WorldWideScience

Sample records for countries matching resources

  1. Improving pediatric cardiac surgical care in developing countries: matching resources to needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearani, Joseph A; Neirotti, Rodolfo; Kohnke, Emily J; Sinha, Kingshuk K; Cabalka, Allison K; Barnes, Roxann D; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Stellin, Giovanni; Tchervenkov, Christo I; Cushing, John C

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews a systematic approach to the design and support of pediatric cardiac surgery programs in the developing world with the guidance and strategies of Children's HeartLink, an experienced non-government organization for more than 40 years. An algorithm with criteria for the selection of a partner site is outlined. A comprehensive education strategy from the physician to the allied health care provider is the mainstay for successful program development. In a partner program, the road to successful advancement and change depends on many factors, such as government support, hospital administration support, medical staff leadership, and a committed and motivated faculty with requisite skills, incentives, and resources. In addition to these factors, it is essential that the development effort includes considerations of environment (eg, governmental support, regulatory environment, and social structure) and health system (elements related to affordability, access, and awareness of care) that impact success. Partner programs should be willing to initiate a clinical database with the intent to analyze and critique their results to optimize quality assurance and improve outcomes. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Natural Resources and FDI in GCC Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Mahjoub Elheddad

    2016-01-01

    Natural resources are a blessing for some countries to attract FDI but cursed for others. Existing literature argues the suggestion that resource-rich countries attract less FDI because of resource (oil) price volatility. This study examines that natural resources discourage FDI in GCC countries (the FDI-Natural resources curse hypothesis), using panel data analysis for six oil dependent countries during 1980-2013 and applying several econometrics techniques. The main findings of this paper i...

  3. Transplantation in low resource countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Faulkner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia major (TM is the most common deadly genetic disorder, a major cause of chronic non-infectious morbidity and financial burden in many low and middle-income regions. In these settings few children reach adulthood because proper long-term supportive care is seldom available. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT is the only available curative modality and it can be very successful and cost-effective for young children with low-risk features and a compatible related donor. However, in countries where TM is most prevalent, there is a dire shortage of BMT centers. The Cure2Children Foundation has supported a feasibility study evaluating safety, efficacy and costs of developing a new BMT center in an underserved lower-middle-income country with relatively untrained professionals within a structured collaboration and knowledge-transfer program. A total of 24 consecutive patients who underwent BMT in Pakistan between September 2008 and August 2010 are included in this prospective analysis, 17 from an established bone marrow transplant center, the National Institute for Blood Diseases in Karachi, Pakistan and the initial 7 BMTs from a start up unit in a government civil hospital, the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences Children’s Hospital in Islamabad. Patients were matched for age, nutritional status, growth, disease, disease status and post-BMT follow-up time. All patients had a matched-related sibling donor, were younger than 10 years of age at the time of transplantation, received the same conditioning regimen. All needy families could rely on a support program throughout the 8-month post-transplant period. The Cure2Children Foundation provided professional and financial support as well as a structured web-based data management and cooperation platform. At a median follow up of 19.6 months (range 8.7 to 31.5 actuarial thalassemia-free survival is 85.6% and 85.7% and overall survival 94.1% and 85.7% in the established and start-up center

  4. Natural Resources and FDI in GCC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mahjoub Elheddad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural resources are a blessing for some countries to attract FDI but cursed for others. Existing literature argues the suggestion that resource-rich countries attract less FDI because of resource (oil price volatility. This study examines that natural resources discourage FDI in GCC countries (the FDI-Natural resources curse hypothesis, using panel data analysis for six oil dependent countries during 1980-2013 and applying several econometrics techniques. The main findings of this paper is that natural resources measured by oil rents have a negative association with FDI inflows; this negative impact is robust even when other FDI determinates of FDI  are included. FDI inflows decreased between 0.15 and 0.92% when oil rents increased by 1%. In addition, the empirical results show that trade openness and labour force are the main factors that encourage FDI, while political instability and corruption deter FDI inflows into GCC countries.

  5. Energy resources in Arab countries: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Lababidi, M. Mukhtar [Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries, Technical Affairs Dept., Safat (Kuwait)

    1999-12-01

    The author examines the energy resources of Middle East and North African countries under the headings: oil (proven reserves, undiscovered potential recovery, improved recovery techniques, production capacities), natural gas (reserves, undiscovered potential gas recovery), shale oil and tar sand, coal, uranium, hydro, wind energy, solar energy and biomass. (UK)

  6. Morpheme matching based text tokenization for a scarce resourced language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Zobia; Anwar, Waqas; Bajwa, Usama Ijaz; Xuan, Wang; Chaoying, Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Text tokenization is a fundamental pre-processing step for almost all the information processing applications. This task is nontrivial for the scarce resourced languages such as Urdu, as there is inconsistent use of space between words. In this paper a morpheme matching based approach has been proposed for Urdu text tokenization, along with some other algorithms to solve the additional issues of boundary detection of compound words, affixation, reduplication, names and abbreviations. This study resulted into 97.28% precision, 93.71% recall, and 95.46% F1-measure; while tokenizing a corpus of 57000 words by using a morpheme list with 6400 entries.

  7. Managing employee creativity and health in nursing homes : the moderating role of matching job resources and matching occupational rewards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, J.; Gevers, J.M.P.; Dollard, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    Health care staff in nursing homes are facing increasingly high job demands at work, which can have a detrimental impact on their health and work motivation. The Demand-Induced Strain Compensation (DISC) Model offers a theoretical framework to study how matching job resources and matching

  8. Capital Flight and Transfer from Resource-Rich Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Demachi, Kazue

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of international resource price movements on capital outflows from resource-rich developing countries (RRDCs) by distinguishing capital flight and capital transfers. The volume of capital flight and transfers are calculated and their determinants are analyzed using macro-panel data constituting 21 resource-rich developing countries from 1990 to 2011. Through the regression analysis, the linkage between capital flight and resource revenue as well as that betwe...

  9. Infection control practice in countries with limited resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alp Emine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nosocomial infections and their control are a world-wide challenge. The prevalence of nosocomial infections is generally higher in developing countries with limited resources than industrialized countries. In this paper we aimed to further explain the differences with regard to infection control challenges between Turkey, a country with "limited" resources, and the Netherlands, a country with "reasonable" resources. Infrastructure of hospitals, low compliance of hand hygiene, understaffing, overcrowding, heavy workload, misuse of personal protective equipments, late establishment of infection control programme are major problems in limited-resources countries. These problems cause high infection rates and spread of multi-drug resistant pathogens. To improve the control and prevention of infections in countries with limited resources, a multi-facet approach is needed.

  10. Resource recovery and recycling in OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacNeil, J.W.

    It was the importance of the economic issues relevant to resource recovery and re-use that prompted OECD to become involved in this general area, and the author proposes in this talk to describe the principal features of the three main approaches to waste management from an economic perspective. These approaches are reduction of waste generation (i.e. birth control) resource recovery and materials recycling or re-use (reincarnation). Most of OECD's work in this area to date has been on the third of these approaches with particular emphasis on the economics of recycling, so somewhat more attention will be devoted to it. Then some conclusions will be drawn concerning possible policy actions to encourage a rational approach to management of this resource.

  11. Pharmacovigilance in resource-limited countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Sten; Pal, Shanthi N; Dodoo, Alex

    2015-01-01

    In the past 20 years, many low- and middle-income countries have created national pharmacovigilance (PV) systems and joined the WHO's global PV network. However, very few of them have fully functional systems. Scientific evidence on the local burden of medicine-related harm and their preventability is missing. Legislation and regulatory framework as well as financial support to build sustainable PV systems are needed. Public health programs need to integrate PV to monitor new vaccines and medicines introduced through these programs. Signal analysis should focus on high-burden preventable adverse drug problems. Increased involvement of healthcare professionals from public and private sectors, pharmaceutical companies, academic institutions and the public at large is necessary to assure a safe environment for drug therapy. WHO has a major role in supporting and coordinating these developments.

  12. Cervical cancer screening and practice in low resource countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Cervical cancer screening; human papillomavirus, low resource countries; Nigeria; premalignant disease. ... has led to a significant decline in the incidence of cervical .... and malignant lesions as integration of the viral DNA into the.

  13. Infection control practice in countries with limited resources.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alp, E.; Leblebicioglu, H.; Doganay, M.; Voss, A.

    2011-01-01

    Nosocomial infections and their control are a world-wide challenge. The prevalence of nosocomial infections is generally higher in developing countries with limited resources than industrialized countries. In this paper we aimed to further explain the differences with regard to infection control

  14. Present status of uranium resource development in foreign countries, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    The book of the same title as this one was published in 1983. Since then, the situation requiring the correction of the contents, such as the correction of uranium resource policy in various countries accompanying the change of uranium market condition and the change of uranium policy in Australia due to the political situation, has occurred, consequently, the revision has been made adding these new information. The confirmed resources of uranium and the resources of uranium to be added by estimation in the free world are tabulated. About each country, the organization and policy, the policy of exporting uranium and the present status of the export, the quantity of uranium resources, the production of uranium, the state of exploration and development and so on are reported. Japan has taken part in the development of uranium resources in Australia, Canada, Gabon, Zambia, Morocco, Guinea, Mali and so on. (Kako, I.)

  15. Pediatric Sepsis Guidelines: Summary for resource-limited countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khilnani, Praveen; Singhi, Sunit; Lodha, Rakesh; Santhanam, Indumathi; Sachdev, Anil; Chugh, Krishan; Jaishree, M.; Ranjit, Suchitra; Ramachandran, Bala; Ali, Uma; Udani, Soonu; Uttam, Rajiv; Deopujari, Satish

    2010-01-01

    Justification: Pediatric sepsis is a commonly encountered global issue. Existing guidelines for sepsis seem to be applicable to the developed countries, and only few articles are published regarding application of these guidelines in the developing countries, especially in resource-limited countries such as India and Africa. Process: An expert representative panel drawn from all over India, under aegis of Intensive Care Chapter of Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) met to discuss and draw guidelines for clinical practice and feasibility of delivery of care in the early hours in pediatric patient with sepsis, keeping in view unique patient population and limited availability of equipment and resources. Discussion included issues such as sepsis definitions, rapid cardiopulmonary assessment, feasibility of early aggressive fluid therapy, inotropic support, corticosteriod therapy, early endotracheal intubation and use of positive end expiratory pressure/mechanical ventilation, initial empirical antibiotic therapy, glycemic control, and role of immunoglobulin, blood, and blood products. Objective: To achieve a reasonable evidence-based consensus on the basis of published literature and expert opinion to formulating clinical practice guidelines applicable to resource-limited countries such as India. Recommendations: Pediatric sepsis guidelines are presented in text and flow chart format keeping resource limitations in mind for countries such as India and Africa. Levels of evidence are indicated wherever applicable. It is anticipated that once the guidelines are used and outcomes data evaluated, further modifications will be necessary. It is planned to periodically review and revise these guidelines every 3–5 years as new body of evidence accumulates. PMID:20606908

  16. Present status of development of uranium resources in foreign countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    The book with the same title as this was published in 1981. Thereafter, the necessity to correct the contents arose, such as the remarkable change in uranium market condition and the change of uranium resource policy in Australia accompanying the change of regime, accordingly, the revision was carried out by adding more new information. As the main sources of the information collected in this book, 25 materials are shown. The confirmed resources of uranium in the free world as of the beginning of 1981 amounted to 2,293,000 t U, and the estimated additional resources were 2,720,000 t U. The political system and uranium policy, the present status of uranium export, the quantity of resources and the estimated amount of deposits, the uranium production and the status of uranium exploration and development of 25 foreign countries are reported. Japan has carried out uranium development activities in Australia, Canada, Niger, Gabon, Zambia and so on. (Kako, I.)

  17. Ruminant production systems in developing countries: Resource utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devendra, C.

    1989-01-01

    Ruminant production systems are discussed with specific reference to the resource utilization required to support them. Particular focus is placed on the main production resources (animals and feeds) and their underutilization. The ruminant animals include buffaloes, cattle, goats, sheep and camels. With the exception of cattle and sheep, their numbers in developing countries account for between 94 and 100% of total world population. Their biological attributes, including inherent characteristics, feeding behaviour and metabolism, are summarized. The extent and availability of feed resources are considered; resources include permanent pastures, crop residues, agroindustrial by-products and non-conventional feeds. The prevailing ruminant production systems are classified into three main categories: extensive systems, systems incorporating arable cropping (roadside, communal and arable grazing systems; tethering and cut-and-carry feeding), and systems integrated with tree cropping. Their genesis and endurance with patterns of crop production and farming systems are discussed. Integrated systems, involving animals and tree crops, are potentially important. Prevailing ruminant production systems are unlikely to change in the foreseeable future, unless there are major shifts in resource use and the proposed new systems are demonstrably superior. Factors likely to influence future ruminant production systems are market requirements, available feed resources and growth in human populations. Two associated strategies for improvement are proposed: increased priority to buffaloes, goats, sheep and camels, consistent with their potential contribution to meat, milk and fibre supplies and draught power; and more complete utilization of the available feed ingredients and increased feed supplies

  18. Medical diagnosis in resource-poor tropical countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Rincón, J M; Cuadros-González, J; Malmierca-Corral, E; de Górgolas-Hernández, M

    2015-01-01

    When working in healthcare centers in developing countries where diagnostic resources are limited, clinical skills are of considerable importance. This study presents the diagnostic tools available in resource-poor areas. Anamnesis and physical examination are key components for reaching a correct diagnosis. The laboratory has at its disposal hemograms, basic blood chemistry and urinalysis. The available basic microbiological tests are the study of fresh feces, smears for malaria, direct smears for bacilli in sputum and Gram staining of clinical exudates. Basic radiography of the chest, abdomen, bones and soft tissues are of considerable usefulness but are not available in all centers. Ultrasonography can be of considerable usefulness due to its simplicity and versatility. The diagnosis in low resource conditions should sharpen our clinical skills and should be supported by the use of additional basic tests. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Resource nationalism and credit growth in FSU countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyuzhnova, Yelena; Nygaard, Christian

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the connection between resource nationalism and financial sector intervention in the FSU countries. We consider recent financial development in the FSU and the special features of energy rich emerging economies (Russia and Kazakhstan, in particular) which are influencing recent credit expansions. We find that the hydrocarbon sector has boosted boosting domestic credits through a number of direct and indirect routes. Recent decline in oil prices may change government attitudes to a continued resource nationalist strategy. Sovereign wealth funds that were established in a majority of energy rich emerging economies may, to the extent that they enable the selection of winners in specific economic sectors, create path dependency or exacerbate longer term allocative inefficiency arising from the governance structure associated with resource nationalism.

  20. Resource nationalism and credit growth in FSU countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyuzhnova, Yelena; Nygaard, Christian [The Centre for Euro-Asian Studies, The University of Reading, Whiteknights, PO Box 218, Reading RG6 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-15

    This paper analyses the connection between resource nationalism and financial sector intervention in the FSU countries. We consider recent financial development in the FSU and the special features of energy rich emerging economies (Russia and Kazakhstan, in particular) which are influencing recent credit expansions. We find that the hydrocarbon sector has boosted boosting domestic credits through a number of direct and indirect routes. Recent decline in oil prices may change government attitudes to a continued resource nationalist strategy. Sovereign wealth funds that were established in a majority of energy rich emerging economies may, to the extent that they enable the selection of winners in specific economic sectors, create path dependency or exacerbate longer term allocative inefficiency arising from the governance structure associated with resource nationalism. (author)

  1. Fuel forests: a spreading energy resource in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, N J.H.

    1981-09-01

    The fuel potential of forests, particularly in Third World countries, to raise the contribution of fuelwood to global energy resources is receiving positive notice in the incentive programs for forestry projects offered by lending institutions and actions taken by governments to arrest the loss of forest cover. Residential and industrial use of wood must be balanced by rigorous woodland protection and management to increase tree planting. The example of Korea's success in increasing fuelwood supplies illustrates the importance of public understanding and community involvement so that local environmental and cultural factors are considered and local leaders are involved. 56 references, 1 table. (DCK)

  2. Energy needs, uses, and resources in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmedo, P.F.; Nathans, R.; Beardsworth, E.; Hale, S. Jr.

    1978-03-01

    The report identifies the energy needs, uses, and resources in the developing countries of the world and examines the energy options available to them for their continued social and economic growth. If traditional patterns of development are to continue, oil consumption in the non-OPEC LDCs will grow steadily to become comparable with current U.S. consumption between 2000 and 2020. Attempts to exploit indigenous hydrocarbon resources even in those LDCs with untapped reserves will be limited by shortages of capital and technical manpower. In the absence of major actions to replace noncommercial fuels or to increase the effectiveness with which they are used, a large fraction of the 3 to 4 billion LDC rural population in the year 2000 will not be able to raise their energy usage above subsistence levels. There is a wide variety of solutions to these problems, many of them emerging directly from the changed economics of energy. For example, most LDCs have not adequately explored and developed their own indigenous resources; in virtually all energy conversion and utilization processes there are opportunities for improvements in efficiency and substitution of renewable energy forms. In virtually all these areas there are opportunities for effective assistance activities.

  3. Designing equitable antiretroviral allocation strategies in resource-constrained countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Wilson

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a global commitment has been made to expand access to antiretrovirals (ARVs in the developing world. However, in many resource-constrained countries the number of individuals infected with HIV in need of treatment will far exceed the supply of ARVs, and only a limited number of health-care facilities (HCFs will be available for ARV distribution. Deciding how to allocate the limited supply of ARVs among HCFs will be extremely difficult. Resource allocation decisions can be made on the basis of many epidemiological, ethical, or preferential treatment priority criteria.Here we use operations research techniques, and we show how to determine the optimal strategy for allocating ARVs among HCFs in order to satisfy the equitable criterion that each individual infected with HIV has an equal chance of receiving ARVs. We present a novel spatial mathematical model that includes heterogeneity in treatment accessibility. We show how to use our theoretical framework, in conjunction with an equity objective function, to determine an optimal equitable allocation strategy (OEAS for ARVs in resource-constrained regions. Our equity objective function enables us to apply the egalitarian principle of equity with respect to access to health care. We use data from the detailed ARV rollout plan designed by the government of South Africa to determine an OEAS for the province of KwaZulu-Natal. We determine the OEAS for KwaZulu-Natal, and we then compare this OEAS with two other ARV allocation strategies: (i allocating ARVs only to Durban (the largest urban city in KwaZulu-Natal province and (ii allocating ARVs equally to all available HCFs. In addition, we compare the OEAS to the current allocation plan of the South African government (which is based upon allocating ARVs to 17 HCFs. We show that our OEAS significantly improves equity in treatment accessibility in comparison with these three ARV allocation strategies. We also quantify how the size of the

  4. Load/resource matching for period-of-record computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsey, E.D. Jr.; Robbins, G.E. III

    1991-01-01

    The Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern), an agency of the Department of Energy, is responsible for marketing the power and energy produced at Federal hydroelectric power projects developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in the southwestern United States. This paper reports that in order to maximize benefits from limited resources, to evaluate proposed changes in the operation of existing projects, and to determine the feasibility and marketability of proposed new projects, Southwestern utilizes a period-of-record computer simulation model created in the 1960's. Southwestern is constructing a new computer simulation model to take advantage of changes in computers, policy, and procedures. Within all hydroelectric power reservoir systems, the ability of the resources to match the load demand is critical and presents complex problems. Therefore, the method used to compare available energy resources to energy load demands is a very important aspect of the new model. Southwestern has developed an innovative method which compares a resource duration curve with a load duration curve, adjusting the resource duration curve to make the most efficient use of the available resources

  5. How Emerging Market Resource-poor Firms Compete and Outcompete Advanced Country Resource-Rich Rivals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to comment on Professor Ming-Jer Chen’s recent publication titled “Competitive dynamics: Eastern roots, Western growth” and present an asymmetry reversing perspective on the competitive dynamics between two nonobvious, invisible or indirect competitors, namely......, how emerging market resource-poor firms compete and outcompete advanced country resource-rich rivals. Design/methodology/approach: The author first identifies an important neglect in Professor Chen’s scholarship on competitive dynamics, i.e., the neglect of the ubiquity of the less visible competition...... position, and try to avoid any direct competition with the strong incumbents. They often tactically appear to pursue different paths of development from those of the strong incumbents by focusing on particular product categories and market segments. Doing so allows the resource-poor firms to win times...

  6. Risk management and nuclear human resources management in construction nuclear power plants in the Gulf Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed Hakami; Salim Almarmary

    2009-01-01

    The countries of the Gulf region have the capacity to rapidly expand their economic growth and gross domestic product (GDP). Also, one may observe that their growth rate is very high. To match this, they need a mix of energy sources for this economic growth. Nuclear power plants can have a significant role as a source of energy in the Gulf countries. Although, some of the Gulf countries signed contracts to construct nuclear power plants, they still require high a level of education as well as sufficient and adequate human resources in order to solve complex issues which may happen at nuclear power plants. The objective of this paper is to identify the complex issues that may arise at a nuclear site. Then the paper goes on to discuss how to evaluate these issues. Finally, the paper studies how to manage and control such complex issues in the work place. The advantage of highly educated people as well as sufficient and adequate human resource can increasingly protect and save human health and the natural environment from issues relating to the use of nuclear energy. There are vast theories, strategies and tools that have discussed in regards to human resources management in the nuclear industries. However, this paper chiefly provides a new risk management methodology. This methodology helps to highlight the risk factors and their consequences at nuclear sites. This paper is intended to decrease risks; to protect human health in the work place at nuclear power plants and save the environment within and beyond national borders and for future generations. It aims to increase safety from the use of nuclear energy, particularly in the Gulf countries.(Author)

  7. Mexico's Labor Market: The Importance of Education-Occupation Matching on Wages and Productivity in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Michael A.; Rubb, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    The positive impact of education on earnings, wages, and economic growth is well documented; however, the issue of education-occupation matching in developing countries has been largely ignored. Since workers' levels of schooling and their occupations' required level of education both affect wages, policymakers may find it useful to note if such…

  8. Treatment of chancroid in resource-poor countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annan, Naa Torshie; Lewis, David A

    2005-04-01

    Chancroid, formerly a major cause of the genital ulcer disease syndrome, remains an important cofactor in both the transmission and acquisition of HIV-1 infection. Those countries with the greatest burden of HIV also have some of the highest prevalence rates of chancroid worldwide. The diagnosis of chancroid, caused by the fastidious bacterium Haemophilus ducreyi, is both expensive and difficult in many resource-poor areas. These areas of the world use syndromic management to treat genital ulcers and such an approach has proven effective in reducing rates of bacterial genital ulcer diseases. There are currently inexpensive and effective single-dose therapies available to treat chancroid. Single-dose regimens, given at first presentation, improve compliance and reduce the risk of sexually transmitted infections. Bacterial resistance to several antimicrobial agents has increased over the years and remains a continued threat to effective antimicrobial therapy. Follow-up of cases, and partner notification and treatment is carried out to limit reinfection and onward transmission of chancroid. Patients with coexistent HIV may be particularly at risk of failing single-dose therapy and should therefore be reviewed wherever possible.

  9. Human resource development in nuclear medicine in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopinathan Nair, P.G.

    1998-01-01

    An organization, an enterprise or a movement is only as good as the people in it and these cannot be conceived without considering the people that make it, in other words its human resources (HR). The definition of HR includes the total knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents and aptitudes of the work-force. Equally important it includes the values, attitudes and benefits of each of the individuals concerned. No development is possible without proper planning. HR planning is therefore a prerequisite for HRD in NM and no planning can be made without defining the objectives of Nuclear Medicine (NM) in developing countries (DC). It is also essential to forecast the future needs of NM in DC keeping in mind the stated objectives before laying out the strategies of the HRD. HRD in NM is best achieved when all the partners in the game play their part with commitment and sincerity of purpose. At the national level the partners are the government (ministries of health and education), professional bodies (national societies of NM) and academic bodies (colleges of NM physicians, physicists and technologists etc.). In the implementation of the HRD systems and processes, involvement of all the partners is essential for success. Creation of task forces to implement, monitor and evaluate HRD tools ensures the quality of these tools. The operation of some of these tools may have to be centralized, and others decentralized depending upon the exigencies of need, propriety and practicality. In summary, the aim of HRD should be to ensure the right people at the right time for the right job and in doing so nuclear medicine achieves its objectives and the individuals in the workforce realize their full potentials, and benefits in full

  10. Environmental and resource economics in South Africa: status quo and lessons for developing countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nahman, Anton

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the potential contributions of environmental and resource economics (ERE) to the achievement of sustainable development in developing countries and highlights the limitations associated with applying ERE within a developing country...

  11. Hydrologic modeling for water resource assessment in a developing country: the Rwanda case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve McNulty; Erika Cohen Mack; Ge Sun; Peter Caldwell

    2016-01-01

    Accurate water resources assessment using hydrologic models can be a challenge anywhere, but particularly for developing countries with limited financial and technical resources. Developing countries could most benefit from the water resource planning capabilities that hydrologic models can provide, but these countries are least likely to have the data needed to run ...

  12. Matching methods to produce maps for pest risk analysis to resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Baker

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Decision support systems (DSSs for pest risk mapping are invaluable for guiding pest risk analysts seeking to add maps to pest risk analyses (PRAs. Maps can help identify the area of potential establishment, the area at highest risk and the endangered area for alien plant pests. However, the production of detailed pest risk maps may require considerable time and resources and it is important to match the methods employed to the priority, time and detail required. In this paper, we apply PRATIQUE DSSs to Phytophthora austrocedrae, a pathogen of the Cupressaceae, Thaumetopoea pityocampa, the pine processionary moth, Drosophila suzukii, spotted wing Drosophila, and Thaumatotibia leucotreta, the false codling moth. We demonstrate that complex pest risk maps are not always a high priority and suggest that simple methods may be used to determine the geographic variation in relative risks posed by invasive alien species within an area of concern.

  13. Quality of SME Business Transfers Matching Platforms: Research Outcomes of 12 European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oriol Alba; Edwin Weesie; Marie Depelssemaker; Lex van Teeffelen; Nicolas Pirotte

    2016-01-01

    From the preface : The European Commission supports Member States by providing them with recommendations, guidelines, information and good practices. For years, the European Commission has stimulated Member States to develop matching platforms to efficiently support sellers and buyers of SMEs in

  14. Cervical cancer screening and practice in low resource countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While developed countries have recorded significant reduction in the incidence of cervical cancer owing to organizedscreening programs, treatment of premalignant cervical lesions, and follow‑up of treated cases, developing countries including Nigeria are yet to optimally utilize screening services due to lack of organized ...

  15. Housing Quality and Access to Material and Learning Resources within the Home Environment in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Robert H.; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined home environment conditions (housing quality, material resources, formal and informal learning materials) and their relations with the Human Development Index (HDI) in 28 developing countries. Home environment conditions in these countries varied widely. The quality of housing and availability of material resources at home were…

  16. Matching consumer feeding behaviours and resource traits: a fourth-corner problem in food-web theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Angelo Barbosa; Faria, Lucas Del Bianco

    2018-06-06

    For decades, food web theory has proposed phenomenological models for the underlying structure of ecological networks. Generally, these models rely on latent niche variables that match the feeding behaviour of consumers with their resource traits. In this paper, we used a comprehensive database to evaluate different hypotheses on the best dependency structure of trait-matching patterns between consumers and resource traits. We found that consumer feeding behaviours had complex interactions with resource traits; however, few dimensions (i.e. latent variables) could reproduce the trait-matching patterns. We discuss our findings in the light of three food web models designed to reproduce the multidimensionality of food web data; additionally, we discuss how using species traits clarify food webs beyond species pairwise interactions and enable studies to infer ecological generality at larger scales, despite potential taxonomic differences, variations in ecological conditions and differences in species abundance between communities. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  17. Burden of diseases in poor resource countries: meeting the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Tanzania morbidity due to HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria leads to ... Key words: HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, burden, poverty, research. Introduction ... children and women in particular, die without ever accessing ... 1990s in Tanzania show a mixed picture despite .... percent of the country is highly endemic for the.

  18. Emotional job demands and the role of matching job resources: a cross-sectional survey study among health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Jan; Le Blanc, Pascale M; Peeters, Maria C W; Noordam, Hanneke

    2008-10-01

    Research on emotional labour in health care work has not yet revealed under what conditions emotional job demands have an impact on employee health and well-being. There is a need for more theory to unveil the black box of emotional labour processes. To test the moderating role of matching (i.e. emotional) and non-matching (i.e. cognitive) job resources in the relation between emotional job demands and employee health/well-being (i.e. emotional exhaustion, employee creativity, and work motivation). A cross-sectional survey with anonymous questionnaires was conducted. A large organization for residential elderly care with eight locations in an urban area in the Netherlands. Questionnaires were distributed to 1259 health care workers, of which 826 people returned the questionnaire (66% response rate). In addition to descriptive statistics, multivariate multiple regression analysis (LISREL 8.54) with cross-validation was conducted. Findings showed that emotional job resources moderated the relation between emotional job demands and health/well-being outcomes. Firstly, emotional job resources were able to moderate the relation between emotional job demands and emotional exhaustion. Secondly, both emotional job resources and, to a lesser extent, cognitive job resources were able to moderate the relation between emotional job demands and positive well-being outcomes (i.e. employee creativity and work motivation). Finally, cross-validation showed that parameter estimates did not vary across subsamples. Job resources could compensate for resources lost through meeting the requirements of emotional job demands, thereby reducing stress-reactions and increasing well-being. Providing health care workers with more, preferably matching, job resources could make emotional job demands less stressful, and even stimulating and challenging. Future longitudinal studies should investigate the interplay of emotional job demands and (matching) job resources more profoundly.

  19. Dynamic conservation of forest genetic resources in 33 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefevre, F.; Koskela, J.; Hubert, J.; Kraigher, H.; Longauer, R.; Olrik, D.C.; Vries, de S.M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic conservation of forest genetic resources (FGR) means maintaining the genetic diversity of trees within an evolutionary process and allowing generation turnover in the forest. We assessed the network of forests areas managed for the dynamic conservation of FGR (conservation units) across

  20. Intrahousehold bargaining and resource allocation in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Doss, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Many key development outcomes depend on women's ability to negotiate favorable intrahousehold allocations of resources. Yet it has been difficult to clearly identify which policies can increase women's bargaining power and result in better outcomes. This paper reviews both the analytical frameworks and the empirical evidence on the importance of women's bargaining power. It argues that the...

  1. Challenges in managing postpartum hemorrhage in resource-poor countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoshi, Mahantesh; Keith, Louis

    2009-06-01

    Managing postpartum hemorrhage depends in part on having a prepared mind, a complement of trained coworkers, and full access to modern therapies. The last 2 components are rare in resource-poor areas and their absence may be accentuated by climatic instability and lack of basic transportation. Greater use of the active management of third stage of labor and administration of misoprostol by nontrained birth attendants will provide beneficial reductions in hemorrhage rates in resource-poor areas. Additional improvements depend on increasing public awareness, facilitating existing nongovernmental organizations in their community-related, upgrading training of traditional birth attendants, and providing cell phone communication to workers in remote areas, in addition to providing better access to blood.

  2. Paediatric Palliative Care in Resource-Poor Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Downing

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a great need for paediatric palliative care (PPC services globally, but access to services is lacking in many parts of the world, particularly in resource-poor settings. Globally it is estimated that 21.6 million children need access to palliative care, with 8.2 needing specialist services. PC has been identified as important within the global health agenda e.g., within universal health coverage, and a recent Lancet commission report recognised the need for PPC. However, a variety of challenges have been identified to PPC development globally such as: access to treatment, access to medications such as oral morphine, opiophobia, a lack of trained health and social care professionals, a lack of PPC policies and a lack of awareness about PPC. These challenges can be overcome utilising a variety of strategies including advocacy and public awareness, education, access to medications, implementation and research. Examples will be discussed impacting on the provision of PPC in resource-poor settings. High-quality PPC service provision can be provided with resource-poor settings, and there is an urgent need to scale up affordable, accessible, and quality PPC services globally to ensure that all children needing palliative care can access it.

  3. Resource-conserving agriculture increases yields in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, J N; Noble, A D; Bossio, D; Dixon, J; Hine, R E; Penning De Vries, F W T; Morison, J I L

    2006-02-15

    Despite great recent progress, hunger and poverty remain widespread and agriculturally driven environmental damage is widely prevalent. The idea of agricultural sustainability centers on the need to develop technologies and practices that do not have adverse effects on environmental goods and services, and that lead to improvements in food productivity. Here we show the extent to which 286 recent interventions in 57 poor countries covering 37 M ha (3% of the cultivated area in developing countries) have increased productivity on 12.6 M farms while improving the supply of critical environmental services. The average crop yield increase was 79% (geometric mean 64%). All crops showed water use efficiency gains, with the highest improvement in rainfed crops. Potential carbon sequestered amounted to an average of 0.35 t C ha(-1) y(-1). If a quarter of the total area under these farming systems adopted sustainability enhancing practices, we estimate global sequestration could be 0.1 Gt C y(-1). Of projects with pesticide data, 77% resulted in a decline in pesticide use by 71% while yields grew by 42%. Although it is uncertain whether these approaches can meet future food needs, there are grounds for cautious optimism, particularly as poor farm households benefit more from their adoption.

  4. A Technology Based Program That Matches Enrichment Resources With Student Strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. Renzulli

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Remarkable advances in instructionalcommunication technology (ICT have now made ispossible to provide high levels of enrichment and thekinds of curricular differentiation that facilitateadvanced learning services to students who have accessto a computer and the Internet. But in order tomaximize the potential if ICT it is necessary to constructprograms that are based on learning theory that goesbeyond the didactic and prescriptive models that haveresulted in too much worksheets-on-line and electronicencyclopedias. The Renzulli Learning System (RLSuses a strength-based learning theory called theEnrichment Triad Model that is purposefully designedto promote advanced level learning, creativeproductivity, and high levels of student engagement byfocusing on the application of knowledge rather than themere acquisition and storage of information.The Renzulli Learning System is acomprehensive program that begins by providing acomputer-generated profile of each student’s academicstrengths, interests, learning styles, and preferred modesof expression. A search engine then matches Internetresources to the student’s profile from fourteen carefullyscreened data bases that are categorized by subject area,grade level, state curricular standards, and degree ofcomplexity. There are also hundreds of enrichmentactivities that can be down loaded and reproduced forindividual or group learning activities. A managementsystem called the Wizard Project Maker guides studentsin the application of knowledge to teacher or studentselected assignments, independent research studies, orcreative projects that individuals or small groups wouldlike to pursue. Students and teachers can evaluate thequality of students’ products using a rubric called TheStudent Product Assessment Form. Students can rateeach site visited, conduct a self-assessment of what theyhave gained from the site, and place resources in theirown Total talent Portfolio for future use. RLS alsoincludes a

  5. Metal recycling - a renewable resource in Gulf Cooperative Countries region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, M.E. [Bahrain Univ. (Bahrain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-12-01

    The exhaustion of natural resources and growing environmental awareness highlighted the necessity of metal recycling all over the world. The production/consumption activities in the GCC region do generate annually a huge amount of valuable ferrous and nonferrous metal scrap. This paper deals with the benefits of metal recycling to the GCC region in lights of energetic, environmental and economic points of view. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die abnehmenden Vorraete von Primaermetallen sowie das zunehmende Umweltbewusstsein machen das Metall-Recycling auf der ganzen Welt notwendig. Die Produktions- und Verbrauchsaktivitaeten in der GCC-Region erzeugen jaehrlich riesige Mengen von wertvollem eisen- und nicht eisenhaltigen Schrott. Dieser Beitrag befasst sich mit dem Energie-Verbrauch, dem Umweltschutz und der Wirtschaft des Recycling und stellt dessen Vorteile fuer die GCC-Region vor. (orig.)

  6. The new context for industrializing around natural resources: an opportunity for Latin America (and other resource rich countries)?

    OpenAIRE

    Carlota Perez

    2015-01-01

    This chapter argues that development is a moving target, and that windows of opportunity to both ‘catch up’ and ‘leap ahead’ present themselves at certain times and in specific regions due to technological revolutions and paradigm shifts. Having examined the historical precedents, it observes that the exploitation and processing of natural resources (NR), once seen as a ‘curse’ for developing nations, present such an opportunity for Latin America and other resource-rich countries at this stag...

  7. Assessment and Evaluation of National Human Resource Development System Competitiveness in Emerging Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, HunSeok; Seo, DongIn; Kim, JuSeuk; Yoo, SangOk; Seong, HeeChang

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed and evaluated the competitiveness of national human resource development (NHRD) systems in emerging countries with potential for growth. The literature on emerging countries and NHRD systems was reviewed. The study developed a model mechanism with forty-one indices and nine sub-components for the NHRD system assessment in…

  8. Country report on human resource development in nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanitsuksombut, Warapon; Noochpramool, Kovit

    2000-01-01

    The short-term plan is to promote utilization of the new research reactor in Thailand. The long-term plan is to gain public understanding and acceptance of nuclear technology. Since 1991, the office has conducted training and seminars in nuclear related field. The major training is in radiation protection, and training in nuclear reactor was at noticeably smaller portion. For ten years of training, 3,649 persons passed different radiation protection courses. Education programs in universities are outlined with the curriculums in the paper. It is clear that the manpower produced in nuclear field in Thailand is inadequate. Further more, most of them are working in limited areas in specific institutes, research laboratories, modern hospitals, and academic teaching. They seldom contact with the public. Hence communication to the public is lacking. After the training course for schoolteachers in our research reactor site, many of them appreciate new knowledge of nuclear technology. They became to realize that they had been involved with the nuclear technology before in their everyday well being. The urgent need is to arrange various suitable courses on research reactor utilization. In this effort, the exchange of information, equipment as well as teaching materials form developed institutes are necessary. The urgent need is a system of qualification for Radiation Protection Officer. By exchange of information and seminars, it may help the country to decide whether the harmonization and accreditation of training courses or the accredited examination is adopted. For long-term achievement, a regular seminar for schoolteacher should be formulated, and a program for social and economics curriculum in nuclear field should be initiated. (Tanaka, Y.)

  9. Comparative Analysis of OECD Member Countries' Competitive Advantage in National Human Resource Development System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hunseok; Choi, Yeseul; Choi, Myungweon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess, evaluate, and compare the competitive advantages of the human resource development systems of advanced countries. The Global Human Resource Development Index was utilized for this study, since it has been validated through an expert panel's content review and analytic hierarchy process. Using a sample of 34…

  10. Access Point Backhaul Resource Aggregation as a Many-to-One Matching Game in Wireless Local Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawther Hassine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies backhaul bandwidth aggregation in the context of a wireless local area network composed of two different types of access points: those with spare backhaul capacity (which we term providers and those in shortage of it (beneficiaries; the aim is to transfer excess capacity from providers to beneficiaries. We model the system as a matching game with many-to-one setting wherein several providers can be matched to one beneficiary and adopt the so-called deferred acceptance algorithm to reach an optimal and stable solution. We consider two flavors, when the beneficiaries are limited in their resource demands and when they are not, and two scenarios, when resources are abundant and when they are scarce. Our results show that the many-to-one setting outperforms the one-to-one case in terms of overall throughput gain, resource usage, and individual beneficiaries satisfaction by up to 50%, whether resources are scarce or abundant. As of the limited versus nonlimited case, the former ensures more fair sharing of spectral resources and higher satisfaction percentage between beneficiaries.

  11. Functioning and disability in people living with spinal cord injury in high- and low-resourced countries: a comparative analysis of 14 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Jan D; Mansmann, Ulrich; Fellinghauer, Bernd A G; Strobl, Ralf; Grill, Eva; von Elm, Erik; Stucki, Gerold

    2011-06-01

    We examined whether persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) from countries with differential resources and resource distribution differ in the level and structure of functioning and disability. We analysed cross-sectional data of 1,048 persons with SCI from 14 countries based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). We used penalized logistic regression to identify ICF categories distinguishing lower- and higher-resourced countries. Hierarchical linear models were employed to predict the number of problems in functioning. The association structure of ICF categories was compared between higher- and lower-resourced countries using graphical models. A total of 96 ICF categories separated lower- and higher-resourced countries. Differences were not univocal. Lower resources and unequal distribution were predictive of more functional problems in persons with higher age or tetraplegia. In the graphical models, few associations between ICF categories persisted across countries. Higher-resourced countries do not score higher in all ICF categories. Countries' economic resources and their distribution are significant predictors of disability in vulnerable groups such as tetraplegics and the elderly. Functioning is multi-dimensional and structures of association suggest that country-specific pathways towards disability exist.

  12. Screening for genital tuberculosis in a limited resource country: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Namani, Sadie; Qehaja-Bu?aj, Emine; Namani, Diell?za

    2017-01-01

    Background Screening for benign or malignant process of pelvis in young females is a challenge for a physician in a limited resource country. Tuberculosis should be always considered in the differential diagnosis of a pelvic mass in countries with high prevalence of tuberculosis. Negative results of analysis of peritoneal fluid for acid-fast staining, late cultures, and unavailability of new diagnostics methods such as polymerase chain reaction and adenosine deaminase of the aspirated fluid f...

  13. The Role of Home Country Political Resources for Brazilian Multinational Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Regina Vieira Bazuchi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the interactions between home country governments and Developing Country Multinational Companies (DMNCs. Drawing on evidence from the Brazilian political environment and Brazilian multinationals we investigate the mechanisms governments use to influence the internationalization process of domestic companies and firms’ political strategic responses to shape the political institutional environment in which they operate. We argue that foreign direct investment (FDI outflows from developing economies need to be explored given specific country level contextual factors, such as high levels of government involvement. Our main findings support this idea and indicate that home country governments use a series of formal and informal mechanisms in order to drive the international expansion of DMNCs in both the entry and consolidation phases. Moreover, DMNCs political behavior in the home country political environment accounts for an important part of their strategy to develop political resources and obtain above average returns from governmental benefits.

  14. Technological Innovation and Developmental Strategies for Sustainable Management of Aquatic Resources in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agboola, Julius Ibukun

    2014-12-01

    Sustainable use and allocation of aquatic resources including water resources require implementation of ecologically appropriate technologies, efficient and relevant to local needs. Despite the numerous international agreements and provisions on transfer of technology, this has not been successfully achieved in developing countries. While reviewing some challenges to technological innovations and developments (TID), this paper analyzes five TID strategic approaches centered on grassroots technology development and provision of localized capacity for sustainable aquatic resources management. Three case studies provide examples of successful implementation of these strategies. Success requires the provision of localized capacity to manage technology through knowledge empowerment in rural communities situated within a framework of clear national priorities for technology development.

  15. Matching opportunities with resources: a framework for analysing (migrant) entrepreneurship from a mixed embeddedness perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, an innovative analytical framework for the analysis of (migrant) entrepreneurship is presented. The approach combines the microlevel of the individual entrepreneur (with his or her resources), with the meso-level of the local opportunity structure and links the latter, in more loose

  16. A matter of match? an experiment on choosing specific job resources in different demanding work situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tooren, van den M.; Jonge, de J.; Dormann, C.

    2012-01-01

    Though research on the demand-induced strain compensation (DISC) model has suggested that the type of job resources people employ to deal with job demands may have serious implications for job stress theory and practice, not much is known about the choices people make regarding the investment of job

  17. A matter of match? An experiment on choosing specific job resources in different demanding work situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Tooren, M.; de Jonge, J.; Dormann, C.

    2012-01-01

    Though research on the demand-induced strain compensation (DISC) model has suggested that the type of job resources people employ to deal with job demands may have serious implications for job stress theory and practice, not much is known about the choices people make regarding the investment of job

  18. The role of matching job resources in different demanding work situations : a vignette study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tooren, van den M.; Jonge, de J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines human service employees' beliefs about the availability, relevance, and use of specific types of job resources (i.e. cognitive, emotional, and physical) in similar types of demanding situations at work. To gain a better understanding of these intra-psychic processes assumed to

  19. Matching of Resources and the Design of Organizations for Project Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunningham, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses a problem common to many high-technology firms. How can firms select and resource appropriate projects while balancing the needs of management as well as technologists? We argue that such problems result in social dilemmas for organizations, requiring practical institutional

  20. Job demands, job resources, and self-regulatory behavior : exploring the issue of match

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tooren, van den M.

    2011-01-01

    In the field of Industrial and Organizational psychology, several job stress models have been developed that aim to explain the relation between job demands, job resources, and job strain. One of these job stress models is the Demand-Induced Strain Compensation (DISC) Model. The aim of this thesis

  1. Priority needs and wisdom strategy for blood transfusion safety in developing low-resource countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrazik, Abeer Mohamed; Ezzat Ahmed, Ghada M

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the implementation of alternative safety measures that reduce the risk of transfusion transmissible infections as an affordable measure in low resource countries. It is still difficult in developing countries with limited resources to mandate nucleic acid testing due to its high cost. Although NAT reduces the window period of infection, the developing countries are still in need of an efficient and effective transfusion programme before implementing the complex high cost NAT. Two thousand eight hundred eighty sero-negative first-time and repeat donations from Fayoum University Hospital blood bank were individually analysed by NAT for HIV, HBV and HCV. Only discriminatory-positive NAT were classified comparing the non-remunerated and family replacement donations. Significant discriminatory-positive differences were observed for HBV NAT results, 2 remunerated donations compared to 0 non-remunerated sero-negative donations. The discriminatory positive differences were also significant for HCV NAT results, 4 remunerated donations compared to 1 non-remunerated sero-negative donation. No sero-negative, discriminatory-positive NAT HIV case was found. Seven out of 8 discriminatory positive cases were from first time donations. In order to ensure blood safety, the recruitment and retention of voluntary, non-remunerated repeat donors should be a major commitment for low resource countries in which NAT implementation is costly and not feasible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Limited resources of genome sequencing in developing countries: Challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Helmy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The differences between countries in national income, growth, human development and many other factors are used to classify countries into developed and developing countries. There are several classification systems that use different sets of measures and criteria. The most common classifications are the United Nations (UN and the World Bank (WB systems. The UN classification system uses the UN Human Development Index (HDI, an indicator that uses statistic of life expectancy, education, and income per capita for countries' classification. While the WB system uses gross national income (GNI per capita that is calculated using the World Bank Atlas method. According to the UN and WB classification systems, there are 151 and 134 developing countries, respectively, with 89% overlap between the two systems. Developing countries have limited human development, and limited expenditure in education and research, among several other limitations. The biggest challenge facing genomic researchers and clinicians is limited resources. As a result, genomic tools, specifically genome sequencing technologies, which are rapidly becoming indispensable, are not widely available. In this report, we explore the current status of sequencing technologies in developing countries, describe the associated challenges and emphasize potential solutions.

  3. Testing and extending the triple match principle in the nursing profession: a generational perspective on job demands, job resources and strain at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie-Tremblay, Melanie; Trépanier, Sarah-Geneviève; Fernet, Claude; Bonneville-Roussy, Arielle

    2014-02-01

    The Triple Match Principle offers insight into the interactive interplay between job demands and job resources in the prediction of work-related strain. The aim of this article was to examine the interplay among job demands, job resources and strain in the nursing profession (the Triple Match Principle) and to gain insight into potential generational differences by investigating generation as a moderator of that interplay. No research has been done to evaluate generational differences in the Triple Match Principle. In a context of nursing shortages, it seems important to examine the relevance of the Triple Match Principle with respect to different generations of nurses. Cross-sectional study. A total of 1254 public healthcare sector nurses in Quebec, Canada, completed a questionnaire in the autumn of 2010. The questionnaire was used to assess cognitive, emotional and physical job demands and resources; psychological distress; psychosomatic complaints; and turnover intention. The results supported the Triple Match Principle and showed that job resources were more likely to buffer the effect of job demands on strain as the degree of match in qualitative dimension among demands, resources and strain increased (33·3% of triple-match interactions, 22·22% of double-match interactions and 16·67% non-match interactions were significant). Moreover, generation played a key role in this interplay, as it increased the number of significant qualitative interactions among job demands, job resources and strain. The results underscore the necessity of providing adequate job resources tailored to the specific job demands nurses face, to counteract the negative effects of those demands. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Development and human resources in the Islamic world: a study of selected countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duza, M B

    1987-01-01

    "The present paper attempts to provide an analytical profile of development and human resources in [12] selected [Islamic] countries." The countries--Bangladesh, Somalia, Pakistan, Indonesia, Egypt, Turkey, Malaysia, Algeria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and United Arab Emirates--vary in income levels from low to high and in population size from 1 million to 159 million. Using data from the World Bank and the Population Council, comparisons are made on the basis of mortality and fertility levels, family size, income, urbanization, labor force size and growth, education, nutrition, and health. Governmental policy changes and future directions are discussed. excerpt

  5. Present and future nuclear power generation as a reflection of individual countries' resources and objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, I.Y.

    1987-01-01

    The nuclear reactor industry has been in a state of decline for more than a decade in most of the world. The reasons are numerous and often unique to the energy situation of individual countries. Two commonly cited issues influence decisions relating to construction of reactors: costs and the need, or lack thereof, for additional generating capacity. Public concern has ''politicized'' the nuclear industry in many non-communist countries, causing a profound effect on the economics of the option. The nuclear installations and future plans are reviewed on a country-by-country basis for 36 countries in the light of the resources and objectives of each. Because oil and gas for power production throughout the world are being phased out as much as possible, coal-fired generation currently tends to be the chosen alternative to nuclear power production. Exceptions occur in many of the less developed countries that collectively have a very limited operating experience with nuclear reactors. The Chernobyl accident in the USSR alarmed the public; however, national strategies and plans to build reactors have not changed markedly in the interim. Assuming that the next decade of nuclear power generation is uneventful, additional electrical demand would cause the nuclear power industry to experience a rejuvenation in Europe as well as in the US. 80 refs., 3 figs., 22 tabs

  6. Renewable energy resources and their role in the energy balance of the country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, P.; Trifonova, L.

    2001-01-01

    The role of the renewable energy sources in the energy production sector is discussed. The main features of solar, wind and biomass energy are reviewed. Studies for Bulgaria show a total solar radiation above 1600 kWh/m 2 for the Southern regions. The assessment of the solar resources, made by the DOE gives about 170 000 TWh/y for the whole territory. The economically advantageous resources for passive heating are 10.6 TWh till 2020. For the same period the utilization of 0.92 TWh solar energy is possible. Solar installations with surface about 14 000 m 2 are currently in operation. 54% of them are in the tourism sphere and only 8% are in industry (due to some economical difficulties about 44% of the industrial installations are shut down). On the base of processing of the data from more that 100 meteorological stations on the country territory, a spatial assessment of the resources has been done. For the whole territory the wind potential is estimated to about 15800 GW. Theoretical average annual wind resources at 10 km above the surface are 125 000 TWh. There are several areas with wind velocity 5-6 m/s which are suitable for wind energy production. The energy resources of biomass for the country are large - around 35.5 TWh. Under the programmes 'Country Study Project' and PHARE, different scenarii for the renewable energy source utilization till 2020 are developed. Estimation for the possibilities for wider application of the renewable sources in the market are done

  7. The practice of career development in the international human resource management of the European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berber Nemanja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The function very close to the training in the management of human resources is certainly the human resource development. Specifically, the employees acquire new knowledge, abilities and skills during the training process, but also gain new experiences through various business tasks during their working life, developing themselves both, in private life and in the professional sense. Human resource development is seen as the development of the expertise of people through organizational development and training of employees in order of improvement of the performances. In this paper authors explored the practice of carrier development in European countries. Research was based on data from international project, CRANET, in the period from 2008 to 2010. The authors presented data about the usage of techniques for evaluation of career development and investigated obtained results.

  8. Natural resources - food nexus: food-related environmental footprints in the mediterranean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacirignola, Cosimo; Capone, Roberto; Debs, Philipp; El Bilali, Hamid; Bottalico, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Immediate action is required in the Mediterranean to address environmental degradation that is mainly driven by consumption patterns. Increasing stress on biological and social systems is put by unsustainable consumption patterns. Food consumption patterns are important drivers of environment degradation. The objective of this review paper is to explore natural resources-food nexus in the Mediterranean region by highlighting the environmental footprints of the current consumption and production patterns. Secondary data from different sources such as FAOSTAT, the World Bank, Water Footprint Network (WFN), and Global Footprint Network were used to analyze the situation in 21 Mediterranean countries. The region faces many environmental challenges, e.g., land degradation, water scarcity, environment pollution, biodiversity loss, and climate change. The current consumption patterns imply high ecological, carbon, and water footprints of consumption and unfavorable national virtual-water balances. Food Balance Sheets data show that the contribution of vegetal and animal-based food product groups to food supply is variable among the Mediterranean countries. This has implications also in terms of the WF of food supply, which was calculated for Bosnia, Egypt, Italy, Morocco, and Turkey. The WF of the current diet resulted lower than that of the proposed Mediterranean one in the case of Italy. There is a strong scientific evidence supporting assumption that it is so also for other Mediterranean countries. The Mediterranean is characterized by a high resource use intensity that is further exacerbated by food losses and waste (FLW). In fact, FLW implies the loss of precious resources (water, land, energy) and inputs (fertilizers). Therefore, it is crucial to increase adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet and to reduce FLW in order to foster transition to more sustainable food consumption patterns thus reducing pressure on the scarce resources of the Mediterranean

  9. Matching Up to the Information Society: An Evaluation of the EU, the EU Accession Countries, Switzerland and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graafland-Essers, Irma; Cremonini, Leon; Ettedgui, Emile; Botterman, Maarten

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the current understanding of the advancement of the Information Society within the European Union and countries that are up for accession in 2004, and is based on the SIBIS (Statistical Indicators Benchmarking the Information Society) surveys and analyses per SIBIS theme and country. The report is unique in its coherent and…

  10. How Can We Assess and Evaluate the Competitive Advantage of a Country's Human Resource Development System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hunseok; Ryu, Hyue-Hyun; Choi, Myungweon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an index to assess and evaluate the competitive advantage of a country's human resource development system. Based on an extensive literature review, a theoretical model of a human resource development system at the national level (named National Human Resource Development: NHRD) was constructed. The…

  11. Diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia: potential options for resource-limited countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen Rumman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a genetic disease of ciliary function leading to chronic upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms. The diagnosis is frequently overlooked because the symptoms are nonspecific and the knowledge about the disease in the primary care setting is poor. Additionally, none of the available tests is accurate enough to be used in isolation. These tests are expensive, and need sophisticated equipment and expertise to analyse and interpret results; diagnosis is therefore only available at highly specialised centres. The diagnosis is particularly challenging in countries with limited resources due to the lack of such costly equipment and expertise. In this review, we discuss the importance of early and accurate diagnosis especially for countries where the disease is clinically prevalent but diagnostic tests are lacking. We review the diagnostic tests available in specialised centres (nasal nitric oxide, high-speed video microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence and genetics. We then consider modifications that might be considered in less well-resourced countries whilst maintaining acceptable accuracy.

  12. A kidney transplantation model in a low-resource country: an experience from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Syed Adibul Hasan; Naqvi, Syed Ali Anwar; Zafar, Mirza Naqi; Akhtar, Syed Fazal

    2013-05-01

    Pakistan is a low-resource country with a population of 185 million where expenditure on health is 1.3% of the gross national product. The estimated incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is 100 per million of the population. The paucity and high costs of renal replacement therapy render more than 90% of the ESRD population disenfranchised from replacement therapy. Our center, which is a government sector organization, established as an integrated dialysis and living related renal transplant program in the 1980s, where all services were provided free of cost to all patients with life-long follow-up care including medications. The model was based on a concept of community/government partnership where the contributions to funds vary between 40% and 60% for each partner. The model has been self sustaining for 25 years, with an annual budget of $28 million in 2010. Presently, over 600 patients are dialyzed each day and each week, 7-10 patients have received live related transplants. The overall 1- and 5-year graft survival rate of 3150 transplants is 92% and 85%, respectively. Free dialysis and transplantation established our institute as a focus of transplantation in the country. This model therefore allowed the institute to have a vital role in the campaign against transplant tourism and in the promulgation of the transplant law. It shows that in low-resource countries, specialized centers in the government sector can, with community support, provide high-quality ESRD care to the disenfranchised population.

  13. Screening for genital tuberculosis in a limited resource country: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namani, Sadie; Qehaja-Buçaj, Emine; Namani, Diellëza

    2017-02-07

    Screening for benign or malignant process of pelvis in young females is a challenge for a physician in a limited resource country. Tuberculosis should be always considered in the differential diagnosis of a pelvic mass in countries with high prevalence of tuberculosis. Negative results of analysis of peritoneal fluid for acid-fast staining, late cultures, and unavailability of new diagnostics methods such as polymerase chain reaction and adenosine deaminase of the aspirated fluid from peritoneal cavity can often result in invasive diagnostic procedures such as laparotomy. We report a case of a 24 year old Albanian unemployed female living in urban place in Kosovo who presented with abdominal pain, loss of appetite, fever, headache, a weight loss, nonproductive cough and menstrual irregularity for three weeks. In this example case, the patient with cystic mass in tubo-ovarial complex and elevated serum cancer antigen 125 levels was diagnosed for genital tuberculosis after performing laparotomy. Caseose mass found in left tubo-ovarial complex and histopathological examination of biopsied tissue were the fastest diagnostic tools for confirming pelvis TB. The Lowenstein-Jensen cultures were positive after six weeks and her family history was positive for tuberculosis. Young females with abdominopelvic mass, ascites, a positive family history for tuberculosis and high serum cancer antigen 125, should always raise suspicion of tuberculosis especially in a limited resource country. A laparoscopy combined with peritoneal biopsy should be performed to confirm the diagnosis as this could lead to a prevention of unnecessary laparotomies.

  14. Modelling Oil‑Sector Dependency of Tax Revenues in a Resource Rich Country: Evidence from Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akif Musayev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting tax revenues is an important issue in budget planning. As a resource rich country, Azerbaijan’s budget revenues is severely depend on oil price and production levels. This study investigates oil sector dependency of state budget tax revenues in case of Azerbaijan by employing FMOLS, DOLS and CCR cointegration methods for the period of 2000Q1 – 2015Q2. Empirical results indicate statistically and economically significant positive long‑run impact of both oil related factors on tax revenues. Considering current fiscal challenges in the country, research findings are very useful for policy purposes and fills the gap in the literature by drawing mechanism of the association and estimating the relationship empirically.

  15. First report on the state of the world's animal genetic resources. Views on biotechnology as expressed in country reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardellino, R.; Hoffmann, I.; Tempelman, K.A.

    2005-01-01

    As part of the country-driven strategy for the management of farm animal genetic resources, FAO invited 188 counties to participate in the First Report on the State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources, with 145 consenting. Their reports are an important source of information on the use of biotechnology, particularly biotechnical products and processes. This paper analyses information from country reports so far submitted, and is therefore preliminary. There is clearly a big gap in biotechnology applications between developed and developing countries, with artificial insemination the most common technology used in developing countries, although not everywhere. More complex techniques, such as embryo transfer (ET) and molecular tools, are even less frequent in developing countries. Most developing countries wish to expand ET and establish gene banks and cryoconservation techniques. There are very few examples in developing countries of livestock breeding programmes capable of incorporating molecular biotechnologies in livestock genetic improvement programmes. (author)

  16. BK Virus-Associated Nephropathy: Current Situation in a Resource-Limited Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yooprasert, P; Rotjanapan, P

    Data on BK virus-associated nephropathy (BKVAN) and treatment strategy in a resource-limited country are scarce. This study aimed to evaluate epidemiology of BKVAN and its situation in Thailand. A retrospective analysis was conducted among adult kidney transplant recipients at Ramathibodi Hospital from October 2011 to September 2016. Patients' demographic data, information on kidney transplantation, immunosuppressive therapy, cytomegalovirus and BK virus infections, and allograft outcomes were retrieved and analyzed. This study included 623 kidney transplant recipients. Only 327 patients (52.49%) received BK virus infection screening, and 176 of 327 patients had allograft dysfunction as a trigger for screening. BKVAN was identified in 39 of 327 patients (11.93%). Deceased donor transplantation and cytomegalovirus infection were associated with a higher risk of BKVAN (odds ratio = 2.2, P = .024, 95% confidence intervals [1.1, 4.43], and odds ratio = 2.6, P = .006, 95% confidence intervals [1.29, 5.26], respectively). BKVAN patients were at significantly higher risk for allograft rejection (P < .001) and allograft failure (P = .036). At the end of the study, 4 graft losses were documented (12.12%). BKVAN was associated with high rate of allograft rejection and failure. However, surveillance of its complications has been underperformed at our facility. Implementing a formal practice guideline may improve allograft outcome in resource-limited countries. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Persuading people to eat less junk food: a cognitive resource match between attitudinal ambivalence and health message framing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Changmin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the interactive effects of attitudinal ambivalence and health message framing on persuading people to eat less junk food. Within the heuristic-systematic model of information processing, an attitudinal ambivalence (ambivalent or univalent toward eating junk food) by health message framing (advantage- or disadvantage-framed appeals) between-subjects experiment was conducted to explore a cognitive resource-matching effect and the underlying mediation processes. Ambivalent individuals reported a higher level of cognitive elaboration than univalent individuals did. The disadvantage frame engendered more extensive cognitive elaboration than the advantage frame did. Ambivalent individuals were more persuaded by the disadvantage frame and, for them, cognitive elaboration mediated the persuasion process via the systematic route. Univalent individuals were equally persuaded by the advantage frame and the disadvantage frame and, for them, neither the perceived frame valence nor cognitive elaboration mediated persuasion. Discussion of the null results among the univalent group leads to a response-reinforcement explanation. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  18. Beyond Wage Bill Ceilings : The Impact of Government Fiscal and Human Resource Management Policies on the Health Workforce in Developing Countries, Background Country Study for Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    One of the main explanations put forth on why access to health workers is so low in developing countries is that there are insufficient resources within the public sector to pay the wage bill - the salary and allowance payments - of an expanded health workforce. In turn, the lack of wage bill resources for the health sector is thought to be a direct result of restrictive macroeconomic poli...

  19. Biomedical laboratory science education: standardising teaching content in resource-limited countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Arneson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a worldwide shortage of qualified laboratory personnel to provide adequate testing for the detection and monitoring of diseases. In an effort to increase laboratory capacity in developing countries, new skills have been introduced into laboratory services. Curriculum revision with a focus on good laboratory practice is an important aspect of supplying entry-level graduates with the competencies needed to meet the current needs. Objectives: Gaps in application and problem-solving competencies of newly graduated laboratory personnel were discovered in Ethiopia, Tanzania and Kenya. New medical laboratory teaching content was developed in Ethiopia, Tanzania and Kenya using national instructors, tutors, and experts and consulting medical laboratory educators from the United States of America (USA. Method: Workshops were held in Ethiopia to create standardised biomedical laboratory science (BMLS lessons based on recently-revised course objectives with an emphasis on application of skills. In Tanzania, course-module teaching guides with objectives were developed based on established competency outcomes and tasks. In Kenya, example interactive presentations and lesson plans were developed by the USA medical laboratory educators prior to the workshop to serve as resources and templates for the development of lessons within the country itself. Results: The new teaching materials were implemented and faculty, students and other stakeholders reported successful outcomes. Conclusions: These approaches to updating curricula may be helpful as biomedical laboratory schools in other countries address gaps in the competencies of entry-level graduates.

  20. EVALUATION OF FINANCIAL AUTONOMY PROCESS OF BINH THUAN PROVINCE IN TRAINING PUBLIC HUMAN RESOURCES IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    NGUYEN THANH, NHAN

    2012-01-01

    This paper will discuss the financial autonomy in training public human resources in foreign countries in Binh Thuan province. The process of financial autonomy helps Binh Thuan province be proactive in dealing with its performances in many aspects, especially in training public human resources. Although central government has built many training policies, the training focuses on the fields that meet the general requirements of the whole country. This leads to the situation that the trained m...

  1. Using mobile electronic devices to deliver educational resources in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazal, Jonathan Robert; Ludwig, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries have far fewer trained radiography professionals than developed countries, which exacerbates the limited access to imaging services. The lack of trained radiographers reflects, in part, limited availability of radiographer-specific educational resources. Historically, organizations that provided such resources in the developing world faced challenges related to the limited stock of current materials as well as expenses associated with shipping and delivery. Four mobile electronic devices (MEDs) were loaded with educational content (e-books, PDFs, and digital applications) spanning major radiography topics. The MEDs were distributed to 4 imaging departments in Ghana, India, Nepal, and Nigeria based on evidence of need for radiography-specific resources, as revealed by survey responses. A cost comparison of postal delivery vs digital delivery of educational content was performed. The effectiveness of delivering additional content via Wi-Fi transmission also was evaluated. Feedback was solicited on users' experience with the MEDs as a delivery tool for educational content. An initial average per e-book expense of $30.05, which included the cost of the device, was calculated for the MED delivery method compared with $15.56 for postal delivery of printed materials. The cost of the MED delivery method was reduced to an average of $10.05 for subsequent e-book deliveries. Additional content was successfully delivered via Wi-Fi transmission to all recipients during the 3-month follow-up period. Overall user feedback on the experience was positive, and ideas for enhancing the MED-based method were identified. Using MEDs to deliver radiography-specific educational content appears to be more cost effective than postal delivery of printed materials on a long-term basis. MEDs are more efficient for providing updates to educational materials. Customization of content to department needs, and using projector devices could enhance the usefulness of MEDs for

  2. Matching demand with supply at low cost in 139 countries among 20 world regions with 100% intermittent wind, water, and sunlight (WWS) for all purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobson, Mark Z.; Delucchi, Mark A.; Cameron, Mary A.

    2018-01-01

    Matching electricity, heat, and cold demand with supply at low cost is the greatest concern facing countries seeking to provide their all-purpose energy with 100% clean, renewable wind, water, and sunlight (WWS). Implementing WWS worldwide could eliminate 4–7 million annual air pollution deaths......, first slow then reverse global warming, and provide energy sustainably. This study derives zero-load-loss technical solutions to matching demand with 100% WWS supply; heat, cold, and electricity storage; hydrogen production; assumed all-distance transmission; and demand response for 20 world regions...... are similar, WWS requires ∼42.5% less energy in a base case and ∼57.9% less in a heat-pump case so may reduce capital and consumer costs significantly. Further, WWS social (energy + health + climate) costs per unit energy are one-fourth BAU's. By reducing water vapor, the wind turbines proposed may rapidly...

  3. Productive diversification in natural resource abundant countries : limitations, policies and the experience of Argentina in the 2000s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A. Serino (Leandro)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe debate on the pattern of specialization in natural resource abundant countries has re-emerged as demand for raw materials and food products from the rapidly growing East Asian countries, speculation in financial markets, and changes in production techniques augmented the

  4. Republic of Ecuador Country Environmental Analysis : Environmental Quality and Natural Resource Management for Sustained Economic Growth and Poverty Alleviation

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    Ecuador is a country with exceptional natural resource and environmental advantages and challenges. It is strategically located and has considerable oil reserves in the interior and the coastal region. This document does not aim to describe the state of the environment in Ecuador. Rather, its main objective is to provide an analytical foundation to identify the country's institutional weak...

  5. Human Resource Management in Public Higher Education in the Tempus Partner Countries. A Tempus Study. Issue 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubosc, Flora; Kelo, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to give an overview of the ways in which human resources are managed in public higher education institutions in the Tempus Partner Countries. It is based on a survey addressed to individuals involved in Tempus projects and on information gathered at the level of the national authorities. In all the countries covered by the…

  6. 10 Best resources on… intersectionality with an emphasis on low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Elizabeth; George, Asha; Morgan, Rosemary; Poteat, Tonia

    2016-10-01

    Intersectionality has emerged as an important framework for understanding and responding to health inequities by making visible the fluid and interconnected structures of power that create them. It promotes an understanding of the dynamic nature of the privileges and disadvantages that permeate health systems and affect health. It considers the interaction of different social stratifiers (e.g. 'race'/ethnicity, indigeneity, gender, class, sexuality, geography, age, disability/ability, migration status, religion) and the power structures that underpin them at multiple levels. In doing so, it is a departure from previous health inequalities research that looked at these forms of social stratification in isolation from one another or in an additive manner. Despite its potential use and long history in other disciplines, intersectionality is uncommonly used in health systems research in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). To orient readers to intersectionality theory and research, we first define intersectionality and describe its role in public health, and then we review resources on intersectionality. We found that applications in public health mostly increased after 2009, with only 14 out of 86 articles focused on LMICs. To arrive at 10 best resources, we selected articles based on the proportion of the article that was devoted to intersectionality, the strength of the intersectionality analysis, and its relevance to LMICs. The first four resources explain intersectionality as a methodology. The subsequent six articles apply intersectionality to research in LMIC with quantitative and qualitative analysis. We provide examples from India, Swaziland, Uganda and Mexico. Topics for the studies range from HIV, violence and sexual abuse to immunization and the use of health entitlements. Through these 10 resources, we hope to spark interest and open a needed conversation on the importance and use of intersectional analysis in LMICs as part of understanding people

  7. Developing an appropriate digital hearing aid for low-resource countries: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israsena, P; Isaradisaikul, S; Noymai, A; Boonyanukul, S; Hemakom, A; Chinnarat, C; Navacharoen, N; Lekagul, S

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the development process and discusses the key findings which resulted from our multidisciplinary research team's effort to develop an alternative digital hearing suitable for low-resource countries such as Thailand. A cost-effective, fully programmable digital hearing aid, with its specifications benchmarking against WHO's recommendations, was systematically designed, engineered, and tested. Clinically it had undergone a full clinical trial that employed the outcome measurement protocol adopted from the APHAB, the first time implemented in Thai language. Results indicated that using the hearing aid improves user's satisfaction in terms of ease of communication, background noises, and reverberation, with clear benefit after 3 and 6 months, confirming its efficacy. In terms of engineering, the hearing aid also proved to be robust, passing all the designated tests. As the technology has successfully been transferred to a local company for the production phase, we also discuss other challenges that may arise before the device can be introduced into the market.

  8. A survey on critical care resources and practices in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukoja, Marija; Riviello, Elisabeth; Gavrilovic, Srdjan; Adhikari, Neill K J; Kashyap, Rahul; Bhagwanjee, Satish; Gajic, Ognjen; Kilickaya, Oguz

    2014-09-01

    Timely and appropriate care is the key to achieving good outcomes in acutely ill patients, but the effectiveness of critical care may be limited in resource-limited settings. This study sought to understand how to implement best practices in intensive care units (ICU) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) and to develop a point-of-care training and decision-support tool. An internationally representative group of clinicians performed a 22-item capacity-and-needs assessment survey in a convenience sample of 13 ICU in Eastern Europe (4), Asia (4), Latin America (3), and Africa (2), between April and July 2012. Two ICU were from low-income, 2 from low-middle-income, and 9 from upper-middle-income countries. Clinician respondents were asked about bed capacity, patient characteristics, human resources, available medications and equipment, access to education, and processes of care. Thirteen clinicians from each of 13 hospitals (1 per ICU) responded. Surveyed hospitals had median of 560 (interquartile range [IQR]: 232, 1,200) beds. ICU had a median of 9 (IQR: 7, 12) beds and treated 40 (IQR: 20, 67) patients per month. Many ICU had ≥ 1 staff member with some formal critical care training (n = 9, 69%) or who completed Fundamental Critical Care Support (n = 7, 54%) or Advanced Cardiac Life Support (n = 9, 69%) courses. Only 2 ICU (15%) used any kind of checklists for acute resuscitation. Ten (77%) ICU listed lack of trained staff as the most important barrier to improving the care and outcomes of critically ill patients. In a convenience sample of 13 ICU from LMIC, specialty-trained staff and standardized processes of care such as checklists are frequently lacking. ICU needs-assessment evaluations should be expanded in LMIC as a global priority, with the goal of creating and evaluating context-appropriate checklists for ICU best practices. Copyright © 2014 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Symposium on development and utilization of biomass energy resources in developing countries. Proceedings. V. 2: Country case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The present publication presents the results of three UNIDO-sponsored case studies, each with a separate abstract, concerned with perspectives of development and utilisation of biomass energy resources in Brazil, Philippines and Romania. Emphasis is put on identifying regional biomass energy resources. Policies and strategies governing as well as barriers limiting the development and utilization of biomass energy are discussed. Innovative technologies as well as technology transfer related to biomass energy utilisation are dealt with, together with economic and environmental issues

  10. Potential of resource recovery in UASB/trickling filter systems treating domestic sewage in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressani-Ribeiro, T; Brandt, E M F; Gutierrez, K G; Díaz, C A; Garcia, G B; Chernicharo, C A L

    2017-04-01

    This paper aims to present perspectives for energy (thermal and electric) and nutrient (N and S) recovery in domestic sewage treatment systems comprised of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors followed by sponge-bed trickling filters (SBTF) in developing countries. The resource recovery potential was characterized, taking into account 114 countries and a corresponding population of 968.9 million inhabitants living in the tropical world, which were grouped into three desired ranges in terms of cities' size. For each of these clusters, a technological arrangement flow-sheet was proposed, depending on their technical and economic viability from our best experience. Considering the population living in cities over 100, 000 inhabitants, the potential of energy and nutrient recovery via the sewage treatment scheme would be sufficient to generate electricity for approximately 3.2 million residents, as well as thermal energy for drying purposes that could result in a 24% volume reduction of sludge to be transported and disposed of in landfills. The results show that UASB/SBTF systems can play a very important role in the sanitation and environmental sector towards more sustainable sewage treatment plants.

  11. Public sector refraction and spectacle dispensing in low-resource countries of the Western Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramke, Jacqueline; du Toit, Rènée; Palagyi, Anna; Williams, Carmel; Brian, Garry

    2008-05-01

    Given that uncorrected refractive error is a frequent cause of vision impairment, and that there is a high unmet need for spectacles, an appraisal of public sector arrangements for the correction of refractive error was conducted in eight Pacific Island countries. Mixed methods (questionnaire and semi-structured interviews) were used to collect information from eye care personnel (from Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Cook Islands, Samoa, Tonga and Tuvalu) attending a regional eye health workshop in 2005. Fiji, Tonga and Vanuatu had Vision 2020 eye care plans that included refraction services, but not spectacle provision. There was wide variation in public sector spectacle dispensing services, but, except in Samoa, ready-made spectacles and a full cost recovery pricing strategy were the mainstay. There were no systems for the registration of personnel, nor guidelines for clinical or systems management. The refraction staff to population ratio varied considerably. Solomon Islands, Tuvalu and Vanuatu had the best coverage by services, either fixed or outreach. Most services had little promotional activity or community engagement. To be successful, it would seem that public sector refraction services should answer a real and perceived need, fit within prevailing policy and legislation, value, train, retain and equip employees, be well managed, be accessible and affordable, be responsive to consumers, and provide ongoing good quality outcomes. To this end, a checklist to aid the initiation and maintenance of refraction and spectacle systems in low-resource countries has been constructed.

  12. Assessment of human resources for health programme implementation in 15 Latin American and Caribbean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Poz, Mario Roberto; Sepulveda, Hernan Rodrigo; Costa Couto, Maria Helena; Godue, Charles; Padilla, Monica; Cameron, Rick; Vidaurre Franco, Thais de Andrade

    2015-04-28

    The health systems in the Americas region are characterized by fragmentation and segmentation, which constitute an important barrier to expanding coverage, achieving integrated primary health care, and reducing inefficiency and discontinuity of care. An assessment of the human resources for health (HRH) programmes that have been implemented at the country level was developed as part of the measurement of the 20 HRH regional goals for 2007-2015, adopted in 2007 by the Pan American Sanitary Conference (CSPA). The exercise was a combination of academic research and the development/application of an advocacy tool involving policy makers and stakeholders to influence the decision-making in the development, implementation, or change of HRH programmes while building evidence through a structured approach based on qualitative and quantitative information and the exchange and dissemination of best practices. This paper covers the methodological challenges, as well as a summary of the main findings of the study, which included 15 countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama in the Central America, Dominican Republic in the Caribbean, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru in the Andean sub region, and Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay in the South Cone. Despite the different contexts, the results showed that the programmes evaluated faced common challenges, such as lack of political support and financial unsustainability. The evaluation process allowed the exchange and dissemination of practices, interventions, and programmes currently running in the region. A shared lesson was the importance of careful planning of the implementation of programmes and interventions. The similarities in the problems and challenges of HRH among the participating countries highlighted the need for a cooperation programme on the evaluation and assessment of implementation strategies in the Americas region.

  13. Joint Evaluation of the Wave and Offshore Wind Energy Resources in the Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Rusu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work is to assess the global wind and wave resources in the vicinity of some developing countries by evaluating 16-year of data (2001–2016, coming from the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecast (ECMWF. Until now, not much work has been done to evaluate and use the renewable energy sources from these marine environments. This is because most of the attention was focused on more promising areas, such as the European coasts, which are more advanced in terms of technical and economical aspects. A general perspective of the current energy market from the selected target areas is first presented, indicating at the same time the progresses that have been reported in the field of the renewable energy. Besides the spatial and seasonal variations of the marine resources considered, the results also indicate the energy potential of these coastal environments as well as the performances of some offshore wind turbines, which may operate in these regions.

  14. Why do managers allocate resources to workplace health promotion programmes in countries with national health coverage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Angela M; Sharp, David J

    2007-06-01

    There is extensive evidence that worksite health promotion (WHP) programmes reduce healthcare costs and improve employee productivity. In many countries, a large proportion of healthcare costs are borne by the state. While the full benefits of WHP are still created, they are shared between employers and the state, even though the employer bears the full (after-tax) cost. Employers therefore have a lower incentive to implement WHP activity. We know little about the beliefs of managers with decision responsibility for the approval and implementation of WHP programmes in this context. This article reports the results of a study of the attitudes of Canadian senior general managers (GMs) and human resource managers (HRMs) in the auto parts industry in Ontario, Canada towards the consequences of increasing discretionary spending on WHP, using Structural Equation Modelling and the Theory of Planned Behaviour. We identified factors that explain managers' intentions to increase discretionary spending on wellness programmes. While both senior GMs and HRMs are motivated primarily by their beliefs that WHP reduces indirect costs of health failure, GMs were also motivated by their moral responsibility towards employees (but surprisingly HRMs were not). Importantly, HRMs, who usually have responsibility for WHP, felt constrained by a lack of power to commit resources. Most importantly, we found no social expectation that organizations should provide WHP programmes. This has important implications in an environment where the adoption of WHP is very limited and cost containment within the healthcare system is paramount.

  15. Decision Support Systems for Water Resources Management in Developing Countries: Learning from Experiences in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Giupponi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision support system (DSS tools are rather popular in the literature on water resources management. The European Project “Splash” conducted a survey of the literature and of DSS implementation in developing countries with specific reference on Africa. Experts in the field were consulted through an ad hoc questionnaire and interviews. The results of the survey indicate that the exchange of experiences amongst projects with similar objectives or even the same case study is very limited, with a tendency towards restarting every time from scratch. As a consequence, it seems that DSS developments have produced only limited positive impacts. Most experts contacted shared either the frustration deriving from the limited impacts on intended end-users, who rarely used the tool after the project end, or in the case of ongoing projects, the preoccupation for future maintenance. Responses from the questionnaires indicate that priority efforts should not focus on developing the tools, but rather on improving the effectiveness and applicability of integrated water resource management legislative and planning frameworks, training and capacity building, networking and cooperation, harmonization of transnational data infrastructures and, very importantly, learning from past experiences and adopting enhanced protocols for DSS development.

  16. Clinical Neurophysiology Training in a Developing Country: Institutional Resources and Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sámano, Arturo G; Ochoa Mena, José D; Padilla, Silvana P; Acevedo, Gerardo R; Orenday Barraza, José M; San-Juan, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics and preferences of clinical neurophysiology (CN) fellows, as well as the resources available for their training, in a developing country such as Mexico. An online survey (25 questions) was given to Mexican CN fellows from May to June 2017, covering their reasons for choosing the CN subspecialty, their activities, future plans, institutional resources, and administrative staff. Descriptive statistics were used. Total respondents: 20/22 (90%), 65% female from 7 CN centers (80% public and 20% private hospitals) in Mexico City. Seventy-five percent chose CN out of personal interest, and all were not unsatisfied with their academic program. Most plan to work in private practice (75%) and are interested in learning EEG (85%) and intraoperative monitoring (75%-85%). The highest-reported training time by CN area allocated by the programs was as follows: EEG (27%), electromyography (22%), and evoked potentials (16%). The average number of fellows per center was 4; 75% of the centers perform epilepsy surgery, of which 60% offer invasive intracranial studies for the evaluation of surgical candidates. Mexican CN fellows are satisfied with their choice and with the academic program. They are increasingly interested in intraoperative monitoring, which is not addressed in current Mexican CN Programs.

  17. Missing citations due to exact reference matching: Analysis of a random sample from WoS. Are publications from peripheral countries disadvantaged?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donner, P.

    2016-07-01

    Citation counts of scientific research contributions are one fundamental data in scientometrics. Accuracy and completeness of citation links are therefore crucial data quality issues (Moed, 2005, Ch. 13). However, despite the known flaws of reference matching algorithms, usually no attempts are made to incorporate uncertainty about citation counts into indicators. This study is a step towards that goal. Particular attention is paid to the question whether publications from countries not using basic Latin script are differently affected by missed citations. The proprietary reference matching procedure of Web of Science (WoS) is based on (near) exact agreement of cited reference data (normalized during processing) to the target papers bibliographical data. Consequently, the procedure has near-optimal precision but incomplete recall - it is known to miss some slightly inaccurate reference links (Olensky, 2015). However, there has been no attempt so far to estimate the rate of missed citations by a principled method for a random sample. For this study a simple random sample of WoS source papers was drawn and it was attempted to find all reference strings of WoS indexed documents that refer to them, in particular inexact matches. The objective is to give a statistical estimate of the proportion of missed citations and to describe the relationship of the number of found citations to the number of missed citations, i.e. the conditional error distribution. The empirical error distribution is statistically analyzed and modelled. (Author)

  18. E-learning in medical education in resource constrained low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frehywot, Seble; Vovides, Yianna; Talib, Zohray; Mikhail, Nadia; Ross, Heather; Wohltjen, Hannah; Bedada, Selam; Korhumel, Kristine; Koumare, Abdel Karim; Scott, James

    2013-02-04

    In the face of severe faculty shortages in resource-constrained countries, medical schools look to e-learning for improved access to medical education. This paper summarizes the literature on e-learning in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), and presents the spectrum of tools and strategies used. Researchers reviewed literature using terms related to e-learning and pre-service education of health professionals in LMIC. Search terms were connected using the Boolean Operators "AND" and "OR" to capture all relevant article suggestions. Using standard decision criteria, reviewers narrowed the article suggestions to a final 124 relevant articles. Of the relevant articles found, most referred to e-learning in Brazil (14 articles), India (14), Egypt (10) and South Africa (10). While e-learning has been used by a variety of health workers in LMICs, the majority (58%) reported on physician training, while 24% focused on nursing, pharmacy and dentistry training. Although reasons for investing in e-learning varied, expanded access to education was at the core of e-learning implementation which included providing supplementary tools to support faculty in their teaching, expanding the pool of faculty by connecting to partner and/or community teaching sites, and sharing of digital resources for use by students. E-learning in medical education takes many forms. Blended learning approaches were the most common methodology presented (49 articles) of which computer-assisted learning (CAL) comprised the majority (45 articles). Other approaches included simulations and the use of multimedia software (20 articles), web-based learning (14 articles), and eTutor/eMentor programs (3 articles). Of the 69 articles that evaluated the effectiveness of e-learning tools, 35 studies compared outcomes between e-learning and other approaches, while 34 studies qualitatively analyzed student and faculty attitudes toward e-learning modalities. E-learning in medical education is a means to an end

  19. E-learning in medical education in resource constrained low- and middle-income countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In the face of severe faculty shortages in resource-constrained countries, medical schools look to e-learning for improved access to medical education. This paper summarizes the literature on e-learning in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), and presents the spectrum of tools and strategies used. Methods Researchers reviewed literature using terms related to e-learning and pre-service education of health professionals in LMIC. Search terms were connected using the Boolean Operators “AND” and “OR” to capture all relevant article suggestions. Using standard decision criteria, reviewers narrowed the article suggestions to a final 124 relevant articles. Results Of the relevant articles found, most referred to e-learning in Brazil (14 articles), India (14), Egypt (10) and South Africa (10). While e-learning has been used by a variety of health workers in LMICs, the majority (58%) reported on physician training, while 24% focused on nursing, pharmacy and dentistry training. Although reasons for investing in e-learning varied, expanded access to education was at the core of e-learning implementation which included providing supplementary tools to support faculty in their teaching, expanding the pool of faculty by connecting to partner and/or community teaching sites, and sharing of digital resources for use by students. E-learning in medical education takes many forms. Blended learning approaches were the most common methodology presented (49 articles) of which computer-assisted learning (CAL) comprised the majority (45 articles). Other approaches included simulations and the use of multimedia software (20 articles), web-based learning (14 articles), and eTutor/eMentor programs (3 articles). Of the 69 articles that evaluated the effectiveness of e-learning tools, 35 studies compared outcomes between e-learning and other approaches, while 34 studies qualitatively analyzed student and faculty attitudes toward e-learning modalities. Conclusions E

  20. E-learning in medical education in resource constrained low- and middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frehywot Seble

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the face of severe faculty shortages in resource-constrained countries, medical schools look to e-learning for improved access to medical education. This paper summarizes the literature on e-learning in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC, and presents the spectrum of tools and strategies used. Methods Researchers reviewed literature using terms related to e-learning and pre-service education of health professionals in LMIC. Search terms were connected using the Boolean Operators “AND” and “OR” to capture all relevant article suggestions. Using standard decision criteria, reviewers narrowed the article suggestions to a final 124 relevant articles. Results Of the relevant articles found, most referred to e-learning in Brazil (14 articles, India (14, Egypt (10 and South Africa (10. While e-learning has been used by a variety of health workers in LMICs, the majority (58% reported on physician training, while 24% focused on nursing, pharmacy and dentistry training. Although reasons for investing in e-learning varied, expanded access to education was at the core of e-learning implementation which included providing supplementary tools to support faculty in their teaching, expanding the pool of faculty by connecting to partner and/or community teaching sites, and sharing of digital resources for use by students. E-learning in medical education takes many forms. Blended learning approaches were the most common methodology presented (49 articles of which computer-assisted learning (CAL comprised the majority (45 articles. Other approaches included simulations and the use of multimedia software (20 articles, web-based learning (14 articles, and eTutor/eMentor programs (3 articles. Of the 69 articles that evaluated the effectiveness of e-learning tools, 35 studies compared outcomes between e-learning and other approaches, while 34 studies qualitatively analyzed student and faculty attitudes toward e-learning modalities

  1. If diversification is good, why don't countries diversify more? The political economy of diversification in resource-rich countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiig, Arne; Kolstad, Ivar

    2012-01-01

    For resource-rich countries, diversification is claimed to represent a strategy for reducing resource curse problems. This, however, depends on whether diversification has a positive effect on the country's institutions. While there is a lot of evidence that exports of oil have a negative impact on institutions, we know much less about the extent to which diversification leads to better institutions. This article applies recent political economy theory to the phenomenon of diversification. Theoretical arguments suggest that it is the pattern of industrial activity rather than diversification per se, which affects institutions like democracy. In other words, not all forms of diversification lead to better institutions. Furthermore, where diversification has a positive impact on institutions, diversification may be difficult to attain when it threatens the power base of the ruling elite. A possible implication of these arguments is that policies for diversification should focus on international regulation affecting elite incentives, rather than domestic industrial policy. - Highlights: ► Diversification can be a strategy for reducing resource curse problems in oil-rich countries. ► But this requires that diversification has a positive effect on the institutions of a country. ► It is the pattern of industrial activity rather than diversification per se, which affects institutions like democracy. ► Diversification may be difficult to attain when it threatens the power basis of the ruling elite. ► Policies for diversification should focus on international ruling affect elite incentives, rather than home industrial policy.

  2. Symposium on development and utilization of biomass energy resources in developing countries. Proceedings. V. 2: Country case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The present publication presents the results of three UNIDO-sponsored case studies, each with a separate abstract, concerned with perspectives of development and utilisation of biomass energy resources in Brazil, Philippines and Romania. Emphasis is put on identifying regional biomass energy resources. Policies and strategies governing as well as barriers limiting the development and utilization of biomass energy are discussed. Innovative technologies as well as technology transfer related to biomass energy utilisation are dealt with, together with economic and environmental issues Refs, figs, tabs

  3. The impact of health care resources, socioeconomic status, and demographics on life expectancy: a cross-country study in three Southeast Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Moon Fai

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the impact of health care resources, socioeconomic status, and demographic changes on life expectancy in Indonesia, Philippines, and Vietnam. This was a cross-country study to collect annual data (1980-2008) from each target country. Life expectancy was the dependent variable and health care resources, socioeconomic status, and demographics were the 3 main determinants. Structural equation modeling was employed, and the results indicate that the availability of more health care resources (Indonesia: coefficient = .47, P = .008; Philippines: coefficient = .48, P = .017; Vietnam: coefficient = .48, P = .004) and higher levels of socioeconomic advantages (Indonesia: coefficient = .41, P = .014; Vietnam: coefficient = .34, P = .026) are more likely to increase life expectancy. In contrast, demographic changes are more likely to increase life expectancy because of the wide range of health care resources. These findings suggest that more effort, particularly during economic downturns, should be put into removing the barriers that impede access to health care services and increasing preventive care for the population that currently has less access to health care in communities where there is a shortage of medical resources. © 2013 APJPH.

  4. The ESTHER hospital partnership initiative: a powerful levy for building capacities to combat the HIV pandemic in low-resource countries

    OpenAIRE

    Raguin, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Partnerships between hospitals in high income countries and low resource countries are uniquely capable of fulfilling the tripartite needs of care, training, and research required to address health care crises in low resource countries. Of particular interest, at a time when the EBOLA crisis highlights the weaknesses of health systems in resource-poor settings, the institutional resources and expertise of hospitals can also contribute to strengthening health systems with long-term sustainabil...

  5. Is nonoperative management of adhesive intestinal obstruction applicable to children in a resource-poor country?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osifo Osarumwense

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nonoperative management of adhesive intestinal obstruction gives good results in adults but there are scant studies on its outcome in children. This study reports outcomes and experiences with nonoperative and operative management of adhesive intestinal obstruction in children in a resource-poor country. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of records of children who were managed with adhesive intestinal obstruction at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital between January 2002 and December 2008. Results: Adhesive intestinal obstruction accounted for 21 (8.8% of 238 children managed with intestinal obstruction. They were aged between 7 weeks and 16 years (mean 3 ± 6.4 years, comprising 13 males and eight females (ratio 1.6:1. Prior laparotomy for gangrenous/perforated intussusception (seven, 33.3%, perforated appendix (five, 23.8%, perforated volvulus (three, 14.3%, penetrating abdominal trauma (two, 9.5% and perforated typhoid (two, 9.5% were major aetiologies. Adhesive obstruction occurred between 6 weeks and 7 years after the index laparotomies. All the 21 children had initial nonoperative management without success, owing to lack of total parenteral nutrition and monitoring facilities. Outcomes of open adhesiolysis performed between 26 and 48 h in six (28.6% children due to poor response to nonoperative management, 11-13 days in 12 (57.1% who responded minimally and 2-5 weeks in three (14.3% who had relapse of symptoms were encouraging. Exploration of the 21 adhesive obstructions confirmed small bowel obstruction due to solitary bands (two, 9.5%, multiple bands/adhesions (13, 61.9% and encasement, including one bowel gangrene (six, 28.6%. Postoperatively, the only child who had recurrence during 1-6 years of follow-up did well after a repeat adhesiolysis. Conclusion: Nonoperative management was unsuccessful in this setting. Open adhesiolysis may be adopted in children to prevent avoidable morbidities and

  6. Examining Container Port Resources and Environments to Enhance Competitiveness: A Cross-Country Study from Resource-Based and Institutional Perspectives1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuksoo CHO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the competitiveness of container ports using a cross-country analysis with theoretical foundations. Tangible and intangible resources are discussed as determinants of container port competitiveness using the resource-based view and the institutional theory. This study analyzes the relationships among six variables: container port competitiveness, traffic volume, quality of infrastructure, linear shipping connectivity, operating efficiency, and institutional influence. This study retrieved country-level data on different indicators and countries from several trade and maritime databases. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM is used to test various hypotheses and to evaluate the casual relationships among six variables. Additionally, Ordinary Least Squares (OLS regression is used to test the moderating effects of institutional influence.

  7. The role of food-security solutions in the protection of natural resources and environment of developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashgarara, Farhad; Mirdamadi, Seyyed Mehdi; Hosseini, Seyyed Jamal Farajollah; Chizari, Mohammad

    2008-10-01

    The majority of the countries of the world, especially developing countries, face environmental problems. Limitations of basic resources (water and soil) and population growth have been the cause of these environmental problems that countries are confronted with. Developing countries have numerous problems, including destruction of forests, vegetable and animal species, and pollution of the environment. Damage to natural resources and the environment can influence the food-security situation. One of the main millennium development goals (MDGs) is protection of the environment and people's health. This cannot obtained unless there is ensured food security. Food security has been defined as a situation when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food needed to maintain a healthy and active life. At the same time, with ensured food security, we can hope to protect the natural resources and environment. The methodology used is descriptive-analytical, and its main purpose is determining the importance and role of food-security solutions in the reduction of environmental hazards and improvement of natural resources and the environmental situation in developing countries. Therefore, some of the most important food-security solutions that can play an important role in this relation were discussed, including conventional research-based technology, biotechnology, information and communication technologies (ICTs), alternative energy sources, and food irradiation.

  8. Symposium on development and utilization of biomass energy resources in developing countries. Proceedings. V. 1: Thematic papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The present publication consists of papers, each with a separate abstract, from fourteen countries giving broad perspectives on the development and utilisation of biomass energy resources. Emphasis is put on identifying regional biomass energy resources. Policies and strategies governing as well as barriers limiting the development and utilization of biomass energy are discussed. Innovative technologies as well as technology transfer related to biomass energy utilisation are dealt with, together with economic and environmental issues

  9. Symposium on development and utilization of biomass energy resources in developing countries. Proceedings. V. 1: Thematic papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The present publication consists of papers, each with a separate abstract, from fourteen countries giving broad perspectives on the development and utilisation of biomass energy resources. Emphasis is put on identifying regional biomass energy resources. Policies and strategies governing as well as barriers limiting the development and utilization of biomass energy are discussed. Innovative technologies as well as technology transfer related to biomass energy utilisation are dealt with, together with economic and environmental issues Refs, figs, tabs

  10. Paediatric cardiology programs in countries with limited resources: how to bridge the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulafa, K M Ali

    2010-07-01

    Establishing paediatric cardiology service in a country with limited resources like Sudan is a challenging task. A paediatric cardiac team was formed then the services in different disciplines were gradually established. Echocardiography (echo) clinics were founded in tertiary and peripheral hospitals. Cardiac catheterization (cath) was established at the Sudan Heart Centre (SHC) in 2004 and over 400 procedures had been performed including interventional catheterization like pulmonary valve dilatation, patent ductus arteriosus and atrial septal defect device closure. Congenital heart surgery started in 2001, currently 200 cases are done each year including closed procedures as well as open heart procedures for patients weighing more than 8 kg. Cardiology-cardiac surgery as well as adult congenital heart disease meetings were held and contributed positively to the services. The cardiology-cardiac surgery scientific club meeting was founded as a forum for academic discussions. A fellowship program was established in 2004 and included seven candidates trained in paediatric cardiology and intensive care. Two training courses had been established: congenital heart disease echo and paediatric electrocardiogram interpretation. Links with regional and international cardiac centres had important roles in consolidating our program. Significant obstacles face our service due to the small number of trained personnel, high cost of procedures, the lack of regular supplies and lack of cardiac intensive care facilities for young infants. Bridging the huge gap needs extensive official as well as non-governmental efforts, training more staff, supporting families and collaboration with regional and international centres.

  11. Equity in the allocation of public sector financial resources in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmi, Laura; Lagarde, Mylene; Hanson, Kara

    2015-05-01

    This review aims to identify, assess and analyse the evidence on equity in the distribution of public health sector expenditure in low- and middle-income countries. Four bibliographic databases and five websites were searched to identify quantitative studies examining equity in the distribution of public health funding in individual countries or groups of countries. Two different types of studies were identified: benefit incidence analysis (BIA) and resource allocation comparison (RAC) studies. Quality appraisal and data synthesis were tailored to each study type to reflect differences in the methods used and in the information provided. We identified 39 studies focusing on African, Asian and Latin American countries. Of these, 31 were BIA studies that described the distribution, typically across socio-economic status, of individual monetary benefit derived from service utilization. The remaining eight were RAC studies that compared the actual expenditure across geographic areas to an ideal need-based distribution. Overall, the quality of the evidence from both types of study was relatively weak. Looking across studies, the evidence confirms that resource allocation formulae can enhance equity in resource allocation across geographic areas and that the poor benefits proportionally more from primary health care than from hospital expenditure. The lack of information on the distribution of benefit from utilization in RAC studies and on the countries' approaches to resource allocation in BIA studies prevents further policy analysis. Additional research that relates the type of resource allocation mechanism to service provision and to the benefit distribution is required for a better understanding of equity-enhancing resource allocation policies. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  12. Human resource management interventions to improve health workers' performance in low and middle income countries : a realist review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, Marjolein; Gerretsen, Barend; van der Wilt, Gert Jan

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Improving health workers' performance is vital for achieving the Millennium Development Goals. In the literature on human resource management (HRM) interventions to improve health workers' performance in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC), hardly any attention has been paid to the

  13. Human resource management interventions to improve health workers' performance in low and middle income countries: a realist review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, M.; Gerretsen, B.; Wilt, G.J. van der

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Improving health workers' performance is vital for achieving the Millennium Development Goals. In the literature on human resource management (HRM) interventions to improve health workers' performance in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC), hardly any attention has been paid to the

  14. Acute Kidney Injury Risk Assessment: Differences and Similarities Between Resource-Limited and Resource-Rich Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kianoush Kashani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI among acutely ill patients is reportedly very high and has vexing consequences on patient outcomes and health care systems. The risks and impact of AKI differ between developed and developing countries. Among developing countries, AKI occurs in young individuals with no or limited comorbidities, and is usually due to environmental causes, including infectious diseases. Although several risk factors have been identified for AKI in different settings, there is limited information on how risk assessment can be used at population and patient levels to improve care in patients with AKI, particularly in developing countries where significant health disparities may exist. The Acute Disease Quality Initiative consensus conference work group addressed the issue of identifying risk factors for AKI and provided recommendations for developing individualized risk stratification strategies to improve care. We proposed a 5-dimension, evidence-based categorization of AKI risk that allows clinicians and investigators to study, define, and implement individualized risk assessment tools for the region or country where they practice. These dimensions include environmental, socioeconomic and cultural factors, processes of care, exposures, and the inherent risks of AKI. We provide examples of these risks and describe approaches for risk assessments in the developing world. We anticipate that these recommendations will be useful for health care providers to plan and execute interventions to limit the impact of AKI on society and each individual patient. Using a modified Delphi process, this group reached consensus regarding several aspects of AKI risk stratification.

  15. GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF MENA AND AFRICAN COUNTRIES: IMPACTS OF THE VARIATIONS IN LAND AND NATURAL RESOURCE OWNERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ece H. Guleryuz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the primary determinants of the contemporary economic growth performance in MENA and African countries using a panel data estimation and random effects model during the period 1996-2014 for 24 countries. It is hypothesized that the variation in natural resources rents, initial human capital stock, and initial inequality in land ownership have significant impacts on contemporary economic growth rates in different countries. Furthermore, various political economy factors are controlled for in order to measure the effect of institutional quality. The estimation results show that the natural resources rents, initial inequality in land ownership, initial income, and government effectiveness influence GDP per capita growth rates with a statistical significance.

  16. TOWARDS TO NEW ILLUSTRATION OF RESOURCE CURSE: FDI CHANNEL EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM GULF COOPERATION COUNCIL (GCC COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Elheddad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends a high influential contribution by Poelhekke and Van der Ploeg (2013, on the new mechanism of natural resource curse which is FDI. Using panel data of FDI inflows (aggregate and disaggregate for six oil dependent countries (GCC during a period 1980-2013; our main findings are as follows. First, total FDI is negatively correlated with natural resources measured by oil prices constant 2000 in the long run and short term. This negative impact ranged between 0.21% and 0.41% if oil prices changed by one percent increase. Secondly, FDI in resource sector falls by around 0.44-0.47%, but non-resource FDI increased by about 0.21- 0.29% when the interaction term between oil revenues and initial oil prices (1980 increases by 1%. These results are robust even after including other FDI determinants.

  17. Development challenges of resource-rich countries: the case of oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses some of the challenges that confront oil-rich developing countries in their development quest. It stresses that one of the surest ways governments in oil-rich developing countries have at their disposal to avoid the so-called curse of oil is through the insulation of fiscal policy from the volatility associated ...

  18. Multi-Country Analysis of Treatment Costs for HIV/AIDS (MATCH): Facility-Level ART Unit Cost Analysis in Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda, South Africa and Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagar, Elya; Sundaram, Maaya; Condliffe, Kate; Matatiyo, Blackson; Chimbwandira, Frank; Chilima, Ben; Mwanamanga, Robert; Moyo, Crispin; Chitah, Bona Mukosha; Nyemazi, Jean Pierre; Assefa, Yibeltal; Pillay, Yogan; Mayer, Sam; Shear, Lauren; Dain, Mary; Hurley, Raphael; Kumar, Ritu; McCarthy, Thomas; Batra, Parul; Gwinnell, Dan; Diamond, Samantha; Over, Mead

    2014-01-01

    Background Today's uncertain HIV funding landscape threatens to slow progress towards treatment goals. Understanding the costs of antiretroviral therapy (ART) will be essential for governments to make informed policy decisions about the pace of scale-up under the 2013 WHO HIV Treatment Guidelines, which increase the number of people eligible for treatment from 17.6 million to 28.6 million. The study presented here is one of the largest of its kind and the first to describe the facility-level cost of ART in a random sample of facilities in Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda, South Africa and Zambia. Methods & Findings In 2010–2011, comprehensive data on one year of facility-level ART costs and patient outcomes were collected from 161 facilities, selected using stratified random sampling. Overall, facility-level ART costs were significantly lower than expected in four of the five countries, with a simple average of $208 per patient-year (ppy) across Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda and Zambia. Costs were higher in South Africa, at $682 ppy. This included medications, laboratory services, direct and indirect personnel, patient support, equipment and administrative services. Facilities demonstrated the ability to retain patients alive and on treatment at these costs, although outcomes for established patients (2–8% annual loss to follow-up or death) were better than outcomes for new patients in their first year of ART (77–95% alive and on treatment). Conclusions This study illustrated that the facility-level costs of ART are lower than previously understood in these five countries. While limitations must be considered, and costs will vary across countries, this suggests that expanded treatment coverage may be affordable. Further research is needed to understand investment costs of treatment scale-up, non-facility costs and opportunities for more efficient resource allocation. PMID:25389777

  19. Childbearing in adolescents aged 12-15 years in low resource countries: a neglected issue. New estimates from demographic and household surveys in 42 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Sarah; Matthews, Zoë; Frost, Melanie; Fogstad, Helga; Camacho, Alma V; Laski, Laura

    2012-09-01

    There is strong evidence that the health risks associated with adolescent pregnancy are concentrated among the youngest girls (e.g. those under 16 years). Fertility rates in this age group have not previously been comprehensively estimated and published. By drawing data from 42 large, nationally representative household surveys in low resource countries carried out since 2003 this article presents estimates of age-specific birth rates for girls aged 12-15, and the percentage of girls who give birth at age 15 or younger. From these we estimate that approximately 2.5 million births occur to girls aged under 16 in low resource countries each year. The highest rates are found in Sub-Saharan Africa, where in Chad, Guinea, Mali, Mozambique, Niger and Sierra Leone more than 10% of girls become mothers before they are 16. Strategies to reduce these high levels are vital if we are to alleviate poor reproductive health. © 2012 The Authors  Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Country-scale phosphorus balancing as a base for resources conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seyhan, D.

    2009-01-01

    In order to effectively conserve the non-renewable resource phosphorus (P), flows and stocks of P must be known at national, regional and global scales. P is a key non-renewable resource because its use as fertilizer cannot be substituted posing a constraint on the global food production in the

  1. Leadership Development of Rehabilitation Professionals in a Low-Resource Country: A Transformational Leadership, Project-Based Model

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal, Maureen Romanow; Mann, Monika; Dunleavy, Kim; Chevan, Julia; Kirenga, Liliane; Nuhu, Assuman

    2017-01-01

    Background and rationale This paper presents an overview of the activities and outcomes of the Leadership Institute (LI), a short-term leadership development professional development course offered to physiotherapists in a low-resource country. Previous studies have provided examples of the benefits of such programs in medicine and nursing, but this has yet to be documented in the rehabilitation literature. The prototype of leadership development presented may provide guidance for similar tra...

  2. A Life-cycle Approach to Improve the Sustainability of Rural Water Systems in Resource-Limited Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Stacey

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A WHO and UNICEF joint report states that in 2008, 884 million people lacked access to potable drinking water. A life-cycle approach to develop potable water systems may improve the sustainability for such systems, however, a review of the literature shows that such an approach has primarily been used for urban systems located in resourced countries. Although urbanization is increasing globally, over 40 percent of the world’s population is currently rural with many considered poor. In this paper, we present a first step towards using life-cycle assessment to develop sustainable rural water systems in resource-limited countries while pointing out the needs. For example, while there are few differences in costs and environmental impacts for many improved rural water system options, a system that uses groundwater with community standpipes is substantially lower in cost that other alternatives with a somewhat lower environmental inventory. However, a LCA approach shows that from institutional as well as community and managerial perspectives, sustainability includes many other factors besides cost and environment that are a function of the interdependent decision process used across the life cycle of a water system by aid organizations, water user committees, and household users. These factors often present the biggest challenge to designing sustainable rural water systems for resource-limited countries.

  3. Screening for neonatal deafness in resource-poor countries: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusanya BO

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bolajoko O Olusanya Centre for Healthy Start Initiative, Ikoyi, Nigeria Abstract: Newborn or neonatal hearing screening (NHS is offered routinely in high-income countries as an essential and mandatory intervention for the early detection of infants with permanent congenital or early-onset hearing loss. However, NHS is rarely offered presently in the vast majority of low- and middle-income countries, which account for over 80% of the incidence and burden of permanent congenital or early-onset hearing loss worldwide. This review provides an overview of the current status of NHS programs in the most developmentally disadvantaged low-and middle-income countries with a per capita income of approximately US$6,000 or less against the backdrop of relevant recommendations for effective NHS programs. It highlights the key obstacles to the delivery and uptake of NHS services based on a review of available literature from the eligible countries. It proposes strategies for addressing these challenges and examines the crucial role of pediatricians and primary care physicians in providing leadership for the requisite multidisciplinary efforts to develop and promote effective NHS services in low- and middle-income countries. Keywords: early detection, intervention, newborn screening, early childhood development, developing countries

  4. Characteristics and critical success factors for implementing problem-based learning in a human resource-constrained country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giva, Karen R N; Duma, Sinegugu E

    2015-08-31

    Problem-based learning (PBL) was introduced in Malawi in 2002 in order to improve the nursing education system and respond to the acute nursing human resources shortage. However, its implementation has been very slow throughout the country. The objectives of the study were to explore and describe the goals that were identified by the college to facilitate the implementation of PBL, the resources of the organisation that facilitated the implementation of PBL, the factors related to sources of students that facilitated the implementation of PBL, and the influence of the external system of the organisation on facilitating the implementation of PBL, and to identify critical success factors that could guide the implementation of PBL in nursing education in Malawi. This is an ethnographic, exploratory and descriptive qualitative case study. Purposive sampling was employed to select the nursing college, participants and documents for review.Three data collection methods, including semi-structured interviews, participant observation and document reviews, were used to collect data. The four steps of thematic analysis were used to analyse data from all three sources. Four themes and related subthemes emerged from the triangulated data sources. The first three themes and their subthemes are related to the characteristics related to successful implementation of PBL in a human resource-constrained nursing college, whilst the last theme is related to critical success factors that contribute to successful implementation of PBL in a human resource-constrained country like Malawi. This article shows that implementation of PBL is possible in a human resource-constrained country if there is political commitment and support.

  5. A RESOURCE-BASED VIEW OF SMALL EXPORT FIRMS' SOCIAL CAPITAL IN A SOUTHEAST ASIAN COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doren Chadee

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically examines the social capital that facilitates the flow of export knowledge, thereby supporting the entrepreneurial stance of small export firms. By applying the VRIO (value, rarity, inimitability and organisation of firm resources framework to the resource-based view (RBV of the firm, this study suggests that superior performance is a function of resources that are valuable, rare, inimitable and sufficiently organised to develop and sustain the firm's competitive advantage. This study argues that small, resource-constrained export firms in a developing economy are able to adopt entrepreneurial tactics and reap positive rates of return by exploiting their relational capital to acquire export knowledge. A survey of 175 small export firms in the Philippines was conducted, and the data were analysed using structural equation modelling. The results suggest positive relationships between the firm's social capital and export knowledge. Export knowledge is associated with entrepreneurial orientation, which then correlates with export performance.

  6. The Role of Historical Resource Constraints in Modern Gender Inequality: A Cross-Country Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hazarika, Gautam; Jha, Chandan Kumar; Sarangi, Sudipta

    2014-01-01

    We posit that historical resource scarcities played a role in the emergence of gender norms inimical to women that persist to this day. This thesis is supported by our finding that nations’ historical resource endowments, as measured by the historical availability of arable land, are statistically significantly negatively related to their present levels of gender inequality, as gauged by the United Nations Development Programme’s Gender Inequality Index.

  7. Matching theory

    CERN Document Server

    Plummer, MD

    1986-01-01

    This study of matching theory deals with bipartite matching, network flows, and presents fundamental results for the non-bipartite case. It goes on to study elementary bipartite graphs and elementary graphs in general. Further discussed are 2-matchings, general matching problems as linear programs, the Edmonds Matching Algorithm (and other algorithmic approaches), f-factors and vertex packing.

  8. An investigation on e-resource utilisation among university students in a developing country: A case of Great Zimbabwe University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talent Mawere

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electronic libraries are the recent development in the ever-changing technological world today. Students nowadays have the ability to carry the library wherever they are, their Internet-enabled devices being the only requirement. Most universities worldwide have subscribed to various online databases and other e-resources as a way of availing resources to their students. To their credit, most institutions of higher learning in developing countries have not been left out in this stampede.   Objectives: The study aimed at investigating the adoption and utilisation of e-resources by students at a university in a developing country.   Method: The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM model was used to conceptualise the study. A survey questionnaire was designed and distributed through social media platforms such as Facebook and WhatsApp. Quantitative data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. The Chi-squared test was used to test for casual relationships within the developed model. A thematic approach was used to analyse qualitative data. Results: Despite the fact that many Zimbabwean academic institutions have made the facility of e-libraries top agenda in their strategic plans, the adoption rate among students is still very limited. This can be attributed to a myriad of facts, inter alia, poor marketing strategies, lack of resources among the students and exorbitant data charges by Internet Service Providers (ISPs.   Conclusion: This study has provided some basic insights in utilisation of e-resources in universities of developing countries. Despite the younger generation being described as digital natives, it is, quite evident that their uptake of technological innovations especially in education is quite poor. This research will assist both researchers and management of institutions of higher learning to provide and design amicable solutions to the problem of poor utilisation of e-resources as

  9. Medical resource utilization and costs associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in the USA: a retrospective matched cohort analysis of private insurer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Tyler; Schaefer, Caroline; Krasa, Holly; Oberdhan, Dorothee; Chapman, Arlene; Perrone, Ronald D

    2015-01-01

    Background Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) results in kidney cyst development and enlargement, resulting in chronic kidney disease (CKD) leading to renal failure. This study sought to determine if ADPKD patients in the early stages of CKD contribute to a sizable economic burden for the US health care system. Methods This was a retrospective, matched cohort study, reviewing medical resource utilization (MRU) and costs for adults in a US private-payer claims database with a diagnosis code of ADPKD (ICD-9-CM 753.13). ADPKD patients were matched by age grouping (0–17, 18–34, 35–44, 45–54, 55–64, and 65+ years) and sex to controls to understand the burden of ADPKD. Descriptive statistics on 6-month MRU and costs were assessed by CKD stages, dialysis use, or previous renal transplant. Results The analysis included ADPKD patients in CKD stages 1–5 (n=316 to n=860), dialysis (n=586), and post-transplant (n=615). Mean ages did not differ across CKD stages (range 43–56 years). Men were the majority in the later stages but the minority in the early stages. The proportion of patients with at least one hospitalization increased with CKD stage, (12% to >40% CKD stage 2 to stage 5, dialysis or post-transplant). The majority had at least one hospital outpatient visit and at least one pharmacy claim. Total 6-month per-patient costs were greater among ADPKD patients than in age-matched and sex-matched healthy non-ADPKD controls (P<0.001 for all comparisons). Conclusion ADPKD patients with normal kidney function are associated with a significant economic burden to the health care system relative to the general population. Any treatments that delay progression to later stages of CKD may provide potential health care cost offsets. PMID:25759590

  10. The global cancer divide: Relationships between national healthcare resources and cancer outcomes in high-income vs. middle- and low-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Batouli

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: The analysis of this study suggested that cancer MIR is greater in middle/low-income countries. Furthermore, the WHO healthcare score was associated with improved cancer outcomes in middle/low-income countries while absolute levels of financial resources and infrastructure played a more important role in high-income countries.

  11. Low-cost matched sibling bone marrow transplant for standard-risk thalassemia in a limited-resource setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stalin Ramprakash

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemias are the most common inherited genetic disorder in India and a major public health burden with bone marrow transplant (BMT considered the only established curative therapy. We describe outcomes for patients (n = 71 with standard-risk thalassemia (liver size 80 at the last follow up. 5 patients (7% died, mortality related to transplant. Enough data existed for 2 centers in India (36/71 transplants to analyze overall costs from admission up to one-year post-BMT which revealed a median cost of Rs 7,30,445 ($11519 [Range Rs 4,52,821–10,32,842 ($ 7079–16147]. In conclusion, children with thalassemia in resource limited settings can achieve good outcomes with BMT at a reasonable cost.

  12. Gender and Natural Resource Management: Livelihoods, Mobility ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-05-31

    May 31, 2012 ... Melissa Leach, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, UK. ... resource management that want to include a gender perspective. ... New initiative will match climate knowledge to developing country needs.

  13. Patient Reported Burden of Asthma on Resource Use and Productivity Across 11 Countries in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fletcher, Monica; Jha, Ashok; Dunlop, William; Heron, Louise; Wolfram, Verena; Van der Molen, Thys; Price, David

    Asthma affects 30 million people in Western Europe, leading to substantial burden on healthcare systems and economies. REcognise Asthma and LInk to Symptoms and Experience (REALISE (TM)) was a large European survey across 11 countries assessing patient attitudes and behaviors towards their asthma.

  14. Tourism in Indian Country: Opportunities for Developing and Protecting Our Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Ben

    2001-01-01

    Tourism in Indian Country is a valuable economic development strategy, but must be sustainable. Issues of community impact, cultural appropriateness, and environmental impact are best blended with economic feasibility by educated tribal employees and Indian entrepreneurs. Better institutional tribal support of Indian entrepreneurs is needed. Four…

  15. Policies and practices of countries experiencing a crisis in Human Resources for Health : A tracking survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Ankie; Gedik, Gulin; dal Poz, Mario; Dieleman, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    In order to understand and monitor the progress in developing and implementing HRH policies in the 57 countries experiencing a critical deficit in the health workforce, this tracking survey provides an overview of the current situation in terms of HRH policies, plans, capacities and processes. The

  16. Medical resource utilization and costs associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in the USA: a retrospective matched cohort analysis of private insurer data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight T

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tyler Knight,1 Caroline Schaefer,1 Holly Krasa,2 Dorothee Oberdhan,2 Arlene Chapman,3 Ronald D Perrone4 1Covance Market Access Services Inc., Gaithersburg, MD, 2Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development and Commercialization, Inc., Rockville, MD, 3Emory University, Atlanta, GA, 4Tufts Medical Center and Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Background: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD results in kidney cyst development and enlargement, resulting in chronic kidney disease (CKD leading to renal failure. This study sought to determine if ADPKD patients in the early stages of CKD contribute to a sizable economic burden for the US health care system. Methods: This was a retrospective, matched cohort study, reviewing medical resource utilization (MRU and costs for adults in a US private-payer claims database with a diagnosis code of ADPKD (ICD-9-CM 753.13. ADPKD patients were matched by age grouping (0–17, 18–34, 35–44, 45–54, 55–64, and 65+ years and sex to controls to understand the burden of ADPKD. Descriptive statistics on 6-month MRU and costs were assessed by CKD stages, dialysis use, or previous renal transplant. Results: The analysis included ADPKD patients in CKD stages 1–5 (n=316 to n=860, dialysis (n=586, and post-transplant (n=615. Mean ages did not differ across CKD stages (range 43–56 years. Men were the majority in the later stages but the minority in the early stages. The proportion of patients with at least one hospitalization increased with CKD stage, (12% to >40% CKD stage 2 to stage 5, dialysis or post-transplant. The majority had at least one hospital outpatient visit and at least one pharmacy claim. Total 6-month per-patient costs were greater among ADPKD patients than in age-matched and sex-matched healthy non-ADPKD controls (P<0.001 for all comparisons. Conclusion: ADPKD patients with normal kidney function are associated with a significant economic burden to the health care system

  17. Estimation of forest resources from a country wide laser scanning survey and national forest inventory data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nord-Larsen, Thomas; Schumacher, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Airborne laser scanning may provide a means for assessing local forest biomass resources. In this study, national forest inventory (NFI) data was used as reference data for modeling forest basal area, volume, aboveground biomass, and total biomass from laser scanning data obtained in a countrywid...

  18. Human resource management and performance in a developing country : the case of Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsten, Luchien; Ghebregiorgis, F.

    This study investigates the relationship between human resource management (HRM) practices and organizational performance. Results based on a sample of 82 organizations from private and public sectors in Eritrea indicate that some of the practices have a significant impact on employee turnover,

  19. Competition and Constraint : Economic Globalization and Human Resource Practices in 23 European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Ferry; Wittek, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Economic globalization is often considered to be one of the main causes of recent changes in the workplace and the way in which organizations manage their human resources. Nevertheless, an empirical study putting this claim to the test by relating the internationalization of the economy to the use

  20. Employee reactions to human resource management and performance in a developing country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsten, Luchien; Ghebregiorgis, F.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - This paper seeks to examine employee reactions to human resource management (HRM) and performance. It placed employees on a centre stage in analysing HRM to provide theoretical insights. Design/methodology/approach - To explore the theme, a survey of 252 employees drawn from eight

  1. Matching theory for wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Zhu; Saad, Walid

    2017-01-01

    This book provides the fundamental knowledge of the classical matching theory problems. It builds up the bridge between the matching theory and the 5G wireless communication resource allocation problems. The potentials and challenges of implementing the semi-distributive matching theory framework into the wireless resource allocations are analyzed both theoretically and through implementation examples. Academics, researchers, engineers, and so on, who are interested in efficient distributive wireless resource allocation solutions, will find this book to be an exceptional resource. .

  2. Human resource training and development importance in post communist countries in cross-cultural context

    OpenAIRE

    Kumpikaitė, Vilmantė

    2009-01-01

    The manufacturing-dominated economies of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, formed during the Soviet occupation, collapsed with the USSR. However, they are now well into the process of evolving to market economies. Among other aspects, this evolutionary process includes adapting to new social institutions and economic relationships, reacting to the impact of new technologies, and meeting the increasing social needs and developing employees in these countries. This review addresses the importance ...

  3. Assessment of human resources for health using cross-national comparison of facility surveys in six countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal Poz Mario R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health facility assessments are being increasingly used to measure and monitor indicators of health workforce performance, but the global evidence base remains weak. Partly this is due to the wide variability in assessment methods and tools, hampering comparability across and within countries and over time. The World Health Organization coordinated a series of facility-based surveys using a common approach in six countries: Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Jamaica, Mozambique, Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe. The objectives were twofold: to inform the development and monitoring of human resources for health (HRH policy within the countries; and to test and validate the use of standardized facility-based human resources assessment tools across different contexts. Methods The survey methodology drew on harmonized questionnaires and guidelines for data collection and processing. In accordance with the survey's dual objectives, this paper presents both descriptive statistics on a number of policy-relevant indicators for monitoring and evaluation of HRH as well as a qualitative assessment of the usefulness of the data collection tool for comparative analyses. Results The findings revealed a large diversity in both the organization of health services delivery and, in particular, the distribution and activities of facility-based health workers across the sampled countries. At the same time, some commonalities were observed, including the importance of nursing and midwifery personnel in the skill mix and the greater tendency of physicians to engage in dual practice. While the use of standardized questionnaires offered the advantage of enhancing cross-national comparability of the results, some limitations were noted, especially in relation to the categories used for occupations and qualifications that did not necessarily conform to the country situation. Conclusion With increasing experience in health facility assessments for HRH monitoring comes

  4. Increasing human resource capacity in African countries: A nursing and midwifery Research Summit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Sun

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Evaluations provided favorable feedback regarding the process leading up to as well as the content of the Research Summit. While further long-term evaluations will be needed to determine the sustainability of this initiative, the Summit format afforded the opportunity for regional experts to meet, examine research priorities, and develop strategic action and mentorship plans. This paper describes a replicable method that could be utilized in other regions using available resources to minimize costs and modest grant funding.

  5. Determinants of Renewable Energy Resources and Their Relationship Between Economic Growth: The Case of Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Serkan Çınar; Mine Yılmazer

    2015-01-01

    Literature on the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth is based on two different approaches that are supply-side and demand-side. The impact of renewable and non-renewable energy consumption on economic growth is investigated with traditional production function on supply-side approach. The relationship between renewable energy consumption, economic growth, CO2 and energy prices is analyzed on demand-side approach. In this study, the impact of renewable resources on eco...

  6. Intrahousehold Bargaining and Resource Allocation in Developing Countries-super-1

    OpenAIRE

    Cheryl Doss

    2013-01-01

    Many key development outcomes depend on women s ability to negotiate favorable intrahousehold allocations of resources. Yet it has been difficult to clearly identify which policies can increase women's bargaining power and result in better outcomes. This paper reviews both the analytical frameworks and the empirical evidence on the importance of women's bargaining power. It argues that there is sufficient evidence from rigorous studies to conclude that women's bargaining power does affect out...

  7. The impact of the financial crisis on human resources for health policies in three southern-Europe countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Tiago; Dussault, Gilles; Pontes, Carla

    2015-12-01

    The public health sector has been the target of austerity measures since the global financial crisis started in 2008, while health workforce costs have been a source of rapid savings in most European Union countries. This article aims to explore how health workforce policies have evolved in three southern European countries under external constraints imposed by emergency financial programmes agreed with the International Monetary Fund, Central European Bank and European Commission. The selected countries, Greece, Portugal and Cyprus, show similarities with regard to corporatist systems of social protection and comprehensive welfare mechanisms only recently institutionalized. Based on document analysis of the Memoranda of Understanding agreed with the Troika, our results reveal broadly similar policy responses to the crisis but also important differences. In Cyprus, General Practitioners have a key position in reducing public expenditure through gatekeeping and control of users' access, while Portugal and Greece seeks to achieve cost containment by constraining the decision-making powers of professionals. All three countries lack innovation as well as monitoring and assessment of the effects of the financial crisis in relation to the health workforce. Consequently, there is a need for health policy development to use human resources more efficiently in healthcare. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sudan Country Profile - Human Resource Development (HRD) for the first Nuclear Power Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousif, Eltayeb H. Elneel

    2014-01-01

    Sudan has been decided to prepare a strategy plan for the first nuclear power plant for various reasons like production electricity and increase the national industries besides the capabilities to do the scientific and research activities. Sudan has been started to establish and develop a master plan for the human resource development and makes a comprehensive realistic assessment about the organizational, educational and industrial capabilities and determines the requirements for developing the quality and quantity of human resources needed. The national nuclear regulatory authority has been started to update all legislation and regulations and also reviews and evaluates the international agreements and conventions related to the nuclear energy. In this profile we used the methodology of the international atomic energy agency to assess and evaluate the capacity building in Sudan. The expected outcomes from this profile are identified the gaps regarding the strengthening the national infrastructure and nuclear regulatory framework and issuing regulations to met the requirements for safety and security of the nuclear power plant. The availability of the human resources skills are important for effectively monitors the activities of the companies and facilities involved in nuclear power plant. The new nuclear law and the new national policy of the nuclear program are now under the process of approval.(author)

  9. Survey of basic data on human resources development (HRD) in the nuclear field in FNCA countries (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-03-01

    In the 3rd FNCA* (Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia) Coordinator Meeting held on March 2002, it was proposed to carry out 'Survey of the Basic Data on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field'. It was considered to be the first step for developing the HRD strategy by producing the quantitative data on HRD in nuclear field. The survey results were introduced by Project Leaders during the 2002 FNCA Workshop on HRD held on October 2002. The follow-up survey was conducted with the cooperation of other Project Leaders in the respective field of FNCA such as medical and agriculture applications in each member countries. The collected survey data was analyzed in 2003, and summarized as 'Summary of the Survey Data'. This report consists of the summary of 'Survey of the Basic Data on Human Resources Development in Nuclear Field'. It was reported during the 2003 FNCA Workshop on HRD held on October 2003 and updated until early 2004. (author)

  10. Potential for Zika virus introduction and transmission in resource limited countries in Africa and Asia-Pacific: A modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Matthew; Creatore, Maria I.; Brent, Shannon; Watts, Alexander G.; Hay, Simon I.; Kulkarni, Manisha A.; Brownstein, John S.; Khan, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background As the epidemic of Zika virus expands in the Americas, countries across Africa and the Asia-Pacific region are becoming increasingly susceptible to the importation and possible local spread of the virus. To support public health readiness, we aim to identify regions and times where the potential health, economic, and social effects from Zika virus are greatest, focusing on resource-limited countries in Africa and the Asia-Pacific region. Methods Our model combined transportation network analysis, ecological modelling of mosquito occurrences, and vector competence for flavivirus transmission, using data from the International Air Transport Association, entomological observations from Zika’s primary vector species, and climate conditions using WorldClim. We overlaid monthly flows of airline travellers arriving to Africa and the Asia-Pacific region from areas of the Americas suitable for year-round transmission of Zika virus with monthly maps of climatic suitability for mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus within Africa and the Asia-Pacific region. Findings An estimated 2·6 billion people live in areas of Africa and the Asia-Pacific region where the presence of competent mosquito vectors and suitable climatic conditions could support local transmission of Zika virus. Countries with large volumes of travellers arriving from Zika affected areas of the Americas and large populations at risk of mosquito-borne Zika virus infection include, India (67 422 travellers arriving per year; 1·2 billion residents in potential Zika transmission areas), China (238 415 travellers; 242 million residents), Indonesia (13 865 travellers; 197 million residents), Philippines (35 635 travellers; 70 million residents), and Thailand (29 241 travellers; 59 million residents). Interpretation Many countries across Africa and the Asia-Pacific region are vulnerable to Zika virus. Strategic use of available health and human resources is essential to prevent or mitigate

  11. Country report present status and need of human resource development in nuclear field in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo Qui Viet; Vu Dang Ninh

    2000-01-01

    Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission (VAEC) was officially established in 1976, and is a national research and development organization in the field of nuclear science and technology for peaceful purposes in Vietnam. Under the VAEC, there are three institutes and one center. Status of main facilities, such as TRIGA MARK II, neutron generator, electron accelerator MT-17, and irradiation facilities are outlined in the paper. At present, the VAEC has a total staff of about 540 persons. The number of staff appears adequate to fulfill the present task on application of isotopes and nuclear techniques. When Vietnam decides to develop nuclear power program, the demand for human resources will be significantly high. During the last five years, Vietnam has been developing and implementing a national regulatory program on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety. The Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (MOSTE) have established independent Vietnam Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Authority (VRPA) in 1994. If the Vietnamese Government approves the proposed nuclear power program, human resources training should be a key point for all research and development directions at all revel of personnel. When looking back in the history of formation and development of nuclear science and technology in Vietnam, the international cooperation has played an extremely important role in promoting the program. The exchange of information and direct participation in concrete cooperation activities under the framework of the Forum are expected. (Tanaka, Y.)

  12. Country report present status and need of human resource development in nuclear field in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo Qui Viet [Department of Organization and Scientific Human Resource Development, The Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Vu Dang Ninh [Department of Administration and Personnel, The Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2000-12-01

    Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission (VAEC) was officially established in 1976, and is a national research and development organization in the field of nuclear science and technology for peaceful purposes in Vietnam. Under the VAEC, there are three institutes and one center. Status of main facilities, such as TRIGA MARK II, neutron generator, electron accelerator MT-17, and irradiation facilities are outlined in the paper. At present, the VAEC has a total staff of about 540 persons. The number of staff appears adequate to fulfill the present task on application of isotopes and nuclear techniques. When Vietnam decides to develop nuclear power program, the demand for human resources will be significantly high. During the last five years, Vietnam has been developing and implementing a national regulatory program on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety. The Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (MOSTE) have established independent Vietnam Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Authority (VRPA) in 1994. If the Vietnamese Government approves the proposed nuclear power program, human resources training should be a key point for all research and development directions at all revel of personnel. When looking back in the history of formation and development of nuclear science and technology in Vietnam, the international cooperation has played an extremely important role in promoting the program. The exchange of information and direct participation in concrete cooperation activities under the framework of the Forum are expected. (Tanaka, Y.)

  13. Cancer in adolescents and young adults in countries with limited resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrath, Ian; Epelman, Sidnei

    2013-08-01

    Cancer in adolescents and young adults (AYA) represents a higher fraction of all cancer in countries that are still undergoing a demographic transition. Such countries tend to have much younger populations, and therefore unless they have a particularly low incidence of cancer in this age group, will have a higher burden of cancer (absolute number of cases with cancer) in AYA. Cancers in AYA are comprised of the tail end of the incidence curve of cancers that have their peak incidence, or occur almost exclusively in childhood, the beginning of the incidence curve of cancers that primarily affect the elderly, and a third set of cancers that have their peak incidence (or are at least common) in the AYA age group (e.g., testicular cancer, sarcomas, melanoma, thyroid cancer). Many, but not all, of these cancers require radiation or cancer surgery, but the poorest countries do not have a sufficient number of radiation therapy units and surgical oncologists, or indeed medical and pediatric oncologists, to deal with the burden of cancer they face. The AYA age group is particularly important, both with regard to their contribution to the economy now and in the future (the majority are in the "working" age-group defined as 15-64 years), as well as their important role in caring for their families. Moreover, some of these cancers are eminently curable with chemotherapy alone, and more could be cured by simply improving the efficiency of existing health services and providing education and training to both the public as well as oncologists and other specialists required for the care of AYA (although such individuals will not necessarily be exclusively concerned with this age group). Of particular importance is the detection and diagnosis of cancer patients at the earliest possible time in the course of their disease. Avoiding delays in initiating therapy, which are partly due to the poverty and lack of education of the public as well as to a failure on the part of primary

  14. Childhood acute non-traumatic coma: aetiology and challenges in management in resource-poor countries of Africa and Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwer, Samson; Chacha, Clifford; Newton, Charles R; Idro, Richard

    2013-08-01

    This review examines the best available evidence on the aetiology of childhood acute non-traumatic coma in resource-poor countries (RPCs), discusses the challenges associated with management, and explores strategies to address them. Publications in English and French which reported on studies on the aetiology of childhood non-traumatic coma in RPCs are reviewed. Primarily, the MEDLINE database was searched using the keywords coma, unconsciousness, causality, aetiology, child, malaria cerebral, meningitis, encephalitis, Africa, Asia, and developing countries. 14 records were identified for inclusion in the review. Cerebral malaria (CM) was the commonest cause of childhood coma in most of the studies conducted in Africa. Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) was the second most common known cause of coma in seven of the African studies. Of the studies in Asia, encephalitides were the commonest cause of coma in two studies in India, and ABM was the commonest cause of coma in Pakistan. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most commonly isolated organism in ABM. Japanese encephalitis, dengue fever and enteroviruses were the viral agents most commonly isolated. Accurate diagnosis of the aetiology of childhood coma in RPCs is complicated by overlap in clinical presentation, limited diagnostic resources, disease endemicity and co-morbidity. For improved outcomes, studies are needed to further elucidate the aetiology of childhood coma in RPCs, explore simple and practical diagnostic tools, and investigate the most appropriate specific and supportive interventions to manage and prevent infectious encephalopathies.

  15. Resilience of Vietnamese refugees: resources to cope with natural disasters in their resettled country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Huaibo; Aronson, Robert E; Lovelace, Kay A; Strack, Robert W; Villalba, José A

    2013-08-01

    Study findings suggest that refugees are more vulnerable than the general population to mental disorders from disasters. This pilot study explored the nature of Vietnamese refugees' resilience to a potential natural disaster as a first step toward improving their disaster mental health. Interviews were conducted with 20 ethnic Vietnamese and Montagnard adult refugees using a semistructured interview guide. Factors in resilience at both individual and family levels were examined. Our results indicated that these refugees had positive personalities and strong family cohesion. However, although a majority of the participants had experienced natural disasters, they lacked knowledge and specific strategies to cope with these events. The individual participants and their families lacked sufficient information, financial resources, emergency supplies, or social support for a natural disaster. Enhancing refugees' current strengths in responding to disasters, delivering them tailored emergency training, strengthening relationships between refugee service providers and refugee communities, and advocating for refugees' socioeconomic capacity building should be considered.

  16. Urban waste landfill planning and karstic groundwater resources in developing countries: the example of Lusaka (Zambia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, J.; Nyambe, I. A.; Di Gregorio, A.; Di Gregorio, F.; Simasiku, S.; Follesa, R.; Nkemba, S.

    2004-06-01

    Lusaka, the capital city of Zambia with more than two million inhabitants, derives approximately 70% of its water requirements from groundwater sourced in the underlying karstic Lusaka aquifer. This water resource is, therefore, extremely important for the future of the population. The characteristics of the aquifer and the shallow water table make the resource vulnerable and in need of protection and monitoring. A joint project between the Geology Departments of the University of Cagliari and the School of Mines of the University of Zambia, to investigate the "Anthropogenic and natural processes in the Lusaka area leading to environmental degradation and their possible mitigation" was carried out in July 2001. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the extent of the present environmental degradation, assessing the vulnerability of the carbonatic aquifer and the degree of pollution of the groundwater and to make proposals to mitigate adverse environmental effects. Analyses of water samples collected during project indicate some areas of concern, particularly with respect to the levels of ammonia, nitrates and some heavy metals. As groundwater quality and quantity are prerogatives for a healthy and sustainable society, the study offers guidelines for consideration by the local and national authorities. Uptake of these guidelines should result in a number of initiatives being taken, including: (a) closure or reclamation of existing waste dumps; (b) upgrading of existing waste dumps to controlled landfills; (c) establishing new urban waste landfills and plants in geo-environmentally suitable sites; (d) local waste management projects in all compounds (residential areas) to prevent and reduce haphazard waste dumping; (e) enlarging sewerage drainage systems to all compounds; (f) enforcing control on groundwater abstraction and pollution, and demarcation of zones of control at existing drill holes; (g) providing the city with new water supplies from outside the

  17. Postgraduate and research programmes in Medicine and Public Health in Rwanda: an exciting experience about training of human resources for health in a limited resources country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakoma, Jean Baptiste

    2016-01-01

    The area of Human Resources for Health (HRH) is the most critical challenge for the achievement of health related development goals in countries with limited resources. This is even exacerbated in a post conflict environment like Rwanda. The aim of this commentary is to report and share the genesis and outcomes of an exciting experience about training of qualified health workers in medicine and public health as well as setting - up of a research culture for the last nine years (2006 - 2014) in Rwanda. Many initiatives have been taken and concerned among others training of qualified health workers in medicine and public health. From 2006 to 2014, achievements were as follows: launching and organization of 8 Master of Medicine programmes (anesthesiology, family and community medicine, internal medicine, obstetrics & gynecology, otorhinolaryngology, pediatrics, psychiatry and surgery) and 4 Master programmes in public health (MPH, MSc Epidemiology, MSc Field Epidemiology & Laboratory Management, and Master in Hospital and Healthcare Administration); training to completion of more than 120 specialists in medicine, and 200 MPH, MSc Epidemiology, and MSc Field Epidemiology holders; revival of the Rwanda Medical Journal; organization of graduate research training (MPhil and PhD); 3 Master programmes in the pipeline (Global Health, Health Financing, and Supply Chain Management); partnerships with research institutions of great renown, which contributed to the reinforcement of the institutional research capacity and visibility towards excellence in leadership, accountability, and self sustainability. Even though there is still more to be achieved, the Rwanda experience about postgraduate and research programmes is inspiring through close interactions between main stakeholders. This is a must and could allow Rwanda to become one of the rare examples to other more well-to-do Sub - Saharan countries, should Rwanda carry on doing that.

  18. Leadership Development of Rehabilitation Professionals in a Low-Resource Country: A Transformational Leadership, Project-Based Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Maureen Romanow; Mann, Monika; Dunleavy, Kim; Chevan, Julia; Kirenga, Liliane; Nuhu, Assuman

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the activities and outcomes of the Leadership Institute (LI), a short-term leadership development professional development course offered to physiotherapists in a low-resource country. Previous studies have provided examples of the benefits of such programs in medicine and nursing, but this has yet to be documented in the rehabilitation literature. The prototype of leadership development presented may provide guidance for similar trainings in other low-resource countries and offer the rehabilitation community an opportunity to build on the model to construct a research agenda around rehabilitation leadership development. The course used a constructivist approach to integrate participants' experiences, background, beliefs, and prior knowledge into the content. Transformational leadership development theory was emphasized with the generation of active learning projects, a key component of the training. Positive changes after the course included an increase in the number of community outreach activities completed by participants and increased involvement with their professional organization. Thirteen leadership projects were proposed and presented. The LI provided present and future leaders throughout Rwanda with exposure to transformative leadership concepts and offered them the opportunity to work together on projects that enhanced their profession and met the needs of underserved communities. Challenges included limited funding for physiotherapy positions allocated to hospitals in Rwanda, particularly in the rural areas. Participants experienced difficulties in carrying out leadership projects without additional funding to support them. While the emphasis on group projects to foster local advocacy and community education is highly recommended, the projects would benefit from a strong long-term mentorship program and further budgeting considerations. The LI can serve as a model to develop leadership skills and spur professional

  19. How countries cope with competing demands and expectations: perspectives of different stakeholders on priority setting and resource allocation for health in the era of HIV and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenniskens, Françoise; Tiendrebeogo, Georges; Coolen, Anne; Blok, Lucie; Kouanda, Seni; Sataru, Fuseini; Ralisimalala, Andriamampianina; Mwapasa, Victor; Kiyombo, Mbela; Plummer, David

    2012-12-11

    priorities and inform sector-wide planning, whereby health service statistics were used to rank the burden of disease. However, many respondents remarked that health system challenges are not captured by such statistics.In all countries funding for health was reported to fall short of requirements and a need for further priority setting to match actual resource availability was identified. Pooled health sector funds have been established to some extent, but development partners' lack of flexibility in the allocation of funds according to country-generated priorities was identified as a major constraint. Although we found consensus on health priorities across all levels in the study countries, current funding falls short of addressing these identified areas. The nature of external funding, as well as programme-specific investment, was found to distort priority setting. There are signs that existing interventions have had limited effects beyond meeting the needs of disease-specific programmes. A need for more comprehensive health system strengthening (HSS) was identified, which requires a strong vision as to what the term means, coupled with a clear strategy and commitment from national and international decision makers in order to achieve stated goals. Prospective studies and action research, accompanied by pilot programmes, are recommended as deliberate strategies for HSS.

  20. How countries cope with competing demands and expectations: perspectives of different stakeholders on priority setting and resource allocation for health in the era of HIV and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenniskens Françoise

    2012-12-01

    -stakeholder processes were increasingly used to identify priorities and inform sector-wide planning, whereby health service statistics were used to rank the burden of disease. However, many respondents remarked that health system challenges are not captured by such statistics. In all countries funding for health was reported to fall short of requirements and a need for further priority setting to match actual resource availability was identified. Pooled health sector funds have been established to some extent, but development partners′ lack of flexibility in the allocation of funds according to country-generated priorities was identified as a major constraint. Conclusions Although we found consensus on health priorities across all levels in the study countries, current funding falls short of addressing these identified areas. The nature of external funding, as well as programme-specific investment, was found to distort priority setting. There are signs that existing interventions have had limited effects beyond meeting the needs of disease-specific programmes. A need for more comprehensive health system strengthening (HSS was identified, which requires a strong vision as to what the term means, coupled with a clear strategy and commitment from national and international decision makers in order to achieve stated goals. Prospective studies and action research, accompanied by pilot programmes, are recommended as deliberate strategies for HSS.

  1. Pre-natal genetic counselling in a resource limited country - a single center geneticist's perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afroze, B.; Jehan, F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the needs related to prenatal genetic counselling in a developing country. Methods: The prospective observational study was conducted at the Prenatal-Genetic Counselling Clinic of Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from October 2007 to September 2010. In-depth interviews were conducted and the data was stored in the form of patient charts. Information was then extracted from the charts and entered into a structured questionnaire. Results: Of the 93 couples in the study, 49(53%) were in the self-referral group and 44(47%) were in the physician-referral group. Diagnosis was not given for previously affected children by the paediatrician or by obstetrician for recurrent miscarriages in 68(73%)cases. Besides, 20(22%) couples had voluntarily terminated a pregnancy without any tests because of the fear of having a diseased child. Eleven (12%) couples were looking for amniocentensis or chorionic villus sampling. Death in previous children was the main reason to seek genetic counselling and was seen in 57(61%) couples. Consanguinity was seen in 77(83%) couples. Conclusion: A clear deficiency of knowledge of genetics was seen among the non-genetic healthcare providers. Demand of antenatal genetic testing among the public was also seen, highlighting the need of diagnostic facility for genetic and metabolic disorders. However, this needs to be explored in the context of the existing healthcare infrastructure. (author)

  2. Overseas oil-development policy of resource-poor countries: A case study from Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Masanari; Mogi, Gento; Albedaiwi, Waleed H.

    2008-01-01

    Japan, currently the world's third largest oil consumer, depends on imports for almost all of its oil needs. Owing to this high level of dependence, Japanese citizens as well as the economy have historically been vulnerable. In the past, certain incidents caused by the interruption of oil imports have resulted in fatal damages to the country. In order to reduce these risks, the Japanese government has supported overseas exploration and development activities of the domestic upstream oil industry, which has not proven as successful as expected. This paper presents the experiences, policies, and the structure of Japan's attempts to increase the share of domestic oil needs met by development activities. While conducting this study, both internal and external constraints were encountered. In addition to the lack of domestic oil reserves, factors including the institutional design of cooperation between government and private industries, the early history of the upstream industry, the target area of overseas development, and the changing environment have created impediments toward achieving the targets. In 2006, Japan again set a new target for doubling the ratio of self-developed oil in its total imports by 2030, and will face challenges in clearing the above-mentioned hurdles

  3. Estimating the tuberculosis burden in resource-limited countries: a capture-recapture study in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassili, A; Al-Hammadi, A; Al-Absi, A; Glaziou, P; Seita, A; Abubakar, I; Bierrenbach, A L; van Hest, N A

    2013-04-01

    The lack of applicable population-based methods to measure tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates directly at country level emphasises the global need to generate robust TB surveillance data to ascertain trends in disease burden and to assess the performance of TB control programmes in the context of the United Nations Millenium Development Goals and World Health Organization targets for TB control. To estimate the incidence of TB cases (all forms) and sputum smear-positive disease, and the level of under-reporting of TB in Yemen in 2010. Record-linkage and three-source capture-recapture analysis of data collected through active prospective longitudinal surveillance within the public and private non-National Tuberculosis Programme sector in twelve Yemeni governorates, selected by stratified cluster random sampling. For all TB cases, the estimated ratio of notified to incident cases and completeness of case ascertainment after record linkage, i.e., the ratio of detected to incident cases, was respectively 71% (95%CI 64-80) and 75% (95%CI 68-85). For sputum smear-positive TB cases, these ratios were respectively 67% (95%CI 58-75) and 76% (95%CI 66-84). We estimate that there were 13 082 (95%CI 11 610-14 513) TB cases in Yemen in 2010. Under-reporting of TB in Yemen is estimated at 29% (95%CI 20-36).

  4. Cyclic Investigation of Geophysical Studies in the Exploration and Discovery of Natural Resources in Our Country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonulalan, A. U.

    2007-01-01

    Although the methods of exploration geophysics were first utilized after the discovery of an oil field in 1921, they have also applied in the old centuries. Likewise, the half of the total production in the United States of America is covered by new oil fields discovered by utilizing geophysical methods. The industry's energy necessity increases the interest to oil. The investments in the field of geophysics by the companies which makes large amount of money in order to discover new oil fields, widespread use of computers, the developments of space technology and world-wide nuclear competition even though its great danger for human beings have great share in the development of geophysics. Our country has 18 different types mines which has more than 10 billion $ potential. Geophysical engineers have great Kowledge and labor in the discovery of 1,795 trillion wealth from borax to building stone, and 60 billion $ oil and gas. On the other hand, as 1,5 billion investment in the field of geophysics is only 0.08 % of total investments, the increase of investments will add more contribution

  5. Approaches for optimizing the utilization of nuclear medical resources in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelstein, S.

    1978-10-01

    Contemplation of the use of nuclear medicine technologies in developing countries raises the issue, what purposes they would serve in relation to the major health needs of the region. This investigation was an attempt to assess and to test a methodology for conducting this assessment. Several potential nuclear medicine applications were selected on the basis of their intrinsic promise and in order to evaluate a variety of techniques. These applications were then subjected to a cost-effectiveness analysis, either on their own or in comparison with some competing procedure. To give reality to the study, it was performed in the context of the Indian health scene. The situations examined were the following: Screening blood units for hepatitis B surface antigen prior to transfusion. Costs and benefits of radiorespirometry and conventional culture methods as means to improve case-finding in tuberculosis surveys. Improved tests for diagnosing tuberculous meningitis. Population screening for thyroid diseases. Studies of this type are typically impeded by an insufficiency of key data, they nevertheless can shed some light on the value of potential radionuclide applications

  6. GLOBAL PROSPECTS OF SYNTHETIC DIESEL FUEL PRODUCED FROM HYDROCARBON RESOURCES IN OIL&GAS EXPORTING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Kurevija

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of synthetic diesel fuel through Fischer-Tropsch process is a well known technology which dates from II World War, when Germany was producing transport fuel from coal. This process has been further improved in the South Africa due to period of international isolation. Today, with high crude oil market cost and increased demand of energy from China and India, as well as global ecological awareness and need to improve air quality in urban surroundings, many projects are being planned regarding production of synthetic diesel fuel, known as GTL (Gas To Liquid. Most of the future GTL plants are planned in oil exporting countries, such are Qatar and Nigeria, where natural gas as by-product of oil production is being flared, losing in that way precious energy and profit. In that way, otherwise flared natural gas, will be transformed into synthetic diesel fuel which can be directly used in all modern diesel engines. Furthermore, fossil fuel transportation and distribution technology grid can be used without any significant changes. According to lower emissions of harmful gasses during combustion than fossil diesel, this fuel could in the future play a significant part of EU efforts to reach 23% of alternative fuel share till 2020., which are now mostly relied on biodiesel, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas and CNG (compressed natural gas.

  7. Neo-Industrial and Sustainable Development of Russia as Mineral Resources Exploiting Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokudina, Marina; Zhironkina, Olga; Kalinina, Oksana; Gasanov, Magerram; Agafonov, Felix

    2017-11-01

    In the Russian economy, the world leadership in the extraction of different mineral resources is combined with the potential for their processing and a significant scientific sector. Innovative development of raw materials extraction is impossible without the parallel technological modernization of the high-tech sector. In general, the complex of these processes is a neo-industrialization of the economy. Neo-industrially oriented transformation of the economy reflects complex changes in its structure, the transformation of established stable relationships between various elements of the system of social production that determine macroeconomic proportions. Neo-industrial transformations come along with the modification of economic relations associated with investments, innovations, labor and income distribution, with the process of locating productive forces and regulating the economy by the government. Neo-industrialization of economy is not only significant changes in its technological and reproductive structure (the development of high-tech industries, the integration of science and industry), but, above all, the implementation of a system structural policy of innovative development of raw material industry and the recovery of manufacturing industries on a new technological basis.

  8. Matching Up to the Information Society: An Evaluation of the EU, the EU Accession Countries, Switzerland and the United States. Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graafland-Essers, Irma; Cremonini, Leon; Ettedgui, Emile; Botterman, Maarten

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the current understanding of the advancement of the Information Society within the European Union and countries that are up for accession in 2004, and is based on the SIBIS (Statistical Indicators Benchmarking the Information Society) surveys and analyses per SIBIS theme and country. The report is unique in its coherent and…

  9. Types and Outcome of Fetal Urinary Anomalies in Low Resource Setting Countries: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Hend; Hemida, Reda; Nabil, Hanan; Ibrahim, Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract in the developing countries have a poor prognosis due to limited experience in antenatal and postnatal management. A 3-year retrospective study was carried out from January 2011 to December 2013. The following data were collected and analyzed: maternal age, gravidity, parity, gestational age at diagnosis, and ultrasonography findings. Final diagnosis after birth, the performed surgeries, follow-up data, as well as survival at one year were also analyzed. The mean age of the included patients was 28 years (range 20-35 years). The mean parity was 1.7 (range 0-4). The mean gestational age at diagnosis was 26 weeks (range 15-36 weeks). Consanguinity was reported in 10 cases (24.4 %). There were 25 males and 16 females. Bilateral renal agenesis was the commonest type (19.5 %). The anomalies of kidneys and urinary tract in our cases were associated with other anomalies in 8 cases (19.5 %). Oligohydramnios was detected in bilateral renal agenesis and posterior urethral valve. Surgical interference during the first 6 months was performed in 6 cases; pyeloplasty for unilateral or bilateral hydronephrosis was performed in 5 cases; and excision of solitary renal cyst performed in one case. By the end of the first year, two of the three cases with chronic renal disease, who were under peritoneal dialysis, died, and three cases who had undergone pyeloplasty were lost to follow-up. Among the 41 cases with antenatally diagnosed renal and urinary malformations; bilateral renal agenesis was the commonest anomaly (19.5 %). There were high rates of induction of abortion, IUFD, and neonatal deaths. The poor outcome may be due to lack of experience in performing invasive therapeutic fetal procedures.

  10. Do the contents of foreign news on television match viewers’ interests? A 12-nation study of topics and countries of interest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, F.; De Swert, K.; Cohen, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    This article draws upon content analytic and survey data from a 12-nation comparative study to examine the question of content-interest correspondence (CIC) regarding foreign news on television, that is, to what extent do the contents of foreign news aired on television match the interests that

  11. Mapping human resources for eye health in 21 countries of sub-Saharan Africa: current progress towards VISION 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Development of human resources for eye health (HReH) is a major focus of the Global Action Plan 2014 to 2019 to reduce the prevalence of avoidable visual impairment by 25% by the year 2019. The eye health workforce is thought to be much smaller in sub-Saharan Africa than in other regions of the world but data to support this for policy-making is scarce. We collected HReH and cataract surgeries data from 21 countries in sub-Sahara to estimate progress towards key suggested population-based VISION 2020 HReH indicators and cataract surgery rates (CSR) in 2011. Methods Routinely collected data on practitioner and surgery numbers in 2011 was requested from national eye care coordinators via electronic questionnaires. Telephone and e-mail discussions were used to determine data collection strategies that fit the national context and to verify reported data quality. Information was collected on six practitioner cadres: ophthalmologists, cataract surgeons, ophthalmic clinical officers, ophthalmic nurses, optometrists and ‘mid-level refractionists’ and combined with publicly available population data to calculate practitioner to population ratios and CSRs. Associations with development characteristics were conducted using Wilcoxon rank sum tests and Spearman rank correlations. Results HReH data was not easily available. A minority of countries had achieved the suggested VISION 2020 targets in 2011; five countries for ophthalmologists/cataract surgeons, four for ophthalmic nurses/clinical officers and two for CSR. All countries were below target for optometrists, even when other cadres who perform refractions as a primary duty were considered. The regional (sample) ratio for surgeons (ophthalmologists and cataract surgeons) was 2.9 per million population, 5.5 for ophthalmic clinical officers and nurses, 3.7 for optometrists and other refractionists, and 515 for CSR. A positive correlation between GDP and CSR as well as many practitioner ratios was observed

  12. Mapping human resources for eye health in 21 countries of sub-Saharan Africa: current progress towards VISION 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jennifer J; Chinanayi, Farai; Gilbert, Alice; Pillay, Devan; Fox, Samantha; Jaggernath, Jyoti; Naidoo, Kovin; Graham, Ronnie; Patel, Daksha; Blanchet, Karl

    2014-08-15

    Development of human resources for eye health (HReH) is a major focus of the Global Action Plan 2014 to 2019 to reduce the prevalence of avoidable visual impairment by 25% by the year 2019. The eye health workforce is thought to be much smaller in sub-Saharan Africa than in other regions of the world but data to support this for policy-making is scarce. We collected HReH and cataract surgeries data from 21 countries in sub-Sahara to estimate progress towards key suggested population-based VISION 2020 HReH indicators and cataract surgery rates (CSR) in 2011. Routinely collected data on practitioner and surgery numbers in 2011 was requested from national eye care coordinators via electronic questionnaires. Telephone and e-mail discussions were used to determine data collection strategies that fit the national context and to verify reported data quality. Information was collected on six practitioner cadres: ophthalmologists, cataract surgeons, ophthalmic clinical officers, ophthalmic nurses, optometrists and 'mid-level refractionists' and combined with publicly available population data to calculate practitioner to population ratios and CSRs. Associations with development characteristics were conducted using Wilcoxon rank sum tests and Spearman rank correlations. HReH data was not easily available. A minority of countries had achieved the suggested VISION 2020 targets in 2011; five countries for ophthalmologists/cataract surgeons, four for ophthalmic nurses/clinical officers and two for CSR. All countries were below target for optometrists, even when other cadres who perform refractions as a primary duty were considered. The regional (sample) ratio for surgeons (ophthalmologists and cataract surgeons) was 2.9 per million population, 5.5 for ophthalmic clinical officers and nurses, 3.7 for optometrists and other refractionists, and 515 for CSR. A positive correlation between GDP and CSR as well as many practitioner ratios was observed (CSR P = 0

  13. Law for Country: the Structure of Warlpiri Ecological Knowledge and Its Application to Natural Resource Management and Ecosystem Stewardship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles C. C. Holmes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Ecological Knowledge (IEK is deeply encoded in social processes. Our research shows that from an Indigenous perspective, IEK is a way of living whose core aim is to sustain the healthy functioning of people and country through relationships of reciprocity. However, IEK is often portrayed more prosaically as a body of knowledge about the environment. We introduce a framework, called ngurra-kurlu, that enables appreciation of indigenous perspectives on IEK. The framework was identified from the collaborative work of the authors with Warlpiri aboriginal elders in the Tanami Desert region of central Australia. Ngurra-kurlu facilitates cross-cultural understanding by distilling, from a complex cultural system, the five distinct conceptual categories that comprise IEK: law, skin, ceremony, language, and country. The framework enables engagement with nuanced environmental knowledge because it synthesizes, for cross-cultural audiences, all the key areas of knowledge and practice in which IEK is located. In particular, the framework highlights how social systems mediate the transmission, deployment, and regulation of environmental knowledge in on-ground situations, including collaborative natural resource management. Although the framework was generated in relation to one indigenous group, the epistemological structure of Warlpiri IEK is relevant throughout Australia, and the framework can be applied internationally to the emerging interest in fostering ecosystem stewardship in which the cultural connections between people and place are an integral part of ecosystems management.

  14. The impact of Clostridium difficile infection on resource use and costs in hospitals in Spain and Italy: a matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Angel; Di Bella, Stefano; Lo Vecchio, Andrea; Grau, Santiago; Hart, Warren M; Isidoro, Beatriz; Scotto, Ricardo; Petrosillo, Nicola; Watt, Maureen; Nazir, Jameel

    2015-07-01

    To assess the impact of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) on hospital resources and costs in Spain and Italy. CDI data were collected from institutions in Spain and Italy. Each patient was matched with two randomly selected uninfected controls in the same institution. Patient outcomes were assessed for the first and second episodes of CDI and for patients aged ≤65 and >65 years. The impact of CDI on hospital length of stay (LOS) was used to calculate CDI-attributable costs. A multivariate analysis using duration of stay as the continuous outcome variable assessed the independent effect of CDI on hospital costs and LOS. LOS attributable to CDI ranged from 7.6-19.0 days in adults and was 5.0 days in children; the increases were greater in adults in Italy than in Spain. Attributable costs per adult patient ranged from €4396 in Madrid to €14 023 in Rome, with the majority of the cost being due to hospitalization. For children, the total attributable cost was €3545/patient. These data show that the burden of CDI is considerable in Spain and Italy. Treatments that can reduce LOS, disease severity, and recurrence rates, as well as effective infection control measures to prevent transmission, have the potential to reduce the burden of CDI. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Breast Camps for Awareness and Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer in Countries With Limited Resources: A Multidisciplinary Model From Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Shahin; Moloo, Zahir; Ngugi, Anthony; Allidina, Amyn; Ndumia, Rose; Mutuiri, Anderson; Wasike, Ronald; Wahome, Charles; Abdihakin, Mohamed; Kasmani, Riaz; Spears, Carol D; Oigara, Raymond; Mwachiro, Elizabeth B; Busarla, Satya V P; Kibor, Kibet; Ahmed, Abdulaziz; Wawire, Jonathan; Sherman, Omar; Saleh, Mansoor; Zujewski, Jo Anne; Dawsey, Sanford M

    2016-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer of women in Kenya. There are no national breast cancer early diagnosis programs in Kenya. The objective was to conduct a pilot breast cancer awareness and diagnosis program at three different types of facilities in Kenya. This program was conducted at a not-for-profit private hospital, a faith-based public hospital, and a government public referral hospital. Women aged 15 years and older were invited. Demographic, risk factor, knowledge, attitudes, and screening practice data were collected. Breast health information was delivered, and clinical breast examinations (CBEs) were performed. When appropriate, ultrasound imaging, fine-needle aspirate (FNA) diagnoses, core biopsies, and onward referrals were provided. A total of 1,094 women were enrolled in the three breast camps. Of those, 56% knew the symptoms and signs of breast cancer, 44% knew how breast cancer was diagnosed, 37% performed regular breast self-exams, and 7% had a mammogram or breast ultrasound in the past year. Of the 1,094 women enrolled, 246 (23%) had previously noticed a lump in their breast. A total of 157 participants (14%) had abnormal CBEs, of whom 111 had ultrasound exams, 65 had FNAs, and 18 had core biopsies. A total of 14 invasive breast cancers and 1 malignant phyllodes tumor were diagnosed Conducting a multidisciplinary breast camp awareness and early diagnosis program is feasible in different types of health facilities within a low- and middle-income country setting. This can be a model for breast cancer awareness and point-of-care diagnosis in countries with limited resources like Kenya. This work describes a novel breast cancer awareness and early diagnosis demonstration program in a low- and middle-income country within a limited resource setting. The program includes breast self-awareness and breast cancer education, clinical exams, and point-of-care diagnostics for women in three different types of health facilities in Kenya. This pilot

  16. Regional energy resource development and energy security under CO{sub 2} emission constraint in the greater Mekong sub-region countries (GMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watcharejyothin, Mayurachat; Shrestha, Ram M. [School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology (Thailand)

    2009-11-15

    The paper evaluates effects of energy resource development within the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) on energy supply mix, energy system cost, energy security and environment during 2000-2035. A MARKAL-based integrated energy system model of the five GMS countries was developed to examine benefits of regional energy resource development for meeting the energy demand of these countries. The study found that an unrestricted energy resource development and trade within the region would reduce the total-regional energy systems cost by 18% and would abate the total CO{sub 2} emission by 5% as compared to the base case. All the five countries except Myanmar would benefit from the expansion of regional energy resource integration in terms of lower energy systems costs and better environmental qualities. An imposition of CO{sub 2} emission reduction constraint by 5% on each of the study countries from that of the corresponding emissions under the unrestricted energy resource development in the GMS is found to improve energy security, reduce energy import and fossil fuels dependences and increase volume of power trade within the region. The total energy system cost under the joint CO{sub 2} emission reduction strategy would be less costly than that under the individual emission targets set for each country. (author)

  17. Regional energy resource development and energy security under CO2 emission constraint in the greater Mekong sub-region countries (GMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watcharejyothin, Mayurachat; Shrestha, Ram M.

    2009-01-01

    The paper evaluates effects of energy resource development within the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) on energy supply mix, energy system cost, energy security and environment during 2000-2035. A MARKAL-based integrated energy system model of the five GMS countries was developed to examine benefits of regional energy resource development for meeting the energy demand of these countries. The study found that an unrestricted energy resource development and trade within the region would reduce the total-regional energy systems cost by 18% and would abate the total CO 2 emission by 5% as compared to the base case. All the five countries except Myanmar would benefit from the expansion of regional energy resource integration in terms of lower energy systems costs and better environmental qualities. An imposition of CO 2 emission reduction constraint by 5% on each of the study countries from that of the corresponding emissions under the unrestricted energy resource development in the GMS is found to improve energy security, reduce energy import and fossil fuels dependences and increase volume of power trade within the region. The total energy system cost under the joint CO 2 emission reduction strategy would be less costly than that under the individual emission targets set for each country.

  18. Financial resources for development. Capital markets in developing countries: a study on borrowing by developing countries in the emerging capital markets of the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nashashibi, H S

    1980-10-01

    Private transfers of capital from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) to developing countries are intended to complement private transfers from the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) by tapping the emerging capital markets in the Middle East. Developing countries will be able to diversify their borrowing and gain additional financing. The long-term investment of oil-producing countries will benefit and the pressures on the banking institutions to recycle funds will lessen. Middle East capital markets include international loans and international bonds. The history of the Kuwaiti dinar (KD) bond market, with its advantages for both investors and borrowers, illustrates the successful development of a capital market. Financial intermediation needs to be improved, however, if the Middle East is to become efficient enough to compete with the Euromarkets. Efficiency will require different measures and should reflect strengthening relationships among Middle East nations. (DCK)

  19. Injury incidence, reactivity and ease of handling of horses kept in groups: A matched case control study in four Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keeling, L.J.; Bøe, K.E.; Christensen, Janne Winther

    2016-01-01

    evaluated. It was hypothesized that a more socially variable group composition has beneficial effects on behaviour, ease of handling and reducing reactivity whereas frequent changes in group composition has negative consequences, resulting in more injuries. We found that differences in treatment effects...... horses from groups and horses’ reactivity to a fearful stimulus. Using a matched case control design, 61 groups of horses were studied in Denmark, Norway, Finland and Sweden. They were allocated into groups of similar or different age and sex or where membership changed regularly or remained stable....... Injuries were recorded before mixing the horses into treatment groups, the day after mixing and four weeks later. Reactivity of horses to a moving novel object and the behaviour of a horse being removed from its group and the reactions of other group members towards this horse and the handler were...

  20. Post-approval monitoring and oversight of U.S.-initiated human subjects research in resource-constrained countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Brandon; Kinsler, Janni; Folayan, Morenike O; Allen, Karen; Cáceres, Carlos F

    2014-06-01

    The history of human subjects research and controversial procedures in relation to it has helped form the field of bioethics. Ethically questionable elements may be identified during research design, research implementation, management at the study site, or actions by a study's investigator or other staff. Post-approval monitoring (PAM) may prevent violations from occurring or enable their identification at an early stage. In U.S.-initiated human subjects research taking place in resource-constrained countries with limited development of research regulatory structures, arranging a site visit from a U.S. research ethics committee (REC) becomes difficult, thus creating a potential barrier to regulatory oversight by the parent REC. However, this barrier may be overcome through the use of digital technologies, since much of the world has at least remote access to the Internet. Empirical research is needed to pilot test the use of these technologies for research oversight to ensure the protection of human subjects taking part in research worldwide.

  1. Setting up home-based palliative care in countries with limited resources: a model from Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, B C R; Tang, T S; Corbex, M

    2008-12-01

    The provision of palliative care (PC) and opioids is difficult to ensure in remote areas in low- and middle-income countries. We describe here the set up of a home-care program in Sarawak (the Malaysian part of the Borneo Island), where half the population lives in villages that are difficult to access. The establishment of this program, initiated in 1994 by the Department of Radiotherapy of Sarawak General Hospital, consisted of training, empowering nurses, simplifying referral, facilitating access to medication, and increasing awareness among public and health professionals about PC. The program has been sustainable and cost efficient, serving 936 patients in 2006. The total morphine usage in the program increased from 1400 g in 2006. The results show that pain medication can be provided even in remote areas with effective organization and empowerment of nurses, who were the most important determinants for the set up of this program. Education of family was also a key aspect. The authors believe that the experience gained in Sarawak may help other regions with low or middle resources in the set up of their PC program especially for their remote rural population.

  2. Problems of introducing first nuclear power plant in a developing country with some natural energy resources. The case of Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subki, I.R.

    1997-01-01

    Indonesia, an archipelagic country, has limited hydro, oil/gas, coal and geothermal resources distributed unevenly over many islands. The use of nuclear energy is very potential not only for optimal energy mix but also to reduce the depletion rates of the fossil fuels. This potential was seriously studied by launching a comprehensive Feasibility Study and Site Investigation from November 1991 to May 1996. The study gives positive results for Nuclear Power Plant's (NPP) introduction, especially from technoeconomic aspects which cover : technology, safety, economy, radioactive waste management and acceptable site at Ujung Lemahabang in Central Java. Financial aspects pose some problem due to the government's policy of accepting no risks both political and financial in big projects undertaking. But, this can be overcome through Build Operate Own (BOO) and barter financing projects. The most difficult problems are non-technical, they are : people's perception on nuclear safety and psycho-political aspects of nuclear energy. We propose a combined solution of continuing more effective public information and developing a wisdom in decision making process. (author)

  3. Human resource governance: what does governance mean for the health workforce in low- and middle-income countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplan Avril D

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on practical and effective governance of the health workforce is limited. This paper examines health system strengthening as it occurs in the intersection between the health workforce and governance by presenting a framework to examine health workforce issues related to eight governance principles: strategic vision, accountability, transparency, information, efficiency, equity/fairness, responsiveness and citizen voice and participation. Methods This study builds off of a literature review that informed the development of a framework that describes linkages and assigns indicators between governance and the health workforce. A qualitative analysis of Health System Assessment (HSA data, a rapid indicator-based methodology that determines the key strengths and weaknesses of a health system using a set of internationally recognized indicators, was completed to determine how 20 low- and middle-income countries are operationalizing health governance to improve health workforce performance. Results/discussion The 20 countries assessed showed mixed progress in implementing the eight governance principles. Strengths highlighted include increasing the transparency of financial flows from sources to providers by implementing and institutionalizing the National Health Accounts methodology; increasing responsiveness to population health needs by training new cadres of health workers to address shortages and deliver care to remote and rural populations; having structures in place to register and provide licensure to medical professionals upon entry into the public sector; and implementing pilot programs that apply financial and non-financial incentives as a means to increase efficiency. Common weaknesses emerging in the HSAs include difficulties with developing, implementing and evaluating health workforce policies that outline a strategic vision for the health workforce; implementing continuous licensure and regulation systems to

  4. Human resource governance: what does governance mean for the health workforce in low- and middle-income countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Avril D; Dominis, Sarah; Palen, John Gh; Quain, Estelle E

    2013-02-15

    Research on practical and effective governance of the health workforce is limited. This paper examines health system strengthening as it occurs in the intersection between the health workforce and governance by presenting a framework to examine health workforce issues related to eight governance principles: strategic vision, accountability, transparency, information, efficiency, equity/fairness, responsiveness and citizen voice and participation. This study builds off of a literature review that informed the development of a framework that describes linkages and assigns indicators between governance and the health workforce. A qualitative analysis of Health System Assessment (HSA) data, a rapid indicator-based methodology that determines the key strengths and weaknesses of a health system using a set of internationally recognized indicators, was completed to determine how 20 low- and middle-income countries are operationalizing health governance to improve health workforce performance. The 20 countries assessed showed mixed progress in implementing the eight governance principles. Strengths highlighted include increasing the transparency of financial flows from sources to providers by implementing and institutionalizing the National Health Accounts methodology; increasing responsiveness to population health needs by training new cadres of health workers to address shortages and deliver care to remote and rural populations; having structures in place to register and provide licensure to medical professionals upon entry into the public sector; and implementing pilot programs that apply financial and non-financial incentives as a means to increase efficiency. Common weaknesses emerging in the HSAs include difficulties with developing, implementing and evaluating health workforce policies that outline a strategic vision for the health workforce; implementing continuous licensure and regulation systems to hold health workers accountable after they enter the workforce

  5. A tale of two countries : blessed with huge heavy oil resources, Canada and Venezuela pursue different paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, C.

    2005-01-01

    Both Canada and Venezuela are rich in heavy oil resources. This article presented an overview of current development activities in both countries. International interest in the oil sands region has been highlighted by the French oil company Total's acquisition of Deer Creek Energy Ltd in Alberta for $1.35 billion. The acquisition supports the company's strategy of expanding heavy oil operations in the Athabasca region. With 47 per cent participation in the Sincor project, Total is already a major player in Venezuela. Although the Sincor project is one of the world's largest developments, future investment is in jeopardy due to an unpredictable government and shifts in policy by the state-run oil company Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA). The country's energy minister has recently announced that all existing agreements will be terminated as of December 31, 2005. The government has allowed 6 months for companies to enter into new agreements with new terms. Under revised rules, foreign companies will be required to pay income tax at a rate of 50 per cent. The rate will be applied retroactively to profits made over the last 5 years. Under the new law, agreements could be established under the terms of mixed companies, where Venezuela will have majority equity in the company that exploits the oil. In addition, the government has accused companies of not paying the required income tax levels on contracts, and some companies have been fined as much as $100 million. It was suggested that current difficulties are the result of an incoherent energy policy and an unstable regime. The international oil and gas community is watching developments, and it was anticipated that parties previously considering Venezuela as an investment opportunity will now reconsider. By contrast, Alberta has been praised by oil companies for its stable regulatory regime and its reasonable royalty structure. Thanks to a purge of 18,000 employees from PDVSA by Venezuelan president, Alberta is now

  6. Adapting clinical guidelines in low-resources countries : a study on the guideline on the management and prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widyahening, Indah S.; Wangge, Grace; van der Graaf, Yolanda; van der Heijden, Geert J M G

    2017-01-01

    Rationale, aims and objectives: Most of the clinical guidelines in low-resource countries are adaptations from preexisting international guidelines. This adaptation can be problematic when those international guidelines are not based on current evidence or original evidence-based international

  7. Summary of questionnaires completed by participating countries: for the project on the management of water resources in the Sahel region, using isotopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Mari

    2012-07-01

    This presentation was carried out as part of the project on water resources management in the Sahel region, using isotope techniques. It summarizes the two sets of questionnaires made, highlights the basins (aquifers) selected for the Sahel project which are the Lullemen Basin, Taoudeni Basin, Lake Chad Basin and Liptako Gourma. Also, as well as the number of questionnaires completed by the participating countries.

  8. Annotated Bibliography of Children's Literature Resources on War, Terrorism, and Disaster since 1945: By Continents/Countries for Grades K-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangi, Jane M.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an annotated bibliography of children's literature resources on war, terrorism, and disaster since 1945. This annotated bibliography focuses on grades K-8 from different continents/countries, including (1) Africa; (2) Asia; (3) The Caribbean; (4) Central and South America; (5) Europe; and (6) The Middle East.

  9. The water footprint of cotton consumption: An assessment of the impact of worldwide consumption of cotton products on the water resources in the cotton producing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Savenije, H.H.G.; Gautam, R.

    2006-01-01

    The consumption of a cotton product is connected to a chain of impacts on the water resources in the countries where cotton is grown and processed. The aim of this paper is to assess the ‘water footprint’ of worldwide cotton consumption, identifying both the location and the character of the

  10. Problem solving for breast health care delivery in low and middle resource countries (LMCs): consensus statement from the Breast Health Global Initiative.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harford, J.B.; Otero, I.V.; Anderson, B.O.; Cazap, E.; Gradishar, W.J.; Gralow, J.R.; Kane, G.M.; Niens, L.M.; Porter, P.L.; Reeler, A.V.; Rieger, P.T.; Shockney, L.D.; Shulman, L.N.; Soldak, T.; Thomas, D.B.; Thompson, B.; Winchester, D.P.; Zelle, S.G.; Badwe, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    International collaborations like the Breast Health Global Initiative (BHGI) can help low and middle income countries (LMCs) to establish or improve breast cancer control programs by providing evidence-based, resource-stratified guidelines for the management and control of breast cancer. The Problem

  11. Early neurologic complications and long-term sequelae of childhood bacterial meningitis in a limited-resource country (Kosovo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namani, Sadie A; Koci, Bulëza M; Milenković, Zvonko; Koci, Remzie; Qehaja-Buçaj, Emine; Ajazaj, Lindita; Mehmeti, Murat; Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora

    2013-02-01

    Since neurologic complications of childhood bacterial meningitis are encountered frequently despite antibiotic treatments, the purpose of this study was to analyze early neurologic complications and long-term sequelae of bacterial meningitis in children in a limited-resource country (Kosovo) This study uses a retrospective chart review of children treated for bacterial meningitis in two study periods: 277 treated during years 1997-2002 and 77 children treated during years 2009-2010. Of the 277 vs 77 children treated for bacterial meningitis, 60 (22%) vs 33 (43%) patients developed early neurologic complications, while there were 15 (5.4%) vs 2 (2.6%) deaths. The most frequent early neurologic complications were the following: subdural effusions (13 vs 29%), recurrent seizures (11 vs 8%), and hydrocephalus (3 vs 3%). The relative risk (95% confidence interval) for neurologic complications was the highest in infants (3.56 (2.17-5.92) vs 2.69 (1.62-4.59)) and in cases caused by Haemophilus influenzae 1.94 (1.09-3.18) vs Streptococcus pneumoniae 2.57(1.26-4.47). Long-term sequelae were observed in 10 vs 12% of children, predominantly in infants. The most frequent long-term sequelae were late seizures 9 vs 1%, neuropsychological impairment 1 vs 5%, and deafness 1 vs 3%. In both study periods, the most frequent early neurologic complications of childhood bacterial meningitis were subdural effusions. Long-term sequelae were observed in 10% of children, with late seizures, neuropsychological impairment, and deafness being the most common one. Age prior to 12 months was risk factor for both early neurologic complications and long-term sequelae of bacterial meningitis in children.

  12. Do existing research summaries on health systems match immunisation managers' needs in middle- and low-income countries? Analysis of GAVI health systems strengthening support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Marion

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The GAVI Alliance was created in 2000 to increase access to vaccines. More recently, GAVI has supported evidence-based health systems strengthening to overcome barriers to vaccination. Our objectives were: to explore countries' priorities for health systems strengthening; to describe published research summaries for each priority area in relation to their number, quality and relevance; and to describe the use of national data from surveys in identifying barriers to immunisation. Methods From 44 health systems strengthening proposals submitted to GAVI in 2007 and 2008, we analysed the topics identified, the coverage of these topics by existing systematic reviews and the use of nation-wide surveys with vaccination data to justify the needs identified in the proposals. Results Thirty topics were identified and grouped into three thematic areas: health workforce (10 topics; organisation and management (14; and supply, distribution and maintenance (6. We found 51 potentially relevant systematic reviews, although for the topic that appeared most frequently in the proposals ('Health information systems' no review was identified. Thematic and geographic relevance were generally categorised as "high" in 33 (65% and 25 (49% reviews, respectively, but few reviews were categorised as "highly relevant for policy" (7 reviews, 14%. With regard to methodological quality, 14 reviews (27% were categorised as "high". The number of topics that were addressed by at least one high quality systematic review was: seven of the 10 topics in the 'health workforce' thematic area; six of the 14 topics in the area of 'organisation and management'; and none of the topics in the thematic area of 'supply, distribution and maintenance'. Only twelve of the 39 countries with available national surveys referred to them in their proposals. Conclusion Relevant, high quality research summaries were found for few of the topics identified by managers. Few proposals

  13. Matching Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to know FAQ Living donation What is living donation? Organs Types Being a living donor First steps Being ... brochures What Every Patient Needs to Know Living Donation Multiple Listing Visit UNOS Store Learn more How organs are matched How to become a living donor ...

  14. Possible transfer of traditional energy intensive industries towards developing countries. Offers of energy resource in the CIER [Comision de Integracion Electrica Regional] area in relation to this transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchini Ferro, A.; D'Amado Campo, R.

    1989-01-01

    Due to the steep rise in oil prices in the early 1970s, South American countries became aware of the advisability of developing their abundant and renewable hydroelectric resources. The second energy crisis of 1979 pushed up oil prices still further and the consequences in the South American electricity sector included contractions in markets, overcapacity, and difficult financial circumstances. Increases in exports were seen as a way to reduce the burden of those countries' heavy debts and to improve economic conditions. To harmonize the interests of development of highly energy intensive industries in developed countries and the economic development of developing countries, the possibility of marketing energy as an industrial input should be considered. Evidence of the advantages that South American countries can offer to such industrial transfers is presented. These countries offer a source of plentiful hydropower from installations in operation, under construction, or projected as major developments. These installations are already largely interconnected through high- and extra-high-voltage power transmission networks. Technical information is given on the installed generating capacities, including thermal reserve plants; utilization levels; transmission line interconnections; and remaining renewable and non-renewable energy resources. Considerations regarding the political and financial implications of industrial transfers are discussed. 6 refs., 9 figs

  15. Free Open Access Medical Education resource knowledge and utilisation amongst Emergency Medicine trainees: A survey in four countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Thurtle

    2016-03-01

    The Emergency Medicine trainees in both developed and low resource settings studied were aware that Free Open Access Medical Education resources exist, but trainees in lower income settings were generally less aware of specific resources. Lack of internet and device access was not a barrier to use in this group.

  16. Uranium resources, production and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power-generating capacity will continue to expand, albeit at a slower pace than during the past fifteen years. This expansion must be matched by an adequately increasing supply of uranium. This report compares uranium supply and demand data in free market countries with the nuclear industry's natural uranium requirements up to the year 2000. It also reviews the status of uranium exploration, resources and production in 46 countries

  17. Identifying barriers to the availability and use of Magnesium Sulphate Injection in resource poor countries: a case study in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Anna L; Bero, Lisa A; Hill, Suzanne R

    2010-12-16

    Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are serious complications of pregnancy and major causes of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. According to systematic reviews and WHO guidelines magnesium sulphate injection (MgSO4) should be the first -line treatment for severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Studies have shown that this safe and effective medicine is unavailable and underutilized in many resource poor countries. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to the availability and use of MgSO4 in the Zambian Public Health System. A 'fishbone' (Ishikawa) diagram listing probable facilitators to the availability and use of MgSO4 identified from the literature was used to develop an assessment tool. Barriers to availability and use of MgSO4 were assessed at the regulatory/government, supply, procurement, distribution, health facility and health professional levels. The assessment was completed during August 2008 using archival data, and observations at a pragmatic sample of health facilities providing obstetric services in Lusaka District, Zambia. The major barrier to the availability of MgSO4 within the public health system in Zambia was lack of procurement by the Ministry of Health. Other barriers identified included a lack of demand by health professionals at the health centre level and a lack of in-service training in the use of MgSO4. Where there was demand by obstetricians, magnesium sulphate injection was being procured from the private sector by the hospital pharmacy despite not being registered and licensed for use for the treatment of severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia by the national Pharmaceutical Regulatory Authority. The case study in Zambia highlights the complexities that underlie making essential medicines available and used appropriately. The fishbone diagram is a useful theoretical framework for illustrating the complexity of translating research findings into clinical practice. A better understanding of the supply system and of the pattern

  18. Human resource management interventions to improve health workers' performance in low and middle income countries: a realist review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Wilt Gert Jan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving health workers' performance is vital for achieving the Millennium Development Goals. In the literature on human resource management (HRM interventions to improve health workers' performance in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC, hardly any attention has been paid to the question how HRM interventions might bring about outcomes and in which contexts. Such information is, however, critical to assess the transferability of results. Our aim was to explore if realist review of published primary research provides better insight into the functioning of HRM interventions in LMIC. Methodology A realist review not only asks whether an intervention has shown to be effective, but also through which mechanisms an intervention produces outcomes and which contextual factors appear to be of critical influence. Forty-eight published studies were reviewed. Results The results show that HRM interventions can improve health workers' performance, but that different contexts produce different outcomes. Critical implementation aspects were involvement of local authorities, communities and management; adaptation to the local situation; and active involvement of local staff to identify and implement solutions to problems. Mechanisms that triggered change were increased knowledge and skills, feeling obliged to change and health workers' motivation. Mechanisms to contribute to motivation were health workers' awareness of local problems and staff empowerment, gaining acceptance of new information and creating a sense of belonging and respect. In addition, staff was motivated by visible improvements in quality of care and salary supplements. Only a limited variety of HRM interventions have been evaluated in the health sector in LMIC. Assumptions underlying HRM interventions are usually not made explicit, hampering our understanding of how HRM interventions work. Conclusion Application of a realist perspective allows identifying which HRM

  19. Identifying barriers to the availability and use of Magnesium Sulphate Injection in resource poor countries: A case study in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Suzanne R

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are serious complications of pregnancy and major causes of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. According to systematic reviews and WHO guidelines magnesium sulphate injection (MgSO4 should be the first -line treatment for severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Studies have shown that this safe and effective medicine is unavailable and underutilized in many resource poor countries. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to the availability and use of MgSO4 in the Zambian Public Health System. Methods A 'fishbone' (Ishikawa diagram listing probable facilitators to the availability and use of MgSO4 identified from the literature was used to develop an assessment tool. Barriers to availability and use of MgSO4 were assessed at the regulatory/government, supply, procurement, distribution, health facility and health professional levels. The assessment was completed during August 2008 using archival data, and observations at a pragmatic sample of health facilities providing obstetric services in Lusaka District, Zambia. Results The major barrier to the availability of MgSO4 within the public health system in Zambia was lack of procurement by the Ministry of Health. Other barriers identified included a lack of demand by health professionals at the health centre level and a lack of in-service training in the use of MgSO4. Where there was demand by obstetricians, magnesium sulphate injection was being procured from the private sector by the hospital pharmacy despite not being registered and licensed for use for the treatment of severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia by the national Pharmaceutical Regulatory Authority. Conclusions The case study in Zambia highlights the complexities that underlie making essential medicines available and used appropriately. The fishbone diagram is a useful theoretical framework for illustrating the complexity of translating research findings into clinical

  20. Leveling the Playing Field: Giving Girls An Equal Chance for Basic Education--Three Countries' Efforts. EDI Learning Resources Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromquist, Nelly; Murphy, Paud

    This booklet examines the efforts of Pakistan, Bangladesh and Malawi to increase the enrollment of girls in their schools. Each country has severe problems of access to education for girls; the gender gap in the gross enrollment rate at the primary school level is at least 10 percentage points in each country. What is noteworthy about these three…

  1. Analysis of human resources for health strategies and policies in 5 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, in response to GFATM and PEPFAR-funded HIV-activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cailhol, Johann; Craveiro, Isabel; Madede, Tavares; Makoa, Elsie; Mathole, Thubelihle; Parsons, Ann Neo; Van Leemput, Luc; Biesma, Regien; Brugha, Ruairi; Chilundo, Baltazar; Lehmann, Uta; Dussault, Gilles; Van Damme, Wim; Sanders, David

    2013-10-25

    Global Health Initiatives (GHIs), aiming at reducing the impact of specific diseases such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), have flourished since 2000. Amongst these, PEPFAR and GFATM have provided a substantial amount of funding to countries affected by HIV, predominantly for delivery of antiretroviral therapy (ARV) and prevention strategies. Since the need for additional human resources for health (HRH) was not initially considered by GHIs, countries, to allow ARV scale-up, implemented short-term HRH strategies, adapted to GHI-funding conditionality. Such strategies differed from one country to another and slowly evolved to long-term HRH policies. The processes and content of HRH policy shifts in 5 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa were examined. A multi-country study was conducted from 2007 to 2011 in 5 countries (Angola, Burundi, Lesotho, Mozambique and South Africa), to assess the impact of GHIs on the health system, using a mixed methods design. This paper focuses on the impact of GFATM and PEPFAR on HRH policies. Qualitative data consisted of semi-structured interviews undertaken at national and sub-national levels and analysis of secondary data from national reports. Data were analysed in order to extract countries' responses to HRH challenges posed by implementation of HIV-related activities. Common themes across the 5 countries were selected and compared in light of each country context. In all countries successful ARV roll-out was observed, despite HRH shortages. This was a result of mostly short-term emergency response by GHI-funded Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and to a lesser extent by governments, consisting of using and increasing available HRH for HIV tasks. As challenges and limits of short-term HRH strategies were revealed and HIV became a chronic disease, the 5 countries slowly implemented mid to long-term HRH strategies, such as formalisation of pilot initiatives, increase in HRH production and mitigation of internal migration of HRH

  2. Projections of costs, financing, and additional resource requirements for low- and lower middle-income country immunization programs over the decade, 2011-2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Gian; Lydon, Patrick; Cornejo, Santiago; Brenzel, Logan; Wrobel, Sandra; Chang, Hugh

    2013-04-18

    The Decade of Vaccines Global Vaccine Action Plan has outlined a set of ambitious goals to broaden the impact and reach of immunization across the globe. A projections exercise has been undertaken to assess the costs, financing availability, and additional resource requirements to achieve these goals through the delivery of vaccines against 19 diseases across 94 low- and middle-income countries for the period 2011-2020. The exercise draws upon data from existing published and unpublished global forecasts, country immunization plans, and costing studies. A combination of an ingredients-based approach and use of approximations based on past spending has been used to generate vaccine and non-vaccine delivery costs for routine programs, as well as supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). Financing projections focused primarily on support from governments and the GAVI Alliance. Cost and financing projections are presented in constant 2010 US dollars (US$). Cumulative total costs for the decade are projected to be US$57.5 billion, with 85% for routine programs and the remaining 15% for SIAs. Delivery costs account for 54% of total cumulative costs, and vaccine costs make up the remainder. A conservative estimate of total financing for immunization programs is projected to be $34.3 billion over the decade, with country governments financing 65%. These projections imply a cumulative funding gap of $23.2 billion. About 57% of the total resources required to close the funding gap are needed just to maintain existing programs and scale up other currently available vaccines (i.e., before adding in the additional costs of vaccines still in development). Efforts to mobilize additional resources, manage program costs, and establish mutual accountability between countries and development partners will all be necessary to ensure the goals of the Decade of Vaccines are achieved. Establishing or building on existing mechanisms to more comprehensively track resources and

  3. Pollution protection and resource conservation in the economic aid of developing countries: a contribution to survival. Umwelt- und Ressourcenschutz in der Entwicklungshilfe: Beihilfe zum Ueberleben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartje, V J

    1982-01-01

    The contribution of the bilateral economic aid of the F.R. of Germany for diminishing the pollution and resource problems of the Third World is investigated. Not only the imported air and water pollution are considered the reasons for these problems but the specific aspects of environmental deterioration in developing countries as deforestation, desertification and ground erosion caused primarily by the poverty of the Third World are also included.

  4. The classification, cost categories and the system of accounting for uranium resources in the Russian Federation and CIS countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumov, S.S.; Shumilin, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    In 1992 the uranium resource classification systems of Kazakhstan, Russian Federation, Ukraine and Uzbekistan are the same as the system used in the former Soviet Union. The Soviet Union adopted this system as a state law in 1981. Under this system resources are reported as ''in situ'' with no allowance for mining or milling losses and resource depletion. The resources are subdivided according to the degree of exploration and economic value. The classification system divides resources into 7 categories. This includes 3 categories of explored resources (A, B, and C); one of preliminary assessment (C2); and 3 as prognosticated or speculative (P1, P2 and P3). Further analyses and classification is used to determine the readiness for production. This system is used to define the inventory of ''State Balance''. Examples are given for classifying vein-type and rollfront-type sandstone hosted deposits. A discussion of how resources are classified by cost category is given. It is stated, however, that any coincidence between the cost categories used in the former Soviet Union and the cost categories of the IAEA system are ''purely accidental''. (author)

  5. The relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, and water resources in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafindadi, Abdulkadir Abdulrashid; Yusof, Zarinah; Zaman, Khalid; Kyophilavong, Phouphet; Akhmat, Ghulam

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, water resources, and natural resource rents in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries, over a period of 1975-2012. The study includes number of variables in the model for robust analysis. The results of cross-sectional analysis show that there is a significant relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water productivity in the individual countries of Asia-Pacific. However, the results of each country vary according to the time invariant shocks. For this purpose, the study employed the panel least square technique which includes the panel least square regression, panel fixed effect regression, and panel two-stage least square regression. In general, all the panel tests indicate that there is a significant and positive relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water resources in the region. The fossil fuel energy consumption has a major dominating impact on the changes in the air pollution in the region.

  6. Supportive and palliative care for metastatic breast cancer: resource allocations in low- and middle-income countries. A Breast Health Global Initiative 2013 consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, James; Ddungu, Henry; Distelhorst, Sandra R; Ripamonti, Carla; Rodin, Gary M; Bushnaq, Mohammad A; Clegg-Lamptey, Joe N; Connor, Stephen R; Diwani, Msemo B; Eniu, Alexandru; Harford, Joe B; Kumar, Suresh; Rajagopal, M R; Thompson, Beti; Gralow, Julie R; Anderson, Benjamin O

    2013-10-01

    Many women diagnosed with breast cancer in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) present with advanced-stage disease. While cure is not a realistic outcome, site-specific interventions, supportive care, and palliative care can achieve meaningful outcomes and improve quality of life. As part of the 5th Breast Health Global Initiative (BHGI) Global Summit, an expert international panel identified thirteen key resource recommendations for supportive and palliative care for metastatic breast cancer. The recommendations are presented in three resource-stratified tables: health system resource allocations, resource allocations for organ-based metastatic breast cancer, and resource allocations for palliative care. These tables illustrate how health systems can provide supportive and palliative care services for patients at a basic level of available resources, and incrementally add services as more resources become available. The health systems table includes health professional education, patient and family education, palliative care models, and diagnostic testing. The metastatic disease management table provides recommendations for supportive care for bone, brain, liver, lung, and skin metastases as well as bowel obstruction. The third table includes the palliative care recommendations: pain management, and psychosocial and spiritual aspects of care. The panel considered pain management a priority at a basic level of resource allocation and emphasized the need for morphine to be easily available in LMICs. Regular pain assessments and the proper use of pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions are recommended. Basic-level resources for psychosocial and spiritual aspects of care include health professional and patient and family education, as well as patient support, including community-based peer support. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Addressing Factors Associated with Arab Women's Socioeconomic Status May Reduce Breast Cancer Mortality: Report from a Well Resourced Middle Eastern Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; Al Khater, Al-Hareth; Al Kuwari, Mohamed Ghaith; Al-Bader, Salha Bujassoum; Abdulmalik, Mariam; Al-Meer, Nabila; Singh, Rajvir; Fung, Tak

    2015-01-01

    Differences in socioeconomic status (SES) such as income levels may partly explain why breast cancer screening (BCS) disparities exist in countries where health care services are free or heavily subsidized. However, factors that contribute to such differences in SES among women living in well resourced Middle East countries are not fully understood. This quantitative study investigated factors that influence SES and BCS of Arab women. Understanding of such factors can be useful for the development of effective intervention strategies that aim to increase BCS uptake among Arab women. Using data from a cross-sectional survey among 1,063 Arabic-speaking women in Qatar, age 35+, additional data analysis was performed to determine the relationship between socioeconomic indicators such as income and other factors in relation to BCS activities. This study found that income is determined and influenced by education level, occupation, nationality, years of residence in the country, level of social activity, self-perceived health status, and living area. Financial stress, unemployment, and unfavorable social conditions may impede women's participation in BCS activities in well resourced Middle East countries.

  8. The HIV Treatment Gap: Estimates of the Financial Resources Needed versus Available for Scale-Up of Antiretroviral Therapy in 97 Countries from 2015 to 2020.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arin Dutta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO released revised guidelines in 2015 recommending that all people living with HIV, regardless of CD4 count, initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART upon diagnosis. However, few studies have projected the global resources needed for rapid scale-up of ART. Under the Health Policy Project, we conducted modeling analyses for 97 countries to estimate eligibility for and numbers on ART from 2015 to 2020, along with the facility-level financial resources required. We compared the estimated financial requirements to estimated funding available.Current coverage levels and future need for treatment were based on country-specific epidemiological and demographic data. Simulated annual numbers of individuals on treatment were derived from three scenarios: (1 continuation of countries' current policies of eligibility for ART, (2 universal adoption of aspects of the WHO 2013 eligibility guidelines, and (3 expanded eligibility as per the WHO 2015 guidelines and meeting the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS "90-90-90" ART targets. We modeled uncertainty in the annual resource requirements for antiretroviral drugs, laboratory tests, and facility-level personnel and overhead. We estimate that 25.7 (95% CI 25.5, 26.0 million adults and 1.57 (95% CI 1.55, 1.60 million children could receive ART by 2020 if countries maintain current eligibility plans and increase coverage based on historical rates, which may be ambitious. If countries uniformly adopt aspects of the WHO 2013 guidelines, 26.5 (95% CI 26.0 27.0 million adults and 1.53 (95% CI 1.52, 1.55 million children could be on ART by 2020. Under the 90-90-90 scenario, 30.4 (95% CI 30.1, 30.7 million adults and 1.68 (95% CI 1.63, 1.73 million children could receive treatment by 2020. The facility-level financial resources needed for scaling up ART in these countries from 2015 to 2020 are estimated to be US$45.8 (95% CI 45.4, 46.2 billion under the current scenario, US$48.7 (95

  9. An audit of the predictors of outcome in status epilepticus from a resource-poor country: a comparison with developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Haseeb; Rajiv, Keni Ravish; Menon, Ramshekhar; Menon, Deepak; Nair, Muralidharan; Radhakrishnan, Ashalatha

    2016-06-01

    Status epilepticus is a neurological emergency with significant morbidity and mortality. This study describes the clinical profile, treatment, and predictors of outcome of status epilepticus in a tertiary referral centre in a developing country and aims to highlight the similarities and differences from data available from the western world. A retrospective analysis of data of patients treated for status epilepticus was conducted from prospectively maintained records, between January 2000 and September 2010. The demographic data, clinical profile and investigations (including neuroimaging and EEG), aetiology, treatment, and outcomes were studied and compared with data available from the western world. The analysis included 108 events in 84 patients. A single episode of status epilepticus was treated in 72 patients (86%) and multiple status epilepticus events, ranging from two to six per patient, were managed in 12 patients (14%). Mean age was 24.1±20.3 years and 63% were males. The types of status epilepticus included convulsive status in 98 (90.7%), non-convulsive status in seven (6.5%), and myoclonic status in three (2.8%). The majority of events (60%) were remote symptomatic, 16% were acute symptomatic, 16% were of unexplained aetiology, and 8% were progressive symptomatic. In 85 events (79%), status epilepticus could be aborted with first and second-line drugs. The remaining 23 events (21%) progressed to refractory status epilepticus, among which, 13 (56%) were controlled with continuous intravenous midazolam infusion. Case fatality rate was 11%, neurological sequelae were reported in 22%, and 67% returned to baseline. Acute symptomatic status, older age, altered sensorium at the time of admission, and delayed hospitalisation were predictors of poor outcome. Aetiology was the most important determinant of outcome of status epilepticus, as in reports from the western world, with remote symptomatic aetiology secondary to gliosis being the most common

  10. The U.S. natural gas and oil resource base is abundant; but can we produce what the country needs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, T.E.

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies agree that the United States has abundant resources of gas and oil left to find and produce over the next 50--75 years -- if its exploration and production companies are given the resources to do the job. The NPC's estimate of 1,295 TCF of natural gas (advanced technology case) represents a resource/present production ration of 68 years. A similar estimate for oil gives 62 years. Furthermore, these resource estimates have been increasing through the 1980s, as the effects of new geological, geophysical, and engineering technologies has become more apparent. However, only 30% of this tremendous resource will be available under today's business-as-usual economic regime. The rest of the resource will be accessed if: (1) tax policies (and financial and trade policies) are adopted to stabilize prices and stimulate exploration and production (estimated 27% of the resource base); (2) technology is developed, transferred, and used (17%); (3) environmental regulation is held to a balanced level, considers economic costs as well as environmental benefits, and is applied consistently (13%); (4) access to Federal lands is eased for environmentally responsible drilling and development (13%). To convert America's gas and oil resources into delivered products in a timely manner, assuring the nation's gas users of a reliable supply -- and contribute up to $8.7 trillion to the nation's economy -- a doubling of industry effort is required, even at today's high levels of finding and producing efficiency. Coordinated action by industry, government, and the investment community is required to secure the future development of energy supplies. Government in particular must develop policies that encourage the needed investment in America's natural gas and oil

  11. Lessons Learned from Implementing E-Learning for the Education of Health Professionals in Resource-Constrained Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Manu; Marsden, Sophie; Oluka, Tony; Sharma, Reetu; Lucas, Henry

    2017-01-01

    The growing global demand for tertiary education has led to the increased use of e-learning approaches around the world. Demand has increased most rapidly in low and middle income countries (LMICs), which account for half of the students currently enrolled in higher educational institutions (HEIs). But the implementation of e-learning programmes…

  12. Philippines -- country wide water development projects and funds needed. Water crisis in Manila coincide with parliamentarians seminar on water resources and population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Philippines' Clean Water Act was developed to protect the country's remaining water resources by institutionalizing mechanisms to monitor, regulate, and control human and industrial activities which contribute to the ongoing environmental degradation of marine and freshwater resources. Approximately 70 participants attended the Philippine Parliamentarians' Conference on Water Resources, Population and Development held December 3-4, 1997, at the Sulo Hotel in Quezon City. Participants included the legislative staff of the members of the House of Representatives and the Senate, Committee Secretaries of the House and Senate, and government and nongovernmental organization officials. Following the opening programs, panel discussions were held on the role of nongovernmental organizations as legitimate monitors of governments' activities; the need to evaluate water sector assessment methods, water policy and strategy, and water legislation standards; and waste water treatment and sewerage systems used in households and industries. The following issues were raised during the conference's open forum: the need to implement new methods in water resource management; the handling of water for both economic and social purposes; the need to implement guidelines, policies, and pricing mechanisms on bottled water; regulating the construction of recreational facilities such as golf courses; and transferring watershed rehabilitation from the Department of Environment and Natural Resources to local water districts. A declaration was prepared and signed by the participants at the close of the conference.

  13. Comparative efficiency of technologies for conversion and transportation of energy resources of Russia's eastern regions to NEA countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kler, Aleksandr; Tyurina, Elina; Mednikov, Aleksandr

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents perspective technologies for combined conversion of fossil fuels into synthetic liquid fuels and electricity. The comparative efficiency of various process flows of conversion and transportation of energy resources of Russia's east that are aimed at supplying electricity to remote consumers is presented. These also include process flows based on production of synthetic liquid fuel.

  14. Local and landscape-level floral resources explain effects of wildflower strips on wild bees across four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheper, J.A.; Bommarco, R.; Holzschuh, A.; Potts, S.G.; Riedinger, V.; Roberts, S.P.M.; Rundlöf, M.; Smith, H.G.; Steffan-Dewenter, I.; Wickens, J.B.; Wickens, V.J.; Kleijn, D.

    2015-01-01

    1.Growing evidence for declines in wild bees calls for the development and implementation of effective mitigation measures. Enhancing floral resources is a widely accepted measure for promoting bees in agricultural landscapes, but effectiveness varies considerably between landscapes and regions. We

  15. Local and landscape-level floral resources explain effects of wildflower strips on wild bees across four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheper, J.A.; Bommarco, R.; Holzschuh, A.; Potts, S.G.; Riedinger, V.; Roberts, S.P.M.; Rundlöf, M.; Smith, H.G.; Steffan-Dewenter, I.; Wickens, J.B.; Wickens, V.J.; Kleijn, D.

    2015-01-01

    1. Growing evidence for declines in wild bees calls for the development and implementation of effective mitigation measures. Enhancing floral resources is a widely accepted measure for promoting bees in agricultural landscapes, but effectiveness varies considerably between landscapes and regions. We

  16. Laboratory capacity building for the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]) in resource-poor countries: the experience of the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masanza, Monica Musenero; Nqobile, Ndlovu; Mukanga, David; Gitta, Sheba Nakacubo

    2010-12-03

    Laboratory is one of the core capacities that countries must develop for the implementation of the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]) since laboratory services play a major role in all the key processes of detection, assessment, response, notification, and monitoring of events. While developed countries easily adapt their well-organized routine laboratory services, resource-limited countries need considerable capacity building as many gaps still exist. In this paper, we discuss some of the efforts made by the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) in supporting laboratory capacity development in the Africa region. The efforts range from promoting graduate level training programs to building advanced technical, managerial and leadership skills to in-service short course training for peripheral laboratory staff. A number of specific projects focus on external quality assurance, basic laboratory information systems, strengthening laboratory management towards accreditation, equipment calibration, harmonization of training materials, networking and provision of pre-packaged laboratory kits to support outbreak investigation. Available evidence indicates a positive effect of these efforts on laboratory capacity in the region. However, many opportunities exist, especially to support the roll-out of these projects as well as attending to some additional critical areas such as biosafety and biosecuity. We conclude that AFENET's approach of strengthening national and sub-national systems provide a model that could be adopted in resource-limited settings such as sub-Saharan Africa.

  17. Assessing the impacts of climate change on future water resources: a methodological approach based on equiratio CDF-matching and vine copula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Minh Tu; Vernieuwe, Hilde; De Baets, Bernard; Verhoest, Niko E. C.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the impacts of climate change on future river discharge are evaluated using equiratio CDF-matching and a stochastic copula-based evapotranspiration generator. In recent years, much effort has been dedicated to improve the performances of RCMs outputs, i.e. the downscaled precipitation and temperature, to use in regional studies. However, these outputs usually suffer from bias due to the fact that many important small-scale processes, e.g. the representations of clouds and convection, are not represented explicitly within the models. To solve this problem, several bias correction techniques are developed. In this study, an advanced quantile bias approach called equiratio cumulative distribution function matching (EQCDF) is applied for the outputs from three RCMs for central Belgium, i.e. daily precipitation, temperature and evapotranspiration, for the current (1961-1990) and future climate (2071-2100). The rescaled precipitation and temperature are then used to simulate evapotranspiration via a stochastic copula-based model in which the statistical dependence between evapotranspiration, temperature and precipitation is described by a three-dimensional vine copula. The simulated precipitation and stochastic evapotranspiration are then used to model discharge under present and future climate. To validate, the observations of daily precipitation, temperature and evapotranspiration during 1961 - 1990 in Uccle, Belgium are used. It is found that under current climate, the basic properties of discharge, e.g. mean and frequency distribution, are well modelled; however there is an overestimation of the extreme discharges with return periods higher than 10 years. For the future climate change, compared with historical events, a considerable increase of the discharge magnitude and the number of extreme events is estimated for the studied area in the time period of 2071-2100.

  18. Using European travellers as an early alert to detect emerging pathogens in countries with limited laboratory resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grais Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The volume, extent and speed of travel have dramatically increased in the past decades, providing the potential for an infectious disease to spread through the transportation network. By collecting information on the suspected place of infection, existing surveillance systems in industrialized countries may provide timely information for areas of the world without adequate surveillance currently in place. We present the results of a case study using reported cases of Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (Sd1 in European travellers to detect "events" of Sd1, related to either epidemic cases or endemic cases in developing countries. Methods We identified papers from a Medline search for reported events of Sd1 from 1940 to 2002. We requested data on shigella infections reported to the responsible surveillance entities in 17 European countries. Reports of Sd1 from the published literature were then compared with Sd1 notified cases among European travellers from 1990 to 2002. Results Prior to a large epidemic in 1999–2000, no cases of Sd1 had been identified in West Africa. However, if travellers had been used as an early warning, Sd1 could have been identified in this region as earlier as 1992. Conclusion This project demonstrates that tracking diseases in European travellers could be used to detect emerging disease in developing countries. This approach should be further tested with a view to the continuous improvement of national health surveillance systems and existing European networks, and may play a significant role in aiding the international public health community to improve infectious disease control.

  19. Chapitre 14. Networking Project: available S&T resources in the United States for networking with home countries

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Some science and technology (S&T) policies and programs of the United States would facilitate the networking of the foreign-born scientists and engineers (S&Es) with their home countries to contribute to development. These policies and programs would mainly facilitate networking to build up S&T infrastructure. The Director of the National Science Foundation (NSF) has encouraged the U.S. science community to become even further engaged in the world, and has elevated international science withi...

  20. European Energy Integration in East European Countries: Real Necessity to Assure Fair Market prices for Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustin IGNATOV

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to assure energy, and therefore, economic stability of East European States (hereafter EES there should be undertaken visible steps towards deeper energetic integration of the region under the coordination of EU. In such a way there will be considerably strengthened the regional economic security through creating functional mechanisms of solving current and potential energy issues including diversification of supplies and fairer market prices. Moreover, it will be possible to develop and implement more effectively energy infrastructure projects. Deeper and more functional energy integration in EES will create favorable preconditions of fostering the states’ economic development. Also, there will be considerably reduced the macroeconomic risks which could possible occur as a result of the struggle of interests of importing and supplying countries. The current paper is intended to underline the most important weaknesses in terms of energy security of EES and exemplify how efficient these problems could be tackled by cumulating common countries’ efforts in the sector. Also, it highlights the shortcomings of EU energy policy in EES and how these affect the economic prospective of the countries. Finally, it is remarked that EES need a common energy market in order to strengthen their negotiation positions in relation with supplying countries.

  1. Utilization of farm animal genetic resources in a changing agro-ecological environment in the Nordic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha eKantanen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Livestock production is the most important component of northern European agriculture and contributes to and will be affected by climate change. Nevertheless, the role of farm animal genetic resources in the adaptation to new agro-ecological conditions and mitigation of animal production’s effects on climate change has been inadequately discussed despite there being several important associations between animal genetic resources and climate change issues. The sustainability of animal production systems and future food security require access to a wide diversity of animal genetic resources.There are several genetic questions that should be considered in strategies promoting adaptation to climate change and mitigation of environmental effects of livestock production. For example, it may become important to choose among breeds and even among farm animal species according to their suitability to a future with altered production systems. Some animals with useful phenotypes and genotypes may be more useful than others in the changing environment.Robust animal breeds with the potential to adapt to new agro-ecological conditions and tolerate new diseases will be needed. The key issue in mitigation of harmful greenhouse gas effects induced by livestock production is the reduction of methane (CH4 emissions from ruminants. There are differences in CH4 emissions among breeds and among individual animals within breeds that suggest a potential for improvement in the trait through genetic selection.Characterization of breeds and individuals with modern genomic tools should be applied to identify breeds that have genetically adapted to marginal conditions and to get critical information for breeding and conservation programmes for farm animal genetic resources. We conclude that phenotyping and genomic technologies and adoption of new breeding approaches, such as genomic selection introgression, will promote breeding for useful characters in livestock species.

  2. Utilization of farm animal genetic resources in a changing agro-ecological environment in the Nordic countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantanen, Juha; Løvendahl, Peter; Strandberg, Erling; Eythorsdottir, Emma; Li, Meng-Hua; Kettunen-Præbel, Anne; Berg, Peer; Meuwissen, Theo

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production is the most important component of northern European agriculture and contributes to and will be affected by climate change. Nevertheless, the role of farm animal genetic resources in the adaptation to new agro-ecological conditions and mitigation of animal production’s effects on climate change has been inadequately discussed despite there being several important associations between animal genetic resources and climate change issues. The sustainability of animal production systems and future food security require access to a wide diversity of animal genetic resources. There are several genetic questions that should be considered in strategies promoting adaptation to climate change and mitigation of environmental effects of livestock production. For example, it may become important to choose among breeds and even among farm animal species according to their suitability to a future with altered production systems. Some animals with useful phenotypes and genotypes may be more useful than others in the changing environment. Robust animal breeds with the potential to adapt to new agro-ecological conditions and tolerate new diseases will be needed. The key issue in mitigation of harmful greenhouse gas effects induced by livestock production is the reduction of methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants. There are differences in CH4 emissions among breeds and among individual animals within breeds that suggest a potential for improvement in the trait through genetic selection. Characterization of breeds and individuals with modern genomic tools should be applied to identify breeds that have genetically adapted to marginal conditions and to get critical information for breeding and conservation programs for farm animal genetic resources. We conclude that phenotyping and genomic technologies and adoption of new breeding approaches, such as genomic selection introgression, will promote breeding for useful characters in livestock species. PMID:25767477

  3. Principlism, medical individualism, and health promotion in resource-poor countries: can autonomy-based bioethics promote social justice and population health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azétsop, Jacquineau; Rennie, Stuart

    2010-01-18

    Through its adoption of the biomedical model of disease which promotes medical individualism and its reliance on the individual-based anthropology, mainstream bioethics has predominantly focused on respect for autonomy in the clinical setting and respect for person in the research site, emphasizing self-determination and freedom of choice. However, the emphasis on the individual has often led to moral vacuum, exaggeration of human agency, and a thin (liberal?) conception of justice. Applied to resource-poor countries and communities within developed countries, autonomy-based bioethics fails to address the root causes of diseases and public health crises with which individuals or communities are confronted. A sociological explanation of disease causation is needed to broaden principles of biomedical ethics and provides a renewed understanding of disease, freedom, medical practice, patient-physician relationship, risk and benefit of research and treatment, research priorities, and health policy.

  4. Potential for Zika virus introduction and transmission in resource-limited countries in Africa and the Asia-Pacific region: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoch, Isaac I; Brady, Oliver J; Kraemer, Moritz U G; German, Matthew; Creatore, Maria I; Brent, Shannon; Watts, Alexander G; Hay, Simon I; Kulkarni, Manisha A; Brownstein, John S; Khan, Kamran

    2016-11-01

    As the epidemic of Zika virus expands in the Americas, countries across Africa and the Asia-Pacific region are becoming increasingly susceptible to the importation and possible local spread of the virus. To support public health readiness, we aim to identify regions and times where the potential health, economic, and social effects from Zika virus are greatest, focusing on resource-limited countries in Africa and the Asia-Pacific region. Our model combined transportation network analysis, ecological modelling of mosquito occurrences, and vector competence for flavivirus transmission, using data from the International Air Transport Association, entomological observations from Zika's primary vector species, and climate conditions using WorldClim. We overlaid monthly flows of airline travellers arriving to Africa and the Asia-Pacific region from areas of the Americas suitable for year-round transmission of Zika virus with monthly maps of climatic suitability for mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus within Africa and the Asia-Pacific region. An estimated 2·6 billion people live in areas of Africa and the Asia-Pacific region where the presence of competent mosquito vectors and suitable climatic conditions could support local transmission of Zika virus. Countries with large volumes of travellers arriving from Zika virus-affected areas of the Americas and large populations at risk of mosquito-borne Zika virus infection include India (67 422 travellers arriving per year; 1·2 billion residents in potential Zika transmission areas), China (238 415 travellers; 242 million residents), Indonesia (13 865 travellers; 197 million residents), Philippines (35 635 travellers; 70 million residents), and Thailand (29 241 travellers; 59 million residents). Many countries across Africa and the Asia-Pacific region are vulnerable to Zika virus. Strategic use of available health and human resources is essential to prevent or mitigate the health, economic, and social

  5. The importance of using simple and indigenous technologies for the exploitation of water resources in rural areas of developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faillace, C.

    Taking care of thousands of village water supply systems requires a large organization and large financial inputs which most developing countries cannot afford. The author, after having briefly outlined the main points to be considered for the implementation of successful rural water programs, stresses the need to introduce simple, low-cost technologies for supplying safe water to small rural villages. The risk of failure is greatly reduced if there is an active participation of villagers in the various phases of the project. Health education village sanitation and training in the use and repair of equipment are essential for the long life of the water systems.

  6. Supportive care during treatment for breast cancer: resource allocations in low- and middle-income countries. A Breast Health Global Initiative 2013 consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Fatima; Bese, Nuran; Distelhorst, Sandra R; Bevilacqua, Jose Luiz B; Ginsburg, Ophira; Grunberg, Steven M; Gralla, Richard J; Steyn, Ann; Pagani, Olivia; Partridge, Ann H; Knaul, Felicia Marie; Aapro, Matti S; Andersen, Barbara L; Thompson, Beti; Gralow, Julie R; Anderson, Benjamin O

    2013-10-01

    Breast cancer patients may have unmet supportive care needs during treatment, including symptom management of treatment-related toxicities, and educational, psychosocial, and spiritual needs. Delivery of supportive care is often a low priority in low- and middle-income settings, and is also dependent on resources available. This consensus statement describes twelve key recommendations for supportive care during treatment in low- and middle-income countries, identified by an expert international panel as part of the 5th Breast Health Global Initiative (BHGI) Global Summit for Supportive Care, which was held in October 2012, in Vienna, Austria. Panel recommendations are presented in a 4-tier resource-stratified table to illustrate how health systems can provide supportive care services during treatment to breast cancer patients, starting at a basic level of resource allocation and incrementally adding program resources as they become available. These recommendations include: health professional and patient and family education; management of treatment related toxicities, management of treatment-related symptoms of fatigue, insomnia and non-specific pain, and management of psychosocial and spiritual issues related to breast cancer treatment. Establishing supportive care during breast cancer treatment will help ensure that breast cancer patients receive comprehensive care that can help 1) improve adherence to treatment recommendations, 2) manage treatment-related toxicities and other treatment related symptoms, and 3) address the psychosocial and spiritual aspects of breast cancer and breast cancer treatments. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. The deforestation problem in oil-importing developing countries: A capital theory approach to a renewable resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    This study attempts an analysis of the effects of a crude-oil price shock on the tropical rain-forest biomass of oil-importing developing countries. It establishes the logical plausibility of this relationship between price shocks and deforestation by developing a stylized capital-theoretic intertemporal model with a trade constraint. This formulation allows one to determine the correct price path at each moment in time, an efficiency consideration. A second theoretical model purports to show that justification for the building of high dams as a response to energy shocks was based on myopic expectations of crude oil supplier behavior. Once rational supplier response to natural capital stocks is taken into consideration, a different result emerges suggesting a much larger optical biomass stock. Noting that deforestation is an externality with global repercussions and appealing to the logic of the Folk Theorem of game theory, the last chapter proposes an international collaborative effort whereby concerned nations would supply crude oil to oil-importing developing countries that have witnessed the deterioration of their forest biomass as a direct or indirect consequence of oil price shocks

  8. Trends and implications for achieving VISION 2020 human resources for eye health targets in 16 countries of sub-Saharan Africa by the year 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jennifer J; Chinanayi, Farai; Gilbert, Alice; Pillay, Devan; Fox, Samantha; Jaggernath, Jyoti; Naidoo, Kovin; Graham, Ronnie; Patel, Daksha; Blanchet, Karl

    2014-08-15

    Development of human resources for eye health (HReH) is a major global eye health strategy to reduce the prevalence of avoidable visual impairment by the year 2020. Building on our previous analysis of current progress towards key HReH indicators and cataract surgery rates (CSRs), we predicted future indicator achievement among 16 countries of sub-Saharan Africa by 2020. Surgical and HReH data were collected from national eye care programme coordinators on six practitioner cadres: ophthalmologists, cataract surgeons, ophthalmic clinical officers, ophthalmic nurses, optometrists and 'mid-level refractionists' and combined them with publicly available population data to calculate practitioner-to-population ratios and CSRs. Data on workforce entry and exit (2008 to 2010) was used to project practitioner population and CSR growth between 2011 and 2020 in relation to projected growth in the general population. Associations between indicator progress and the presence of a non-physician cataract surgeon cadre were also explored using Wilcoxon rank sum tests and Spearman rank correlations. In our 16-country sample, practitioner per million population ratios are predicted to increase slightly for surgeons (ophthalmologists/cataract surgeons, from 3.1 in 2011 to 3.4 in 2020) and ophthalmic nurses/clinical officers (5.8 to 6.8) but remain low for refractionists (including optometrists, at 3.6 in 2011 and 2020). Among countries that have not already achieved target indicators, however, practitioner growth will be insufficient for any additional countries to reach the surgeon and refractionist targets by year 2020. Without further strategy change and investment, even after 2020, surgeon growth is only expected to sufficiently outpace general population growth to reach the target in one country. For nurses, two additional countries will achieve the target while one will fall below it. In 2011, high surgeon practitioner ratios were associated with high CSR, regardless of the type

  9. Utilization of farm animal genetic resources in a changing agro-ecological environment in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantanen, Juha; Løvendahl, Peter; Strandberg, Erling

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production is the most important component of northern European agriculture and contributes to and will be affected by climate change. Nevertheless, the role of farm animal genetic resources in the adaptation to new agro-ecological conditions and mitigation of animal production’s effects...... to a future with altered production systems. Some animals with useful phenotypes and genotypes may be more useful than others in the changing environment. Robust animal breeds with the potential to adapt to new agro-ecological conditions and tolerate new diseases will be needed. The key issue in mitigation...

  10. Financing transformative health systems towards achievement of the health Sustainable Development Goals: a model for projected resource needs in 67 low-income and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Karin; Hanssen, Odd; Edejer, Tessa Tan-Torres; Bertram, Melanie; Brindley, Callum; Meshreky, Andreia; Rosen, James E; Stover, John; Verboom, Paul; Sanders, Rachel; Soucat, Agnès

    2017-09-01

    The ambitious development agenda of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) requires substantial investments across several sectors, including for SDG 3 (healthy lives and wellbeing). No estimates of the additional resources needed to strengthen comprehensive health service delivery towards the attainment of SDG 3 and universal health coverage in low-income and middle-income countries have been published. We developed a framework for health systems strengthening, within which population-level and individual-level health service coverage is gradually scaled up over time. We developed projections for 67 low-income and middle-income countries from 2016 to 2030, representing 95% of the total population in low-income and middle-income countries. We considered four service delivery platforms, and modelled two scenarios with differing levels of ambition: a progress scenario, in which countries' advancement towards global targets is constrained by their health system's assumed absorptive capacity, and an ambitious scenario, in which most countries attain the global targets. We estimated the associated costs and health effects, including reduced prevalence of illness, lives saved, and increases in life expectancy. We projected available funding by country and year, taking into account economic growth and anticipated allocation towards the health sector, to allow for an analysis of affordability and financial sustainability. We estimate that an additional $274 billion spending on health is needed per year by 2030 to make progress towards the SDG 3 targets (progress scenario), whereas US$371 billion would be needed to reach health system targets in the ambitious scenario-the equivalent of an additional $41 (range 15-102) or $58 (22-167) per person, respectively, by the final years of scale-up. In the ambitious scenario, total health-care spending would increase to a population-weighted mean of $271 per person (range 74-984) across country contexts, and the share of gross

  11. Matching renewable energy systems to village-level energy needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, J.H.; Neuendorffer, J.W.

    1980-06-01

    This report provides a five step process for matching alternative renewable energy technologies with energy needs in rural villages of developing countries. Analytic tools are given for each of the five steps as well as information that can be expected. Twelve characterization criteria are developed to assist in the matching process. Three of these criteria, called discrimination criteria, are used for preliminary screening of technology possibilities for each need. The other criteria address site-specific temporal, climatic, social, cultural, and environmental characteristics of the energy need, technology, and cost considerations. To illustrate the matching process, seven basic human needs for energy are matched with seven potential renewable energy technologies. The final portion of the paper discusses the advantages of such a matching process and the resources required to initiate such an effort within a development project. Specific recommendations are given for field-testing this process and actions that could be taken immediately in basic research and development, applied research and technology modification, demonstrations, and commercialization to assist in the future diffusion of renewable energy technologies to rural areas of developing countries.

  12. Access to Specialized Care Through Telemedicine in Limited-Resource Country: Initial 1,065 Teleconsultations in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Rifat; Gunn, Jayleen K L; Bakiu, Evis; Boci, Arian; Dasho, Erion; Olldashi, Fatos; Pipero, Pellumb; Stroster, John A; Qesteri, Orland; Kucani, Julian; Sulo, Ardi; Oshafi, Manjola; Osmani, Kalterina L; Dogjani, Agron; Doarn, Charles R; Shatri, Zhaneta; Kociraj, Agim; Merrell, Ronald C

    2016-12-01

    To analyze the initial experience of the nationwide clinical telemedicine program of Albania, as a model of implementation of telemedicine using "Initiate-Build-Operate-Transfer" strategy. This was a retrospective study of prospectively collected data from teleconsultations in Albania between January 1, 2014 and August 26, 2015, delivered synchronously, asynchronously, or a combination of both methods. Patient's demographics, mode of consultation, clinical specialty, hospitals providing referral and consultation, time from initial call to completion of consultation, and patient disposition following teleconsultation were analyzed. Challenges of the newly created program have been identified and analyzed as well. There were 1,065 teleconsultations performed altogether during the study period. Ninety-one patients with autism managed via telemedicine were not included in this analysis and will be reported separately. Of 974 teleconsults, the majority were for radiology, neurotrauma, and stroke (55%, 16%, and 10% respectively). Asynchronous technology accounted for nearly two-thirds of all teleconsultations (63.7%), followed by combined (24.3%), and then synchronous (12.0%). Of 974 cases, only 20.0% of patients in 2014 and 22.72% of patients in 2015 were transferred to a tertiary hospital. A majority (98.5%) of all teleconsultations were conducted within the country itself. The Integrated Telemedicine and e-Health program of Albania has become a useful tool to improve access to high-quality healthcare, particularly in high demanding specialty disciplines. A number of challenges were identified and these should serve as lessons for other countries in their quest to establish nationwide telemedicine programs.

  13. Radiation Therapy Infrastructure and Human Resources in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Present Status and Projections for 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Niloy R., E-mail: niloyranjan.datta@ksa.ch [Centre for Radiation Oncology, Kantonsspital Aarau - Kantonsspital Baden, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau (Switzerland); Samiei, Massoud [Consultancy Practice, Vienna (Austria); Bodis, Stephan [Centre for Radiation Oncology, Kantonsspital Aarau - Kantonsspital Baden, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau, Switzerland, and Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy, a key component of cancer management, is required in more than half of new cancer patients, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The projected rise in cancer incidence over the next decades in LMICs will result in an increasing demand for radiation therapy services. Considering the present cancer incidence and that projected for 2020 (as listed in GLOBOCAN), we evaluated the current and anticipated needs for radiation therapy infrastructure and staffing by 2020 for each of the LMICs. Methods and Materials: Based on World Bank classification, 139 countries fall in the category of LMICs. Details of teletherapy, radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation therapy technologists were available for 84 LMICs from the International Atomic Energy Agency–Directory of Radiotherapy Centres (IAEA-DIRAC) database. Present requirements and those for 2020 were estimated according to recommendations from the IAEA and European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (ESTRO-QUARTS). Results: Only 4 of the 139 LMICs have the requisite number of teletherapy units, and 55 (39.5%) have no radiation therapy facilities at present. Patient access to radiation therapy in the remaining 80 LMICs ranges from 2.3% to 98.8% (median: 36.7%). By 2020, these 84 LMICs would additionally need 9169 teletherapy units, 12,149 radiation oncologists, 9915 medical physicists, and 29,140 radiation therapy technologists. Moreover, de novo radiation therapy facilities would have to be considered for those with no services. Conclusions: Twelve pragmatic steps are proposed for consideration at national and international levels to narrow the gap in radiation therapy access. Multipronged and coordinated action from all national and international stakeholders is required to develop realistic strategies to curb this impending global crisis.

  14. Radiation Therapy Infrastructure and Human Resources in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Present Status and Projections for 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Niloy R.; Samiei, Massoud; Bodis, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy, a key component of cancer management, is required in more than half of new cancer patients, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The projected rise in cancer incidence over the next decades in LMICs will result in an increasing demand for radiation therapy services. Considering the present cancer incidence and that projected for 2020 (as listed in GLOBOCAN), we evaluated the current and anticipated needs for radiation therapy infrastructure and staffing by 2020 for each of the LMICs. Methods and Materials: Based on World Bank classification, 139 countries fall in the category of LMICs. Details of teletherapy, radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation therapy technologists were available for 84 LMICs from the International Atomic Energy Agency–Directory of Radiotherapy Centres (IAEA-DIRAC) database. Present requirements and those for 2020 were estimated according to recommendations from the IAEA and European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (ESTRO-QUARTS). Results: Only 4 of the 139 LMICs have the requisite number of teletherapy units, and 55 (39.5%) have no radiation therapy facilities at present. Patient access to radiation therapy in the remaining 80 LMICs ranges from 2.3% to 98.8% (median: 36.7%). By 2020, these 84 LMICs would additionally need 9169 teletherapy units, 12,149 radiation oncologists, 9915 medical physicists, and 29,140 radiation therapy technologists. Moreover, de novo radiation therapy facilities would have to be considered for those with no services. Conclusions: Twelve pragmatic steps are proposed for consideration at national and international levels to narrow the gap in radiation therapy access. Multipronged and coordinated action from all national and international stakeholders is required to develop realistic strategies to curb this impending global crisis

  15. International Programme for Resource Use in Critical Care (IPOC)--a methodology and initial results of cost and provision in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, D; Sheppard, L; Mills, G H; Jacobs, P; Rapoport, J; Bourne, R S; Guidet, B; Csomos, A; Prien, T; Anderson, G; Edbrooke, D L

    2006-01-01

    A standardized top-down costing method is not currently available internationally. An internally validated method developed in the UK was modified for use in critical care in different countries. Costs could then be compared using the World Health Organization's Purchasing Power Parities (WHO PPPs). This was an observational, retrospective, cross-sectional, multicentre study set in four European countries: France, UK, Germany and Hungary. A total of 329 adult intensive care units (ICUs) participated in the study. The costs are reported in international dollars ($) derived from the WHO PPP programme. The results show significant differences in resource use and costs of ICUs over the four countries. On the basis of the sum of the means for the major components, the average cost per patient day in UK hospitals was $1512, in French hospitals $934, in German hospitals $726 and in Hungarian hospitals $280. The reasons for such differences are poorly understood but warrant further investigation. This information will allow us to better adjust our measures of international ICU costs.

  16. Managing research and surveillance projects in real-time with a novel open-source eManagement tool designed for under-resourced countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Andreas; Hella, Jerry; Grüninger, Servan; Mhalu, Grace; Mhimbira, Francis; Cercamondi, Colin I; Doulla, Basra; Maire, Nicolas; Fenner, Lukas

    2016-09-01

    A software tool is developed to facilitate data entry and to monitor research projects in under-resourced countries in real-time. The eManagement tool "odk_planner" is written in the scripting languages PHP and Python. The odk_planner is lightweight and uses minimal internet resources. It was designed to be used with the open source software Open Data Kit (ODK). The users can easily configure odk_planner to meet their needs, and the online interface displays data collected from ODK forms in a graphically informative way. The odk_planner also allows users to upload pictures and laboratory results and sends text messages automatically. User-defined access rights protect data and privacy. We present examples from four field applications in Tanzania successfully using the eManagement tool: 1) clinical trial; 2) longitudinal Tuberculosis (TB) Cohort Study with a complex visit schedule, where it was used to graphically display missing case report forms, upload digitalized X-rays, and send text message reminders to patients; 3) intervention study to improve TB case detection, carried out at pharmacies: a tablet-based electronic referral system monitored referred patients, and sent automated messages to remind pharmacy clients to visit a TB Clinic; and 4) TB retreatment case monitoring designed to improve drug resistance surveillance: clinicians at four public TB clinics and lab technicians at the TB reference laboratory used a smartphone-based application that tracked sputum samples, and collected clinical and laboratory data. The user friendly, open source odk_planner is a simple, but multi-functional, Web-based eManagement tool with add-ons that helps researchers conduct studies in under-resourced countries. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Increasing access to kidney transplantation in countries with limited resources: the Indian experience with kidney paired donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kute, Vivek B; Vanikar, Aruna V; Shah, Pankaj R; Gumber, Manoj R; Patel, Himanshu V; Engineer, Divyesh P; Modi, Pranjal R; Shah, Veena R; Trivedi, Hargovind L

    2014-10-01

    According to the Indian chronic kidney disease registry, in 2010 only 2% of end stage kidney disease patients were managed with kidney transplantation, 37% were managed with dialysis and 61% were treated conservatively without renal replacement therapy. In countries like India, where a well-organized deceased donor kidney transplantation program is not available, living donor kidney transplantation is the major source of organs for kidney transplantation. The most common reason to decline a donor for directed living donation is ABO incompatibility, which eliminates up to one third of the potential living donor pool. Because access to transplantation with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-desensitization protocols and ABO incompatible transplantation is very limited due to high costs and increased risk of infections from more intense immunosuppression, kidney paired donation (KPD) promises hope to a growing number of end stage kidney disease patients. KPD is a rapidly growing and cost-effective living donor kidney transplantation strategy for patients who are incompatible with their healthy, willing living donor. In principle, KPD is feasible for any centre that performs living donor kidney transplantation. In transplant centres with a large living donor kidney transplantation program KPD does not require extra infrastructure, decreases waiting time, avoids transplant tourism and prevents commercial trafficking. Although KPD is still underutilized in India, it has been performed more frequently in recent times. To substantially increase donor pool and transplant rates, transplant centres should work together towards a national KPD program and frame a uniform acceptable allocation policy. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  18. Matching Supernovae to Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-12-01

    One of the major challenges for modern supernova surveys is identifying the galaxy that hosted each explosion. Is there an accurate and efficient way to do this that avoids investing significant human resources?Why Identify Hosts?One problem in host galaxy identification. Here, the supernova lies between two galaxies but though the centroid of the galaxy on the right is closer in angular separation, this may be a distant background galaxy that is not actually near the supernova. [Gupta et al. 2016]Supernovae are a critical tool for making cosmological predictions that help us to understand our universe. But supernova cosmology relies on accurately identifying the properties of the supernovae including their redshifts. Since spectroscopic followup of supernova detections often isnt possible, we rely on observations of the supernova host galaxies to obtain redshifts.But how do we identify which galaxy hosted a supernova? This seems like a simple problem, but there are many complicating factors a seemingly nearby galaxy could be a distant background galaxy, for instance, or a supernovas host could be too faint to spot.The authors algorithm takes into account confusion, a measure of how likely the supernova is to be mismatched. In these illustrations of low (left) and high (right) confusion, the supernova is represented by a blue star, and the green circles represent possible host galaxies. [Gupta et al. 2016]Turning to AutomationBefore the era of large supernovae surveys, searching for host galaxies was done primarily by visual inspection. But current projects like the Dark Energy Surveys Supernova Program is finding supernovae by the thousands, and the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope will likely discover hundreds of thousands. Visual inspection will not be possible in the face of this volume of data so an accurate and efficient automated method is clearly needed!To this end, a team of scientists led by Ravi Gupta (Argonne National Laboratory) has recently

  19. Multi-Cultural Adaptations of International Heliophysical Year (IHY) Education Resources: A Perspective of a Developing Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiyetole, A. A.

    2006-12-01

    The world is made up of people of varied cultures and we speak different languages. In Africa and, to be more specific, in Nigeria, we have a wide diversity of languages and customs. Nigeria has over 200 tribes and ethnic social units, to the extent that just a few of the populace have an effective understanding of English, the nation's official language. Hence, most communications are carried out in our local languages. In order to efficiently communicate the heliophysical and other scientific and technological phenomena to the general public, quite a lot would have to be done in the cultural and language context. In a nutshell, there shall be a need to adequately involve the social scientists in the education and public outreach programmes relating to space science and technology. This paper will therefore attempt to look at various ways in which languages, and diversity in cultures can be harnessed to more effectively communicate science. The paper will also discuss how the various IHY education resources can be adapted to a multi-cultural society, therefore, able to reach all the people in the world.

  20. Does the Budget Expenditure Composition Matter for Long-Run Economic Growth in a Resource Rich Country? Evidence from Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatai Aliyev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the role of budget expenditure composition over Azerbaijan’s non-oil economic growth in the long-run by classifying public spending as capital, social and other expenditures. Authors’ employ ARDLBT approach to co-integration for the period of 2000Q1-2014Q4 to estimate long-run contribution of each spending category before-and-after the oil boom while controlling for oilrelated factors. Empirical results endorse the validity of long-run association among variables. Results concluded insignificant negative impact of capital expenditures, and significant negative impact of other expenditures. However, social spending has statistically and economically strong positive impact over the non-oil output growth. Therefore, research findings confirm that public expenditure composition significantly matters for long-run non-oil economic growth, and social expenditures have the greater positive impact in a resource-rich economy, Azerbaijan. Research results are highly useful for the government officials to consider while planning the expenditures in order to minimize negative response of non-oil sector to the fiscal contraction.

  1. Can scenario-planning support community-based natural resource management? Experiences from three countries in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry A. Waylen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM is a concept critical to managing social-ecological systems but whose implementation needs strengthening. Scenario planning is one approach that may offer benefits relevant to CBNRM but whose potential is not yet well understood. Therefore, we designed, trialed, and evaluated a scenario-planning method intended to support CBNRM in three cases, located in Colombia, Mexico, and Argentina. Implementing scenario planning was judged as worthwhile in all three cases, although aspects of it were challenging to facilitate. The benefits generated were relevant to strengthening CBNRM: encouraging the participation of local people and using their knowledge, enhanced consideration of and adaptation to future change, and supporting the development of systems thinking. Tracing exactly when and how these benefits arose was challenging, but two elements of the method seemed particularly useful. First, using a systematic approach to discuss how drivers of change may affect local social-ecological systems helped to foster systems thinking and identify connections between issues. Second, explicitly focusing on how to use and respond to scenarios helped identify specific practical activities, or "response options," that would support CBNRM despite the pressures of future change. Discussions about response options also highlighted the need for support by other actors, e.g., policy groups: this raised the question of when and how other actors and other sources of knowledge should be involved in scenario planning, so as to encourage their buy-in to actions identified by the process. We suggest that other CBNRM initiatives may benefit from adapting and applying scenario planning. However, these initiatives should be carefully monitored because further research is required to understand how and when scenario-planning methods may produce benefits, as well as their strengths and weaknesses versus other methods.

  2. Smartphone Use for Cervical Cancer Screening in Low-Resource Countries: A Pilot Study Conducted in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Catarino

    Full Text Available Visual inspection of the cervix after application of 5% acetic acid (VIA is a screening technique for cervical cancer used widely in low and middle-income countries (LMIC. To improve VIA screening performance, digital images after acid acetic application (D-VIA are taken. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a smartphone for on- and off-site D-VIA diagnosis.Women aged 30-65 years, living in the city of Ambanja, Madagascar, were recruited through a cervical cancer screening campaign. Each performed a human papillomavirus (HPV self-sample as a primary screen. Women testing positive for HPV were referred for VIA followed by D-VIA, cervical biopsy and endocervical curettage according to routine protocol. In addition, the same day, the D-VIA was emailed to a tertiary care center for immediate assessment. Results were scored as either D-VIA normal or D-VIA abnormal, requiring immediate therapy or referral to a tertiary center. Each of the three off-site physicians were blinded to the result reported by the one on-site physician and each gave their individual assessment followed by a consensus diagnosis. Statistical analyses were conducted using STATA software.Of the 332 women recruited, 137 (41.2% were HPV-positive and recalled for VIA triage; compliance with this invitation was 69.3% (n = 95. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia was detected in 17.7% and 21.7% of digital images by on-site and off-site physicians, respectively. The on-site physician had a sensitivity of 66.7% (95%CI: 30.0-90.3 and a specificity of 85.7% (95%CI: 76.7-91.6; the off-site physician consensus sensitivity was 66.7% (95%CI: 30.0-90.3 with a specificity of 82.3% (95%CI: 72.4-89.1.This pilot study supports the use of telemedicine for off-site diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, with diagnostic performance similar to those achieved on-site. Further studies need to determine if smartphones can improve cervical cancer screening efficiency in LMIC.

  3. Acute Complications After High-Dose Chemotherapy and Stem-Cell Rescue in Pediatric Patients With High-Risk Neuroblastoma Treated in Countries With Different Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud M. Elzembely

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell rescue (SCR is a key component of high-risk neuroblastoma (HRNB therapy. Carboplatin, etoposide, and melphalan (CEM or busulfan and melphalan (Bu/Mel are the most evaluated, effective high-dose chemotherapy for HRNB on the basis of results from major cooperative group studies. Toxicity profiles vary between these regimens, and practice variation exists regarding the preferred high-dose therapy (HDT. We sought to evaluate the safety of HDT and autologous SCR for HRNB in a resource-limited country (Egypt compared with the resource-rich United States. Patients and Methods: We performed a retrospective comparative review of single CEM-based HDT/SCR outcomes through day 100 for HRNB at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (FH in the United States (2005 to 2015 versus Bu/Mel-based HDT at El-Sheikh Zayed Specialized Hospital (SZ in Egypt (2009 to 2015. Results: Forty-four patients at FH and 77 patients at SZ were reviewed. Pretransplant hepatic comorbidities were significantly higher at SZ (29 of 77 v nine of 44; P = .05, with 19 of 77 patients at SZ having hepatitis infection. Engraftment was delayed after SZ-Bu/Mel therapy compared with FH-CEM therapy for neutrophils (median 12 days v 10 days, respectively; P < .001 and platelets (median 20 days v 18 days, respectively; P < .001. Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome occurred later, after SZ-Bu/Mel therapy (median 19 days v 7 days; P = .033, and four of eight cases were fatal (six of eight patients had underlying hepatitis infection, whereas three of three cases after FH-CEM therapy were moderately severe. Resource utilization associated with the number of days with fever, antibiotic use, and the number of transfusions administered was significantly higher after FH-CEM therapy than after SZ-Bu/Mel therapy. Conclusion: Use of autologous stem-cell transplantation is feasible in the context of a resource-limited country.

  4. Organizations must match assets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carley, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    The unprofitable state of the Canadian oil industry, the adverse economic environment, the difficulty of finding capital, and the diminishing resources of conventional lighter crude oil make it necessary for Canadian oil companies to match their organizations and their financing to their assets. This is illustrated according to the experience of Saskoil, a Saskatchewan oil and gas company. An increasing production of oil and natural gas, and an increasing amount of new oil production as heavy oil, led to organizational changes such as the purchase of an asphalt plant to provide the company with downstream experience, establishing a working group to explore and develop heavy oil resources, and forming a company to manage non-core assets. The latter company, Pasqua Resources, manages assets such as small properties and ownership interests in order to increase the operating efficiency of Saskoil. Pasqua provides Saskoil with a corporate and organizational vehicle to accommodate partnerships and joint venture capital invested in property purchase opportunities, and to manage any of Saskoil's divestiture activities

  5. Life satisfaction in 6 European countries: the relationship to health, self-esteem, and social and financial resources among people (Aged 65-89) with reduced functional capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Christel; Fagerström, Cecilia; Balducci, Cristian; Burholt, Vanessa; Ferring, Dieter; Weber, Germain; Wenger, Clare; Holst, Göran; Hallberg, Ingalill R

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how overall health, participation in physical activities, self-esteem, and social and financial resources are related to life satisfaction among people aged 65 and older with reduced activities of daily living (ADL) capacity in 6 European countries. A subsample of the European Study of Adults' Well-Being (ESAW), consisting of 2,195 people with reduced ADL capacity from Sweden, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Austria, and Italy, was included. The Older Americans' Resources Schedule (OARS), the Life Satisfaction Index Z, and the Self-Esteem Scale were used. In all national samples, overall health, self-esteem, and feeling worried, rather than ADL capacity, were significantly associated with life satisfaction. The findings indicate the importance of taking not only the reduction in functional capacity into account but also the individual's perception of health and self-esteem when outlining health care and nursing aimed at improving life satisfaction. The study thus suggests that personal rather than environmental factors are important for life satisfaction among people with reduced ADL capacity living in Europe.

  6. Development of a checklist of quality indicators for clinical trials in resource-limited countries: the French National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis (ANRS) experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Mina; Minga, Albert; Fao, Paulin; Borand, Laurence; Diouf, Assane; Mben, Jean-Marc; Gad, Rita R; Anglaret, Xavier; Bazin, Brigitte; Chene, Geneviève

    2013-04-01

    Since 1994, the French National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis (ANRS) has funded research sites in resource-limited countries (RLCs). These sites implement research on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and Hepatitis C. In parallel, international regulations and recommendations for clinical trials have evolved and proliferated. However, little guidance exists on how these should be interpreted and applied within academic trials and in the context of RLCs. After developing a specific Ethical Charter for research in developing countries in 2002, ANRS developed a set of quality indicators (QIs) as a monitoring tool for assessing compliance to international guidelines. We describe here the development process, QIs adopted, and areas for improvement. In 2008, a group of experts was convened that included a researcher representing each ANRS site (Cote d'Ivoire, Senegal, Cameroun, Burkina Faso, Egypt, and Cambodia). Our structuring interaction development process combined evidence and expert opinion in two nominal group meetings to identify (1) clinical trial processes involved, (2) issues specific to RLCs in terms of Good Clinical Practice (GCP) and the application of ethical recommendations, and (3) checklists of QIs adapted to clinical trials conducted in RLCs. The trial process reviewed and proposed for RLCs was mostly similar to the one produced in wealthier countries. The scheme generated by our work group added two further processes: 'drug management' and 'biological investigations'. Specific issues regarding trial management in RLCs were therefore described for eight trial steps (1) protocol conception and seeking authorizations, (2) participant enrollment and follow-up, (3) site monitoring, (4) drug management, (5) biological investigations, (6) record management, (7) data management, and (8) site closeout. A total of 58 indicators were identified with at least one indicator for each trial process. Some trial activities require further

  7. Aboriginal Consumption of Estuarine Food Resources and Potential Implications for Health through Trace Metal Exposure; A Study in Gumbaynggirr Country, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Shaina; Sullivan, Caroline A; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J

    2015-01-01

    Fishing and resource use continues to be an essential aspect of life for many Aboriginal communities throughout Australia. It is important for dietary sustenance, and also retains deep social, cultural and economic significance, playing a fundamental role in maintaining group cohesion, transferring cultural knowledge and affirming Indigenous identities. We surveyed approximately 20% of the Gumbaynggirr Aboriginal community of Nambucca Heads, New South Wales, Australia. This paper explores Gumbaynggirr Connection to Country and engagement in cultural practice. It quantifies fishing efforts and consumption of seafood within the community. We found 95% of the sample group fish, with the highest rate of fishing being 2-3 times a week (27%). Furthermore, 98% of participants eat seafood weekly or more frequently, up to more than once a day (24%). Survey results revealed that Myxus elongatus (Sand mullet) and naturally recruited Saccostrea glomerata (Sydney rock oysters) continue to be important wild resources to the Gumbaynggirr community. Trace metals were measured in M. elongatus and S. glomerata samples collected by community participants in this study. Maximum levels prescribed in the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code were not exceeded in the edible tissue for either species, however both species exceeded the generally expected levels for zinc and copper and S. glomerata samples exceeded the generally expected level for selenium. Furthermore the average dietary exposure to trace metals from consuming seafood was calculated for the surveyed population. Trace metal intake was then compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake prescribed by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives. This process revealed that copper and selenium intake were both within the provisional tolerable weekly intake, while there is no guideline for zinc. Furthermore, participants relying heavily on wild resources from the Nambucca River estuary may exceed the provisional

  8. Aboriginal Consumption of Estuarine Food Resources and Potential Implications for Health through Trace Metal Exposure; A Study in Gumbaynggirr Country, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaina Russell

    Full Text Available Fishing and resource use continues to be an essential aspect of life for many Aboriginal communities throughout Australia. It is important for dietary sustenance, and also retains deep social, cultural and economic significance, playing a fundamental role in maintaining group cohesion, transferring cultural knowledge and affirming Indigenous identities. We surveyed approximately 20% of the Gumbaynggirr Aboriginal community of Nambucca Heads, New South Wales, Australia. This paper explores Gumbaynggirr Connection to Country and engagement in cultural practice. It quantifies fishing efforts and consumption of seafood within the community. We found 95% of the sample group fish, with the highest rate of fishing being 2-3 times a week (27%. Furthermore, 98% of participants eat seafood weekly or more frequently, up to more than once a day (24%. Survey results revealed that Myxus elongatus (Sand mullet and naturally recruited Saccostrea glomerata (Sydney rock oysters continue to be important wild resources to the Gumbaynggirr community. Trace metals were measured in M. elongatus and S. glomerata samples collected by community participants in this study. Maximum levels prescribed in the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code were not exceeded in the edible tissue for either species, however both species exceeded the generally expected levels for zinc and copper and S. glomerata samples exceeded the generally expected level for selenium. Furthermore the average dietary exposure to trace metals from consuming seafood was calculated for the surveyed population. Trace metal intake was then compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake prescribed by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives. This process revealed that copper and selenium intake were both within the provisional tolerable weekly intake, while there is no guideline for zinc. Furthermore, participants relying heavily on wild resources from the Nambucca River estuary may exceed the

  9. Resources for Developing Country Researchers

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Melanie Brunet

    PLoS (Public Library of Science) (www.plos.org) Founded in 2000 by a group of ... world's largest collections of biomedical and health literature. ... Part of INASP's JOL Project, this database covers a wide range of academic disciplines.

  10. Resources for Developing Country Researchers

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Melanie Brunet

    fields of physics and mathematics. The service requires individual registration: http://ejds.ictp.it/ejds/faces/register.xhtml Language: Primarily English. Free Medical Journals (http://www.freemedicaljournals.com/) and Free Books4 Doctors · (http://www.freebooks4doctors.com/) Established by Flying Publishers, these two sites ...

  11. The Development of the Guide to Economic Analysis and Research (GEAR) Online Resource for Low- and Middle-Income Countries' Health Economics Practitioners: A Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeagbo, Chiaki Urai; Rattanavipapong, Waranya; Guinness, Lorna; Teerawattananon, Yot

    2018-05-01

    Public health authorities around the world are increasingly using economic evaluation to set priorities and inform decision making in health policy, especially in the development of health benefit packages. Nevertheless, researchers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) encounter many barriers when conducting economic evaluations. In 2015, the Health Intervention and Technology Assessment Program identified key technical and context-specific challenges faced in conducting and using health economic evaluations in LMICs. On the basis of these research findings, the Guide to Economic Analysis and Research (GEAR) online resource (www.gear4health.com) was developed as a reliable aid to researchers in LMICs that would help overcome those challenges. Funded by the Thailand Research Fund and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, GEAR is a free online resource that provides a visual aid tool for planning economic evaluation studies (GEAR mind maps), a repository of national and international economic evaluation guidelines (GEAR guideline comparison), and an active link to a network of volunteer international experts (GEAR: Ask an expert). GEAR will evolve over time to provide relevant, reliable, and up-to-date information through inputs from its users (e.g., periodic survey on methodological challenges) and experts (e.g., in responding to users' questions). The objective of this commentary was to give a brief description of the development and key features of this unique collective information hub aimed at facilitating high-quality research and empowering health care decision makers and stakeholders to use economic evaluation evidence. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Online Job Search and Matching Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin Mang

    2012-01-01

    The Internet has fundamentally changed the way workers and firms are matched on the job market. Compared to newspapers and other traditional employment resources, online job boards presumably lead to better matches by providing a wider choice of job advertisements and more sophisticated methods for finding suitable vacancies. This study investigates the association of online job search and matching quality using individual-level data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). My results sho...

  13. Synthetic Scenarios from CMIP5 Model Simulations for Climate Change Impact Assessments in Managed Ecosystems and Water Resources: Case Study in South Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandhi, A.; Omani, N.; Chaubey, I.; Horton, R.; Bader, D.; Nanjundiah, R. S.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing population, urbanization, and associated demand for food production compounded by climate change and variability have important implications for the managed ecosystems and water resources of a region. This is particularly true for south Asia, which supports one quarter of the global population, half of whom live below the poverty line. This region is largely dependent on monsoon precipitation for water. Given the limited resources of the developing countries in this region, the objective of our study was to empirically explore climate change in south Asia up to the year 2099 using monthly simulations from 35 global climate models (GCMs) participating in the fifth phase of the Climate Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) for two future emission scenarios (representative concentration pathways RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) and provide a wide range of potential climate change outcomes. This was carried out using a three-step procedure: calculating the mean annual, monsoon, and non-monsoon precipitation and temperatures; estimating the percent change from historical conditions; and developing scenario funnels and synthetic scenarios. This methodology was applied for the entire south Asia region; however, the percent change information generated at 1.5deg grid scale can be used to generate scenarios at finer spatial scales. Our results showed a high variability in the future change in precipitation (-23% to 52%, maximum in the non-monsoon season) and temperature (0.8% to 2.1%) in the region. Temperatures in the region consistently increased, especially in the Himalayan region, which could have impacts including a faster retreat of glaciers and increased floods. It could also change rivers from perennial to seasonal, leading to significant challenges in water management. Increasing temperatures could further stress groundwater reservoirs, leading to withdrawal rates that become even more unsustainable. The high precipitation variability (with higher propensity for

  14. Analysis of inter-country input-output table based on bibliographic coupling network: How industrial sectors on the GVC compete for production resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jun; Xu, Xiaoyu; Xing, Lizhi

    2018-03-01

    The input-output table is comprehensive and detailed in describing national economic systems with abundance of economic relationships depicting information of supply and demand among industrial sectors. This paper focuses on how to quantify the degree of competition on the global value chain (GVC) from the perspective of econophysics. Global Industrial Strongest Relevant Network models are established by extracting the strongest and most immediate industrial relevance in the global economic system with inter-country input-output (ICIO) tables and then have them transformed into Global Industrial Resource Competition Network models to analyze the competitive relationships based on bibliographic coupling approach. Three indicators well suited for the weighted and undirected networks with self-loops are introduced here, including unit weight for competitive power, disparity in the weight for competitive amplitude and weighted clustering coefficient for competitive intensity. Finally, these models and indicators were further applied empirically to analyze the function of industrial sectors on the basis of the latest World Input-Output Database (WIOD) in order to reveal inter-sector competitive status during the economic globalization.

  15. Outcomes of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation at a Limited-Resource Center in Mexico Are Comparable to Those in Developed Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon Rodriguez, Eucario; Rivera Franco, Monica M

    2017-11-01

    The first hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in Mexico was performed at our institution in 1980. Eighteen years later, our HSCT program was restructured to reduce transplantation-related mortality (TRM) and improve overall survival (OS). The aim of this study was to describe outcomes of HSCT at our institution despite limited resources. Consecutive patients undergoing HSCT, from November 1998 to February 2017, were retrospectively analyzed at the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran in Mexico City. Three hundred nine HSCT (59% autologous) were performed in 275 patients. From 114 patients (41%) undergoing an allogeneic HSCT, acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease developed in 21% and 33%, respectively. From the entire cohort, 98 patients relapsed after HSCT and at the last follow-up, 183 (67%) patients were alive. The 100-day TRM rates were 1.9% and 6.1% for autologous and allogeneic HSCT, respectively. Ten-year relapse/progression-free survival were 54% and 65%, for autologous and allogeneic HSCT, respectively. Ten-year OS rates in autologous and allogeneic HSCT were 61% and 57%, respectively. We highlight that HSCT is feasible in developing countries, despite financial and infrastructure limitations, and conclude that our results are comparable to international literature and probably better in terms of TRM and cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Influence of Community Health Resources on Effectiveness and Sustainability of Community and Lay Health Worker Programs in Lower-Income Countries: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H de Vries

    Full Text Available Despite the availability of practical knowledge and effective interventions required to reduce priority health problems in low-income countries, poor and vulnerable populations are often not reached. One possible solution to this problem is the use of Community or Lay Health Workers (CLHWs. So far, however, the development of sustainability in CLHW programs has failed and high attrition rates continue to pose a challenge. We propose that the roles and interests which support community health work should emerge directly from the way in which health is organized at community level. This review explores the evidence available to assess if increased levels of integration of community health resources in CLHW programs indeed lead to higher program effectiveness and sustainability.This review includes peer-reviewed articles which meet three eligibility criteria: 1 specific focus on CLHWs or equivalent; 2 randomized, quasi-randomized, before/after methodology or substantial descriptive assessment; and 3 description of a community or peer intervention health program located in a low- or middle-income country. Literature searches using various article databases led to 2930 hits, of which 359 articles were classified. Of these, 32 articles were chosen for extensive review, complemented by analysis of the results of 15 other review studies. Analysis was conducted using an excel based data extraction form. Because results showed that no quantitative data was published, a descriptive synthesis was conducted. The review protocol was not proactively registered. Findings show minimal inclusion of even basic community level indicators, such as the degree to which the program is a community initiative, community input in the program or training, the background and history of CLHW recruits, and the role of the community in motivation and retention. Results show that of the 32 studies, only one includes one statistical measure of community integration. As a result

  17. The role of enterprise resource planning (ERP system in advancing the country of Jordan towards international standard accounting practices and accounting mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Mohammed Alrabba

    2017-03-01

    Accounting sector. The proposition is thusly tested by the overall results from bucketing and ANOVA of Jordanian Bromine and Arab Potash companies conducted surveys. The research methodology quantitatively utilized Jordanian Bromine Company and Arab Potash Company companies to test whether the was any role played by Enterprise resource planning, commonly abbreviated as (ERP, system in advancing the country of Jordan towards universal standard accounting practices and accounting mechanisms. Notably, the data as per two studies relied on for feedback on the implementation and application of the ERP paradigm/system on the structure of the Jordanian Bromine Company and Arab Potash Company companies. The final result proved true the deduction that the overall ERP structure (Enterprise Resource Planning System greatly impacted the accounting mechanisms and standards in the Jordanian organizations. Recommendations aimed at integrating different sectors in Jordan, including the Jordanian Bromine Company and Arab Potash Company companies with the banking sector and financial institutions so that the entire system can work collaboratively under the protocols, rules and requirements of the universal standard accounting practices and accounting mechanisms.

  18. The Kent Face Matching Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fysh, Matthew C; Bindemann, Markus

    2018-05-01

    This study presents the Kent Face Matching Test (KFMT), which comprises 200 same-identity and 20 different-identity pairs of unfamiliar faces. Each face pair consists of a photograph from a student ID card and a high-quality portrait that was taken at least three months later. The test is designed to complement existing resources for face-matching research, by providing a more ecologically valid stimulus set that captures the natural variability that can arise in a person's appearance over time. Two experiments are presented to demonstrate that the KFMT provides a challenging measure of face matching but correlates with established tests. Experiment 1 compares a short version of this test with the optimized Glasgow Face Matching Test (GFMT). In Experiment 2, a longer version of the KFMT, with infrequent identity mismatches, is correlated with performance on the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) and the Cambridge Face Perception Test (CFPT). The KFMT is freely available for use in face-matching research. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of touch imprint cytology for head and neck malignancies: a useful intra-operative tool in resource limited countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveed, Hania; Abid, Mariam; Hashmi, Atif Ali; Edhi, Muhammad Muzammamil; Sheikh, Ahmareen Khalid; Mudassir, Ghazala; Khan, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Intraoperative consultation is an important tool for the evaluation of the upper aerodigestive tract (UAT) malignancies. Although frozen section analysis is a preferred method of intra-operative consultation, however in resource limited countries like Pakistan, this facility is not available in most institutes; therefore, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of touch imprint cytology for UAT malignancies using histopathology of the same tissue as gold standard. The study involved 70 cases of UAT lesions operated during the study period. Intraoperatively, after obtaining the fresh biopsy specimen and prior to placing them in fixative, each specimen was imprinted on 4-6 glass slides, fixed immediately in 95% alcohol and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin stain. After completion of the cytological procedure, the surgical biopsy specimen was processed. The slides of both touch Imprint cytology and histopathology were examined by two consultant histopathologists. The result of touch imprint cytology showed that touch imprint cytology was diagnostic in 68 cases (97.1%), 55 (78.6%) being malignant, 2 cases (2.9%) were suspicious for malignancy, 11 cases (15.7%) were negative for malignancy while 2 cases (2.9%) were false negative. Amongst the 70 cases, 55 cases (78.6%) were malignant showing squamous cell carcinoma in 49 cases (70%), adenoid cystic carcinoma in 2 cases (2.9%), non-Hodgkin lymphoma 2 cases (2.9%), Mucoepidermoid carcinoma 1 case (1.4%), spindle cell sarcoma in 1 case (1.4%). Two cases (2.9%) were suspicious of malignancy showing atypical squamoid cells on touch imprint cytology, while 13 cases (18.6%) were negative for malignancy, which also included 2 false negative cases. The overall diagnostic accuracy of touch imprint cytology came out to be 96.7% with a sensitivity and specificity of 96 and 100%, respectively while PPV and NPV of touch imprint cytology was found to be 100 and 84%, respectively. Our experience in this study has demonstrated

  20. Effects of patient-reported non-severe hypoglycemia on healthcare resource use, work-time loss, and wellbeing in insulin-treated patients with diabetes in seven European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, Petronella H; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Weitgasser, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    the effects of self-reported non-severe hypoglycemic events (NSHE) on use of healthcare resources and patient wellbeing. Methods: Patients with T1DM or insulin-treated T2DM diabetes from seven European countries were invited to complete four weekly questionnaires. Data were collected on patient demographics...

  1. Mitigating Negative Externalities Affecting Access and Equity of Education in Low-Resource Countries: A Study Exploring Social Marketing as a Potential Strategy for Planning School Food Programs in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magreta-Nyongani, Martha

    2012-01-01

    School feeding programs enhance the efficiency of the education system by improving enrollment, reducing dropouts and increasing perseverance. They also have the potential to reach the poor, directly making them an effective social safety net. In many low-resource countries, school feeding programs are designed to protect children from the effects…

  2. Stinging Insect Matching Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Kids ▸ Stinging Insect Matching Game Share | Stinging Insect Matching Game Stinging insects can ruin summer fun for those who are ... the difference between the different kinds of stinging insects in order to keep your summer safe and ...

  3. Strengthening the Paediatricians Project 2: The effectiveness of a workshop to address the Priority Mental Health Disorders of adolescence in low-health related human resource countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Paul SS

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paediatricians can be empowered to address the Priority Mental Health Disorders at primary care level. To evaluate the effectiveness of a collaborative workshop in enhancing the adolescent psychiatry knowledge among paediatricians. Methods A 3-day, 27-hours workshop was held for paediatricians from different regions of India under the auspices of the National Adolescent Paediatric Task Force of the Indian Academy of Paediatrics. A 5-item pretest-posttest questionnaire was developed and administered at the beginning and end of the workshop to evaluate the participants' knowledge acquisition in adolescent psychiatry. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed on an intention-to-participate basis. Results Forty-eight paediatricians completed the questionnaire. There was significant enhancement of the knowledge in understanding the phenomenology, identifying the psychopathology, diagnosing common mental disorder and selecting the psychotropic medication in the bivariate analysis. When the possible confounders of level of training in paediatrics and number of years spent as paediatrician were controlled, in addition to the above areas of adolescent psychiatry, the diagnostic ability involving multiple psychological concepts also gained significance. However, both in the bivariate and multivariate analyses, the ability to refer to appropriate psychotherapy remained unchanged after the workshop. Conclusions This workshop was effective in enhancing the adolescent psychiatry knowledge of paediatricians. Such workshops could strengthen paediatricians in addressing the priority mental health disorders at the primary-care level in countries with low-human resource for health as advocated by the World Health Organization. However, it remains to be seen if this acquisition of adolescent psychiatry knowledge results in enhancing their adolescent psychiatry practice.

  4. Systematic review on human resources for health interventions to improve maternal health outcomes: evidence from low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassi, Zohra S; Musavi, Nabiha B; Maliqi, Blerta; Mansoor, Nadia; de Francisco, Andres; Toure, Kadidiatou; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2016-03-12

    There is a broad consensus and evidence that shows qualified, accessible, and responsive human resources for health (HRH) can make a major impact on the health of the populations. At the same time, there is widespread recognition that HRH crises particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) impede the achievement of better health outcomes/targets. In order to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), equitable access to a skilled and motivated health worker within a performing health system is need to be ensured. This review contributes to the vast pool of literature towards the assessment of HRH for maternal health and is focused on interventions delivered by skilled birth attendants (SBAs). Studies were included if (a) any HRH interventions in management system, policy, finance, education, partnership, and leadership were implemented; (b) these were related to SBA; (c) reported outcomes related to maternal health; (d) the studies were conducted in LMICs; and (e) studies were in English. Studies were excluded if traditional birth attendants and/or community health workers were trained. The review identified 25 studies which revealed reasons for poor maternal health outcomes in LMICs despite the efforts and policies implemented throughout these years. This review suggested an urgent and immediate need for formative evidence-based research on effective HRH interventions for improved maternal health outcomes. Other initiatives such as education and empowerment of women, alleviating poverty, establishing gender equality, and provision of infrastructure, equipment, drugs, and supplies are all integral components that are required to achieve SDGs by reducing maternal mortality and improving maternal health.

  5. Promotion of energy conservation in developing countries through the combination of ESCO and CDM: A case study of introducing distributed energy resources into Chinese urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Hongbo; Zhou Weisheng; Gao Weijun; Wu Qiong

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of an energy service company (ESCO) project in developing countries may result not only in reduced energy cost but also in considerable environmental benefits, including the reduction of CO 2 emissions, which can be assessed in an economic manner under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) scheme. In this way, the economic and environmental benefits of energy conservation activities can be enjoyed by both the investor and the end-user, which can reduce the investment risk and realize a rational profit allocation. This study presents a numerical analysis of the introduction of distributed energy resources (DER) into a Chinese urban area. An optimization model is developed to determine the energy system combination under the constraints on the electrical and thermal balances and equipment availability. According to the simulation results, the introduction of DER systems possesses considerable potential to reduce CO 2 emissions, especially when considering that the economic profit of the CO 2 credit will increase the incentive to adopt DER systems to an even greater extent. Furthermore, by sharing the energy cost savings with the investors under an ESCO framework, the investment risk can be further reduced, and the conditions required for the project to qualify for CDM can be relaxed. Highlights: ► An investor focused analytical model is developed to aid the investment of a DER system. ► The combination of ESCO and CDM enhances the incentive to introduce energy conservation measures. ► Electricity buy-back is effective in boosting the DER system adoption under the proposed framework. ► The increased energy cost savings allocated to the investor promotes the DER system adoption. ► The rational allocation of CER credits is of vital importance to the success of the project.

  6. Toward evaluating the effect of climate change on investments in the water resources sector: insights from the forecast and analysis of hydrological indicators in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strzepek, Kenneth; Jacobsen, Michael; Boehlert, Brent; Neumann, James

    2013-01-01

    The World Bank has recently developed a method to evaluate the effects of climate change on six hydrological indicators across 8951 basins of the world. The indicators are designed for decision-makers and stakeholders to consider climate risk when planning water resources and related infrastructure investments. Analysis of these hydrological indicators shows that, on average, mean annual runoff will decline in southern Europe; most of Africa; and in southern North America and most of Central and South America. Mean reference crop water deficit, on the other hand, combines temperature and precipitation and is anticipated to increase in nearly all locations globally due to rising global temperatures, with the most dramatic increases projected to occur in southern Europe, southeastern Asia, and parts of South America. These results suggest overall guidance on which regions to focus water infrastructure solutions that could address future runoff flow uncertainty. Most important, we find that uncertainty in projections of mean annual runoff and high runoff events is higher in poorer countries, and increases over time. Uncertainty increases over time for all income categories, but basins in the lower and lower-middle income categories are forecast to experience dramatically higher increases in uncertainty relative to those in the upper-middle and upper income categories. The enhanced understanding of the uncertainty of climate projections for the water sector that this work provides strongly support the adoption of rigorous approaches to infrastructure design under uncertainty, as well as design that incorporates a high degree of flexibility, in response to both risk of damage and opportunity to exploit water supply ‘windfalls’ that might result, but would require smart infrastructure investments to manage to the greatest benefit. (letter)

  7. Toward evaluating the effect of climate change on investments in the water resources sector: insights from the forecast and analysis of hydrological indicators in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzepek, Kenneth; Jacobsen, Michael; Boehlert, Brent; Neumann, James

    2013-12-01

    The World Bank has recently developed a method to evaluate the effects of climate change on six hydrological indicators across 8951 basins of the world. The indicators are designed for decision-makers and stakeholders to consider climate risk when planning water resources and related infrastructure investments. Analysis of these hydrological indicators shows that, on average, mean annual runoff will decline in southern Europe; most of Africa; and in southern North America and most of Central and South America. Mean reference crop water deficit, on the other hand, combines temperature and precipitation and is anticipated to increase in nearly all locations globally due to rising global temperatures, with the most dramatic increases projected to occur in southern Europe, southeastern Asia, and parts of South America. These results suggest overall guidance on which regions to focus water infrastructure solutions that could address future runoff flow uncertainty. Most important, we find that uncertainty in projections of mean annual runoff and high runoff events is higher in poorer countries, and increases over time. Uncertainty increases over time for all income categories, but basins in the lower and lower-middle income categories are forecast to experience dramatically higher increases in uncertainty relative to those in the upper-middle and upper income categories. The enhanced understanding of the uncertainty of climate projections for the water sector that this work provides strongly support the adoption of rigorous approaches to infrastructure design under uncertainty, as well as design that incorporates a high degree of flexibility, in response to both risk of damage and opportunity to exploit water supply ‘windfalls’ that might result, but would require smart infrastructure investments to manage to the greatest benefit.

  8. A new concept of irrigation response units for effective management of surface and groundwater resources: a case study from the multi-country Fergana Valley, Central Asia

    KAUST Repository

    Awan, Usman Khalid

    2016-09-09

    When estimating canal water supplies for large-scale irrigation schemes and especially in arid regions worldwide, the impact of all factors affecting the gross irrigation requirements (GIR) are not properly accounted for, which results in inefficient use of precious freshwater resources. This research shows that the concept of irrigation response units (IRU)—areas having unique combinations of factors effecting the GIR—allows for more precise estimates of GIR. An overlay analysis of soil texture and salinity, depth and salinity of groundwater, cropping patterns and irrigation methods was performed in a GIS environment, which yielded a total of 17 IRUs combinations of the Oktepa Zilol Chashmasi water consumers’ association in multi-country Fergana Valley, Central Asia. Groundwater contribution, leaching requirements, losses in the irrigation system through field application and conveyance and effective rainfall were included in GIR estimates. The GIR varied significantly among IRUs [average of 851 mm (±143 mm)] with a maximum (1051 mm) in IRU-12 and a minimum (629 mm) in IRUs-15, 16. Owing to varying groundwater levels in each IRU, the groundwater contribution played a key role in the estimation of the GIR. The maximum groundwater contribution occurred in IRUs dominated by cotton–fallow rotations as evidenced by an average value of 159 mm but a maximum of 254 mm and a minimum of 97 mm. Percolation losses depended on irrigation methods for different crops in their respective IRUs. The novel approach can guide water managers in this and similar regions to increase the accuracy of irrigation demands based on all the factor effecting the GIR. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  9. 13 CFR 108.2030 - Matching requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 108.2030 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL... resources raised by the NMVC Company or SSBIC. (b) Allowable sources. (1) Any source other than SBA is an... this part. (3) A portion of Private Capital may be designated as matching resources if the designated...

  10. Best matching theory & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moghaddam, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Mismatch or best match? This book demonstrates that best matching of individual entities to each other is essential to ensure smooth conduct and successful competitiveness in any distributed system, natural and artificial. Interactions must be optimized through best matching in planning and scheduling, enterprise network design, transportation and construction planning, recruitment, problem solving, selective assembly, team formation, sensor network design, and more. Fundamentals of best matching in distributed and collaborative systems are explained by providing: § Methodical analysis of various multidimensional best matching processes § Comprehensive taxonomy, comparing different best matching problems and processes § Systematic identification of systems’ hierarchy, nature of interactions, and distribution of decision-making and control functions § Practical formulation of solutions based on a library of best matching algorithms and protocols, ready for direct applications and apps development. Design...

  11. Matching Students to Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Trifunovic

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the problem of matching students to schools by using different matching mechanisms. This market is specific since public schools are free and the price mechanism cannot be used to determine the optimal allocation of children in schools. Therefore, it is necessary to use different matching algorithms that mimic the market mechanism and enable us to determine the core of the cooperative game. In this paper, we will determine that it is possible to apply cooperative game theory in matching problems. This review paper is based on illustrative examples aiming to compare matching algorithms in terms of the incentive compatibility, stability and efficiency of the matching. In this paper we will present some specific problems that may occur in matching, such as improving the quality of schools, favoring minority students, the limited length of the list of preferences and generating strict priorities from weak priorities.

  12. Best Practices for NPT Transit Matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilligan, Kimberly V.; Whitaker, J. Michael; Oakberg, John A.; Snow, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Transit matching is the process for relating or matching reports of shipments and receipts submitted to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Transit matching is a component used by the IAEA in drawing safeguards conclusions and performing investigative analysis. Transit matching is part of IAEA safeguards activities and the State evaluation process, and it is included in the annual Safeguards Implementation Report (SIR). Annually, the IAEA currently receives reports of ~900,000 nuclear material transactions, of which ~500,000 are for domestic and foreign transfers. Of these the IAEA software can automatically match (i.e., machine match) about 95% of the domestic transfers and 25% of the foreign transfers. Given the increasing demands upon IAEA resources, it is highly desirable for the machine-matching process to match as many transfers as possible. Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have conducted an investigation funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration through the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative to identify opportunities to strengthen IAEA transit matching. Successful matching, and more specifically machine matching, is contingent on quality data from the reporting States. In February 2016, ORNL hosted representatives from three States, the IAEA, and Euratom to share results from past studies and to discuss the processes, policies, and procedures associated with State reporting for transit matching. Drawing on each entity's experience and knowledge, ORNL developed a best practices document to be shared with the international safeguards community to strengthen transit matching. This paper shares the recommendations that resulted from this strategic meeting and the next steps being taken to strengthen transit matching.

  13. Best Practices for NPT Transit Matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilligan, Kimberly V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Whitaker, J. Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Oakberg, John A. [Tetra Tech, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Snow, Catherine [Sno Consulting, LLC, Sandy, UT (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Transit matching is the process for relating or matching reports of shipments and receipts submitted to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Transit matching is a component used by the IAEA in drawing safeguards conclusions and performing investigative analysis. Transit matching is part of IAEA safeguards activities and the State evaluation process, and it is included in the annual Safeguards Implementation Report (SIR). Annually, the IAEA currently receives reports of ~900,000 nuclear material transactions, of which ~500,000 are for domestic and foreign transfers. Of these the IAEA software can automatically match (i.e., machine match) about 95% of the domestic transfers and 25% of the foreign transfers. Given the increasing demands upon IAEA resources, it is highly desirable for the machine-matching process to match as many transfers as possible. Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have conducted an investigation funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration through the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative to identify opportunities to strengthen IAEA transit matching. Successful matching, and more specifically machine matching, is contingent on quality data from the reporting States. In February 2016, ORNL hosted representatives from three States, the IAEA, and Euratom to share results from past studies and to discuss the processes, policies, and procedures associated with State reporting for transit matching. Drawing on each entity's experience and knowledge, ORNL developed a best practices document to be shared with the international safeguards community to strengthen transit matching. This paper shares the recommendations that resulted from this strategic meeting and the next steps being taken to strengthen transit matching.

  14. Challenges of Treating Childhood Medulloblastoma in a Country With Limited Resources: 20 Years of Experience at a Single Tertiary Center in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Revathi; Abd-Ghafar, Sayyidatul; Ganesan, Dharmendra; Bustam Mainudin, Anita Zarina; Wong, Kum Thong; Ramli, Norlisah; Jawin, Vida; Lum, Su Han; Yap, Tsiao Yi; Bouffet, Eric; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Krishnan, Shekhar; Ariffin, Hany; Abdullah, Wan Ariffin

    2017-04-01

    Pediatric medulloblastoma (MB) treatment has evolved over the past few decades; however, treating children in countries with limited resources remains challenging. Until now, the literature regarding childhood MB in Malaysia has been nonexistent. Our objectives were to review the demographics and outcome of pediatric MB treated at the University Malaya Medical Center between January 1994 and December 2013 and describe the challenges encountered. Fifty-one patients with childhood MB were seen at University Malaya Medical Center. Data from 43 patients were analyzed; eight patients were excluded because their families refused treatment after surgery. Headache and vomiting were the most common presenting symptoms, and the mean interval between symptom onset and diagnosis was 4 weeks. Fourteen patients presented with metastatic disease. Five-year progression-free survival (± SE) for patients ≥ 3 years old was 41.7% ± 14.2% (95% CI, 21.3% to 81.4%) in the high-risk group and 68.6% ± 18.6% (95% CI, 40.3% to 100%) in the average-risk group, and 5-year overall survival (± SE) in these two groups was 41.7% ± 14.2% (95% CI, 21.3% to 81.4%) and 58.3% ± 18.6% (95% CI, 31.3% to 100%), respectively. Children younger than 3 years old had 5-year progression-free and overall survival rates (± SE) of 47.6% ± 12.1% (95% CI, 28.9% to 78.4%) and 45.6% ± 11.7% (95% CI, 27.6% to 75.5%), respectively. Time to relapse ranged from 4 to 132 months. Most patients who experienced relapse died within 1 year. Febrile neutropenia, hearing loss, and endocrinopathy were the most common treatment-related complications. The survival rate of childhood MB in Malaysia is inferior to that usually reported in the literature. We postulate that the following factors contribute to this difference: lack of a multidisciplinary neuro-oncology team, limited health care facilities, inconsistent risk assessment, insufficient data in the National Cancer Registry and pathology reports, inadequate long

  15. Challenges of Treating Childhood Medulloblastoma in a Country With Limited Resources: 20 Years of Experience at a Single Tertiary Center in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revathi Rajagopal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Pediatric medulloblastoma (MB treatment has evolved over the past few decades; however, treating children in countries with limited resources remains challenging. Until now, the literature regarding childhood MB in Malaysia has been nonexistent. Our objectives were to review the demographics and outcome of pediatric MB treated at the University Malaya Medical Center between January 1994 and December 2013 and describe the challenges encountered. Methods: Fifty-one patients with childhood MB were seen at University Malaya Medical Center. Data from 43 patients were analyzed; eight patients were excluded because their families refused treatment after surgery. Results: Headache and vomiting were the most common presenting symptoms, and the mean interval between symptom onset and diagnosis was 4 weeks. Fourteen patients presented with metastatic disease. Five-year progression-free survival (± SE for patients ≥ 3 years old was 41.7% ± 14.2% (95% CI, 21.3% to 81.4% in the high-risk group and 68.6% ± 18.6% (95% CI, 40.3% to 100% in the average-risk group, and 5-year overall survival (± SE in these two groups was 41.7% ± 14.2% (95% CI, 21.3% to 81.4% and 58.3% ± 18.6% (95% CI, 31.3% to 100%, respectively. Children younger than 3 years old had 5-year progression-free and overall survival rates (± SE of 47.6% ± 12.1% (95% CI, 28.9% to 78.4% and 45.6% ± 11.7% (95% CI, 27.6% to 75.5%, respectively. Time to relapse ranged from 4 to 132 months. Most patients who experienced relapse died within 1 year. Febrile neutropenia, hearing loss, and endocrinopathy were the most common treatment-related complications. Conclusion: The survival rate of childhood MB in Malaysia is inferior to that usually reported in the literature. We postulate that the following factors contribute to this difference: lack of a multidisciplinary neuro-oncology team, limited health care facilities, inconsistent risk assessment, insufficient data in the National Cancer

  16. Techniques for assessing water resource potentials in the developing countries: with emphasis on streamflow, erosion and sediment transport, water movement in unsaturated soils, ground water, and remote sensing in hydrologic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, George C.

    1971-01-01

    Hydrologic instrumentation and methodology for assessing water-resource potentials have originated largely in the developed countries of the temperature zone. The developing countries lie largely in the tropic zone, which contains the full gamut of the earth's climatic environments, including most of those of the temperate zone. For this reason, most hydrologic techniques have world-wide applicability. Techniques for assessing water-resource potentials for the high priority goals of economic growth are well established in the developing countries--but much more are well established in the developing countries--but much more so in some than in other. Conventional techniques for measurement and evaluation of basic hydrologic parameters are now well-understood in the developing countries and are generally adequate for their current needs and those of the immediate future. Institutional and economic constraints, however, inhibit growth of sustained programs of hydrologic data collection and application of the data to problems in engineering technology. Computer-based technology, including processing of hydrologic data and mathematical modelling of hydrologic parameters i also well-begun in many developing countries and has much wider potential application. In some developing counties, however, there is a tendency to look on the computer as a panacea for deficiencies in basic hydrologic data collection programs. This fallacy must be discouraged, as the computer is a tool and not a "magic box." There is no real substitute for sound programs of basic data collection. Nuclear and isotopic techniques are being used increasingly in the developed countries in the measurement and evaluation of virtually all hydrologic parameter in which conventional techniques have been used traditionally. Even in the developed countries, however, many hydrologists are not using nuclear techniques, simply because they lack knowledge of the principles involved and of the potential benefits

  17. The Work-Family Interface of Service Sector Workers : A Comparison of Work Resources and Professional Status across Five European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beham, Barbara; Drobnic, Sonja; Praeg, Patrick

    The present paper examines cross-national differences in the utilisation of work-family resources at the organisational level and the relationships between these resources and work-to-home interference (WHI) and satisfaction with work-family balance (SWFB) among professional and non-professional

  18. The need for nuclear knowledge management and human resources development in the nuclear technology in a least developed country: The Haiti case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belfort, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: As All specialist recognizes it knowledge management refers to issues related to organizational adaptation, survival and competence in the context of a discontinuous environmental change. It concerns also organizational process seeking synergistic combination of data and information processing capacity of the technologies of information with the capacity of human beings. Knowledge management in this sense implies not only organizational and technology processes but involves also human resources development. Our intervention in the context of this forum will focus around a planned INIS project that has been submitted to the Agency for the cycle 2005-2006 and the synergistic ties it can develop with a nuclear knowledge management policy for Haiti. Haiti is the sole least developed country of Latin America and the main challenge it faces is that of reducing poverty. The population of Haiti is around 7.900.000 inhabitants; In terms of annual per capita income the estimated indigency line for 1996 was $160 per year and the poverty line was around $ 220; 2/3 of the rural households fell under the indigency line and 20% only of the population exceeded the poverty line. Main causes of this situation are: land erosion, water scarcity, degradation of the environment, lack of the competitiveness of the economy, lack of electricity etc In all these areas the nuclear techniques can contribute to solve the problem of poverty in Haiti by fulfilling the need to sustain the valuable human resources under the dire circumstances of the local economic conditions. By taking account of the recent efforts of the Government to enhance the manpower capabilities there is a real need now to manage the scarce resources so that they can be retained, expanded and eventually multiplied. Under this perspective the Haitian Government is applying a strategy seeking to involve all the sectors concerned by the peaceful applications of nuclear techniques. After 3 years of diffusion of

  19. The need for nuclear knowledge management and human resources development in the nuclear technology in a least developed country: The Haiti case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belfort, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: As all specialist recognizes it knowledge management refers to issues related to organizational adaptation, survival and competence in the context of a discontinuous environmental change. It concerns also organizational process seeking synergistic combination of data and information processing capacity of the technologies of information with the capacity of human beings. Knowledge management in this sense implies not only organizational and technology processes but involves also human resources development. Our intervention in the context of this forum will focus around a planned INIS project that has been submitted to the Agency for the cycle 2005-2006 and the synergistic ties it can develop with a nuclear knowledge management policy for Haiti. Haiti is the sole least developed country of Latin America and the main challenge it faces is that of reducing poverty. The population of Haiti is around 7.900.000 inhabitants;In terms of annual per capita income the estimated indigency line for 1996 was $160 per year and the poverty line was around $ 220; 2/3 of the rural households fell under the indigency line and 20% only of the population exceeded the poverty line. Main causes of this situation are: land erosion, water scarcity, degradation of the environment, lack of the competitiveness of the economy, lack of electricity etc In all these areas the nuclear techniques can contribute to solve the problem of poverty in Haiti by fulfilling the need to sustain the valuable human resources under the dire circumstances of the local economic conditions. By taking account of the recent efforts of the Government to enhance the manpower capabilities there is a real need now to manage the scarce resources so that they can be retained, expanded and eventually multiplied. Under this perspective the Haitian Government is applying a strategy seeking to involve all the sectors concerned by the peaceful applications of nuclear techniques. After 3 years of diffusion of

  20. Socioeconomic impact on device-associated infections in pediatric intensive care units of 16 limited-resource countries: international Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Victor D; Jarvis, William R; Jamulitrat, Silom; Silva, Cristiane Pavanello Rodrigues; Ramachandran, Bala; Dueñas, Lourdes; Gurskis, Vaidotas; Ersoz, Gulden; Novales, María Guadalupe Miranda; Khader, Ilham Abu; Ammar, Khaldi; Guzmán, Nayide Barahona; Navoa-Ng, Josephine Anne; Seliem, Zeinab Salah; Espinoza, Teodora Atencio; Meng, Cheong Yuet; Jayatilleke, Kushlani

    2012-07-01

    We report the results of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium prospective surveillance study from January 2004 to December 2009 in 33 pediatric intensive care units of 16 countries and the impact of being in a private vs. public hospital and the income country level on device-associated health care-associated infection rates. Additionally, we aim to compare these findings with the results of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network annual report to show the differences between developed and developing countries regarding device-associated health care-associated infection rates. A prospective cohort, active device-associated health care-associated infection surveillance study was conducted on 23,700 patients in International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium pediatric intensive care units. The protocol and methodology implemented were developed by International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium. Data collection was performed in the participating intensive care units. Data uploading and analyses were conducted at International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium headquarters on proprietary software. Device-associated health care-associated infection rates were recorded by applying Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network device-associated infection definitions, and the impact of being in a private vs. public hospital and the income country level on device-associated infection risk was evaluated. None. Central line-associated bloodstream infection rates were similar in private, public, or academic hospitals (7.3 vs. 8.4 central line-associated bloodstream infection per 1,000 catheter-days [p infection rates in lower middle-income countries were higher than low-income countries or upper middle-income countries (12.2 vs. 5.5 central line-associated bloodstream infections per 1,000 catheter-days [p infection rates were similar in academic, public and private

  1. Optimal Packed String Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben-Kiki, Oren; Bille, Philip; Breslauer, Dany

    2011-01-01

    In the packed string matching problem, each machine word accommodates – characters, thus an n-character text occupies n/– memory words. We extend the Crochemore-Perrin constantspace O(n)-time string matching algorithm to run in optimal O(n/–) time and even in real-time, achieving a factor – speed...

  2. Ontology Matching Across Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    matching include GMO [1], Anchor-Prompt [2], and Similarity Flooding [3]. GMO is an iterative structural matcher, which uses RDF bipartite graphs to...AFRL under contract# FA8750-09-C-0058. References [1] Hu, W., Jian, N., Qu, Y., Wang, Y., “ GMO : a graph matching for ontologies”, in: Proceedings of

  3. Resistance pattern of mupirocin in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in trauma patients and comparison between disc diffusion and E-test for better detection of resistance in low resource countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonika Rajkumari

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: All the MRSA isolates in our study were sensitive to mupirocin which is an encouraging finding. Though good screening for sensitivity can be done with 5 μg mupirocin disc, E-test provides a much clear and accurate results in clinical set-up. Hence, disc test can be used in resource poor countries and supplemented with E-test when needed.

  4. Current and future availability of and need for human resources for sexual, reproductive, maternal and newborn health in 41 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra Arias, Maria; Nove, Andrea; Michel-Schuldt, Michaela; de Bernis, Luc

    2017-05-03

    The WHO African region, covering the majority of Sub-Saharan Africa, faces the highest rates of maternal and neonatal mortality in the world. This study uses data from the State of the World's Midwifery 2014 survey to cast a spotlight on the WHO African region, highlight the specific characteristics of its sexual, reproductive, maternal and newborn health (SRMNH) workforce and describe and compare countries' different trajectories in terms of meeting the population need for services. Using data from 41 African countries, this study used a mathematical model to estimate potential met need for SRMNH services, defined as "the percentage of a universal SRMNH package that could potentially be obtained by women and newborns given the composition, competencies and available working time of the SRMNH workforce." The model defined the 46 key interventions included in this universal SRMNH package and allocated them to the available health worker time and skill set in each country to estimate the potential met need. Based on the current and projected potential met need in the future, the countries were grouped into three categories: (1) 'making or maintaining progress' (expected to meet more, or the same level, of the need in the future than currently): 14 countries including Ghana, Senegal and South Africa, (2) 'at risk' (currently performing relatively well but expected to deteriorate due to the health workforce not keeping pace with population growth): 6 countries including Gabon, Rwanda and Zambia, and (3) 'low performing' (not performing well and not expected to improve): 21 countries including Burkina Faso, Eritrea and Sierra Leone. The three groups face different challenges, and policy solutions to increasing met need should be tailored to the specific context of the country. National health workforce accounts should be strengthened so that workforce planning can be evidence-informed.

  5. Uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This is a press release issued by the OECD on 9th March 1976. It is stated that the steep increases in demand for uranium foreseen in and beyond the 1980's, with doubling times of the order of six to seven years, will inevitably create formidable problems for the industry. Further substantial efforts will be needed in prospecting for new uranium reserves. Information is given in tabular or graphical form on the following: reasonably assured resources, country by country; uranium production capacities, country by country; world nuclear power growth; world annual uranium requirements; world annual separative requirements; world annual light water reactor fuel reprocessing requirements; distribution of reactor types (LWR, SGHWR, AGR, HWR, HJR, GG, FBR); and world fuel cycle capital requirements. The information is based on the latest report on Uranium Resources Production and Demand, jointly issued by the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency. (U.K.)

  6. Country programme review. Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolnicar, J.; Kamel, R.; Perera, O.; Tauchid, M.

    1992-08-01

    This document reviews the current nuclear program in Mongolia, identifying the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in the country and possible future technical co-operation activities. Separate brief sections deal with food and agriculture; mineral resources; nuclear chemistry, nuclear physics and instrumentation; human health; radiation protection; water resources and nuclear energy. 1 tab

  7. Water Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abira, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Water is essential for life and ecological sustenance; its availability is essential component of national welfare and productivity.The country's socio-economic activities are largely dependent on the natural endowment of water resources. Kenya's water resources comprises of surface waters (rivers, lakes and wetlands) and ground water. Surface water forms 86% of total water resources while the rest is ground water Geological, topographical and climatic factors influence the natural availability and distribution of water with the rainfall distribution having the major influence. Water resources in Kenya are continuously under threat of depletion and quality degradation owing to rising population, industrialization, changing land use and settlement activities as well as natural changes. However, the anticipated climate change is likely to exacerbate the situation resulting in increased conflict over water use rights in particular, and, natural resource utilisation in general. The impacts of climate change on the water resources would lead to other impacts on environmental and socio-economic systems

  8. Pediatric MATCH Infographic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infographic explaining NCI-COG Pediatric MATCH, a cancer treatment clinical trial for children and adolescents, from 1 to 21 years of age, that is testing the use of precision medicine for pediatric cancers.

  9. Data Matching Imputation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The DMIS dataset is a flat file record of the matching of several data set collections. Primarily it consists of VTRs, dealer records, Observer data in conjunction...

  10. Critical assessment of progress of medical sciences in Iran and Turkey: the way developing countries with limited resources should make effective contributions to the production of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarrat, Sadegh; Kolahdoozan, Shadi

    2011-11-01

    Scientific progress is an important indicator for the social and economic developments of any country. According to various reports, worldwide, Iran has the most growth in the field of science due to a high increase in the numbers of publications during the past decade. The aim of this study is to assess not only the quantity, but also the quality of publications of indexed Iranian journals and compare them to Turkey, as an Islamic neighboring country, in addition to the contributions of these two countries to our knowledge. A number of international journals with high impact factors were selected to assess the contributions of scientists from Iran and Turkey to the medical sciences. English medical journals from Iran and Turkey indexed by the ISI Web of Sciences with known impact factors (IF) announced at the beginning of 2010 were included for evaluation. We calculated the number of all articles published from the beginning of 2007 until the October 2010, the number of total citations, and citations from authors outside both countries for each journal. In addition, we selected all articles cited at least six times by authors outside of both countries and discussed their content with regard to originality and novelty, as well as their contributions to current knowledge. Furthermore, 60 international journals in basic or clinical research with IF greater than 6 were selected for the magnitude of contributions of both countries to our scientific knowledge. In 2010, out of a total of 21 Iranian journals indexed in ISI since 2007, only 12 have a known IF with a mean of 0.39 (range: 0.07-0.97), whereas out of 28 Turkish medical journals indexed in ISI, 15 have a known IF (mean: 0.35, range: 0.05-0.82). The total number of articles published since 2007 from Iran, total citations and total citations by authors from outside Iran were 2080, 1218, and 463, respectively. The same data related to Turkish journals were 4876, 2036, and 1331, respectively. Indeed, the mean

  11. Magnetic safety matches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindén, J.; Lindberg, M.; Greggas, A.; Jylhävuori, N.; Norrgrann, H.; Lill, J. O.

    2017-07-01

    In addition to the main ingredients; sulfur, potassium chlorate and carbon, ordinary safety matches contain various dyes, glues etc, giving the head of the match an even texture and appealing color. Among the common reddish-brown matches there are several types, which after ignition can be attracted by a strong magnet. Before ignition the match head is generally not attracted by the magnet. An elemental analysis based on proton-induced x-ray emission was performed to single out iron as the element responsible for the observed magnetism. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was used for identifying the various types of iron-compounds, present before and after ignition, responsible for the macroscopic magnetism: Fe2O3 before and Fe3O4 after. The reaction was verified by mixing the main chemicals in the match-head with Fe2O3 in glue and mounting the mixture on a match stick. The ash residue after igniting the mixture was magnetic.

  12. Flyover Country: A Plane Ride Could Be to Geoscience Outreach what a Planetarium is to Astronomy Outreach - the Perfect Venue for Sharing Big, Awe Inspiring Ideas, with a View to Match

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, S.; Ai, S.; McEwan, R.; Myrbo, A.

    2015-12-01

    Rivaled only by the view from the International Space Station, the view from the airplane window spectacularly showcases the scale of Earth's geological features and the ways humans interact with and rely on them. With an average of eight million people flying every day, this view represents a major opportunity to engage a large and captive audience with the great insights that scientists have made through hundreds of years of investigation. Curating entire continents' worth of geological information covering any possible flight path would be impossible; fortunately, the NSF EarthCube initiative has facilitated the interoperability and accessibility of many geoscience databases full of rich scientific content ready to be exposed. Flyover Country (FC; fc.umn.edu) is an NSF funded mobile application leveraging hybrid mobile app technologies and data repositories to create a robust, offline, geoscience education and data discovery tool for both Android and iOS. Given a flight path, FC downloads a strip of relevant data from from geoscience databases including geological, paleobiological, Wikipedia, and map data that is saved to the device, allowing offline use during the journey without the need for in-flight wifi. Location, altitude, speed, and direction are provided by GPS in order to prompt the user with descriptions of points of interest that are visible from his or her current location. The app is not limited to use from the sky: its offline capabilities are also useful on roads and hiking trails, acting as a location aware and interactive version of something like the Roadside Geology book series. Using data spanning many domains, FC works as a data discovery tool for students and scientists in the field, bringing spatially referenced geoscience data into their hands and providing valuable location information in map view without the need for a cellular network signal. This context allows decisions to be made in the field based on the maximum amount of relevant

  13. Latent palmprint matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anil K; Feng, Jianjiang

    2009-06-01

    The evidential value of palmprints in forensic applications is clear as about 30 percent of the latents recovered from crime scenes are from palms. While biometric systems for palmprint-based personal authentication in access control type of applications have been developed, they mostly deal with low-resolution (about 100 ppi) palmprints and only perform full-to-full palmprint matching. We propose a latent-to-full palmprint matching system that is needed in forensic applications. Our system deals with palmprints captured at 500 ppi (the current standard in forensic applications) or higher resolution and uses minutiae as features to be compatible with the methodology used by latent experts. Latent palmprint matching is a challenging problem because latent prints lifted at crime scenes are of poor image quality, cover only a small area of the palm, and have a complex background. Other difficulties include a large number of minutiae in full prints (about 10 times as many as fingerprints), and the presence of many creases in latents and full prints. A robust algorithm to reliably estimate the local ridge direction and frequency in palmprints is developed. This facilitates the extraction of ridge and minutiae features even in poor quality palmprints. A fixed-length minutia descriptor, MinutiaCode, is utilized to capture distinctive information around each minutia and an alignment-based minutiae matching algorithm is used to match two palmprints. Two sets of partial palmprints (150 live-scan partial palmprints and 100 latent palmprints) are matched to a background database of 10,200 full palmprints to test the proposed system. Despite the inherent difficulty of latent-to-full palmprint matching, rank-1 recognition rates of 78.7 and 69 percent, respectively, were achieved in searching live-scan partial palmprints and latent palmprints against the background database.

  14. Fast group matching for MR fingerprinting reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauley, Stephen F; Setsompop, Kawin; Ma, Dan; Jiang, Yun; Ye, Huihui; Adalsteinsson, Elfar; Griswold, Mark A; Wald, Lawrence L

    2015-08-01

    MR fingerprinting (MRF) is a technique for quantitative tissue mapping using pseudorandom measurements. To estimate tissue properties such as T1 , T2 , proton density, and B0 , the rapidly acquired data are compared against a large dictionary of Bloch simulations. This matching process can be a very computationally demanding portion of MRF reconstruction. We introduce a fast group matching algorithm (GRM) that exploits inherent correlation within MRF dictionaries to create highly clustered groupings of the elements. During matching, a group specific signature is first used to remove poor matching possibilities. Group principal component analysis (PCA) is used to evaluate all remaining tissue types. In vivo 3 Tesla brain data were used to validate the accuracy of our approach. For a trueFISP sequence with over 196,000 dictionary elements, 1000 MRF samples, and image matrix of 128 × 128, GRM was able to map MR parameters within 2s using standard vendor computational resources. This is an order of magnitude faster than global PCA and nearly two orders of magnitude faster than direct matching, with comparable accuracy (1-2% relative error). The proposed GRM method is a highly efficient model reduction technique for MRF matching and should enable clinically relevant reconstruction accuracy and time on standard vendor computational resources. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. ERAWATCH Country Reports 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph

    between the national priorities and the structural challenges, highlighting the latest developments, their dynamics and impact in the overall national context. They further analyse and assess the ability of the policy mix in place to consistently and efficiently tackle these challenges. These reports were......This analytical country report is one of a series of annual ERAWATCH reports produced for EU Member States and Countries Associated to the Seventh Framework Programme for Research of the European Union (FP7). The main objective of the ERAWATCH Annual Country Reports is to characterise and assess...... the performance of national research systems and related policies in a structured manner that is comparable across countries. The Country Report 2012 builds on and updates the 2011 edition. The report identifies the structural challenges of the national research and innovation system and assesses the match...

  16. Approaches for Stereo Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takouhi Ozanian

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the last decade's development of the computational stereopsis for recovering three-dimensional information. The main components of the stereo analysis are exposed: image acquisition and camera modeling, feature selection, feature matching and disparity interpretation. A brief survey is given of the well known feature selection approaches and the estimation parameters for this selection are mentioned. The difficulties in identifying correspondent locations in the two images are explained. Methods as to how effectively to constrain the search for correct solution of the correspondence problem are discussed, as are strategies for the whole matching process. Reasons for the occurrence of matching errors are considered. Some recently proposed approaches, employing new ideas in the modeling of stereo matching in terms of energy minimization, are described. Acknowledging the importance of computation time for real-time applications, special attention is paid to parallelism as a way to achieve the required level of performance. The development of trinocular stereo analysis as an alternative to the conventional binocular one, is described. Finally a classification based on the test images for verification of the stereo matching algorithms, is supplied.

  17. Matching to Openly Innovate with Suppliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Linda Nhu

    2017-01-01

    heterogeneous suppliers with the internal organisation in order to openly innovate. More specifically, it focuses on a governance mode, recently emerged in practice, by which firms summon their suppliers and their own internal organisation at an event to match them for open innovation activities – innovation......When large firms choose to involve their many suppliers in open innovation, they are faced with a set of challenges pertaining to the governance of several suppliers. Suppliers are heterogeneous, offering heterogeneous materials, products, information, services, and knowledge, which are differently...... organized across functions and hierarchies. To make use of such heterogeneous resources, a critical challenge for open innovation is to pair a supplier resource with a suitable opportunity-for-use from within the firm – a challenge of matching. This dissertation addresses the challenge of matching...

  18. The Ethics of Medical Practitioner Migration From Low-Resourced Countries to the Developed World: A Call for Action by Health Systems and Individual Doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpofu, Charles; Gupta, Tarun Sen; Hays, Richard

    2016-09-01

    Medical migration appears to be an increasing global phenomenon, with complex contributing factors. Although it is acknowledged that such movements are inevitable, given the current globalized economy, the movement of health professionals from their country of training raises questions about equity of access and quality of care. Concerns arise if migration occurs from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to high-income countries (HICs). The actions of HICs receiving medical practitioners from LMICs are examined through the global justice theories of John Rawls and Immanuel Kant. These theories were initially proposed by Pogge (1988) and Tan (1997) and, in this work, are extended to the issue of medical migration. Global justice theories propose that instead of looking at health needs and workforce issues within their national boundaries, HICs should be guided by principles of justice relevant to the needs of health systems on a global scale. Issues of individual justice are also considered within the framework of rights and social responsibilities of individual medical practitioners. Local and international policy changes are suggested based on both global justice theories and the ideals of individual justice.

  19. First National Report on Forest Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture,The Netherlands : country report for the FAO first state of the world's forest genetic resources for food and agriculture, Ministry of Economic Affairs, The Hague, November 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiteveld, J.

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch national report is designed to contribute to a regional and global sysnthesis of the state of forest genetic resources and in particular to examine trends over the past ten years. After a general introduction to the Dutch forest sector and the historical background of today's forests, it

  20. Effects of patient-reported non-severe hypoglycemia on healthcare resource use, work-time loss, and wellbeing in insulin-treated patients with diabetes in seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, Petronella H; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Weitgasser, Raimund; Lahtela, Jorma; Jensen, Marie Markert; Östenson, Claes-Göran

    2013-12-01

    Hypoglycemia is a frequent side effect induced by insulin treatment of type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Limited data exist on the associated healthcare resource use and patient impact of hypoglycemia, particularly at a country-specific level. This study investigated the effects of self-reported non-severe hypoglycemic events (NSHE) on use of healthcare resources and patient wellbeing. Patients with T1DM or insulin-treated T2DM diabetes from seven European countries were invited to complete four weekly questionnaires. Data were collected on patient demographics, NSHE occurrence in the last 7 days, hypoglycemia-related resource use, and patient impact. NSHE were defined as events with hypoglycemia symptoms, with or without blood glucose measurement, or low blood glucose measurement without symptoms, which the patient could manage without third-party assistance. Three thousand, nine hundred and fifty-nine respondents completed at least one wave of the survey, with 57% completing all four questionnaires; 3827 respondents were used for data analyses. Overall, 2.3% and 8.9% of NSHE in patients with T1DM and T2DM, respectively, resulted in healthcare professional contact. Across countries, there was a mean increase in blood glucose test use of 3.0 tests in the week following a NSHE. Among respondents who were employed (48%), loss of work-time after the last hypoglycemic event was reported for 9.7% of NSHE. Overall, 10.2% (daytime) and 8.0% (nocturnal) NSHE led to work-time loss, with a mean loss of 84.3 (daytime) and 169.6 (nocturnal) minutes among patients reporting work-time loss. Additionally, patients reported feeling tired, irritable, and having negative feelings following hypoglycemia. Direct comparisons between studies must be interpreted with caution because of different definitions of hypoglycemia severity, duration of the studies, and methods of data collection. NSHE were associated with use of extra healthcare resources and work-time loss in all

  1. Barriers and facilitators to the quality use of essential medicines for maternal health in low-resource countries: An Ishikawa framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dan N; Bero, Lisa A

    2015-06-01

    An estimated 800 women die every day due to complications related to pregnancy or childbirth. Complications such as postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) and pre-eclampsia and eclampsia can be prevented by the appropriate use of essential medicines. The objective of this study was to identify the common barriers and facilitators to the availability and use of oxytocin, ergometrine, and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) - essential medicines indicated for the prevention and treatment of PPH and pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. We analyzed seven UNFPA/WHO reports published in 2008-2010. These reports summarized country-wide rapid assessments of access to and use of essential medicines for maternal health in Mongolia, Nepal, Laos, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), the Philippines, Vanuatu, and the Solomon Islands. We used a "fishbone" (Ishikawa) diagram as the analytic framework to identify facilitators and barriers at four health-system levels: government/regulatory, pharmaceutical supply, health facility, and health professional. Common facilitators to the quality use of essential medicines for maternal health were observed at the government/regulatory and health professional level. A majority of countries had these medicines listed in their essential medicines lists. Awareness of the medicines was generally high among health professionals. Common barriers were identified at all health-system levels. First, standard treatment guidelines were not available, updated, or standardized. Second, there was an inadequate capacity to forecast and procure medicines. Third, a required MgSO4 antidote was often not available and the storage conditions for oxytocin were deficient. The "fishbone" Ishikawa diagram is a useful tool for describing the findings of rapid assessments of quality use of essential medicines for maternal health across countries. The facilitators and barriers identified should guide the development of tailored intervention programs to improve and expand the use

  2. Dewey Concentration Match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Library Media Activities Monthly, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Giving students a chance to associate numbers with subjects can be useful in speeding their location of desired print or nonprint materials and helping students feel independent when browsing. A matching game for helping students learn the Dewey numbers is presented. Instructions for the library media specialist or teacher, instructions for…

  3. Matched-Filter Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Tabatabaei

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional infrared thermography techniques, including pulsed and lock-in thermography, have shown great potential for non-destructive evaluation of broad spectrum of materials, spanning from metals to polymers to biological tissues. However, performance of these techniques is often limited due to the diffuse nature of thermal wave fields, resulting in an inherent compromise between inspection depth and depth resolution. Recently, matched-filter thermography has been introduced as a means for overcoming this classic limitation to enable depth-resolved subsurface thermal imaging and improving axial/depth resolution. This paper reviews the basic principles and experimental results of matched-filter thermography: first, mathematical and signal processing concepts related to matched-fileting and pulse compression are discussed. Next, theoretical modeling of thermal-wave responses to matched-filter thermography using two categories of pulse compression techniques (linear frequency modulation and binary phase coding are reviewed. Key experimental results from literature demonstrating the maintenance of axial resolution while inspecting deep into opaque and turbid media are also presented and discussed. Finally, the concept of thermal coherence tomography for deconvolution of thermal responses of axially superposed sources and creation of depth-selective images in a diffusion-wave field is reviewed.

  4. Bayesian grid matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartelius, Karsten; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2003-01-01

    A method for locating distorted grid structures in images is presented. The method is based on the theories of template matching and Bayesian image restoration. The grid is modeled as a deformable template. Prior knowledge of the grid is described through a Markov random field (MRF) model which r...

  5. Polytypic pattern matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuring, J.T.

    1995-01-01

    The pattern matching problem can be informally specified as follows: given a pattern and a text, find all occurrences of the pattern in the text. The pattern and the text may both be lists, or they may both be trees, or they may both be multi-dimensional arrays, etc. This paper describes a general

  6. Is Matching Innate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C. R.; King, Adam Philip; Gottlieb, Daniel; Balci, Fuat; Papachristos, Efstathios B.; Szalecki, Matthew; Carbone, Kimberly S.

    2007-01-01

    Experimentally naive mice matched the proportions of their temporal investments (visit durations) in two feeding hoppers to the proportions of the food income (pellets per unit session time) derived from them in three experiments that varied the coupling between the behavioral investment and food income, from no coupling to strict coupling.…

  7. PREDICTING THE MATCH OUTCOME IN ONE DAY INTERNATIONAL CRICKET MATCHES, WHILE THE GAME IS IN PROGRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bailey

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Millions of dollars are wagered on the outcome of one day international (ODI cricket matches, with a large percentage of bets occurring after the game has commenced. Using match information gathered from all 2200 ODI matches played prior to January 2005, a range of variables that could independently explain statistically significant proportions of variation associated with the predicted run totals and match outcomes were created. Such variables include home ground advantage, past performances, match experience, performance at the specific venue, performance against the specific opposition, experience at the specific venue and current form. Using a multiple linear regression model, prediction variables were numerically weighted according to statistical significance and used to predict the match outcome. With the use of the Duckworth-Lewis method to determine resources remaining, at the end of each completed over, the predicted run total of the batting team could be updated to provide a more accurate prediction of the match outcome. By applying this prediction approach to a holdout sample of matches, the efficiency of the "in the run" wagering market could be assessed. Preliminary results suggest that the market is prone to overreact to events occurring throughout the course of the match, thus creating brief inefficiencies in the wagering market

  8. Robust matching for voice recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Alan; Bahler, L.; Porter, J.; Blais, P.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes an automated method of comparing a voice sample of an unknown individual with samples from known speakers in order to establish or verify the individual's identity. The method is based on a statistical pattern matching approach that employs a simple training procedure, requires no human intervention (transcription, work or phonetic marketing, etc.), and makes no assumptions regarding the expected form of the statistical distributions of the observations. The content of the speech material (vocabulary, grammar, etc.) is not assumed to be constrained in any way. An algorithm is described which incorporates frame pruning and channel equalization processes designed to achieve robust performance with reasonable computational resources. An experimental implementation demonstrating the feasibility of the concept is described.

  9. Supportive care after curative treatment for breast cancer (survivorship care): resource allocations in low- and middle-income countries. A Breast Health Global Initiative 2013 consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Patricia A; Yip, Cheng Har; Gralow, Julie R; Distelhorst, Sandra R; Albain, Kathy S; Andersen, Barbara L; Bevilacqua, Jose Luiz B; de Azambuja, Evandro; El Saghir, Nagi S; Kaur, Ranjit; McTiernan, Anne; Partridge, Ann H; Rowland, Julia H; Singh-Carlson, Savitri; Vargo, Mary M; Thompson, Beti; Anderson, Benjamin O

    2013-10-01

    Breast cancer survivors may experience long-term treatment complications, must live with the risk of cancer recurrence, and often experience psychosocial complications that require supportive care services. In low- and middle-income settings, supportive care services are frequently limited, and program development for survivorship care and long-term follow-up has not been well addressed. As part of the 5th Breast Health Global Initiative (BHGI) Global Summit, an expert panel identified nine key resources recommended for appropriate survivorship care, and developed resource-stratified recommendations to illustrate how health systems can provide supportive care services for breast cancer survivors after curative treatment, using available resources. Key recommendations include health professional education that focuses on the management of physical and psychosocial long-term treatment complications. Patient education can help survivors transition from a provider-intense cancer treatment program to a post-treatment provider partnership and self-management program, and should include: education on recognizing disease recurrence or metastases; management of treatment-related sequelae, and psychosocial complications; and the importance of maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Increasing community awareness of survivorship issues was also identified as an important part of supportive care programs. Other recommendations include screening and management of psychosocial distress; management of long-term treatment-related complications including lymphedema, fatigue, insomnia, pain, and women's health issues; and monitoring survivors for recurrences or development of second primary malignancies. Where possible, breast cancer survivors should implement healthy lifestyle modifications, including physical activity, and maintain a healthy weight. Health professionals should provide well-documented patient care records that can follow a patient as they transition from active treatment

  10. Should There Be an Obligation of Disclosure of Origin of Genetic Resources in Patent Applications? – Learning Lessons from Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Laurie

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In the lead-up to two meetings in June 2005 which will address the question of whether there should be an obligation of disclosure of origin of genetic resources in patent applications, this paper uses the on-going international policy debate in this area as a platform both to make some specific observations about this particular issue, and to offer some comments on the broader question which it raises of how the intellectual property world integrates with other legal and ethical regimes.

  11. [Propensity score matching in SPSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fuqiang; DU, Chunlin; Sun, Menghui; Ning, Bing; Luo, Ying; An, Shengli

    2015-11-01

    To realize propensity score matching in PS Matching module of SPSS and interpret the analysis results. The R software and plug-in that could link with the corresponding versions of SPSS and propensity score matching package were installed. A PS matching module was added in the SPSS interface, and its use was demonstrated with test data. Score estimation and nearest neighbor matching was achieved with the PS matching module, and the results of qualitative and quantitative statistical description and evaluation were presented in the form of a graph matching. Propensity score matching can be accomplished conveniently using SPSS software.

  12. A test of the resource security and the body mass index reference point hypotheses of body dissatisfaction amongst adolescents in eight countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, David; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; McCabe, Marita P; Ricciardelli, Lina A; Skouteris, Helen; Mussap, Alexander J

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify cultural-level variables that may influence the extent to which adolescents from different cultural groups are dissatisfied with their bodies. A sample of 1730 male and 2000 female adolescents from Australia, Fiji, Malaysia, Tonga, Tongans in New Zealand, China, Chile, and Greece completed measures of body satisfaction, and the sociocultural influences on body image and body change questionnaire, and self-reported height and weight. Country gross domestic product and national obesity were recorded using global databases. Prevalence of obesity/overweight and cultural endorsement of appearance standards explained variance in individual-level body dissatisfaction (BD) scores, even after controlling for the influence of individual differences in body mass index and internalization of appearance standards. Cultural-level variables may account for the development of adolescent BD.

  13. Barriers and facilitators to the quality use of essential medicines for maternal health in low–resource countries: An Ishikawa framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan N. Tran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background An estimated 800 women die every day due to complications related to pregnancy or childbirth. Complications such as postpartum haemorrhage (PPH and pre–eclampsia and eclampsia can be prevented by the appropriate use of essential medicines. The objective of this study was to identify the common barriers and facilitators to the availability and use of oxytocin, ergometrine, and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4 – essential medicines indicated for the prevention and treatment of PPH and pre–eclampsia and eclampsia. Methods We analyzed seven UNFPA/WHO reports published in 2008–2010. These reports summarized country–wide rapid assessments of access to and use of essential medicines for maternal health in Mongolia, Nepal, Laos, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK, the Philippines, Vanuatu, and the Solomon Islands. We used a “fishbone” (Ishikawa diagram as the analytic framework to identify facilitators and barriers at four health–system levels: government/regulatory, pharmaceutical supply, health facility, and health professional. Results Common facilitators to the quality use of essential medicines for maternal health were observed at the government/regulatory and health professional level. A majority of countries had these medicines listed in their essential medicines lists. Awareness of the medicines was generally high among health professionals. Common barriers were identified at all health–system levels. First, standard treatment guidelines were not available, updated, or standardized. Second, there was an inadequate capacity to forecast and procure medicines. Third, a required MgSO4 antidote was often not available and the storage conditions for oxytocin were deficient. Conclusions The “fishbone” Ishikawa diagram is a useful tool for describing the findings of rapid assessments of quality use of essential medicines for maternal health across countries. The facilitators and barriers identified should guide the

  14. Adaptive Discrete Hypergraph Matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Junchi; Li, Changsheng; Li, Yin; Cao, Guitao

    2018-02-01

    This paper addresses the problem of hypergraph matching using higher-order affinity information. We propose a solver that iteratively updates the solution in the discrete domain by linear assignment approximation. The proposed method is guaranteed to converge to a stationary discrete solution and avoids the annealing procedure and ad-hoc post binarization step that are required in several previous methods. Specifically, we start with a simple iterative discrete gradient assignment solver. This solver can be trapped in an -circle sequence under moderate conditions, where is the order of the graph matching problem. We then devise an adaptive relaxation mechanism to jump out this degenerating case and show that the resulting new path will converge to a fixed solution in the discrete domain. The proposed method is tested on both synthetic and real-world benchmarks. The experimental results corroborate the efficacy of our method.

  15. Electromagnetic wave matching device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Yosuke; Mitsunaka, Yoshika; Hayashi, Ken-ichi; Ito, Yasuyuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a matching device capable of increasing an efficiency of combining beams of electromagnetic waves outputted from an output window of a gyrotron which is expected for plasma heating of a thermonuclear reactor and an electromagnetic wave transmission system as high as possible. Namely, an electromagnetic wave matching device reflects beams of electromagnetic waves incident from an inlet by a plurality of phase correction mirrors and combines them to an external transmission system through an exit. In this case, the phase correction mirrors change the phase of the beams of electromagnetic waves incident to the phase correction mirrors by a predetermined amount corresponding to the position of the reflection mirrors. Then, the beams of electromagnetic waves outputted, for example, from a gyrotron can properly be shaped as desired for the intensity and the phase. As a result, combination efficiency with the transmission system can be increased. (I.S.)

  16. Mauritius country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manraj, D D [Central Statistical Office (Mauritius)

    1998-10-01

    Mauritius has no known oil, gas or coal reserves but is only endowed with limited renewable energy resources namely hydropower and bagasse. Bagasse represents about one third of the country`s energy requirements and meets almost all of the sugar industries energy demand. Projects identified for mitigation options are: Energy Sector - Renewable Sources (Solar, Wind, Biomass); Transport Sector - Fuel switching and Mass transit transport; Manufacturing Sector - Increase efficiency of energy use in the manufacturing process. (EG)

  17. A Multi-Country Cross-Sectional Study of Vaginal Carriage of Group B Streptococci (GBS and Escherichia coli in Resource-Poor Settings: Prevalences and Risk Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Cools

    Full Text Available One million neonates die each year in low- and middle-income countries because of neonatal sepsis; group B Streptococcus (GBS and Escherichia coli are the leading causes. In sub-Saharan Africa, epidemiological data on vaginal GBS and E. coli carriage, a prerequisite for GBS and E. coli neonatal sepsis, respectively, are scarce but necessary to design and implement prevention strategies. Therefore, we assessed vaginal GBS and E. coli carriage rates and risk factors and the GBS serotype distribution in three sub-Saharan countries.A total of 430 women from Kenya, Rwanda and South Africa were studied cross-sectionally. Vaginal carriage of GBS and E. coli, and GBS serotype were assessed using molecular techniques. Risk factors for carriage were identified using multivariable logistic regression analysis.Vaginal carriage rates in reference groups from Kenya and South Africa were 20.2% (95% CI, 13.7-28.7% and 23.1% (95% CI, 16.2-31.9%, respectively for GBS; and 25.0% (95% CI, 17.8-33.9% and 27.1% (95% CI, 19.6-36.2%, respectively for E. coli. GBS serotypes Ia (36.8%, V (26.3% and III (14.0% were most prevalent. Factors independently associated with GBS and E. coli carriage were Candida albicans, an intermediate vaginal microbiome, bacterial vaginosis, recent vaginal intercourse, vaginal washing, cervical ectopy and working as a sex worker. GBS and E. coli carriage were positively associated.Reduced vaginal GBS carriage rates might be accomplished by advocating behavioral changes such as abstinence from sexual intercourse and by avoidance of vaginal washing during late pregnancy. It might be advisable to explore the inclusion of vaginal carriage of C. albicans, GBS, E. coli and of the presence of cervical ectopy in a risk- and/or screening-based administration of antibiotic prophylaxis. Current phase II GBS vaccines (a trivalent vaccine targeting serotypes Ia, Ib, and III, and a conjugate vaccine targeting serotype III would not protect the majority of

  18. Australian uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battey, G.C.; Miezitis, Y.; McKay, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    Australia's uranium resources amount to 29% of the WOCA countries (world outside centrally-planned-economies areas) low-cost Reasonably Assured Resources and 28% of the WOCA countries low-cost Estimated Additional Resources. As at 1 January 1986, the Bureau of Mineral Resources estimated Australia's uranium resources as: (1) Cost range to US$80/kg U -Reasonably Assured Resources, 465 000 t U; Estimated Additional Resources, 256 000 t U; (2) Cost range US$80-130/kg U -Reasonably Assured Resources, 56 000 t U; Estimated Additional Resources, 127 000 t U. Most resources are contained in Proterozoic unconformity-related deposits in the Alligator Rivers uranium field in the Northern Territory (Jabiluka, Ranger, Koongarra, Nabarlek deposits) and the Proterozoic stratabound deposit at Olympic Dam on the Stuart Shelf in South Australia

  19. SusClime. A simulation game on population and development in a resource- and climate-constrained two-country world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, B.

    1995-10-01

    In this report we introduce simulation-gaming as a tool to explore long-term futures. The model world of SusClime is a simple world with two capital stocks, one producing goods ('goods producing capital') and one providing services including consumption ('population capital') for the people. The necessary energy is delivered by two capital stocks, one based on oil ('carbon-energy') and one on renewable energy ('alternative'). Investments in energy efficiency bring down the required energy. The important decisions in the game are about investments, that is, the allocation of the goods produced among these five capital stocks. Moreover, the two countries can trade oil and make loans. The major challenge is to go through the demographic transition by increasing the welfare per person and to make the transition from oil to renewable energy. The latter is needed to avoid negative impacts on the economy due to rising CO 2 -concentrations. After the description of the game, some suggestions for systematic experiments are made as a way to gain a better understanding about how cultural bias affects people's perception of and behaviour with regard to aspects of the quest for sustainable development. 10 figs., 2 tabs., 36 refs., 6 appendices

  20. Cyclic Investigation of Geophysical Studies in the Exploration and Discovery of Natural Resources in Our Country; Uelkemizdeki Dogal Kaynaklarin Aranmasi ve Bulunmasinda Jeofizik Calismalarin Doenemsel Incelenmesi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonulalan, A U [TPAO, Research Department, Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-07-01

    Although the methods of exploration geophysics were first utilized after the discovery of an oil field in 1921, they have also applied in the old centuries. Likewise, the half of the total production in the United States of America is covered by new oil fields discovered by utilizing geophysical methods. The industry's energy necessity increases the interest to oil. The investments in the field of geophysics by the companies which makes large amount of money in order to discover new oil fields, widespread use of computers, the developments of space technology and world-wide nuclear competition even though its great danger for human beings have great share in the development of geophysics. Our country has 18 different types mines which has more than 10 billion $ potential. Geophysical engineers have great Kowledge and labor in the discovery of 1,795 trillion wealth from borax to building stone, and 60 billion $ oil and gas. On the other hand, as 1,5 billion investment in the field of geophysics is only 0.08 % of total investments, the increase of investments will add more contribution.

  1. Breast-i Is an Effective and Reliable Adjunct Screening Tool for Detecting Early Tumour Related Angiogenesis of Breast Cancers in Low Resource Sub-Saharan Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Naku Ghartey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. What cheaper alternative breast screening procedures are available to younger women in addition to clinical breast examination (CBE in Sub-Saharan countries? In 2009, we first described BreastLight for screening and reported high sensitivity at detecting breast cancer. Due to limitations of BreastLight, we have since 2014 been using the more technologically advanced Breast-i to screen 2204 women to find cheaper screening alternatives. Methodology. First, the participant lies down for CBE and then, in a darkened room, Breast-i was placed underneath each breast and trained personnel confirm vein pattern and look out for dark spot(s to ascertain the presence of suspicious angiogenic lesion(s. Results. CBE detected 153 palpable breast masses and Breast-i, which detects angiogenesis, confirmed 136. However, Breast-i detected 22 more cases of which 7 had angiogenesis but were not palpable and 15 were missed by CBE due to large breast size. Overall confirmed cases were 26, with Breast-i detecting 7 cases missed by CBE. Breast-i and CBE gave sensitivities of 92.3% and 73%, respectively. Conclusion. Breast-i with its high sensitivity to angiogenesis, reliability, and affordability will be an effective adjunct detection device that can be used effectively to increase early detection in younger women, thereby increasing treatment success.

  2. Comparing the burden of illness of haemophilia between resource-constrained and unconstrained countries: the São Paulo-Toronto Hemophilia Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, J D A; Blanchette, V; Ozelo, M C; Antunes, S V; Villaca, P R; Young, N L; Castro, D; Brandão, L R; Carcao, M; Abad, A; Feldman, B M

    2017-09-01

    Although the regular replacement of clotting factor concentrates (prophylaxis) has been well established as the standard of care for severe haemophilia, the high cost of factor concentrates has limited access to prophylaxis in countries with under-developed or developing economies. We studied the health gap that could be addressed by providing unlimited access to clotting factor concentrates with implementation of long-term prophylaxis initiated from an early age in life. We performed a cross-sectional study of a random, representative sample of boys with moderate and severe haemophilia at three haemophilia treatment centres in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and one centre in Toronto, Canada. Canadian subjects were more often treated with prophylaxis, and began treatment at an earlier age. Fewer Canadian subjects had bleeds within the preceding 6 months (19 vs. 34, P = 0.003). Canadian subjects had lower (better) Pettersson radiographic scores (1.5 vs. 6.0, P = 0.0016), lower (better) Hemophilia Joint Health Scores (5.5 vs. 10.5, P = 0.0038), higher (better) Activity Scale for Kids scores (96.6 vs. 92.0, P = 0.033), more time spent in vigorous activity, and higher (better) social participation scores. Our findings suggest that increasing access to clotting factor concentrates for young boys with severe haemophilia is a global imperative. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Impact of community-based support services on antiretroviral treatment programme delivery and outcomes in resource-limited countries: a synthetic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouters Edwin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Task-shifting to lay community health providers is increasingly suggested as a potential strategy to overcome the barriers to sustainable antiretroviral treatment (ART scale-up in high-HIV-prevalence, resource-limited settings. The dearth of systematic scientific evidence on the contributory role and function of these forms of community mobilisation has rendered a formal evaluation of the published results of existing community support programmes a research priority. Methods We reviewed the relevant published work for the period from November 2003 to December 2011 in accordance with the guidelines for a synthetic review. ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, BioMed Central, OVID Medline, PubMed, Social Services Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts and a number of relevant websites were searched. Results The reviewed literature reported an unambiguous positive impact of community support on a wide range of aspects, including access, coverage, adherence, virological and immunological outcomes, patient retention and survival. Looking at the mechanisms through which community support can impact ART programmes, the review indicates that community support initiatives are a promising strategy to address five often cited challenges to ART scale-up, namely (1 the lack of integration of ART services into the general health system; (2 the growing need for comprehensive care, (3 patient empowerment, (4 and defaulter tracing; and (5 the crippling shortage in human resources for health. The literature indicates that by linking HIV/AIDS-care to other primary health care programmes, by providing psychosocial care in addition to the technical-medical care from nurses and doctors, by empowering patients towards self-management and by tracing defaulters, well-organised community support initiatives are a vital part of any sustainable public-sector ART programme. Conclusions The review demonstrates that community support initiatives are a

  4. Will the Needs-Based Planning of Health Human Resources Currently Undertaken in Several Countries Lead to Excess Supply and Inefficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Kisalaya; Pak, Maxwell

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the emphasis on health human resources (HHR) planning has shifted away from a utilization-based approach toward a needs-based one in which planning is based on the projected health needs of the population. However, needs-based models that are currently in use rely on a definition of 'needs' that include only the medical circumstances of individuals and not personal preferences or other socio-economic factors. We examine whether planning based on such a narrow definition will maximize social welfare. We show that, in a publicly funded healthcare system, if the planner seeks to meet the aggregate need without taking utilization into consideration, then oversupply of HHR is likely because 'needs' do not necessarily translate into 'usage.' Our result suggests that HHR planning should track the healthcare system as access gradually improves because, even if health care is fully accessible, individuals may not fully utilize it to the degree prescribed by their medical circumstances. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Impact of a psychoeducative intervention on adherence to HAART among low-literacy patients in a resource-limited setting: the case of an Arab country--Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachani, Imane; Harmouche, Hicham; Ammouri, Wafa; Rhoufrani, Fatima; Zerouali, Latifa; Abouqal, Redouane; Tazi-Mezalek, Zoubida; Adnaoui, Mohamed; Aouni, Mohamed; Maouni, Abdelaziz

    2012-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that strict adherence is necessary to maximize highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) benefits. This is particularly challenging for low-literacy populations in resource-limited settings like Morocco and motivated the implementation of a psychoeducative program for patients under HAART at Rabat University Hospital. The study aimed at assessing the program's impact on adherence to antiretroviral medication, knowledge of HIV/AIDS and HAART, quality of life, and biological parameters. It included patients under treatment for at least 2 months that benefited from 3 to 5 educational and psychological support sessions. Data were collected at baseline, 3 and 6 months. In all, 50 patients were included. The mean age was 38 years; 52% were illiterate and 62% unemployed. Adherence scores were high at baseline (98%) and showed no significant change throughout the study. Knowledge of HAART and HIV/AIDS, and quality of life improved significantly both at months 3 and 6. Significant increase for CD4 count rates and decrease for viral load rates were also reported. The program had no significant impact on adherence but substantively developed patients' knowledge of HIV/AIDS and HAART and improved their quality of life.

  6. Cost effectiveness of option B plus for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in resource-limited countries: evidence from Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDeusen, Adam; Paintsil, Elijah; Agyarko-Poku, Thomas; Long, Elisa F

    2015-03-18

    Achieving the goal of eliminating mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) necessitates increased access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected pregnant women. Option B provides ART through pregnancy and breastfeeding, whereas Option B+ recommends continuous ART regardless of CD4 count, thus potentially reducing MTCT during future pregnancies. Our objective was to compare maternal and pediatric health outcomes and cost-effectiveness of Option B+ versus Option B in Ghana. A decision-analytic model was developed to simulate HIV progression in mothers and transmission (in utero, during birth, or through breastfeeding) to current and all future children. Clinical parameters, including antenatal care access and fertility rates, were estimated from a retrospective review of 817 medical records at two hospitals in Ghana. Additional parameters were obtained from published literature. Modeled outcomes include HIV infections averted among newborn children, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and cost-effectiveness ratios. HIV-infected women in Ghana have a lifetime average of 2.3 children (SD 1.3). Projected maternal life expectancy under Option B+ is 16.1 years, versus 16.0 years with Option B, yielding a gain of 0.1 maternal QALYs and 3.2 additional QALYs per child. Despite higher initial ART costs, Option B+ costs $785/QALY gained, a value considered very cost-effective by World Health Organization benchmarks. Widespread implementation of Option B+ in Ghana could theoretically prevent up to 668 HIV infections among children annually. Cost-effectiveness estimates remained favorable over robust sensitivity analyses. Although more expensive than Option B, Option B+ substantially reduces MTCT in future pregnancies, increases both maternal and pediatric QALYs, and is a cost-effective use of limited resources in Ghana.

  7. Evaluating HIV Prevention Programs: Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Antibodies as Biomarker for Sexual Risk Behavior in Young Adults in Resource-Poor Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Behling

    Full Text Available Measuring effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions is challenged by bias when using self-reported knowledge, attitude or behavior change. HIV incidence is an objective marker to measure effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions, however, because new infection rates are relatively low, prevention studies require large sample sizes. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 is similarly transmitted and more prevalent and could thus serve as a proxy marker for sexual risk behavior and therefore HIV infection.HSV-2 antibodies were assessed in a sub-study of 70,000 students participating in an education intervention in Western Province, Kenya. Feasibility of testing for HSV-2 antibodies was assessed comparing two methods using Fisher's exact test. Three hundred and ninety four students (aged 18 to 22 years were randomly chosen from the cohort and tested for HIV, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis. Out of these, 139 students were tested for HSV-2 with ELISA and surveyed for sexual risk behavior and 89 students were additionally tested for HSV-2 with a point-of-contact (POC test.Prevalence rates were 0.5%, 1.8%, 0.3% and 2.3% for HIV, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis, respectively. Prevalence of HSV-2 antibodies was 3.4 % as measured by POC test (n=89 and 14.4 % by ELISA (n=139. Specificity of the POC test compared with ELISA was 100%, and the sensitivity only 23.1%. Associations between self-reported sexual behavior and HSV-2 serostatus could not be shown.Associations between self-reported sexual risk behavior and HSV-2 serostatus could not be shown, probably due to social bias in interviews since its transmission is clearly linked. HSV-2 antibody testing is feasible in resource-poor settings and shows higher prevalence rates than other sexually transmitted diseases thus representing a potential biomarker for evaluation of HIV prevention interventions.

  8. Matching with transfer matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Alvarez, R.; Velasco, V.R.; Garcia-Moliner, F.; Rodriguez-Coppola, H.

    1987-10-01

    An ABC configuration - which corresponds to various systems of physical interest, such as a barrier or a quantum well - is studied by combining a surface Green function matching analysis of the entire system with a description of the intermediate (B) region in terms of a transfer matrix in the sense of Mora et al. (1985). This hybrid approach proves very useful when it is very difficult to construct the corresponding Green function G B . An application is made to the calculation of quantised subband levels in a parabolic quantum well. Further possibilities of extension of this approach are pointed out. (author). 27 refs, 1 tab

  9. Coaxial pulse matching transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledenev, V.V.; Khimenko, L.T.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a coaxial pulse matching transformer with comparatively simple design, increased mechanical strength, and low stray inductance. The transformer design makes it easy to change the turns ratio. The circuit of the device and an expression for the current multiplication factor are presented; experiments confirm the efficiency of the transformer. Apparatus with a coaxial transformer for producing high-power pulsed magnetic fields is designed (current pulses of 1-10 MA into a load and a natural frequency of 100 kHz)

  10. A medium resolution fingerprint matching system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Mohammad Bahaa-Eldin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel minutiae based fingerprint matching system is proposed. The system is suitable for medium resolution fingerprint images obtained by low cost commercial sensors. The paper presents a new thinning algorithm, a new features extraction and representation, and a novel feature distance matching algorithm. The proposed system is rotation and translation invariant and is suitable for complete or partial fingerprint matching. The proposed algorithms are optimized to be executed on low resource environments both in CPU power and memory space. The system was evaluated using a standard fingerprint dataset and good performance and accuracy were achieved under certain image quality requirements. In addition, the proposed system was compared favorably to that of the state of the art systems.

  11. Plasma focus matching conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, H.M.; Masoud, M.M.; Elkhalafawy, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    A snow-plough and slug models have been used to obtain the optimum matching conditions of the plasma in the focus. The dimensions of the plasma focus device are, inner electrode radius = 2 cm, outer electrode radius = 5.5 cm, and its length = 8 cm. It was found that the maximum magnetic energy of 12.26 kJ has to be delivered to plasma focus whose density is 10 19 /cm 3 at focusing time of 2.55 μs and with total external inductance of 24.2 n H. The same method is used to evaluate the optimum matching conditions for the previous coaxial discharge system which had inner electrode radius = 1.6 cm, outer electrode radius = 3.3 cm and its length = 31.5 cm. These conditions are charging voltage = 12 kV, capacity of the condenser bank = 430 μf, plasma focus density = 10 19 /cm 3 focusing time = 8 μs and total external inductance = 60.32 n H.3 fig., 2 tab

  12. Optimal background matching camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalis, Constantine; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E; Gibson, David P; Cuthill, Innes C

    2017-07-12

    Background matching is the most familiar and widespread camouflage strategy: avoiding detection by having a similar colour and pattern to the background. Optimizing background matching is straightforward in a homogeneous environment, or when the habitat has very distinct sub-types and there is divergent selection leading to polymorphism. However, most backgrounds have continuous variation in colour and texture, so what is the best solution? Not all samples of the background are likely to be equally inconspicuous, and laboratory experiments on birds and humans support this view. Theory suggests that the most probable background sample (in the statistical sense), at the size of the prey, would, on average, be the most cryptic. We present an analysis, based on realistic assumptions about low-level vision, that estimates the distribution of background colours and visual textures, and predicts the best camouflage. We present data from a field experiment that tests and supports our predictions, using artificial moth-like targets under bird predation. Additionally, we present analogous data for humans, under tightly controlled viewing conditions, searching for targets on a computer screen. These data show that, in the absence of predator learning, the best single camouflage pattern for heterogeneous backgrounds is the most probable sample. © 2017 The Authors.

  13. in a Developing Country

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    This could have contributed to the refusal for readmission. In conclusion, identification and management of mucopolysaccharidosis type II in affected patients pose a problem in resource-constrained countries due to late identification and presentation, lack of facilities for diagnosis and treatment, as well as the cost and the.

  14. Country programme review. Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This document reviews the current nuclear program in Ethiopia, identifying the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in the country and possible future technical cooperation activities. Separate brief sections deal with food and agriculture; human health; water and geothermal resources; industrial applications and instrumentation; radiation protection; higher education; programming, coordination and development

  15. State Conservation Easements - MS Chapter 84C (no matches mapped to section)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Lands with a State-owned conservation easement interest that did not match to the PLS forty and government lot level, so they were matched to the PLS section level....

  16. Job Searchers, Job Matches and the Elasticity of Matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, L.; van Ours, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper stresses the importance of a specification of the matching function in which the measure of job matches corresponds to the measure of job searchers. In many empirical studies on the matching function this requirement has not been fulfilled because it is difficult to find information about

  17. Kinetics of matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, T A; Gallistel, C R

    1994-01-01

    Rats responded on concurrent variable interval schedules of brain stimulation reward in 2-trial sessions. Between trials, there was a 16-fold reversal in the relative rate of reward. In successive, narrow time windows, the authors compared the ratio of the times spent on the 2 levers to the ratio of the rewards received. Time-allocation ratios tracked wide, random fluctuations in the reward ratio. The adjustment to the midsession reversal in relative rate of reward was largely completed within 1 interreward interval on the leaner schedule. Both results were unaffected by a 16-fold change in the combined rates of reward. The large, rapid, scale-invariant shifts in time-allocation ratios that underlie matching behavior imply that the subjective relative rate of reward can be determined by a very few of the most recent interreward intervals and that this estimate can directly determine the ratio of the expected stay durations.

  18. Electromagnetic wave matching device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Yosuke; Mitsunaka, Yoshika; Hayashi, Ken-ichi; Ito, Yasuyuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides an electromagnetic wave matching capable of reducing a cost for the transmission system in a system of using electromagnetic waves for plasma heating of a thermonuclear reactor. Namely, incident electromagnetic waves are reflected by using a plurality of phase correction mirrors. The reflected electromagnetic waves are connected to an external transmission system through an exit. The phase correction mirrors have such a shape to receive a plurality of beam-like electromagnetic waves and output electromagnetic waves by the number different from the number of the received electromagnetic wave beams having a predetermined distribution. Further, at least two of the phase correction mirrors have such a shape to change the phase of the electromagnetic waves beams incident to the reflection surface of the phase correction mirrors by a predetermined amount corresponding to the position of the reflection surface. Then, the cost for transmission system can greatly be reduced. (I.S.)

  19. Determinants of internal medicine residents' choice in the canadian R4 Fellowship Match: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassam Narmin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is currently a discrepancy between Internal Medicine residents' decisions in the Canadian subspecialty fellowship match (known as the R4 match and societal need. Some studies have been published examining factors that influence career choices. However, these were either demographic factors or factors pre-determined by the authors' opinion as possibly being important to incorporate into a survey. Methods A qualitative study was undertaken to identify factors that determine the residents choice in the subspecialty (R4 fellowship match using focus group discussions involving third and fourth year internal medicine residents Results Based on content analysis of the discussion data, we identified five themes: 1 Practice environment including acuity of practice, ability to do procedures, lifestyle, job prospects and income 2 Exposure in rotations and to role models 3 Interest in subspecialty's patient population and common diseases 4 Prestige and respect of subspecialty 5 Fellowship training environment including fellowship program resources and length of training Conclusions There are a variety of factors that contribute to Internal Medicine residents' fellowship choice in Canada, many of which have been identified in previous survey studies. However, we found additional factors such as the resources available in a fellowship program, the prestige and respect of a subspecialty/career, and the recent trend towards a two-year General Internal Medicine fellowship in our country.

  20. Quantity precommitment and price matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    We revisit the question of whether price matching is anti-competitive in a capacity constrained duopoly setting. We show that the effect of price matching depends on capacity. Specifically, price matching has no effect when capacity is relatively low, but it benefits the firms when capacity...... is relatively high. Interestingly, when capacity is in an intermediate range, price matching benefits only the small firm but does not affect the large firm in any way. Therefore, one has to consider capacity seriously when evaluating if price matching is anti-competitive. If the firms choose their capacities...... simultaneously before pricing decisions, then the effect of price matching is either pro-competitive or ambiguous. We show that if the cost of capacity is high, then price matching can only (weakly) decrease the market price. On the other hand, if the cost of capacity is low, then the effect of price matching...

  1. Pattern and levels of spending allocated to HIV prevention programs in low- and middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amico Peter

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background AIDS continues to spread at an estimated 2.6 new million infections per year, making the prevention of HIV transmission a critical public health issue. The dramatic growth in global resources for AIDS has produced a steady scale-up in treatment and care that has not been equally matched by preventive services. This paper is a detailed analysis of how countries are choosing to spend these more limited prevention funds. Methods We analyzed prevention spending in 69 low- and middle-income countries with a variety of epidemic types, using data from national domestic spending reports. Spending information was from public and international sources and was analyzed based on the National AIDS Spending Assessment (NASA methods and classifications. Results Overall, prevention received 21% of HIV resources compared to 53% of funding allocated to treatment and care. Prevention relies primarily on international donors, who accounted for 65% of all prevention resources and 93% of funding in low-income countries. For the subset of 53 countries that provided detailed spending information, we found that 60% of prevention resources were spent in five areas: communication for social and behavioral change (16%, voluntary counselling and testing (14%, prevention of mother-to-child transmission (13%, blood safety (10% and condom programs (7%. Only 7% of funding was spent on most-at-risk populations and less than 1% on male circumcision. Spending patterns did not consistently reflect current evidence and the HIV specific transmission context of each country. Conclusions Despite recognition of its importance, countries are not allocating resources in ways that are likely to achieve the greatest impact on prevention across all epidemic types. Within prevention spending itself, a greater share of resources need to be matched with interventions that approximate the specific needs and drivers of each country's epidemic.

  2. Spatial competition with intermediated matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raalte, C.L.J.P.; Webers, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper analyzes the spatial competition in commission fees between two match makers. These match makers serve as middlemen between buyers and sellers who are located uniformly on a circle. The profits of the match makers are determined by their respective market sizes. A limited willingness to

  3. Do all countries grow alike?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J. W. B.; Economidou, C.; Koetter, M.; Kolari, J. W.

    This paper investigates the driving forces of output change in 77 countries during the period 1970-2000. A flexible modeling strategy is adopted that accounts for (i) the inefficient use of resources, and (ii) different production technologies across countries. The proposed model can identify

  4. DOE Matching Grant Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoukalas, L.

    2002-01-01

    Funding used to support a portion of the Nuclear Engineering Educational Activities. Upgrade of teaching labs, student support to attend professional conferences, salary support for graduate students. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has funded Purdue University School of Nuclear Engineering during the period of five academic years covered in this report starting in the academic year 1996-97 and ending in the academic year 2000-2001. The total amount of funding for the grant received from DOE is $416K. In the 1990's, Nuclear Engineering Education in the US experienced a significant slow down. Student enrollment, research support, number of degrees at all levels (BS, MS, and PhD), number of accredited programs, University Research and Training Reactors, all went through a decline to alarmingly low levels. Several departments closed down, while some were amalgamated with other academic units (Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, etc). The School of Nuclear Engineering at Purdue University faced a major challenge when in the mid 90's our total undergraduate enrollment for the Sophomore, Junior and Senior Years dropped in the low 30's. The DOE Matching Grant program greatly strengthened Purdue's commitment to the Nuclear Engineering discipline and has helped to dramatically improve our undergraduate and graduate enrollment, attract new faculty and raise the School of Nuclear Engineering status within the University and in the National scene (our undergraduate enrollment has actually tripled and stands at an all time high of over 90 students; total enrollment currently exceeds 110 students). In this final technical report we outline and summarize how the grant was expended at Purdue University

  5. Sanitation planning in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Sanitation planning in developing countries: Added value of resource recovery

    Worldwide 2.5 billion people lack access to sanitation. This impacts human live, the environment and represents a loss of valuable resources that can be regained from wastewater. This study

  6. Strengthening monitoring and evaluation (M&E) and building sustainable health information systems in resource limited countries: lessons learned from an M&E task-shifting initiative in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpofu, Mulamuli; Semo, Bazghina-Werq; Grignon, Jessica; Lebelonyane, Refeletswe; Ludick, Steven; Matshediso, Ellah; Sento, Baraedi; Ledikwe, Jenny H

    2014-10-03

    The demand for quality data and the interest in health information systems has increased due to the need for country-level progress reporting towards attainment of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals and global health initiatives. To improve monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of health programs in Botswana, 51 recent university graduates with no experience in M&E were recruited and provided with on-the-job training and mentoring to develop a new cadre of health worker: the district M&E officer. Three years after establishment of the cadre, an assessment was conducted to document achievements and lessons learnt. This qualitative assessment included in-depth interviews at the national level (n = 12) with officers from government institutions, donor agencies, and technical organizations; and six focus group discussions separately with district M&E officers, district managers, and program officers coordinating different district health programs. Reported achievements of the cadre included improved health worker capacity to monitor and evaluate programs within the districts; improved data quality, management, and reporting; increased use of health data for disease surveillance, operational research, and planning purposes; and increased availability of time for nurses and other health workers to concentrate on core clinical duties. Lessons learnt from the assessment included: the importance of clarifying roles for newly established cadres, aligning resources and equipment to expectations, importance of stakeholder collaboration in implementation of sustainable programs, and ensuring retention of new cadres. The development of a dedicated M&E cadre at the district level contributed positively to health information systems in Botswana by helping build M&E capacity and improving data quality, management, and data use. This assessment has shown that such cadres can be developed sustainably if the initiative is country-led, focusing on recruitment and capacity

  7. Probability matching and strategy availability

    OpenAIRE

    J. Koehler, Derek; Koehler, Derek J.; James, Greta

    2010-01-01

    Findings from two experiments indicate that probability matching in sequential choice arises from an asymmetry in strategy availability: The matching strategy comes readily to mind, whereas a superior alternative strategy, maximizing, does not. First, compared with the minority who spontaneously engage in maximizing, the majority of participants endorse maximizing as superior to matching in a direct comparison when both strategies are described. Second, when the maximizing strategy is brought...

  8. An Incentive Theory of Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Alessio J. G.; Merkl, Christian; Snower, Dennis J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the labour market matching process by distinguishing its two component stages: the contact stage, in which job searchers make contact with employers and the selection stage, in which they decide whether to match. We construct a theoretical model explaining two-sided selection through microeconomic incentives. Firms face adjustment costs in responding to heterogeneous variations in the characteristics of workers and jobs. Matches and separations are described through firms'...

  9. Sanitation planning in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kerstens, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Sanitation planning in developing countries: Added value of resource recovery Worldwide 2.5 billion people lack access to sanitation. This impacts human live, the environment and represents a loss of valuable resources that can be regained from wastewater. This study shows that resource recovery can be a potential driver to accelerate sanitation. A new sanitation decision framework for policy makers was created and tested in Indonesia. The variety of advantages and disadvantages of sanitatio...

  10. SAD-Based Stereo Matching Using FPGAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosch, Kristian; Humenberger, Martin; Kubinger, Wilfried; Steininger, Andreas

    In this chapter we present a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) based stereo matching architecture. This architecture uses the sum of absolute differences (SAD) algorithm and is targeted at automotive and robotics applications. The disparity maps are calculated using 450×375 input images and a disparity range of up to 150 pixels. We discuss two different implementation approaches for the SAD and analyze their resource usage. Furthermore, block sizes ranging from 3×3 up to 11×11 and their impact on the consumed logic elements as well as on the disparity map quality are discussed. The stereo matching architecture enables a frame rate of up to 600 fps by calculating the data in a highly parallel and pipelined fashion. This way, a software solution optimized by using Intel's Open Source Computer Vision Library running on an Intel Pentium 4 with 3 GHz clock frequency is outperformed by a factor of 400.

  11. The effect of football matches on crime patterns in Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Struse, Simon Planells; Montolio, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Given the actual debate, in many European countries, about the need for public administrations to raise their revenues through taxing the crime externalities generated by some private leisure activities, this article analyzes the effect of football matches on crime focusing both on property crimes and interpersonal violent crimes. Our aim is to determine up to what extent a private leisure activity, such as football matches, induces negative crime externalities to the whole society. Using dat...

  12. Mauritius country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manraj, D.D.

    1998-01-01

    Mauritius has no known oil, gas or coal reserves but is only endowed with limited renewable energy resources namely hydropower and bagasse. Bagasse represents about one third of the country's energy requirements and meets almost all of the sugar industries energy demand. Projects identified for mitigation options are: Energy Sector - Renewable Sources (Solar, Wind, Biomass); Transport Sector - Fuel switching and Mass transit transport; Manufacturing Sector - Increase efficiency of energy use in the manufacturing process. (EG)

  13. Evidence on the cost-effectiveness of lifelong antiretroviral therapy for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV: implications for resource-limited countries in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngambi, Peslie G; Kalungia, Aubrey C; Law, Michael R; Kalemeera, Francis; Truter, IIse; Godman, Brian; Munkombwe, Derick

    2017-10-01

    The 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) consolidated guideline recommends lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women for preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT). Ambiguity remains about the cost-effectiveness of this strategy in resource-limited developing countries. Areas covered: We reviewed model-based studies on the cost-effectiveness of lifelong ART (formerly Option B+) relative to previous WHO guidelines for PMTCT. Our search using PubMed, Medline and Google Scholar for articles on Option B+ resulted in the final inclusion of seven studies published between 2012 and 2016. The Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) checklist was used to assess the quality of reporting. Outcomes of interest, which included infant infections averted, maternal quality and length of life, and the Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ICER), were used in comparing cost-effectiveness. Expert commentary: Despite most model-based studies favouring lifelong ART (Option B+) in terms of its cost-effectiveness in comparison to Options A and B, inclusiveness of the evidence remains weak for generalization. This is largely because setting specificity for providing lifelong ART to all pregnant and breastfeeding women may differ significantly in each setting. Consequently, future cost-effectiveness studies should be robust, setting-specific, and endeavor to assess the willingness and ability to pay of each setting.

  14. DOE Matching Grant Program; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr Marvin Adams

    2002-01-01

    OAK 270 - The DOE Matching Grant Program provided$50,000.00 to the Dept of N.E. at TAMU, matching a gift of$50,000.00 from TXU Electric. The$100,000.00 total was spent on scholarships, departmental labs, and computing network

  15. Matching score based face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, B.J.; Beumer, G.M.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate face registration is of vital importance to the performance of a face recognition algorithm. We propose a new method: matching score based face registration, which searches for optimal alignment by maximizing the matching score output of a classifier as a function of the different

  16. Platform pricing in matching markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goos, M.; van Cayseele, P.; Willekens, B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a simple model of monopoly platform pricing accounting for two pertinent features of matching markets. 1) The trading process is characterized by search and matching frictions implying limits to positive cross-side network effects and the presence of own-side congestion.

  17. Statistical methods for history matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kent

    Denne afhandling beskriver statistiske metoder til history matching af olieproduktion. History matching er en vigtig del af driften af et oliefelt og er ofte forbundet med problemer relateret til kompleksiteten af reservoiret og selve størrelsen af reservoirsimuleringsmodellen. Begrebet history m...

  18. Role model and prototype matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkegaard, Eva; Ulriksen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    ’ meetings with the role models affected their thoughts concerning STEM students and attending university. The regular self-to-prototype matching process was shown in real-life role-models meetings to be extended to a more complex three-way matching process between students’ self-perceptions, prototype...

  19. Pattern recognition and string matching

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Xiuzhen

    2002-01-01

    The research and development of pattern recognition have proven to be of importance in science, technology, and human activity. Many useful concepts and tools from different disciplines have been employed in pattern recognition. Among them is string matching, which receives much theoretical and practical attention. String matching is also an important topic in combinatorial optimization. This book is devoted to recent advances in pattern recognition and string matching. It consists of twenty eight chapters written by different authors, addressing a broad range of topics such as those from classifica­ tion, matching, mining, feature selection, and applications. Each chapter is self-contained, and presents either novel methodological approaches or applications of existing theories and techniques. The aim, intent, and motivation for publishing this book is to pro­ vide a reference tool for the increasing number of readers who depend upon pattern recognition or string matching in some way. This includes student...

  20. Efficient line matching with homography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; Dai, Yuxing; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel approach to line matching based on homography. The basic idea is to use cheaply obtainable matched points to boost the similarity between two images. Two types of homography method, which are estimated by direct linear transformation, transform images and extract their similar parts, laying a foundation for the use of optical flow tracking. The merit of the similarity is that rapid matching can be achieved by regionalizing line segments and local searching. For multiple homography estimation that can perform better than one global homography, we introduced the rank-one modification method of singular value decomposition to reduce the computation cost. The proposed approach results in point-to-point matches, which can be utilized with state-of-the-art point-match-based structures from motion (SfM) frameworks seamlessly. The outstanding performance and feasible robustness of our approach are demonstrated in this paper.

  1. The match-to-match variation of match-running in elite female soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewin, Joshua; Meylan, César; Varley, Matthew C; Cronin, John

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the match-to-match variation of match-running in elite female soccer players utilising GPS, using full-match and rolling period analyses. Longitudinal study. Elite female soccer players (n=45) from the same national team were observed during 55 international fixtures across 5 years (2012-2016). Data was analysed using a custom built MS Excel spreadsheet as full-matches and using a rolling 5-min analysis period, for all players who played 90-min matches (files=172). Variation was examined using co-efficient of variation and 90% confidence limits, calculated following log transformation. Total distance per minute exhibited the smallest variation when both the full-match and peak 5-min running periods were examined (CV=6.8-7.2%). Sprint-efforts were the most variable during a full-match (CV=53%), whilst high-speed running per minute exhibited the greatest variation in the post-peak 5-min period (CV=143%). Peak running periods were observed as slightly more variable than full-match analyses, with the post-peak period very-highly variable. Variability of accelerations (CV=17%) and Player Load (CV=14%) was lower than that of high-speed actions. Positional differences were also present, with centre backs exhibiting the greatest variation in high-speed movements (CV=41-65%). Practitioners and researchers should account for within player variability when examining match performances. Identification of peak running periods should be used to assist worst case scenarios. Whilst micro-sensor technology should be further examined as to its viable use within match-analyses. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Matching Value Propositions with Varied Customer Needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikka, Eija-Liisa; Frandsen, Thomas; Hsuan, Juliana

    2018-01-01

    Organizations seek to manage varied customer segments using varied value propositions. The ability of a knowledge-intensive business service (KIBS) provider to formulate value propositions into attractive offerings to varied customers becomes a competitive advantage. In this specific business based...... on often highly abstract service offerings, this requires the provider to have a clear overview of its knowledge and resources and how these can be configured to obtain the desired customization of services. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how a KIBS provider can match value propositions...... with varied customer needs utilizing service modularity. To accomplish this purpose, a qualitative multiple case study is organized around 5 projects allowing within-case and cross-case comparisons. Our findings describe how through the configuration of knowledge and resources a sustainable competitive...

  3. Online Resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Online Resources. Journal of Genetics. Online Resources. Volume 97. 2018 | Online resources. Volume 96. 2017 | Online resources. Volume 95. 2016 | Online resources. Volume 94. 2015 | Online resources. Volume 93. 2014 | Online resources. Volume 92. 2013 | Online resources ...

  4. Matching by Monotonic Tone Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Gyorgy

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, a novel dissimilarity measure called Matching by Monotonic Tone Mapping (MMTM) is proposed. The MMTM technique allows matching under non-linear monotonic tone mappings and can be computed efficiently when the tone mappings are approximated by piecewise constant or piecewise linear functions. The proposed method is evaluated in various template matching scenarios involving simulated and real images, and compared to other measures developed to be invariant to monotonic intensity transformations. The results show that the MMTM technique is a highly competitive alternative of conventional measures in problems where possible tone mappings are close to monotonic.

  5. MATCHING IN INFORMAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeckhout, Jan; Munshi, Kaivan

    2010-09-01

    This paper analyzes an informal financial institution that brings heterogeneous agents together in groups. We analyze decentralized matching into these groups, and the equilibrium composition of participants that consequently arises. We find that participants sort remarkably well across the competing groups, and that they re-sort immediately following an unexpected exogenous regulatory change. These findings suggest that the competitive matching model might have applicability and bite in other settings where matching is an important equilibrium phenomenon. (JEL: O12, O17, G20, D40).

  6. Quantitative status of resources for radiation therapy in Asia and Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Levin, Cecil Victor

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Resources for radiation therapy in Asian and Pacific countries were analyzed to obtain a better understanding of the status of radiation oncological practice in the region. Methods and Materials: The data were obtained mainly through surveys on the availability of major equipment and personnel which were conducted through an International Atomic Energy Agency regional project. The study included 17 countries in South Asia, South East Asia, East Asia and Australasia. Data were related to national populations and economic and a general health care indices. Results: Large differences in equipment and personnel among countries were demonstrated. The availability of both teletherapy and brachytherapy was related to the economic status of the countries. The shortage of teletherapy machines was evident in more countries than that of brachytherapy. Many departments were found to treat patients without simulators or treatment planning systems. The number of radiation oncologists standardized by cancer incidence of a country did not correlate well with economic status. Conclusions: There were significant deficiencies in the availability of all components of radiation therapy in the analyzed countries. The deficiencies were linked predominantly to the economic status of the country. Cognisance should be taken of the specific shortfalls in each country to ensure that expansion or any assistance offered appropriately match its needs and can be fully utilized. The information on the resources currently available for radiation oncological practice in the region presented in this paper provides a valuable basis for planning of development aid programs on radiation therapy

  7. Impact of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) multidimensional hand hygiene approach over 13 years in 51 cities of 19 limited-resource countries from Latin America, Asia, the Middle East, and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Victor D; Pawar, Mandakini; Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Navoa-Ng, Josephine Anne; Villamil-Gómez, Wilmer; Armas-Ruiz, Alberto; Cuéllar, Luis E; Medeiros, Eduardo A; Mitrev, Zan; Gikas, Achilleas; Yang, Yun; Ahmed, Altaf; Kanj, Souha S; Dueñas, Lourdes; Gurskis, Vaidotas; Mapp, Trudell; Guanche-Garcell, Humberto; Fernández-Hidalgo, Rosalía; Kübler, Andrzej

    2013-04-01

    To assess the feasibility and effectiveness of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) multidimensional hand hygiene approach in 19 limited-resource countries and to analyze predictors of poor hand hygiene compliance. An observational, prospective, cohort, interventional, before-and-after study from April 1999 through December 2011. The study was divided into 2 periods: a 3-month baseline period and a 7-year follow-up period. Ninety-nine intensive care unit (ICU) members of the INICC in Argentina, Brazil, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, El Salvador, Greece, India, Lebanon, Lithuania, Macedonia, Mexico, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Poland, and Turkey. Healthcare workers at 99 ICU members of the INICC. A multidimensional hand hygiene approach was used, including (1) administrative support, (2) supplies availability, (3) education and training, (4) reminders in the workplace, (5) process surveillance, and (6) performance feedback. Observations were made for hand hygiene compliance in each ICU, during randomly selected 30-minute periods. A total of 149,727 opportunities for hand hygiene were observed. Overall hand hygiene compliance increased from 48.3% to 71.4% ([Formula: see text]). Univariate analysis indicated that several variables were significantly associated with poor hand hygiene compliance, including males versus females (63% vs 70%; [Formula: see text]), physicians versus nurses (62% vs 72%; [Formula: see text]), and adult versus neonatal ICUs (67% vs 81%; [Formula: see text]), among others. Adherence to hand hygiene increased by 48% with the INICC approach. Specific programs directed to improve hand hygiene for variables found to be predictors of poor hand hygiene compliance should be implemented.

  8. Toward Practical Secure Stable Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riazi M. Sadegh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Stable Matching (SM algorithm has been deployed in many real-world scenarios including the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP and financial applications such as matching of suppliers and consumers in capital markets. Since these applications typically involve highly sensitive information such as the underlying preference lists, their current implementations rely on trusted third parties. This paper introduces the first provably secure and scalable implementation of SM based on Yao’s garbled circuit protocol and Oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our scheme can securely compute a stable match for 8k pairs four orders of magnitude faster than the previously best known method. We achieve this by introducing a compact and efficient sub-linear size circuit. We even further decrease the computation cost by three orders of magnitude by proposing a novel technique to avoid unnecessary iterations in the SM algorithm. We evaluate our implementation for several problem sizes and plan to publish it as open-source.

  9. Probability matching and strategy availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Derek J; James, Greta

    2010-09-01

    Findings from two experiments indicate that probability matching in sequential choice arises from an asymmetry in strategy availability: The matching strategy comes readily to mind, whereas a superior alternative strategy, maximizing, does not. First, compared with the minority who spontaneously engage in maximizing, the majority of participants endorse maximizing as superior to matching in a direct comparison when both strategies are described. Second, when the maximizing strategy is brought to their attention, more participants subsequently engage in maximizing. Third, matchers are more likely than maximizers to base decisions in other tasks on their initial intuitions, suggesting that they are more inclined to use a choice strategy that comes to mind quickly. These results indicate that a substantial subset of probability matchers are victims of "underthinking" rather than "overthinking": They fail to engage in sufficient deliberation to generate a superior alternative to the matching strategy that comes so readily to mind.

  10. Computing solutions for matching games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biró, Péter; Kern, Walter; Paulusma, Daniël

    2012-01-01

    A matching game is a cooperative game (N, v) defined on a graph G = (N, E) with an edge weighting w : E → R+. The player set is N and the value of a coalition S ⊆ N is defined as the maximum weight of a matching in the subgraph induced by S. First we present an O(nm+n2 log n) algorithm that tests if

  11. Probability Matching, Fast and Slow

    OpenAIRE

    Koehler, Derek J.; James, Greta

    2014-01-01

    A prominent point of contention among researchers regarding the interpretation of probability-matching behavior is whether it represents a cognitively sophisticated, adaptive response to the inherent uncertainty of the tasks or settings in which it is observed, or whether instead it represents a fundamental shortcoming in the heuristics that support and guide human decision making. Put crudely, researchers disagree on whether probability matching is "smart" or "dumb." Here, we consider eviden...

  12. Matching games with partial information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureti, Paolo; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2003-06-01

    We analyze different ways of pairing agents in a bipartite matching problem, with regard to its scaling properties and to the distribution of individual “satisfactions”. Then we explore the role of partial information and bounded rationality in a generalized Marriage Problem, comparing the benefits obtained by self-searching and by a matchmaker. Finally we propose a modified matching game intended to mimic the way consumers’ information makes firms to enhance the quality of their products in a competitive market.

  13. Renewable heat: Waste heat, an emerging sector full of resources. An eco-district fed by the heat from a data center; Integrating objectives matching the ambitions, clear and on the long term; High-energy wastes in Brittany: Brest is securing its heat network with multiple energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, Aude

    2017-01-01

    This file on renewable heat contains four articles which themes are: waste heat (from incineration plants or industrial sites) is an emerging sector full of resources, which benefits now of a financial subsidy from ADEME, the French organization for energy and environment; an example is given with Chamtor, a highly energy-consuming cereal transformer. The second article presents an urban eco-district in Paris that is fed by the heat issued by a data center. The third article (Integrating objectives matching the ambitions, clear and on the long term) presents some recommendations from the French Renewable Energy Association (SER) towards a better energy valorization of residual wastes. The fourth article presents two examples of energy valorization of wastes in Brittany, one with the valorization of high-energy solid wastes for supplying heat to a milk farm and greenhouses, the other one concerns the development of a heat network supplied by an incineration plant, with a mix of energy sources such as wastes, wood and gas, and a special juridical scheme

  14. Herpes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.org/complications/sexually- ...

  15. CDM Country Guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the Clean Development Mechanism (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. Chapter 1, Introduction, is a summary of issues that developers and investors in CDM projects should be aware of. Includes tips for readers to effectively use the guidebook to find specific information. Chapter 2, Country Profile, comprises a profile that provides a broad picture of the country, including social, economic, and political information, as well as an overview of the country's energy situation, which is important for project development and investment. Chapter 3, The CDM Project Cycle, gives an explanation of the general CDM project cycle, which includes identifying a project, issuance of carbon credits, requirements, and stakeholders for each process. Chapter 4, Possible CDM Projects in the Country, is an overview of the country's potential resources and sectoral or project type categories that hold potential for CDM projects. Chapter 5, Government Authorities, gives a comprehensive picture of the CDM-related institutional framework and its inter-organisational relationships. Chapter 6, CDM Project Approval Procedures and Requirements Steps, informs about obtaining project approval and its requirements (e.g., country-specific provisions on additionality, sustainable development criteria, and environmental impact assessment) in the host country. Chapter 7, Laws and Regulations, is an overview of basic investment-related laws, environmental and property law, and sector-specific regulations relevant to CDM project activities. Chapter 8, Fiscal and Financing Issues, gives practical information on the financial market in the host country (both

  16. 76 FR 5235 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA Internal Match)-Match Number 1014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ...; Computer Matching Program (SSA Internal Match)--Match Number 1014 AGENCY: Social Security Administration... regarding protections for such persons. The Privacy Act, as amended, regulates the use of computer matching....C. 552a, as amended, and the provisions of the Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988...

  17. DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. TRANSITION ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru FILIPEANU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the modern theories of economic development – the take-off, backwardness, convergence and balanced growth hypothesis - the new industrialized states from Asia seem to have noticed the advantages of backwardness from which low income countries benefited, namely the possibility to take advantage of the latest technological discoveries of advanced countries, thus achieving a faster growth than the latter which operated closer to the technological border. The assimilation of appropriate technologies, however, required the efficient mobilization and allocation of resources and the improvement of human and physical capital. While the Western countries were confronted with crises generated by inflationary shocks and movements of speculative capital, the relative isolation of countries whose economy was planned by the world economy sheltered them until 1990, unemployment being practically non-existent. Asia's exceptional economic success is not only due to borrowing Western practices, but also to the fact that Asian societies maintained certain traditional features of their own culture - such as a strong work ethic - and integrated them in the modern business environment.

  18. Matching faces with emotional expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng eChen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available There is some evidence that faces with a happy expression are recognized better than faces with other expressions. However, little is known about whether this happy face advantage also applies to perceptual face matching, and whether similar differences exist among other expressions. Using a sequential matching paradigm, we systematically compared the effects of seven basic facial expressions on identity recognition. Identity matching was quickest when a pair of faces had an identical happy/sad/neutral expression, poorer when they had a fearful/surprise/angry expression, and poorest when they had a disgust expression. Faces with a happy/sad/fear/surprise expression were matched faster than those with an anger/disgust expression when the second face in a pair had a neutral expression. These results demonstrate that effects of facial expression on identity recognition are not limited to happy faces when a learned face is immediately tested. The results suggest different influences of expression in perceptual matching and long-term recognition memory.

  19. Cyclotrons in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera Ruiz, Hernan

    2004-01-01

    Cyclotron accelerators are prolific sources of charged particle for the production of radionuclides and have become an essential tool in the practice of modern nuclear medicine by providing reliable radiotracers for SPECT and PET studies. In a recent survey conducted by the IAEA in 2001, the growth in the number of cyclotron facilities installed in laboratories and hospitals in developed as well as developing countries was recorded. This trend, which started in the late 70's, continues in the present time also and all indications are that it will continue in the next five to ten years. The reasons for this growth are several: technology involved has become more user or 'hospital friendly', third party reimbursement for several clinical studies based on F-18 PET radiopharmaceuticals at least in some of the advanced countries started in 1998 and above all, the clear irrefutable and demonstrable conclusion of the positive cost/benefit outcomes of PET studies in the field of oncology to a lesser degree, thus far, for cardiology and neurology. It is however recognizable that the overall financial cost of the technology, which comprises the premises to house the facility, the cyclotron accelerator, the corresponding radiochemistry and quality control equipment and the PET cameras can be nevertheless an expensive proposition that requires careful advance planning. This fact is even more relevant when the facility is planned for installation in a developing country, which, frequently, in addition to having a lack of sufficient financial resources, do have shortage of qualified human resources to efficiently run the facility. In spite of the above, it is fact that more and more public as well as private organizations in the developing countries are setting up cyclotron/PET programmes or are seriously considering the installation of such a facility

  20. Towards improving workers' health by matching work and workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoer, I.

    2014-01-01

    From an occupational health perspective, the match between work and workers was the central topic in this thesis. The term ‘work’ was used to encompass a combination of physical, mental and psychosocial work demands. The term ‘workers’ represents the resources of workers, in terms of physical,

  1. A Phase Matching, Adiabatic Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemery, Francois [Hamburg U.; Flöttmann, Klaus [DESY; Kärtner, Franz [CFEL, Hamburg; Piot, Philippe [Northern Illinois U.

    2017-05-01

    Tabletop accelerators are a thing of the future. Reducing their size will require scaling down electromagnetic wavelengths; however, without correspondingly high field gradients, particles will be more susceptible to phase-slippage – especially at low energy. We investigate how an adiabatically-tapered dielectric-lined waveguide could maintain phase-matching between the accelerating mode and electron bunch. We benchmark our simple model with CST and implement it into ASTRA; finally we provide a first glimpse into the beam dynamics in a phase-matching accelerator.

  2. Mix-and-match holography

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Yifan

    2017-11-22

    Computational caustics and light steering displays offer a wide range of interesting applications, ranging from art works and architectural installations to energy efficient HDR projection. In this work we expand on this concept by encoding several target images into pairs of front and rear phase-distorting surfaces. Different target holograms can be decoded by mixing and matching different front and rear surfaces under specific geometric alignments. Our approach, which we call mix-and-match holography, is made possible by moving from a refractive caustic image formation process to a diffractive, holographic one. This provides the extra bandwidth that is required to multiplex several images into pairing surfaces.

  3. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest developments in the field of renewables at country level around the world. Each profile combines analysis by IRENA's specialists with the latest available country data and additional information from a wide array of sources. The resulting reports provide a brief yet comprehensive picture of the situation with regard to renewable energy, including energy supply, electrical generation and grid capacity, and access. Energy policies, targets and projects are also considered, along with each country's investment climate and endowment with renewable energy resources. The energy statistics presented here span the period from 2009 until 2012, reflecting varying timelines in the source material. Since data availability differs from country to country, wider regional comparisons are possible only for the latest year with figures available for every country included. Despite the time lag in some cases, the evident differences and disparities between countries and regions around the world remain striking. The current package of country profiles is just a starting point. The geographic scope will continue to expand, and existing profiles will be enhanced with new indicators, with the whole series maintained as a live product on the IRENA website (www.irena.org)

  4. Mineral Taxation Policies in Developing Countries: An Application of Resource Rent Tax (L'imposition des ressources dans les pays en développement: application du concept de taxe sur la rente minière) (Políticas de impuestos a los minerales en los países en desarrollo: Aplicación del impuesto a la renta de recursos)

    OpenAIRE

    Keith F. Palmer

    1980-01-01

    The central problem of mineral taxation policy in developing countries is to establish a stable fiscal framework that, under conditions of uncertainty, both obtains a high share of mineral rent for the resource-owning country and ensures for the investor the prospect of a return on his investment commensurate with his risk. The main concern of the paper is to propose a practical fiscal framework, based on the resource rent tax concept, that meets these objectives. The resource rent tax is a p...

  5. Wind resource assessment and siting analysis in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricci, A.; Mizzoni, G.; Rossi, E.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, the wind power industry has matured; consequently, in many countries a lot of wind energy applications have been programmed. Many of them are already realized and running. As such, there is a direct necessity to identify a sizeable number of wind power plant sites. Choosing the right sites to match specific Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) is also needed to harness this clean energy from the points of view of industrial viability and project financing. As a pre-requisite to install a wind turbine at a particular site, it is necessary to have knowledge of the theoretical available wind energy at the site, as well as, of the practicability of the design in matching the characteristics of the WECS. In this paper, ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technology, Energy and Environment) wind siting and resource assessment activities, currently on-going in different regions in Italy, along with the present status and future prospects of the wind power industry

  6. Canonical Skeletons for Shape Matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eede, M. van; Macrini, D.; Telea, A.; Sminchisescu, C.; Dickinson, S.

    2006-01-01

    Skeletal representations of 2-D shape, including shock graphs, have become increasingly popular for shape matching and object recognition. However, it is well known that skeletal structure can be unstable under minor boundary deformation, part articulation, and minor shape deformation (due to, for

  7. Matching Games with Additive Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Michalak, Tomasz; Rahwan, Talal

    2012-01-01

    Two-sided matchings are an important theoretical tool used to model markets and social interactions. In many real life problems the utility of an agent is influenced not only by their own choices, but also by the choices that other agents make. Such an influence is called an externality. Whereas ...

  8. Monetary Exchange with Multilateral Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julien, Benoît; Kennes, John; King, Ian

    the results with Kiyotaki and Wright (1993), Trejos and Wright (1995), and Lagos and Wright (2005) respectively. We find that the multilateral matching setting generates very simple and intuitive equilibrium allocations that are similar to those in the other papers, but which have important differences...

  9. Towards optimal packed string matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben-Kiki, Oren; Bille, Philip; Breslauer, Dany

    2014-01-01

    -size string-matching instruction wssm is available in contemporary commodity processors. The other word-size maximum-suffix instruction wslm is only required during the pattern pre-processing. Benchmarks show that our solution can be efficiently implemented, unlike some prior theoretical packed string...

  10. An Implementation of Bigraph Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenstrup, Arne John; Damgaard, Troels Christoffer; Birkedal, Lars

    We describe a provably sound and complete matching algorithm for bigraphical reactive systems. The algorithm has been implemented in our BPL Tool, a first implementation of bigraphical reactive systems. We describe the tool and present a concrete example of how it can be used to simulate a model...

  11. Myocardium tracking via matching distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ayed, Ismail; Li, Shuo; Ross, Ian; Islam, Ali

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate automatic myocardium tracking in cardiac Magnetic Resonance (MR) sequences using global distribution matching via level-set curve evolution. Rather than relying on the pixelwise information as in existing approaches, distribution matching compares intensity distributions, and consequently, is well-suited to the myocardium tracking problem. Starting from a manual segmentation of the first frame, two curves are evolved in order to recover the endocardium (inner myocardium boundary) and the epicardium (outer myocardium boundary) in all the frames. For each curve, the evolution equation is sought following the maximization of a functional containing two terms: (1) a distribution matching term measuring the similarity between the non-parametric intensity distributions sampled from inside and outside the curve to the model distributions of the corresponding regions estimated from the previous frame; (2) a gradient term for smoothing the curve and biasing it toward high gradient of intensity. The Bhattacharyya coefficient is used as a similarity measure between distributions. The functional maximization is obtained by the Euler-Lagrange ascent equation of curve evolution, and efficiently implemented via level-set. The performance of the proposed distribution matching was quantitatively evaluated by comparisons with independent manual segmentations approved by an experienced cardiologist. The method was applied to ten 2D mid-cavity MR sequences corresponding to ten different subjects. Although neither shape prior knowledge nor curve coupling were used, quantitative evaluation demonstrated that the results were consistent with manual segmentations. The proposed method compares well with existing methods. The algorithm also yields a satisfying reproducibility. Distribution matching leads to a myocardium tracking which is more flexible and applicable than existing methods because the algorithm uses only the current data, i.e., does not

  12. OECD Reviews of School Resources : Austria 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Theisens, Henno

    2016-01-01

    The effective use of school resources is a policy priority across OECD countries. The OECD Reviews of School Resources explore how resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. The series considers four types of resources: financial resources, such as public funding of individual schools; human resources, such as teachers, school leaders and education administrators; physical resources, such as location, buildin...

  13. MATCHING ALTERNATIVE ADDRESSES: A SEMANTIC WEB APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ariannamazi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of crowd-sourcing or volunteered geographic information (VGI provides opportunities for authoritatives that deal with geospatial information. Heterogeneity of multiple data sources and inconsistency of data types is a key characteristics of VGI datasets. The expansion of cities resulted in the growing number of POIs in the OpenStreetMap, a well-known VGI source, which causes the datasets to outdate in short periods of time. These changes made to spatial and aspatial attributes of features such as names and addresses might cause confusion or ambiguity in the processes that require feature’s literal information like addressing and geocoding. VGI sources neither will conform specific vocabularies nor will remain in a specific schema for a long period of time. As a result, the integration of VGI sources is crucial and inevitable in order to avoid duplication and the waste of resources. Information integration can be used to match features and qualify different annotation alternatives for disambiguation. This study enhances the search capabilities of geospatial tools with applications able to understand user terminology to pursuit an efficient way for finding desired results. Semantic web is a capable tool for developing technologies that deal with lexical and numerical calculations and estimations. There are a vast amount of literal-spatial data representing the capability of linguistic information in knowledge modeling, but these resources need to be harmonized based on Semantic Web standards. The process of making addresses homogenous generates a helpful tool based on spatial data integration and lexical annotation matching and disambiguating.

  14. Matching of Energy Provisions in Multihop Wireless Infra-Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Teng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently there have been large advances in energy technologies for battery-operated systems, including green energy resources and high capacity batteries. The effective use of battery energy resources in wireless infrastructure networks to improve the versatility and reliability of wireless communications is an important issue. Emerging applications of smart cities, Internet of Things (IoT, and emergency responses highly rely on the basic communication network infrastructures that enable ubiquitous network connections. However, energy consumption by nodes in a wireless infrastructure network depends on the transmissions of other nodes in the network. Considering this inter-dependence is necessary to achieve efficient provision of energy in wireless networks. This paper studies the issue of energy provision for wireless relay nodes in Wireless Multihop Infrastructures (WMI assuming constraints on the total energy provision. We introduce a scheme of Energy Provision Matching (Matching-EP for WMI which optimizes energy provision based on matching of energy provision with estimates of differentiated position-dependent energy consumption by wireless nodes distributed in the network. The evaluation results show that Matching-EP with 4%–34% improvement in energy matching degree enables 10%–40% improvement of the network lifetime, and 5%–40% improvement of packet delivery compared with conventional WMI networks.

  15. 78 FR 73195 - Privacy Act of 1974: CMS Computer Matching Program Match No. 2013-01; HHS Computer Matching...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... 1974: CMS Computer Matching Program Match No. 2013-01; HHS Computer Matching Program Match No. 1312 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS... Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended, this notice announces the renewal of a CMP that CMS plans...

  16. Governance, resource curse and donor

    OpenAIRE

    Wiig, Arne

    2008-01-01

    Plan Part 1. Governance What is good governance? Why is it important? How can we measure good governance? Part 2. The resource curse and the importance of governance in resource rich countries Focus on political economy (PE) models of the resource curse Policy implications Some donor initiatives Transparency and the EITI Petroleum related aid - Window dressing initiatives or research based? Conclusion Governance, resource curse and donor

  17. Energy problems in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasugi, Hirosaburo [Japan Industrial Tech. Association, Tokyo, Japan

    1989-06-20

    In order to rid the people's living of poverty in developing countries, first, the production of food has been planned to increase. And then, resource development and industrialization have been tried to improve with efforts. Because of such development and an increase in population, energy consumption has been increasing. Advanced countries have supported these countries in many ways, however, there is much difference in their assistance depend on various situations such as racial, religious, and political ones. Moreover, a gap between cities and farm villages has widen since infrastructure has not been fully equipped in developing countries. The electrification ratio is used as an index to show the degree of development in developing countries. It is low in the countries where development is lagging, particularly in farm villages. This gap is an urgent problem that faces developing countries. In order to cope with the actual conditions, advanced countries including Japan should be plan to reinforce their technological and economic assistance more suitable for farm villages. Furthermore, they should also improve the assistance system which includes a measure for environmental pollution control, considering the spot directly. 3 figs., 14 tabs.

  18. Matching of equivalent field regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen; Rengarajan, S.B.

    2005-01-01

    In aperture problems, integral equations for equivalent currents are often found by enforcing matching of equivalent fields. The enforcement is made in the aperture surface region adjoining the two volumes on each side of the aperture. In the case of an aperture in a planar perfectly conducting...... screen, having the same homogeneous medium on both sides and an impressed current on one aide, an alternative procedure is relevant. We make use of the fact that in the aperture the tangential component of the magnetic field due to the induced currents in the screen is zero. The use of such a procedure...... shows that equivalent currents can be found by a consideration of only one of the two volumes into which the aperture plane divides the space. Furthermore, from a consideration of an automatic matching at the aperture, additional information about tangential as well as normal field components...

  19. University Reactor Matching Grants Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Valentine; Farzad Rahnema; Said Abdel-Khalik

    2003-01-01

    During the 2002 Fiscal year, funds from the DOE matching grant program, along with matching funds from the industrial sponsors, have been used to support research in the area of thermal-hydraulics. Both experimental and numerical research projects have been performed. Experimental research focused on two areas: (1) Identification of the root cause mechanism for axial offset anomaly in pressurized water reactors under prototypical reactor conditions, and (2) Fluid dynamic aspects of thin liquid film protection schemes for inertial fusion reactor chambers. Numerical research focused on two areas: (1) Multi-fluid modeling of both two-phase and two-component flows for steam conditioning and mist cooling applications, and (2) Modeling of bounded Rayleigh-Taylor instability with interfacial mass transfer and fluid injection through a porous wall simulating the ''wetted wall'' protection scheme in inertial fusion reactor chambers. Details of activities in these areas are given

  20. Mix-and-match holography

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Yifan; Dun, Xiong; Sun, Qilin; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    target images into pairs of front and rear phase-distorting surfaces. Different target holograms can be decoded by mixing and matching different front and rear surfaces under specific geometric alignments. Our approach, which we call mixWe derive a detailed image formation model for the setting of holographic projection displays, as well as a multiplexing method based on a combination of phase retrieval methods and complex matrix factorization. We demonstrate several application scenarios in both simulation and physical prototypes.

  1. Impedance-matched Marx generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Stygar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We have conceived a new class of prime-power sources for pulsed-power accelerators: impedance-matched Marx generators (IMGs. The fundamental building block of an IMG is a brick, which consists of two capacitors connected electrically in series with a single switch. An IMG comprises a single stage or several stages distributed axially and connected in series. Each stage is powered by a single brick or several bricks distributed azimuthally within the stage and connected in parallel. The stages of a multistage IMG drive an impedance-matched coaxial transmission line with a conical center conductor. When the stages are triggered sequentially to launch a coherent traveling wave along the coaxial line, the IMG achieves electromagnetic-power amplification by triggered emission of radiation. Hence a multistage IMG is a pulsed-power analogue of a laser. To illustrate the IMG approach to prime power, we have developed conceptual designs of two ten-stage IMGs with LC time constants on the order of 100 ns. One design includes 20 bricks per stage, and delivers a peak electrical power of 1.05 TW to a matched-impedance 1.22-Ω load. The design generates 113 kV per stage and has a maximum energy efficiency of 89%. The other design includes a single brick per stage, delivers 68 GW to a matched-impedance 19-Ω load, generates 113 kV per stage, and has a maximum energy efficiency of 90%. For a given electrical-power-output time history, an IMG is less expensive and slightly more efficient than a linear transformer driver, since an IMG does not use ferromagnetic cores.

  2. Impedance-matched Marx generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stygar, W. A.; LeChien, K. R.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Savage, M. E.; Stoltzfus, B. S.; Austin, K. N.; Breden, E. W.; Cuneo, M. E.; Hutsel, B. T.; Lewis, S. A.; McKee, G. R.; Moore, J. K.; Mulville, T. D.; Muron, D. J.; Reisman, D. B.; Sceiford, M. E.; Wisher, M. L.

    2017-04-01

    We have conceived a new class of prime-power sources for pulsed-power accelerators: impedance-matched Marx generators (IMGs). The fundamental building block of an IMG is a brick, which consists of two capacitors connected electrically in series with a single switch. An IMG comprises a single stage or several stages distributed axially and connected in series. Each stage is powered by a single brick or several bricks distributed azimuthally within the stage and connected in parallel. The stages of a multistage IMG drive an impedance-matched coaxial transmission line with a conical center conductor. When the stages are triggered sequentially to launch a coherent traveling wave along the coaxial line, the IMG achieves electromagnetic-power amplification by triggered emission of radiation. Hence a multistage IMG is a pulsed-power analogue of a laser. To illustrate the IMG approach to prime power, we have developed conceptual designs of two ten-stage IMGs with L C time constants on the order of 100 ns. One design includes 20 bricks per stage, and delivers a peak electrical power of 1.05 TW to a matched-impedance 1.22 -Ω load. The design generates 113 kV per stage and has a maximum energy efficiency of 89%. The other design includes a single brick per stage, delivers 68 GW to a matched-impedance 19 -Ω load, generates 113 kV per stage, and has a maximum energy efficiency of 90%. For a given electrical-power-output time history, an IMG is less expensive and slightly more efficient than a linear transformer driver, since an IMG does not use ferromagnetic cores.

  3. Transit Matching for International Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilligan, K.; Whitaker, M.; Oakberg, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 the U.S. Department of Energy / National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Non-proliferation and International Security (NIS) supported a study of the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) processes and procedures for ensuring that shipments of nuclear material correspond to (match) their receipts (i.e., transit matching). Under Comprehensive Safeguards Agreements, Member States are obliged to declare such information within certain time frames. Nuclear weapons states voluntarily declare such information under INFCIRC/207. This study was funded by the NIS Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) Concepts and Approaches program. Oak Ridge National Laboratory led the research, which included collaboration with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the U.S. Nuclear Material Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS), and the IAEA Section for Declared Information Analysis within the Department of Safeguards. The project studied the current transit matching methodologies, identified current challenges (e.g., level of effort and timeliness), and suggested improvements. This paper presents the recommendations that resulted from the study and discussions with IAEA staff. In particular, it includes a recommendation to collaboratively develop a set of best reporting practices for nuclear weapons states under INFCIRC/207. (author)

  4. A shift in the paradigm of energy cooperation between Russia and Northeast Asia countries facing new global and regional challenges: from predominant sale of energy resources to innovation and technology cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneev, Boris; Sokolov, Alexander; Lagerev, Anatoly; Popov, Sergei; Ivanova, Irina; Izbuldin, Alexander; Korneyev, Anatoly; Muzychuk, Svetlana; Sokolov, Dmitry

    2018-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the specific features of Russia's economic development in a new economic environment that caused the need to revise the priorities of energy policy. The research presents the initial conditions, targets and strategic directions of energy development in the East of the country. The focus is made on the priority lines of innovation and technology cooperation between Russia and Northeast Asian countries in the field of energy, and recommendations on necessary conditions and initiatives for their successful implementation are given.

  5. Development of a sectoral approach for the development of sustainable waste management systems in developing countries on the background of climate change and resource shortening; Entwicklung eines sektoralen Ansatzes zum Aufbau von nachhaltigen Abfallwirtschaftssystemen in Entwicklungslaendern vor dem Hintergrund von Klimawandel und Ressourcenverknappung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfaff-Simoneit, Wolfgang

    2013-06-01

    This thesis deals with whether and how to skip stages in the development of waste management can be unset. Following questions are studied: Which conditions are necessary, and how they can be created? Is a skipping of development stages in the waste management and the introduction of progressive procedures in developing, threshold, and transformation countries possible and senseful? Which cost recovery posts can recyclic, energetic use, and carbon markets respectively payments of industrial countries make for greenhouse-gas lowering procedures of the developing, threshold, and transformation countries? Which financial equity amounts of the developing, threshold, and transformation countries are payable and reasonable? Which support should make the international donor community? How strategies and instruments of the development cooperation can be furtherly developed? Which roles can/shall other institutions take over? Aim of the thesis is to mediate a fundamental understanding for the requirements of the sector, in order to develop action aids for a structured unset of the waste sector in developing, threshold, and transformation countries. Beyond this hints for the further development of development-political instruments and the international cooperation are derived, which allow a targeted and appropriate support of the developing counties in the unset of sustainable, resource protecting, and climate-friendly waste management systems. Aim of the action aid is to give simultaneously an approach for a so called ''nationally appropriate mitigation action'' for the waste sector.

  6. Uranium market and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capus, G.; Arnold, Th.

    2004-01-01

    The controversy about the extend of the uranium resources worldwide is still important, this article sheds some light on this topic. Every 2 years IAEA and NEA (nuclear energy agency) edit an inventory of uranium resources as reported by contributing countries. It appears that about 4.6 millions tons of uranium are available at a recovery cost less than 130 dollars per kg of uranium and a total of 14 millions tons of uranium can be assessed when including all existing or supposed resources. In fact there is enough uranium to sustain a moderate growth of the park of nuclear reactors during next decades and it is highly likely that the volume of uranium resources can allow a more aggressive development of nuclear energy. It is recalled that a broad use of the validated breeder technology can stretch the durability of uranium resources by a factor 50. (A.C.)

  7. Uranium resources, production and demand 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This book is the Japanese edition of 'Uranium Resources, Production and Demand, 1993' published by OECD/NEA-IAEA in 1994. It contains data on uranium exploration activities, resources and production for about 50 countries. (K.I.)

  8. Matchings with Externalities and Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Michalak, Tomasz; Rahwan, Talal

    2013-01-01

    Two-sided matchings are an important theoretical tool used to model markets and social interactions. In many real-life problems the utility of an agent is influenced not only by their own choices, but also by the choices that other agents make. Such an influence is called an externality. Whereas ...... where agents take different attitudes when reasoning about the actions of others. In particular, we study optimistic, neutral and pessimistic attitudes and provide both computational hardness results and polynomial-time algorithms for computing stable outcomes....

  9. International: development, the petroleum, security for the least developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    The annual report of the CNUCED presents the economic situation improvement of the developing countries, those which benefit from petroleum resources. The CNUCED worries on the durability of the economic improvement of these countries. (A.L.B.)

  10. Matching Theory for Channel Allocation in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For a cognitive radio network (CRN in which a set of secondary users (SUs competes for a limited number of channels (spectrum resources belonging to primary users (PUs, the channel allocation is a challenge and dominates the throughput and congestion of the network. In this paper, the channel allocation problem is first formulated as the 0-1 integer programming optimization, with considering the overall utility both of primary system and secondary system. Inspired by matching theory, a many-to-one matching game is used to remodel the channel allocation problem, and the corresponding PU proposing deferred acceptance (PPDA algorithm is also proposed to yield a stable matching. We compare the performance and computation complexity between these two solutions. Numerical results demonstrate the efficiency and obtain the communication overhead of the proposed scheme.

  11. Face identification with frequency domain matched filtering in mobile environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Su; Woo, Yong-Hyun; Yeom, Seokwon; Kim, Shin-Hwan

    2012-06-01

    Face identification at a distance is very challenging since captured images are often degraded by blur and noise. Furthermore, the computational resources and memory are often limited in the mobile environments. Thus, it is very challenging to develop a real-time face identification system on the mobile device. This paper discusses face identification based on frequency domain matched filtering in the mobile environments. Face identification is performed by the linear or phase-only matched filter and sequential verification stages. The candidate window regions are decided by the major peaks of the linear or phase-only matched filtering outputs. The sequential stages comprise a skin-color test and an edge mask filtering test, which verify color and shape information of the candidate regions in order to remove false alarms. All algorithms are built on the mobile device using Android platform. The preliminary results show that face identification of East Asian people can be performed successfully in the mobile environments.

  12. Export opportunities in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, J.

    1992-01-01

    Developing countries will offer major opportunities to US exporters of energy and related environmental equipment in the next ten years. These opportunities arise because the markets in developing countries will be growing much faster than those in the developed countries during this period, and because these countries will not in most cases have strong domestic manufacturers to compete against. US technologies will help these countries solve their energy, environmental, and economic development problems, and help the US solve its serious trade balance problems. This market will represent over $200 billion between now and 2000. There are, however, many potential problems. These include a lack of focus and coordination among US government trade assistance organizations, a lack of interest on the part of US firms in exporting and an unwillingness to make the needed investments, barriers put up by the governments of potential foreign customers, and strong international competition. This paper describes how the United States Agency for International Development's (A.I.D.) Office of Energy and other US agencies are helping US firms resolve these problems with a comprehensive program of information, trade promotion assistance, and co-funding of feasibility studies. In addition, there are monies available to match unfair concessionary financing offered by our major competitors

  13. Timor-Leste : Country Environmental Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    The Country Environmental Analysis (CEA) for Timor-Leste identifies environmental priorities through a systematic review of environmental issues in natural resources management and environmental health in the context of the country's economic development and environmental institutions. Lack of data has been the main limitation in presenting a more rigorous analysis. Nevertheless, the repor...

  14. Petroleum term markets and OPEC producers countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensarsa, F.

    1994-01-01

    The situation of petroleum producers countries in front of term markets is described. With an economics liberalization, policy configuration changing the energetic balance (increasing of american imports, of asiatic demand and developing countries; decreasing of russian production), a more efficient technology, a right management of energetic resources with energy economy, renewable energies and non polluting energies, it is difficult for producers countries to resist at the pressure of financing tools, more and more modern and efficient as they are term markets

  15. Evaluating the Relative Environmental Impact of Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bradshaw, Corey J. A.; Giam, Xingli; Sodhi, Navjot Singh

    2010-01-01

    Environmental protection is critical to maintain ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It is important to be able to rank countries by their environmental impact so that poor performers as well as policy ?models? can be identified. We provide novel metrics of country-specific environmental impact ranks ? one proportional to total resource availability per country and an absolute (total) measure of impact ? that explicitly avoid incorporating confounding human health or economic i...

  16. What Makes MNCs Succeed in Developing countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael W.; Gwozdz, Wencke

    MNCs are increasingly investing in developing countries to be part of rapid market growth, to enhance the efficiency of their value chains, and to access abundant resources and talent. The potential gains are high, however so are the risks. Some developing country subsidiaries become top performers...... regardless of location and industry. The findings of the study have important implications for the IB literature, for managers and for policy aimed at promoting FDI in developing countries....

  17. Argentina [Country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreyra, R.

    2005-01-01

    The airborne geophysical surveys developed in Argentina are described. They have got more than 500.000 km 2 acquiring data for U, Th, K and total background activity. Other types of published data are also mentioned (satellite imagery, seismic hazard, climate, soil distributions, etc.). The availability of maps with the abundances of elements analyzed at the country and also at laboratories from Canada is described, as well as data of analysis of several elements at two study areas proposed at the outset of the project. The availability of process rate data and epidemiological data is also explained. Argentina intended fully to participate in the CRP at the outset of the project. Due, however, to external resource constraints imposed on the participating organization (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, CNEA), the level of participation had to be significantly reduced. Nonetheless, in the first period of the CRP, Argentina undertook to collate existing geological and geochemical information within the country, and began to define potential areas for site specific natural systems safety indicator studies. (author)

  18. World wide matching of registration metrology tools of various generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laske, F.; Pudnos, A.; Mackey, L.; Tran, P.; Higuchi, M.; Enkrich, C.; Roeth, K.-D.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Adam, D.; Bender, J.

    2008-10-01

    Turn around time/cycle time is a key success criterion in the semiconductor photomask business. Therefore, global mask suppliers typically allocate work loads based on fab capability and utilization capacity. From a logistical point of view, the manufacturing location of a photomask should be transparent to the customer (mask user). Matching capability of production equipment and especially metrology tools is considered a key enabler to guarantee cross site manufacturing flexibility. Toppan, with manufacturing sites in eight countries worldwide, has an on-going program to match the registration metrology systems of all its production sites. This allows for manufacturing flexibility and risk mitigation.In cooperation with Vistec Semiconductor Systems, Toppan has recently completed a program to match the Vistec LMS IPRO systems at all production sites worldwide. Vistec has developed a new software feature which allows for significantly improved matching of LMS IPRO(x) registration metrology tools of various generations. We will report on the results of the global matching campaign of several of the leading Toppan sites.

  19. An operator description of entanglement matching in quantum teleportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurucz, Z; Koniorczyk, M; Adam, P; Janszky, J

    2003-01-01

    The antilinear operator representation of bipartite pure states of the relative state formulation of quantum mechanics is applied to describe quantum teleportation schemes utilizing an arbitrary pure state as the entangled resource. Bennett type teleportation schemes with nonmaximally entangled pure states are characterized and the notion of 'entanglement matching' is introduced in general. Examples, including a scheme based on coherent-state superposition states of the electromagnetic field, are provided

  20. Resources for Sale: Corruption, Democracy and the Natural Resource Curse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damania, R.; Bulte, E.H.

    2008-01-01

    A puzzling piece of empirical evidence suggests that resource-abundant countries tend to grow slower than their resource-poor counterparts. We attempt to explain this phenomenon by developing a lobbying game in which rent seeking firms interact with corrupt governments. The presence or absence of

  1. Countries and companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenning, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    The trends and factors currently emerging are likely to have significant influence on the way the upstream oil and gas industry evolves in the coming decade. This paper discusses how these trends might influence events in the 1990s, particularly how they might influence relationships between host countries and companies in the oil industry. State owned companies will dominate the industry in resource terms. These statcos fall into three groups: a small group of technically able, financially sound, well-managed companies; a group of consumer statcos that have limited domestic production but significant domestic demand; a large group that are finding it difficult to maintain their production facilities in good standing to maximize recovery from their resources. This paper describes the future private sector as consisting of the Surviving Sisters and smaller, private companies very active in the upstream. How will these various players behave in the years to come? Conventional activity in the upstream will continue as companies seek to optimize their upstream portfolios

  2. Does the distribution of healthcare utilization match needs in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfrer, Igna; van de Poel, Ellen; Grimm, Michael; Van Doorslaer, Eddy

    2014-10-01

    An equitable distribution of healthcare use, distributed according to people's needs instead of ability to pay, is an important goal featuring on many health policy agendas worldwide. However, relatively little is known about the extent to which this principle is violated across socio-economic groups in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We examine cross-country comparative micro-data from 18 SSA countries and find that considerable inequalities in healthcare use exist and vary across countries. For almost all countries studied, healthcare utilization is considerably higher among the rich. When decomposing these inequalities we find that wealth is the single most important driver. In 12 of the 18 countries wealth is responsible for more than half of total inequality in the use of care, and in 8 countries wealth even explains more of the inequality than need, education, employment, marital status and urbanicity together. For the richer countries, notably Mauritius, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland, the contribution of wealth is typically less important. As the bulk of inequality is not related to need for care and poor people use less care because they do not have the ability to pay, healthcare utilization in these countries is to a large extent unfairly distributed. The weak average relationship between need for and use of health care and the potential reporting heterogeneity in self-reported health across socio-economic groups imply that our findings are likely to even underestimate actual inequities in health care. At a macro level, we find that a better match of needs and use is realized in those countries with better governance and more physicians. Given the absence of social health insurance in most of these countries, policies that aim to reduce inequities in access to and use of health care must include an enhanced capacity of the poor to generate income. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

  3. Reducing the likelihood of long tennis matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Tristan; Alan, Brown; Pollard, Graham

    2006-01-01

    Long matches can cause problems for tournaments. For example, the starting times of subsequent matches can be substantially delayed causing inconvenience to players, spectators, officials and television scheduling. They can even be seen as unfair in the tournament setting when the winner of a very long match, who may have negative aftereffects from such a match, plays the winner of an average or shorter length match in the next round. Long matches can also lead to injuries to the participating players. One factor that can lead to long matches is the use of the advantage set as the fifth set, as in the Australian Open, the French Open and Wimbledon. Another factor is long rallies and a greater than average number of points per game. This tends to occur more frequently on the slower surfaces such as at the French Open. The mathematical method of generating functions is used to show that the likelihood of long matches can be substantially reduced by using the tiebreak game in the fifth set, or more effectively by using a new type of game, the 50-40 game, throughout the match. Key PointsThe cumulant generating function has nice properties for calculating the parameters of distributions in a tennis matchA final tiebreaker set reduces the length of matches as currently being used in the US OpenA new 50-40 game reduces the length of matches whilst maintaining comparable probabilities for the better player to win the match.

  4. The role of small modular reactors in enhancing energy security in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessides, I. N.; Kuznestov, V.

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, small modular reactors (SMRs) have been attracting considerable attention around the world. SMR designs incorporate innovative approaches to achieve simplicity, modularity and speed of build, passive safety features, proliferation resistance, and reduced financial risk. The incremental capacity expansion associated with SMR deployment could provide a better match (than the large-scale reactors) to the limited grid capacity of many developing countries. Because of their lower capital requirements, SMRs could also effectively address the energy needs of small developing countries with limited financial resources. Although SMRs can have substantially higher specific capital costs as compared to large-scale reactors, they may nevertheless enjoy significant economic benefits due to shorter build times, accelerated learning effects and co-siting economies, temporal and sizing flexibility of deployment, and design simplification. (author)

  5. Ontology Matching with Semantic Verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Mary, Yves R; Shironoshita, E Patrick; Kabuka, Mansur R

    2009-09-01

    ASMOV (Automated Semantic Matching of Ontologies with Verification) is a novel algorithm that uses lexical and structural characteristics of two ontologies to iteratively calculate a similarity measure between them, derives an alignment, and then verifies it to ensure that it does not contain semantic inconsistencies. In this paper, we describe the ASMOV algorithm, and then present experimental results that measure its accuracy using the OAEI 2008 tests, and that evaluate its use with two different thesauri: WordNet, and the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). These results show the increased accuracy obtained by combining lexical, structural and extensional matchers with semantic verification, and demonstrate the advantage of using a domain-specific thesaurus for the alignment of specialized ontologies.

  6. MANAGING AFRICA'S NATURAL RESOURCE ENDOWMENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    explained by the fact that many of the oil-producing countries or petro- states are ... Specifically for Africa, it has been argued that the resource curse paradigm .... sector.18 In Mozambique, after an audit of investments between 2002 and 2008, the ..... resources reserves in Africa, in most cases, the heart of usage – especially.

  7. Using crosswell data to enhance history matching

    KAUST Repository

    Ravanelli, Fabio M.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    of the reality. This problem is mitigated by conditioning the model with data through data assimilation, a process known in the oil industry as history matching. Several recent advances are being used to improve history matching reliability, notably the use

  8. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  9. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  10. CPU and GPU (Cuda Template Matching Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldas Borcovas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Image processing, computer vision or other complicated opticalinformation processing algorithms require large resources. It isoften desired to execute algorithms in real time. It is hard tofulfill such requirements with single CPU processor. NVidiaproposed CUDA technology enables programmer to use theGPU resources in the computer. Current research was madewith Intel Pentium Dual-Core T4500 2.3 GHz processor with4 GB RAM DDR3 (CPU I, NVidia GeForce GT320M CUDAcompliable graphics card (GPU I and Intel Core I5-2500K3.3 GHz processor with 4 GB RAM DDR3 (CPU II, NVidiaGeForce GTX 560 CUDA compatible graphic card (GPU II.Additional libraries as OpenCV 2.1 and OpenCV 2.4.0 CUDAcompliable were used for the testing. Main test were made withstandard function MatchTemplate from the OpenCV libraries.The algorithm uses a main image and a template. An influenceof these factors was tested. Main image and template have beenresized and the algorithm computing time and performancein Gtpix/s have been measured. According to the informationobtained from the research GPU computing using the hardwarementioned earlier is till 24 times faster when it is processing abig amount of information. When the images are small the performanceof CPU and GPU are not significantly different. Thechoice of the template size makes influence on calculating withCPU. Difference in the computing time between the GPUs canbe explained by the number of cores which they have.

  11. A multiscale approach to mutual information matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluim, J.P.W.; Maintz, J.B.A.; Viergever, M.A.; Hanson, K.M.

    1998-01-01

    Methods based on mutual information have shown promising results for matching of multimodal brain images. This paper discusses a multiscale approach to mutual information matching, aiming for an acceleration of the matching process while considering the accuracy and robustness of the method. Scaling

  12. Connections between the matching and chromatic polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Farrell

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The main results established are (i a connection between the matching and chromatic polynomials and (ii a formula for the matching polynomial of a general complement of a subgraph of a graph. Some deductions on matching and chromatic equivalence and uniqueness are made.

  13. Database crime to crime match rate calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckleton, John; Bright, Jo-Anne; Walsh, Simon J

    2009-06-01

    Guidance exists on how to count matches between samples in a crime sample database but we are unable to locate a definition of how to estimate a match rate. We propose a method that does not proceed from the match counting definition but which has a strong logic.

  14. Renewable Resources, Environmental Pollution, and International Migration

    OpenAIRE

    KENJI KONDO

    2013-01-01

    We develop a two-country model with two industries: the smokestack manufacturing industry, which generates pollution, and the transboundary renewable resource industry. With no trade, migration occurs from the foreign country, with lower manufacturing productivity, to the home country. If the gap in pollution abatement technology, which is superior in the home country, dominates the productivity gap, both countries gain from migration. Under a free trade equilibrium, we also show that if the ...

  15. Energy investment in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovani, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The developing countries are likely to represent the fastest growing component of the global energy demand over the next two decades. The paper presents considerations based on the World Bank's approach to the energy sector in these countries. It is considered that an accelerated development of conventional indigenous sources of energy is absolutely vital if developing countries are to attain a satisfactory rate of economic growth. The cost of the energy investment, the power sector issues, the optimal use of the resources, the role of the external financing and the need of technical assistance are reviewed. One emphasizes the role of the World Bank in analyzing and preparing projects, and in mobilizing financing from other official and commercial sources

  16. Speculative resources of uranium. A review of International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) estimates 1982-1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    On a country by country basis the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) estimates 1982-1983 are reviewed. Information provided includes exploration work, airborne survey, radiometric survey, gamma-ray spectrometric survey, estimate of speculative resources, uranium occurrences, uranium deposits, uranium mineralization, agreements for uranium exploration, feasibilities studies, geological classification of resources, proposed revised resource range, production estimate of uranium

  17. Environmental policy implementation in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamman, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    This study examines why national and international policies intended to protect limited natural resources in developing countries are not effectively implemented. It employs a comparative-policy implementation in three developing countries, Barbados, St. Lucia and St. Kitts, and three foreign assistance agencies, the US Agency for International Development, the Inter-American Development Bank and the Organization of American States. The decision-making process within the countries and donor agencies is closed, preventing key stakeholders from participating. In two instances, the mutually reinforcing behavior of top officials in the countries and the donor agencies led to decisions that prevented natural resources from being protected. In all three cases, strategies to implement environmental policies failed to account for four major elements: national politics, behavior in the donor agency, the culture of decision making, and economic necessity. The existing-decision making process in both developing countries and donor agencies is dysfunctional

  18. Geographic Trends in the Plastic Surgery Match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Jason; Lin, Ines C; Serletti, Joseph M; Chang, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The integrated plastic surgery match is among the most competitive residency matches in recent years. Although previous studies have correlated applicant characteristics with successful match outcomes, none have comprehensively investigated the role of geography in the match. This study elucidates regional biases in the match. Plastic surgery residents who matched during 2011-2015 were eligible for study inclusion. Names of residents were obtained from official residency program websites and cross-referenced with data obtained from the Student Doctor Network. For each resident, region of residency program and medical school were compared. From 67 programs, 622 residents were identified. Most graduated from US medical schools (97.9%). A total of 94 residents matched at a home institution (15.1%). Half of the residents matched in the same region as their medical school (48.9%). Programs in the South matched the greatest number of residents from the same region (60.8%), whereas West programs matched the least (30.8%, p < 0.001). No regional differences existed regarding residents matching at their home institution (p = 0.268). More women matched at West programs (43.1%) versus East programs (30.6%, p < 0.05). A significant number of residents matched at their home institution. Roughly, half matched at a program in the same region as their medical school. Whether this regional phenomenon stems from applicant or program factors remains unknown. Yet, given the limited number of interviews and the high costs of interviewing, applicants and programs can use these data to help optimize the match process. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Image matching navigation based on fuzzy information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田玉龙; 吴伟仁; 田金文; 柳健

    2003-01-01

    In conventional image matching methods, the image matching process is mostly based on image statistic information. One aspect neglected by all these methods is that there is much fuzzy information contained in these images. A new fuzzy matching algorithm based on fuzzy similarity for navigation is presented in this paper. Because the fuzzy theory is of the ability of making good description of the fuzzy information contained in images, the image matching method based on fuzzy similarity would look forward to producing good performance results. Experimental results using matching algorithm based on fuzzy information also demonstrate its reliability and practicability.

  20. Cambodia Rural Livelihoods and Natural Resources Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cambodia is one of the least developed countries in Southeast Asia, with a large poor rural population dependent on natural resources for food and income. Over the past several years, the country has introduced extensive legislation related to the management of natural resources. On paper, the role of local communities ...

  1. Fuel resources in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The total resources of fossil fuel in the country are estimated (rounded off into billion m/sup 3/ of oil equivalent) as 30--oil 22, natural gas 4 and coal 4. The explored reserves are 2.39--oil 1.68, natural gas 0.25 and coal 0.46. The main type of fuel in the fuel and energy balance of the country is oil. Coal is used in limited quantity in cement, ceramic and other sectors of industry. Outlook for development of the coal industry is discussed in relation to the planned use of coal at the TES.

  2. Use of country of birth as an indicator of refugee background in health datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Routine public health databases contain a wealth of data useful for research among vulnerable or isolated groups, who may be under-represented in traditional medical research. Identifying specific vulnerable populations, such as resettled refugees, can be particularly challenging; often country of birth is the sole indicator of whether an individual has a refugee background. The objective of this article was to review strengths and weaknesses of different methodological approaches to identifying resettled refugees and comparison groups from routine health datasets and to propose the application of additional methodological rigour in future research. Discussion Methodological approaches to selecting refugee and comparison groups from existing routine health datasets vary widely and are often explained in insufficient detail. Linked data systems or datasets from specialized refugee health services can accurately select resettled refugee and asylum seeker groups but have limited availability and can be selective. In contrast, country of birth is commonly collected in routine health datasets but a robust method for selecting humanitarian source countries based solely on this information is required. The authors recommend use of national immigration data to objectively identify countries of birth with high proportions of humanitarian entrants, matched by time period to the study dataset. When available, additional migration indicators may help to better understand migration as a health determinant. Methodologically, if multiple countries of birth are combined, the proportion of the sample represented by each country of birth should be included, with sub-analysis of individual countries of birth potentially providing further insights, if population size allows. United Nations-defined world regions provide an objective framework for combining countries of birth when necessary. A comparison group of economic migrants from the same world region may be appropriate

  3. Uranium resources, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The specific character of uranium as energy resources, the history of development of uranium resources, the production and reserve of uranium in the world, the prospect regarding the demand and supply of uranium, Japanese activity of exploring uranium resources in foreign countries and the state of development of uranium resources in various countries are reported. The formation of uranium deposits, the classification of uranium deposits and the reserve quantity of each type are described. As the geological environment of uranium deposits, there are six types, that is, quartz medium gravel conglomerate deposit, the deposit related to the unconformity in Proterozoic era, the dissemination type magma deposit, pegmatite deposit and contact deposit in igneaus rocks and metamorphic rocks, vein deposit, sandstone type deposit and the other types of deposit. The main features of respective types are explained. The most important uranium resources in Japan are those in the Tertiary formations, and most of the found reserve belongs to this type. The geological features, the state of yield and the scale of the deposits in Ningyotoge, Tono and Kanmon Mesozoic formation are reported. Uranium minerals, the promising districts in the world, and the matters related to the exploration and mining of uranium are described. (Kako, I.)

  4. Probabilistic seismic history matching using binary images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davolio, Alessandra; Schiozer, Denis Jose

    2018-02-01

    Currently, the goal of history-matching procedures is not only to provide a model matching any observed data but also to generate multiple matched models to properly handle uncertainties. One such approach is a probabilistic history-matching methodology based on the discrete Latin Hypercube sampling algorithm, proposed in previous works, which was particularly efficient for matching well data (production rates and pressure). 4D seismic (4DS) data have been increasingly included into history-matching procedures. A key issue in seismic history matching (SHM) is to transfer data into a common domain: impedance, amplitude or pressure, and saturation. In any case, seismic inversions and/or modeling are required, which can be time consuming. An alternative to avoid these procedures is using binary images in SHM as they allow the shape, rather than the physical values, of observed anomalies to be matched. This work presents the incorporation of binary images in SHM within the aforementioned probabilistic history matching. The application was performed with real data from a segment of the Norne benchmark case that presents strong 4D anomalies, including softening signals due to pressure build up. The binary images are used to match the pressurized zones observed in time-lapse data. Three history matchings were conducted using: only well data, well and 4DS data, and only 4DS. The methodology is very flexible and successfully utilized the addition of binary images for seismic objective functions. Results proved the good convergence of the method in few iterations for all three cases. The matched models of the first two cases provided the best results, with similar well matching quality. The second case provided models presenting pore pressure changes according to the expected dynamic behavior (pressurized zones) observed on 4DS data. The use of binary images in SHM is relatively new with few examples in the literature. This work enriches this discussion by presenting a new

  5. Pharmacovigilance activities in ASEAN countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwankesawong, Wimon; Dhippayom, Teerapon; Tan-Koi, Wei-Chuen; Kongkaew, Chuenjid

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the current landscape and identify challenges of pharmacovigilance (PV) among Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. This cross-sectional survey collected data from May 2014 to December 2015. Questionnaires seeking to collect information on resources, processes, roles and responsibility, and functions of PV systems were sent to relevant persons in the ASEAN countries. Functions of PV centers were measured using the minimum World Health Organization requirements for a functional national PV system. Performances of PV centers were measured by the following: (1) the indicators related to the average number of individual case safety reports (ICSR); (2) presence of signal detection activities and subsequent action; and (3) contribution to the global vigilance database. Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam completed the survey. PV systems in four surveyed countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand) achieved all aspects of the World Health Organization minimum requirement for a functional national PV system; the remaining countries were deemed to have unclear communication strategies and/or no official advisory committee. Average numbers of recent ICSR national returns ranged from 7 to 3817 reports/year/million population; three countries (Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand) demonstrated good performance in reporting system and reported signal detection activities and subsequent actions. All participating countries had submitted ICSRs to the Uppsala Monitoring Center during the survey period (2013-2015). Four participating countries had functional PV systems. PV capacity, functionality, and legislative framework varied depending on local healthcare ecosystem networks. Implementing effective communication strategies and/or technical assistance from the advisory committee are needed to strengthen PV in ASEAN. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright

  6. Tanzania country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    Objectives of this study are to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass, as well as other forestry products. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without and in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. Analysis of the mitigation scenario has been based on Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis (COMAP). This study has analysed the forestry and land use sector behaviour on the basis of the current policies on land and environment. Furthermore three scenarios have been developed on the basis of what is expected to happen in the sectors, the worse scenario being a catastrophic one where if things takes the business as usual trend then the forest resources will easily be depleted. The TFAP scenario takes into account the implementation of the current plans as scheduled while the mitigation scenario takes into account the GHG mitigation in the implementation of the plans. A Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis Process (COMAP) has been used to analyse the GHG and cost implications of the various programmes under the mitigation scenario. (au) 30 refs.

  7. Fractional Order Element Based Impedance Matching

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, Ahmed Gomaa

    2014-06-24

    Disclosed are various embodiments of methods and systems related to fractional order element based impedance matching. In one embodiment, a method includes aligning a traditional Smith chart (|.alpha.|=1) with a fractional order Smith chart (|.alpha.|.noteq.1). A load impedance is located on the traditional Smith chart and projected onto the fractional order Smith chart. A fractional order matching element is determined by transitioning along a matching circle of the fractional order Smith chart based at least in part upon characteristic line impedance. In another embodiment, a system includes a fractional order impedance matching application executed in a computing device. The fractional order impedance matching application includes logic that obtains a first set of Smith chart coordinates at a first order, determines a second set of Smith chart coordinates at a second order, and determines a fractional order matching element from the second set of Smith chart coordinates.

  8. Fast and compact regular expression matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Farach-Colton, Martin

    2008-01-01

    We study 4 problems in string matching, namely, regular expression matching, approximate regular expression matching, string edit distance, and subsequence indexing, on a standard word RAM model of computation that allows logarithmic-sized words to be manipulated in constant time. We show how...... to improve the space and/or remove a dependency on the alphabet size for each problem using either an improved tabulation technique of an existing algorithm or by combining known algorithms in a new way....

  9. Matching fields and lattice points of simplices

    OpenAIRE

    Loho, Georg; Smith, Ben

    2018-01-01

    We show that the Chow covectors of a linkage matching field define a bijection of lattice points and we demonstrate how one can recover the linkage matching field from this bijection. This resolves two open questions from Sturmfels & Zelevinsky (1993) on linkage matching fields. For this, we give an explicit construction that associates a bipartite incidence graph of an ordered partition of a common set to all lattice points in a dilated simplex. Given a triangulation of a product of two simp...

  10. Development of coal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    It is an important issue to expand stable coal supply areas for Japan, especially to assure stable supply of overseas coals. The investigations on geological structures in foreign countries perform surveys on geological structures in overseas coal producing countries and basic feasibility studies. The investigations select areas with greater business risks in coal producing countries and among private business entities. The geological structure investigations were carried out on China, Indonesia and Malaysia and the basic feasibility studies on Indonesia during fiscal 1994. The basic coal resource development investigations refer to the results of previous physical explorations and drilling tests to develop practical exploration technologies for coal resources in foreign countries. The development feasibility studies on overseas coals conduct technological consultation, surface surveys, physical explorations, and trial drilling operations, and provide fund assistance to activities related thereto. Fiscal 1994 has provided fund assistance to two projects in Indonesia and America. Fund loans are provided on investigations for development and import of overseas coals and other related activities. Liability guarantee for development fund is also described.

  11. Anomalous dispersion enhanced Cerenkov phase-matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalczyk, T.C.; Singer, K.D. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics; Cahill, P.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The authors report on a scheme for phase-matching second harmonic generation in polymer waveguides based on the use of anomalous dispersion to optimize Cerenkov phase matching. They have used the theoretical results of Hashizume et al. and Onda and Ito to design an optimum structure for phase-matched conversion. They have found that the use of anomalous dispersion in the design results in a 100-fold enhancement in the calculated conversion efficiency. This technique also overcomes the limitation of anomalous dispersion phase-matching which results from absorption at the second harmonic. Experiments are in progress to demonstrate these results.

  12. The Gastroenterology Fellowship Match: A Decade Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Robert J; Triadafilopoulos, George; Limsui, David

    2017-06-01

    Following a period of uncertainty and disorganization, the gastroenterology (GI) national leadership decided to reinstitute the fellowship match (the Match) under the auspices of the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP) in 2006. Although it has now been a decade since the rebirth of the Match, there have been limited data published regarding progress made. In this piece, we discuss reasons for the original collapse of the GI Match, including most notably a perceived oversupply of GI physicians and a poor job market. We discuss the negative impacts the absence of the Match had on programs and on applicants, as well as the impetus to reorganize the Match under the NRMP. We then utilize data published annually by the NRMP to demonstrate that in the decade since its rebirth, the GI Match has been remarkably successful in terms of attracting the participation of applicants and programs. We show that previous misguided concerns of an oversupply of GI physicians were not realized, and that GI fellowship positions remain highly competitive for internal medicine applicants. Finally, we discuss possible implications of recent changes in the healthcare landscape on the GI Match.

  13. Abordando la crisis de los Recursos Humanos para la Salud: ¿Hasta dónde hemos llegado? ¿Qué podemos esperar lograr al 2015? Addressing the Human Resources for Health crisis in countries: How far have we gone? What can we expect to achieve by 2015?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel M. Dayrit

    2011-06-01

    the most recent global studies and the indicators used to measure progress. It also features the experiences of 8 countries, namely Malawi, Peru, Ethiopia, Brazil, Thailand, Philippines, Zambia, Mali. Their situations provide a diverse picture of country efforts, challenges, and successes. The article asks the question of whether the target of 25% reduction in the number of crisis countries can be achieved by 2015. This was a goal set by the World Health Assembly in 2008. While the authors wish to remain optimistic about the striving towards this target, their optimism must be matched by an adequate level of investment in countries on HRH development. The next four years will show how much will really be achieved.

  14. Philippines Wind Energy Resource Atlas Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.

    2000-11-29

    This paper describes the creation of a comprehensive wind energy resource atlas for the Philippines. The atlas was created to facilitate the rapid identification of good wind resource areas and understanding of the salient wind characteristics. Detailed wind resource maps were generated for the entire country using an advanced wind mapping technique and innovative assessment methods recently developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  15. Health aid and governance in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, David

    2011-07-01

    Despite anecdotal evidence that the quality of governance in recipient countries affects the allocation of international health aid, there is no quantitative evidence on the magnitude of this effect, or on which dimensions of governance influence donor decisions. We measure health-aid flows over 1995-2006 for 109 aid recipients, matching aid data with measures of different dimensions of governance and a range of country-specific economic and health characteristics. Everything else being equal, countries with more political rights receive significantly more aid, but so do countries with higher corruption levels. The dependence of aid on political rights, even when we control for other governance indicators, suggests that health aid is sometimes used as an incentive to reward political reforms. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Building country image process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubović Jovan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The same branding principles are used for countries as they are used for the products, only the methods are different. Countries are competing among themselves in tourism, foreign investments and exports. Country turnover is at the level that the country's reputation is. The countries that begin as unknown or with a bad image will have limits in operations or they will be marginalized. As a result they will be at the bottom of the international influence scale. On the other hand, countries with a good image, like Germany (despite two world wars will have their products covered with a special "aura".

  17. The association of opium dependence and postoperative complications following coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a propensity-matched study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghian, Saeed; Karimi, Abbasali; Dowlatshahi, Samaneh; Ahmadi, Seyed Hossein; Davoodi, Saeed; Marzban, Mehrab; Movahedi, Namvar; Abbasi, Kyomars; Tazik, Mokhtar; Fathollahi, Mahmood Sheikh

    2009-01-01

    Opium is an overwhelming public health problem in some countries. Different studies have suggested this drug as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Although the effect of opium on immune system, lung disease, nephropathy, stroke, and cardiac arrhythmia has been found in different studies, its effect on postoperation complications is not clear yet. The authors conducted this study to assess the effect of opium on post operation in hospital complications among patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft. The authors retrospectively analyzed the data in this study. This study has been done at Tehran Heart Center. A total of 4,398 patients who had undergone isolated CABG were studied. Patients who fulfilled the DSM-IV-TR criteria for opium dependence (by smoking) were enrolled as Opium Dependent Patients. Also outcome variables were: Perioperative MI, septicemia, UTI, TIA, continuous coma, prolonged ventilation, pulmonary embolism, renal failure, acute limb ischemia, heart block, AF, mortality. The prevalence of opium dependence was 15.6percent among patients. The authors used a propensity matched model to analyze the relationship between opium and post operation complications. The authors adjusted opium and non-opium dependent patients in all of the baseline preoperative risk factors, so all of the matched patients were same and there was no bias in assessment. Opium dependent patients had significantly longer resource utilization. However, no significant relationship was found between opium dependence and other cardiac and non cardiac in hospital complications.

  18. A risk prediction model for the assessment and triage of women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in low-resourced settings: the miniPIERS (Pre-eclampsia Integrated Estimate of RiSk multi-country prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth A Payne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-eclampsia/eclampsia are leading causes of maternal mortality and morbidity, particularly in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs. We developed the miniPIERS risk prediction model to provide a simple, evidence-based tool to identify pregnant women in LMICs at increased risk of death or major hypertensive-related complications.From 1 July 2008 to 31 March 2012, in five LMICs, data were collected prospectively on 2,081 women with any hypertensive disorder of pregnancy admitted to a participating centre. Candidate predictors collected within 24 hours of admission were entered into a step-wise backward elimination logistic regression model to predict a composite adverse maternal outcome within 48 hours of admission. Model internal validation was accomplished by bootstrapping and external validation was completed using data from 1,300 women in the Pre-eclampsia Integrated Estimate of RiSk (fullPIERS dataset. Predictive performance was assessed for calibration, discrimination, and stratification capacity. The final miniPIERS model included: parity (nulliparous versus multiparous; gestational age on admission; headache/visual disturbances; chest pain/dyspnoea; vaginal bleeding with abdominal pain; systolic blood pressure; and dipstick proteinuria. The miniPIERS model was well-calibrated and had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC ROC of 0.768 (95% CI 0.735-0.801 with an average optimism of 0.037. External validation AUC ROC was 0.713 (95% CI 0.658-0.768. A predicted probability ≥25% to define a positive test classified women with 85.5% accuracy. Limitations of this study include the composite outcome and the broad inclusion criteria of any hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. This broad approach was used to optimize model generalizability.The miniPIERS model shows reasonable ability to identify women at increased risk of adverse maternal outcomes associated with the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. It could be

  19. Biomass energy resource enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grover, P D [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India)

    1995-12-01

    The demand for energy in developing countries is expected to increase to at least three times its present level within the next 25 years. If this demand is to be met by fossil fuels, an additional 2 billion tonnes of crude oil or 3 billion tonnes of coal would be needed every year. This consumption pattern, if allowed to proceed, would add 10 billion tonnes of CO{sub 2}, to the global atmosphere each year, with its attendant risk of global warming. Therefore, just for our survival, it is imperative to progressively replace fossil fuels by biomass energy resources and to enhance the efficiency of use of the latter. Biomass is not only environmentally benign but is also abundant. It is being photosynthesised at the rate of 200 billion tonnes of carbon every year, which is equivalent to 10 times the world`s present demand for energy. Presently, biomass energy resources are highly under-utilised in developing countries; when they are used it is through combustion, which is inefficient and causes widespread environmental pollution with its associated health hazards. Owing to the low bulk density and high moisture content of biomass, which make it difficult to collect, transport and store, as well as its ash-related thermochemical properties, its biodegradability and seasonal availability, the industrial use of biomass is limited to small and (some) medium-scale industries, most of which are unable to afford efficient but often costly energy conversion systems. Considering these constraints and the need to enhance the use base, biomass energy technologies appropriate to developing countries have been identified. Technologies such as briquetting and densification to upgrade biomass fuels are being adopted as conventional measures in some developing countries. The biomass energy base can be enhanced only once these technologies have been shown to be viable under local conditions and with local raw materials, after which they will multiply on their own, as has been the case

  20. Biomass energy resource enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, P.D.

    1995-01-01

    The demand for energy in developing countries is expected to increase to at least three times its present level within the next 25 years. If this demand is to be met by fossil fuels, an additional 2 billion tonnes of crude oil or 3 billion tonnes of coal would be needed every year. This consumption pattern, if allowed to proceed, would add 10 billion tonnes of CO 2 , to the global atmosphere each year, with its attendant risk of global warming. Therefore, just for our survival, it is imperative to progressively replace fossil fuels by biomass energy resources and to enhance the efficiency of use of the latter. Biomass is not only environmentally benign but is also abundant. It is being photosynthesised at the rate of 200 billion tonnes of carbon every year, which is equivalent to 10 times the world's present demand for energy. Presently, biomass energy resources are highly under-utilised in developing countries; when they are used it is through combustion, which is inefficient and causes widespread environmental pollution with its associated health hazards. Owing to the low bulk density and high moisture content of biomass, which make it difficult to collect, transport and store, as well as its ash-related thermochemical properties, its biodegradability and seasonal availability, the industrial use of biomass is limited to small and (some) medium-scale industries, most of which are unable to afford efficient but often costly energy conversion systems. Considering these constraints and the need to enhance the use base, biomass energy technologies appropriate to developing countries have been identified. Technologies such as briquetting and densification to upgrade biomass fuels are being adopted as conventional measures in some developing countries. The biomass energy base can be enhanced only once these technologies have been shown to be viable under local conditions and with local raw materials, after which they will multiply on their own, as has been the case

  1. On Tree-Constrained Matchings and Generalizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Canzar (Stefan); K. Elbassioni; G.W. Klau (Gunnar); J. Mestre

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractWe consider the following \\textsc{Tree-Constrained Bipartite Matching} problem: Given two rooted trees $T_1=(V_1,E_1)$, $T_2=(V_2,E_2)$ and a weight function $w: V_1\\times V_2 \\mapsto \\mathbb{R}_+$, find a maximum weight matching $\\mathcal{M}$ between nodes of the two trees, such that

  2. Matching of Tore Supra ICRH antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladurelle, L.; Beaumont, B.; Kuus, H.; Lombard, G.

    1994-01-01

    An automatic matching method is described for Tore Supra ICRH antennas based on impedance variations seen at their feed points. Error signals derived from directional voltage and phase measurements in the feeder allow to control the matching capacitors values for optimal power transmission. (author) 5 refs.; 9 figs

  3. DOE/Industry Matching Grant Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, John C.

    2003-01-01

    For the academic year 2001-2002, the Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences received $50,000 of industrial contributions, matched by a DOE grant of $35,000. We used the combined DOE/Industry Matching Grant of $85,000 toward (a) undergraduate merit scholarships and research support, (b) graduate student support, and (c) partial support of a research scientist

  4. Object-based connectedness facilitates matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, A.R.; Lier, R.J. van

    2003-01-01

    In two matching tasks, participants had to match two images of object pairs. Image-based (113) connectedness refers to connectedness between the objects in an image. Object-based (OB) connectedness refers to connectedness between the interpreted objects. In Experiment 1, a monocular depth cue

  5. On solution concepts for matching games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biro, Peter; Kern, Walter; Paulusma, Daniël; Kratochvil, J.; Li, A.; Fiala, J.; Kolman, P.

    A matching game is a cooperative game $(N,v)$ defined on a graph $G = (N,E)$ with an edge weighting $\\omega : E \\to {\\Bbb R}_+$ . The player set is $N$ and the value of a coalition $S \\subseteq  N$ is defined as the maximum weight of a matching in the subgraph induced by $S$. First we present an

  6. Equilibrium and matching under price controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herings, P.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    The paper considers a one-to-one matching with contracts model in the presence of price controls. This set-up contains two important streams in the matching literature, those with and those without monetary transfers, as special cases and allows for intermediate cases with some restrictions on the

  7. Competence Matching Tool - Explanations and Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herder, Eelco; Kärger, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    Herder, E., Kärger, P. (2009) Competence Matching Tool - Explanations and Implementation. The document contains the technical specification of the competence matching tool. The tool can be found at http://tencompetence.cvs.sourceforge.net/viewvc/tencompetence/wp7/CompetenceMatcher/ and the location

  8. Matching Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis' Spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dos Anjos, António; AL-Tam, Faroq; Shahbazkia, Hamid Reza

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches. This ar...

  9. Local Stereo Matching Using Adaptive Local Segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damjanovic, S.; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    We propose a new dense local stereo matching framework for gray-level images based on an adaptive local segmentation using a dynamic threshold. We define a new validity domain of the fronto-parallel assumption based on the local intensity variations in the 4-neighborhood of the matching pixel. The

  10. Dynamic Matchings in Convex Bipartite Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Georgiadis, Loukas; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt

    2007-01-01

    We consider the problem of maintaining a maximum matching in a convex bipartite graph G = (V,E) under a set of update operations which includes insertions and deletions of vertices and edges. It is not hard to show that it is impossible to maintain an explicit representation of a maximum matching...

  11. The first safe country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaela Puggioni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Dublin II Regulation makes the first safe country of refuge solelyresponsible for refugees and asylum seekers. In the case of Italy, thefirst responsible country has not been acting responsibly.

  12. Electric network interconnection of Mashreq Arab Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Amin, I.M.; Al-Shehri, A.M.; Opoku, G.; Al-Baiyat, S.A.; Zedan, F.M.

    1994-01-01

    Power system interconnection is a well established practice for a variety of technical and economical reasons. Several interconnected networks exist worldwide for a number of factors. Some of these networks cross international boundaries. This presentation discusses the future developments of the power systems of Mashreq Arab Countries (MAC). MAC consists of Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Yemen. Mac power systems are operated by government or semigovernment bodies. Many of these countries have national or regional electric grids but are generally isolated from each other. With the exception of Saudi Arabia power systems, which employ 60 Hz, all other MAC utilities use 50 Hz frequency. Each country is served by one utility, except Saudi Arabia, which is served by four major utilities and some smaller utilities serving remote towns and small load centers. The major utilities are the Saudi Consolidated electric Company in the Eastern Province (SCECO East), SCECO Center, SCECO West, and SCECO South. These are the ones considered in this study. The energy resources in MAC are varied. Countries such as Egypt, Iraq, and Syria have significant hydro resources.The gulf countries and Iraq have abundant fossil fuel, The variation in energy resources as well as the characteristics of the electric load make it essential to look into interconnections beyond the national boundaries. Most of the existing or planned interconnections involve few power systems. A study involving 12 countries and over 20 utilities with different characteristics represents a very large scale undertaking

  13. Technical performance and match-to-match variation in elite football teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyou; Gómez, Miguel-Angel; Gonçalves, Bruno; Sampaio, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that match-to-match variation adds important information to performance descriptors in team sports, as it helps measure how players fine-tune their tactical behaviours and technical actions to the extreme dynamical environments. The current study aims to identify the differences in technical performance of players from strong and weak teams and to explore match-to-match variation of players' technical match performance. Performance data of all the 380 matches of season 2012-2013 in the Spanish First Division Professional Football League were analysed. Twenty-one performance-related match actions and events were chosen as variables in the analyses. Players' technical performance profiles were established by unifying count values of each action or event of each player per match into the same scale. Means of these count values of players from Top3 and Bottom3 teams were compared and plotted into radar charts. Coefficient of variation of each match action or event within a player was calculated to represent his match-to-match variation of technical performance. Differences in the variation of technical performances of players across different match contexts (team and opposition strength, match outcome and match location) were compared. All the comparisons were achieved by the magnitude-based inferences. Results showed that technical performances differed between players of strong and weak teams from different perspectives across different field positions. Furthermore, the variation of the players' technical performance is affected by the match context, with effects from team and opposition strength greater than effects from match location and match outcome.

  14. Stereo Matching Based On Election Campaign Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Qing Hua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stereo matching is one of the significant problems in the study of the computer vision. By getting the distance information through pixels, it is possible to reproduce a three-dimensional stereo. In this paper, the edges are the primitives for matching, the grey values of the edges and the magnitude and direction of the edge gradient were figured out as the properties of the edge feature points, according to the constraints for stereo matching, the energy function was built for finding the route minimizing by election campaign optimization algorithm during the process of stereo matching was applied to this problem the energy function. Experiment results show that this algorithm is more stable and it can get the matching result with better accuracy.

  15. Fiber cavities with integrated mode matching optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Gurpreet Kaur; Takahashi, Hiroki; Podoliak, Nina; Horak, Peter; Keller, Matthias

    2017-07-17

    In fiber based Fabry-Pérot Cavities (FFPCs), limited spatial mode matching between the cavity mode and input/output modes has been the main hindrance for many applications. We have demonstrated a versatile mode matching method for FFPCs. Our novel design employs an assembly of a graded-index and large core multimode fiber directly spliced to a single mode fiber. This all-fiber assembly transforms the propagating mode of the single mode fiber to match with the mode of a FFPC. As a result, we have measured a mode matching of 90% for a cavity length of ~400 μm. This is a significant improvement compared to conventional FFPCs coupled with just a single mode fiber, especially at long cavity lengths. Adjusting the parameters of the assembly, the fundamental cavity mode can be matched with the mode of almost any single mode fiber, making this approach highly versatile and integrable.

  16. Semantic Data Matching: Principles and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Russell; Doan, Thao; Schweiger, Tom

    Automated and real-time management of customer relationships requires robust and intelligent data matching across widespread and diverse data sources. Simple string matching algorithms, such as dynamic programming, can handle typographical errors in the data, but are less able to match records that require contextual and experiential knowledge. Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) (Berry et al. ; Deerwester et al. is a machine intelligence technique that can match data based upon higher order structure, and is able to handle difficult problems, such as words that have different meanings but the same spelling, are synonymous, or have multiple meanings. Essentially, the technique matches records based upon context, or mathematically quantifying when terms occur in the same record.

  17. Construction industry in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moavenzadeh, F

    1978-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the construction capability available in the developing countries to meet the demand for shelter. It discusses the role of construction in the process of development and its importance to economic growth. It considers the issue facing the growth of a viable indigenous construction industry in the developing world within the context of the activities involved in the creation of constructed facilities--planning, design, contruction and maintenance; it also examines the environment within which the industry has developed. For each construction activity the paper reviews available capabilities, the various resources needed for the development of an indigenous industry, and some possible means of accommodating these needs.

  18. Uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangloff, A.

    1978-01-01

    It is first indicated how to evaluate the mining resources as a function of the cost of production and the degree of certainty in the knowledge of the deposit. A table is given of the world resources (at the beginning 1977) and resources and reserves are compared. There is a concordance between requirements and possible production until 1990. The case of France is examined: known reserves, present and future prospection, present production (In 1978 2200 T of U metal will be produced from 3 French processing plants), production coming from Cogema. A total production of 2000 T in 1980 and 10.000 in 1985 is expected [fr

  19. Radiotherapy in small countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Michael B; Zubizarreta, Eduardo H; Polo Rubio, J Alfredo

    2017-10-01

    To examine the availability of radiotherapy in small countries. A small country was defined as a country with a population less than one million persons. The economic status of each country was defined using the World Bank Classification. The number of cancers in each country was obtained from GLOBOCAN 2012. The number of cancer cases with an indication or radiotherapy was calculated using the CCORE model. There were 41 countries with a population of under 1 million; 15 were classified as High Income, 15 Upper Middle Income, 10 Lower Middle Income and one Low Income. 28 countries were islands. Populations ranged from 799 (Holy See) to 886450 (Fiji) and the total number of cancer cases occurring in small countries was 21,043 (range by country from 4 to 2476). Overall the total number of radiotherapy cases in small countries was 10982 (range by country from 2 to 1239). Radiotherapy was available in all HIC islands with 80 or more new cases of cancer in 2012 but was not available in any LMIC island. Fiji was the only LMIC island with a large radiotherapy caseload. Similar caseloads in non-island LMIC all had radiotherapy services. Most non-island HIC did not have radiotherapy services presumably because of the easy access to radiotherapy in neighbouring countries. There are no radiotherapy services in any LMIC islands. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Trade policies, institutions and the natural resource curse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arezki, R.; van der Ploeg, F.

    2010-01-01

    We offer new cross-country evidence on the natural resource curse. We investigate the impact of the interaction of natural resource abundance and policies on growth. We find that the resource curse is less severe in countries with less restrictive trade policies and good institutions. However, we

  1. Transposition and national level resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasev, Nikolay Rumenov; Vrangbæk, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Several recent papers have summarised the status of EU implementation studies. In this paper we suggest that the issue of sector specific resources has received too little attention in previous studies. Sector specific resources include “health sector resources” and “state administrative resources......”. Our theoretical contribution is thus to add an explicit and more detailed concern for "sector specific resources" in national transposition. This can refine the understanding of resources, for example in the multi-variable models that are emerging as the state of the art in the field of EU...... implementation studies. To illustrate these points we have chosen an empirical design focusing on a directive with a potentially high impact on system resources and several ambiguous components (the Cross Border Health Care Directive). We have further chosen to focus on two Eastern European countries (Bulgaria...

  2. The Interaction Between Schema Matching and Record Matching in Data Integration

    KAUST Repository

    Gu, Binbin; Li, Zhixu; Zhang, Xiangliang; Liu, An; Liu, Guanfeng; Zheng, Kai; Zhao, Lei; Zhou, Xiaofang

    2016-01-01

    Schema Matching (SM) and Record Matching (RM) are two necessary steps in integrating multiple relational tables of different schemas, where SM unifies the schemas and RM detects records referring to the same real-world entity. The two processes have

  3. Distortion analysis on binary representation of minutiae based fingerprint matching for match-on-card

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mlambo, CS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The fingerprint matching on the smart card has long been developed and recognized faster method than fingerprint matching on a computer or large capacity systems. There has been much research and activities concerned with improving the accuracy...

  4. Natural resources, innovation and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Allan Dahl; Johnson, Bjørn Harold; Marín, Anabel

    be supported politically? The Globelics review considers a range of contemporary and historical studies and diverse theoretical positions concerning resource intensive development paths. The intention is to make it easier for analysts and policy makers to learn both from countries that in the past have......In this Globelics Thematic Review, the author team presents and discusses recent research on the relationships between natural resources, innovation and development, and suggests some implications of this body of knowledge for policy makers. The Review sets out to explore three interlinked...... questions with a particular focus on innovation and industry dynamics. First, to what extent is it currently possible for a country to develop on the basis of natural resources? Second, what are the main underlying mechanisms of resource intensive development paths? Third, how can such mechanisms...

  5. An Image Matching Algorithm Integrating Global SRTM and Image Segmentation for Multi-Source Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Ling

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel image matching method for multi-source satellite images, which integrates global Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM data and image segmentation to achieve robust and numerous correspondences. This method first generates the epipolar lines as a geometric constraint assisted by global SRTM data, after which the seed points are selected and matched. To produce more reliable matching results, a region segmentation-based matching propagation is proposed in this paper, whereby the region segmentations are extracted by image segmentation and are considered to be a spatial constraint. Moreover, a similarity measure integrating Distance, Angle and Normalized Cross-Correlation (DANCC, which considers geometric similarity and radiometric similarity, is introduced to find the optimal correspondences. Experiments using typical satellite images acquired from Resources Satellite-3 (ZY-3, Mapping Satellite-1, SPOT-5 and Google Earth demonstrated that the proposed method is able to produce reliable and accurate matching results.

  6. A FPGA-based architecture for real-time image matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhui; Zhong, Sheng; Xu, Wenhui; Zhang, Weijun; Cao, Zhiguo

    2013-10-01

    Image matching is a fundamental task in computer vision. It is used to establish correspondence between two images taken at different viewpoint or different time from the same scene. However, its large computational complexity has been a challenge to most embedded systems. This paper proposes a single FPGA-based image matching system, which consists of SIFT feature detection, BRIEF descriptor extraction and BRIEF matching. It optimizes the FPGA architecture for the SIFT feature detection to reduce the FPGA resources utilization. Moreover, we implement BRIEF description and matching on FPGA also. The proposed system can implement image matching at 30fps (frame per second) for 1280x720 images. Its processing speed can meet the demand of most real-life computer vision applications.

  7. Oil exporting countries need nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, T.R.

    1982-01-01

    The economic rationale for nuclear power in the oil exporting countries is analysed, with the collateral objective of defining the size of the potential market in terms of the exporting countries' economic opportunities and energy needs. The need for appropriate new institutions for licensing reactors, training personnel, and starting up plants follows directly from the size of the market and the economic incentives for the oil exporters to husband gas and oil. Gas and oil resources of the Middle Eastern countries are discussed, and future electricity needs estimated. (author)

  8. 4. Rapidly industrializing countries: Forging new models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starke, L.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the following: the experience of newly industrializing countries (NIC); human development; broadening economic development; conserving natural resources (agriculture, forests, air quality); energy consumption; using more efficient technology; new markets and new products. Governments in rapidly industrializing countries can do a great deal to steer development in a sustainable direction by adopting appropriate policies - many of which are discussed in this and preceding chapters. Governments in industrialized countries also have an important role to play by offering the necessary technical and financial assistance to support this kind of development. The chapter uses as examples Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand

  9. Seaweed resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukhe, G.V.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Untawale, A.G.

    The chapter summarizes our present knowledge of the seaweed resources of the Indian Ocean region with regard to the phytogeographical distribution, composition, biomass, utilization, cultivation, conservation and management. The voluminous data...

  10. Arthritis - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/menus/arthritis.cfm Arthritis Foundation -- www.arthritis.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www. ...

  11. Mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    (placers), biogenous (ooze, limestone) or chemogenous (phosphorites and polymetallic nodules) type. In recent years, hydrothermal deposits, cobalt crust and methane gas hydrates are considered as frontier resources. Their distribution depends upon proximity...

  12. Depression - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depression/ ...

  13. Hemophilia - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - hemophilia ... The following organizations provide further information on hemophilia : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hemophilia/index.html National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ ...

  14. Diabetes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - diabetes ... The following sites provide further information on diabetes: American Diabetes Association -- www.diabetes.org Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International -- www.jdrf.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion -- ...

  15. Country watch: India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, A; Sehgal, P N

    1995-01-01

    Linking more than 3000 health and development organizations, the Voluntary Health Association of India (VHAI) is one of the largest networks in the country. In 1990 VHAI began incorporating HIV/STD-related activities into its broader programs. An existing infrastructure for intersectoral collaboration in the areas of community health promotion, public policy, information and documentation, and communications facilitated inclusion of the new activities. Several VHAI departments collaborate in offering training courses, workshops, and seminars at the state and community levels to involve nongovernmental organizations and professional groups in HIV/STD prevention and counseling. More than 950 persons have been trained so far, including trainers of primary health care workers, family physicians, medical practitioners, social scientists, teachers, community volunteer workers, and youth leaders. Local experts act as training resource persons; materials produced locally, abroad, and by VHAI itself are used. Training facilities are offered free of charge to member organizations; VHAI also awards fellowships for field training and financial support for approved projects. VHAI suggests intervention measures to governmental and nongovernmental organizations related to drug users, youth, truck drivers, blood donors, and people living with HIV/AIDS. The information, documentation, and communications departments provide members with a wide variety of information, education, and communication (IEC) materials that can be translated into local languages: posters, folders, flip charts, stickers, and folk songs. VHAI advocacy issues that have been highlighted through the press include: confidentiality, protection against discrimination, the right of all persons to health care, and the need to make properly-equipped STD clinics available. VHAI has established sub-networks in Tamil Nadu (155 organizations) and Manipur (55 organizations) states. VHAI has found that incorporating HIV

  16. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  17. The gender pay gap in Europe: an international comparison with matched employer-employee data

    OpenAIRE

    Simón Pérez, Hipólito J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the origin of the gender wage gap and of its cross-country heterogeneity using unique harmonized international matched employer-employee microdata for nine representative European countries. Evidence obtained uncovers that female segregation into low-paying workplaces is by and large an outstanding origin of both the gender pay gap in every European economy and of international differences in its magnitude. Empirical results also suggest that, in contrast with the findings...

  18. Identification of Requirements for Computer-Supported Matching of Food Consumption Data with Food Composition Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Koroušić Seljak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the requirements for computer-supported food matching, in order to address not only national and European but also international current related needs and represents an integrated research contribution of the FP7 EuroDISH project. The available classification and coding systems and the specific problems of food matching are summarized and a new concept for food matching based on optimization methods and machine-based learning is proposed. To illustrate and test this concept, a study has been conducted in four European countries (i.e., Germany, The Netherlands, Italy and the UK using different classification and coding systems. This real case study enabled us to evaluate the new food matching concept and provide further recommendations for future work. In the first stage of the study, we prepared subsets of food consumption data described and classified using different systems, that had already been manually matched with national food composition data. Once the food matching algorithm was trained using this data, testing was performed on another subset of food consumption data. Experts from different countries validated food matching between consumption and composition data by selecting best matches from the options given by the matching algorithm without seeing the result of the previously made manual match. The evaluation of study results stressed the importance of the role and quality of the food composition database as compared to the selected classification and/or coding systems and the need to continue compiling national food composition data as eating habits and national dishes still vary between countries. Although some countries managed to collect extensive sets of food consumption data, these cannot be easily matched with food composition data if either food consumption or food composition data are not properly classified and described using any classification and coding systems. The study also showed that the

  19. Identification of Requirements for Computer-Supported Matching of Food Consumption Data with Food Composition Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korošec, Peter; Eftimov, Tome; Ocke, Marga; van der Laan, Jan; Roe, Mark; Berry, Rachel; Turrini, Aida; Krems, Carolin; Slimani, Nadia; Finglas, Paul

    2018-01-01

    This paper identifies the requirements for computer-supported food matching, in order to address not only national and European but also international current related needs and represents an integrated research contribution of the FP7 EuroDISH project. The available classification and coding systems and the specific problems of food matching are summarized and a new concept for food matching based on optimization methods and machine-based learning is proposed. To illustrate and test this concept, a study has been conducted in four European countries (i.e., Germany, The Netherlands, Italy and the UK) using different classification and coding systems. This real case study enabled us to evaluate the new food matching concept and provide further recommendations for future work. In the first stage of the study, we prepared subsets of food consumption data described and classified using different systems, that had already been manually matched with national food composition data. Once the food matching algorithm was trained using this data, testing was performed on another subset of food consumption data. Experts from different countries validated food matching between consumption and composition data by selecting best matches from the options given by the matching algorithm without seeing the result of the previously made manual match. The evaluation of study results stressed the importance of the role and quality of the food composition database as compared to the selected classification and/or coding systems and the need to continue compiling national food composition data as eating habits and national dishes still vary between countries. Although some countries managed to collect extensive sets of food consumption data, these cannot be easily matched with food composition data if either food consumption or food composition data are not properly classified and described using any classification and coding systems. The study also showed that the level of human

  20. MR angiography with a matched filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Castro, J.B.; Riederer, S.J.; Lee, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    The technique of matched filtering was applied to a series of cine MR images. The filter was devised to yield a subtraction angiographic image in which direct current components present in the cine series are removed and the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the vascular structures is optimized. The S/N of a matched filter was compared with that of a simple subtraction, in which an image with high flow is subtracted from one with low flow. Experimentally, a range of results from minimal improvement to significant (60%) improvement in S/N was seen in the comparisons of matched filtered subtraction with simple subtraction