, has the highest share of nuclear power in Europe, followed by France with 75% and Belgium with 56%. The lowest percentage, only 5%, is recorded in the Netherlands. As a consequence of electricity imports, nuclear power holds considerable shares in the public electricity supply also of countries in which no nuclear power plants are operated, such as Italy or Austria. (orig.) [de

  6. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Thailand 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Thailand carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  7. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Sri Lanka 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Sri Lanka carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  8. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Bolivia 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Bolivia carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  9. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Panama 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Panama carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  10. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Bangladesh 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Bangladesh carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  11. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Panama 1985-1995 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Panama carried out during 1985-1995. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  12. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Guatemala 1985-1995 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Guatemala carried out during 1985-1995. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  13. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Iceland 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Iceland carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  14. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Bangladesh 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Bangladesh carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  15. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Cyprus 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Cyprus carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  16. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Albania 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Albania carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  17. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Indonesia 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Indonesia carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  18. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Poland 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Poland carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  19. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Romania 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Romania carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  20. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Viet Nam 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Viet Nam carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  1. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with the Philippines 1985-1995 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Philippines carried out during 1985-1995. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  2. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with The Philippines 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in The Philippines carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  3. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Greece 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Greece carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  4. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Dominican Republic 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Dominican Republic carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  5. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Nicaragua 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Nicaragua carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  6. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Afghanistan 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Afghanistan carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  7. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Jamaica 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Jamaica carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  8. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Ecuador 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Ecuador carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  9. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with El Salvador 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in El Salvador carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  10. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Nigeria 1986-1996 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Nigeria carried out during 1986-1996. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  11. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Bolivia 1986-1996 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Bolivia carried out during 1986-1996. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  12. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Colombia 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Colombia carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  13. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Portugal 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Portugal carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  14. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Pakistan 1985-1995 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Pakistan carried out during 1985-1995. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  15. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Myanmar 1985-1995 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Myanmar carried out during 1985-1995. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  16. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Malaysia 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Malaysia carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  17. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Jordan 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Jordan carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  18. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Mongolia 1985-1995 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Mongolia carried out during 1985-1995. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  19. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Egypt 1985-1995 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Egypt carried out during 1985-1995. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  20. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Paraguay 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Paraguay carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  1. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Mexico 1986-1996 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Mexico carried out during 1986-1996. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  2. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Paraguay 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Paraguay carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  3. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Hungary 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Hungary carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  4. Trend and pattern analysis of operational data through cooperation between OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.C.

    1989-05-01

    This papers deals with trend analyses achieved by NEA/OECD countries to assess operational safety experience. It describes the main features of the incident Reporting System operated by NEA to collect relevant safety events from nuclear power plants. It presents the results of exchange methods within Principal Working Group no 1 in charge of operating experience and human factors; the use of preselected IRS incidents is illustrated by the study of losses of containment functions performed by PWGl; some trends resulting from enlarged international exchanges dealing with operational data are highlighted through two examples: reducing scram frequency and improving technical specifications

  5. Trend and pattern analysis of operational data through cooperation between OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.C.

    1990-01-01

    This papers deals with trend analyses achieved by NEA/OECD countries to assess operational safety experience. It describes the main features of the Incident Reporting System operated by NEA to collect relevant safety events from nuclear power plants. It presents the results of exchange methods within Principal Working Group n 0 1 in charge of operating experience and human factors; the use of preselected IRS incidents is illustrated by the study of losses of containment functions performed by PWG1; some trends resulting from enlarged international exchanges dealing with operational data are highlighted through two examples: reducing scram frequency and improving technical specifications

  6. Comparison of Operational Subsidies on Less Favoured Areas in EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Lososová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is aimed at an analysis of operational subsidies on the Less Favoured Areas (LFA in the European Union countries. With the help of cluster analysis, the EU countries were divided into groups and, using correlation and regression analyses, the relations between defined indicators were evaluate. The indicators of FADN EU related to the cultivated land area were completed with relative indicators. Some differences were proved in subsidy effectiveness between particular groups of the countries. The amount of operational subsidies only has a positive impact on subsidised costs in the mountain LFAs. Worse productive and climate conditions increase the dependence of the output on subsidies related to cost effectiveness. No dependence of the output share of subsidies and the subsidised costs was proven in all groups.

  7. Budgeting for International Projects: In-Country Business Operations and Long-Term Residential Assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, John B.

    1994-01-01

    A discussion of international sponsored research program administration looks at budgeting, costs, and procedures for both projects with in-country business operations in developing nations and projects with long-term residential assignments. It is intended for university administrators providing new services to faculty working on international…

  8. Environmental Engineering Education (E3) in the Gulf Co-Operation Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassim, Majeed; Coskuner, Gulnur

    2007-01-01

    The six members of the Gulf Co-operation Countries (GCC)--Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates--are facing enormous environmental challenges associated with rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, especially in the last three decades, due to its role as a global hydrocarbon energy centre. None of these…

  9. Locating operations in high labor cost countries – Evidence from Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Diaz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The location of operations in high labor cost countries is increasingly discussed in the media, in part for recent declarations and actions from the president of USA, Donald Trump. While this particular instance can be labeled as populist or protectionist, the factors underlying the debate are extremely important: advances in systematic increases in productivity, low population growth, and the transfer of jobs to countries with lower labor costs are creating unemployment and underemployment in developed countries that could eventually result in protectionism and restrictions to free trade. This phenomenon has enormous social and economic implications, and has attracted considerable interest from researchers. In particular, this study provides empirical evidence of the location of manufacturing and services in the context of a European country (Spain, exploring the drivers, social implications and organizational theories that can explain it.

  10. Is operational research delivering the goods? The journey to success in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariah, Rony; Ford, Nathan; Maher, Dermot; Bissell, Karen; Van den Bergh, Rafael; van den Boogaard, Wilma; Reid, Tony; Castro, Kenneth G; Draguez, Bertrand; von Schreeb, Johan; Chakaya, Jeremiah; Atun, Rifat; Lienhardt, Christian; Enarson, Don A; Harries, Anthony D

    2012-05-01

    Operational research in low-income countries has a key role in filling the gap between what we know from research and what we do with that knowledge-the so-called know-do gap, or implementation gap. Planned research that does not tangibly affect policies and practices is ineffective and wasteful, especially in settings where resources are scarce and disease burden is high. Clear parameters are urgently needed to measure and judge the success of operational research. We define operational research and its relation with policy and practice, identify why operational research might fail to affect policy and practice, and offer possible solutions to address these shortcomings. We also propose measures of success for operational research. Adoption and use of these measures could help to ensure that operational research better changes policy and practice and improves health-care delivery and disease programmes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Is operational research delivering the goods? The journey to success in low-income countries

    OpenAIRE

    Zachariah, R; Ford, N; Maher, D; Bissell, K; Van den Bergh, R; van den Boogaard, W; Reid, T; Castro, K G; Draguez, B; von Schreeb, J; Chakaya, J; Atun, R; Lienhardt, C; Enarson, D A; Harries, A D

    2012-01-01

    Operational research in low-income countries has a key role in filling the gap between what we know from research and what we do with that knowledge-the so-called know-do gap, or implementation gap. Planned research that does not tangibly affect policies and practices is ineffective and wasteful, especially in settings where resources are scarce and disease burden is high. Clear parameters are urgently needed to measure and judge the success of operational research. We define operational rese...

  12. "A model co-operative country": Irish-Finnish co-operative contacts at the turn of the twentieth century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilson, Mary

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural co-operative societies were widely discussed across late nineteenth-century Europe as a potential solution to the problems of agricultural depression, land reform and rural poverty. In Finland, the agronomist Hannes Gebhard drew inspiration from examples across Europe in founding the...... that even before the First World War it was Finland, not Ireland, that had begun to be regarded as ‘a model co-operative country’....... between Irish and Finnish co-operators around the turn of the century, and examines the ways in which the parallels between the two countries were constructed and presented by those involved in these exchanges. I will also consider the reasons for the divergence in the development of cooperation, so...

  13. Department of Energy's team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs (water-cooled water-moderated atomic energy reactors)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-09-01

    This document contains apprendices A through P of this report. Topics discussed are: a cronyms and technical terms, accident analyses reactivity control; Soviet safety regulations; radionuclide inventory; decay heat; operations and maintenance; steam supply system; concrete and concrete structures; seismicity; site information; neutronic parameters; loss of electric power; diesel generator reliability; Soviet codes and standards; and comparisons of PWR and VVER features. (FI)

  14. Nuclear power plants in Europe 1996. Report on operation, construction and planning in 18 European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Eighteen European countries operate and build, respectively, nuclear power plants in 1996. The 'Nuclear Power Plants in Europe 1996' atw report singles out the main events and lines of development. As per August 1996, 216 (1995: 215) nuclear generating units (which means power reactors for the purposes of this report) with an aggregate 177,916 (177,010) MWe installed gross capacity are in operation and 24 (26) units with 23,086 (24,786) MWe are under construction in seven countries. This adds up to a total of 240 (241) nuclear generating units with an aggregate 201,002 (201,796) MWe. In the nuclear power plants in Europe, some 1067 (1048) TWh of nuclear power was converted into electric power in 1995; 802 (792) TWh of this aggregate was converted in 142 (137) units in the European Union (EU). In the EU the share of nuclear power in the public supply of electricity was 36%. Lithuania, with 86 (77)% has the highest share of nuclear power in Europe, followed by France with 76 (75)% and Belgium with 56%. The lowest percentage, only 4 (5)%, is recorded in the Netherlands. As a consequence of electricity imports, nuclear power holds considerable shares in the public electricity supply also of countries in which no nuclear power are operated, such as Italy or Austria. (orig.) [de

  15. 1997: Nuclear power plants in Europe. Report on operation, construction and planning in 18 European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    Eighteen European countries operate and build, respectively, nuclear power plants in 1997. The '1997: Nuclear Power Plants in Europe' atw report singles out the main events and lines of development. As per August 1997, 216 (1996: 216) nuclear generating units (which means power reactors for the purposes of this report) with an aggregate 180, 184 (177, 916) MWe installed gross capacity are in operation and 22 (24) units with 20,054 (23,086) MWe are under construction in seven countries. This adds up to a total of 238 (240) nuclear generating units with an aggregate 200,238 (201,002) MWe. In the nuclear power plants in Europe, some 1138 (1067) TWh of nuclear power was converted into electric power in 1996: 806 (802) TWh of this aggregate was converted in 142 (142) units in the European Union (EU). In the EU the share of nuclear power in the public supply of electricity was 35,4 (36,0)%. Lithuania, with 83,4 (85,6)% has the highest share of nuclear power in Europe, followed by France with 77,4 (76,0)% and Belgium with 57,2 (55,5)%. The lowest percentage, only 4,8 (3,8)%, is recorded in the Netherlands. As a consequence of electricity imports, nuclear power holds considerable shares in the public electricity supply also of countries in which no nuclear power is operated, such as Italy or Austria. (orig.) [de

  16. An Open-source Meteorological Operational System and its Installation in Portuguese- speaking Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, W. G.; Ferreira, A. L.; Mendes, M. V.; Ribeiro, A.; Yoksas, T.

    2007-05-01

    CPTEC, a division of Brazil’s INPE, has been using several open-source software packages for a variety of tasks in its Data Division. Among these tools are ones traditionally used in research and educational communities such as GrADs (Grid Analysis and Display System from the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies (COLA)), the Local Data Manager (LDM) and GEMPAK (from Unidata), andl operational tools such the Automatic File Distributor (AFD) that are popular among National Meteorological Services. In addition, some tools developed locally at CPTEC are also being made available as open-source packages. One package is being used to manage the data from Automatic Weather Stations that INPE operates. This system uses only open- source tools such as MySQL database, PERL scripts and Java programs for web access, and Unidata’s Internet Data Distribution (IDD) system and AFD for data delivery. All of these packages are get bundled into a low-cost and easy to install and package called the Meteorological Data Operational System. Recently, in a cooperation with the SICLIMAD project, this system has been modified for use by Portuguese- speaking countries in Africa to manage data from many Automatic Weather Stations that are being installed in these countries under SICLIMAD sponsorship. In this presentation we describe the tools included-in and and architecture-of the Meteorological Data Operational System.

  17. The employment and income benefits of airport operation on the country in transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Huderek-Glapska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The air transport market in Poland is undergoing significant changes, which take place both on the demand and supply side. Polish airports have experienced the unprecedented growth of air traffic. However, the increase in the number of airline connections - which benefits airports, passengers, aircraft industry and, indirectly, the whole society - at the same time results in the growth of social costs reflected by the intensification of noise and environmental pollution. The benefits of airport operation are reflected in the generation of employment and income. Existing literature reveals a gap in the knowledge in respect of impact of aviation in countries in transition. Material and methods: This paper investigates the applicability of socio-economic impact of air transport model to country in transition. In particular, it presents the employment and income benefits of airport operation. The input-output model is employed to measure the economic benefits of airport operation. The largest airport in Poland, Warsaw Chopin Airport is used as a case study. Results: The estimation results for the income and employment effects are found to be significant.  The operations of Warsaw Chopin Airport contributed to the generation of 527.8m EUR in current prices in 2011. Altogether, 19,349 jobs have been generated as the result of the direct, indirect and induced impact of Warsaw Chopin Airport.  Conclusion:  The size of production in the airport expressed in the number of aircraft operations and the number of passengers and goods serviced is positively correlated with the level of economic impact. The restriction on the development of the airport reflected by the inability to meet transport needs expressed by the society may generate opportunity costs.  

  18. Operator models for delivering municipal solid waste management services in developing countries: Part B: Decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soós, Reka; Whiteman, Andrew D; Wilson, David C; Briciu, Cosmin; Nürnberger, Sofia; Oelz, Barbara; Gunsilius, Ellen; Schwehn, Ekkehard

    2017-08-01

    This is the second of two papers reporting the results of a major study considering 'operator models' for municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in emerging and developing countries. Part A documents the evidence base, while Part B presents a four-step decision support system for selecting an appropriate operator model in a particular local situation. Step 1 focuses on understanding local problems and framework conditions; Step 2 on formulating and prioritising local objectives; and Step 3 on assessing capacities and conditions, and thus identifying strengths and weaknesses, which underpin selection of the operator model. Step 4A addresses three generic questions, including public versus private operation, inter-municipal co-operation and integration of services. For steps 1-4A, checklists have been developed as decision support tools. Step 4B helps choose locally appropriate models from an evidence-based set of 42 common operator models ( coms); decision support tools here are a detailed catalogue of the coms, setting out advantages and disadvantages of each, and a decision-making flowchart. The decision-making process is iterative, repeating steps 2-4 as required. The advantages of a more formal process include avoiding pre-selection of a particular com known to and favoured by one decision maker, and also its assistance in identifying the possible weaknesses and aspects to consider in the selection and design of operator models. To make the best of whichever operator models are selected, key issues which need to be addressed include the capacity of the public authority as 'client', management in general and financial management in particular.

  19. International charitable connections: the growth in number, and the countries of operation, of English and Welsh charities working overseas

    OpenAIRE

    Clifford, David

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides new empirical evidence about English and Welsh charities operating internationally. It answers basic questions unaddressed in existing work: how many charities work overseas, and how has this number changed over time? In which countries do they operate, and what underlies these geographical patterns? It makes use of a unique administrative dataset which records every country in which each charity operates. The results show a sizeable increase in the number of charities wor...

  20. Open access for operational research publications from low- and middle-income countries: who pays?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariah, R; Kumar, A M V; Reid, A J; Van den Bergh, R; Isaakidis, P; Draguez, B; Delaunois, P; Nagaraja, S B; Ramsay, A; Reeder, J C; Denisiuk, O; Ali, E; Khogali, M; Hinderaker, S G; Kosgei, R J; van Griensven, J; Quaglio, G L; Maher, D; Billo, N E; Terry, R F; Harries, A D

    2014-09-21

    Open-access journal publications aim to ensure that new knowledge is widely disseminated and made freely accessible in a timely manner so that it can be used to improve people's health, particularly those in low- and middle-income countries. In this paper, we briefly explain the differences between closed- and open-access journals, including the evolving idea of the 'open-access spectrum'. We highlight the potential benefits of supporting open access for operational research, and discuss the conundrum and ways forward as regards who pays for open access.

  1. 19 CFR 10.197 - Direct costs of processing operations performed in a beneficiary country or countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Direct costs of processing operations performed in... TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. Caribbean Basin Initiative § 10.197 Direct costs of processing operations... operations. As used in § 10.195 and § 10.198, the words “direct costs of processing operations” mean those...

  2. Pressure loadings of Soviet-designed VVER [Water-Cooled, Water-Moderated Energy Reactor] reactor release mitigation structures from large-break LOCAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sienicki, J.J.; Horak, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    Analyses have been carried out of the pressurization of the accident release mitigation structures of Soviet-designed VVER (Water-Cooled, Water-Moderated Energy Reactor) pressurized water reactors following large-break loss-of-coolant accidents. Specific VVER systems for which calculations were performed are the VVER-440 model V230, VVER-440 model V213, and VVER-1000 model V320. Descriptions of the designs of these and other VVER models are contained in the report DOE/NE-0084. The principal objective of the current analyses is to calculate the time dependent pressure loadings inside the accident localization or containment structures immediately following the double-ended guillotine rupture of a primary coolant pipe. In addition, the pressures are compared with the results of calculations of the response of the structures to overpressure. Primary coolant system thermal hydraulic conditions and the fluid conditions at the break location were calculated with the RETRAN-02 Mod2 computer code (Agee, 1984). Pressures and temperatures inside the building accident release mitigation structures were obtained from the PACER (Pressurization Accompanying Coolant Escape from Ruptures) multicompartment containment analysis code developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The analyses were carried out using best estimate models and conditions rather than conservative, bounding-type assumptions. In particular, condensation upon structure and equipment was calculated using correlations based upon analyses of the HDR, Marviken, and Battelle Frankfurt containment loading experiments. The intercompartment flow rates incorporate an effective discharge coefficient and liquid droplet carryover fraction given by expressions of Schwan determined from analyses of the Battelle Frankfurt and Marviken tests. 5 refs., 4 figs

  3. radiation safety culture for developing country: Basis for s minimum operational radiation protection programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozental, J. J.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present a methodology for an integrated strategy aiming at establishing an adequate radiation Safety infrastructure for developing countries, non major power reactor programme. Its implementation will allow these countries, about 50% of the IAEA's Member States, to improve marginal radiation safety, specially to those recipients of technical assistance and do not meet the Minimum radiation Safety Requirements of the IAEA's Basic Safety Standards for radiation protection Progress in the implementation of safety regulations depends on the priority of the government and its understanding and conviction about the basic requirements for protection against the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. There is no doubt to conclude that the reasons for the deficiency of sources control and dose limitation are related to the lack of an appropriate legal and regulatory framework, specially considering the establishment of an adequate legislation; A minimum legal infrastructure; A minimum operational radiation safety programme; Alternatives for a Point of Optimum Contact, to avoid overlap and conflict, that is: A 'Memorandum of Understanding' among Regulatory Authorities in the Country, dealing with similar type of licensing and inspection

  4. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Brazil, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $17 million of Agency support received, Brazil ranks 2nd among all recipients of technical assistance during the period 1958 through 1991. Over half of the assistance received during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (51%), complemented by expert services (34%) and training (15%). Almost two-thirds of the funds were made available through the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (63%), the rest was provided through extrabudgetary contributions (30%), assistance in kind (4%) and UNDP (3%). With regard to total disbursements - by sector - under those projects that were operational during the period 1982 through November 1992, the three major areas have been: general atomic energy development (47%), nuclear safety (22%) and agriculture (13%). During the same period, the country has provided experts and training course lectures for a total of 405 assignments, and has hosted 178 fellowships and scientific visits as well as 46 regional and interregional training events with a total of 603 participants

  5. Operative Treatment of Hepatic Hydatid Cysts: A Single Center Experience in Israel, a Nonendemic Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoz, Daniel; Greif, Franklin; Chen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Background. Hydatid cyst disease is a zoonosis caused by Echinococcus genera. The disease is endemic to certain rural areas in the world. Operative treatment is the main component in curing hydatid cysts of the liver. Objective. Describing the unique characteristics of the hydatid cyst patients in Israel, a nonendemic country. Methods. Data was collected form 29 patients treated operatively in Rabin Medical Center from 1994 to 2007. Results. The study included 18 females and 11 males with an average age of 54.9 years. Fifty-two% of the patients immigrated as children from Arab countries to Israel, 21% were Arab-Israelis leaving in the north and center of Israel, and 24% immigrated from the former Communist Bloc. Pericystectomy was performed in 20/29, and cyst unroofing was performed in 9/29. Hydatid cysts average size was 10.7 cm, and the cysts were located in the right or left or involved both lobes in 62%, 28%, and 10% of the lesions, respectively. Postoperative mortality occurred in one case, and severe morbidity occurred in 4 patients. Conclusions. Hydatid cyst disease in Israel is uncommon and is mostly seen in distinct 3 demographic groups. Despite the relatively low patient volume, good results in terms of morbidity, mortality, and recurrence were achieved. PMID:24175100

  6. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme in Chile, 1981-1991. Country programme evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Agency support for nuclear activities in Chile dates back to the early 1960s. During the last ten years, the period covered by this evaluation, this support has considerably expanded. In the period 1981-1991, 62 Agency projects with allotments amounting to over $7 million were completed or are under implementation. Through this co-operation Chile has received 360 man-months of expert services, $3.4 million worth of equipment, and 105 fellowships for some 390 man-months of training. In addition, 262 Chileans attended 219 Agency regional and interregional training courses, and Chilean institutions were awarded 40 research contracts worth over $325,000. This evaluation covers ten years of Agency technical co-operation with Chile, during which 35 projects were completed and 27 are still being implemented. Eight major sectors received assistance: general atomic energy development; nuclear physics; nuclear raw materials; nuclear engineering and technology; nuclear techniques in agriculture; nuclear medicine; hydrology; and nuclear safety. The evaluation concluded that, overall, the Agency's technical co-operation activities have, in keeping with the national priorities concerning peaceful nuclear applications, contributed substantially to the establishment of Chile's nuclear scientific and technical infrastructure, and played a major role in Chile's efforts to introduce nuclear applications in a number of sectors of the economy, with many benefits for broader national development objectives. Another strength of the Agency's programme with Chile is the high level of commitment and dedication that was noted in the great majority of recipient institutions, and in particular at the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, CChEN. Mention should also be made of the fact that bureaucracy appears to be less severe than in some other developing countries, and that constraints that frequently affect other countries, such as insufficient counterpart commitment and lack of continuity of

  7. Co-operation with Eastern Europe countries taking ENAC as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.

    1994-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident, the European Community launched an ambitious programme of nuclear safety assistance. The purpose of this programme is to improve the safety of the Nuclear Power stations in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union plants. It was felt in the Western European nuclear industry that the emphasis should be on finding practical solutions to improve the most urgent problems. To achieve this objective, the nuclear industry in Western Europe founded a consortium called ENAC (European Nuclear Assistance Consortium) comprising companies form seven European countries ( Great Britain, France, Germany, Spain, Belgium, Italy, Netherlands). The co-operation between theses companies and the Russian designers would ensure that the solutions developed meet the approval of all interested parties. This presentation outlines the overall objectives of ENAC. 2 tabs., 1 fig

  8. Intussusception in children: Comparison between ultrasound diagnosis and operation findings in a tropical developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usang E Usang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intussusception is one of the more common causes of intestinal obstruction in children. The diagnosis may be based mainly on clinical features; however, there are no classic signs and symptoms that are common to all cases. This study reports our experience at US diagnosis and operation findings of children with intussusceptions in a tropical developing economy. Materials and Methods: This was an 8 years retrospective review of intussusceptions in children in a tertiary health facility in a tropical developing country from January 2004 to December 2011. Results: Twenty-five out of 41 children (M:F = 2.2:1 admitted with intussusceptions within the period were studied. The median age was 6.0 ± 5.57 months (range 3 months- 7 years. US positively diagnosed intussusceptions in 20 (80% cases. Conclusion: US can increase diagnostic confidence in intussusceptions.

  9. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Kenya, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With almost $3.9 million of Agency support received, Kenya ranks 39th among all recipients of technical assistance during the period 1958-1991. Almost half of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of the equipment (44%), followed by training (33%) and expert services (23%). Two-thirds of the funds available were provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (66%), while extra-budgetary contributions accounted for 18%, in-kind contributions for 14%, and UNDP for 2% of the resources. With regard to project disbursements during the past ten years, by sector, the four major areas have been general atomic energy development (30%), agriculture (22%), nuclear medicine and nuclear safety (13% each)

  10. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Niger, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With some $1.5 million of Agency support received, Niger ranks 65th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. About two-thirds of the assistance received during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (62%), complemented by expert services (26%) and training (12%). Almost the entire resources utilized were provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (96%), with only a small share made available through assistance in kind (4%). With regard to project disbursements by sector, the four major areas have been agriculture (34%), general atomic energy development (31%), hydrology (18%) and nuclear safety (12%)

  11. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Sierra Leone, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $1.1 million of Agency support received, Sierra Leone ranks 70th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. Almost equal shares of the assistance during the past ten years have been provided in the form of equipment (40%) and expert services (37%), while the share of the training component was 23%. The best part of the resources was provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (96%), the remaining 4% was made available through assistance in kind. During the past ten years, project activities - and disbursements - have concentrated exclusively on three major areas: nuclear medicine (52%), general atomic energy development (25%) and agriculture (23%)

  12. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Cameroon, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With $1.3 million of Agency support received, Cameroon ranks 68th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. More than half of the assistance received during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (61%), followed by expert services (24%) and training (15%). The best part of the resources were provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (90%); the remaining ten per cent were made available through extrabudgetary contributions (8%) and assistance in kind (2%). With regard to project disbursements by sector, the four major areas have been nuclear physics and chemistry (38%), agriculture (23%), nuclear medicine (14%) and hydrology (13%)

  13. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Mali, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $2.7 million of Agency support received, Mali ranks 51st among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. More than half of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (58%), followed by expert services (27%) and training (15%). With a share of 93%, the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund has provided the best part of the resources, while only very small shares were made available through extrabudgetary contributions and assistance in kind (5% and 2%, respectively). With regard to project disbursements during the past ten years, by sector, the four major areas have been hydrology (31%), nuclear medicine (24%), agriculture (21%) and nuclear raw materials (16%)

  14. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Costa Rica, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $2.8 million of Agency support received, Costa Rica ranks 49th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958-1991. Over half of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (52%), followed by expert services (37%) and training (11%). Sixty-two per cent of the resources were made available through the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund, while 37% of the resources were provided by UNDP. The rest was made available through extrabudgetary contributions (5%) and through in-kind assistance (1%). With regard to project disbursement by sector, the largest areas have been nuclear raw materials (36%), nuclear physics and chemistry (24%) and agriculture (20%). Smaller shares have gone to hydrology (11%) and nuclear medicine (8%)

  15. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Zambia, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With $5.5 million of Agency support received, Zambia ranks 33rd among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. More than half of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (61%), followed by expert services (25%) and training (14%). Almost all of the resources made available came from the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (93%), with only very small shares provided through extrabudgetary contributions (4%) and assistance in kind (3%). With regard to project disbursements during the past ten years, by sector, the largest areas have been agriculture (33%) and general atomic energy development (23%), followed by industry and hydrology (19%), nuclear raw materials (13%) and nuclear safety (6%)

  16. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Algeria, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With $3.6 million of Agency support received, Algeria ranks 41st among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958-1991. Seventy per cent of the assistance received during the past ten years has been in the form of equipment, followed by expert services (17%) and training (13%). Almost all of the resources were provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (97%), the remaining 3% were made available through assistance in kind. With regard to project disbursement by sector, the three major areas have been nuclear physics and chemistry (28%), agriculture (27%) and nuclear medicine (20%)

  17. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Ethiopia, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With some $2.5 million of Agency support received, Ethiopia ranks 54th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. More than half of the assistance received during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (55%), complemented by expert services (16%) and training (29%). The best part of the resources was provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (88%), the remainder was made available through assistance in kind (6%), UNDP and extrabudgetary contributions (3% each). During the past ten years, project disbursements went to four major areas: agriculture (45%), nuclear medicine (35%), nuclear safety (14%) and nuclear engineering and technology (6%)

  18. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Guatemala, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $3 million of Agency support received, Guatemala ranks 46th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 - 1991. Almost three quarters of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (72%), followed by training (15%) and expert services (13%). Seventy-eight per cent of the resources were provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund, the rest was made available through extrabudgetary contributions (21%) and assistance in kind (1%). With regard to project disbursement by sector, the largest areas have been nuclear physics and chemistry (37%), agriculture (28%), nuclear medicine (16%) and hydrology (8%). The remaining 11% were shared by general atomic energy development, nuclear raw materials, nuclear engineering and technology, and nuclear safety

  19. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Mexico, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With almost $7.7 million of Agency support received, Mexico ranks 21st among all recipients of technical assistance during the period 1958 through 1991. The largest share of the assistance received during the past ten years has been in the form of expert services (36%), followed by equipment and training (27% each) and sub-contracts (10%). Almost two-thirds of the funds available were provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (65%), the rest was made available through extrabudgetary contributions (21%) and assistance in kind (14%). With regard to project disbursements during the past ten years, by sector the five major areas have been nuclear safety (34%), nuclear engineering and technology (27%), agriculture (17%), nuclear physics and chemistry (9%), and nuclear techniques in industry and hydrology (9%)

  20. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Uganda, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With $1.6 million of Agency support received, Uganda ranks 61st among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. Almost half of the assistance received during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (47%), complemented by a strong training component (37%), while expert services have received only a relatively small share (16%). Ninety-eight per cent of the resources were provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund, the remaining two per cent were made available through assistance in kind. During the past ten years, project activities - and disbursements - have concentrated exclusively on three major areas: agriculture (64%), nuclear medicine (24%) and nuclear safety (12%)

  1. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Uruguay, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $4.2 million of Agency support received, Uruguay ranks 37th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 - 1991. More than half of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (67%), followed by expert services (19%) and training (14%). Seventy-three per cent of the resources were provided through the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund, while 24% were made available through extrabudgetary contributions. The remaining 3% were provided through assistance in kind, with only an insignificant contribution by UNDP. With regard to project disbursement by sector, the largest areas have been nuclear medicine (35%), agriculture (23%), general atomic energy development (17%), followed by nuclear physics and chemistry (11%) and industry and hydrology (7%)

  2. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Zaire, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With $3.9 million of Agency support received, Zaire ranks 38th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. More than half of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (60%), followed by training (24%) and expert services (16%). With a share of 76%, the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund has provided more than three quarters of the total resources available, while only small shares were made available through UNDP (11%), extrabudgetary contributions (4%) and assistance in kind (9%). With regard to project disbursements during the past ten years, by sector, the largest area has been general atomic energy development (26%), followed by agriculture (18%), nuclear safety (18%), nuclear techniques in industry and hydrology (13%), and nuclear physics and chemistry (11%)

  3. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Nigeria, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $9.3 million of Agency support received, Nigeria ranks 14th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. During the past ten years, 44% of this assistance has been provided in the form of equipment, followed by training (27%), expert services (26%) and sub-contracts (3%). With 45% and 44%, respectively, the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund and extrabudgetary contributions hold almost equal shares in the total resources made available, while in-kind assistance accounts for 9% and UNDP for 2% of the resources. With regard to project disbursement during the past ten years, by sector, by far the largest area has been agriculture (70%), with significantly smaller shares going to nuclear physics and chemistry (11%), nuclear medicine (8%) and nuclear safety (7%)

  4. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Senegal, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With $2.2 million of Agency support received, Senegal ranks 56th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 - 1991. More than one-third of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (67%), followed by expert services (21%) and training (12%). Eighty per cent of the resources were provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund, while 16% were made available by UNDP and about 2% each through extrabudgetary contributions and assistance in kind. With regard to project disbursement by sector, by far the largest area has been agriculture (43%). Smaller shares have gone to general atomic energy development (15%), nuclear physics and chemistry (13%), nuclear medicine and hydrology (11% each), and nuclear safety (7%)

  5. EBRD strategy for power and heat in countries of operations. Romania's case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musatescu, V.

    1996-01-01

    European Bank for Reconstruction and Development is aiming at fostering the transition to the free market economy in countries of the central and eastern Europe by promoting the development of the private sector within the countries of operation through its investment and through the mobilization of foreign and domestic capital. The energy sector is an important part of the infrastructure and especially because of the inherited obsolete production equipment the modernization of this sector is essential. Because of the lack of indigenous capital the participation of the international financing institutions by equity, loans and guaranties is crucial. This participation can give the signal of a secure environment also for private investment. The key element is the legislative framework to allow the development of the private projects, namely the independent power producers ones. The paper considers several potential candidates for such projects in Romania. Their development may help to solve some important problems, like reducing the gap between supply and demand, especially for district heating in big towns. (author). 6 refs

  6. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Argentina, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $7.5 million of Agency support received, Argentina ranks 22nd among all recipients of technical assistance during the period 1958 through 1991. Forty-six per cent of the assistance received during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment, complemented by expert services (40%) and training (14%). The largest share of the resources was made available by UNDP (87%), and only small shares were provided through the TACF (12%) and assistance in kind (less than 1%). With regard to total disbursements - by sector - under those projects that were operational during the period 1982 through mid-December 1992, by far the largest area has been nuclear engineering and technology (91%), while only very small shares went to nuclear safety (4%), industry and hydrology (3%) and agriculture (2%). During the same period, the country has provided experts and training course lectures for a total of 601 assignments, and has hosted 153 fellowships and scientific visits as well as 42 regional and interregional training courses with a total of 568 participants

  7. International Charitable Connections: the Growth in Number, and the Countries of Operation, of English and Welsh Charities Working Overseas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, David

    2016-07-01

    This paper provides new empirical evidence about English and Welsh charities operating internationally. It answers basic questions unaddressed in existing work: how many charities work overseas, and how has this number changed over time? In which countries do they operate, and what underlies these geographical patterns? It makes use of a unique administrative dataset which records every country in which each charity operates. The results show a sizeable increase in the number of charities working overseas since the mid-1990s. They show that charities are much more likely to work in countries with colonial and linguistic ties to the UK, and less likely to work in countries with high levels of instability or corruption. This considerable geographical unevenness, even after controlling for countries' population size and poverty, illustrates the importance of supply-side theories and of institutional factors to an understanding of international voluntary activity. The paper also serves to provide a new perspective on international charitable operation: while it is the large development charities that are household names, the results reveal the extent of small-scale 'grassroots' registered charitable activity that links people and places internationally, and the extent of activity in 'developed' as well as 'developing' country contexts.

  8. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Madagascar, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $3.5 million of Agency support received, Madagascar ranks 42nd among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. More than half of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (55%), followed by expert services (32%) and training (13%). With a share of 69%, the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund has provided more than two-thirds of the total resources available, while 29% were made available through UNDP and 2% through assistance in kind. Extrabudgetary contributions accounted for less than one per cent. With regard to project disbursements during the past ten years, by sector, by far the largest area has been nuclear raw materials (66%), followed by nuclear physics and chemistry (18%). Only small shares have gone to nuclear safety (7%), agriculture (5%) and nuclear engineering and technology (4%)

  9. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Sudan, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $5.7 million of Agency support received, Sudan ranks 31st among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. Over the past ten years, almost equal shares of this assistance were provided in the form of equipment (46%) and training (42%), and only a small percentage was provided in the form of expert services (12%). The best part of the resources was made available through the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (77%), while in-kind and extrabudgetary contributions account for 13% and 10% of the resources, respectively. With regard to project disbursement during the past ten years, by sector, the two largest areas have been general atomic energy development (37%) and agriculture (21%), followed by nuclear medicine (14%). Smaller shares (6% each) have gone to nuclear physics and chemistry, nuclear engineering and technology, hydrology, and nuclear safety

  10. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Peru, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $12.6 million of Agency support received, Peru ranks 4th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 - 1991, whereby it ranked as high as 2nd in each of the four years 1982 through 1985. More than half of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (59%), followed by expert services (29%) and training (12%). Forty-five per cent of the resources were provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund, while 29% of the resources were made available through extrabudgetary contributions, and 21% by UNDP. The remaining 5% were provided in kind. With regard to project disbursement by sector, the largest areas have been agriculture (27%), general atomic energy development (17%), nuclear raw materials (14%), nuclear medicine (12%) and industry and hydrology (11%). Nuclear safety, nuclear engineering and technology, and nuclear physics and chemistry have each received less than ten per cent of the assistance provided

  11. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Cuba, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With almost $8.2 million of Agency support received, Cuba ranks 19th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 - 1991, whereby it ranked as high as 3rd in 1982 and 4th in 1984. Over three quarters of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (81%), followed by expert services (10%) and training (9%). Seventy-one per cent of the resources were made available through the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund, while 28% of the resources were provided by UNDP. The remaining 1% was made available through extrabudgetary and in-kind contributions. With regard to project disbursements by sector, the largest areas have been general atomic energy development (36%), agriculture (20%), nuclear physics and chemistry (10%) and nuclear safety (10%). Industry and hydrology, nuclear engineering and technology, and nuclear medicine have each received less than ten per cent of the assistance provided

  12. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Ghana, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $6.5 million of Agency support received, Ghana ranks 29th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 - 1991. More than half of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (53%), followed by training through fellowships and scientific visits (34%) and expert services (13%). Seventy-four per cent of the resources were provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund, 13% through assistance in kind, 11% through extrabudgetary contributions, and 2% by UNDP. It should be noted that the share for extrabudgetary contributions includes an amount of $250,000 made available by the Ghanaian Government for the purchase of equipment by the Agency under a funds-in-trust arrangement. With regard to project disbursement by sector, the largest share has gone to agriculture (36%), followed by nuclear physics and chemistry (21%), nuclear medicine (16%), industry and hydrology (14%) and nuclear engineering and technology (9%)

  13. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Egypt, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $22.2 million of Agency support received, Egypt ranks first among all recipients of technical assistance, not only for the period 1958 - 1991, but also held this rank in each of the five years 1982 through 1986 and in 1988. More than half of this assistance has been provided in the form of equipment (57%), followed by expert services (19%), training (17%) and sub-contracts (7%). With 42% and 43%, respectively, the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund and extrabudgetary contributions hold almost equal shares in the total resources available, while in-kind assistance accounts for 9% and UNDP for 6% of the resources. With regard to project disbursement during the past ten years, by sector, the two largest areas have been nuclear safety (34%) and agriculture (33%), followed by nuclear engineering and technology (11%). Smaller shares - from 4% to 7% each-- have gone to industry and hydrology, nuclear medicine, nuclear physics and chemistry, and general atomic energy development

  14. Visualization of Operational Performance of Grid-Connected PV Systems in Selected European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Bhavya Kausika

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the analyses of operational performance of small-sized residential PV systems, connected to the grid, in the Netherlands and some other European countries over three consecutive years. Web scraping techniques were employed to collect detailed yield data at high time resolution (5–15 min from a large number (31,844 of systems with 741 MWp of total capacity, delivering data continuously for at least one year. Annual system yield data was compared from small and medium-sized installations. Cartography and spatial analysis techniques in a geographic information system (GIS were used to visualize yield and performance ratio, which greatly facilitates the assessment of performance for geographically scattered systems. Variations in yield and performance ratios over the years were observed with higher values in 2015 due to higher irradiation values. The potential of specific yield and performance maps lies in the updating of monitoring databases, quality control of data, and availability of irradiation data. The automatic generation of performance maps could be a trend in future mapping.

  15. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Syrian Arab Republic 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Syrian Arab Republic carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  16. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Cote d'Ivoire 1985-1995 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Cote d'Ivoire carried out during 1985-1995. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  17. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with the People's Republic of China 1985-1995 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in the People's Republic of China carried out during 1985-1995. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  18. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with the Republic of Korea 1985-1995 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in the Republic of Korea carried out during 1985-1995. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  19. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with the Islamic Republic of Iran 1985-1995 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in the Islamic Republic of Iran carried out during 1985-1995. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  20. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with the Islamic Republic of Iran 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in the Islamic Republic of Iran carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  1. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with the United Arab Emirates 1984-1994 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in the United Arab Emirates carried out during 1984-1994. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  2. Task 9: deployment of photovoltaic technologies: co-operation with developing countries. Sources of financing for PV-based rural electrification in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, W. [Institute for Sustainable Power, Highlands Ranch, CO (United States); Syngellakis, K. [IT Power Ltd, The Manor house, Chineham (United Kingdom); Shanker, A. [Innovation Energie Developpement, IED, Francheville (France)

    2004-05-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at how PV-based rural electrification in developing countries can be financed. The objective of Task 9 is to increase the overall rate of successful deployment of PV systems in developing countries through increased co-operation and information exchange. This document provides an introduction to PV project financing, including funding sources available, strategies and planning needed to secure the necessary financial resources for the deployment of PV technologies in developing and transitional economies. Topics discussed include risk analysis and the barriers to financing, sources of financing, considerations and variables that influence financing decisions and the process for securing financing. Various forms of international and national financing are looked at, as are the factors influencing financing decisions.

  3. Main competences and skills to perform Essential Public Health Operations, offered by Schools of Public Health in four European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otok, Robert; Foldspang, Anders

    2016-01-01

    ) in each of the four countries, France, Poland, Portugal and the UK, reported the strength of intellectual and practical competences as well as skills to perform essential public health operations (EPHOs), offered by their education and training programmes. RESULTS: The self-reports indicated substantial...... education and training....

  4. Preparedness of fire safety in underground train station: Comparison between train operators in Malaysia with other operators from the developed countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajedi, Noor Aqilah A.; Sukor, Nur Sabahiah A.; Ismail, Mohd Ashraf M.; Shamsudin, Shahrul A.

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the fire evacuation plan and preparation at the underground train stations in the different countries. The methodology for this study was using the extended questionnaire survey to investigate the Rapid Rail Sdn Bhd, Malaysia's fire safety plan and preparation at the underground train stations. There were four sections in the questionnaire which included (i) background of the respondents, (ii) the details on the train stations, safety instruction and fire evacuation exercises (iii) technical systems, installation and equipment at the underground stations and (iv) procedures and technical changes related to fire safety that had been applied by the operators. Previously, the respondents from the different train operator services in the developed countries had completed the questionnaires. This paper extends the response from the Rapid Rail Sdn Bhd to compare the emergency procedures and preparation for fire event with the developed countries. As a result, this study found that the equipment and facilities that provided at the underground train stations that operated by Rapid Rail are relevant for fire safety procedures and needs. The main advantage for Rapid Rail is the underground stations were designed with two or more entrances/exits that may perform better evacuation compare to one main entrance/exit train stations in the other developed countries.

  5. Energy problems of developing countries and the development co-operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutanen, K; Sahrman, K

    1984-12-15

    The technology, economy and problems of energy sector in developing countries are presented as well as the possibilities of solving energy problems, with special emphasis on how to adapt Finnish energy know-how to the conditions existing in the developing countries. The population in the developing countries has grown explosively. The worst energy problem due to this growth is the shortage of firewood. The fact that wood is used for burning is one reason for the formation of deserts. Today already about one hundred million people in developing countries suffer from shortage of energy. In the following 20-30 years it will threaten already about one billion people. Poverty in the developing countries prevents the use of fossil fuels like oil. It is likely that the developing countries already in the coming decades will have to start to use new and renewable sources of energy, like these are solar and wind energy as well as hydroelectric power. The efficiency of burning fire wood should rapidly be improved. On the other hand reforestration should be increased. Also fossil fuels are needed before new sources of energy can be used. All over the world there has been interest in the energy problems of the developing countries. The World Bank and other financing bodies are increasing their financial aid for different kinds of energy projects. The Finnish development aid is primarily bilateral and concentrated in certain countries. In the 1980's the energy sector will be one of the main fields in our development aid, at the same time as the portion of our development aid from gross national income is increasing.

  6. Operator models for delivering municipal solid waste management services in developing countries. Part A: The evidence base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David C; Kanjogera, Jennifer Bangirana; Soós, Reka; Briciu, Cosmin; Smith, Stephen R; Whiteman, Andrew D; Spies, Sandra; Oelz, Barbara

    2017-08-01

    This article presents the evidence base for 'operator models' - that is, how to deliver a sustainable service through the interaction of the 'client', 'revenue collector' and 'operator' functions - for municipal solid waste management in emerging and developing countries. The companion article addresses a selection of locally appropriate operator models. The evidence shows that no 'standard' operator model is effective in all developing countries and circumstances. Each city uses a mix of different operator models; 134 cases showed on average 2.5 models per city, each applying to different elements of municipal solid waste management - that is, street sweeping, primary collection, secondary collection, transfer, recycling, resource recovery and disposal or a combination. Operator models were analysed in detail for 28 case studies; the article summarises evidence across all elements and in more detail for waste collection. Operators fall into three main groups: The public sector, formal private sector, and micro-service providers including micro-, community-based and informal enterprises. Micro-service providers emerge as a common group; they are effective in expanding primary collection service coverage into poor- or peri-urban neighbourhoods and in delivering recycling. Both public and private sector operators can deliver effective services in the appropriate situation; what matters more is a strong client organisation responsible for municipal solid waste management within the municipality, with stable political and financial backing and capacity to manage service delivery. Revenue collection is also integral to operator models: Generally the municipality pays the operator from direct charges and/or indirect taxes, rather than the operator collecting fees directly from the service user.

  7. Supporting the Co-operative Organisation of Rational Energy Use (SCORE). Bulgaria Country Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    SCORE stands for Supporting the Co-operative Organisation of Rational Energy Use. It aims at assisting the social transformation in the Central and Eastern European countries by creating self-supporting structures that are able to stimulate the efficient use of energy in end-user sectors. This document aims at presenting an in-depth institutional analysis of the energy efficiency situation in Bulgaria, including the current situation with regard to energy supply, consumption and environmental aspects, as well as an analysis of energy efficiency policies, instruments and organisations. Also, the document identifies problems related to energy efficiency in Bulgaria and indicates the areas of actions for an integrated SCORE programme in Bulgaria. The input for this process was provided by a survey among the main actors in the field, consisting of a questionnaire and interviews and a review of available information. The results were discussed in a workshop attended by the main stakeholders. The main characteristics of the Bulgarian energy sector are summarised in chapter 2. They indicate a high dependency on imported resources, a low quality of domestic fuels, a relatively high energy intensity of production and a low efficiency at supply and demand side with consider able potential for improvement. The restructuring of the sector has started but the process is far from completed. In the main towns heat is mainly supplied by district heating generated partly in co-generation plants. Gas distribution for public and residential buildings is quickly developing. In Chapter 3 the existing policies and actors are described and a 'roadmap' for energy efficiency actors is given. This provides the basis for defining the priorities for energy efficiency improvements presented in Chapter 4, by analysing the tools, policy instruments and organisations. Barriers and priority actions were defined in relation to the national policy level, the institutional structure, financial and

  8. Social security in developing countries : operation and dynamics of social security mechanisms in rural Swaziland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leliveld, A.H.M.

    1994-01-01

    This study, which is based on field research carried out in Swaziland from October 1989 to December 1990, starts with an introductory chapter followed by three theoretical chapters on social security in developing countries. The content of these chapters is illustrated with an extensive case study

  9. Child Well-Being in Rich Countries : UNICEF's Ranking Revisited, and New Symmetric Aggregating Operators Exemplified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Theo K.

    In a report published in 2007 UNICEF measured six dimensions of child well-being for the majority of the economically advanced nations. No overall scores are given, but countries are listed in the order of their average rank on the dimensions, which are therefore implicitly assigned 'equal

  10. The interplay between money market development and changes in monetary policy operations in small European countries, 1980 - 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Forssbæck, Jens; Oxelheim, Lars

    2007-01-01

    We study the interplay between money market development and changes in monetary policy operating procedures in 11 European countries from c. 1980 up to the launch of EMU. Aspects of money market development such as the size and structure of different market segments, and institutional and regulatory changes, are addressed. We recount and empirically examine the extent of reorientation of monetary policy instruments away from quantitative direct control instruments toward indirect market-based...

  11. Patterns in current anaesthesiological peri-operative practice for colonic resections: a survey in five northern-European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannemann, P; Lassen, K; Hausel, J

    2006-01-01

    -acting anaesthetic medication may be beneficial. We examined whether these strategies have been adopted in five northern-European countries. METHODS: In 2003, a questionnaire concerning peri-operative anaesthetic routines in elective, open colonic cancer resection was sent to the chief anaesthesiologist in 258......-operative fasting, thoracic epidurals and short-acting anaesthetics. However, premedication with longer-acting agents is still common. Avoidance of fluid overload has not yet found its way into daily practice. This may leave patients undergoing elective colonic surgery at risk of oversedation and excessive fluid...

  12. "Initiate-build-operate-transfer"--a strategy for establishing sustainable telemedicine programs in developing countries: initial lessons from the balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Rifat; Merrell, Ronald C; Doarn, Charles R; Hadeed, George J; Bekteshi, Flamur; Lecaj, Ismet; Boucha, Kathe; Hajdari, Fatmir; Hoxha, Astrit; Koshi, Dashurije; de Leonni Stanonik, Mateja; Berisha, Blerim; Novoberdaliu, Kadri; Imeri, Arben; Weinstein, Ronald S

    2009-12-01

    Establishing sustainable telemedicine has become a goal of many developing countries around the world. Yet, despite initiatives from a select few individuals and on occasion from various governments, often these initiatives never mature to become sustainable programs. The introduction of telemedicine and e-learning in Kosova has been a pivotal step in advancing the quality and availability of medical services in a region whose infrastructure and resources have been decimated by wars, neglect, lack of funding, and poor management. The concept and establishment of the International Virtual e-Hospital (IVeH) has significantly impacted telemedicine and e-health services in the Balkans. The success of the IVeH in Kosova has led to the development of similar programs in other Balkan countries and other developing countries in the hope of modernizing and improving their healthcare infrastructure. A comprehensive, four-pronged strategy, "Initiate-Build-Operate-Transfer" (IBOT), may be a useful approach in establishing telemedicine and e-health educational services in developing countries. The development strategy, IBOT, used by the IVeH to establish and develop telemedicine programs, was discussed. IBOT includes assessment of healthcare needs of each country, the development of a curriculum and education program, the establishment of a nationwide telemedicine network, and the integration of the telemedicine program into the healthcare infrastructure. The endpoint is the transfer of a sustainable telehealth program to the nation involved. By applying IBOT, a sustainable telemedicine program of Kosova has been established as an effective prototype for telemedicine in the Balkans. Once fully matured, the program will be transitioned to the national Ministry of Health, which ensures the sustainability and ownership of the program. Similar programs are being established in Albania, Macedonia, and other countries around the world. The IBOT model has been effective in creating

  13. Monitoring of the operation of a nuclear power station with design problems in an importing country: The Almaraz power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reig, J.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the regulatory activities carried out in Spain as a result of the design problem occurring in the steam generators during operation of Unit I of the Almaraz nuclear power station. First, a brief introduction is given to the operating history and characteristics of Unit I of Almaraz. Particular attention is paid to the specific licences issued subsequent to commercial operation which place limitations on the operation of the station and to the operational incidents of which the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) has been notified. Next, a description is provided of the safety evaluation carried out by the CSN. Three aspects merit particular attention: methodology, evaluation and conclusions. The methodology applied by an importing country is normally based on that of the country of origin of the design, so that the overall evaluation by the NRC has been considered sufficiently representative of aspects specific to the Almaraz power station. In this regard the importance of international collaboration is clearly seen as a principal instrument for performing the evaluation. In the evaluation a distinction is made between general and specific aspects and between inspection programmes and quality assurance requirements. In addition, the conclusions leading to the requirement of the imposition of additional limitations on the operating licence are stated. Apart from the safety evaluation carried out by the CSN, other regulatory activities have been performed over this two-year period. These activities, which include site inspections, audits of the principal supplier company, other independent calculations and so on, are described. Lastly, the paper refers to the lessons learned from the operation of the above-mentioned unit, which are immediately applicable to other Spanish nuclear power stations. (author)

  14. Supporting the Co-operative Organisation of Rational Energy Use (SCORE). Romania Country Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    Energy efficiency improvements in the various end-use sectors constitute a very substantial saving potential, which presently is insufficiently addressed in Central and Eastern Europe. For that reason the SCORE concept has been initiated. SCORE stands for 'Supporting the Cooperative Organisation of Rational Energy Use'. SCORE is a Netherlands society to society programme, aiming at assisting the social transformation in the Central and Eastern European countries through projects and actions aiming at improvements in environmental protection and energy end-use sectors. SCORE is managed by the Netherlands Agency for Energy and the Environment (Novem) in partnership with local agencies in Central and Eastern Europe. The SCORE Country Document is based on: Survey on the existing policies and measures for energy efficiency, identified barriers, and the priorities for energy efficiency improvement in the country. The survey was carried out among some of the most important actors in this area by interviews, supported by filling in a questionnaire in a common format. Review of the existing strategic and regulatory documents and policy papers, different information sources like studies, reports, Internet sites. In chapter 2 the qualitative and quantitative situation in the field of energy supply and consumption is presented. In chapter 3 several topics will be addressed to provide insight into the national energy efficiency and climate change policy, a review, of the actors, with their tasks and responsibilities, the domestic programmes and initiatives as well as the foreign assistance programmes and initiatives. Chapter 4 includes the bottlenecks and problems identified to improve the energy efficiency situation in Romania. In chapter 5 some remarks are made on the criteria for SCORE projects

  15. Learning lessons from operational research in infectious diseases: can the same model be used for noncommunicable diseases in developing countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosu WK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available William K Bosu Department of Epidemics and Disease Control, West African Health Organisation, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso Abstract: About three-quarters of global deaths from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs occur in developing countries. Nearly a third of these deaths occur before the age of 60 years. These deaths are projected to increase, fueled by such factors as urbanization, nutrition transition, lifestyle changes, and aging. Despite this burden, there is a paucity of research on NCDs, due to the higher priority given to infectious disease research. Less than 10% of research on cardiovascular diseases comes from developing countries. This paper assesses what lessons from operational research on infectious diseases could be applied to NCDs. The lessons are drawn from the priority setting for research, integration of research into programs and routine service delivery, the use of routine data, rapid-assessment survey methods, modeling, chemoprophylaxis, and the translational process of findings into policy and practice. With the lines between infectious diseases and NCDs becoming blurred, it is justifiable to integrate the programs for the two disease groups wherever possible, eg, screening for diabetes in tuberculosis. Applying these lessons will require increased political will, research capacity, ownership, use of local expertise, and research funding. Keywords: infectious diseases, noncommunicable diseases, operational research, developing countries, integration

  16. Operating cost analysis of an annexed ethanol distillery in a rural, landlocked African country

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Amigun, B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Given the high cost of crude oil, uncertainties regarding future reserves as well as the phenomenon of global warming, alternative fuels such as bioethanol need to be developed and deployed. This work presents an economic analysis (operating cost...

  17. Evaluation of Georgian military co-operation with partner countries and institutions / George Manjgaladze

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Manjgaladze, George

    2003-01-01

    Ettekanne Gruusia sõjalis-poliitilisest koostööst välisriikide relvajõudude ja rahvusvaheliste organisatsioonidega, sh NATO-ga 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO"

  18. "Initiate-build-operate-transfer" - a strategy for establishing sustainable telemedicine programs not only in the developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Rifat

    2011-01-01

    Establishing sustainable telemedicine has become a goal of many developing countries around the world. Yet, despite initiatives from a select few individuals and on occasion from various governments, often these initiatives never mature to become sustainable programs. The introduction of telemedicine and e-learning in the Balkans has been a pivotal step in advancing the quality and availability of medical services in a region whose infrastructure and resources have been decimated by wars, neglect, lack of funding, and poor management. The concept and establishment of the International Virtual e-Hospital (IVeH) has significantly impacted telemedicine and e-health services in Kosova. The success of the IVeH in Kosova has led to the development of similar programs in other Balkan countries and other developing countries in the hope of modernizing and improving their healthcare infrastructure. A comprehensive, four-pronged strategy developed by IVeH "Initiate-Build-Operate-Transfer" (IBOT), may be a useful approach in establishing telemedicine and e-health educational services not only in developing countries, but in developed countries. The development strategy, IBOT, used by the IVeH to establish and develop telemedicine programs is described. IBOT includes assessment of healthcare needs of each country, the development of a curriculum and education program, the establishment of a nationwide telemedicine network, and the integration of the telemedicine program into the very core of healthcare infrastructure. The end point is the transfer of a sustainable telehealth program to the nation involved. By applying IBOT, a sustainable telemedicine program of Kosova and Albania has been established as an effective prototype for telemedicine in the Balkans. Once fully matured, the program is transitioned to the Ministry of Health, which ensures the sustainability and ownership of the program. Similar programs are being established in Macedonia, Montenegro and other countries

  19. A model of a code of ethics for tissue banks operating in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2012-12-01

    Ethical practice in the field of tissue banking requires the setting of principles, the identification of possible deviations and the establishment of mechanisms that will detect and hinder abuses that may occur during the procurement, processing and distribution of tissues for transplantation. This model of a Code of Ethics has been prepared with the purpose of being used for the elaboration of a Code of Ethics for tissue banks operating in the Latin American and the Caribbean, Asia and the Pacific and the African regions in order to guide the day-to-day operation of these banks. The purpose of this model of Code of Ethics is to assist interested tissue banks in the preparation of their own Code of Ethics towards ensuring that the tissue bank staff support with their actions the mission and values associated with tissue banking.

  20. Present trends in radioactive waste management policies in OECD countries, and related international co-operative efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    In recent years, waste management has received increased attention at the national level and also internationally, to harmonize to some extent the policies and practices to be followed and to continue to achieve a high safety standard. In particular, discussions are taking place between OECD Member countries on the definition of objectives, concepts and strategies for radioactive waste management with a view to presenting coherent overall systems, covering not only the treatment and storage aspects for the short-term but also the longer-term problems of disposal in the context of a rapidly developing nuclear fuel cycle. The technical, administrative, legal and financial aspects of the waste management problems are being discussed and various approaches are envisaged for the future. In addition, a significant effort is also being initiated on research and development. The disposal problem has been given priority, particularly regarding high-level waste and alpha-bearing wastes. Close international co-operation has been initiated in this sector as well as on the conditioning of high-level radioactive waste. Increased co-operation is also taking place concerning other waste management problems such as the management of gaseous waste, alpha waste and cladding hulls and the question of dismantling and decommissioning of obsolete nuclear facilities. The paper describes the results achieved so far through this co-operation between OECD Member countries and presents current plans for future activities. (author)

  1. Decision support framework for evaluating the operational environment of forest bioenergy production and use: Case of four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezdevšek Malovrh, Špela; Kurttila, Mikko; Hujala, Teppo; Kärkkäinen, Leena; Leban, Vasja; Lindstad, Berit H; Peters, Dörte Marie; Rhodius, Regina; Solberg, Birger; Wirth, Kristina; Zadnik Stirn, Lidija; Krč, Janez

    2016-09-15

    Complex policy-making situations around bioenergy production and use require examination of the operational environment of the society and a participatory approach. This paper presents and demonstrates a three-phase decision-making framework for analysing the operational environment of strategies related to increased forest bioenergy targets. The framework is based on SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis and the Simple Multi-Attribute Rating Technique (SMART). Stakeholders of four case countries (Finland, Germany, Norway and Slovenia) defined the factors that affect the operational environments, classified in four pre-set categories (Forest Characteristics and Management, Policy Framework, Technology and Science, and Consumers and Society). The stakeholders participated in weighting of SWOT items for two future scenarios with SMART technique. The first scenario reflected the current 2020 targets (the Business-as-Usual scenario), and the second scenario contained a further increase in the targets (the Increase scenario). This framework can be applied to various problems of environmental management and also to other fields where public decision-making is combined with stakeholders' engagement. The case results show that the greatest differences between the scenarios appear in Germany, indicating a notably negative outlook for the Increase scenario, while the smallest differences were found in Finland. Policy Framework was a highly rated category across the countries, mainly with respect to weaknesses and threats. Intensified forest bioenergy harvesting and utilization has potentially wide country-specific impacts which need to be anticipated and considered in national policies and public dialogue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Agency's technical co-operation programme in the Islamic Republic of Iran 1982-1995 country programme evaluation review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    This evaluation of the country programme in Iran was requested by the Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The main reasons for the evaluation were the desire to determine the results of the Agency's TC programme in Iran since 1982 (the post-revolution period) and how they are being utilized, and to identify specific areas for future co-operation. The evaluation included a two-week field mission during November/December 1995, integrated by three outside experts and one Agency staff member. Figs, tabs

  3. Environmental impact assessment on the construction and operation of municipal solid waste sanitary landfills in developing countries: China case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Lü, Fan

    2014-01-01

    An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through...... life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between...

  4. Application of SAR remote sensing and crop modeling for operational rice crop monitoring in South and South East Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiyono, T. D.; Holecz, F.; Khan, N. I.; Barbieri, M.; Maunahan, A. A.; Gatti, L.; Quicho, E. D.; Pazhanivelan, S.; Campos-Taberner, M.; Collivignarelli, F.; Haro, J. G.; Intrman, A.; Phuong, D.; Boschetti, M.; Prasadini, P.; Busetto, L.; Minh, V. Q.; Tuan, V. Q.

    2017-12-01

    This study uses multi-temporal SAR imagery, automated image processing, rule-based classification and field observations to classify rice in multiple locations in South and South Asian countries and assimilate the information into ORYZA Crop Growth Simulation Model (CGSM) to monitor rice yield. The study demonstrates examples of operational application of this rice monitoring system in: (1) detecting drought impact on rice planting in Central Thailand and Tamil Nadu, India, (2) mapping heat stress impact on rice yield in Andhra Pradesh, India, and (3) generating historical rice yield data for districts in Red River Delta, Vietnam.

  5. Country-level operational implementation of the Global Plan for Insecticide Resistance Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, Janet; Vontas, John; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Raman, Jaishree; Lines, Jo; Schwabe, Chris; Matias, Abrahan; Kleinschmidt, Immo

    2013-06-04

    Malaria control is reliant on the use of long-lasting pyrethroid-impregnated nets and/or indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticide. The rapid selection and spread of operationally significant pyrethroid resistance in African malaria vectors threatens our ability to sustain malaria control. Establishing whether resistance is operationally significant is technically challenging. Routine monitoring by bioassay is inadequate, and there are limited data linking resistance selection with changes in disease transmission. The default is to switch insecticides when resistance is detected, but limited insecticide options and resistance to multiple insecticides in numerous locations make this approach unsustainable. Detailed analysis of the resistance situation in Anopheles gambiae on Bioko Island after pyrethroid resistance was detected in this species in 2004, and the IRS program switched to carbamate bendiocarb, has now been undertaken. The pyrethroid resistance selected is a target-site knock-down resistance kdr-form, on a background of generally elevated metabolic activity, compared with insecticide-susceptible A. gambiae, but the major cytochrome P450-based metabolic pyrethroid resistance mechanisms are not present. The available evidence from bioassays and infection data suggests that the pyrethroid resistance mechanisms in Bioko malaria vectors are not operationally significant, and on this basis, a different, long-lasting pyrethroid formulation is now being reintroduced for IRS in a rotational insecticide resistance management program. This will allow control efforts to be sustained in a cost-effective manner while reducing the selection pressure for resistance to nonpyrethroid insecticides. The methods used provide a template for evidence-based insecticide resistance management by malaria control programs.

  6. Development of sustainability reports for farming operations in the Basque Country using the Delphi method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Alvarez Etxeberria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, publications of sustainability reports from a variety of organisations all over the world have significantly increased. Most of these companies are large and belong to the secondary and tertiary sector. This paper uses stakeholder theory to attempt to contribute to the development of sustainability reports specifically related to farming operations. This paper also uses the Delphi methodology to collect information from different stakeholders that, in turn, represent different groups of agents within the organisations involved. The conclusions indicate a difference in the assessments from the three subgroups of experts that comprise the panel.

  7. Simplified Model of Safety Determination Process for a Country with its First Operating Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saud, Bin Khadim; Chung, Dae Wook

    2013-01-01

    The two inputs are evaluated and given a color designation based on their safety significance. The performance indicators (PIs) in ROP program were developed from a very large statistical basis given operating experience from 100 reactors over a long period of time. The inspection findings are evaluated in terms of changes in core damage frequency using simplified PRA models and in some cases more complex models. The aim of this paper is to develop a simplified risk assessment approach for inspection findings which does not use PRA directly, but may use direct calculation approach. Thus, it would be helpful for inspectors to determine the safety significance of inspection findings. The objective of this study was to develop a simplified risk assessment approach for inspection findings using direct risk calculation model to determine the safety significance. Risk and categorization scheme are developed to put inspection finding into corresponding ΔCDF category

  8. Simplified Model of Safety Determination Process for a Country with its First Operating Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saud, Bin Khadim [Korea Advance Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Dae Wook [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The two inputs are evaluated and given a color designation based on their safety significance. The performance indicators (PIs) in ROP program were developed from a very large statistical basis given operating experience from 100 reactors over a long period of time. The inspection findings are evaluated in terms of changes in core damage frequency using simplified PRA models and in some cases more complex models. The aim of this paper is to develop a simplified risk assessment approach for inspection findings which does not use PRA directly, but may use direct calculation approach. Thus, it would be helpful for inspectors to determine the safety significance of inspection findings. The objective of this study was to develop a simplified risk assessment approach for inspection findings using direct risk calculation model to determine the safety significance. Risk and categorization scheme are developed to put inspection finding into corresponding ΔCDF category.

  9. Preliminary report of a gas conditioner to improve operational reliability of cryotherapy in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broekhuizen Fredrik

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryotherapy is a safe, affordable, and effective method of treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. In some low-resource settings, environmental conditions or qualities of the refrigerant gas can lead to blockage of cryotherapy equipment, terminating treatment. A prototype of a gas conditioner to prevent operational failure was designed, built, and field tested. Methods The prototype conditioner device consists of an expansion chamber that filters and dries the refrigerant gas. Users in Peru and Kenya reported on their experience with the prototype conditioner. In Ghana, simulated cryotherapy procedures were used to test the effects of the prototype conditioner, as well as the commonly used "cough technique." Results Anecdotal reports from field use of the device were favorable. During simulated cryotherapy, the prevalence of blockage during freezing were 0% (0/25 with the device alone, 23.3% (7/30 with the cough technique alone, 5.9% (1/17 with both, and 55.2% (16/29 with neither (Pearson's Chi square = 26.6, df = 3, p Conclusion This prototype design of a cryotherapy gas conditioner is a potential solution for low-resource settings that are experiencing cryotherapy device malfunction.

  10. Present trends in radioactive waste management policies in OECD countries and related international co-operative efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    In recent years waste management has received increased attention not only at the national level but also internationally in order to harmonise to some extent the policies and practices to be followed and to continue to achieve a high safety standard in this field. In particular, discussions are taking place between OECD Member countries on the definition of objectives, concepts and strategies for radioactive waste management with a view to presenting coherent overall systems covering not only the treatment and storage aspects for the short term but also the longer term problems of disposal in the context of a rapidly developing nuclear fuel cycle. The technical, administrative, legal and financial aspects of the waste management problems are being discussed and various approaches are envisaged for the future. In addition to the discussion of policies and practices, a significant effort is also being initiated on research and development. The disposal problem has been given priority particularly as far as high level waste and alpha bearing wastes are concerned. Close international co-operation has been initiated in this sector as well as on the conditioning of high level radioactive waste. As a result of these efforts an international R and D programme is being established at the site of the Eurochemic reprocessing plant on the incorporation of high level waste into metal matrices. Increased co-operation is also taking place concerning other waste management problems such as the management of gaseous waste, alpha waste and cladding hulls and the question of dismantling and decommissioning of obsolete nuclear facilities. The paper describes in detail the results achieved so far through this co-operation between OECD Member countries and presents current plans for future activities [fr

  11. A history of abuse and operative delivery--results from a European multi-country cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit Schei

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study was to assess whether a history of abuse, reported during pregnancy, was associated with an operative delivery. Secondly, we assessed if the association varied according to the type of abuse and if the reported abuse had been experienced as a child or an adult. DESIGN: The Bidens study, a cohort study in six European countries (Belgium, Iceland, Denmark, Estonia, Norway, and Sweden recruited 6724 pregnant women attending routine antenatal care. History of abuse was assessed through questionnaire and linked to obstetric information from hospital records. The main outcome measure was operative delivery as a dichotomous variable, and categorized as an elective caesarean section (CS, or an operative vaginal birth, or an emergency CS. Non-obstetrically indicated were CSs performed on request or for psychological reasons without another medical reason. Binary and multinomial regression analysis were used to assess the associations. RESULTS: Among 3308 primiparous women, sexual abuse as an adult (≥ 18 years increased the risk of an elective CS, Adjusted Odds Ratio 2.12 (1.28-3.49, and the likelihood for a non-obstetrically indicated CS, OR 3.74 (1.24-11.24. Women expressing current suffering from the reported adult sexual abuse had the highest risk for an elective CS, AOR 4.07 (1.46-11.3. Neither physical abuse (in adulthood or childhood <18 years, nor sexual abuse in childhood increased the risk of any operative delivery among primiparous women. Among 3416 multiparous women, neither sexual, nor emotional abuse was significantly associated with any kind of operative delivery, while physical abuse had an increased AOR for emergency CS of 1.51 (1.05-2.19. CONCLUSION: Sexual abuse as an adult increases the risk of an elective CS among women with no prior birth experience, in particular for non-obstetrical reasons. Among multiparous women, a history of physical abuse increases the risk of an emergency CS.

  12. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Cote d'Ivoire, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $1.7 million of Agency support received, Cote d'Ivoire ranks 60th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. Over half of the assistance received during the past ten years has been in the form of equipment (59%), complemented by expert services (26%) and training (15%). The best part of the resources was provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (91%), the remainder was made available through extrabudgetary contributions (7%) and through assistance in kind (2%). During the past ten years, project activities - and disbursements - have concentrated exclusively on three major areas: agriculture (59%), general atomic energy development (30%) and nuclear safety (11%)

  13. Determinants of Army Structures Development in the Context of Middle Sized Country Experiences in Contemporary Tactical Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elak Leszek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although a military organization is a special form of institution, grouping people and resources for the special purposes of defence and fighting in general, it is influenced by the same rules and conditions that other organizations are. Considering the problems of land forces organizational structures in tactical operations it is important to refer to the theory of organization and management which may constitute a point of reference to properly devise and forming up of land forces structures assuming that such forces make up an organization - since this is a team of soldiers including their resources, shaped into an adequate structure and predestined to perform a definite task. The article is an attempt to reveal multiple mutual relations of tactical, technical and economical inventions inflicting structural transformation of the army in the context of the reality of a middle-sized country today.

  14. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with the United Republic of Tanzania, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With over $ 3.4 million of Agency support received, the United Republic of Tanzania ranks 44th among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 - 1991. Almost half of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (49%), followed by training through fellowships and scientific visits (29%) and expert services (22%). Ninety-two per cent of the resources were provided by the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund, the rest was made available through assistance in kind (5%) and through extrabudgetary contributions (3%). With regard to project disbursement by sector, by far the largest share has gone to agriculture (48%), followed by nuclear physics (20%), nuclear safety (17%) and nuclear medicine (11%)

  15. Increasing Crop Yields in Water Stressed Countries by Combining Operations of Freshwater Reservoir and Wastewater Reclamation Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, R.; Ng, T. L.

    2015-12-01

    Freshwater resources around the world are increasing in scarcity due to population growth, industrialization and climate change. This is a serious concern for water stressed countries, including those in Asia and North Africa where future food production is expected to be negatively affected by this. To address this problem, we investigate the potential of combining freshwater reservoir and wastewater reclamation operations. Reservoir water is the cheaper source of irrigation, but is often limited and climate sensitive. Treated wastewater is a more reliable alternative for irrigation, but often requires extensive further treatment which can be expensive. We propose combining the operations of a reservoir and a wastewater reclamation plant (WWRP) to augment the supply from the reservoir with reclaimed water for increasing crop yields in water stressed regions. The joint system of reservoir and WWRP is modeled as a multi-objective optimization problem with the double objective of maximizing the crop yield and minimizing total cost, subject to constraints on reservoir storage, spill and release, and capacity of the WWRP. We use the crop growth model Aquacrop, supported by The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), to model crop growth in response to water use. Aquacrop considers the effects of water deficit on crop growth stages, and from there estimates crop yield. We generate results comparing total crop yield under irrigation with water from just the reservoir (which is limited and often interrupted), and yield with water from the joint system (which has the potential of higher supply and greater reliability). We will present results for locations in India and Africa to evaluate the potential of the joint operations for improving food security in those areas for different budgets.

  16. Task 9. Deployment of photovoltaic technologies: co-operation with developing countries. Summary of models for the implementation of solar home systems in developing countries - Part 1: Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-15

    This first part of a two-part report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the implementation of Solar Home systems in developing countries. The objective of Task 9 is to increase the successful deployment of PV systems in developing countries. This summary outlines various models for the implementation of small domestic photovoltaic (PV) systems (Solar Home Systems, SHS) in developing countries. Part 1 of this two-part document discusses three generic models. The second, separate part of the document provides a number of examples demonstrating the models described. This report focuses on the implementation of SHS. However, a considerable amount of the PV market in developing countries is stated as consisting of large systems providing electricity for social services, such as light for schools, mosques, churches, communal centres, refrigeration for health centres and drinking water for communities. It is noted that there are considerable differences between the 'social market' and the 'private market' for SHS. The 'social market' generally consists of large systems but fewer in number. The guide does not cover the detailed technical aspects of a Solar Home System or the issue of recycling old batteries.

  17. Prioritizing essential surgery and safe anesthesia for the Post-2015 Development Agenda: operative capacities of 78 district hospitals in 7 low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBrun, Drake G; Chackungal, Smita; Chao, Tiffany E; Knowlton, Lisa M; Linden, Allison F; Notrica, Michelle R; Solis, Carolina V; McQueen, K A Kelly

    2014-03-01

    Surgery has been neglected in low- and middle-income countries for decades. It is vital that the Post-2015 Development Agenda reflect that surgery is an important part of a comprehensive global health care delivery model. We compare the operative capacities of multiple low- and middle-income countries and identify critical gaps in surgical infrastructure. The Harvard Humanitarian Initiative survey tool was used to assess the operative capacities of 78 government district hospitals in Bangladesh (n = 7), Bolivia (n = 11), Ethiopia (n = 6), Liberia (n = 11), Nicaragua (n = 10), Rwanda (n = 21), and Uganda (n = 12) from 2011 to 2012. Key outcome measures included infrastructure, equipment availability, physician and nonphysician surgical providers, operative volume, and pharmaceutical capacity. Seventy of 78 district hospitals performed operations. There was fewer than one surgeon or anesthesiologist per 100,000 catchment population in all countries except Bolivia. There were no physician anesthesiologists in any surveyed hospitals in Rwanda, Liberia, Uganda, or in the majority of hospitals in Ethiopia. Mean annual operations per hospital ranged from 374 in Nicaragua to 3,215 in Bangladesh. Emergency operations and obstetric operations constituted 57.5% and 40% of all operations performed, respectively. Availability of pulse oximetry, essential medicines, and key infrastructure (water, electricity, oxygen) varied widely between and within countries. The need for operative procedures is not being met by the limited operative capacity in numerous low- and middle-income countries. It is of paramount importance that this gap be addressed by prioritizing essential surgery and safe anesthesia in the Post-2015 Development Agenda. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Paks shows the way towards good operating practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The Paks-3 unit in Hungary was the first VVER (Soviet designed Pressurized Water Reactor) to be scrutinized by an International Atomic Energy Agency Operational Safety Analysis Review Team. A number of examples of good operational practice were noted. Those reported here include the cleanliness of the plant, the management attitude to training, early detection of and action to correct problems as they arise, an accident avoidance policy, a back-up research and development programme, and the provision of computer-based assistance to the operator to present operational data in an easily comprehensible form. (U.K.)

  19. Environmental impact assessment on the construction and operation of municipal solid waste sanitary landfills in developing countries: China case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Lü, Fan; Shao, Li-Ming; Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; He, Pin-Jing

    2014-05-01

    An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between landfill C&O and the total landfilling technology implies that the contribution of C&O to overall landfill emissions is not negligible. The non-toxic impacts induced by C&O can be attributed mainly to the consumption of diesel used for daily operation, while the toxic impacts are primarily due to the use of mineral materials. To test the influences of different landfill C&O approaches on environmental impacts, six baseline alternatives were assessed through sensitivity analysis. If geomembranes and geonets were utilized to replace daily and intermediate soil covers and gravel drainage systems, respectively, the environmental burdens of C&O could be mitigated by between 2% and 27%. During the LCA of landfill C&O, the research scope or system boundary has to be declared when referring to material consumption values taken from the literature; for example, the misapplication of data could lead to an underestimation of diesel consumption by 60-80%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Feasibility and relevance of an operating room safety checklist for developing countries: Study in a French hospital in Djibouti].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becret, A; Clapson, P; Andro, C; Chapelier, X; Gauthier, J; Kaiser, E

    2013-01-01

    The use of the World Health Organization surgical safety checklist, mandatory in operating rooms (OR) in France, significantly reduces morbidity and mortality. Our objective was to evaluate the use of this checklist in the OR of a French military hospital in Djibouti (Horn of Africa). The study was performed in three stages: a retrospective evaluation of the checklist use over the previous two months, to assess the utilization and completeness rates; provision of information to the OR staff; and thereafter, prospective evaluation for a one-month period of checklist use, the reasons for non-compliance, and the cases in which the checklist identified errors and thus prevented serious adverse events. The initial utilization rate was 49%, with only 24% complete. After staff training and during the study these rates reached 100% and 99%. The staff encountered language difficulties in 53% of cases, and an interpreter was available for 81% of them. The capacity of the surgical safety checklist to detect serious adverse events was highlighted. The utilization and completeness rates were initially worse than those observed in metropolitan French ORs, but a simple staff information program was rapidly effective. Language difficulties are frequent but an interpreter is often available, unlike in developed countries where language problems are uncommon and the availability of interpreters difficult. Moreover, this study illustrates the ability of the checklist to detect and therefore prevent potentially serious adverse events.

  1. Task 9. Deployment of photovoltaic technologies: co-operation with developing countries. The role of quality management, hardware certification and accredited training in PV programmes in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, M. C. [Institute for Sustainable Power, Highlands Ranch, CO (United States); Oldach, R.; Bates, J. [IT Power Ltd, The Manor house, Chineham (United Kingdom)

    2003-09-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the role of quality management, hardware certification and accredited training in PV programmes in developing countries. The objective of this document is to provide assistance to those project developers that are interested in implementing or improving support programmes for the deployment of PV systems for rural electrification. It is to enable them to address and implement quality assurance measures, with an emphasis on management, technical and training issues and other factors that should be considered for the sustainable implementation of rural electrification programmes. It is considered important that quality also addresses the socio-economic and the socio-technical aspects of a programme concept. The authors summarise that, for a PV programme, there are three important areas of quality control to be implemented: quality management, technical standards and quality of training.

  2. Task 9. Deployment of photovoltaic technologies: co-operation with developing countries. PV for rural electrification in developing countries - Programme design, planning and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, W. [Institute for Sustainable Power, Highlands Ranch, CO (United States); Oldach, R.; Wilshaw, A. [IT Power Ltd, The Manor house, Chineham (United Kingdom)

    2003-09-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the design, planning and implementation of PV programmes. The guide contains details on the preparation for PV programmes, including the assessment of needs, stakeholder consultation, social context analysis, supply options and national policy considerations. The establishment of goals, delivery modes, timelines, logistics and quality assurance are discussed. Further, the implementation, monitoring and evaluation of PV programmes is discussed, as are a number of methodologies that have been developed with the aim of improving programme design and implementation. The guide highlights issues pertinent to rural energy programmes in developing countries and leads programme administrators through the process of planning, implementing and evaluating a PV programme.

  3. Co-operation of the CMEA member countries in the development of different reactor types, including certain aspects of their nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panasenkov, A.; Barbur, I.; Barchenkov, A.; Molnar, L.; Tolpygo, V.; Khake, V.; Shcherbinin, B.

    1977-01-01

    The report gives an account of the problems of the projected development of atomic power and evaluates its role in the fuel and power complex and long-range development of interconnected power systems of the CMEA member countries. The report emphasizes the importance of scientific and technical co-operation in the creation of thermal and fast-neutron power reactors with 1000-1500MW(e) units, and in the elaboration of nuclear plants for heating services. The positive experience of the international scientific and research group of scientists of the CMEA member countries carrying out reactor-physics studies on critical assemblies is mentioned. The report contains basic conclusions from the forecasts for nuclear power in the CMEA member countries up to 1990, including forecasting methodology; the role of nuclear power plants in saving natural and enriched uranium for a projected period; and the impact of nuclear power development rates on its structure (thermal and fast reactor ratio). It lists the impacts of scientific and technical co-operation of the CMEA member countries on the fuel cycle, including the transport of spent nuclear fuel, its recovery, reprocessing and radioactive waste disposal. Particular effects of co-operation of the CMEA member countries on the radiation safety of nuclear power plants and environmental protection are analysed. The report notes the role of the international economic associations Interatomenergo and Interatominstrument in the accelerated development of nuclear power. (author)

  4. Task 9. Deployment of photovoltaic technologies: co-operation with developing countries. Summary of models for the implementation of solar home systems in developing countries - Part 2: Practical experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-15

    This second part of a report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the implementation of Solar Home Systems in developing countries. The objective of Task 9 is to increase the successful deployment of PV systems in developing countries. This summary outlines various models for the implementation of small domestic photovoltaic (PV) systems (Solar Home Systems, SHS) in developing countries. The first part of this two-part document discussed three generic models. Part 2 of the document is based on work prepared for the Renewable Energy Supply Models (RESUM) project. Examples are quoted which describe the operations of a number of companies supplying solar home systems in developing countries. These examples of practical experience provide a description of businesses, highlighting the success and failure factors of the organisations. They are only a sample of the many PV companies operating internationally and are not to be considered as a critical evaluation of the implementation models; they attempt to give the reader an idea of the realities of using the models in practice.

  5. The Text of the Agreement between the Agency and Sweden for Co-Operation in the Provision of Assistance to Developing Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1970-02-05

    The text of the Agreement between the Agency and the Government of Sweden relating to Co-operation in the Provision of Assistance to Developing Countries is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 18 January 1970 pursuant to Section 27 thereof.

  6. The Text of the Agreement between the Agency and Sweden for Co-Operation in the Provision of Assistance to Developing Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Agency and the Government of Sweden relating to Co-operation in the Provision of Assistance to Developing Countries is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 18 January 1970 pursuant to Section 27 thereof.

  7. Higher Education Co-operation and Western Dominance of Knowledge Creation and Flows in Third World Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaratnam, Viswanathan

    1988-01-01

    Third World adoption of the Western university and the accompanying Eurocentric system of information flow is criticized as sometimes being counterproductive and alien to developing nations. The potential for a self-reliant, interdependent higher education system among Third World countries is discussed. (MSE)

  8. Co-Operatives and Education in the Basque Country: The "Ikastolas" in the Final Years of Franco's Dictatorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Ander

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the creation of the schools called "ikastolas" throughout the Basque Country from the 1960s onwards. The name "ikastola" refers to a unique school model whose major characteristic is to teach the majority of subjects in the Basque language, or "euskera." It outlines the reasons why some of these…

  9. Co-operation of the CMEA member countries in the developing power reactors of various types, including some aspects of their nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbur, I.; Barchenkov, A.; Molnar, L; Panasenkov, A.; Tolpygo, V.; Hake, V.; Shcherbinin, B.

    1977-01-01

    The report gives an account of the problems of projected development of atomic power and evaluates its role in the fuel and power complex and long-range development of interconnected power systems of the CMEA member countries. The report emphasizes the importance of scientific and technical co-operation in the creation of power reactors on thermal and fast neutrons with 1000-1500 MW unit electric capacity as well as in the elaboration of nuclear plants for heating services. It notes the positive experience of the International scientific and research group of scientists of the CMEA member countries carrying out reactor-physical studies on the critical assembly and its contribution to the elaboration of power reactors. The report contains basic conclusions from the development forecast for nuclear power of the CMEA member countries up to 1990 including forecasting methodology; role of nuclear power plants in saving natural and enriched uranium for a projected period; impact of nuclear power development rates on its structure (thermal and fast reactor ratio); relation between the beginning of mass commissioning of nuclear power plants with fast reactors and the integral demand for nuclear fuel; scale of required capacities of fuel cycle services; time dependence of fuel cycle on nuclear fuel requirements. It examines the problems and lists the results of scientific and technical co-operation of the CMEA member countries in the field of fuel cycle, including the transport of spent nuclear fuel, its recovery, reprocessing and radioactive waste disposal. Particular questions of co-operation of the CMEA member countries to secure radiation safety of nuclear power plants and environmental protection are analyzed. The report notes the role of international economic associations - ''Interatomenergo'' and ''Interatominstrument'' - in the accelerated development of nuclear power on the basis of cooperation and specialization in the manufacture of equipment for nuclear power

  10. Patterns in current anaesthesiological peri-operative practice for colonic resections: a survey in five northern-European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannemann, P; Lassen, K; Hausel, J

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For colorectal surgery, evidence suggests that optimal management includes: no pre-operative fasting, a thoracic epidural analgesia continued for 2 days post-operatively, and avoidance of fluid overload. In addition, no long-acting benzodiazepines on the day of surgery and use of shor...

  11. Operation Martillo as a Tool to Reduce Drug Trafficking in the Northern Triangle Countries (El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-23

    Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia, followed by Ecuador and Venezuela . Recently, the production in these countries has increased and consequently the...Initiative: Background and Policy Issues for Congress (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2011), accessed November 5, 2016, https...of South America such as Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia and Peru to the major routes leading to the U.S. Furthermore, Venezuela has become a safe place

  12. Operational tools and applications of EO satellite data to retrieve surface fluxes in semi-arid countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanguy, Maliko

    The objective of the thesis is to develop and evaluate useful tools and applications of Earth Observation (EO) satellite data to estimate surface fluxes in semi-arid countries. In a first part (Chapter 4), we assess the performance of a new parameterisation scheme of ground heat flux (G) to be used in remote sensing (RS) evapotranspiration (ET) estimation methods. The G-parameterisation optimized with AMMA flux data performs well and improves the sensible heat flux (H) and ET retrieved by means of the triangle method (Jiang & Islam, 2001). In a second part (Chapter 5), the triangle method is compared with ET estimated by means of a land surface model (JULES). An attempt is made to calibrate JULES using the triangle method through Monte Carlo simulations, but the two methods supply rather different results, indicating that further intercomparison tasks should be carried out to assess the performance of RS-based algorithms and land surface models in estimating the components of the land surface energy balance. Chapter 6 presents a set of operational examples for retrieving surface fluxes using RS data. The first example is the study of temporal evolution of ET-maps in Western Africa under monsoonal influence. In a second example, we apply the new scheme proposed in Chapter 4 to retrieve and analyse the long term evolution (2000-2009) of the surface energy balance components, G, H and ET at several sites of the Segura Basin (S-E Spain) using MODIS-Terra data (land surface temperature and NDVI). Temporal and spatial distribution of evapotranspiration reveals different controls on ET. (Chapter 6). In the last example, MODIS-Aqua Sea Surface Temperature (SST) is used to validate a mathematical model to retrieve surface fluxes in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Mar Menor, S-E Spain). El objetivo de esta tesis es de desarrollar y evaluar herramientas y aplicaciones de la teledetección para estimar flujos de superficie en zonas semiáridas. En una primera parte (Cap

  13. The Radioactive Legacy of the Russian Pacific Fleet Operations and its Potential Impact on Neighboring Countries. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, K. L.; Novikov, V.M.; Parker, F.L.; Sivintsev, Y.U.

    2003-01-01

    There have been extensive studies of the current and potential environmental impact of Russian Northern fleet activities. However, despite the fact that the total number of ships in both fleets are comparable, there have been very few studies published in the open literature of the impact of the Pacific fleet. This study of the Pacific fleet's impact on neighboring countries was undertaken to partially remedy this lack of analysis. This study is focused on an evaluation of the inventory of major sources of radioactive material associated with the decommissioning of nuclear submarines, and an evaluation of releases to the atmosphere and their long-range (>100km) transboundary transport

  14. Simulators for Russia and the Ukraine: a status report on US assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoder, J.; Kohut, P.

    1996-01-01

    The US government's International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP) purpose is to improve the level of safety of Soviet-designed nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe including Russia and the Ukraine. The objective of the INSP is the comprehensive improvement in safety culture, power plant operation and physical conditions, and infrastructures in countries operating Soviet-designed reactors. The program areas are categorized into elements that relate to: management and operations, engineering and technology, plant safety analysis, fuel cycle, legislative and regulatory framework

  15. The District Health Information System (DHIS2): A literature review and meta-synthesis of its strengths and operational challenges based on the experiences of 11 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehnavieh, Reza; Haghdoost, AliAkbar; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Hoseinabadi, Fahime; Rahimi, Hamed; Poursheikhali, Atousa; Khajehpour, Nahid; Khajeh, Zahra; Mirshekari, Nadia; Hasani, Marziyeh; Radmerikhi, Samera; Haghighi, Hajar; Mehrolhassani, Mohammad Hossain; Kazemi, Elaheh; Aghamohamadi, Saeide

    2018-01-01

    Health information systems offer many potential benefits for healthcare, including financial benefits and for improving the quality of patient care. The purpose of District Health Information Systems (DHIS) is to document data that are routinely collected in all public health facilities in a country using the system. The aim of this study was to examine the strengths and operational challenges of DHIS2, with a goal to enable decision makers in different counties to more accurately evaluate the outcomes of introducing DHIS2 into their particular country. A review of the literature combined with the method of meta-synthesis was used to source information and interpret results relating to the strengths and operational challenges of DHIS2. Databases (Embase, PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar) were searched for documents related to strengths and operational challenges of DHIS2, with no time limit up to 8 April 2017. The review and evaluation of selected studies was conducted in three stages: title, abstract and full text. Each of the selected studies was reviewed carefully and key concepts extracted. These key concepts were divided into two categories of strengths and operational challenges of DHIS2. Then, each category was grouped based on conceptual similarity to achieve the main themes and sub-themes. Content analysis was used to analyse extracted data. Of 766 identified citations, 20 studies from 11 countries were included and analysed in this study. Identified strengths in the DHIS were represented in seven themes (with 21 categories): technical features of software, proper management of data, application flexibility, networking and increasing the satisfaction of stakeholders, development of data management, increasing access to information and economic benefits. Operational challenges were identified and captured in 11 themes (with 18 categories): funds; appropriate communication infrastructure; the need for the existence of appropriate data; political, cultural

  16. Testing VGT data continuity between SPOT and PROBA-V missions for operational yield forecasting in North African countries

    OpenAIRE

    MERONI MICHELE; FASBENDER DOMINIQUE; BALAGHI Raid; DALI Mustapha; HAFANI Miriam; HAYTHEM Ismael; HOOKER JOSEPH DOMINIC; LAHLOU Mouanis; LOPEZ LOZANO RAUL; MAHYOU Hamid; MONCEF Ben Moussa; SGHAIER Nabil; WAFA Talhaoui; LEO Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The SPOT-VEGETATION mission operationally provided 15 years of remote sensing indicators of vegetation status. The mission reached its end-of-life in May 2014 and was timely replaced by the PROBA-V mission, aiming to ensure, among other objectives, the seamless continuity of provision of VGT-like products, including Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Exploiting the period of overlap when both instruments were functioning (November 2013 –May 2014), this study compared NDVI data ...

  17. Design basis knowledge management for the newcomer countries. Relying on the owner/operator as a knowledgeable customer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepouze, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    Becoming a knowledgeable customer is the first step to manage knowledge: • Vendors, consulting firms, TSOs can assist the future operator but it will remain the sole owner of the decisions; • Future owner operator has to become a knowledgeable customer: • Know what to ask for, • Know how to ask for it, • Know how to check if it got what it asked. • Where should knowledge management belong (management?, HRD?, procurement?) and is it important? What it means for DBKM ? (example): • The owner/operator (the licensee) is responsible in front of the safety agency: it should answer its questions at every stage of the program; • It will often turn back to its vendor/suppliers especially for detailed design questions; • But that means it has to know what to ask for and to check the result before talking to the regulator; • That also means it has to make sure knowledge is managed throughout the life of the program

  18. Information on scientific and technological co-operation between the CMEA member countries in radioactive waste burial in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolpygo, V.K.

    1984-02-01

    Research on radioactive waste treatment and disposal constitutes an important area of cooperation between the CMEA member countries. An important part in cooperation has been assigned to the study of systems for disposing radioactive waste of all kinds in geological formations. The cooperation which was initiated in 1971 was realized within the two research programmes scheduled for subsequent periods, viz. for 1971 to 1975, and from 1976 to 1983. Programme work for 1971 to 1975 included three major fields of research: theoretical and experimental research, scientific and technological research and methodological research. As regards methodological research and results of work by the plan for 1976 to 1983, comprehensive research on the methods of disposing radioactive waste in geological formations has been practically completed and documents relating to the industrial introduction of these methods have been prepared. The results of research renders it possible to properly organize from the standpoint of methodology surveying, designing of schematic diagrams and structures of all facilities involving the burial of radioactive waste in geological formations, the evaluation of suitability of the sanitary protection zone from the standpoint of environmental protection and the rational use of natural resources. The drawing of prognostic charts and the development of recommendations on the use of interior of the earth for burying radioactive waste make it possible for the planning bodies, ministries and agencies to evaluate the possibilities for underground burial of radioactive waste in selecting a site and in designing and construction of new nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities

  19. Unemployment and HIV mortality in the countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development: 1981–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthappu, Mahiben; Williams, Callum; Zeltner, Thomas; Atun, Rifat

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine an association between unemployment rates and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mortality in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Design Multivariate regression analysis. Participants OECD member states. Setting OECD. Main outcome measures World Health Organization HIV mortality. Results Between 1981 and 2009, a 1% increase in unemployment was associated with an increase in HIV mortality in the OECD (coefficient for men 0.711, 0.334–1.089, p = 0.0003; coefficient for women 0.166, 0.071–0.260, p = 0.0007). Time lag analysis showed a significant increase in HIV mortality for up to two years after rises in unemployment: p = 0.0008 for men and p = 0.0030 for women in year 1, p = 0.0067 for men and p = 0.0403 for women in year 2. Conclusions Rises in unemployment are associated with increased HIV mortality. Economic fiscal policy may impact upon population health. Policy discussions should take into consideration potential health outcomes. PMID:28748096

  20. Unemployment and HIV mortality in the countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development: 1981-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthappu, Mahiben; Zhou, Charlie; Williams, Callum; Zeltner, Thomas; Atun, Rifat

    2017-07-01

    To determine an association between unemployment rates and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mortality in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Multivariate regression analysis. OECD member states. OECD. World Health Organization HIV mortality. Between 1981 and 2009, a 1% increase in unemployment was associated with an increase in HIV mortality in the OECD (coefficient for men 0.711, 0.334-1.089, p  = 0.0003; coefficient for women 0.166, 0.071-0.260, p  = 0.0007). Time lag analysis showed a significant increase in HIV mortality for up to two years after rises in unemployment: p  = 0.0008 for men and p  = 0.0030 for women in year 1, p  = 0.0067 for men and p  = 0.0403 for women in year 2. Rises in unemployment are associated with increased HIV mortality. Economic fiscal policy may impact upon population health. Policy discussions should take into consideration potential health outcomes.

  1. Non-operative management is superior to surgical stabilization in spine injury patients with complete neurological deficits: A perspective study from a developing world country, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Muhammad Shahzad; Ali, Syed Faizan; Enam, Syed Ather

    2011-01-01

    Surgical stabilization of injured spine in patients with complete spinal cord injury is a common practice despite the lack of strong evidence supporting it. The aim of this study is to compare clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of surgical stabilization versus conservative management of spinal injury in patients with complete deficits, essentially from a developing country's point of view. A detailed analysis of patients with traumatic spine injury and complete deficits admitted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Pakistan, from January 2004 till January 2010 was carried out. All patients presenting within 14 days of injury were divided in two groups, those who underwent stabilization procedures and those who were managed non-operatively. The two groups were compared with the endpoints being time to rehabilitation, length of hospital stay, 30 day morbidity/mortality, cost of treatment, and status at follow up. Fifty-four patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and half of these were operated. On comparing endpoints, patients in the operative group took longer time to rehabilitation (P-value = 0.002); had longer hospital stay (P-value = 0.006) which included longer length of stay in special care unit (P-value = 0.002) as well as intensive care unit (P-value = 0.004); and were associated with more complications, especially those related to infections (P-value = 0.002). The mean cost of treatment was also significantly higher in the operative group (USD 6,500) as compared to non-operative group (USD 1490) (P-value managed non-operatively with a provision of surgery only if their rehabilitation is impeded due to pain or deformity.

  2. Economic and cultural correlates of subjective wellbeing in countries using data from the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaygisiz, Esma

    2010-06-01

    The correlations among indicators of objective well-being, cultural dimensions, and subjective well-being were investigated using Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) data from 35 countries. The subjective well-being measures included life satisfaction as well as six positive and six negative indexes of experience. Positive and negative experience scores were subjected to principal component analysis, and two positive experience components (labeled as "positive experiences" and "time management") and two negative experience components (labeled as "pain, worry, and sadness" and "anger and boredom") were extracted. Objective well-being included economic indicators, education, and health. The cultural variables included Hofstede's and Schwartz's cultural dimensions, national Big Five personality scores, and national IQs. High life satisfaction was positively related to Gross Domestic Product, life expectancy, education, individualism, affective and intellectual autonomy, egalitarianism, and conscientiousness, whereas low life satisfaction was related to unemployment, unequal income distribution, power distance, masculinity uncertainty avoidance, embeddedness, hierarchy, and neuroticism.

  3. Proposal for an IAEA - sponsored project of interregional co-operation for training of nuclear scientists in developing countries, using the expertise available in the nuclear data field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocherov, N.; Schmidt, J.J.

    1980-07-01

    During the Winter College on Nuclear Physics and Reactors jointly organized by the IAEA and the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in January - March 1980 and held at the ICTP in Trieste, a Working Group was convened from participants in the Interregional Advanced Training Course on Applications of Nuclear Theory to Nuclear Data Calculations for Reactor Design. The Working Group examined the current fast neutron nuclear data requirements for nuclear technologies and discussed possible means to meet these requirements, with a major emphasis on the possible contributions by and benefit for the developing countries. The Working Group concluded that the organisation of an IAEA-sponsored Project of Interregional Co-operation for Training of Nuclear Scientists in Developing Countries, Using the Expertise Available in the Nuclear Data Field, would be the best solution to cope with the problems in question and drafted an outline of the technical programme and organization of such a project the revised version of which is presented in this report

  4. Qualification, training, licensing/authorization and retraining of operating personnel in nuclear power plants. Noteworthy topics identified by evaluation of the practices in countries of the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraut, A.; Pfeffer, W.

    1987-01-01

    In the report EUR 10118 '' Qualification, training, licensing and retraining of operating shift personnel in nuclear power plants'' the current practice in the countries of the European Communities as well as the procedures and programmes applied in Sweden, Switzerland and the USA are outlined and evaluated. The intent was to derive fundamental and generally valid concepts concerning shift-staff training and other relevant aspects. Those items were identified that seemed to be noteworthy because they give some guidance on how to achieve and maintain the qualification of the shift staff of NPPs or how to improve the staffing of the control room. These noteworthy topics identified by evaluation of the practice in countries of the European Communities and also elsewhere are presented in the publication at hand. The report addresses the following topics: tasks of the shift personnel, nomenclature for different grades of the personnel; shift staffing and staffing of the control room; criteria for personnel selection when recruiting new shift staff; personnel qualification necessary for recruitment; training of shift personnel; retraining and preservation of qualification standards; training facilities, especially simulators; responsibility for training; licensing/authorization; retirement from shift work. Consideration of these more general aspects and concepts may lead to improvement in training. The job descriptions given in the Annex to the document are only intended to give a general understanding of the typical designations, tasks and responsibilities of shift staff

  5. Opportunities and Threats of Ukrainian Membership in WTO for Engineering under Conditions of Co-operation with EU Countries and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article considers consequences of the membership of Ukraine in the World Trade Organisation (WTO for the engineering industry when co-operating with the EU and CU (Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia countries. It shows that, after Ukraine joined WTO, tariff rates for Ukrainian products reduced in general and liberalisation of access to the world market took place. Along with it, the internal market of Ukraine became more open for imported products. The article analyses the structure of export from Ukraine after joining WTO in the context of individual types of products. The article identifies changes that took place in the market of engineering products after Ukraine joined WTO. The article shows that by main indicators of economic security the engineering industry of Ukraine cannot be considered as stable and also that, after joining WTO, main indicators of economic security of the engineering industry of Ukraine have not improved. It analyses the structure of export and import of Ukrainian engineering products to EU, CU and other countries. It proves that the most topical for the Ukrainian engineering industry is the issue of realisation of the import-replacement potential and increase of competitiveness of domestic products. It considers the state and changes, which took place after Ukraine joined WTO, in car building. It identifies main problems of domestic car building. It analyses measures of the state programme of Ukraine on economic development.

  6. Building country image process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubović Jovan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The same branding principles are used for countries as they are used for the products, only the methods are different. Countries are competing among themselves in tourism, foreign investments and exports. Country turnover is at the level that the country's reputation is. The countries that begin as unknown or with a bad image will have limits in operations or they will be marginalized. As a result they will be at the bottom of the international influence scale. On the other hand, countries with a good image, like Germany (despite two world wars will have their products covered with a special "aura".

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of touch imprint cytology for head and neck malignancies: a useful intra-operative tool in resource limited countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveed, Hania; Abid, Mariam; Hashmi, Atif Ali; Edhi, Muhammad Muzammamil; Sheikh, Ahmareen Khalid; Mudassir, Ghazala; Khan, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Intraoperative consultation is an important tool for the evaluation of the upper aerodigestive tract (UAT) malignancies. Although frozen section analysis is a preferred method of intra-operative consultation, however in resource limited countries like Pakistan, this facility is not available in most institutes; therefore, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of touch imprint cytology for UAT malignancies using histopathology of the same tissue as gold standard. The study involved 70 cases of UAT lesions operated during the study period. Intraoperatively, after obtaining the fresh biopsy specimen and prior to placing them in fixative, each specimen was imprinted on 4-6 glass slides, fixed immediately in 95% alcohol and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin stain. After completion of the cytological procedure, the surgical biopsy specimen was processed. The slides of both touch Imprint cytology and histopathology were examined by two consultant histopathologists. The result of touch imprint cytology showed that touch imprint cytology was diagnostic in 68 cases (97.1%), 55 (78.6%) being malignant, 2 cases (2.9%) were suspicious for malignancy, 11 cases (15.7%) were negative for malignancy while 2 cases (2.9%) were false negative. Amongst the 70 cases, 55 cases (78.6%) were malignant showing squamous cell carcinoma in 49 cases (70%), adenoid cystic carcinoma in 2 cases (2.9%), non-Hodgkin lymphoma 2 cases (2.9%), Mucoepidermoid carcinoma 1 case (1.4%), spindle cell sarcoma in 1 case (1.4%). Two cases (2.9%) were suspicious of malignancy showing atypical squamoid cells on touch imprint cytology, while 13 cases (18.6%) were negative for malignancy, which also included 2 false negative cases. The overall diagnostic accuracy of touch imprint cytology came out to be 96.7% with a sensitivity and specificity of 96 and 100%, respectively while PPV and NPV of touch imprint cytology was found to be 100 and 84%, respectively. Our experience in this study has demonstrated

  8. High prevalence of respiratory symptoms among workers in the development section of a manually operated coal mine in a developing country: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bråtveit Magne

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies of miners have been carried out in African countries; most are from South Africa, where the working conditions are assumed to be better than in the rest of Africa. Several studies have focused on respiratory disorders among miners, but development workers responsible for creating underground road ways have not been studied explicitly. This is the first study assessing the associations between exposure to dust and quartz and respiratory symptoms among coal mine workers in a manually operated coal mine in Tanzania, focusing on development workers, as they have the highest exposure to coal dust. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 250 production workers from a coal mine. Interviews were performed using modified standardized questionnaires to elicit information on occupational history, demographics, smoking habits and acute and chronic respiratory symptoms. The relationships between current dust exposure as well as cumulative respirable dust and quartz and symptoms were studied by group comparisons as well as logistic regression. Results Workers from the development group had the highest dust exposure, with arithmetic mean of 10.3 mg/m3 for current respirable dust and 1.268 mg/m3 for quartz. Analogous exposure results for mine workers were 0.66 mg/m3 and 0.03 mg/m3, respectively; and for other development workers were 0.88 mg/m3 and 0.10 mg/m3, respectively. The workers from the development section had significantly higher prevalence of the acute symptoms of dry cough (45.7%, breathlessness (34.8% and blocked nose (23.9%. In addition, development workers had significantly more chronic symptoms of breathlessness (17.0% than the mine workers (6.4% and the other production workers (2.4%. The highest decile of cumulative exposure to respirable dust was significantly associated with cough (OR = 2.91, 95% CI 1.06, 7.97 as were cumulative exposure to quartz and cough (OR = 2.87, CI 1.05, 7.88, compared with

  9. Success factors for sustainable private business operation of decentralised rural electrification with PV - Results from the project "DELTA PRO RES" in the lower Delta Mekong countries

    OpenAIRE

    Gölz, S.; Vogt, G.; Maigne, Y.; Mozas, K.

    2006-01-01

    The project Delta PRO RES is the response to the wave of electricity sector reform in developing countries in South East Asia which provides opportunities for a new approach: bankable rural electrification. The project prepares the ground for this future track by developing a methodology and markets to increase rural access to energy with decentralized renewable energy systems in the Lower Delta Mekong countries Vietnam, Cambodia and Lao PDR. Private entrepreneurship and venture capital inves...

  10. A mechanism for the promotion of technical co-operation among the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean in the field of the peaceful use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    Day after day, in hospitals, industry, agricultural enterprises and universities all over the world, advantage is being taken of the peaceful uses of nuclear technology. In recent years, the Agency's regional technical co-operation projects have acquired considerable importance in Latin America and the Caribbean, particularly in such areas of common interest as nuclear information, radiation protection, human health, agriculture, hydrology, industry, and the maintenance and repair of nuclear instruments used for research purposes and related studies, to cite but a few examples. As a result, a group of Latin American countries decided to join forces to carry out specific technical co-operation projects aimed at raising the level of nuclear applications in the region. This effort culminated in the decision, made in 1984, to establish, under the auspices of the Agency, a regional co-operation programme called ARCAL. This document describes the ARCAL programme, participating countries and main results achieved

  11. Radonclose - the system of Soviet designed regional waste management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, W.C.; Reisman, A.; Purvis, E.E. III.

    1997-01-01

    The Soviet Union established a system of specialized regional facilities to dispose of radioactive waste generated by sources other than the nuclear fuel cycle. The system had 16 facilities in Russia, 5 in Ukraine, one in each of the other CIS states, and one in each of the Baltic Republics. These facilities are still being used. The major generators of radioactive waste they process these are research and industrial organizations, medical and agricultural institution and other activities not related to nuclear power. Waste handled by these facilities is mainly beta- and gamma-emitting nuclides with half lives of less than 30 years. The long-lived and alpha-emitting isotopic content is insignificant. Most of the radwaste has low and medium radioactivity levels. The facilities also handle spent radiation sources, which are highly radioactive and contain 95-98 percent of the activity of all the radwaste buried at these facilities

  12. Developing a regulatory framework for the financial, management performance and social reporting systems for co-operatives in developing countries: A case study of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Nieman

    2016-08-01

    Findings: The research performed showed that existing reporting frameworks and practices do not meet the reporting requirements of co-operatives in all aspects because of the different nature of co-operatives as opposed to shareholder-owned entities.

  13. THE IMPLEMENTATION OF HETEROGENEOUS RISK TO THE COMPANY'S OPERATIONS AND TRANSITION COUNTRIES RESPECTING THE BEHAVIOR OF AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES IN THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BILJANA BJELICA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary function of the establishment of control mechanisms in the transition countries is that their attention is directed to the current activities of certain parts of the company which is especially important in manufacturing companies such as those in agriculture. Control mechanisms justify their existence constantly and permanently. The observation should be made from most general (activity influences the country where the predominant activity is performed, concrete (tested embedded accounting controls, financial presentations and other contemporary data management, effectiveness and functioning of the non-financial controls and assessment of the relevant risks. When introducing control mechanisms should take into account the desired level of security programmed. Therefore, it is necessary to program risk factors and impact on the company, especially in the productive activities such as agriculture.

  14. Role of proper response schemes, legislation and regional co-operation in combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterzov, A.

    2003-01-01

    Bulgaria's geographical location - between Europe, the former Soviet Union, and the Middle East - exposes it to much illegal trafficking: of people, arms, drugs, etc. The trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials in Bulgaria can be divided in two main parts - internal and transit. Internal trafficking consists of stolen radioactive sources such as counters and densitometers, irradiation devices, tools for removing static electricity, and smoke detectors, which mainly contain the isotopes 137 Cs, 60 Co, 192 Ir, 226 Ra and 241 Am. The external trafficking of illicit nuclear materials is connected with transfer of raw materials and expensive metals from the former Soviet Union to countries in Western Europe and the Middle East, including aluminium, osmium, caesium, scandium, rare earth elements, red mercury, plutonium and enriched uranium. Detecting internal and external trafficking poses serious problems for the Bulgarian authorities, in terms of equipment and qualified personnel at the borders and inside the country. Developing countries need protocols for detecting and responding to illicit trafficking of nuclear materials, which is a new threat that requires rapid implementation of comprehensive measures and efforts, novel approaches, coordination of services and institutions, and even new legislation. The paper describes a three step model for better and more rapid responses for combating illicit nuclear trafficking in Bulgaria.The steps involve developing first response protocols, using nondestructive analytical means to categorize materials on-site, followed by in-depth analysis. It is also important to initiate contacts with neighbouring countries to foster regional collaboration among law enforcement agencies, customs authorities, analytical laboratories, etc., to improve efficiency in combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. (author)

  15. Considering the Practical Rationality of Experimental Operation in Developing Countries: Reality and Challenges under a Rigid Community Forestry System in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Kurashima

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Influential stakeholders have highlighted many constraints inherent in conventional scientific forest management plans for community forestry (CF and presented simpler alternatives. Nevertheless, some developing countries continue to use rigid, complex and high-cost plans and regulations. This article considers two issues: (1 why heavily-regulated or rigid CF systems were originally introduced and why they continue to be used in developing countries despite critiques and counterproposals; and (2 under what circumstances will such CF systems face an impasse, and what can be done to resolve the situation. Using Cambodia as a case study, we examine the development of a rigid CF system, review negative factors influencing the upland forested area, clarify the unfavorable situations arising from these factors and discuss likely problems associated with the CF management system. International organizations played a key role in the introduction and maintenance of rigid, complex and high-cost CF systems in Cambodia. Conflicts and crises arise when the administration prosecutes local farmers for illegal cultivation or deprives communities of CF management rights because of the expansion of commercial crop cultivation and the lack of adequate community management in response to unprecedented changes. A likely practical solution to the probable impasse is the development and funding of a functional network of CF management committees, rather than the adoption of an entirely new, alternative system.

  16. Type and extent of trans-disciplinary co-operation to improve food security, health and household environment in low and middle income countries: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Gaihre

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although linkages have been found between agricultural interventions and nutritional health, and the development of clean fuels and improved solid fuel stoves in reducing household air pollution and adverse health effects, the extent of the potential of combined household interventions to improve health, nutrition and the environment has not been investigated. A systematic review was conducted to identify the extent and type of community-based agricultural and household interventions aimed at improving food security, health and the household environment in low and middle income countries. Methods A systematic search of Ovid MEDLINE, PUBMED, EMBASE and SCOPUS databases was performed. Key search words were generated reflecting the “participants, interventions, comparators, outcomes and study design” approach and a comprehensive search strategy was developed following “Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses” recommendations. Any community-based agricultural and/or household interventions were eligible for inclusion if the focus was to improve at least one of the outcome measures of interest. All relevant study designs employing any of these interventions (alone/in combination were included if conducted in Low and middle income countries. Review articles, and clinical and occupational studies were excluded. Results A total of 123 studies were included and grouped into four intervention domains; agricultural (n = 27, air quality (n = 34, water quality (n = 32, and nutritional (n = 30. Most studies were conducted in Asia (39.2 % or Africa (34.6 % with the remaining 26.1 % in Latin America. Very few studies (n = 11 combined interventions across more than one domain. The majority of agricultural and nutritional studies were conducted in Africa and Asia, whereas the majority of interventions to improve household air quality were conducted in Latin America. Conclusions It is

  17. Country programme review. Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolnicar, J.; Kamel, R.; Perera, O.; Tauchid, M.

    1992-08-01

    This document reviews the current nuclear program in Mongolia, identifying the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in the country and possible future technical co-operation activities. Separate brief sections deal with food and agriculture; mineral resources; nuclear chemistry, nuclear physics and instrumentation; human health; radiation protection; water resources and nuclear energy. 1 tab

  18. Country programme review. Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This document reviews the current nuclear program in Guatemala, identifying the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in the country and possible future technical co-operation activities. Separate brief sections deal with food and agriculture; human health; radiation protection; industrial applications and hydrology; nuclear analytical techniques; nuclear instrumentation and nuclear information

  19. Features of Creation and Operation of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles in Countries with Difficult Climatic Conditions, for Example, in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpukhin, K.; Terenchenko, A.

    2016-11-01

    The trend of increasing fleet of electric or hybrid vehicles and determines the extension of the geographical areas of operation, including the Northern areas with cold winter weather. Practically in all territory of Russia the average winter temperature is negative. With the winter temperatures can be below in Moscow -30°C, in Krasnoyarsk -50°C. Battery system can operate in a wide temperature range, but there are extremes that should be remembered all the time, especially in cold climates like Russia. In the operating instructions of the electric car Tesla Model S indicate that to save the battery don't use at temperatures below -15°C. The paper presents the dependence of the cooling time and heating of the battery cell at different ambient temperatures and provides guidance on allowable cooling time while using and not thermally insulated thermally containers Suggests using the temperature control on the basis of thermoelectric converters Peltier connection from the onboard electrical network of the electric vehicle.

  20. Opportunities and threats of WTO membership of Ukraine in foreign trade of high-technology products under conditions of co-operation with EU countries and Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of consequences of membership in the World Trade Organisation (WTO for Ukraine in foreign trade of high-technology products under conditions of co-operation with EU countries and the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia (CU. The article shows that after Ukraine joined WTO there were some rather significant reductions of tariff rates for Ukrainian products and liberalisation of access to the world markets, at the same time the internal Ukrainian market became more open for imported products. The article studies specific features and changes in the high-technology products market after Ukraine joined WTO. It analyses dynamics of volumes and specific weight of the world export-import of high-technology products and the structure of the world export and import of high technology products, including by individual countries and groups. The article makes a conclusion about a weak high-technology component of the Ukrainian export. It studies the structure of export of high-technology products of EU, CU and Ukraine. It shows that in order to develop the high-technology products market Ukraine needs to develop foreign trade with EU countries and also to continue co-operation with CU countries, in particular, with Russia. The article shows that the aerospace industry products takes the biggest specific weight in the export of high-technology products of Ukraine. It considers prospects of development of civil aircraft production in the world and Ukraine under the modern conditions. It analyses strengths and weaknesses of the aircraft construction industry and also threats and opportunities for aircraft construction of Ukraine due to external environment influence. The article shows that Ukraine cannot keep national aircraft building on its own, that is why it is necessary to develop close co-operation both with Russian enterprises and with the countries of the Western Europe. It offers recommendations on

  1. Design and operation of ventilation in low energy residences – A survey on code requirements and building reality from six European countries and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Carmen Bocanegra-Yanez, Maria; Rojas, Gabriel; Zukowska-Tejsen, Daria

    involved in the Annex. There were two main objectives, firstly, to describe and analyse a transition between actual requirements (national building codes and standards) and current practice. Secondly, to investigate current barriers and challenges regarding installation of mechanical ventilation......One of the key objectives of the IEA Annex 68 research programme entitled “Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings” is to provide a generic guideline for the design and operation of ventilation in residential buildings. Modern and refurnished domestic buildings...

  2. Country nuclear power profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles was initiated within the framework of the IAEA`s programme for nuclear power plant performance assessment and feedback. It responded to a need for a database and a technical document containing a description of the energy and economic situation and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. The task was included in the IAEA`s programmes for 1993/1994 and 1995/1996. In March 1993, the IAEA organized a Technical Committee meeting to discuss the establishment of country data ``profiles``, to define the information to be included in the profiles and to review the information already available in the IAEA. Two expert meetings were convened in November 1994 to provide guidance to the IAEA on the establishment of the country nuclear profiles, on the structure and content of the profiles, and on the preparation of the publication and the electronic database. In June 1995, an Advisory Group meeting provided the IAEA with comprehensive guidance on the establishment and dissemination of an information package on industrial and organizational aspects of nuclear power to be included in the profiles. The group of experts recommended that the profiles focus on the overall economic, energy and electricity situation in the country and on its nuclear power industrial structure and organizational framework. In its first release, the compilation would cover all countries with operating power plants by the end of 1995. It was also recommended to further promote information exchange on the lessons learned from the countries engaged in nuclear programmes. For the preparation of this publication, the IAEA received contributions from the 29 countries operating nuclear power plants and Italy. A database has been implemented and the profiles are supporting programmatic needs within the IAEA; it is expected that the database will be publicly accessible in the future. Refs, figs, tabs.

  3. Country nuclear power profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles was initiated within the framework of the IAEA's programme for nuclear power plant performance assessment and feedback. It responded to a need for a database and a technical document containing a description of the energy and economic situation and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. The task was included in the IAEA's programmes for 1993/1994 and 1995/1996. In March 1993, the IAEA organized a Technical Committee meeting to discuss the establishment of country data ''profiles'', to define the information to be included in the profiles and to review the information already available in the IAEA. Two expert meetings were convened in November 1994 to provide guidance to the IAEA on the establishment of the country nuclear profiles, on the structure and content of the profiles, and on the preparation of the publication and the electronic database. In June 1995, an Advisory Group meeting provided the IAEA with comprehensive guidance on the establishment and dissemination of an information package on industrial and organizational aspects of nuclear power to be included in the profiles. The group of experts recommended that the profiles focus on the overall economic, energy and electricity situation in the country and on its nuclear power industrial structure and organizational framework. In its first release, the compilation would cover all countries with operating power plants by the end of 1995. It was also recommended to further promote information exchange on the lessons learned from the countries engaged in nuclear programmes. For the preparation of this publication, the IAEA received contributions from the 29 countries operating nuclear power plants and Italy. A database has been implemented and the profiles are supporting programmatic needs within the IAEA; it is expected that the database will be publicly accessible in the future

  4. List of High risk countries

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Francine Sinzinkayo

    2013-07-26

    Higher Risk Countries and Territories. Reviewed regularly. Last update: July 26, 2013. Country/Territory. Note (1). Sources of Concern. Canadian. Law or. Policy. Knowledge of research setting. Ability to monitor research activities. (Note 2). Operational. Issues. (Note 3). Banking. Restrictions. (Note 4). Afghanistan. X. X.

  5. Transport in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, B.; Pettersson, S.; Vilkamo, S.

    1989-01-01

    Transport of radioactive material from different fields of operation is well advanced in the Nordic countries: waste from the medical sector, industry, research, and now in increasing amounts from reactor operation, including spent fuel. In the future, waste from decommissioning will also be transported. This report gives the amount of radioactive waste material to be transported in the Nordic countries. Transport routes, transport containers, and transport systems are described. Legislations and transport regulatins are discussed. (author)

  6. Country report: a methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology which could be applicable to establish a country report. In the framework of nuclear non proliferation appraisal and IAEA safeguards implementation, it is important to be able to assess the potential existence of undeclared nuclear materials and activities as undeclared facilities in the country under review. In our views a country report should aim at providing detailed information on nuclear related activities for each country examined taken 'as a whole' such as nuclear development, scientific and technical capabilities, etc. In order to study a specific country, we need to know if there is already an operating nuclear civil programme or not. In the first case, we have to check carefully if it could divert nuclear material, if there are misused declared facilities or if they operate undeclared facilities and conduct undeclared activities aiming at manufacturing nuclear weapon. In the second case, we should pay attention to the development of a nuclear civil project. A country report is based on a wide span of information (most of the time coming from open sources but sometimes coming also from confidential or private ones). Therefore, it is important to carefully check the nature and the credibility (reliability?) of these sources through cross-check examination. Eventually, it is necessary to merge information from different sources and apply an expertise filter. We have at our disposal a lot of performing tools to help us to assess, understand and evaluate the situation (cartography, imagery, bibliometry, etc.). These tools allow us to offer the best conclusions as far as possible. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (author)

  7. COUNTRY IMAGE VS. COUNTRY BRAND: DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa Adriana COTÎRLEA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article was written in order to provide an overview regarding the differences and similarities regarding two congruent, yet different concepts: country brand and country image. The geopolitical context and, implicitly, the current global context require a redefinition – or a more complex circumscription – of the “country image” and “country branding” concepts. In this paper, the author aimed to highlight the characteristics and particularities of the approached concepts in order to shape a framework of the context within these two operate; a brief analysis of the literature is presented, trying to emphasize the slight difference between the approached concepts

  8. Since Chernobyl: A World of Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clamp, Alice

    1991-01-01

    This article chronicles the international collaboration behind the technological review and the subsequent upgrading of operational safety procedures at Soviet-designed nuclear power plants within the Soviet Union and various Eastern European countries in the aftermath of the tragedy at Chernobyl. (JJK)

  9. Country Operational Plan and Reporting System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This web-based information system allows for the annual entry and updating of Emergency Plan COPs, annual and semiannual program results, and budget information by...

  10. DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. TRANSITION ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru FILIPEANU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the modern theories of economic development – the take-off, backwardness, convergence and balanced growth hypothesis - the new industrialized states from Asia seem to have noticed the advantages of backwardness from which low income countries benefited, namely the possibility to take advantage of the latest technological discoveries of advanced countries, thus achieving a faster growth than the latter which operated closer to the technological border. The assimilation of appropriate technologies, however, required the efficient mobilization and allocation of resources and the improvement of human and physical capital. While the Western countries were confronted with crises generated by inflationary shocks and movements of speculative capital, the relative isolation of countries whose economy was planned by the world economy sheltered them until 1990, unemployment being practically non-existent. Asia's exceptional economic success is not only due to borrowing Western practices, but also to the fact that Asian societies maintained certain traditional features of their own culture - such as a strong work ethic - and integrated them in the modern business environment.

  11. Nuclear power for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, J.; Kupitz, J.; Rogner, H. H.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power is a proven technology which currently makes a large contribution to the electricity supply in a number of countries and, to a much less extent, to heat supply in some countries. Nuclear power is economically competitive with fossil fuels for base load electricity generation in many countries, and is one of the commercially proven energy supply options that could be expanded in the future to reduce environmental burdens, especially greenhouse gas emissions, from the electricity sector. Over the past five decades, nearly ten thousand reactor-years of operating experience have been accumulated with current nuclear power plants. Building upon this background of success and applying lessons learned from the experience of operating plants, new generations of nuclear power plants have been, or are being developed. Improvements incorporated into these advance designs include features that will allow operators more time to perform equipment protection and safety actions in response to equipment failures and other off normal operating conditions, and that will reduce and simplify the actions required. Great attention is also paid to making new plants simpler to operate, inspect, maintain and repair, thus increasing their overall cost efficiency and their compatibility with the infrastructure of developing countries. The paper provides a discussion of future world energy supply and demand projections, current status and prospects for nuclear power, a short summary of advanced reactor concepts and non-electrical applications of nuclear energy for developing countries, and a review of the role of the IAEA. (author)

  12. To what extent do site-based training, mentoring, and operational research improve district health system management and leadership in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belrhiti, Zakaria; Booth, Andrew; Marchal, Bruno; Verstraeten, Roosmarijn

    2016-04-27

    District health managers play a key role in the effectiveness of decentralized health systems in low- and middle-income countries. Inadequate management and leadership skills often hamper their ability to improve quality of care and effectiveness of health service delivery. Nevertheless, significant investments have been made in capacity-building programmes based on site-based training, mentoring, and operational research. This systematic review aims to review the effectiveness of site-based training, mentoring, and operational research (or action research) on the improvement of district health system management and leadership. Our secondary objectives are to assess whether variations in composition or intensity of the intervention influence its effectiveness and to identify enabling and constraining contexts and underlying mechanisms. We will search the following databases: MEDLINE, PsycInfo, Cochrane Library, CRD database (DARE), Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) group, ISI Web of Science, Health Evidence.org, PDQ-Evidence, ERIC, EMBASE, and TRIP. Complementary search will be performed (hand-searching journals and citation and reference tracking). Studies that meet the following PICO (Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome) criteria will be included: P: professionals working at district health management level; I: site-based training with or without mentoring, or operational research; C: normal institutional arrangements; and O: district health management functions. We will include cluster randomized controlled trials, controlled before-and-after studies, interrupted time series analysis, quasi-experimental designs, and cohort and longitudinal studies. Qualitative research will be included to contextualize findings and identify barriers and facilitators. Primary outcomes that will be reported are district health management and leadership functions. We will assess risk of bias with the Cochrane Collaboration's tools for randomized

  13. Planned Change in Agrarian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehoff, Arthur H.

    The report provides operationally relevant concepts and guidelines for persons responsible for planning and implementing development projects in agrarian countries. A framework for describing or evaluating the conduct of development projects is proposed, and applied to the results of an analysis of 203 case studies of past projects. Influences,…

  14. Progress in the U.S. department of energy sponsored in-depth safety assessments of VVER and RBMK reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binder, J.L.; Petri, M.C.; Pasedag, W.F.

    2001-01-01

    Since the disastrous accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit 4 in 1986, there has been international recognition of the safety concerns posed by the operation of 67 Soviet-designed commercial nuclear reactors. These reactors are operated in eight countries from the former Soviet Union and its former satellite states in Central and Eastern Europe. The majority of these plants are in the Russian Federation (30 units) and Ukraine (14 units). New plants are in various stages of construction. U.S. support to improve the safety of Soviet-designed reactors over the past decade has been intended to enhance operational safety, provide for risk-reduction measures, and enhance regulatory capability. The U.S. approach to improving the safety of Soviet-designed reactors has matured into a large multi-year program known as the Soviet-Designed Reactor Safety Program that is managed by the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE). The mission of the program is to implement a self-sustaining nuclear safety improvement program that would lead to internationally accepted safety practices at the plants. Those practices would create a safety culture that would be reflected in the operation, regulation, and professional attitudes of the designers, operators, and regulators of the nuclear facilities. A key component of this larger program has been the Plant Safety Evaluation Program, which supports in-depth safety assessments of VVER and RBMK plants. (author)

  15. The safety of nuclear power plants in eastern Europe and countries of the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, Luis

    1996-01-01

    A particular type of pressurized light water reactors, WWERs, (water cooled, water moderated energy reactors) is the only Soviet designed nuclear power reactor which have been built outside the former Soviet Union. There are 45 such units in operation and 14 under construction, including those outside Eastern Europe. There are 11 first generation 440 MW(e) WWER model 110 (WWER-440/230) plants in operation. One of the two units in Armenia shut down since 1989, following a devastating earthquake near the site was restarted in 1995. Four units in the eastern part of Germany were shut down permanently in 1990. Four of the operating units are in Bulgaria, two are in the Slovak Republic and four are in Russia. All of these units had been designed before formal nuclear safety standards were issued in the Soviet Union, and lack safety features basic to other pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Their shortcomings reported in the assessments made by the IAEA and others include reactor pressure vessel embrittlement problems, limited emergency core cooling capability, insufficient redundancy and separation of safety equipment, deficient instrumentation and control systems, insufficient internal and external hazards protection, the lack of a containment, and the absence of comprehensive accident analysis and safety analysis reports. Of the second generation, 440 MW(e) WWER model 213 (WWER 440/213), 16 units are in operation: four in the Czech Republic, four in Hungary, two in Russia, two in the Slovak Republic, two in Ukraine and two in Finland. The two reactors in Finland have undergone significant safety improvements, particularly in the fitting of non-Soviet instrumentation and of a containment structure

  16. Country programming mission. Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In response to a request from the Government of Namibia conveyed in a letter dated 29 November 1990 IAEA provided a multi-disciplinary Programming Mission which visited Namibia from 15 - 19 July 1991. The terms of reference of the Mission were: 1. To assess the possibilities and benefits of nuclear energy applications in Namibia's development; 2. To advise on the infrastructure required for nuclear energy projects; 3. To assist in the formulation of project proposals which could be submitted for Agency assistance. This report is based on the findings of the Mission and falls into 3 sections with 8 appendices. The first section is a country profile providing background information, the second section deals with sectorial needs and institutional review of the sectors of agriculture including animal production, life sciences (nuclear medicine and radiotherapy) and radiation protection. The third section includes possible future technical co-operation activities

  17. Implementing care policy in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tattum, L.; Phishner, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    How do chief executives of Western companies, from their plush offices, keep tabs on what happens at chemical plants in developing countries? Many point out that it is difficult to operate a Responsible Care policy in countries where industry associations have not yet started a coordinated initiative. 'Responsible Care is a program that has primarily a geographic dimension and is organized country by country by the industry associations,' note Kaspar Eigenmann, head of corporate unit safety and environment at Ciba (Basel). Where there is a campaign, the local Ciba company participates, he says. 'It's obvious that the industrialized countries are taking the lead,' adds Eigenmann

  18. Radioassay services in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belcher, E.H.

    1978-01-01

    The findings and recommendations of an advisory group convened by the IAEA to give guidance relating to the development of IAEA projects involving radioassay are presented. The current status of radioassay services in different countries is reviewed; guiding principles relating to the organization of such services are affirmed, with particular reference to services in developing countries; the needs of services at various levels as regards accommodation, staff, equipment, supporting services and running costs, including minimum initial needs, are specified; operational problems are identified and indications given how they may be solved; facilities for training in radioassay are reviewed; finally, reference is made to IAEA activities in the field in question. (author)

  19. Environmental isotope hydrology laboratories in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonfiantini, R.; Stichler, W.

    1991-01-01

    This article reports on the role, experience, and problems of environmental isotope hydrology laboratories in developing countries, based upon the IAEA's experience. It specifically offers guidance on important aspects of organization, staffing, and operation

  20. Country Nuclear Power Profiles - 2007 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles (CNPP) was initiated within the framework of the IAEA's programme on assessment and feedback of nuclear power plant performance. It responded to a need for a database and a technical publication containing a description of the energy and economic situation, the energy and the electricity sector, and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. It covers background information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in countries having nuclear plants in operation and/or plants under construction. This is the 2007 edition issued on CD-ROM and Web pages. It updates the country information, in general, to the end of 2006 for 39 countries. The CNPP is updated based on information voluntarily provided by participating IAEA Member States. Participants include the 30 countries that have operating nuclear power plants, as well as nine countries having past or planned nuclear power programmes (Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Italy, Kazakhstan, Poland, Turkey, and Vietnam). For the 2007 edition, 21 countries provided information to the IAEA to update their profiles. For the 18 other countries, the IAEA updated the profile statistical tables on nuclear power, energy development, and economic indicators based on information from IAEA and World Bank databases. These 18 countries are Argentina, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Egypt, Finland, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, and Ukraine. Overall, the CNPP reviews the organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes in participating countries, and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international frameworks in each country. It compiles the current issues in the new environment within which the electricity and nuclear sector operates, i.e. energy policy, and privatization and deregulation in

  1. Projected uranium requirements of developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the uranium requirements of developing countries both in aggregate and individually. Although the cumulative uranium requirements of these countries are expected to account for less than eight percent of total requirements, the fact that many of these countries are expressing renewed interest in nuclear is, in itself, encouraging. The countries analyzed in this paper are Argentina, Brazil, Egypt, India, Israel, Mexico, Pakistan, South Africa, South Korea and Taiwan. For each country, the existing and planned nuclear capacity levels have been identified and capacity factors have been projected. For countries with no previous nuclear power, the world weighted average capacity factor for the specific reactor type is utilized. Other factors influencing nuclear power demand and operations of these developing countries will be discussed, and finally, uranium requirements based on a calculated optimal tails assay of .30 will be provided

  2. Report on simple operation type CAD/CAM system development through international cooperation. Current statuses of Asian countries; 'Kan'i sosagata denshi sekkei seisan shien system no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku' ni kansuru hokokusho. Asia shokoku no jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Information systems, mainly aided by computers, are becoming increasingly important, contributing to development of wide areas of societies and economics, to begin with. However, few developing countries have established sufficient information systems, in spite of their strong desires to do so, which will further widen the gap between them and advanced countries, where these systems are acceleratedly advancing. Given these situations, Center of International Cooperation for Computerization (CICC) has been implementing various projects for providing assistance to and cooperation with oversea countries which are trying to develop information systems. This report summarizes the project, which CICC has been commissioned by NEDO as part of the cooperation programs, for manufacturing technology supported by advanced and integrated information system through international cooperation. It outlines the research cooperation memoranda NEDO has concluded with Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand, and the authorities of China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. (NEDO)

  3. Glaucoma in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the background and strategy required for the prevention of blindness from glaucoma in developing countries. Materials and Methods: Extrapolation of existing data and experience in eye care delivery and teaching models in an unequally developed country (India are used to make recommendations. Results: Parameters like population attributable risk percentage indicate that glaucoma is a public health problem but lack of simple diagnostic techniques and therapeutic interventions are barriers to any effective plan. Case detection rather than population-based screening is the recommended strategy for detection. Population awareness of the disease is low and most patients attending eye clinics do not receive a routine comprehensive eye examination that is required to detect glaucoma (and other potentially blinding eye diseases. Such a routine is not taught or practiced by the majority of training institutions either. Angle closure can be detected clinically and relatively simple interventions (including well performed cataract surgery can prevent blindness from this condition. The strategy for open angle glaucoma should focus on those with established functional loss. Outcomes of this proposed strategy are not yet available. Conclusions: Glaucoma cannot be managed in isolation. The objective should be to detect and manage all potential causes of blindness and prevention of blindness from glaucoma should be integrated into existing programs. The original pyramidal model of eye care delivery incorporates this principle and provides an initial starting point. The routine of comprehensive eye examination in every clinic and its teaching (and use in residency programs is mandatory for the detection and management of potentially preventable blinding pathology from any cause, including glaucoma. Programs for detection of glaucoma should not be initiated unless adequate facilities for diagnosis and surgical intervention are in place and

  4. The first safe country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaela Puggioni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Dublin II Regulation makes the first safe country of refuge solelyresponsible for refugees and asylum seekers. In the case of Italy, thefirst responsible country has not been acting responsibly.

  5. Radiotherapy in small countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Michael B; Zubizarreta, Eduardo H; Polo Rubio, J Alfredo

    2017-10-01

    To examine the availability of radiotherapy in small countries. A small country was defined as a country with a population less than one million persons. The economic status of each country was defined using the World Bank Classification. The number of cancers in each country was obtained from GLOBOCAN 2012. The number of cancer cases with an indication or radiotherapy was calculated using the CCORE model. There were 41 countries with a population of under 1 million; 15 were classified as High Income, 15 Upper Middle Income, 10 Lower Middle Income and one Low Income. 28 countries were islands. Populations ranged from 799 (Holy See) to 886450 (Fiji) and the total number of cancer cases occurring in small countries was 21,043 (range by country from 4 to 2476). Overall the total number of radiotherapy cases in small countries was 10982 (range by country from 2 to 1239). Radiotherapy was available in all HIC islands with 80 or more new cases of cancer in 2012 but was not available in any LMIC island. Fiji was the only LMIC island with a large radiotherapy caseload. Similar caseloads in non-island LMIC all had radiotherapy services. Most non-island HIC did not have radiotherapy services presumably because of the easy access to radiotherapy in neighbouring countries. There are no radiotherapy services in any LMIC islands. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Nuclear data applications in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, M.K.; Schmidt, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    The peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology currently receive an increasing attention in many developing countries. More than 15 developing countries operate, construct or plan nuclear power reactors, 70 developing countries are using or planning to use nuclear techniques in medicine, agriculture, industry, and for other vital purposes. The generation, application and computer processing of nuclear data constitute important elements of the nuclear infrastructure needed for the successful implementation of nuclear science and technology. Developing countries become increasingly aware of this need, and, with the help and cooperation of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, are steadily gaining in experience in this field. The paper illustrates this development in typical examples. (orig.)

  7. Problems of nuclear power in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woite, G.

    1978-01-01

    The problems of nuclear power in developing countries are different in nature but not less severe than in industrialized countries. So far, only five developing countries with market economies (Argentina, India, Korea, Pakistan, Taiwan) have nuclear power plants in operation with a combined net output of 2.2 GWe. Nuclear projects with a total capacity of 15 GWe are under construction in these and four other developing countries in Asia and Latin America (Brazil, Iran, Mexico, Philippines). It is expected that most of the future nuclear power installed in developing countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America will be in these countries which have overcome some of the problems of nuclear power. (orig./RW) [de

  8. Country Nuclear Power Profiles - 2009 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-08-01

    The Country Nuclear Power Profiles compiles background information on the status and development of nuclear power programs in Member States. It consists of organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programs and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory, and international framework in each country. Its descriptive and statistical overview of the overall economic, energy, and electricity situation in each country, and its nuclear power framework is intended to serve as an integrated source of key background information about nuclear power programs in the world. The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles (CNPP) was initiated in 1990s. It responded to a need for a database and a technical publication containing a description of the energy and economic situation, the energy and the electricity sector, and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. This is the 2009 edition issued on CD-ROM and Web pages. It updates the country information for 44 countries. The CNPP is updated based on information voluntarily provided by participating IAEA Member States. Participants include the 30 countries that have operating nuclear power plants, as well as 14 countries having past or planned nuclear power programmes (Bangladesh, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Italy, Kazakhstan, Nigeria, Philippines, Poland, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey and Vietnam). For the 2009 edition, 26 countries provided updated or new profiles. For the other countries, the IAEA updated the profile statistical tables on nuclear power, energy development, and economic indicators based on information from IAEA and World Bank databases

  9. Mobilizing technology for developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, C Jr

    1979-10-01

    Mr. Weiss says that the 15 years since the UN Conference on Science, Technology, and Development in Geneva have taught us that what seem at first to be technological obstacles to development frequently turn out on closer examination to have been policy failures; that introduction of technologies into developing countries must be accompanied by institutional and policy changes if the technologies are to benefit the countries. He points out that choice of alternative technology for a developing country should depend on careful overall assessment of local techno-economic, geographical, ecological, and social factors, as well as the desired balance between growth and equity. Such a technology assessment, a key element in the choice of appropriate (i.e., locally suitable) technology for particular investment projects, should be built into procedures for project preparation and appraisal in governments and development assistance agencies. Turning to technologists, Mr. Weiss says they face a double challenge: (1) to recognize potential for new efforts to harness science and technology for the benefit of the developing countries; and (2) by understanding the social, institutional, and economic framework into which an innovation is to operate, to ease its application and diffusion, and thus speed and increase its practical impact. 25 references.

  10. Country Presentation Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oriada, R.; Byakagaba, A.; Kiza, M.; Magembe, M.

    2010-01-01

    Like Many African countries, Uganda is not Immune to the problem of illicit trafficking of Nuclear and Radioactive materials. This has been worsened by the porosity of the Ugandan Borders. There is control on the few Entry points and much of the border line does not have adequate control on what enters and leaves the country. Uganda is also used as a transit route with the neighboring countries like Sudan, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya,Tanzania.

  11. Indonesia country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murni Soedyartomo Soentono, Tri [National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia - Batan, Radioisotopes and Radiopharmaceuticals Development Centre, Pasar Jum' at, Cinere Raya, 12570 Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2008-07-01

    Several nuclear research are currently operation in Serpong, Jakarta, Bandung and Yogyakarta; these facilities has been in operation step wisely and having strong link with various universities and laboratories within the country (30 MW in Serpong, 2 MW in Bandung, Cyclotron CS-30 Serpong, Accelerator Yogyakarta, Irradiator Co-60). Public Acceptance: Further more the routine activities of the public information by WiN regarding the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, especially to the immediate environment of the NPP candidate site are indeed of important steps. Future of nuclear power: Since 1990's, Indonesia planned to build NPP station in Jepara to anticipate future energy crisis. Indonesia National Energy Policy has four main objectives: - Securing the continuity of energy supply for domestic use at price affordable to the public, - Enhancing the life quality of the people, - Stimulating economic growth, and, - Reserving an adequate supply of oil and gas for expert to provide source of foreign exchange to fund the national development program. Nuclear Waste Management Policy: Law no 10/1997 on nuclear power became the basic policy in management of radioactive waste The only national agency dealing with radioactive substances, BATAN possesses all data and information concerning the use of nuclear power. Radioactive waste management is particularly earmarked for maximum protection of living creatures, the environment and its ecosystems. In order to guarantee maximum safety and protection, all parties involved in the acquisition of radioactive materials should abide by the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle. In order to achieve radioactive waste management that complies with the principle of sustainable development, technological applications should be technically and economically viable for maximum protection of the environment and safety from any potential nuclear hazards, now and in future. The application must also be accepted by the community

  12. Consequences arising for research reactor operation from the planned amendment of the German atomic energy act (AtG) and atomic energy policy. Germany soon to be a third-world country in nuclear research?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krull, W.

    1999-01-01

    In the opinion of Dr. Wilfried Krull from Geesthacht, the Chairman of the German Research Reactor Trades Union, there is a great danger of the Federal Republic of Germany falling to the level of a third-world country as far as nuclear research is concerned. He says that it is a matter of urgency for binding exceptions from the general restrictions applicable to nuclear power stations to be incorporated into the opt-out amendment to nuclear law tabled by Juergen Trittin, the Minister for Environmental Affairs. He says that prohibition of reprocessing of spent fuel elements constitutes a violation of the surrender treaties concluded with the USA as part of non-proliferation. Furthermore, he states that a ban on reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel from research and training reactors is counterproductive. He says that there would be a particular danger if the limitation of research reactors to a rating of one megawatt, which Trittin has in the first instance planned in an initial draft law, were to be implemented in the form of a regulation. At that point, he claims, Germany would, as far as nuclear medicine (including cancer therapy) and modern technical inspection procedures (non-destructive, of materials) are concerned, become an importing country. (orig.) [de

  13. Japan country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morisaki, Rieko [Energy Communication Planning, 3-9-16 Aobadai, 818-0137 Dazaifu (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    1. Nuclear 2007 highlights: - A magnitude 6.8 earthquake occurred in Niigata on July 16 2007. Owing to this earthquake, 3 units operating and 1 unit during start-up were shutdown automatically at TEPCO's Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPS. Now, all 7 units of the NPS are in an outage for investigation. This influenced the capacity factor of Japanese NPPs in FY 2007, which stood at just 60.7%. - Debate on global warming is more and more active in Japan, as it is the host country of the G8 Hokkaido Toyako Summit in July. The Japan Atomic Energy Commission released 'White Paper on Nuclear Energy 2007' in March 2008. In the paper, they first expressed the view that the expansion of the peaceful use of nuclear energy is indispensable. 2. Nuclear overview: a. Energy policy: Electricity share: 25.4% of nuclear. The energy policy of Japan aims at nuclear power generation being maintained at the current level (30 to 40% of the total electricity generation) or increasing even after 2030, for stable energy supply and as a countermeasure against global warming. - Nuclear Fuel Cycle: The active tests at the JNFL reprocessing plant in Rokkasho-mura are in the final phase for commercial operation in 2008. By FY 2010 Plutonium utilization in LWRs in 16 to 18 NPP units. Around FY 2010 Installment of new centrifuges at the uranium enrichment plant at Rokkasho-mura. In FY 2012 Start of commercial operation of MOX fuel fabrication plant. Fast-breeder reactor cycle: Operation of the prototype reactor 'MONJU' has been suspended since a secondary sodium leak in 1995. JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) completed full-scale remodeling work and is implementing various tests to confirm the capabilities and soundness of MONJU. They aim to start its operation within FY 2008. Around 2025 Building a demonstration FBR. Before 2050 Development of a commercial FBR. - Electricity production (Operating): BWR: 32 units (including 4 units of APWR), PWR: 23 units. - Electricity production

  14. Day Care: Other Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjartarson, Freida; And Others

    This collection of 5 bilingual papers on day care programs in foreign countries (China, the Soviet Union, and 3 Scandinavian countries) is part of a series of papers on various aspects of day care published by the Canadian Department of Health and Welfare. Each paper is presented in both English and French. Paper I considers day care services in…

  15. Country Profiles, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuki, Ariffin Bin; Peng, J. Y.

    A profile of Malaysia is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  16. Serbia : Systematic Country Diagnostic

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD) aims to identify the major constraints on and opportunities for sustaining poverty reduction and shared prosperity in Serbia. The SCD serves as the analytic foundation on which the World Bank Group and the Government of Serbia will define a new Country Partnership Framework for FY2016 to FY2020. It is based on the best possible analysis, drawing on ...

  17. Telemedicine for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combi, Carlo; Pozzani, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Developing countries need telemedicine applications that help in many situations, when physicians are a small number with respect to the population, when specialized physicians are not available, when patients and physicians in rural villages need assistance in the delivery of health care. Moreover, the requirements of telemedicine applications for developing countries are somewhat more demanding than for developed countries. Indeed, further social, organizational, and technical aspects need to be considered for successful telemedicine applications in developing countries. Objective We consider all the major projects in telemedicine, devoted to developing countries, as described by the proper scientific literature. On the basis of such literature, we want to define a specific taxonomy that allows a proper classification and a fast overview of telemedicine projects in developing countries. Moreover, by considering both the literature and some recent direct experiences, we want to complete such overview by discussing some design issues to be taken into consideration when developing telemedicine software systems. Methods We considered and reviewed the major conferences and journals in depth, and looked for reports on the telemedicine projects. Results We provide the reader with a survey of the main projects and systems, from which we derived a taxonomy of features of telemedicine systems for developing countries. We also propose and discuss some classification criteria for design issues, based on the lessons learned in this research area. Conclusions We highlight some challenges and recommendations to be considered when designing a telemedicine system for developing countries. PMID:27803948

  18. Reliance Cell Operator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Reliance Cell Operator. Reliance was the only bidder for cellular licences for Assam and NE. Services allowed only in Guwahati and Shillong due to “security reasons”. Only major cities in the country with only one operator.

  19. ERAWATCH Country Reports 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph

    between the national priorities and the structural challenges, highlighting the latest developments, their dynamics and impact in the overall national context. They further analyse and assess the ability of the policy mix in place to consistently and efficiently tackle these challenges. These reports were......This analytical country report is one of a series of annual ERAWATCH reports produced for EU Member States and Countries Associated to the Seventh Framework Programme for Research of the European Union (FP7). The main objective of the ERAWATCH Annual Country Reports is to characterise and assess...... the performance of national research systems and related policies in a structured manner that is comparable across countries. The Country Report 2012 builds on and updates the 2011 edition. The report identifies the structural challenges of the national research and innovation system and assesses the match...

  20. Country branding: an imperative for developing countries | Akotia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clarifying what a country brand and country branding encompasses, this paper examines the competitive advantage a country brand engenders for developing countries. Furthermore, emphasising country branding as a social construction, this paper argues that for developing countries entrenched in the poverty cycle there ...

  1. Operational experience, the open joint stock company IZOTOP, on reducing radiological threat in Russia and Commonwealth of Independent States countries from radioactive sources at the end of their life cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akakiev, B.V.; Makarevich, I.M.; Nesterov, V.P.; Gasselblat, A.D.; Filatov, K.V.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The issues of radiological threat from radioactive sources at the end of their life cycle is described in the paper. The order of works execution is described by the example of radioisotope irradiation facilities discharge including works on transportation and preparation for radioactive sources storage. The procedure of development and agreement of organizational and technical documentation on un-shipping of ionizing radiation sources is described. The safe work organization structure and transportation of radioactive materials to Joint Stock Company IZOTOP is considered. Standard examples of taking over the control of different radioactive sources is presented, which presents radiological threat. Sources disposal technology in Russia is shown. Summary of Joint Stock Company IZOTOP activities in 2004-2009 years in Russia and Commonwealth of Independent States member-countries on radiological threat is provided.

  2. Helping transfer technology to developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masters, R.

    1978-01-01

    Manpower planning and training are an increasingly important part of the activities of the IAEA which organises a number of courses for engineers and administrators from developing countries. The Agency supports the view of these countries that there should be a real transfer of nuclear technology and not just the import of equipment and services. A Construction and Operation Management course held at Karlsruhe, is reviewed. (author)

  3. Country logistics performance and disaster impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt, Alain; Haavisto, Ira

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to deepen the understanding of the relationship between country logistics performance and disaster impact. The relationship is analysed through correlation analysis and regression models for 117 countries for the years 2007 to 2012 with disaster impact variables from the International Disaster Database (EM-DAT) and logistics performance indicators from the World Bank. The results show a significant relationship between country logistics performance and disaster impact overall and for five out of six specific logistic performance indicators. These specific indicators were further used to explore the relationship between country logistic performance and disaster impact for three specific disaster types (epidemic, flood and storm). The findings enhance the understanding of the role of logistics in a humanitarian context with empirical evidence of the importance of country logistics performance in disaster response operations. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.

  4. European countries in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, Celia; Pescia, Dimitri; Ferreira, Francisco; Antunes, Rita; Claustre, Raphael; Priesner, Goerg C.; Pidous, Blandine; Dufour, Manon; Zuloaga, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    From the Atlantic Ocean to the Baltic Sea, from Portugal to Poland through UK, Germany or Austria, energy transition is in progress everywhere in Europe, but at different rhythms and in various conditions from one country to the other. How does the European framework promote the energy transition at the local and regional scales? What advantages the most advanced countries are relying on? How do citizens and local projects take over slow or retrograde governmental policies? This dossier gives some elements of answer through an overview of some energy policy scenarios under implementation in some European countries (Germany, Portugal, Denmark, Austria, UK, Spain)

  5. Development perspective of transitional countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Bogdan B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The end of 20th century witnessed the affirmation and development of information technology as well as the transformation of industrial into information, "new economy", which caused changes in people and circumstances. The role and importance of nonhuman factors was increased, causing entrepreneurship and knowledge-based information to become the most significant resources. The Internet became the basis of the "new economy". It changes the way of doing business, studying, researching, communicating and competition. It also reduces operating costs, crosses national borders and leads to the globalization of the world economy. Transitional countries have to fit into modern development flows by formulating their own strategy of national development and establishing their own competitive advantages in conditions of "new economy". These advantages lie predominantly in highly qualified and skilled younger labor which learns fast and adopts new knowledge and skills, through reducing transactional costs, shortening of certain development stages through which developed countries have already gone, using their experience, scientific-technological progress, a rise in work productivity, etc. Experience of other countries should be innovated and adapted to one's own material and social conditions, not copied. This enables the emergence of "European small tigers", which are similar to "Asian small tigers".

  6. Public opinion: Country comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Debbie

    2015-11-01

    Climate change awareness, risk perception and policy support vary between and within countries. National-scale comparisons can help to explain this variability and be used to develop targeted interventions.

  7. Investment in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motooka, Takeshi

    1973-01-01

    The fundamental problems of investment in rural education in the present developing countries are analyzed. Needs of rural education are outlined and financial considerations related to investment in the improvement of rural educational programs are discussed. (SM)

  8. Qualification, training, licensing and retraining of operating shift personnel in nuclear power plants. Presentation of different procedures in the countries of the European Community, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeffer, W.; Kraut, A.

    1985-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating and compiling the procedures to reach the necessary qualification applied in the countries of the European Community, Sweden, Spain, Switzerland and the United States of America. Additionally to the presentation of practice the report is to show similarities - as far as they were identified - and special topics or aspects worth mentioning. In the report the following topics are dealt with: tasks of the shift personnel, nomenclature for different groups of personnel; shift staffing of the control room; criteria for personnel selection when new shift staff; personnel qualification necessary for recruitment; training of shift personnel; retraining for preservation of the qualification standard; training facilities, especially simulators; licensing or authorization of shift personnel; training and education organization. The study is based on the evaluation of EC documents as well as well as general publications and reports. To check the results and to integrate some lacking information the report was discussed in a meeting of an ad hoc subgroup of the CEC working group dealing with the safety of light-water reactors, joined by specialists from Spain, Sweden and Switzerland. 121 refs

  9. Country programme review Republic of Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherif, H.C.; Hasling, W.; Hera, C.H.; Maudarbocus, A.Y.; Mtimet, S.

    1993-10-01

    A multi-disciplinary country programme review and programming mission was undertaken to the Republic of Cameroon, from 21 to 25 June 1993. This report reflects the findings and recommendations of the mission and falls into four sections. The first section describes the country profile and includes information about its economy and its development plans and policies. The second reviews the Agency's past and present technical co-operation programmes in Cameroon. The third section deals with a sectoral programme and institutional review, and the fourth section presents possible future technical co-operation activities

  10. Mauritius country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manraj, D D [Central Statistical Office (Mauritius)

    1998-10-01

    Mauritius has no known oil, gas or coal reserves but is only endowed with limited renewable energy resources namely hydropower and bagasse. Bagasse represents about one third of the country`s energy requirements and meets almost all of the sugar industries energy demand. Projects identified for mitigation options are: Energy Sector - Renewable Sources (Solar, Wind, Biomass); Transport Sector - Fuel switching and Mass transit transport; Manufacturing Sector - Increase efficiency of energy use in the manufacturing process. (EG)

  11. Inequality in OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thévenot, Celine

    2017-08-01

    This article recalls the state of play of inequality levels and trends in OECD countries, with a special focus on Nordic countries. It sheds light on explaining the drivers of the rise in inequality and its economic consequences. It addresses in particular the issue of redistribution through taxes and transfers. It concludes with an overview of policy packages that should be considered to address the issue of rising inequalities.

  12. Nuclear power in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, J.A.; Covarrubias, A.J.; Csik, B.J.; Fattah, A.; Woite, G.

    1977-01-01

    This paper is intended to be a companion to similar papers by OECD/NEA and CMEA and will summarize the nuclear power system plans of developing Member States most likely to have nuclear programmes before the year 2000. The information that is presented is derived from various sources such as the Agency 1974 study of the market for nuclear power in developing countries, the annual publication, ''Power Reactors in Member States - 1976 Edition'', various nuclear power planning studies carried out by the Agency during the period 1975 and 1976, direct correspondence with selected Member States and published information in the open literature. A preliminary survey of the prospects for nuclear power in Member States not belonging to the OECD or having centrally planned economies indicates that about 27 of these countries may have operating nuclear power plants by the end of the century. In the 1974 Edition of the ''Market Survey'' it was estimated that the installed nuclear capacity in these countries might reach 24 GW by 1980, 157 GW by 1190 and 490 GW by the year 2000. It now appears that these figures are too high for a number of reasons. These include 1) the diminished growth in electrical demand which has occurred in many Member States during the last several years, 2) the extremely high cost of nuclear plant construction which has placed financial burdens on countries with existing nuclear programmes, 3) the present lack of commercially available small and medium power reactors which many of the smaller Member States would need in order to expand their electric power systems and 4) the growing awareness of Member States that more attention should be paid to exploitation of indigenous energy sources such as hydroelectric power, coal and lignite

  13. Country report: Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Bulgaria has only one site with operating nuclear energy reactors - Kozloduy nuclear power plant with six units in operation, four of them are WWER-440 type and two are WWER-1000. Spent fuel is to be stored for a three year period in water pools at reactors and after that to be transported to the away from reactor storage (AFRS) or back to the supplier. The AFRS operator has not been granted operating license until more stringent safety requirements will be met

  14. Energy operations policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    It is reported that energy policy was designed following the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development review of the most pressing energy issues confronting Central and Eastern Europe and the republics of the former Soviet Union. The main features of the policy described in the document set the general framework for the Bank's energy operations. Energy strategies for particular countries are designed as an integral part of the Bank's individual country strategies. Tabs

  15. CDM Country Guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the Clean Development Mechanism (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. Chapter 1, Introduction, is a summary of issues that developers and investors in CDM projects should be aware of. Includes tips for readers to effectively use the guidebook to find specific information. Chapter 2, Country Profile, comprises a profile that provides a broad picture of the country, including social, economic, and political information, as well as an overview of the country's energy situation, which is important for project development and investment. Chapter 3, The CDM Project Cycle, gives an explanation of the general CDM project cycle, which includes identifying a project, issuance of carbon credits, requirements, and stakeholders for each process. Chapter 4, Possible CDM Projects in the Country, is an overview of the country's potential resources and sectoral or project type categories that hold potential for CDM projects. Chapter 5, Government Authorities, gives a comprehensive picture of the CDM-related institutional framework and its inter-organisational relationships. Chapter 6, CDM Project Approval Procedures and Requirements Steps, informs about obtaining project approval and its requirements (e.g., country-specific provisions on additionality, sustainable development criteria, and environmental impact assessment) in the host country. Chapter 7, Laws and Regulations, is an overview of basic investment-related laws, environmental and property law, and sector-specific regulations relevant to CDM project activities. Chapter 8, Fiscal and Financing Issues, gives practical information on the financial market in the host country (both

  16. Country nuclear power profiles. 2003 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles (CNPP) was initiated within the framework of the IAEA's programme on assessment and feedback of nuclear power plant performance. It responded to a need for a database and a technical publication containing a description of the energy and economic situation, the energy and the electricity sector, and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. The CNPP covers background information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in countries having nuclear plants in operation and/or plants under construction. It reviews the organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes in participating countries, and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international frameworks in each country. The CNPP compiles the current issues in the new environment within which the electricity and nuclear sector operates, i.e. energy policy, and privatization and deregulation in these sectors, the role of government, nuclear energy and climate change, and safety and waste management, which differ from country to country

  17. Country nuclear power profiles. 2003 ed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles (CNPP) was initiated within the framework of the IAEA's programme on assessment and feedback of nuclear power plant performance. It responded to a need for a database and a technical publication containing a description of the energy and economic situation, the energy and the electricity sector, and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. The CNPP covers background information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in countries having nuclear plants in operation and/or plants under construction. It reviews the organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes in participating countries, and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international frameworks in each country. The CNPP compiles the current issues in the new environment within which the electricity and nuclear sector operates, i.e. energy policy, and privatization and deregulation in these sectors, the role of government, nuclear energy and climate change, and safety and waste management, which differ from country to country.

  18. Country nuclear power profiles. 2004 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles (CNPP) was initiated within the framework of the IAEA's programme on assessment and feedback of nuclear power plant performance. It responded to a need for a database and a technical publication containing a description of the energy and economic situation, the energy and the electricity sector, and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. The CNPP covers background information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in countries having nuclear plants in operation and/or plants under construction. It reviews the organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes in participating countries, and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international frameworks in each country. The CNPP compiles the current issues in the new environment within which the electricity and nuclear sector operates, i.e. energy policy, and privatization and deregulation in these sectors, the role of government, nuclear energy and climate change, and safety and waste management, which differ from country to country

  19. Tales From Two Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    2006-01-01

    Place branding has become popular. Places brand themselves to attract tourists, talented foreign workers, investments and businesses. The brand accentuates the positive characteristics of the place; it frames the society and sells its cultures. In the context of tourism, this paper examines...... to present a prevailing reality. To the Danes, the brand is descriptive and should portray the country in a positive and accurate manner. To the Singaporeans, the brand is normative and a vision of what Singaporean society ought to become. These countries share common goals when branding themselves...

  20. Country report Egypt 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The 'Laenderberichte' (country reports), published at irregular intervals, give detailed information on the economic and social structure and development of the country discussed. Extensive tables with a highly specific classification contain data on population and economics, also for longer periods of time. The data appear in a detailed text part with maps, illustrations and tables. There are tables on: Territory and population, health services, social affairs, education and culture, employment, agriculture and forestry, fishery, manufacturing industry, civil engineering, inland trade, external trade, transportation, money and credits, investments, prices and wages, supply and consumption, total balance of national economy. (orig.) [de

  1. Country report Belgium 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The 'Laenderberichte' (country reports), published at irregular intervals, give detailed information on the economic and social structure and development of the country discussed. Extensive tables with a highly specific classification contain data on population and economics, also for longer periods of time. The data appear in a detailed text part with maps, illustrations and tables. There are tables on: Territory and population, health services, social affairs, education and culture, employment, agriculture and forestry, fishery, manufacturing industry, civil engineering, inland trade, external trade, transportation, money and credits, investments, prices and wages, supply and consumption, total balance of national economy. (orig.) [de

  2. Country report Belarus 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The 'Laenderberichte' (country reports), published at irregular intervals, give detailed information on the economic and social structure and development of the country discussed. Extensive tables with a highly specific classification contain data on population and economics, also for longer periods of time. The data appear in a detailed text part with maps, illustrations and tables. There are tables on: Territory and population, health services, social affairs, education and culture, employment, agriculture and forestry, fishery, manufacturing industry, civil engineering, inland trade, external trade, transportation, money and credits, investments, prices and wages, supply and consumption, total balance of national economy. (orig.) [de

  3. Country report Brazil 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The 'Laenderberichte' (country reports), published at irregular intervals, give detailed information on the economic and social structure and development of the country discussed. Extensive tables with a highly specific classification contain data on population and economics, also for longer periods of time. The data appear in a detailed text part with maps, illustrations and tables. There are tables on: Territory and population, health services, social affairs, education and culture, employment, agriculture and forestry, fishery, manufacturing industry, civil engineering, inland trade, external trade, transportation, money and credits, investments, prices and wages, supply and consumption, total balance of national economy. (orig.) [de

  4. Country Nuclear Power Profiles - 2010 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-08-01

    The Country Nuclear Power Profiles compiles background information on the status and development of nuclear power programs in Member States. It consists of organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programs and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory, and international framework in each country. Its descriptive and statistical overview of the overall economic, energy, and electricity situation in each country, and its nuclear power framework is intended to serve as an integrated source of key background information about nuclear power programs in the world. The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles (CNPP) was initiated in 1990s. It responded to a need for a database and a technical publication containing a description of the energy and economic situation, the energy and the electricity sector, and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. This is the 2010 edition issued on CD-ROM and Web pages. It updates the country information for 48 countries. The CNPP is updated based on information voluntarily provided by participating IAEA Member States. Participants include the 29 countries that have operating nuclear power plants, as well as 19 countries having past or planned nuclear power programmes (Bangladesh, Belarus, Chile, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Italy, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Morocco, Nigeria, Philippines, Poland, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey and Vietnam). For the 2010 edition, 24 countries provided updated or new profiles. For the other countries, the IAEA updated the profile statistical tables on nuclear power, energy development, and economic indicators based on information from IAEA and World Bank databases. The CNPP reports have been prepared by each Member State in accordance with the IAEA format. The IAEA is not responsible for the content of these reports

  5. Country Nuclear Power Profiles - 2011 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-08-01

    The Country Nuclear Power Profiles compiles background information on the status and development of nuclear power programs in Member States. It consists of organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programs and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory, and international framework in each country. Its descriptive and statistical overview of the overall economic, energy, and electricity situation in each country, and its nuclear power framework is intended to serve as an integrated source of key background information about nuclear power programs in the world. The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles (CNPP) was initiated in 1990s. It responded to a need for a database and a technical publication containing a description of the energy and economic situation, the energy and the electricity sector, and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. This is the 2011 edition issued on CD-ROM and Web pages. It updates the country information for 50 countries. The CNPP is updated based on information voluntarily provided by participating IAEA Member States. Participants include the 29 countries that have operating nuclear power plants, as well as 21 countries having past or planned nuclear power programmes (Bangladesh, Belarus, Chile, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Italy, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Lithuania, Morocco, Nigeria, Philippines, Poland, Syrian Arab Republic, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey and Vietnam). For the 2011 edition, 23 countries provided updated or new profiles. For the other countries, the IAEA updated the profile statistical tables on nuclear power, energy development, and economic indicators based on information from IAEA and World Bank databases.

  6. Waste management advisory missions to developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.T.

    1990-01-01

    The IAEA's Waste Management Advisory Programme (WAMAP) was initiated in 1987 as an interregional technical co-operation project to complement other activities in radioactive waste management. Its creation gave greater recognition to the importance of the safe management of radioactive wastes and promotion of long-term waste management technical assistance strategies for developing countries. Over the past 4 years, international experts have reviewed the radioactive waste management programmes of 29 developing countries. Missions have been conducted within the framework of the IAEA's Waste Management Advisory Programme (WAMAP). Ten of these countries have nuclear power plants in operation or under construction or have nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Altogether, 23 have research reactors or centres, eight have uranium or thorium processing programmes or wastes, and nine essentially have only isotope applications involving the use of radiation sources

  7. Energy in developing countries: prospects and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, V.

    1977-01-01

    This paper analyses requirements for primary energy and electric power in the developing countries in the light of projections of population and economic growth. It evaluates the availability of indigenous energy resources and focuses on input requirements (capital, technology, trained personnel) for accelerated energy development; it reviews possible supplies for such inputs from domestic sources, transnational corporations, multilateral institutions, and through co-operation among the developing countries themselves and between the developing and the developed countries. The paper analyses the findings of the United Nations study ''The Future of the World Economy. A Study on the Impact of the Prospective Economic Issues and Policies on the International Development Strategy'' as far as they relate to energy and the developing countries in the light of the objectives of the Declaration on the Establishment of a New International Economic Order

  8. RIO Country Report 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Mitchell, Jessica

    The 2015 series of RIO Country Reports analyse and assess the policy and the national research and innovation system developments in relation to national policy priorities and the EU policy agenda with special focus on ERA and Innovation Union. The executive summaries of these reports put forward...

  9. Touring the Low Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, van Kees

    1998-01-01

    Touring the Low Countries is an anthology of approximately forty travel documents by British tourists - journals, letters, and financial accounts - most of them published here for the first time.The United Provinces and the Spanish Netherlands, with all the variety of their contrasting cultural

  10. in a Developing Country

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    This could have contributed to the refusal for readmission. In conclusion, identification and management of mucopolysaccharidosis type II in affected patients pose a problem in resource-constrained countries due to late identification and presentation, lack of facilities for diagnosis and treatment, as well as the cost and the.

  11. Algeria: Country Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerren, Margaret

    A survey of the status of language usage in Algeria begins with an overview of the usage patterns of Arabic, the Berber languages, and French. The country's return to Arabic as its official language after independence from France in 1962 is discussed along with the resultant language planning, issues of language of instruction at the elementary,…

  12. CAPTURED India Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donoghue, R.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the India Country Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the End Evaluation has assessed that results are commendable. I-AIM was able to design an approach in which health

  13. Radiotherapy in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The Symposium presentations are divided into 6 chapters devoted to the following topics: radiation therapy for carcinoma of the cervix (6 papers), different approaches in radiation therapy (15 papers), hyperthermia (7 papers), chemical modifiers (7 papers), dosimetry and technology (5 papers), organization of radiation therapy in developing countries (5 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  14. Country programme review. Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This document reviews the current nuclear program in Ethiopia, identifying the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in the country and possible future technical cooperation activities. Separate brief sections deal with food and agriculture; human health; water and geothermal resources; industrial applications and instrumentation; radiation protection; higher education; programming, coordination and development

  15. Countries in transition

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    tant role in an open global economy? Would it have the ... topics such as urban migration, labour issues, HIV/AIDS, and the ... A new approach to finding local solutions to armed conflict grew ... the fighting in four test countries: Somalia,. Eritrea ...

  16. Problems facing developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Financing, above all political and technical considerations, remains the major obstacle faced by developing countries who wish to embark on a nuclear power programme. According to the IAEA, the support of the official lending agencies of the suppliers is essential. (author)

  17. Denmark. [CME Country Reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    According to an agreement between the parties of the labour market and the Ministry of Labour, the immigration of foreign workers into Denmark takes place on a quota basis and conforms to a series of regulations, including a rule that the foreign worker, prior to departing from his country, must have made contract arrangements for his job. This…

  18. FOOD SECURITY SITUATION OF SELECTED HIGHLY DEVELOPED COUNTRIES AGAINST DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Karolina Pawlak

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to present the food security situation in selected highly developed countries and to identify consumption disparities between them and developing countries. The research is based on the data from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat), the United Nations Statistics Division, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), World Food Programme (WFP) and selected measures used...

  19. Nuclear cardiology for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinendegen, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    The role of nuclear medicine in developing countries must be oriented to the local needs for clinical practice, the health care of large populations and the demands for research with sometimes extremely limited resources. To help define the locally differing needs, it is stressed that nuclear medicine provides the unique opportunity to observe the body at the molecular level of organization and thus makes the body biochemically transparent. Depending on the particular diagnostic demands, complex imaging with gamma scintigraphy or emission tomography may be the only method to choose in some instances, but for others it may be an unnecessary luxury. Nuclear cardiology, with the purpose of non-invasively assessing cardiac function, myocardial perfusion and myocardial metabolism, is a particular challenge in both respects for developing countries. Given such requirements, single-probe devices with multipurpose application are less expensive than gamma cameras and promise advanced diagnostic uses. In one examination, left ventricular function, global cardio-pulmonary circulation and the general circulatory adaptation to exercise can be investigated by non-gated simultaneous blood pool measurements over four lung regions, the heart and the liver. In addition, such devices have the advantages of compactness, robustness and electronic stability. Despite enormous difficulties regarding funding, infrastructure, equipment and maintenance, developing countries should be encouraged to participate in the evolution of nuclear medicine by responding and adapting to defined needs and perhaps by maintaining at least one national centre of excellence with capacities for research and training. Funds are best secured by providing an indispensable service in co-operation with the various clinical disciplines. (author)

  20. Country Nuclear Power Profiles - 2012 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-08-01

    The Country Nuclear Power Profiles compile background information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in Member States. The CNPP's main objectives are to consolidate information about the nuclear power infrastructures in participating countries, and to present factors related to the effective planning, decision making and implementation of nuclear power programmes that together lead to safe and economical operations of nuclear power plants. The CNPP summarizes organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programs and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory, and international framework in each country. Its descriptive and statistical overview of the overall economic, energy, and electricity situation in each country and its nuclear power framework is intended to serve as an integrated source of key background information about nuclear power programs in the world. Topics such as reactor safety, nuclear fuel cycle, radioactive waste management and research programmes are for the most part not discussed in detail. Statistical data about nuclear plant operations, population, energy and electricity use are drawn from the PRIS, EEDB, World Development Indicators (WDI) of the World Bank and the national contributions. This publication is updated and the scope of coverage expanded annually. This is the 2012 edition, issued on CD-ROM and Web pages. It contains updated country information for 51 countries. The CNPP is updated based on information voluntarily provided by participating IAEA Member States. Participants include the 29 countries that have operating nuclear power plants, as well as 22 countries with past or planned nuclear power. Each of the 51 profiles in this publication is self-standing, and contains information officially provided by the respective national authorities. For the 2012 edition, 20 countries provided updated or new profiles. These are Argentina, Armenia, Bangladesh, Chile, Germany, Ghana

  1. Country report on contamination monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyuntulkhuur, Navaangalsan [National Centre for Hygiene, Epidemiology and Microbiology (Mongolia). Central Radiological Laboratory

    1997-06-01

    Mongolia is a non-nuclear country and has currently neither nuclear power plants nor research reactors. This country joined the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA) for the Asia Pacific region for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology in 1993. Various measures has been taken for strengthening of radiation protection, cooperated with several international organizations mainly with IAEA. In Mongolia radioactive substances and sources are used for the following purposes: for research work; medical radiotherapy and diagnostic radiology in hospitals; industrial enterprises for technological processes; and for non-destructive testing in industry. Radiation safety inspection is conducted by the CRL. The inspections consist of verification of compliance with radiation safety requirements and with any additional requirements specified in the authorization of accounting records and a physical check on the presence of radiation sources; check on the work carried out by the radiation safety services to monitor radioactive contamination of the environment; and measurements and sampling. CRL should take much attention for improvement and development of the activities in the field of surface contamination monitoring concerning a wide use of radionuclides in different field of economy. (G.K.)

  2. Macroeconomics in develpoing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Nayyar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes the differences between the economies of industrialized countriesand developing countries, which have important implications for macroeconomics interms of theory and policy. It considers the differences in macroeconomic objectives andexamines why the reach of macroeconomic policies is different in the two sets ofcountries. It argues that the distinction between short-run macroeconomic models andlong-term growth models is not quite appropriate for developing countries, wheremacroeconomic constraints on growth straddle time horizons and short-term policieshave long-term consequences. The essential hypothesis is that the nature of relationshipsand the direction of causation in macroeconomics, which shape analysis, diagnosis andprescription, depend on the institutional setting and not the analytical structure of models.And even if some laws of economics are universal, the functioning of economies can bemarkedly different. Therefore, economic theory and policy analysis should recognize,rather than ignore, such myriad differences.

  3. Botswana country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    This study was carried out in Botswana, Tanzania and Zambia as part of the project `Climate Change Mitigation in Southern Africa` funded by the Danish International Development Agency (Danida). The project was conducted parallel to the UNEP/GEF project `Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations` which involved 8 other developing countries and 2 regional projects in Latin America and the SADC region. The limitation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is a complex issue, intimately connected with economic development at local, national, regional and global levels. Key economic sectors such as energy, agriculture, industry and forestry all produce GHGs, and are likely to be affected directly and indirectly by any mitigation policy. The UNEP Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies, initiated in 1991, attempted to address these complex issues, developing a methodological framework and testing it through practical application in ten countries. (EHS) 28 refs.

  4. Mauritius country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manraj, D.D.

    1998-01-01

    Mauritius has no known oil, gas or coal reserves but is only endowed with limited renewable energy resources namely hydropower and bagasse. Bagasse represents about one third of the country's energy requirements and meets almost all of the sugar industries energy demand. Projects identified for mitigation options are: Energy Sector - Renewable Sources (Solar, Wind, Biomass); Transport Sector - Fuel switching and Mass transit transport; Manufacturing Sector - Increase efficiency of energy use in the manufacturing process. (EG)

  5. Tanzania country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meena, H E [Centre for Energy, Environment, Science and Technology, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    An objective of this study is to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without an in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. (au)

  6. MICROFINANCE AND POOREST COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    阿部, 清司

    2004-01-01

    The world is divided into developing and developed countries. There are two kinds of banks: conventional ones and unconventional. Commercial banks are usually based on mutual distrust, while new unconventional banks, microfinances, are based on mutual trust. The origin of micro finance is deeply rooted in Asia. In 1976, Grameen Bank in Bangladesh was founded by Dr. Muhammad Yunus. It reverses conventional banking practice by removing the need for collateral. It creates a banking system based ...

  7. Cyclotrons in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera Ruiz, Hernan

    2004-01-01

    Cyclotron accelerators are prolific sources of charged particle for the production of radionuclides and have become an essential tool in the practice of modern nuclear medicine by providing reliable radiotracers for SPECT and PET studies. In a recent survey conducted by the IAEA in 2001, the growth in the number of cyclotron facilities installed in laboratories and hospitals in developed as well as developing countries was recorded. This trend, which started in the late 70's, continues in the present time also and all indications are that it will continue in the next five to ten years. The reasons for this growth are several: technology involved has become more user or 'hospital friendly', third party reimbursement for several clinical studies based on F-18 PET radiopharmaceuticals at least in some of the advanced countries started in 1998 and above all, the clear irrefutable and demonstrable conclusion of the positive cost/benefit outcomes of PET studies in the field of oncology to a lesser degree, thus far, for cardiology and neurology. It is however recognizable that the overall financial cost of the technology, which comprises the premises to house the facility, the cyclotron accelerator, the corresponding radiochemistry and quality control equipment and the PET cameras can be nevertheless an expensive proposition that requires careful advance planning. This fact is even more relevant when the facility is planned for installation in a developing country, which, frequently, in addition to having a lack of sufficient financial resources, do have shortage of qualified human resources to efficiently run the facility. In spite of the above, it is fact that more and more public as well as private organizations in the developing countries are setting up cyclotron/PET programmes or are seriously considering the installation of such a facility

  8. Germany - an immigration country

    OpenAIRE

    Siebert, Horst

    2003-01-01

    Germany has about the same proportion of foreigners in its population as the United States, it is an immigration country. In a way, Germany has let immigration happen, but it did not really have an explicit immigration policy in the past. Now it has to make up its mind on its immigration policy in the future. The paper looks at the experience with immigration in the past, at the integration of foreigners and at the issues of immigration policy.

  9. Zambia country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    The Zambia Country Study, which was part of the Danida-funded project Climate Change Mitigation in Southern Africa: Phase 2, aimed at methodological development, national mitigation analysis and institutional capacity building in Zambia. The study comprised the following five elements: Comprehensive evaluation of national social and economic development framework for climate change; Baseline scenario(s) projection(s); Mitigation scenario(s) projection(s); Macro-economic assessment; Implementation Issues. (au) 17 refs.

  10. Tanzania country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meena, H.E.

    1998-01-01

    An objective of this study is to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without an in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. (au)

  11. Scientific-technical cooperation with foreign (esp. Europe and INSC partner countries) nuclear regulatory authorities and their technical support organizations in the fields of nuclear safety of operating nuclear power plants and on the concept evaluation of generation 3+ plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, Holger

    2016-09-01

    The BMUB/BfS-Project 3614I01512 forms the frame of the GRS for the scientific-technical cooperation with Technical Support Organisations and Nuclear Regulatory Authorities in the field of nuclear safety in operating NPPs and for the concept evaluation of generation 3 + plants in Europe and INSC Partner Countries. In the present final project report results are described which were gained within the project duration 15.10.2014 up to the 30.09.2016 in the following working packages: Investigations following the catastrophe of Fukushima Daiichi, Evaluation of selected National Action Plans, DBA and severe accident analyses for NPP with PWR (WWER-440, WWER-1000), cooperation with INSC partner countries on DBA, BDBA and severe accident analyses for WWER plants of generation 3 + and building NRA and safety evaluation capacities and decommissioning of nuclear facilities and disposal of radioactive waste. The results are preceded by an outline on the activities related to the project management and to the planning of the bilateral work.

  12. Electric network interconnection of Mashreq Arab Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Amin, I.M.; Al-Shehri, A.M.; Opoku, G.; Al-Baiyat, S.A.; Zedan, F.M.

    1994-01-01

    Power system interconnection is a well established practice for a variety of technical and economical reasons. Several interconnected networks exist worldwide for a number of factors. Some of these networks cross international boundaries. This presentation discusses the future developments of the power systems of Mashreq Arab Countries (MAC). MAC consists of Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Yemen. Mac power systems are operated by government or semigovernment bodies. Many of these countries have national or regional electric grids but are generally isolated from each other. With the exception of Saudi Arabia power systems, which employ 60 Hz, all other MAC utilities use 50 Hz frequency. Each country is served by one utility, except Saudi Arabia, which is served by four major utilities and some smaller utilities serving remote towns and small load centers. The major utilities are the Saudi Consolidated electric Company in the Eastern Province (SCECO East), SCECO Center, SCECO West, and SCECO South. These are the ones considered in this study. The energy resources in MAC are varied. Countries such as Egypt, Iraq, and Syria have significant hydro resources.The gulf countries and Iraq have abundant fossil fuel, The variation in energy resources as well as the characteristics of the electric load make it essential to look into interconnections beyond the national boundaries. Most of the existing or planned interconnections involve few power systems. A study involving 12 countries and over 20 utilities with different characteristics represents a very large scale undertaking

  13. Mode Combinations and International Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent; Welch, Lawrence S.

    2011-01-01

    reveals that companies tend to combine modes of operation; thereby producing unique foreign operation mode “packages” for given activities and/or countries, and that the packages are liable to be modified over time – providing a potentially important optional path for international expansion. Our data...... key markets (China, UK and USA) as the basis for an exploration of the extent to which, and how and why, companies combine clearly different foreign operation modes. We examine their use of foreign operation mode combinations within given value activities as well as within given countries. The study...

  14. Mode Combinations and International Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent; Welch, Lawrence S.

    2011-01-01

    reveals that companies tend to combine modes of operation; thereby producing unique foreign operation mode “packages” for given activities and/or countries, and that the packages are liable to be modified over time—providing a potentially important optional path for international expansion. The data show...... markets (China, UK and USA) is used as the basis for an exploration of the extent to which, and how and why, companies combine clearly different foreign operation modes. We examine their use of foreign operation mode combinations within given value activities as well as within given countries. The study...

  15. Economic Indicators Selected Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    DEFENCE I ECONOMIC INDICATORS SELECTED COUNTRIES DECEMBER QUARTER 1987 . ’-H ISSUED BY MANPOWER POLICY & STRATEGIES BRANCH " "’ :.S S ’,1l f ,am -m mW...100 Sour:e: Main Economic Indicators (OECD) Manufactured Basic Metal Year Goods Chemicals Metals Products 1980 100 100 100 100 1981 110 117 102 107...Earnings of all 1982 1986 7.4 Male Employees (a) Aug 1986 Aug 1987 4.8 Hourly Wace Rates 3 1979 1987 lt.2 Garden Island 1983 1987 6.7 Dockyards Dec

  16. Denmark country report 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte; Rostgaard, Tine

    2016-01-01

    The LP&R network produces an annual review of leave policies and related research, starting in 2004. The review covers Maternity, Paternity and Parental leaves; leave to care for sick children and other employment-related measures to support working parents; and early childhood education and care....... In addition to the new country, these are: Australia, Austria, Brazil, Belgium, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal...

  17. Denmark country note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte; Rostgaard, Tine

    2014-01-01

    The LP&R network produces an annual review of leave policies and related research, starting in 2004 (for earlier reviews, go to Archive 2005-2013). The review covers Maternity, Paternity and Parental leaves; leave to care for sick children and other employment-related measures to support working......, Israel. Altogether, it covers 35 countries. In addition to Israel, these are: Austria, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland...

  18. Education in European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petcu, N.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Education, vocational training and lifelong learning play a vital role in both an economic and social context. The paper herein aims to identify Romania’s place within the UE-countries, considering a series of general indices: total public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP, private expenditure on education as % of GDP, annual expenditure on public and private educational institutions per pupil/student - by level of education, school expectancy, pupils and students, students - tertiary education, mobility of students in Europe, science and technology graduates, doctorate students in science and technology fields. Analysis methods: main components analysis, cluster analysis.

  19. Country profiles: Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Within months, Belgium will have to import practically all of its energy requirements; coal production will stop in 1992. Though nuclear will continue to provide the bulk of the country's power supply, government policy has shifted away from reliance on the atom for electricity generation towards natural gas. With no oil reserves of its own, keeping demand under check has been a priority for governments down the years. The actual level of oil imports runs well above consumption since the refining sector supplies products for the European market. Belgium's own petrol station businesses face considerable rationalisation, with average throughput well below EC levels. (author)

  20. Pedagogical co-operation in the country of childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonchar O.V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Here both the general principles of the concept of "childhood" are revealed and the general features of the childhood period, teaching child development criteria are outlined. It is paid special attention to the essence of humanistic ideas of V. Sukhomlynsky of a teacher and student pedagogical mutual relations which resonated both in contemporaries and subsequent teacher generations work, dominant tasks of Ukrainian schools of different levels were outlined by an outstanding Ukrainian teacher as well. It is marked that a leading place in pedagogical mutual relations is occupied by principles of humanizing, socialization, nationality and self-perfection.

  1. Water Loss Management: Tools and Methods for Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutikanga, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    Water utilities in developing countries are struggling to provide customers with a reliable level of service due to their peculiar water distribution characteristics including poorly zoned networks with irregular supply operating under restricted budgets. These unique conditions demand unique tools

  2. Water Loss Management : Tools and Methods for Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutikanga, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    Water utilities in developing countries are struggling to provide customers with a reliable level of service due to their peculiar water distribution characteristics including poorly zoned networks with irregular supply operating under restricted budgets. These unique conditions demand unique tools

  3. Argentina [Country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreyra, R.

    2005-01-01

    The airborne geophysical surveys developed in Argentina are described. They have got more than 500.000 km 2 acquiring data for U, Th, K and total background activity. Other types of published data are also mentioned (satellite imagery, seismic hazard, climate, soil distributions, etc.). The availability of maps with the abundances of elements analyzed at the country and also at laboratories from Canada is described, as well as data of analysis of several elements at two study areas proposed at the outset of the project. The availability of process rate data and epidemiological data is also explained. Argentina intended fully to participate in the CRP at the outset of the project. Due, however, to external resource constraints imposed on the participating organization (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, CNEA), the level of participation had to be significantly reduced. Nonetheless, in the first period of the CRP, Argentina undertook to collate existing geological and geochemical information within the country, and began to define potential areas for site specific natural systems safety indicator studies. (author)

  4. Country Presentation Congo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwata, P.K.; SAKI, A.; KAZADI, J.

    2010-01-01

    Illicit trafficking of radioactive minerals, precious metals and nuclear materials is generally expanded practice in some parts of the Democratic Republic of Congo. The phenomenon took place early in 1990 and amplified from 1998. The main causes of this practice are political instability that led to general poverty among population and the lack of legal framework governing the exploitation of minerals. Nuclear Illicit trafficking in Congo concerns radioactive mineral sand precious metals in eastern and southern parts of the country. The unfavorable political environment that took place in Congo in the 1990s resulted in local manpower and mine workers immigrating to neighboring countries. A great fraction of these new jobless started exploiting abandoned mines residues searching for Cu, Co and Au for survival. First cases of illicit exploitation of uranium minerals were reported very soon after rock sliding that occurred in 2004 on Shinkolobwe site in Katanga region. This uncontrolled mineral exploitation got worse when several mining companies were licensed by GECAMINES company to explore, exploit, purchase minerals from individuals and export raw materials and concentrates.

  5. Developing countries' motivation to use nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratsch, U.

    1990-01-01

    Governments of various developing countries see nuclear energy as an important tool for at least three political goals: Firstly, the expected rise in future energy demand, so they argue, can only be met if nuclear electricity production in the Third World is expanded. Fossil sources are supposed to become increasingly scarce and expensive, and they are also seen to be ecologically damaging. Technologies to harness renewable energy sources are not yet mature and still too costly. Secondly, nuclear technology is seen as one of the most advanced technologies. Mastering of it might help to diminish the technological gap between the First and the Third World. Thirdly, scientific progress in developing countries is hoped to be accelerated by operating research reactors in these countries. All of these arguments ought to be taken as serious motivations. (orig./HSCH) [de

  6. Nuclear power in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Of the Nordic countries-Sweden, Finland, Denmark, and Norway-the first two have chosen nuclear energy to supply a large portion of their electrical generation requirements. Finland has opted for two Western-style boiling water reactors and two modified Russian-designed pressurized water reactors. The country has led the nuclear nations of the world in the 1990s with its capacity factor. Domestic reports state that nuclear is the lowest-cost electrical generation source, and Finland will need additional capacity by 2000. The country's nuclear waste storage facilities are in operation, with more under construction. In this, the second part of a two-part feature (the first part viewed Sweden's nuclear program), the attention is focused on Finland: its government, where it has positioned itself in the world economy, and the internal conflicts of how, or if, to add the needed electrical capacity

  7. Influence of country brand slogan and logo in country positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Pipoli de Azambuja

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To build the image of a country minds consumers’ minds, countries apply marketing strategies that are based on their country brand development, in the same way that companies apply marketing to their products and services. The development of the logo and slogan to be used in the communication strategy, are two key elements of its success in the process of building the country brand (Keller 2008. Thus the objective of this research is to know the importance of using the logo and slogan in international marketing strategies of countries. To do this, this research analyzes the use of the logo and slogan, in country brand strategies of countries in the top places in the Country Brand Index (2009 of Future Brand.

  8. Country nuclear power profiles. 2001 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles was initiated within the framework of the IAEA's programme on assessment and feedback of nuclear power plant performance. It responded to a need for a database and a technical document containing a description of the economic situation, the energy and the electricity sector and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. In 1998, the first edition of the Country Nuclear Power Profiles was published focusing on the overall economic, energy and electricity situation in the country and on its nuclear power industrial structure and organizational framework. The compilation was made based on contributions of 29 Member States with operating nuclear power plants by the end of 1995 and Italy. It also incorporated the 'Fact Sheets' on international, multilateral and bilateral agreements as collected by EXPO. The second edition, issued on CD-ROM only, covered the changes in the new environment of the electricity and the nuclear sector, i.e. the impact of privatization and deregulation on these sectors, be it that the situation differs from country to country. The third edition, issued as hard copy and CD-ROM, updates the country information, in general, to the end of 2000. This publication compiles background information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in countries having operating nuclear plants and/or plants under construction as of 1 January 2001 and in countries actively engaged in planning such a programme. It presents historical information on energy supply and demand; reviews the organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes in participating countries for the same period; and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory, and international framework in each country. Topics such as reactor safety, the nuclear fuel cycle, radioactive waste management and research programmes are for the most part not discussed in detail

  9. Country nuclear power profiles. 2001 ed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles was initiated within the framework of the IAEA's programme on assessment and feedback of nuclear power plant performance. It responded to a need for a database and a technical document containing a description of the economic situation, the energy and the electricity sector and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. In 1998, the first edition of the Country Nuclear Power Profiles was published focusing on the overall economic, energy and electricity situation in the country and on its nuclear power industrial structure and organizational framework. The compilation was made based on contributions of 29 Member States with operating nuclear power plants by the end of 1995 and Italy. It also incorporated the 'Fact Sheets' on international, multilateral and bilateral agreements as collected by EXPO. The second edition, issued on CD-ROM only, covered the changes in the new environment of the electricity and the nuclear sector, i.e. the impact of privatization and deregulation on these sectors, be it that the situation differs from country to country. The third edition, issued as hard copy and CD-ROM, updates the country information, in general, to the end of 2000. This publication compiles background information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in countries having operating nuclear plants and/or plants under construction as of 1 January 2001 and in countries actively engaged in planning such a programme. It presents historical information on energy supply and demand; reviews the organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes in participating countries for the same period; and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory, and international framework in each country. Topics such as reactor safety, the nuclear fuel cycle, radioactive waste management and research programmes are for the most part not discussed in detail

  10. Country nuclear power profiles. 2000 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles was initiated within the framework of the IAEA programme on assessment and feedback of nuclear power plant performance. It responded to a need for a database and a technical document containing a description of the economic situation, the energy and the electricity sector and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. In 1998, the first edition of the Country Nuclear Power Profiles was published focusing on the overall economic, energy and electricity situation in the country and on its nuclear power industrial structure and organizational framework. The compilation was made based on of 29 Member States with operating nuclear power plants by the end of 1995 and incorporated the 'Fact Sheets' on international, multilateral and bilateral agreements as collected by EXPO. In May 1999, an Advisory Group Meeting was organized with the purpose of updating the information in the Country Nuclear Power Profiles of each country, to reflect the new approaches and conditions of the national nuclear power programmes. The impact of the open electricity market, privatization and deregulation on the nuclear sector was an important aspect recommended by the experts to be taken in consideration. It was also recommended to periodically review the status and trends of nuclear industries in IAEA Member States and exchange information among experts of the lessons learned from the countries engaged in nuclear programmes, with a view to update the profiles at two year intervals. This second edition covers the changes in the new environment in the electricity as well as in the nuclear sector, be it that the situation differs from country to country. In general, the information is updated to 1999. For the preparation of this second edition, the IAEA received contributions from all 31 countries with operating power plants by the end of 1999, as well as Italy and the Islamic Republic of Iran. A database has been

  11. Precipitation Indices Low Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Engelen, A. F. V.; Ynsen, F.; Buisman, J.; van der Schrier, G.

    2009-09-01

    Since 1995, KNMI published a series of books(1), presenting an annual reconstruction of weather and climate in the Low Countries, covering the period AD 763-present, or roughly, the last millennium. The reconstructions are based on the interpretation of documentary sources predominantly and comparison with other proxies and instrumental observations. The series also comprises a number of classifications. Amongst them annual classifications for winter and summer temperature and for winter and summer dryness-wetness. The classification of temperature have been reworked into peer reviewed (2) series (AD 1000-present) of seasonal temperatures and temperature indices, the so called LCT (Low Countries Temperature) series, now incorporated in the Millennium databases. Recently we started a study to convert the dryness-wetness classifications into a series of precipitation; the so called LCP (Low Countries Precipitation) series. A brief outline is given here of the applied methodology and preliminary results. The WMO definition for meteorological drought has been followed being that a period is called wet respectively dry when the amount of precipitation is considerable more respectively less than usual (normal). To gain a more quantitative insight for four locations, geographically spread over the Low Countries area (De Bilt, Vlissingen, Maastricht and Uccle), we analysed the statistics of daily precipitation series, covering the period 1900-present. This brought us to the following definition, valid for the Low Countries: A period is considered as (very) dry respectively (very) wet if over a continuous period of at least 60 days (~two months) cq 90 days (~three months) on at least two out of the four locations 50% less resp. 50% more than the normal amount for the location (based on the 1961-1990 normal period) has been measured. This results into the following classification into five drought classes hat could be applied to non instrumental observations: Very wet period

  12. Country profile: Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary`s energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  13. Country profile: Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary's energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  14. Indonesian country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munawir Zulqarnain, M.

    2005-01-01

    BATAN started to study EB (electron beam) flue gas treatment in 2001 after a joint memorandum of understanding on application of EB flue gas treatment in Power Plant between BATAN (National Nuclear Energy Agency), BPPT (Technology Implementation and Assessment Agency) and Indonesia Power Company was signed. Among several power plants (coal or oil) in Indonesia only one is installed with flue gas treatment equipment. This is to reduce CO 2 emission from the newest of coal power plant in Indonesia with 1200 MWe. The BATAN starts by seeking and learning data and engineering concept and processes from other countries to install an EB flue gas treatment equipment. The role of demonstration plant installation is very important to the future EB flue gas treatment in Indonesia. (S. Ohno)

  15. Country programme review Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, R.; Maluszynski, Y.; Maudarbocus, Y.; Cherif, H.S.; Morre, P.

    1993-12-01

    A five-expert mission was organized from 21-26 August 1993 and this document reflects the findings and recommendations of the team. Intensive contacts with heads of institutions, scientists and decision making persons in various sectors in the country were co-ordinated by the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission. The terms of reference of the mission were: To assess the on-going TC projects; to assist the Bangladesh nationals to finalize the formulation of the new requests for 1995-96 TC programme and to establish priority areas with regard to the introduction of national projects involving accelerated technological transfer in order to catalyze national development plans in specific areas; to examine institutional framework suitable for the introduction of these priority nuclear techniques

  16. Country Presentation Angola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, L.; Ferreira, Edson; Goma, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Republic of Angola joined the IAEA in September 1999. Since then, the country started by designing, promoting and developing its programme on nuclear and technology through the Unit for Nuclear Science and Technology created by the Ministry of Science and Technology.The Angolan Atomic Law was approved on June 28 and published on September 05, 2007.Radioactive Waste Every person who is licensed to generate, keep or manage radioactive waste shall be responsible for the safe management of radioactive waste generated by the practice or source for which he/she is authorized. No person shall transport any radioactive material, radioactive substance or radiation generator on any vessel or boat within the territorial waters or the exclusive economic zone of Angola; on any aircraft within the airspace of Angola; or any means of land transport without authorization from the Regulatory Authority of Atomic Energy

  17. Peer Country Comments Paper - Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredgaard, Thomas

    Bidrag til EU-kommissionens peer-review on "Strategies for Employment policy Reform. Implementation Challenges in Decentralised Countries"......Bidrag til EU-kommissionens peer-review on "Strategies for Employment policy Reform. Implementation Challenges in Decentralised Countries"...

  18. The AEC and developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouvrieu, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    A historical background shows how AEC's activities have changed and consequently, the development of the AEC's relations with developing countries. Some examples serve to illustrate the different types of AEC cooperation with developing countries [fr

  19. Is astronomical research appropriate for developing countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Michael S.

    An unproductive 45-cm astronomical telescope, given by JICA (Japan) to Sri Lanka, raises general questions as to the reasons for unproductive pure science in developing countries. Before installation, site, maintenance, and scientific objectives were discussed. The facility was launched with a conference organised by the UN Office for Outer Space Affairs. Unfortunately, no research or significant education has resulted after four years. The annual operating cost is U.S. $5000 per year, including salary for a trainee, maintenance, and a modest promotional programme. Comparison with a similar installation in Auckland suggests lack of funding or technical competence do not explain the failure in Sri Lanka. The facility in New Zealand, on the roof of Auckland University's Physics Department, has a slightly smaller budget but has led to modest but useful research and teaching. Lack of financial backing and expertise are often blamed for weak science in developing countries, but examination shows most of these countries have adequately skilled people, and plenty of resources for religion and military. General lack of motivation for science appears to be the principal reason. This lack of interest and highly inefficient bureaucracies are common to scientifically unproductive countries. They mostly lack the cultural and philosophical base of the European Renaissance that motivate the pursuit of modern science, an activity that violates human preferences. There are excellent facilities (ESO, SAAO, Cerro Tololo, and GONG) in some of these same countries, when administered from the West.

  20. Which Countries Become Tax Havens?

    OpenAIRE

    Dhammika Dharmapala; James R. Hines Jr.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the factors influencing whether countries become tax havens. Roughly 15 percent of countries are tax havens; as has been widely observed, these countries tend to be small and affluent. This paper documents another robust empirical regularity: better-governed countries are much more likely than others to become tax havens. Using a variety of empirical approaches, and controlling for other relevant factors, governance quality has a statistically significant and quantitativel...

  1. Export Variety and Country Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Feenstra, Robert; Looi Kee, Hiau

    2004-01-01

    The authors study the link between export product variety and country productivity based on data from 34 industrial and developing countries, from 1982 to 1997. They measure export product variety by the share of U.S. imports on the set of goods exported by each sampled country relative to the world. It is a theoretically sound index which is consistent with within-country GDP maximization...

  2. Country report - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrotta, Jose Augusto

    2001-01-01

    The electricity production in 2000 amounted to 305 TWh. Nuclear was responsible for 1.98% (3.42 TWh - Angra 1, and 2.62 TWh - Angra 2 which started operation in July 2000. The two NPPs are PWR type. The third is awaiting the Government's decision to be built. This report describes fuel fabrication, fuel performance, burnup experience. The fuel research programme has been directed to the study of basic aspects of fuel performance and technology, and fuel technology

  3. Literacy Campaigns in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odunuga, Segun

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the problem of eradicating illiteracy in developing countries, where the illiteracy rate may average about 70 percent. Looks at the Arab countries, Latin America, Africa, and India and the factors that thwart attempts to increase literacy in those countries. These include religious habits and the problem of language in multilingual…

  4. Global Operations and Innovation in Coloplast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Different deployment initiatives, such as shifting its high-volume manufacturing facilities to low cost countries, have helped Coloplast reduce its operating costs and enhance its bottom-line growth.......Different deployment initiatives, such as shifting its high-volume manufacturing facilities to low cost countries, have helped Coloplast reduce its operating costs and enhance its bottom-line growth....

  5. Managing nuclear knowledge in a developing country: Pakistan's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.

    2004-01-01

    The nuclear technology base in a developing country is relatively much smaller compared to those in the industrialised countries. Thus, nuclear knowledge and its management are of great importance for those countries which are interested in nuclear technology but are still in the development phase. It is neither desirable nor possible to use imported nuclear technology as a black box. It is important for a developing country to acquire the ability for the safe and efficient operation of a nuclear facility such as a nuclear power plant. This should be done with maximum local participation and a sound institutional memory. (author)

  6. Uranium exploration in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premoli, C.

    1982-01-01

    The advantages to the developing countries of exploiting their uranium deposits in the next two decades to aid their own economic growth are considered. It is pointed out that in spite of the little known geology of these countries less sophisticated surveying methods have turned up large uranium deposits even in developed countries. Carborne surveys with simple crystal-detectors coupled to scintillators can be effective. Intelligent exploration in developing countries can be cheap due to low labour costs and less stringent environmental restraints and the uranium found could be sold to developed countries for their nuclear power programme. (U.K.)

  7. Spatial Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda VELICANU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a brief description of the most important operations that can be performed on spatial data such as spatial queries, create, update, insert, delete operations, conversions, operations on the map or analysis on grid cells. Each operation has a graphical example and some of them have code examples in Oracle and PostgreSQL.

  8. Operational amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Dostal, Jiri

    1993-01-01

    This book provides the reader with the practical knowledge necessary to select and use operational amplifier devices. It presents an extensive treatment of applications and a practically oriented, unified theory of operational circuits.Provides the reader with practical knowledge necessary to select and use operational amplifier devices. Presents an extensive treatment of applications and a practically oriented, unified theory of operational circuits

  9. Country report for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heusener, Gerhard

    2001-01-01

    The status of the nuclear energy in Germany can be summarised as follows: 19 operating NPPs (22 GWe); electricity production in 200 amounted to 170 TWh (one third of the total production); average availability 91%; goal of the Federal Government is to phase out nuclear energy without paying to the utilities. Fast reactor activities involve participation of FZK in the European Project 'Burning of Pu and MAs in Critical Fast Reactors'; shifting to burning of actinides in subcritical accelerator driven systems (ADS). This includes neutronics, safety analysis, Pb-Bi technology, development of spallation target, corrosion in Pb and Pb-Bi

  10. Countries and companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenning, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    The trends and factors currently emerging are likely to have significant influence on the way the upstream oil and gas industry evolves in the coming decade. This paper discusses how these trends might influence events in the 1990s, particularly how they might influence relationships between host countries and companies in the oil industry. State owned companies will dominate the industry in resource terms. These statcos fall into three groups: a small group of technically able, financially sound, well-managed companies; a group of consumer statcos that have limited domestic production but significant domestic demand; a large group that are finding it difficult to maintain their production facilities in good standing to maximize recovery from their resources. This paper describes the future private sector as consisting of the Surviving Sisters and smaller, private companies very active in the upstream. How will these various players behave in the years to come? Conventional activity in the upstream will continue as companies seek to optimize their upstream portfolios

  11. Country risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the oil industry has been an internationally based industry that has been heavily dependent on outside financing sources. Historically, financing came from investment houses that, in most cases, participated in the projects as equity investors. However, investment companies can no longer satisfy the capital requirements of the current high level of exploration and development activities. The current trend is to involve commercial banks on a purely lending basis. Commercial banks, by their nature, are risk averse. In the case of oil and gas exploration and production they are asked to take not only technical risk and price risk but geopolitical risk as well. Methods have been developed by commercial banks to reduce technical and price risks to point which enables them to be comfortable with a loan. However, geopolitical risks are more difficult to assess. The risk associated with many countries are the nationalization of the investment, new tax restrictions, restriction of currency movements, and/or revisions to the production sharing agreements

  12. Tanzania country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    Objectives of this study are to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass, as well as other forestry products. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without and in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. Analysis of the mitigation scenario has been based on Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis (COMAP). This study has analysed the forestry and land use sector behaviour on the basis of the current policies on land and environment. Furthermore three scenarios have been developed on the basis of what is expected to happen in the sectors, the worse scenario being a catastrophic one where if things takes the business as usual trend then the forest resources will easily be depleted. The TFAP scenario takes into account the implementation of the current plans as scheduled while the mitigation scenario takes into account the GHG mitigation in the implementation of the plans. A Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis Process (COMAP) has been used to analyse the GHG and cost implications of the various programmes under the mitigation scenario. (au) 30 refs.

  13. Country watch. Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turra, M D

    1994-01-01

    Persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or who suffer from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) often have their civil rights violated in Brazil. To remedy this, the Candido Mendes College in Rio de Janeiro introduced a voluntary course, "AIDS - Legal Approaches", into its law curriculum. Incentive was provided by the college's Model Law Office (MLO), where students learn to defend the rights of people in need. Class size is about 25; law professors use recent magazine and newspaper articles, and documentation on lawsuits concerning persons with HIV to teach the class. Course topics include relevant civil law (suits against blood banks), contract law (suits against private health insurance companies which refuse to cover treatment expenses related to HIV or AIDS), family law, inheritance law, labor law (unjust dismissal of persons with HIV), criminal law (intentional transmission of AIDS), violations of basic human rights, and comparative jurisprudence and constitutional law (a comparison of Brazilian law in this area to the laws of other countries). Students, during their field practice periods at the MLO, provide legal assistance to persons with HIV. Approximately 150 cases have been handled, often with positive outcomes, to date. Clients hear about the program via television, radio, and newspapers. Materials and information about lawsuits handled by the MLO are available to other colleges and universities with the hope of stimulating the formation of similar programs elsewhere.

  14. Swaziland: country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, L

    1988-06-01

    Although Swaziland had been independent from colonialism for 20 years, a powerful monarch, King Mswati II, continues to control the country's political, religious, and social system. Swaziland has a population of 676,000, half of whom are under 15 years of age. The infant mortality rate is 105/1000 live births and 25% of children die before they reach their 5th birthday. Life expectancy is 54 years. Tribal chiefs, representing the king, hold and distribute about half of the national land. Most of the fertile land remains in the hands of white settler farmers. The concentration of income in foreign companies and urban centers has exacerbated poverty in rural areas. Depreciation of rand-linked local currency has boosted export earnings, but it has also raised the price of food and medical imports. Swaziland's main exports are sugar, wood pulp, chemicals, and fruit, most of which go to the UK and South Africa. The major food crops are maize, beans, groundnuts, and sorghum. About half of the working population is engaged in small-scale subsistence farming, but food yields are declining. The major producers are foreign companies attracted by Swaziland's low taxes and cheap labor supply.

  15. Economic regulation of TSOs in the Nordic countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syvertsen, S. C.; Steinnes, S. H. [Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate, Oslo (Norway); Robles, H. B.; Ek, G. [Energy Markets Inspectorate, Eskilstuna (Sweden); Ilonen, M; Nurmi, S. [Energy Market Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Thomsen, H. [Sekretariatet for Energitilsynet, Valby (Denmark)

    2012-12-15

    The main topic of this report is the economic regulation of the transmission system operators (To) in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden). The purpose of this report is to give an overview of the design of the economic regulation and compare the main elements of the regulation between the countries. There is one To in each country. For all countries, the revenues of the Tos are regulated by yearly decisions. In Finland, Norway and Sweden the regulators set an annual revenue cap. In Denmark, the To sets the tariffs according to budget, while the regulator approves the annual report and thereby also approves the tariffs ex post. The economic regulation of TSOs includes both regulation of system operations and the regulation of network operations. Chapter 3 describes in brief the main responsibilities of the system operator in each country and how the costs related to these tasks are regulated. Norway regulates the system operation costs, where 60 percent of the costs are based on a cost-norm which is evaluated periodically. In Finland and Sweden these costs are considered as non-controllable and are passed through directly in the revenue cap. In Denmark only costs considered as necessary at efficient operation shall be included in the tariffs, and the regulators have the opportunity to exclude costs based on this. There are no benchmark or efficiency requirements in the Danish regulation. In chapter 4 the main elements of the economic regulation of network operations are described and compared in tables. All countries regulate the network operations of the TSO. In Denmark there are no explicit efficiency requirements, and the regulation is based on a non-profit principle. The TSO only gets a return based on a price adjustment on its capital base as of 2005. In Finland, Norway and Sweden the regulation include efficiency requirements or benchmarking of costs. In Norway this regards 60 percent of total costs related to the network operations

  16. Country watch: India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, A; Sehgal, P N

    1995-01-01

    Linking more than 3000 health and development organizations, the Voluntary Health Association of India (VHAI) is one of the largest networks in the country. In 1990 VHAI began incorporating HIV/STD-related activities into its broader programs. An existing infrastructure for intersectoral collaboration in the areas of community health promotion, public policy, information and documentation, and communications facilitated inclusion of the new activities. Several VHAI departments collaborate in offering training courses, workshops, and seminars at the state and community levels to involve nongovernmental organizations and professional groups in HIV/STD prevention and counseling. More than 950 persons have been trained so far, including trainers of primary health care workers, family physicians, medical practitioners, social scientists, teachers, community volunteer workers, and youth leaders. Local experts act as training resource persons; materials produced locally, abroad, and by VHAI itself are used. Training facilities are offered free of charge to member organizations; VHAI also awards fellowships for field training and financial support for approved projects. VHAI suggests intervention measures to governmental and nongovernmental organizations related to drug users, youth, truck drivers, blood donors, and people living with HIV/AIDS. The information, documentation, and communications departments provide members with a wide variety of information, education, and communication (IEC) materials that can be translated into local languages: posters, folders, flip charts, stickers, and folk songs. VHAI advocacy issues that have been highlighted through the press include: confidentiality, protection against discrimination, the right of all persons to health care, and the need to make properly-equipped STD clinics available. VHAI has established sub-networks in Tamil Nadu (155 organizations) and Manipur (55 organizations) states. VHAI has found that incorporating HIV

  17. Country report of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryshchenko, V.

    2001-01-01

    In 2000 there have been 14 power units at 5 nuclear power plants under operation in Ukraine. 4 power units are under construction. The total electricity production in 2000 is 170.76 bill. kWh, 77.34 - from NPP. In 200 the development of the legal and regulatory framework in the field of the use of nuclear energy has continued with the adoption of 3 new laws (on permissive activities, spent fuel and physical protection). In 2000 a new system of norms, rules and standards of nuclear and radiation safety has been developed. The report presents an overview of main licensing and supervisory activities and information on safety significant events. 10 events have been classified as level 1 according to INES

  18. Developed-developing country partnerships: Benefits to developed countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shamsuzzoha B

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today’s global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed—this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international

  19. Developed-developing country partnerships: benefits to developed countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Shamsuzzoha B; Dadwal, Viva; Rutter, Paul; Storr, Julie; Hightower, Joyce D; Gooden, Rachel; Carlet, Jean; Bagheri Nejad, Sepideh; Kelley, Edward T; Donaldson, Liam; Pittet, Didier

    2012-06-18

    Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today's global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed--this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international cooperation between developed and

  20. Archival Education in Scandinavian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Hanefi Kutluoğlu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Every country has responsibilities to provide the necessary personnel needed for their archival inheritance by education. Education can be shaped through tradition, historical inheritance and scientifi c necessities by defi ning the right educational method. Scandinavian countries have determined different education models based on their tradition, historical inheritance and requirements. In this article we focused on the formation of archival tradition, application of archival education in Scandinavian countries and the infl uence of the developments taking place in Europe on these countries. The relation between the archival education in European and Scandinavian countries is evaluated through a comparative method, and similarities to other countries are also evaluated. Finally, the present situation of archival education and the measures needed in this fi eld are taken into consideration.

  1. Dealing with the problem countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The test of America's policies to prevent nuclear proliferation is the so-called problem countries, those states that pose the greatest risk of ''going nuclear.'' Most visible - and the source of greatest concern - are those countries which have developed or appear to be in the process of developing nuclear weapons capabilities. In addition to Pakistan, near-nuclear countries of note include India, Israel, South Africa, Argentina, South Korea, and Taiwan. Several other countries, including Iraq, Iran, Libya, and Brazil, seem to pose proliferation risks in the longer term. More problematic are countries, such as Mexico, that, although they seem to represent little or no proliferation risk themselves, pose difficult problems by challenging restrictions in nuclear export policy. The author examines US policy toward some of the problem countries, paying particular attention to Pakistan. The constants in US policy and the few changes wrought by the Reagan administration are noted throughout

  2. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Strategy For Developing Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Hyo

    1987-01-01

    The world's uranium market is very uncertain at the moment while other front-end fuel cycle services including enrichment show a surplus of supply. Therefore, a current concern of developing countries is how to assure a long-term stable supply of uranium, so far as front-end fuel cycle operation is concerned. So, as for the front-end fuel cycle strategy, I would like to comment only on uranium procurement strategy. I imagine that you are familiar with, yet let me begin my talk by having a look at, the nuclear power development program and current status of fuel cycle technology of developing countries. It is a nice thing to achieve the full domestic control of fuel cycle operation. The surest way to do so is localization of related technology. Nevertheless, developing at a time due to enormous capital requirements, not to mention the non-proliferation restrictions. Therefore, the important which technology to localize prior to other technology and how to implement. The non-proliferation restriction excludes the enrichment and reprocessing technology for the time being. As for the remaining technology the balance between the capital costs and benefits must dictate the determination of the priority as mentioned previously. As a means to reduce the commercial risk and heavy financial burdens, the multi-national joint venture of concerned countries is desirable in implementing the localization projects

  3. Hungary country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uerge-Vorsatz, D.; Fuele, M. [eds.

    1999-09-01

    Hungary recognises the importance of limiting greenhouse gas emissions in order to prevent or mitigate their impact on the global climate. On an international level, Hungary is not a significant carbon dioxide emitter, neither to the absolute degree nor on a per capita basis. This means that the principal reason for Hungarian participation in emission`s reduction is not perceivable international consequences but solidarity and participation in the common action of the countries of the world. Hungary is a signatory to both the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto protocol. However, the (Hungarian) National Environmental Program also emphasises that the fulfilment of international conventions must happen at a level and pace reasonable for Hungary. The goal of this study is to investigate the potentials, costs and implementation strategies of greenhouse gas abatement in Hungary. First presented is a background of Hungary`s economy and a summary of the economic transitions in Hungary. A brief description of the Hungarian energy sector is included, with a short summary of carbon dioxide emissions, and of the Hungarian forestry sector. The following chapter is devoted to the development of baseline scenarios, from bottom-up and top-down perspectives. In the chapter on mitigation, the spectrum of energy efficiency measures in the residential and public sectors is discussed. Fifteen specific measures, whose impact is considered important, are selected and discussed in detail. The cost curves are developed for the discussed mitigation options. Then, we discuss the issues related to the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the Hungarian residential and commercial sectors. After a general background and a framework on the implementation of the energy efficiency measures in the sectors chosen, we elaborate on the practicality of these concepts. As a case study, the concept and the feasibility of carbon/energy taxes are examined. To complete the

  4. Brazilian franchisor: Entry and operation of internationalized franchise

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, Helder de Souza; Luppe, Marcos Roberto; Nascimento, Paulo Tromboni de Souza

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the entry and operations strategies of franchisors of developed countries into foreign countries with Brazilian counterparts. Were there significant differences? An exploratory study was conducted with 16 international franchisors operating in Brazil and 31 Brazilian franchisors operating abroad. The results show that international franchisors operating abroad prefer to use a subsidiary in the destination country. At the same time, this strategy is little used by B...

  5. Nuclear energy for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemery, L.S.

    1980-01-01

    This paper examines the circumstances which must prevail before a reasonable technical, administrative and sociological case can be made to justify the introduction of nuclear power technology to a developing country. The role played by the IAEA in responding to needs of developing countries is considered and problems of nuclear plant safety and materials safeguards discussed. Plans for nuclear power in several developing countries are outlined

  6. Renewable Energy Country Attractiveness Indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    Since 2003 Ernst and Young team has been releasing quarterly data that ranks national renewable energy markets, and their suitability for individual technologies. The Country Attractiveness Indices now track the relative attractiveness of 30 countries' renewable energy markets across a selection of technologies each quarter. The Renewable Energy Country Attractiveness Indices publication scores and comments on various technologies, including: on-shore wind, off-shore wind, solar PV, solar CSP, biomass, and geothermal.

  7. Nuclear medicine in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremenchuzky, S.; Degrossi, O.J.

    1991-01-01

    The economic crisis through which developing countries are passing means that every field of endeavour must adapt to new realities imposed by each particular's country's situation. Public health is no exception, although it is obviously a priority field in view of the repercussions which social and economic phenomena can have on the health of a country's inhabitants. This article briefly considers ways in which nuclear medicine facilities in Argentina may be improved

  8. Culture at the Country Level

    OpenAIRE

    Maseland, R.K.J.; Hoorn, A.A.J. van; Herk, H. van; Torelli, C.J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter introduces and critically discusses the idea of measuring the culture of countries and cross-national differences therein. We start by elaborating the theoretical foundations for studying culture at the country level. We highlight the use of countries or nations as a unit of analysis and pay special attention to the way in which a group-level construct such as culture has implications at lower levels of analysis, affecting the values and beliefs of individuals. After briefly trac...

  9. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest developments in the field of renewables at country level around the world. Each profile combines analysis by IRENA's specialists with the latest available country data and additional information from a wide array of sources. The resulting reports provide a brief yet comprehensive picture of the situation with regard to renewable energy, including energy supply, electrical generation and grid capacity, and access. Energy policies, targets and projects are also considered, along with each country's investment climate and endowment with renewable energy resources. The energy statistics presented here span the period from 2009 until 2012, reflecting varying timelines in the source material. Since data availability differs from country to country, wider regional comparisons are possible only for the latest year with figures available for every country included. Despite the time lag in some cases, the evident differences and disparities between countries and regions around the world remain striking. The current package of country profiles is just a starting point. The geographic scope will continue to expand, and existing profiles will be enhanced with new indicators, with the whole series maintained as a live product on the IRENA website (www.irena.org)

  10. Perceptions of perioperative nursing competence: a cross-country comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Brigid M; Harbeck, Emma B; Falk-Brynhildsen, Karin; Nilsson, Ulrica; Jaensson, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Throughout many countries, professional bodies rely on yearly self-assessment of competence for ongoing registration; therefore, nursing competence is pivotal to safe clinical practice. Our aim was to describe and compare perioperative nurses' perceptions of competence in four countries, while examining the effect of specialist education and years of experience in the operating room. We conducted a secondary analysis of cross-sectional surveys from four countries including; Australia, Canada, Scotland, and Sweden. The 40-item Perceived Perioperative Competence Scale-Revised (PPCS-R), was used with a total sample of 768 respondents. We used a factorial design to examine the influence of country, years of experience in the operating room and specialist education on nurses' reported perceived perioperative competence. Regardless of country origin, nurses with specialist qualifications reported higher perceived perioperative competence when compared to nurses without specialist education. However, cross-country differences were dependent on nurses' number of years of experience in the operating room. Nurses from Sweden with 6-10 years of experience in the operating room reported lower perceived perioperative competence when compared to Australian nurses. In comparing nurses with > 10 years of experience, Swedish nurses reported significantly lower perceived perioperative competence when compared to nurses from Australia, Canada and Scotland. Researchers need to consider educational level and years of experience in the perioperative context when examining constructs such as competence.

  11. Operating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tsichritzis, Dionysios C; Rheinboldt, Werner

    1974-01-01

    Operating Systems deals with the fundamental concepts and principles that govern the behavior of operating systems. Many issues regarding the structure of operating systems, including the problems of managing processes, processors, and memory, are examined. Various aspects of operating systems are also discussed, from input-output and files to security, protection, reliability, design methods, performance evaluation, and implementation methods.Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of what constitutes an operating system, followed by a discussion on the definition and pr

  12. Operational calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Boehme, Thomas K

    1987-01-01

    Operational Calculus, Volume II is a methodical presentation of operational calculus. An outline of the general theory of linear differential equations with constant coefficients is presented. Integral operational calculus and advanced topics in operational calculus, including locally integrable functions and convergence in the space of operators, are also discussed. Formulas and tables are included.Comprised of four sections, this volume begins with a discussion on the general theory of linear differential equations with constant coefficients, focusing on such topics as homogeneous and non-ho

  13. Country programme frameworks. A special evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    As a result of the recommendations of the TC Policy Review Seminar held in 1994 the Department of Technical Co-operation initiated Country Programme Framework (CPF) related activities in early 1995. Draft Guidelines for carrying out the CPF process were issued in February 1995. An agenda was propose for carrying gout the CPF process, which also included field missions to those countries where the information on national programmes and priorities available at the Agency was believed to be insufficient. In December 1995 the Evaluation Section was requested by the TC management to evaluate the approach and the progress achieved to date. The findings and conclusions of this evaluation have been formulated after extensive discussions with both in-house staff and external evaluation consultants. They thus represent a distillation of the views expressed by all. 2 figs, 1 tab

  14. Handbook of nuclear countries 1992/1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, B.

    1992-01-01

    This second edition covers seventy countries, each country record presenting the available information in the following paragraphs: A The peaceful uses of nuclear energy Energy resources and national policy, research centres, research reactors, research projects, nuclear power plants, other peaceful uses of nuclear energy, the nuclear fuel cycle, heavy-water plants, the nuclear industry. B Military uses of nuclear energy national policy, nuclear raw materials, tests, research and production facilities, amounts and types of nuclear weapons, the deployment of and protection against nuclear weapons, non-explosive uses of nuclear energy, waste management. C International trade and co-operation. The Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency is given in the appendix. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Radioactive waste management in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.T.; Baehr, W.; Plumb, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    The activities of the Agency in waste management have therefore laid emphasis on advising developing Member States on the management of wastes from the uses of radioactive materials. At the present time, developing countries are mostly concerned with the management of nuclear wastes generated from medical centres, research institutes, industrial facilities, mining operations, and research reactors. In certain instances, management of such wastes has lapsed causing serious accidents. Radiation source mismanagement has resulted in fatalities to the public in Mexico (1962), Algeria (1978), Morocco (1984), and Brazil (1987). The objective of these activities is to support the countries to develop the required expertise for self-sufficiency in safe management of radioactive wastes. What follows are details of the Agency mechanisms in place to meet the above objectives

  16. Finland country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantamaeki, Karin [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)

    2008-07-01

    Electricity share: 24.9%. Nuclear equipments: Research: 1 TRIGA Mark II; Electricity production: 4 units; Olkiluoto BWR Unit 1 (1979), Unit 2 (1982), 860 MWe (net); Loviisa PWR Unit 1 (1977), Unit 2 (1981), 490 MWe (net). Public acceptance: 43% for increase, 25% for decrease; 24%(61%) of women (men) for increase; 36%(13%) for decrease. Energy policy: new nuclear unit under construction in Olkiluoto (first EPR in the world); 2 environmental impact assessments ready, 1 pending (autumn); 1 decision-in-principle submitted, 2 expected in autumn. Nuclear waste management policy: Low- and intermediate-level wastes disposed of in underground repositories located in the bedrock at 60 to 100 m; Final disposal facility built in Olkiluoto; DiP for facility for fuel from all 5 units ratified by Parliament in 2002; Fuel encapsulated in containers placed in bedrock at 500 m; Deep underground rock characterisation and research facility (ONKALO) is under construction in Olkiluoto (ready in 2010); Excavation started in 2004; Characterisation levels at 420 m (2008) and 520 m (2009); Later used as an access route to the final repository of spent fuel which should be operational in 2020. Nuclear research: Several institutes and groups involved; Annual volume estimated to 200 ppy; Two focus areas: safety and operational performance of power plants, Management and disposal of nuclear waste; Public research in national programs; Nuclear Power Plant Safety SAFIR2010, 2007-2010; Public Research Programme on Nuclear Waste Management KYT2010, 2006-2010; EURATOM-Tekes Fusion Energy Cooperation 2007-2011; Main objective of programs is to provide authorities with high-standard expertise and results; Train new nuclear experts. The construction of the new plant and the high number of experts retiring within next 10 years has increased the needs for new personnel. The new situation also attracts students and young professionals. Nuclear energy education given at 3 universities: - Nuclear

  17. Canada country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrill, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    1 - Nuclear 2007 highlights: New Build Applications and Environmental Assessments (Ontario Power Generation (OPG), Bruce Power, Bruce Power Alberta), Refurbishments (Bruce Power's Bruce A Units 1 and 2 Restart Project, NB Power's Refurbishment of Point Lepreau, New Brunswick, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) NRU 50. Anniversary, expansion of the solid radioactive waste storage facilities at Gentilly-2 nuclear generating station, Ontario Power Generation (OPG) Deep Geologic Repository..); 2. Nuclear overview: a. Energy policy (Future of nuclear power, state of the projects, schedule, Refurbishment), b. Public acceptance, Statements from Government Officials in Canada; c. Nuclear equipment (number and type); d. Nuclear waste management, Deep Geologic Repository; e. Nuclear research at AECL; f. Other nuclear activities (Cameco Corporation, MDS Nordion); 3. Nuclear competencies; 4. WIN 2007 Main Achievements: GIRLS Science Club, Skills Canada, WiN-Canada Web site, Book Launch, WINFO, 2007 WiN-Canada conference 4 - Summary: - 14.6% of Canada's electricity is provided by Candu nuclear reactors; Nuclear equipment: 10 Research or isotope producing reactors - Pool-Type; Slowpoke 2; Sub-Critical assembly; NRU; and Maple; 22 Candu reactors providing electricity production - 18 of which are currently operating. Public acceptance: 41% feel nuclear should play more of a role, 67% support refurbishment, 48% support new build, 13% point gender gap in support, with men supporting more than women. Energy policy: Future of nuclear power - recognition that nuclear is part of the solution across Canada; New Build - 3 applications to regulator to prepare a site for new build, in Provinces of Ontario and Alberta, with one feasibility study underway in New Brunswick; Refurbishment - Provinces of Ontario (2010) and New Brunswick (2009). Nuclear waste management policy: Proposal submitted to regulator to prepare, construct and operate a deep geologic disposal facility in Ontario

  18. Hong Kong: country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fozzard, A

    1988-09-01

    In the 1840s, the small fishing community that is now Hong Kong became a British colony and an important naval base for the Opium Wars. Now it is a leading capitalist center operating on mainland communist China. Hong Kong is scheduled to go back to China in 1997. In the agreement signed between the British government and China, Hong Kong's present lifestyle is guaranteed for at least 50 years. Textbook colonialism rules here. Foreigners hold the key jobs and earn much more than do the indigenous people. They even receive subsidized housing in this very high rent colony. As for the Hong Kong Chinese, overcrowding into 2 room apartments is the norm even though the government tries to provide more housing units. The large skyscrapers in the New Territories breed their unique social and mental health problems, such as poverty, drug abuse and frustration. Essentially all food is imported from communist China, yet agriculture in Hong Kong does exist--pig farms, duck lakes, and fields of the popular vegetable choi sum. Major industry comprise textiles and sweat shops which pay their workers (mostly illegal immigrants and children with no legal protection) wages that are 1/4 of those paid in Great Britain. Financial services, trade, and tourism may soon dominate Hong Kong's economy. Almost 4 million tourists visit Hong Kong yearly, often looking for bargains. Despite Hong Kong's active Western-like business climate, Chinese culture still abounds. Traditional incense burns in Buddhist temples. Snake soup is served in restaurants. Plus traditional medicine practiced alongside Western medicine contributes to Hong Kong having 1 of the lowest infant mortality rates in the world (9/1000) and to its high life expectancy of 76 years.

  19. France country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouillot, Dominique [Onet Technologies, 36, Bd des Oceans 13009 Marseille (France)

    2008-07-01

    Nuclear in France - Electricity share: 78%. Electricity production by Electricite de France: 419 TWh, 63,260 GWe installed. Number of Reactors: 58 NPPs type PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) in operation; One under construction: EPR (European Pressurized Reactor) Flamanville 3, on time. Others nuclear installations: The AREVA NC La Hague fuel treatment and recycling plant - Capacity: 1700 tons (Facilities UP2 and UP3). COMURHEX is number one worldwide in the conversion of uranium mine concentrates into UF{sub 6} and has a processing capacity of 14,000 tonnes of uranium per year. EURODIF Production site, with the construction of the Georges Besse II plant, Centrifugation is the highest performance technology today. Others nuclear installations: MELOX production site - Mox fuel production; FBFC:fuel rods manufacturing; Waste Storage in Surface and Subsurface: The Aube department storage center in Soulaines, which houses short-lived low- to medium-level waste; the VLL storage centre in Morvilliers (Aube), which houses very low-level waste. Public acceptance: An opinion poll published in June 2007, commissioned by the OE (Observatoire de l'Energie) shows that a majority of French people support nuclear. The respondents were asked whether nuclear energy, which produces 78% of total electricity, is an asset: 51% of them backed the idea, 39% a disadvantage, 10% did not have an opinion. Energy policy: The new President Nicolas Sarkozy said that Nuclear energy is necessary for France. (Organisation of so called 'Grenelle of environment'). Projects: EPR Flamanville 3: Due to be commissioned in 2012, Commercial FBR (Fast Breeders reactor) in 2040, EURODIF will ended in 2012 and Georges Besse 2 (centrifugation) should be operational in 2012, Decommissioning of 6 UNGG reactors, Superphenix and Brennillis within 25 years. (estimated at 3 billion Euros). Nuclear waste management policy: The French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) is responsible

  20. Food irradiation for developing countries in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The amount of post-harvest losses of food is considered to be highest on the African continent. As a result, increasing numbers of countries in Africa are suffering from problems of hunger and malnutrition, which range from chronic to acute. Food irradiation could play an important role in reducing the high rate of food losses especially in the case of food grain, root crops and dried food in this continent provided that proper infrastructure to employ this technique could be identified. Irradiation could contribute positively to the safety of food from microbiological and parasitic infection. A panel of experts participated at the round table discussion to assess the potential application of the technology in Africa. Some of the items for which technical feasibility has been established for food irradiation preservation include yams, onions, potatoes, maize, millet, sorghum, cowpeas and other pulses, cocoa beans, spices (pepper) and condiments, meat and poultry, fish and fishery products, animal feed, etc. In considered the local demand, a suitable choice of the type and size of the facility should be made. The design should allow up-grading in both size and automated operation to meet future expansion of the existing facility, but small commercial scale facilities, of low cost, should be considered to start with. Whatever type of equipment chosen, (whether Gamma or Electron Beam) safety, reliability, maintainability, and simplicity of operation should be of major consideration. It is recognized that for a project to be concluded on a reasonable schedule, technology transfer and training should be incorporated into the complete package. In addition back-up technical infrastructure in the country should be strengthened. The effective procedures demonstrated in a number of countries for performing consumer acceptance studies on irradiated foods, should be adopted in a slightly modified form adapted to the different target populations. Such studies should be

  1. Insights from the U.S. department of Energy plant safety evaluation program of VVER and RBMK reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petri, M.C.; Binder, J.L.; Pasedag, W.F.

    2001-01-01

    Throughout the years 1990 the U.S. Department of Energy has worked build capability in countries of the former Soviet Union to assess the safety of their VVER and RBMK reactors. Through this Plant Safety Evaluation Program, deterministic and probabilistic analyses have been used to provide a documented plant risk profile to support safe plant operation and to set priorities for safety upgrades. Work has been sponsored at thirteen nuclear power plant sites in eight countries. The Plant Safety Evaluation Program has resulted in immediate and long-term safety benefits for the Soviet-designed nuclear plants. (author)

  2. Do all countries grow alike?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J. W. B.; Economidou, C.; Koetter, M.; Kolari, J. W.

    This paper investigates the driving forces of output change in 77 countries during the period 1970-2000. A flexible modeling strategy is adopted that accounts for (i) the inefficient use of resources, and (ii) different production technologies across countries. The proposed model can identify

  3. Ukraine : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    The main objectives of the country procurement assessment are to diagnose the public procurement system in Ukraine, assess compatibility of the country's laws, policies and procedures with international best practices, review compliance with the procurement laws and regulations and identify areas for improvement of the procurement system in Ukraine. With due recognition of the considerable...

  4. Rural poverty in transition countries

    OpenAIRE

    Macours, K; Swinnen, Jo

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses new poverty data based on household level surveys to analyze changes in rural poverty and rural-urban poverty differences in 23 transition countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the firmer Soviet Union. The paper presents a series of hypotheses to explain differences across countries and changes over time.

  5. Natural gas in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holwerda, B.

    1998-01-01

    Everywhere in the world plans are being made to stimulate the natural gas industry in developing countries. High investment costs are the biggest problem almost everywhere. Even countries with a closed economy realize that they do not get far without foreign capital. Cases are presented for Africa, Pakistan, and Indonesia

  6. Energy problems in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasugi, Hirosaburo [Japan Industrial Tech. Association, Tokyo, Japan

    1989-06-20

    In order to rid the people's living of poverty in developing countries, first, the production of food has been planned to increase. And then, resource development and industrialization have been tried to improve with efforts. Because of such development and an increase in population, energy consumption has been increasing. Advanced countries have supported these countries in many ways, however, there is much difference in their assistance depend on various situations such as racial, religious, and political ones. Moreover, a gap between cities and farm villages has widen since infrastructure has not been fully equipped in developing countries. The electrification ratio is used as an index to show the degree of development in developing countries. It is low in the countries where development is lagging, particularly in farm villages. This gap is an urgent problem that faces developing countries. In order to cope with the actual conditions, advanced countries including Japan should be plan to reinforce their technological and economic assistance more suitable for farm villages. Furthermore, they should also improve the assistance system which includes a measure for environmental pollution control, considering the spot directly. 3 figs., 14 tabs.

  7. Photovoltaic marketing in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muntasser, M.A.; Bara, M.F.; Quadri, H.A.; El-Tarabelsi, R.; La-azebi, I.F.

    2000-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) insolation-harnessing is acknowledged as the most practical economic solution to meet the requirements of one hundred million people without electricity in the developing countries. Industrialised countries in particular, have been active in utilising such technologies because they can afford the current peak watt prices of US $3-15 for such systems. The market in those countries will soon be close to saturation and attention by suppliers will have to be shifted to the already established larger market in less developed countries (LDCs). PV marketing in these developing countries, i.e. ability to penetrate the potential market, is facing tremendous hurdles. This paper reviews the present status and future directions of the PV market in developing countries as well as discusses the current technical, social, financial or geopolitical barriers and constraints, which are in line with the trends in the world. The paper concludes by making a global policy package proposal, in terms of an appeal on the global community concerned with PV to propagate proposal, in terms of an appeal on the global community concerned with PV to propagate this proposal more convincingly, perhaps to emanate from an internationally recognised 'forum', like a PV conference and exhibition, with cooperation and participation of PV manufacturers, suppliers, industrialised countries, NGOs, financial institutions and developing countries. (Author)

  8. Globalization : Countries, Cities and Multinationals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip; Acs, Zoltan J.

    2011-01-01

    McCann P. and Acs Z. J. Globalization: countries, cities and multinationals, Regional Studies. This paper explores the relationship between the size of a country, the size of its cities, and the importance of economies of scale in the modern era of globalization. In order to do this, it integrates

  9. Business ethics in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. Rossouw

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Underlying this paper is the conviction that it is of the utmost importance that business ethics should indeed become an integral part of business culture in all, and therefore also in developing countries. It is not to be denied that business ethics has to a much larger extent become pari of the business culture' in developed countries than in developing countries. The primary aim of this paper is to provide an explanation for the fact that business ethics is fighting an uphill battle in becoming pari of the business culture in developing countries. Secondly, a thumbnail sketch is given of the preconditions that have to be fulfilled in order to stimulate the development of a moral business culture in developing countries. In order to achieve these goals I will focus mainly on Africa, and more specifically on South Africa.

  10. Developing countries inclined to nuclear energy. Advent of newcomer countries age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masaharu

    2017-01-01

    Although a certain degree of braking was applied to the nuclear power development of the world after the accident of TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in 2011, many countries maintain the attitude of promoting nuclear power from the viewpoints of global environmental issues and energy security. This paper overviews the trends of nuclear power generation around the world, and then introduces the nuclear power situation of the nuclear power generation countries such as Finland, Germany, Switzerland, Ukraine, Argentina, and Taiwan. In Germany, nuclear departure policy since before the Fukushima Daiichi accident was accelerated, and the nuclear phase-out law was passed and put into force in August 2011. This paper also introduces the nuclear development trends in the newly introducing countries of United Arab Emirates (UAE), Belarus, Bangladesh, Turkey, Vietnam, and Saudi Arabia. Iran's first Bushehr No.1 unit began operation in 2013, and in the future United Arab Emirates will join in 2018 and Belarus will join 2019 as the nuclear power generation country. In the 2020s, several more countries are expected to newly join. (A.O.)

  11. Financing nuclear programmes in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, N.C.

    1977-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: the implications for a developing nation's economy of acquiring nuclear plants with the attendant high capital cost but low operating cost; political factors and safeguards provisions; turnkey versus non-turnkey contracts; spreading exchange and other risks through multi-national consortia; maximising local content; cash flow considerations; availability of aid or other direct government to government loans; packaging of export finance from different countries; downpayments and local costs; eurodollar markets, bank syndications and bond issues, and domestic markets; available security, central bank or government guarantees; special considerations, barter deals, leasing, and finance for the fuel cycle

  12. Financing nuclear programmes in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, N.C.

    1977-01-01

    The paper discusses the following topics: The implications for a developing nation's economy of acquiring nuclear plants with the attendant high capital cost but low operating cost; political factors and safeguards provisions; turnkey versus non-turnkey contracts; spreading exchange and other risks through multi-national consortia; maximizing local content; cash flow considerations; availability of aid or other direct government to government loans; packaging of export finance from different countries; downpayments and local costs; Eurodollar markets, bank syndications and bond issues, domestic markets; available security, central bank or government guarantees; special considerations, barter deals, leasing; and finance for the fuel cycle. (author)

  13. Water Loss Management: Tools and Methods for Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mutikanga, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    Water utilities in developing countries are struggling to provide customers with a reliable level of service due to their peculiar water distribution characteristics including poorly zoned networks with irregular supply operating under restricted budgets. These unique conditions demand unique tools and methods for water loss control. Water loss management: Tools and Methods for Developing Countries provide a decision support toolbox (appropriate tools and methodologies) for assessing, quantif...

  14. Radiation protection and atomic energy legislation in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    1987-01-01

    The radiation protection and atomic energy laws of the Nordic countries Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden are presented in this report in their status of March 1, 1984. As a background to this legislation the Nordic co-operation is briefly reviewed and the common basis for the legal texts is given. Some historical remarks for the legislation of each country are included. (orig./HP)

  15. Present and future of bioleaching in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo, Fernando

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays bioleaching occupies an increasingly important place among the available mining technologies. Today bioleaching is no longer a promising technology but an actual economical alternative for treating specific mineral ores. An important number of the current large-scale bioleaching operations are located in developing countries. This situation is determined by the fact that several developing countries have significant mineral reserves and by the characteristics of bioleaching that make...

  16. Victim countries of transnational terrorism: an empirical characteristics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbakidze, Levan; Jin, Yanhong

    2012-12-01

    This study empirically investigates the association between country-level socioeconomic characteristics and risk of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. We find that a country's annual financial contribution to the U.N. general operating budget has a positive association with the frequency of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. In addition, per capita GDP, political freedom, and openness to trade are nonlinearly related to the frequency of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Spacecraft operations

    CERN Document Server

    Sellmaier, Florian; Schmidhuber, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The book describes the basic concepts of spaceflight operations, for both, human and unmanned missions. The basic subsystems of a space vehicle are explained in dedicated chapters, the relationship of spacecraft design and the very unique space environment are laid out. Flight dynamics are taught as well as ground segment requirements. Mission operations are divided into preparation including management aspects, execution and planning. Deep space missions and space robotic operations are included as special cases. The book is based on a course held at the German Space Operation Center (GSOC).

  18. Gas Transit Tariffs in Selected ECT Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    One of the strategic aims of the Energy Charter process is to promote and facilitate efficient and uninhibited transit of energy materials and products across the ECT constituency. The Energy Charter process has recently been focusing its attention on the issues related to the transit of natural gas due to the increasing reliance on gas imports into Europe and other regions from more distant sources and across more borders. The transit tariffs (including their levels, structures and associated conditions) are, in addition to the terms of access to the transit infrastructure, one of the key factors affecting the cross-border gas flows. The main objectives of this study are to: review transit tariff methodologies for existing and new gas transit pipeline systems across selected ECT countries; compare transit tariff regimes for gas with those for domestic gas transport in the same countries; and assess the overall consistency of these transit tariffs with main provisions of ECT and draft Transit Protocol. The scope of this study is limited to transit tariffs for natural gas. Furthermore the study does not address the issue of access to gas pipelines which sometimes is a more important hurdle for gas flows than the levels of transit tariffs. Geographically, the study covers the following key gas transit countries: EU-25 plus Switzerland, and Non-EU: Belarus, Bulgaria, Georgia, Morocco, Tunisia, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Chapter 3 describes the existing flows of gas trade and transit across the ECT countries and points out potential deviations between physical and contractual flows. Chapter 4 reviews the theoretical approaches used for setting transit tariffs, including: Typical costs for new gas pipelines: construction costs, financing, operation and maintenance costs, country/project risks and their impact on costs; Valuation approaches for existing pipelines; and Treatment of system expansion. Chapter 5 compares the theory and the practice by describing

  19. Management of radioactive wastes in developing countries: Growing needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.T.

    1992-01-01

    Wide variations in the development and use of nuclear energy are evident in developing countries. A few have or are pursuing partial or complete nuclear fuel cycle activities. Eleven developing countries have nuclear power plants with a total installed capacity of 8600 megawatts-electric (MWe). Because of the increasing demand for electrical energy, more developing countries would like to have nuclear power. But most of them are constrained by lack of finances and technical expertise. Some have research reactors, and a few have uranium mining and milling operations. Most developing countries are using nuclear energy for applications in fields of medicine, agriculture, industry, and research. From all these uses, radioactive waste is produced that must be managed safely and efficiently. Increasingly in recent years, countries have turned to the IAEA for technical assistance and waste management services to address serious problems they are facing. 1 map

  20. Language Differences and Operation Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dasi, Angels; Pedersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    Language serves different purposes depending on the international activity in question. Language has many dimensions and firms’ communicative requirements vary by operational platform. We argue that different dimensions of language vary in their importance depending on the operation mode chosen...... for a foreign market, so that language distance matters in the case of a home-based sales force, while language incidence is key when operating through a local agent. The hypotheses are tested on a large data set encompassing 462 multinational corporations headquartered in Finland, South Korea, New Zealand......, and Sweden that have undertaken a business operation in a foreign country....

  1. Wood biomass gasification: Technology assessment and prospects in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvadego, C.

    1992-05-01

    This investigation of the technical-economic feasibility of the development and use of wood biomass gasification plants to help meet the energy requirements of developing countries covers the following aspects: resource availability and production; gasification technologies and biomass gasification plant typology; plant operating, maintenance and safety requirements; the use of the biomass derived gas in internal combustion engines and boilers; and the nature of energy requirements in developing countries. The paper concludes with a progress report on biomass gasification research programs being carried out in developing countries world-wide

  2. Alcohol fuels for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Partha

    1993-01-01

    The importance of alcohol as an alternative fuel has been slowly established. In countries such as Brazil, they are already used in transport and other sectors of economy. Other developing countries are also trying out experiments with alcohol fuels. Chances of improving the economy of many developing nations depends to a large extent on the application of this fuel. The potential for alcohol fuels in developing countries should be considered as part of a general biomass-use strategy. The final strategies for the development of alcohol fuel will necessarily reflect the needs, values, and conditions of the individual nations, regions, and societies that develop them. (author). 5 refs

  3. Business Cycles in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2002-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that developing countries differ considerably from their developed counterparts when focus is on the nature and characteristics of short run macroeconomic fluctuations. Cycles are generally shorter, and the stylized facts of business cycles across countries are more diverse...... than those of the rather uniform industrialized countries. Supply-side models are generally superior in explaining changes in output, but a “one-size fits all” approach in formulating policy is inappropriate. Our results also illustrate the critical importance of understanding business regularities...

  4. Absenteeism in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Jensen, Troels Wendelboe

    2007-01-01

    and Sweden. Employees working in the public sector, more specific the municipalities, have a higher level of absence compared to the private sector. According to the personal characteristics, women are more absent than men in all Nordic countries, but the effect of age differs according to the country...... in question. If the manager however is a woman and the employee likewise, then the level of absence is higher in Denmark, Norway and Finland compared to the other gender constellations. Originality/value - Because of the lack of international comparative studies of absenteeism in the Nordic countries...

  5. Analysis of Public Sector Efficiency in Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Lovre

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The public sector in developed countries went through various forms of transformation in the twentieth century. The expansion of the public sector resulted in high levels of public spending in developed countries. The financial crisis of 2008 led to recessions in the economies of developed countries, the public debt growth, and actualized the issue of the public sector optimal size and efficiency. This study analysed the public sector efficiency in 19 developed countries. The analysis focuses on the relationship between the size of public expenditure and economic growth in the global financial crisis and the measures implemented. The aim of the research in this paper is a comparison of total and partial efficiency of the public sector in developed countries, in order to determine the characteristics of the public sector operations. The comparison covers the areas of the public sector operations in order to identify sources of inefficiency. Partial and overall efficiency of countries are analysed with different size and concept of the public sector, to determine the relationship between the public sector size, efficiency and welfare of citizens. The research results clearly indicate (unjustified state intervention in developed countries.

  6. Operator substitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hautus, M.L.J.

    1994-01-01

    Substitution of an operator into an operator-valued map is defined and studied. A Bezout-type remainder theorem is used to derive a number of results. The tensor map is used to formulate solvability conditions for linear matrix equations. Some applications to system theory are given, in particular

  7. Operation amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetsuya, Saito; Nauta, Bram

    2008-01-01

    To provide an operation amplifier which improves power source voltage removal ratios while assuring phase compensation characteristics, and therefore can be realized with a small-scale circuit and low power consumption. SOLUTION: The operation amplifier comprises: a differential amplifier circuit 1;

  8. Operation Amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetsuya, Saito; Nauta, Bram

    2011-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an operation amplifier which improves power source voltage removal ratios while assuring phase compensation characteristics, and therefore can be realized with a small-scale circuit and low power consumption. SOLUTION: The operation amplifier comprises: a

  9. Operation Amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetsuya, S.; Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an operation amplifier which improves power source voltage removal ratios while assuring phase compensation characteristics, and therefore can be realized with a small-scale circuit and low power consumption. ; SOLUTION: The operation amplifier comprises: a

  10. Accelerator operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Operations of the SuperHILAC, the Bevatron/Bevalac, and the 184-inch Synchrocyclotron during the period from October 1977 to September 1978 are discussed. These include ion source development, accelerator facilities, the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System, and Bevelac biomedical operations

  11. Country policy profile - Romania. April 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-04-01

    According to the Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the European Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources the target for the share of energy from renewable sources in gross final energy consumption in the year 2020 for Romania is 24%, whereas in 2012 it reached 21,3%. The Romanian renewable electricity promotion relies primarily on a quota system. Grid operators are obliged to develop their grids on the request of a plant operator, if the connection of a plant to the grid requires so. Romania has certain policies pertaining to renewable energy like training programmes for RES installers and on enhancing the development of RES-H infrastructure. This report monitors the policy changes after the release of the 2013 Progress Report for Romania and is regularly updated. In recent months, no significant change in country's RES policies has been reported

  12. Country policy profile - Romania. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    According to the Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the European Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources the target for the share of energy from renewable sources in gross final energy consumption in the year 2020 for Romania is 24%, whereas in 2012 it reached 21,3%. The Romanian renewable electricity promotion relies primarily on a quota system. Grid operators are obliged to develop their grids on the request of a plant operator, if the connection of a plant to the grid requires so. Romania has certain policies pertaining to renewable energy like training programmes for RES installers and on enhancing the development of RES-H infrastructure. This report monitors the policy changes after the release of the 2013 Progress Report for Romania and is regularly updated. In recent months, no significant change in country's RES policies has been reported

  13. Is debt replacing equity in regulated privatized infrastructure in developing countries?

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, Luis Correia; Estache, Antonio; Jarvela, Sakari

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to describe the evolution of the financing structure of regulated privatized utilities and transport companies. To do so, the authors rely on a sample of 121 utilities distributed over 16 countries, and 23 transport infrastructure operators and 23 transport services operators distributed over 23 countries. They show that leverage rates vary significantly a...

  14. Hanaro operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Bok; Jeon, Byung Jin; Kwack, Byung Ho

    1997-01-01

    HANARO was configurated its first operating core in 1995. Long term operation test was conducted up to 3-1 cycle during 1996, in order to investigate the reactor characteristics due to fuel depletion and additional fuel loading. Now HANARO has accumulated 168.4 days of total operation time and 2,687.5 MWD of total thermal output. Reactor analysis, producing operation datum and its validation with test, periodic inspection and maintenance of the facility are continuously conducted for safe operation of the HANARO. Conducted the verification tests for installed utilization facilities, and successfully performed the radiation emergency drill. The shutdown report of TRIGA Mark II and III was submitted to MOST, and decommissioning will be started from 1997. (author). 70 tabs., 50 figs., 27 refs

  15. BWR and ABWR operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Kimio; Takayama, Yoshito; Shimizu, Shunichi

    1998-01-01

    The first commercial operation of a nuclear power plant in Japan was in 1969. At present, there are 52 nuclear power plants operating in the country, accounting for about 35% of the total electricity generated and about 20 % of the total capacity of electricity generation facilities in Japan. Moreover, Japan has had the highest facility utilization rate, which is an indicator of operational safety, among the top four nuclear-generation countries (U.S.A., France, Germany, and Japan) every year since 1993, and has maintained a utilization rate of more than 80% since 1995. Toshiba has supported plant operation and maintenance in 19 nuclear power plants. The overall facility utilization rate of these plants attained a record of 86.4% in fiscal 1996. Furthermore, the averaged rates over the past three fiscal years from 1995 to 1997 have been the highest in the world among plant constructors such as GE, WH, and Siemens. (author)

  16. Progress in the developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simnad, M.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear programmes in selective developing countries are briefly discussed. The oil rich countries of Iraq, Libya and Iran all have reactors on order. Turkey has decided to purchase a PWR from the USSR and Egypt's programme anticipates a capacity of 6600 MWe by 2000. The current projections for India are 6000 MWe by 1990 and 20,000 MWe by 2000. The progress of Pakistan, South Korea and other Asian countries are discussed. The predicted growth in reactors and population in Latin America is considered - 17 reactors presently planned for a population of 340 million and 18-57 possible additions in 2000 for an estimated population of 600 million. The role of the IAEA and experience of some Western countries in technology transfer is discussed with the ambitious Spanish nuclear power programme and the experience of Argentina in purchasing Candu reactors. (author)

  17. social protection for developing countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicola Smit

    challenges of informal economy workers in developing countries. This view. 5 ibid. ..... in the informal economy – an international and regional perspective” 2007 4 TSAR 700-715. ..... management – should be improved. In South Africa the ...

  18. Nuclear power in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    A few of the essential issues which arise when we consider nuclear power and development together in the context of energy policy are discussed. Ethical concerns must ultimately be expressed through policies and their impact on people. There are ethical issues associated with nuclear power in the developing countries which deserve our attention. Four aspects of the question of nuclear power in developing countries are considered: their energy situation; the characteristics of nuclear power which are relevant to them; whether developing countries will undertake nuclear power programmes; and finally the ethical implications of such programmes. It is concluded that what happens in developing countries will depend more on the ethical nature of major political decisions and actions than on the particular technology they use to generate their electricity. (LL)

  19. Explaining nascent entrepreneurship across countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Thurik (Roy); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander); P. Reynolds (Paul)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper aims at explaining cross-country variation in nascent entrepreneurship. Regression analysis is applied using various explanatory variables derived from three different approaches. We make use of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor database, including nascent entrepreneurship

  20. Prospects and constraints for nuclear power in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polliart, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    Despite the interest in nuclear power and the IAEA's active assistance programme, only five developing countries (Argentina, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, India, Pakistan) have nuclear plants in operation. The combined net output of these plants is about 2,000 MWe. Twelve other developing countries have nuclear power reactors under construction, ordered or planned for operation by 1985. The net output of those under construction amounts to 17,200 MWe while the ordered or planned reactors will generate an additional 10,300 MWe. (orig./RW) [de

  1. How “Space” and “Place” Influence Subsidiary Host Country Political Embeddedness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klopf, Patricia; Nell, Phillip Christopher

    2018-01-01

    As a part of multinational corporations (MNCs), subsidiaries operate in distinct host countries and have to deal with their external context. Host country political embeddedness, in particular, helps subsidiaries to obtain knowledge and understanding of the regulatory and political context, and t......: the impact of distance is stronger for subsidiaries that operate in host countries with low governance quality and low political stability in place....

  2. Child labour in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořáková, Pavla

    2014-01-01

    Child labour in developing countries Abstract This bachelor thesis deals with the child labour and its occurence in developing countries. The main aim is to present the basic view of this problem. The term of child labour relies here on Convention on the Rights of the Child and conventions of International Labour Organization. There are several types of child labour, in which children appear most, including the worst forms of child labour. Every type includes description of activities perform...

  3. Operational Gaming: An International Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Stahl, I.

    1983-01-01

    Operational gaming involves several people interacting in a simulation of a real-world problem for the purpose of aiding decision making, planning or policy implementation. Contributors to this first book on international aspects of the subject are leading gaming experts from the United States, (including Martin Shubik and Richard Duke), Western Europe, and Japan as well as from the Soviet Union and other socialist countries. It includes such topics as the use of operational gaming in pr...

  4. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  5. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  6. Reactor physics needs in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solanilla, R.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of this paper the identification of needs on Reactor Physics in developing countries embarked in the installation and later on in the operation of Commercial Nuclear Power Plants. In this context the main task of Reactor Physics should be focused in the application of Physical models with inclusion of thermohydraulic process to solve the various realistic problems which appear to ensure a safe, economical and reliable core design and reactor operation. The first part of the paper deals with the scope of Reactor Physics and its interrelation with other disciplines as seen from the view point of developing countries possibilities. Needs requiring a quick response, i.e., those demands coming during the development of a specific Nuclear Power Plant Project, are summarized in the second part of the lecture. Plant startup has been chosen as reference to separate two categories of requirements: Requirements prior to startup phase include reactor core verification, licensing aspects review and study of fuel utilization alternatives; whereas the period during and after startup mainly embraces codes checkup and normalization, core follow-up and long term prediction

  7. Reactor operation

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, J

    2013-01-01

    Reactor Operation covers the theoretical aspects and design information of nuclear reactors. This book is composed of nine chapters that also consider their control, calibration, and experimentation.The opening chapters present the general problems of reactor operation and the principles of reactor control and operation. The succeeding chapters deal with the instrumentation, start-up, pre-commissioning, and physical experiments of nuclear reactors. The remaining chapters are devoted to the control rod calibrations and temperature coefficient measurements in the reactor. These chapters also exp

  8. Operator programs and operator processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Walters, P.

    2003-01-01

    We define a notion of program which is not a computer program but an operator program: a detailed description of actions performed and decisions taken by a human operator (computer user) performing a task to achieve a goal in a simple setting consisting of that user, one or more computers and a

  9. Regulatory difficulties in a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, W.R. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The regulatory agency assigned the task of regulating the initial entry into the field of nuclear power generation by a developing country has a very difficult job. Based on the authors' experience during the start-up and initial operation of Ko-Ri Unit I, the first power reactor in the Republic of Korea, observations on regulatory difficulties and recommendations for improved regulatory effectiveness are offered. The problem areas can be loosely grouped into three general categories: (1) Lack of adequate technical knowledge which is the basis for all effective regulation; (2) Difficulties with understanding and utilization of the required regulatory documentation; (3) Failure to establish the proper regulatory environment. Examples are cited from actual experience during the Ko-Ri Unit I start-up to demonstrate the impact that regulatory activities can have on a plant construction and testing programme. The problems encountered are not unique to developing countries but also exist in the United States of America. Recommendations are offered which should be beneficial to either newly formed regulatory agencies or agencies wishing to improve their abilities and effectiveness. These include: (1) Additional training of regulatory inspectors in plant operations; (2) Additional experience gained by participation in regulatory activities in other countries; (3) Increased attention given to regulatory documents, especially plant technical specifications; (4) Establishment of formal lines of communication between the utility and the regulatory agency; (5) Clear definition of regulatory responsibilities to avoid areas of overlapping jurisdiction; (6) Active participation by the regulatory staff very early in the project. It is hoped that these and other recommendations offered will greatly improve regulatory effectiveness and at the same time demonstrate that when the decision is made to 'go nuclear', a strong commitment must be made to develop and support a technically

  10. Operator theory

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    A one-sentence definition of operator theory could be: The study of (linear) continuous operations between topological vector spaces, these being in general (but not exclusively) Fréchet, Banach, or Hilbert spaces (or their duals). Operator theory is thus a very wide field, with numerous facets, both applied and theoretical. There are deep connections with complex analysis, functional analysis, mathematical physics, and electrical engineering, to name a few. Fascinating new applications and directions regularly appear, such as operator spaces, free probability, and applications to Clifford analysis. In our choice of the sections, we tried to reflect this diversity. This is a dynamic ongoing project, and more sections are planned, to complete the picture. We hope you enjoy the reading, and profit from this endeavor.

  11. Operation Starvation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mason, Gerald

    2002-01-01

    More than 1,250,000 tons of shipping was sunk or damaged in the last five months of World War II when Twenty-first Bomber Command executed an aerial mining campaign against Japan known as Operation STARVATION...

  12. Peace Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Proks, Josef

    2000-01-01

    Peace operations are more and more important in the contemporary world. The end of the Cold War increased not only possibilities of solving disputes by the international community but also by the number and diversity of threats and issues...

  13. Operator training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirstad, J.

    1983-12-01

    The traditional operator job is changing, which among other things has generated a need for better job training. Surprisingly increased process automation has lead to increased operator qualifications, i.e. basic job training but also up-date and rehearsal training within certain fixed intervals. There are several, similar models for instructional system development available in the literature. One model which is of special interest integrates Operator Training development and Man-Machine Interfaces development. The extent to which Systematic Operator Training has been implemented varies with branches and companies. The nuclear power branch is given as an example in the report. This branch probably represents something better than the average among the process industries.(author)

  14. Operative Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Højlund, Holger

    2012-01-01

    educational goals, learning content, or value clarification. Health pedagogy is often a matter of retrospective rationalization rather than the starting point of planning. Health and risk behaviour approaches override health educational approaches. Conclusions: Operational links between health education......, health professionalism, and management strategies pose the foremost challenge. Operational links indicates cooperative levels that facilitate a creative and innovative effort across traditional professional boundaries. It is proposed that such links are supported by network structures, shared semantics...

  15. Pharmacovigilance activities in ASEAN countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwankesawong, Wimon; Dhippayom, Teerapon; Tan-Koi, Wei-Chuen; Kongkaew, Chuenjid

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the current landscape and identify challenges of pharmacovigilance (PV) among Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. This cross-sectional survey collected data from May 2014 to December 2015. Questionnaires seeking to collect information on resources, processes, roles and responsibility, and functions of PV systems were sent to relevant persons in the ASEAN countries. Functions of PV centers were measured using the minimum World Health Organization requirements for a functional national PV system. Performances of PV centers were measured by the following: (1) the indicators related to the average number of individual case safety reports (ICSR); (2) presence of signal detection activities and subsequent action; and (3) contribution to the global vigilance database. Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam completed the survey. PV systems in four surveyed countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand) achieved all aspects of the World Health Organization minimum requirement for a functional national PV system; the remaining countries were deemed to have unclear communication strategies and/or no official advisory committee. Average numbers of recent ICSR national returns ranged from 7 to 3817 reports/year/million population; three countries (Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand) demonstrated good performance in reporting system and reported signal detection activities and subsequent actions. All participating countries had submitted ICSRs to the Uppsala Monitoring Center during the survey period (2013-2015). Four participating countries had functional PV systems. PV capacity, functionality, and legislative framework varied depending on local healthcare ecosystem networks. Implementing effective communication strategies and/or technical assistance from the advisory committee are needed to strengthen PV in ASEAN. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright

  16. Measuring green productivity of country: A generlized metafrontier Malmquist productivity index approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu-Ying Lin, Eugene; Chen, Ping-Yu; Chen, Chi-Chung

    2013-01-01

    This paper measures environmental productivity in 70 countries over the period 1981–2007. Differences in green (environmental) productivity growth across countries under distinct country specific production frontier are measured using directional distance function model, which incorporates desirable output (GDP) and undesirable output (CO 2 emissions). The metafrontier which envelops the two country groups, developed countries and developing countries, are estimated using balanced panel data for the sample countries over the study period. A parametric method is used to compute technical efficiency change, technical change, and scale efficiency change, which aggregate to the generalized metafrontier Malmquist productivity index. The overall results indicated the two country groups operated under distinct stochastic production frontiers and therefore used different production technologies. It is found that developing countries achieved higher growth in their average environmental productivity relative to the metafrontier. Thus the results coincide with the convergence growth theory

  17. Republic of Venezuela. Country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, R

    1985-06-01

    Venezuela's current economic and demographic situation is described. Venezuela is a major oil country, and the oil industry accounts for 90% of the country's foreign exchange, 70% of the government's revenues, and 15% of the gross domestic product. The economy experienced a sudden and high rate of economic growth in the mid-1970s as a result of high oil prices; however, in recent years, declining oil prices have had a negative effect on the economy. The country is now faced with a serious trade deficit, and the government recently imposed restrictions on imports. Imports in recently years had increased markedly. The emphasis on the oil industry weakened the agricultural sector and, as a result, food imports increased. In addition, the rapid economic growth experienced during the 1970s greatly increased the demand for imported consumer goods. Venezuela has the 4th highest foreign debt in the world (US$35 billion). Despite these problems Venezuela has a relatively high per capita income (US$4,140) and living standard, compared to other countries in the region. Venezuela's total population is 14.6 million, and the population is unevenly distributed. 86% of the population lives in cities of 2500 or more. 37.4% of the population and 70% of the industry is concentrated in the Federal District which contains Caracas, and in the surrounding states of Aragua, Miranda, and Carabobo. This area constitutes only 2.36% of the country's territory. Most of the oil fields are located in the state of Zulia which also contains the country's 2nd largest city (Maracaibo). The country's coastal area contains most of the agricultural lands, and the prairies just south of the coastal mountain ranges are devoted primarily to cattle raising. The remaining 58.2% of the country's territory is essentially jungle and contains only 6.9% of the country's population. The annual population growth rate is 3.11%. Although the rate declined in recent years it is higher than in most of the other

  18. FOOD SECURITY SITUATION OF SELECTED HIGHLY DEVELOPED COUNTRIES AGAINST DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Pawlak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the food security situation in selected highly developed countries and to identify consumption disparities between them and developing countries. The research is based on the data from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, the Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat, the United Nations Statistics Division, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD, World Food Programme (WFP and selected measures used by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU for the construction of the Global Food Security Index. It has been showed that to the greatest extent the problem of maintaining food security occur in developing countries which are characterised by low per capita income, while in developed countries the scale of hunger is marginal and it afflicts less than 1% of the population. On a regional scale the daily dietary energy supply is greater than the minimum dietary energy requirement in all regions of the world, but the extent to which the dietary needs are satisfied increases along with the increase in national income. In order to reduce the problem of hunger it is necessary to solve the problem of asymmetrical distribution of global income, e.g. by taking actions to accelerate the economic growth in less developed regions and increase the purchasing power of the population.

  19. Export opportunities in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, J.

    1992-01-01

    Developing countries will offer major opportunities to US exporters of energy and related environmental equipment in the next ten years. These opportunities arise because the markets in developing countries will be growing much faster than those in the developed countries during this period, and because these countries will not in most cases have strong domestic manufacturers to compete against. US technologies will help these countries solve their energy, environmental, and economic development problems, and help the US solve its serious trade balance problems. This market will represent over $200 billion between now and 2000. There are, however, many potential problems. These include a lack of focus and coordination among US government trade assistance organizations, a lack of interest on the part of US firms in exporting and an unwillingness to make the needed investments, barriers put up by the governments of potential foreign customers, and strong international competition. This paper describes how the United States Agency for International Development's (A.I.D.) Office of Energy and other US agencies are helping US firms resolve these problems with a comprehensive program of information, trade promotion assistance, and co-funding of feasibility studies. In addition, there are monies available to match unfair concessionary financing offered by our major competitors

  20. Pharmaceutical policies in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Pedro Pita

    2010-01-01

    Pharmaceutical expenditures have an important role in Europe. The attempts to control expenditure have used a wide range of policy measures. We reviewed the main measures adopted by the European Union countries, especially in countries where governments are the largest third-party payers. To complement a literature review on the topic, data was gathered from national reviews of health systems and direct inquiries to several government bodies. Almost all countries regulate prices of pharmaceutical products. Popular policy measures include international referencing to set prices (using as benchmark countries that have set lower prices), internal reference pricing systems to promote price competition in domestic markets, and positive lists for reimbursement to promote consumption of generics (including in some cases substitution by pharmacists of drugs prescribed by physicians). Despite the wide range of policy measures, it is not possible to identify a "silver bullet" to control pharmaceutical expenditures. We also identified two main policy challenges: policy coordination among countries within the European Union to maintain incentives for R&D at the global level, and the development of new relationships with the pharmaceutical industry; namely, the so-called risk-sharing agreements between the pharmaceutical industry and governments/regulators (or large third-party payers).

  1. International co-operation in the field of operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.C.

    1988-10-01

    Operational safety in nuclear power plants is without doubt a field where international co-operation is in constant progress. Accounting for over 80 per cent of the 400 reactors in service throughout the world, the menber countries of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) are constantly striving to improve the exchange and use of the wealth of information to be gained not just from power plant accidents and incidents but from the routine operation of these facilities. The Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) helps the Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy to meet the NEA's objectives in the safety field, namely: - to promote co-operation between the safety bodies of member countries - to contribute to the safety and regulation of nuclear activities. The CSNI relies on the technical back-up of several different working groups made up of experts appointed by the member countries. For the past three years I have had the honour of chairing Principal Working Group 1 (PWG 1), which deals with operating experience and human factor. It is in this capacity that I will attempt to outline the group's various activities and its findings illustrated by a few examples

  2. GRS current activities in East-European countries overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teske, H.; Janke, R.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the following items: agreement between the Federal Government and Utility Companies about the future utilization of the existing nuclear power plants in Germany, June 2001; GRS current activities in the Eastern European countries; science-technical co-operation with Russia; assessment of safety significance of the events for German NPP; Leningrad in-depth safety assessment, co-operation SEC NRS and GRS

  3. BANKS IN TRANSITION COUNTRIES AS ONE OF MOST ATTRACTIVE INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Dedi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this paper is to analyze the banking sector in transition countries in Central and Eastern Europe, and identify bank’s potential as an investment in the globalized environment. The primary hypothesis is that banking sector is one of the most attractive investment areas in transition countries. In the comparison with financial systems of G7 and other growth countries, the financial industry in transition countries shows significant potential for future growth and development. Operating as universal bank with acquired position in financial supervisory bodies banks can easy control and slows down growth and development of nonbanking financial institutions. They are not overly involved in risky operations of securitization and were not so much exposed to the recent crisis. Analysis of the banking sector in transition countries has been made on available sources of secondary data and comparable quantities. Comparable quantities are analyzed with descriptive statistics, starting from the general characteristics of the region and individual countries, through macroeconomic indicator analysis to analysis of assorted indicators of banking sector which have dominant influence on prospective cash flows and risk, i.e key components of bank’s value as an investment.

  4. Cancer epidemiology in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, S.L.

    2002-01-01

    It is estimated that there were over 10 million new cancer cases in 2000, 5.4 million of them occurring in the developing countries (Parkin et al, 2001). The marked geographical variation in cancer occurrence results in differing therapeutic priorities: North America has more new cancer cases than South-Central Asia, but there are more deaths from cancer in South-Central Asia, reflecting a different pattern of cancer rather than differences in prognosis. Prediction of future trends is difficult, but the impact of population increase and ageing will be significant, with an expected 63% increase in the population of the less developed countries in 50 years. Four sites of cancer namely breast, cervix, colorectal and nasopharyngeal carcinoma are reviewed, looking at their present and possible future importance in the context of developing countries and their aetiology

  5. Energy investment in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovani, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The developing countries are likely to represent the fastest growing component of the global energy demand over the next two decades. The paper presents considerations based on the World Bank's approach to the energy sector in these countries. It is considered that an accelerated development of conventional indigenous sources of energy is absolutely vital if developing countries are to attain a satisfactory rate of economic growth. The cost of the energy investment, the power sector issues, the optimal use of the resources, the role of the external financing and the need of technical assistance are reviewed. One emphasizes the role of the World Bank in analyzing and preparing projects, and in mobilizing financing from other official and commercial sources

  6. Traditional Medicine in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Rikke Stamp

    or spiritual healer and self-treatment with herbal medicine or medicinal plants. Reliance on traditional medicine varies between countries and rural and urban areas, but is reported to be as high as 80% in some developing countries. Increased realization of the continued importance of traditional medicine has......People use traditional medicine to meet their health care needs in developing countries and medical pluralism persists worldwide despite increased access to allopathic medicine. Traditional medicine includes a variety of treatment opportunities, among others, consultation with a traditional healer...... led to the formulation of policies on the integration of traditional medicine into public health care. Local level integration is already taking place as people use multiple treatments when experiencing illness. Research on local level use of traditional medicine for health care, in particular the use...

  7. Fundamental research in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moravesik, M.J.

    1964-01-01

    Technical assistance is today a widespread activity. Large numbers of persons with special qualifications in the applied sciences go to the developing countries to work on specific research and development projects, as do educationists on Fulbright or other programmes - usually to teach elementary or intermediate courses. But I believe that until now it has been rare for a person primarily interested in fundamental research to go to one of these countries to help build up advanced education and pure research work. Having recently returned from such an assignment, and having found it a most stimulating and enlightening experience, I feel moved to urge strongly upon others who may be in a position to do so that they should seek similar experience themselves. The first step is to show that advanced education and fundamental research are badly needed in the under-developed countries.

  8. Country nuclear power profiles. 2001 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles was initiated within the framework of the IAEA's programme on assessment and feedback of nuclear power plant performance. In 2000,nuclear power provides about 17% of the world's electricity, with 438 units operating in 30 countries. As part of its programmes in the field of nuclear power, the IAEA compiles information from its Member States about the operational and institutional framework of their nuclear power programmes, among other aspects. Technical data additionally is maintained and analyzed through the IAEA's databases covering energy, electricity, and nuclear power status and trends. These include the Power Reactor Information System (PRIS) and the Energy and Economic Data Bank (EEDB), which have long assisted Member States by serving as central sources of reliable information in the field. This publication compiles background information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in countries having operating nuclear plants and/or plants under construction as of 1 January 2001 and in countries actively engaged in planning such a programme. Statistical data about nuclear plant operations, population, energy and electricity use are largely drawn from the PRIS and EEDB sources as of yearend 2000 and from the national contributions. However, the 2000 EEDB data are taken from the World Bank statistics as of 1999 and from national contributions. The compilation's main objectives are to consolidate information about the nuclear power infrastructures in participating countries, and to present factors related to the effective planning, decision-making, and implementation of nuclear power programmes that together lead to safe and economic operations. Altogether 30 IAEA Member States having operating nuclear power plants as of 1 January 2001 as well as Italy, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Kazakhstan, Turkey and Vietnam contributed information to the document's major sections. Each of the 35 profiles in

  9. Applied Operations Research: Operator's Assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stuart K.

    2015-01-01

    NASA operates high value critical equipment (HVCE) that requires trouble shooting, periodic maintenance and continued monitoring by Operations staff. The complexity HVCE and information required to maintain and trouble shoot HVCE to assure continued mission success as paper is voluminous. Training on new HVCE is commensurate with the need for equipment maintenance. LaRC Research Directorate has undertaken a proactive research to support Operations staff by initiation of the development and prototyping an electronic computer based portable maintenance aid (Operator's Assistant). This research established a goal with multiple objectives and a working prototype was developed. The research identified affordable solutions; constraints; demonstrated use of commercial off the shelf software; use of the US Coast Guard maintenance solution; NASA Procedure Representation Language; and the identification of computer system strategies; where these demonstrations and capabilities support the Operator, and maintenance. The results revealed validation against measures of effectiveness and overall proved a substantial training and capability sustainment tool. The research indicated that the OA could be deployed operationally at the LaRC Compressor Station with an expectation of satisfactorily results and to obtain additional lessons learned prior to deployment at other LaRC Research Directorate Facilities. The research revealed projected cost and time savings.

  10. Operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McRae, L.P.; Six, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    In 1987, Westinghouse Hanford Company began operating a first-generation integrated safeguards system in the Plutonium Finishing Plant storage vaults. This Vault Safety and Inventory System is designed to integrate data into a computer-based nuclear material inventory monitoring system. The system gathers, in real time, measured physical parameters that generate nuclear material inventory status data for thousands of stored items and sends tailored report to the appropriate users. These data include canister temperature an bulge data reported to Plant Operations and Material Control and Accountability personnel, item presence and identification data reported to Material Control and Accountability personnel, and unauthorized item movement data reported to Security response forces and Material Control and Accountability personnel. The Westinghouse Hanford Company's experience and operational benefits in using this system for reduce radiation exposure, increase protection against insider threat, and real-time inventory control are discussed in this paper

  11. Operator companion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natalizio, A.; Anderson, J.W.D.; Sills, H.E.

    1988-01-01

    Abundant, cheap computing power has provided industry with a far greater opportunity than was available one or two decades ago to automate industrial processes and to improve the man-machine interface. Exciting innovations in knowledge representation methods arising from artificial intelligence research pave the way for advanced support systems for assisting plant operators. AECL has recognized the importance of knowledge based system technology, particularly expert systems, in the achievement of this objective and also, as a strategic technology to be fully exploited in the next generation of CANDU reactors. Operator Companion, an expert system intended to diagnose plant faults and advise the operator on appropriate restoring or corrective actions, is a major undertaking which is receiving support within the research and engineering groups of AECL

  12. Operative arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhl, J F

    1979-01-01

    In a period of 20 months, over 200 patients (age ranged from high school students to middle-aged persons) with knee injuries were treated by operative arthroscopy. The majority of the injuries were incurred while the patients had been participating in athletic events, either competitive or recreational. Operative arthroscopy offers the advantage of shortened hospital stay, rapid rehabilitation, lack of disfiguring scar, and reduced costs. Patients are followed yearly after the first postoperative year. Improved long-term results from diagnostic and operative arthroscopy, as compared to conventional surgical procedures, are expected. The proof of those expectations will be determined in the next several years as this group of patients requiring partial meniscectomies or procedures for pathologic and degenerative conditions is reevaluated.

  13. Country Presentation. Central African Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulin Poussoumandji-Ouinga, P.

    2010-01-01

    No incident related to the illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials has been yet reported in the country. However, rumors relating to the orphaned sources exist due to buried radioactive waste and former radiotherapy activities. Illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive materials is a new threat for the law enforcement agents.This is contributed by absence of dedicated equipment for radiation detection either at the border or within the country, lack of awareness of agents in charge of enforcement control, porosity of the border, absence of a protocol for exchanging information between Customs, intelligence and Police Service

  14. Arab countries are waking up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauron, M.

    2008-01-01

    Year after year, the Arab world is confirming its interest for the gas industry. In front of an increasing local consumption, a growth of export demand and a rise of rates, the Arab countries are multiplying the projects and partnerships in a sector for which the intervention of foreign expert companies and investment are often necessary. This paper presents an overview of the past year of the gas industry in Arab countries: the projects in progress, the penetration of occidental markets by Arab companies, and the difficulties encountered by the GTL (Gas to Liquid) industry. (J.S.)

  15. Mongolia, the forgotten developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staudenherz, Anton

    2003-01-01

    In August 2003 I had an opportunity to visit Mongolia together with 20 other colleagues from different medical specialties (internal medicine, paediatrics, surgery, pathology, hygiene and infection). This small activity was sponsored by a Non-Governmental Organization, 'FABULA'. Our task was to carry out a two-week education programme for Mongolian colleagues at the University Hospital in Ulaanbaatar. I would like to briefly share my experiences and impressions with the readers of World Journal of Nuclear Medicine. Mongolia is a young democracy. Free parliamentary elections were held for the first time on 29 June, 1990. The new constitution was established on 14 February 1992. It is one of the sparsely populated countries of the world with 2.5 million inhabitants living in an area 18.7 times larger than Austria. With 64.6 years, the life expectancy is considerably lower than that in the industrialised countries, like Austria which has a life expectancy of 79 years. The child (< 5 years) mortality rate of 71/1000 is significantly high in comparison with Austria (5/1000). The expenditure on public health service as compared to the GDP is very low [source: WHO internet homepage: http://www3.who.int]. In spite of these alarming numbers the University hospital of Ulaanbaatar has established a department of nuclear medicine. This is part of the 'imaging diagnostic facility' which consists of four sub-units - x-ray, ultrasound, nuclear medicine and endoscopy. Mongolia started its first nuclear medicine facility in the year 1975 through the support received from the International Atomic Energy Agency under a Technical Cooperation Project. Prof. Dr. P. Onkhuudai, who currently is the head of the nuclear medicine department at First State Central Clinic of the National Medical University of Mongolia was the first trained and qualified nuclear medicine physician of Mongolia. Keeping in view the limitations of finance and other logistics, the standard of nuclear medicine

  16. Preparedness against power crises in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelsen, Atle

    2004-01-01

    In the so-called Akureyri declaration the Nordic energy ministers presented their requests and claims to the system operators about supply security and exchange capacity between the countries. Some special issues are grid strengthening, common principles for how to deal with export and import, and a common transmission system operator. The ministers want to make international lines a priority. A common, Nordic grid company is probably not of current interest. Of the transmission system operators, only Statnett (Norway) is ready to consider a supranational perspective. Although the Nordic energy market is the most well-functioning energy market in the world, the ministers are not entirely satisfied and want further improvement. The first step will be to work out organizational models for how the grid operation and system responsibility can be managed by the countries jointly and thus improve the preparedness. The major power customers fear that a power crisis in one country may cause a cascade outage to spread in the neighbouring countries without the authorities being prepared. Experts disagree about the likelihood of a power crisis the next years. However, consumption is increasing much faster than production. After the liberalization of the energy market in 1991, the investments in the physical power system have decreased dramatically

  17. Policy incentives for flexible district heating in the Baltic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sneum, Daniel Møller; Sandberg, Eli; Koduvere, Hardi

    2018-01-01

    This study analyzes the impacts of taxes, subsidies, and electricity transmission and distribution tariffs and heat storage on the operation and economic feasibility of district heating plants with different flexibility potentials in the Baltic countries. Under 2016 conditions, the lowest levelized...

  18. Inclusive Education in Progress: Policy Evolution in Four European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Fiona; Shevlin, Michael; Buchner, Tobias; Biewer, Gottfried; Flynn, Paula; Latimier, Camille; Šiška, Jan; Toboso-Martín, Mario; Rodríguez Díaz, Susana; Ferreira, Miguel A. V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to compare the evolution of inclusive education policy in the four countries of an EU-funded research project (QualiTYDES) operating under the shared policy environment of the UN, EU and European Commission. A shared policy cannot of course be assumed to result in common legislative or provisional outcomes at national level. The…

  19. Electricity, nuclear power and fuel cycle in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    A questionnaire on Electricity Generation, Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data is distributed annually to OECD Member Countries. In the questionnaire of January 1988, countries were asked to provide data for 1986 and 1987 and most likely projections up to the year 2005. The replies to the questionnaire (or estimates for unavailable data) are presented in this Booklet. Data for 1987 are provisional for several countries. The data on electricity generation and electric capacity are presented to the year 2005, and the data on fuel cycle services to the year 2000. The Addendum contains an analysis of the present and past projections for installed nuclear capacity to 2000. It shows the total capacity of those plants connected to the grid, under construction and firmly planned to be in operation in 2000 as 282 GWe. The new projection of 300 GWe is above this estimate, indicating that some countries are considering further expansion of their nuclear capacities within this time-frame [fr

  20. Space-based Communications Infrastructure for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Keith; Barnes, Carl; Price, K. M.

    1995-01-01

    This study examines the potential use of satellites to augment the telecommunications infrastructure of developing countries with advanced satellites. The study investigated the potential market for using satellites in developing countries, the role of satellites in national information infractructures (NII), the technical feasibility of augmenting NIIs with satellites, and a nation's financial conditions necessary for procuring satellite systems. In addition, the study examined several technical areas including onboard processing, intersatellite links, frequency of operation, multibeam and active antennas, and advanced satellite technologies. The marketing portion of this study focused on three case studies: China, Brazil, and Mexico. These cases represent countries in various stages of telecommunication infrastructure development. The study concludes by defining the needs of developing countries for satellites, and recommends steps that both industry and NASA can take to improve the competitiveness of U.S. satellite manufacturing.

  1. Comparison of Radiation Protection Training in European Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozelj, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Practice and implementation of radiation protection in European countries and in majority of other countries all over the world relies on common principles and recommendations established by international organisations. These principles and recommendations were incorporated in national legislation ensuring similar and compatible standards of protection for occupationally exposed workers and members of the public. One of the basic requirements derived from international recommendations is also formal request for training of occupationally exposed workers. The final goals of the training are defined only indirectly through standards of safety and protection. Therefore national regulation regarding radiation protection training in particular country is a result of general approach to education and training, historical circumstances, influence and importance of nuclear technology and other factors influencing health protection and national well-being in general. The result is variety of national regulations ranging from very stringent and detailed to rather general and flexible. Nevertheless, results of implemented training do not differ sufficiently to significantly affect achieved standards of radiation protection. According to available information European countries implement radiation protection training in dissimilar ways. Institutions and organisations involved, as well as form and duration of training varies from country to country. Therefore, it is not possible to determine common rules just by reviewing radiation protection training in different countries. It is the intention of this contribution to analyse and discuss available information regarding radiation protection training and point out the necessity of international co-operation in this field, especially in the sense of the future trends. (author)

  2. Sustainable solid waste management: An integrated approach for Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekdar, Ashok V.

    2009-01-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) has been an integral part of every human society. The approaches for SWM should be compatible with the nature of a given society, and, in this regard, Asian countries are no exception. In keeping with global trends, the systems are being oriented to concentrate on sustainability issues; mainly through the incorporation of 3R (reduce, reuse and recycle) technologies. However, degree and nature of improvements toward sustainability are varying and depend on the economic status of a country. High-income countries like Japan and South Korea can afford to spend more to incorporate 3R technologies. Most of the latest efforts focus on 'Zero Waste' and/or 'Zero Landfilling' which is certainly expensive for weaker economies such as those of India or Indonesia. There is a need to pragmatically assess the expectations of SWM systems in Asian countries. Hence, in this paper, we analyze the situation in different Asian countries, and explore future trends. We conceptually evaluate issues surrounding the sustainability of SWM. We propose a multi-pronged integrated approach for improvement that achieves sustainable SWM in the context of national policy and legal frameworks, institutional arrangement, appropriate technology, operational and financial management, and public awareness and participation. In keeping with this approach, a generic action plan has been proposed that could be tailored to suit a situation in a particular country. Our proposed concept and action plan framework would be useful across a variety of country-specific scenarios

  3. Manpower requirements for nuclear power in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csik, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    It is recognized that each country has its individual unique characteristics and that there is no typical or average developing country. Common conditions represent exceptions, rather than the rule. Manpower requirements, however, are created by the tasks to be performed and activities to be carried out at each definite stage of a nuclear power project or programme. These tasks and activities, as well as the manpower requirements they create, are of a similar nature for any country, subject to the influence of prevailing local conditions. First, successive stages of the evolution of a nuclear power programme are defined. These are: pre-planning, planning, study and procurement, construction, operation of the first plant, confirmed and self-sufficient in implementing nuclear power projects. The developing countries are then classified according to the present stage of their evolution. Finally, the present and future manpower requirements of each country or group of countries are estimated. No attempt has been made to try to establish any precise data for any country in particular. The results obtained are global estimates, intended as indications of trends and of orders of magnitude. It is found that the developing world's present manpower requirements for nuclear power are of the order of 100,000 people, of which about 20,000 need specialized nuclear training. By the year 2000, for an installed nuclear capacity of 150 to 200 GW, overall manpower requirements should increase to more than 500,000 which would include 130,000 with specialized nuclear training. (author)

  4. Preferences, country bias, and international trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Roy (Santanu); J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractAnalyzes international trade where consumer preferences exhibit country bias. Why country biases arise; How trade can occur in the presence of country bias; Implication for the pattern of trade and specialization.

  5. Accelerator operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    This section is concerned with the operation of both the tandem-linac system and the Dynamitron, two accelerators that are used for entirely different research. Developmental activities associated with the tandem and the Dynamitron are also treated here, but developmental activities associated with the superconducting linac are covered separately because this work is a program of technology development in its own right

  6. Operating Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    areas in which this type is useful are multimedia, virtual reality, and advanced scientific projects such as undersea exploration and planetary rovers. Because of the expanded uses for soft real-time functionality, it is finding its way into most current operating systems, including major versions of Unix and Windows NT OS.

  7. Peace Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, William

    1995-01-01

    .... Indeed, despite the energetic leadership of Under Secretary-General Kofi R. Annan who directs the Department of Peacekeeping Operations, the organization has increasing difficulty in acquiring properly trained and equipped forces in time to intervene in conflict situations and humanitarian crises.

  8. Operational Circulars

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Operational Circular N° 4 - April 2003 Conditions for use by members of the CERN personnel of vehicles belonging to or rented by CERN - This circular has been drawn up. Operational Circular N° 5 - October 2000 Use of CERN computing facilities - Further details on the personal use of CERN computing facilities Operational Circular N° 5 and its Subsidiary Rules http://cern.ch/ComputingRules defines the rules for the use of CERN computing facilities. One of the basic principles governing such use is that it must come within the professional duties of the user concerned, as defined by the user's divisional hierarchy. However, personal use of the computing facilities is tolerated or allowed provided : a) It is in compliance with Operational Circular N° 5 and not detrimental to official duties, including those of other users; b) the frequency and duration is limited and there is a negligible use of CERN resources; c) it does not constitute a political, commercial and/or profit-making activity; d) it is not...

  9. Operation Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stüben, Henning; Tietjen, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: This paper seeks to challenge the notion of context from an operational perspective. Can we grasp the forces that shape the complex conditions for an architectural or urban design within the notion of context? By shifting the gaze towards the agency of architecture, contextual analysis...

  10. Operational indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The chapter presents the operational indicators related to budget, travel costs and tickets, the evolution of the annual program for regulatory inspection, the scientific production, requested patents and the numbers related to the production of the services offered by the Institution

  11. Limiting the liability of the nuclear operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    1986-01-01

    This article discusses the questioning of a fundamental principle of the special nuclear third party liability regime by certain NEA countries: the limitation of the nuclear operator's liability. This regime, set up since the late fifties at European then at worldwide level, had until now been widely adopted in the national legislation of most of the countries with a nuclear power programme. The author analyses the different arguments in favour of restoring unlimited liability for the nuclear operator and attempts to define its implications for the future of the nuclear third party liability regime in NEA countries. (NEA) [fr

  12. Country Reports on Terrorism 2006

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ... success in dismantling terrorist organizations and disrupting their leadership This has contributed to reduced terrorist operational capabilities and the detention or death of numerous key terrorist...

  13. CDM Country Guide for Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the CDM (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. This volume is on Indonesia

  14. CDM Country Guide for China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the CDM (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. This volume is on China

  15. CDM Country Guide for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the CDM (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. This volume is on India

  16. Nuclear power for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschmann, H.; Vennemann, J.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes the energy policy quandary of developing countries and explains why nuclear power plants of a suitable size - the KKW 200 MW BWR nuclear power plant for electric power and/or process steam generation is briefly presented here - have an economic advantage over fossil-fuelled power plants. (HP) [de

  17. Bulgaria : Country Financial Accountability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Bulgaria's ambitious program of reforms in several areas, including public financial management (PFM), focuses greatly on its entry into the European Union (EU). Thus, the country has a well developed system, and structure of financial management, that relies heavily on information technology (such as in the area of cash management), and has independent external audits, and parliamentary o...

  18. Mexico : Country Financial Accountability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This Country Financial Accountability Assessment (CFAA) summarizes the status of implementation of financial management measures of the Federal public sector, showing both strengths, and areas for improvement, and, reflects input contributions in each area of public management. The main strength observed was the existence of clear rules governing the Federal Government's administrative fin...

  19. The Country of Origin Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Lala; Baldin, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the country of origin (COO) effect on wine purchase in China by considering a sample from an e-commerce website. The paper contribute to the literature on hedonic pricing by applying this model to the Chinese market and including COO as product attribute....

  20. Countries compared on public performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jedid-Jah Jonker

    2012-01-01

    How well is the public sector performing? Are citizens being well served? This report compares the performance of nine public services in 28 developed countries over the period 1995-2009. Four sectors - education, health care, social safety and housing - are studied in some detail, while the

  1. Hepatoblastoma in the nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, S; Schmidt, L S; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the aetiology of hepatoblastoma. Because of the young age at diagnosis, several studies have looked at various birth characteristics. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of hepatoblastoma in the Nordic countries and the association between selected bir...

  2. Pigmentary disorders in Western countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, J. P. Wietze

    2007-01-01

    Countries in the so-called "Western" world, especially in Europe, witnessed a dramatic change in ethnic backgrounds of their populations starting in the last decennia of the last century. This had repercussions on various aspects of our society, including medical practice. In dermatology for

  3. Industry Switching in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    Firm turnover (i.e. firm entry and exit) is a well-recognized source of sectorlevel productivity growth across developing and developed countries. In contrast, the role and importance of firms switching activities from one sector to another is little understood. Firm switchers are likely...

  4. Road safety in developing countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a classification of countries (developing and developed alike), divided into two main categories: an economical and historical entry. When road safety problems are placed into the economical context, it then appears that, among other things: (1) The road safety problem in the

  5. and high-income countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opperwjj

    sociodemographic, health risk behaviour and social-legal correlates among university students ... no national seatbelt law or a law that does not apply to all occupants, poor attitudes towards ..... inconsistently used seatbelts than female students, while in some other countries (China, ..... and Exercise, 35, 1381–1395. Cunill ...

  6. Welfare reform in European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immervoll, Herwig; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    2007-01-01

    This article compares the effects of increasing traditional welfare to introducing in-work benefits in the 15 (pre-enlargement) countries of the European Union. We use a labour supply model encompassing responses to taxes and transfers along both the intensive and extensive margins, and the EUROMOD...

  7. CDM Country Guide for Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the CDM (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. This volume is on Thailand

  8. CDM Country Guide for Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the CDM (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. This volume is on Cambodia

  9. Tanzania : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This Country Procurement Assessment Report (CPAR)intends to determine the compatibility of national procurement law, and practices, with the principles of economy, and with international procurement practices. This CPAR, the second of its kind in Tanzania, looks at the legislative framework, the performance of regulatory functions, the enforcement regime, and the capacity of public sector ...

  10. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.

  11. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa

  12. Uzbekistan : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Uzbekistan inherited the Soviet system for the procurement of goods, works and services for State needs. This system was suitable for a command economy but lacks the essential elements of competitiveness, transparency and accountability, which are the hallmarks of a market-based approach to government contracting. This Country Procurement Assessment Report (CPAR) comes at a time when a num...

  13. Sanitation planning in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Sanitation planning in developing countries: Added value of resource recovery

    Worldwide 2.5 billion people lack access to sanitation. This impacts human live, the environment and represents a loss of valuable resources that can be regained from wastewater. This study

  14. Anxiety sensitivity in six countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zvolensky, MJ; Arrindell, WA; Taylor, S; Bouvard, M; Cox, BJ; Stewart, SH; Sandin, B; Cardenas, SJ; Eifert, GH

    In the present study, the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-Revised (ASI-R; Taylor & Cox, Journal of Anxiety Disorders 12 (1998) 463; Behaviour Research and Therapy 36 (1998) 37) was administered to a large sample of persons (n = 2786) from different cultures represented in six different countries: Canada,

  15. Nuclear energy in transition countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.

    2000-01-01

    Transition countries, respectively the countries that have in the year's 89/90 broken with the communist political and economy system are passing through difficult years. From their traditional markets within the closely interconnected socialist economy system, which has disintegrated, they have to reorient themselves to new, often saturated and sophisticated markets. To integrate into Europe as equal partners, rather then remain poor relatives, they must reduce this development gap in a reasonable time, not longer than 15 years. Slower pace would not give acceptable perspective to their young people and they would look for it elsewhere, thereby reducing creative forces for progress. Examples of economic development show that sustained growth of GDP is impossible without similar industrial growth, which, in turn, requires corresponding increase of energy use. In the same time these countries are the parts of densely populated European region and are subject to emission restriction of effluents with local or global effects. It is difficult to see how these countries could attain their development goals, whilst respecting their Kyoto obligations, without supplying increased energy demand from nuclear sources. (author)

  16. Scientific-technical cooperation with foreign (esp. Europe and INSC partner countries) nuclear regulatory authorities and their technical support organizations in the fields of nuclear safety of operating nuclear power plants and on the concept evaluation of generation 3+ plants. Final report; Wissenschaftlich-Technische Zusammenarbeit (WTZ) mit auslaendischen (insbesondere in Europa und INSC-Partnerstaaten) atomrechtlichen Behoerden und deren Sachverstaendigenorganisationen zur nuklearen Sicherheit in Betrieb befindlicher Kernkraftwerke und zur Konzeptbewertung von Generation-3+-Anlagen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Holger

    2016-09-15

    The BMUB/BfS-Project 3614I01512 forms the frame of the GRS for the scientific-technical cooperation with Technical Support Organisations and Nuclear Regulatory Authorities in the field of nuclear safety in operating NPPs and for the concept evaluation of generation 3{sup +} plants in Europe and INSC Partner Countries. In the present final project report results are described which were gained within the project duration 15.10.2014 up to the 30.09.2016 in the following working packages: Investigations following the catastrophe of Fukushima Daiichi, Evaluation of selected National Action Plans, DBA and severe accident analyses for NPP with PWR (WWER-440, WWER-1000), cooperation with INSC partner countries on DBA, BDBA and severe accident analyses for WWER plants of generation 3{sup +} and building NRA and safety evaluation capacities and decommissioning of nuclear facilities and disposal of radioactive waste. The results are preceded by an outline on the activities related to the project management and to the planning of the bilateral work.

  17. Report on simple operation type CAD/CAM system development through international cooperation. Current statuses of Asian countries; 'Kan'i sosagata denshi sekkei seisan shien system no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku' ni kansuru hokokusho. Asia shokoku no jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Information systems, mainly aided by computers, are becoming increasingly important, contributing to development of wide areas of societies and economics, to begin with. However, few developing countries have established sufficient information systems, in spite of their strong desires to do so, which will further widen the gap between them and advanced countries, where these systems are acceleratedly advancing. Given these situations, Center of International Cooperation for Computerization (CICC) has been implementing various projects for providing assistance to and cooperation with oversea countries which are trying to develop information systems. This report summarizes the project, which CICC has been commissioned by NEDO as part of the cooperation programs, for manufacturing technology supported by advanced and integrated information system through international cooperation. It outlines the research cooperation memoranda NEDO has concluded with Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand, and the authorities of China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. (NEDO)

  18. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1996, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) ensured the Slovak Republic (SR) obligations with relation to the international agreements and with the SR membership in the IAEA.International co-operation has been ensured on the basis of the bilateral international agreements. With the Ministry of Foreign Affairs co-operation, the SR fulfilled its financial obligations to this organization in due time and in the full scope. Representing Central and Eastern Europe interest in the Board of Governors, the SR participation in the highest executive in the highest executive authority was finished in 1996.The Board of Governors Vice-chairman position was executed by NRA SR Chairman. 5 national and 6 regional technical co-operation and assistance projects were realized in 1996. 12 organizations participated in these projects and accordingly 104 experts took part in training programmes, scientific visits or as the mission members abroad. Besides, Slovak experts participated at work of technical advisory and consultation groups with the significant assistance. In the framework of IAEA co-operation, the SR was visited by 11 expert missions formed by 28 experts from 19 countries including IAEA. Slovak organizations, namely institutes of the Academy of Sciences, Slovak research centres and universities participated in IAEA scientific and research activities through NRA SR. 15 scientific contracts in total were approved and realized and these contracts are utilized as supplementary financing of the own scientific and research projects. Other international co-operation and regional co-operation activities of the NRA SR in 1996 are reviewed

  19. Status of radiation applications in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.M.

    1979-01-01

    A summary is given of the following applications: radiotherapy; sterilization of medical products and biological tissues; inactivation of virus; food preservation; insect control and eradication; improvement in field crops; treatment of waste waters and sewage sludge. In industry, irradiation technology has contributed to the manufacturing industries for new product developments in the plastics, textiles, wood, rubber, petroleum, concrete and chemical industries. Irradiation technology offers a fascinating outlet for developing countries for improving their condition of medical care, upgrading of their natural materials, stimulating their industrial development, decreasing their food losses and increasing their crop production. These lines would certainly contribute to their national economy and would result in an enhanced rate of development. However, transfer of radiation technology to developing countries should be undertaken in view of the actual national and regional needs and supported by an overall well studied national and regional planning for trained manpower development. The choice of a radiation source for a potential application should be based on the demand of the process, compromise between desirability and cost and quantitative data on installation, operation and maintenance conditions, and costs. The program developed and implemented by Egypt is herein presented. Facilities, organization, personnel, current and past activities, and future plans are described. (author)

  20. Site operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    House, W.B.; Ebenhack, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    This chapter is a discussion of the management and operations practices used at the Barnwell Waste Management Facility in Barnwell, SC. The following topics are discussed: (1) Waste receiving and inspection, including manifest and certificates of compliance, radiological surveys, disposition of nonconforming items, and decontamination and disposition of secondary waste streams; (2) Waste disposal, including Title 10 CFR 61 requirements, disposal area evaluations, shipment offloading, container emplacement, and radiation protection; (3) Trench closure, including trench backfilling, trench capping, and permanent markers; (4) Site maintenance and stabilization, including trench maintenance, surface water management, and site closure activities; (5) Site monitoring programs, including operational monitoring, and environmental monitoring program; (6) Personnel training and qualifications, including basic training program, safety training program, special skills training, and physical qualifications; (7) Records management, including waste records, personnel training records, personnel dosimetry records, site monitoring records, trench qualification and construction records, and site drawings and stabilization records; (8) Site security; (9) Emergency response plans; and (10) Quality assurance

  1. Operators perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scragg, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    There are very few Energy from Municipal Waste processing plants in the U.K. Those which were built have usually been financed and operated by Local Authorities and are now in excess of 17 years old. The Environmental Protection Act and constraints on Public Sector spending have brought about fundamental changes in the approach taken to developing new schemes of this kind. The Public Sector and the Private Sector must work together. The investment in Mass Burning Incineration Schemes generating energy is high and the pressures to keep the waste disposal costs as low as possible mean that recovery of the investment needs to be spread over many years. For any Scheme to be successful and financially viable requires a long term commitment on the part of those involved. This paper sets out the key role which the Operating Contractor can play in this situation. (author)

  2. Operating Cigeo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Launeau, F.

    2016-01-01

    The CIGEO facility dedicated to the geological disposal of high- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes will be composed of 2 parts: an underground facility at a depth of 500 m to dispose the waste packages in tunnels and a surface facility to take delivery of the wastes and prepare the packages. The underground facility will be built progressively and will cover a surface of 15 km 2 at the end of Cigeo operating-life. A large part of the surface facility (located a few km away from the waste reception place) will be dedicated to the works led deep underground to build the tunnels and will receive drilling cuttings. The article describes also the ramp and carts to lead waste packages underground. Most of the operations will be automated. The definitive closure of the tunnels will be made with swelling clay and concrete plugs. (A.C.)

  3. Operation Poorman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruvost, N.; Tsitouras, J.

    1981-01-01

    The objectives of Operation Poorman were to design and build a portable seismic system and to set up and use this system in a cold-weather environment. The equipment design uses current technology to achieve a low-power, lightweight system that is configured into three modules. The system was deployed in Alaska during wintertime, and the results provide a basis for specifying a mission-ready seismic verification system

  4. Principles of adoption of the successful environmental practices used in developed countries into mining industry in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaitis, Alexandra

    2013-04-01

    presence of the audit and monitoring that do not address the local conditions of the mining operations. Based on the above the following concepts were thought of to improve the environmental conditions in mining sector: 1. Was developed the Regional Environmental Management principle based on the local conditions such as physiographic region, local population, and socioeconomic conditions of the area; 2. Devised were criteria for the risk assessment for developing countries. Where the fundamental principals were public health, both near and far from the operation, environmental and biodiversity impact, waste management, long- and short- term rehabilitation plans, compliance with international standards and norms. 3. Developed was the mechanism of the economic motivation to make mining operations "environmentally friendly" that includes defrayal of expenses from both direct and indirect damages. 4. Identified were spheres of possible cooperation between mining companies, government organizations, and the NGOs. These include development of international standards for Good Neighbor Agreement, exchange of environmental information, exchange of successful environmental, health, and safety practices between mining operations from developed and developing countries. The study showed the dire necessity for the mining industry that operates in developing countries to adopt the successful environmental practices used in developed countries. To achieve this goal the Regional Environmental Management principle, the risk assessment criteria, the mechanism of the economic motivation and the principles for international cooperation can play an extremely important role.

  5. Urban bioclimatology in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, E

    1993-11-15

    A brief review of the literature on urban human bioclimatology in the tropics is undertaken. Attempts to chart human bioclimatic conditions on the regional/local scale have been made in several developing countries. The effective temperature scheme (with all its limitations) is the one that has been most frequently applied. The possibilities of application of bioclimatic models based on human heat balance for the tropical urban environment are discussed.

  6. Physician assistant education: five countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Roderick S; Kuilman, Luppo

    2011-01-01

    Physician assistant (PA) education has undergone substantial change since the late 1960s. After four decades of development, other countries have taken a page from the American experience and launched their own instructional initiatives. The diversity in how different countries approach education and produce a PA for their nation's needs provides an opportunity to make comparisons. The intent of this study was to document and describe PA programs in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, The Netherlands, and the United States. We reviewed the literature and contacted a network of academics in various institutions to obtain primary information. Each contact was asked a set of basic questions about the country, the PA program, and the deployment of graduates. Information on US PA programs was obtained from the Physician Assistant Education Association. At year's end 2010, the following was known about PA development: Australia, one program; Canada, four programs; United Kingdom, four programs; The Netherlands, five programs; the United States, 154 programs. Trends in program per capita growth remain the largest in the United States, followed by The Netherlands and Canada. The shortest program length was 24 months and the longest, 36 months. Outside the United States, almost all programs are situated in an academic health center ([AHC] defined as a medical university, a teaching hospital, and a nursing or allied health school), whereas only one-third of US PA programs are in AHCs. All non-US programs receive public/government funding whereas American programs are predominately private and depend on tuition to fund their programs. The PA movement is a global phenomenon. How PAs are being educated, trained, and deployed is known only on the basic level. We identify common characteristics, unique aspects, and trends in PA education across five nations, and set the stage for collaboration and analysis of optimal educational strategies. Additional information is needed on

  7. Country differences in sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2010-01-01

    In a sustainability perspective, consumption research has an unfortunate individualizing bias, which means that macro and structural causes of unsustainable consumption tend to be ignored. Hence, a comprehensive model of determinants of the sustainability of consumption is developed and applied...... on a specific case: organic food consumption. The analyzed data are published research on why consumer purchase of organic food products differs between countries. As expected, organic food's share of total food consumption depends heavily on political regulation, including legal definitions and standards...

  8. [AIDS, developing countries and ethnopsychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, N; Defourny, J; Bertrand, J

    1995-04-01

    This work briefly assesses the history of the AIDS epidemic in different geographic regions and examines factors that render developing countries particularly vulnerable. It reviews the three main techniques of traditional therapeutic systems and examines their implications for psychiatric treatment of AIDS patients from developing countries. Young age structures, low rates of condom usage, women's lack of education and of sexual bargaining power, and the deficiencies of health and educational facilities are among factors that increase risks of HIV in developing countries. Health education geared to specific audiences should encourage condom use and other preventive measures. Among factors to encourage condom use, group decision making appears to be of greatest potential influence on behavior in sub-Saharan Africa and among African immigrants to Europe. To encourage preventive measures and to understand reactions of non-Western populations to HIV, it is desirable to understand the deeper meanings of their cultures and of traditional therapies. It is difficult and misguided to pose a diagnosis according to the criteria of Western psychiatry. Western psychiatry has been proven incompetent in its attempts to treat members of traditional societies, whether immigrants or in their countries of origin. And attempts to integrate traditional healing into a western medical system have not been successful. Traditional systems accomplish therapeutic goals by three major techniques, possession, shamanism, and clairvoyance, or their numerous variants. It is recommended that group sessions be held with immigrants requiring treatment, in which the principal therapist is assisted by translators, who help create a space for the patient intermediate between the two cultures, where the therapies can coexist without conflict.

  9. Sanitation planning in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kerstens, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Sanitation planning in developing countries: Added value of resource recovery Worldwide 2.5 billion people lack access to sanitation. This impacts human live, the environment and represents a loss of valuable resources that can be regained from wastewater. This study shows that resource recovery can be a potential driver to accelerate sanitation. A new sanitation decision framework for policy makers was created and tested in Indonesia. The variety of advantages and disadvantages of sanitatio...

  10. Palliative radiotherapy in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The International Agency for Research on Cancer predicts that cancer incidence in developing countries will increase dramatically in the first two decades of this millennium. Already some 80% of cancer patients in developing countries present with incurable disease. [n many cases pain is a severe problem and palliation is needed to improve quality of life as well as extending survival. This paper will consider the physical and clinical aspects of palliative radiotherapy (PRT), choice of radiation modality, alternative approaches to imaging and therapy and cost-benefit considerations. The potential benefits of a dedicated palliative centre include lower cost and therefore more centres, enabling more patients access to regional palliative care. Whilst there is an obvious need for palliative radiotherapy, simple curative treatments could also be managed. C060 radiotherapy has important advantages in developing countries, because of the higher initial cost of a linear accelerator, as well as the need for reliable power supply and the level of skill required by linac technicians and physicists. The beam characteristics of both C060 units and low energy linacs are compared and both are found to be acceptable for palliation. The concept of telemedicine is also discussed, using mobile phones and internet communication to allow rural clinics to receive support from specialists based in the cities, to send images for remote diagnosis and remote dose planning for radiotherapy. (author)

  11. Nuclear trade between developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, K.

    1990-01-01

    The analysis of nuclear south-south cooperation is based on the evaluation of official documents (the texts of laws, of contracts for nuclear cooperation treaties, safeguard treaties, official government policy speeches etc.). These data were supplemented by numerous interviews with representatives of atomic energy authorities, foreign ministries, nuclear industries, members of parliament, representatives of the nuclear energy opposition movement and military representatives in the three states and by interviews with representatives of the IAEO and OPANAL in Mexico. The study deals with each country in turn: Chapter 2 gives an overview of the Indian nuclear energy programme and India's nuclear export activity and export policy. Chapter 3 analyzes Brazil's nuclear energy policy and Brazilian export capacities, exports and export policy in the nuclear sector. Chapter 4 looks at the development of the Argentinian nuclear energy programme and the crisis in it, at Argentina's nuclear export activities and its export policy and technology transfer policy in this field. Chapter 5 analyzes separately relations between Argentina and Brazil on nuclear cooperation, since they differ considerably from the two countries' relations with other Third World countries on this topic. The appendix documents the most important contractual agreements and government policy declarations on nuclear cooperation between the two states. (orig.) [de

  12. Joint default probabilities and country risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Hameeteman, Daphne

    2003-01-01

    The assessment of country risk is of crucial importance for both developing countries and international lenders and investors. Many existing country risk approaches are opaque and heavily rely on subjective choices. In general, they lack a theoretical basis. To assess country risk, we use the Merton

  13. Operational expert system applications in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Zarri, Gian Piero

    1992-01-01

    Operational Expert System Applications in Europe describes the representative case studies of the operational expert systems (ESs) that are used in Europe.This compilation provides examples of operational ES that are realized in 10 different European countries, including countries not usually examined in the standard reviews of the field.This book discusses the decision support system using several artificial intelligence tools; expert systems for fault diagnosis on computerized numerical control (CNC) machines; and expert consultation system for personal portfolio management. The failure prob

  14. Practice of nuclear medicine in a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, M.M.; Karim, M.A.; Nahar, N.; Haque, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    For more than a half a century nuclear medicine is contributing in the field of medicine. Still nuclear medicine is not widely available in many countries. Especially in developing countries due to many a reasons nuclear medicine could not flourish in that way. Availability of radioisotope, high cost of instrument and sophistication of the branch are the three main reasons behind. Even the countries where nuclear medicine is functioning for quite a long time, the facilities for proper function are still not adequate. Training of manpower, maintenance of instruments, regular supply of isotopes and kit and cost effectiveness are some of the major problems. We have seen some fast developments in nuclear medicine in last few decades. Development of gamma detecting systems with SPECT, positron emission detector (PET), supported computer technology and introduction of some newer radiopharmaceuticals for functional studies are few of the examples. The developing countries also have a problem to go on parallel with these rapid development of nuclear medicine in other part of the world. In last few decades we have also witnessed development of CT, MRI, Ultrasound and other imaging modalities as our competitor. Specially for developing countries these have posed as a major challenge for nuclear medicine. A better understanding between developed and developing nations is the key point of todays ultimate success in any sector. For real development of nuclear medicine and to give the majority of the people the benefit of nuclear medicine a better and more active co-operation is needed between all the countries. The paper presents the difficulties and some practical problems of practicing nuclear medicine in a developing country. And also appeals for global co-operation to solve the problems for better interest of the subject

  15. Malaysia mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameshvara Deva, M

    2004-01-01

    Malaysia is a tropical country in the heart of south east Asia with a population of 24 million people of diverse ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds living in harmony in 330,000 km(2) of land on the Asian mainland and Borneo. Malaysia, which lies on the crossroads of trade between east and west Asia, has an ancient history as a centre of trading attracting commerce between Europe, west Asia, India and China. It has had influences from major powers that dominated the region throughout its history. Today the country, after independence in 1957, has embarked on an ambitious development project to make it a developed country by 2020. In this effort the economy has changed from one producing raw material to one manufacturing consumer goods and services and the colonial health system has been overhauled and social systems strengthened to provide better services for its people. The per capita income, which was under 1,000 US dollars at independence, has now passed 4,000 US dollars and continues to grow, with the economy largely based on strong exports that amount to over 100 billion US dollars. The mental health system that was based on institutional care in four mental hospitals at independence from British colonial rule in 1957 with no Malaysian psychiatrists is today largely based on over 30 general hospital psychiatric units spread throughout the country. With three local postgraduate training programmes in psychiatry and 12 undergraduate departments of psychiatry in the country--all started after independence--there is now a healthy development of mental health services. This is being supplemented by a newly established primary care mental health service that covers community mental health by integrating mental health into primary health care. Mental health care at the level of psychiatrists rests with about 140 psychiatrists most of whom had undertaken a four-year masters course in postgraduate psychiatry in Malaysia since 1973. However, there continues to be

  16. COMMODITY MARKET REGULATION: EXPORTING COUNTRIES VERSUS IMPORTING COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Leonardo Silveira

    2012-01-01

    The high in commodity prices in the international market in the last decade, tensions escalated between exporting and importing commodities countries, the extent of having their demands and pressures discussed in the main international organizations, especially in the G20. As altas nas cotações das commodities no mercado internacional na última década acirraram as tensões entre países exportadores e importadores de commodities, a ponto de terem suas reivindicações e pressões debatidas no...

  17. Reactor operations at SAFARI-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlok, J.W.H.

    2003-01-01

    A vigorous commercial programme of isotope production and other radiation services has been followed by the SAFARI-1 research reactor over the past ten years - superimposed on the original purpose of the reactor to provide a basic tool for nuclear research, development and education to the country at an institutional level. A combination of the binding nature of the resulting contractual obligations and tighter regulatory control has demanded an equally vigorous programme of upgrading, replacement and renovation of many systems in order to improve the safety and reliability of the reactor. Not least among these changes is the more effective training and deployment of operations personnel that has been necessitated as the operational demands on the reactor evolved from five days per week to twenty four hours per day, seven days per week, with more than 300 days per year at full power. This paper briefly sketches the operational history of SAFARI-1 and then focuses on the training and structuring currently in place to meet the operational needs. There is a detailed step-by-step look at the operator?s career plan and pre-defined milestones. Shift work, especially the shift cycle, has a negative influence on the operator's career path development, especially due to his unavailability for training. Methods utilised to minimise this influence are presented. The increase of responsibilities regarding the operation of the reactor, ancillaries and experimental facilities as the operator progresses with his career are discussed. (author)

  18. The opening up of Middle Eastern Oil Producing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannesini, J.F.

    2000-01-01

    Between them, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran and Kuwait control nearly 56 % of the world's oil reserves. They account for almost 25 % of production. There are signs that they are opening their territories to foreign companies in different ways and to various degrees, according to the country. The reasons are technical (decline of production and human resources), economic (increasing state budgetary requirements and growing oil production investment costs) and geopolitical (protective military isolation of territories and regimes). The opening up to these countries will in the future, have a major impact on the strategies of large western company operators. (authors)

  19. India mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Sudhir K; Jhingan, Harsh P; Ramesh, S; Gupta, Rajesh K; Srivastava, Vinay K

    2004-01-01

    India, the second most populated country of the world with a population of 1.027 billion, is a country of contrasts. It is characterized as one of the world's largest industrial nations, yet most of the negative characteristics of poor and developing countries define India too. The population is predominantly rural, and 36% of people still live below poverty line. There is a continuous migration of rural people into urban slums creating major health and economic problems. India is one of the pioneer countries in health services planning with a focus on primary health care. Improvement in the health status of the population has been one of the major thrust areas for social development programmes in the country. However, only a small percentage of the total annual budget is spent on health. Mental health is part of the general health services, and carries no separate budget. The National Mental Health Programme serves practically as the mental health policy. Recently, there was an eight-fold increase in budget allocation for the National Mental Health Programme for the Tenth Five-Year Plan (2002-2007). India is a multicultural traditional society where people visit religious and traditional healers for general and mental health related problems. However, wherever modern health services are available, people do come forward. India has a number of public policy and judicial enactments, which may impact on mental health. These have tried to address the issues of stigma attached to the mental illnesses and the rights of mentally ill people in society. A large number of epidemiological surveys done in India on mental disorders have demonstrated the prevalence of mental morbidity in rural and urban areas of the country; these rates are comparable to global rates. Although India is well placed as far as trained manpower in general health services is concerned, the mental health trained personnel are quite limited, and these are mostly based in urban areas. Considering this

  20. Nordic Approaches to Peace Operations (in Korean)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    operations. First, it demolishes the widely held view that the Nordic countries remain a bastion of traditional Cold War peacekeeping with little relevance for contemporary operations. Second, it constitutes the first systematic overview of the reforms undertaken by the four Nordic countries since the end......A new examination of Nordic approaches to peace operations after the Cold War. It shows how the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden) remain relevant for the study and practice of post-Cold War peace operations. This unique study is structured around eleven success conditions...... derived from an analysis of the lessons learned since the early 1990s, ensuring that the results of the case studies are directly comparable. These case studies are supplemented by an analysis of Nordics’ collective efforts to replace their old Cold War peacekeeping model with a new one that meets...