WorldWideScience

Sample records for countries including utilization

  1. A study on the enhancement of nuclear cooperation with African countries including utilization of radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B; Lee, H. M. and others

    2005-05-15

    In this study, potential countries for nuclear cooperation in African region and possible cooperation areas were investigated between Korea and African countries including radioisotopes and more fields were also analysed in depth in order to suggest the recommendations for future cooperation to be considered as follows; First, current status and perspectives of demand and supply of energy and electricity in the African countries, use and development of nuclear energy and international nuclear cooperation were analyzed. Second, current status of nuclear cooperation between Korea and African countries were investigated as well as analysis of future cooperation potential and countries having potential for nuclear cooperation and possible cooperative activities were suggested considering potential of nuclear market in mid- and long term base and step by step. Third, desirable strategies and directions for the establishment and promotion of nuclear cooperation relations between Korea and African developing countries were suggested in order to develope cooperative relations in efficient and effective manners with African developing countries.

  2. A study on the enhancement of nuclear cooperation with African countries including utilization of radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B; Lee, H. M. and others

    2005-05-01

    In this study, potential countries for nuclear cooperation in African region and possible cooperation areas were investigated between Korea and African countries including radioisotopes and more fields were also analysed in depth in order to suggest the recommendations for future cooperation to be considered as follows; First, current status and perspectives of demand and supply of energy and electricity in the African countries, use and development of nuclear energy and international nuclear cooperation were analyzed. Second, current status of nuclear cooperation between Korea and African countries were investigated as well as analysis of future cooperation potential and countries having potential for nuclear cooperation and possible cooperative activities were suggested considering potential of nuclear market in mid- and long term base and step by step. Third, desirable strategies and directions for the establishment and promotion of nuclear cooperation relations between Korea and African developing countries were suggested in order to develope cooperative relations in efficient and effective manners with African developing countries

  3. Country report: utilization of MINT's research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ab Khalic b Hj Wood; Adnan b Bukhari; Wee Boon Siong

    2004-01-01

    MINT has only one research reactor, i.e. TRIGA MKII reactor, equipped with various neutron irradiation facilities such as rotary rack and rabbit system. Apart from counting facilities for NAA work, other facilities available for the respective studies include facilities for neutron radiography and SANS. At Present most of reactor operation time has been utilized for samples irradiation related to the NAA application. Majority of the samples are from MINT analytical chemistry laboratory where the present authors work, and the rest of the samples are from local universities. They provide analytical chemistry services for other government departments as well as private companies. In order to improve the reactor utilization, the management of MINT has formed Reactor Interest Group (RIG) at the national level in 2002, which embraces members from various institutions in this country. To support the RIG activities, MINT provides seed funding to finance various activities for the reactor utilization, which include financing project to make use of SANS, neutron radiography and radioisotopes production (mainly for tracer studies carried out by MINT's tracer group) facilities, and funding for basic study in BNCT. (author)

  4. Production, control and utilization of radioisotopes including radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenze, R.

    1985-05-01

    From April 29th to May 5th, 1984 27 participants from 21 developing countries stayed within an IAEA Study Tour ('Production, Control and Utilization of Radioisotopes including Radiopharmaceuticals') in the GDR. In the CINR, Rossendorf the reactor, the cyclotron, the technological centre as well as the animal test laboratory were visited. The participants were made familiar by 10 papers with the development, production and control of radiopharmaceuticals in the CINR, Rossendorf. (author)

  5. Utilities reforms and corruption in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estache, Antonio; Goicoechea, Ana; Trujillo, Lourdes

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows empirically that 'privatization' in the energy, telecommunications, and water sectors, and the introduction of independent regulators in those sectors, have not always had the expected effects on access, affordability, or quality of services. It also shows that corruption leads to adjustments in the quantity, quality, and price of services consistent with the profit-maximizing behavior that one would expect from monopolies in the sector. Finally, our results suggest that privatization and the introduction of independent regulators have, at best, only partial effects on the consequences of corruption for access, affordability, and quality of utilities services. (author)

  6. Utilities reforms and corruption in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estache, Antonio [ECARES, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium); Goicoechea, Ana [The World Bank, Washington, DC (United States); Trujillo, Lourdes [DAEA, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Centre for Transport Studies, University College of London (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    This paper shows empirically that 'privatization' in the energy, telecommunications, and water sectors, and the introduction of independent regulators in those sectors, have not always had the expected effects on access, affordability, or quality of services. It also shows that corruption leads to adjustments in the quantity, quality, and price of services consistent with the profit-maximizing behavior that one would expect from monopolies in the sector. Finally, our results suggest that privatization and the introduction of independent regulators have, at best, only partial effects on the consequences of corruption for access, affordability, and quality of utilities services. (author)

  7. [The informed consent in international clinical trials including developing countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro Surís, Alexander; Monreal Agüero, Magda Elaine

    2008-01-01

    The informed consent procedure has been one of the most important controversies of ethical debates about clinical trials in developing countries. In this essay we present our recommendations about important aspects to consider in the informed consent procedure for clinical trials in developing countries. We performed a full publications review identified by MEDLINE using these terms combinations: informed consent, developing countries, less developed countries and clinical trials. To protect volunteers in less developed countries should be valuated the importance of the community in the informed consent proceeding. The signing and dating of the informed consent form is not always the best procedure to document the informed consent. The informed consent form should be written by local translators. Alternative medias of communications could be needed for communicatios of the information to volunteers. Comparing with developed countries the informed consent proceeding in clinical trials in developing countries frequently require additional efforts. The developing of pragmatic researches is needed to implement informed consent proceedings assuring subjects voluntarily in each developing country. The main aspects to define in each clinical trial for each country are the influence of the community, the effective communication of the information, the documentation of the informed consent and local authority's control.

  8. Efficiency in wood and fiber utilization in OECD countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroko Kando; Joseph Buongiorno

    2009-01-01

    Utilization efficiency has been defined as the ratio of the amount of industrial roundwood (or wood pulp) consumed in a country and year to the amount that would have been consumed to produce the same output with a reference technology.  The reference technology was described by the average input-output relationships in countries of the Organization for Economic...

  9. Ruminant production systems in developing countries: Resource utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devendra, C.

    1989-01-01

    Ruminant production systems are discussed with specific reference to the resource utilization required to support them. Particular focus is placed on the main production resources (animals and feeds) and their underutilization. The ruminant animals include buffaloes, cattle, goats, sheep and camels. With the exception of cattle and sheep, their numbers in developing countries account for between 94 and 100% of total world population. Their biological attributes, including inherent characteristics, feeding behaviour and metabolism, are summarized. The extent and availability of feed resources are considered; resources include permanent pastures, crop residues, agroindustrial by-products and non-conventional feeds. The prevailing ruminant production systems are classified into three main categories: extensive systems, systems incorporating arable cropping (roadside, communal and arable grazing systems; tethering and cut-and-carry feeding), and systems integrated with tree cropping. Their genesis and endurance with patterns of crop production and farming systems are discussed. Integrated systems, involving animals and tree crops, are potentially important. Prevailing ruminant production systems are unlikely to change in the foreseeable future, unless there are major shifts in resource use and the proposed new systems are demonstrably superior. Factors likely to influence future ruminant production systems are market requirements, available feed resources and growth in human populations. Two associated strategies for improvement are proposed: increased priority to buffaloes, goats, sheep and camels, consistent with their potential contribution to meat, milk and fibre supplies and draught power; and more complete utilization of the available feed ingredients and increased feed supplies

  10. Inequalities in maternal health care utilization in sub-Saharan African countries: a multiyear and multi-country analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmul Alam

    Full Text Available To assess social inequalities in the use of antenatal care (ANC, facility based delivery (FBD, and modern contraception (MC in two contrasting groups of countries in sub-Saharan Africa divided based on their progress towards maternal mortality reduction. Six countries were included in this study. Three countries (Ethiopia, Madagascar, and Uganda had 4.5% average annual reduction rate while another three (Cameroon, Zambia, and Zimbabwe had >550 MMR in 2010 with only <1.5% average annual reduction rate. All of these countries had at least three rounds of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS before 2012. We measured rate ratios and differences, as well as relative and absolute concentration indices in order to examine within-country geographical and wealth-based inequalities in the utilization of ANC, FBD, and MC. In the countries which have made sufficient progress (i.e. Ethiopia, Madagascar, and Uganda, ANC use increased by 8.7, 9.3 and 5.7 percent, respectively, while the utilization of FBD increased by 4.7, 0.7 and 20.2 percent, respectively, over the last decade. By contrast, utilization of these services either plateaued or decreased in countries which did not make progress towards reducing maternal mortality, with the exception of Cameroon. Utilization of MC increased in all six countries but remained very low, with a high of 40.5% in Zimbabwe and low of 16.1% in Cameroon as of 2011. In general, relative measures of inequalities were found to have declined overtime in countries making progress towards reducing maternal mortality. In countries with insufficient progress towards maternal mortality reduction, these indicators remained stagnant or increased. Absolute measures for geographical and wealth-based inequalities remained high invariably in all six countries. The increasing trend in the utilization of maternal care services was found to concur with a steady decline in maternal mortality. Relative inequality declined overtime in countries

  11. Evaluating Tobacco Control Policies in 28 Countries (including 9 EU countries: The ITC Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Fong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Since its start in 2002, the ITC Project has been conducting evaluation studies of tobacco control policies via prospective cohort surveys of tobacco users in 28 countries, including 9 EU countries. This presentation will focus on the design of the ITC Project and how it differs from and complements existing evidence-gathering systems (monitoring and surveillance systems in measuring and understanding the impact of FCTC policies. The presentation will also describe the ITC Project's most recent initiatives: (1 the EUREST-PLUS study focusing on measuring the impact of the Tobacco Products Directive, and (2 a large-scale international cohort study of e-cigarettes starting in the United States, Canada, England, and Australia.

  12. Enhancement of research reactor utilization in the developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, J.; Butt, N.M.

    1994-06-01

    As the research reactor represents a significant capital investment on the part of any institution and in addition there are recurring annual operating costs, therefore, the subject of its effective utilization has always been of interest. World wide there are about three hundred research reactors. Of these, 92 are located in the developing countries. Together, these reactors represent quite significant research potential. In the present paper, reasons of under utilization, procedures necessary to measure the productivity, ways and means of enhancing the utilization of research reactors are described. In the end, use of two research reactors at PINSTECH are described to illustrate some of the ways in which a successful utilization of a research reactor can made in the developing country. (author) 9 figs

  13. Utilizing Municipal Trees: Ideas From Across the Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen M. Bratkovich

    2001-01-01

    To show how municipal tree removals can be utilized for traditional wood products, this publication highlights 16 successful projects from around the country. These case studies are organized by the different types of participants: State and regional partnerships, municipalities, tree service firms, entrepreneurs, and sawmills. Contact information is provided for each...

  14. Policy alternatives in reforming energy utilities in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriele, Alberto

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the policy alternatives faced by developing countries in their endeavor to preserve and develop their electricity and gas systems, two service-oriented industries which--along with oil--provide the bulk of energy supply both in developed and in developing countries. Even in very poor countries, industrially generated energy is indispensable for carrying out most economic activities. Therefore, governments traditionally recognize that the supply of gas and electricity entails a fundamental public service dimension. The Introduction presents the case for reforming of energy utilities, discusses in general terms the pros and cons of privatization, and attempts to locate the reforms in a broader historical framework in which developing countries' governments faced characterized by increasing financial hardship. Section 2 constitutes the core of the paper. It reviews the main features of gas and power sector reforms in the developing world and analyzes specifically the cases of five semi-industrialized countries in Latin America and Asia. Section 3 (Concluding remarks) briefly evaluates the country experiences reviewed above and indicates a few policy lessons which can be learnt from them. The main conclusion is that, in a long-run development perspective, full-scale privatization of gas and power sectors in developing countries entails significant risks, and therefore a flexible policy approach is preferable to a rigid commitment to extensive liberalization

  15. Factors affecting nuclear research reactor utilization across countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hien, P.D.

    2000-01-01

    In view of the worldwide declining trend of research reactor utilization and the fact that many reactors in developing countries are under-utilised, a question naturally arises as to whether the investment in a research reactor is justifiable. Statistical analyses were applied to reveal relationships between the status of reactor utilization and socio-economic conditions among countries, that may provide a guidance for reactor planning and cost benefit assessment. The reactor power has significant regression relationships with size indicators such as GNP, electricity consumption and R and D expenditure. Concerning the effectiveness of investment in research reactors, the number of reactor operation days per year only weakly correlates with electricity consumption and R and D expenditure, implying that there are controlling factors specific of each group of countries. In the case of less developed countries, the low customer demands on reactor operation may be associated with the failure in achieving quality assurance for the reactor products and services, inadequate investment in the infrastructure for reactor exploitation, the shortage of R and D funding and well trained manpower and the lack of measures to get the scientific community involved in the application of nuclear techniques. (author)

  16. Utilization and expenditure at public and private facilities in 39 low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksena, Priyanka; Xu, Ke; Elovainio, Riku; Perrot, Jean

    2012-01-01

    To document the patterns of health service utilization and health payments at public and private facilities across countries. We used data from the World Health Surveys from 39 low- and low-middle income countries to examine differences between public and private sectors. Utilization of outpatient and inpatient services, out-of-pocket payments (OOP) at public and private facilities, and transportation costs were compared. Utilization and payments to public and private sectors differ widely. Public facilities dominated in most countries for both outpatient and inpatient services. But, whereas use of private facilities is more common among the rich, poor people also use them, to a considerable extent and in almost all the countries in the study. The majority of OOP were incurred at public providers for inpatient services. On average, this was not the case for outpatient services. Medicines accounted for the largest share of OOP for all services except inpatient services at private facilities, where consultation fees did. Transportation costs were considerable. Price competition is certainly not the only factor that guides choice of provider. The results support continued efforts by the governments to engage strategically with the private sector. However, they also highlight the importance of not generalizing conditions across countries. Governments may need to reconsider simplistic user-fee abolition strategies at public providers if they simply focus on consultation fees. Policies to make health services more accessible need to consider a comprehensive benefit package that includes a wider scope of costs related to care such as expenditures on medicines and transportation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Problems associated with nuclear energy utilization in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aybers, N.

    1975-01-01

    The special problems of integrating nuclear power into the overall national power system of a developing country are reviewed. Topics such as optimal size selection, policy for nuclear fuel cycle, and choice of reactor type are examined. The results of these analyses as applied to Turkey are presented. The impact of safety and regulatory matters are discussed

  18. Regulation and competition in public utilities: Electric utility management in Italy and other industrialized countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraquelli, G.

    1992-01-01

    In industrialized countries, electric power has become a vital energy resource requiring significant efforts on the part of national institutions to establish and maintain sound management and energy supply strategies. The situation in Italy reflects world trends in that electric power in this country now accounts for over one-third of total energy consumption and this percentage is expected to increase steadily through to the year 2000. This endorsement of electric power is having a strong impact on quality of life and on international relations as Italy, in order to ensure security of energy supplies, is actively pursuing of strategy of energy source and supplier diversification. With reference to recent proposals, in line with European Communities free market strategies, to deregulate the Italian electric power industry, this paper briefly analyzes the current institutional nature of ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board) and compares the Italian electric power industry and market situation with that of Japan and the USA. The various aspects taken into consideration include investment, rate structure, quality of service, management methods and competition. An analysis is made of the most pressing difficulties currently troubling ENEL and suggestions are made as to the best courses of action to be taken

  19. Utilization and Monetization of Healthcare Data in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bram, Joshua T; Warwick-Clark, Boyd; Obeysekare, Eric; Mehta, Khanjan

    2015-06-01

    In developing countries with fledgling healthcare systems, the efficient deployment of scarce resources is paramount. Comprehensive community health data and machine learning techniques can optimize the allocation of resources to areas, epidemics, or populations most in need of medical aid or services. However, reliable data collection in low-resource settings is challenging due to a wide range of contextual, business-related, communication, and technological factors. Community health workers (CHWs) are trusted community members who deliver basic health education and services to their friends and neighbors. While an increasing number of programs leverage CHWs for last mile data collection, a fundamental challenge to such programs is the lack of tangible incentives for the CHWs. This article describes potential applications of health data in developing countries and reviews the challenges to reliable data collection. Four practical CHW-centric business models that provide incentive and accountability structures to facilitate data collection are presented. Creating and strengthening the data collection infrastructure is a prerequisite for big data scientists, machine learning experts, and public health administrators to ultimately elevate and transform healthcare systems in resource-poor settings.

  20. Optimal utilization of electric power in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, G.; Gjelsvik, E.

    1992-01-01

    It is attempted to address the questions of which advantages the equilibrium solution would have for the energy market under free trade conditions, how Nordic electric power can be used optimally and what the trading pattern looks like, which kind of competition the transmission of electricity via cables to Iceland and other Nordic countries will meet in the United Kingdom (UK) and the Continent, how high the option values are of trading with electric power via cables from, for example, Iceland to the UK and how great the profit could be from a more effective use of electricity for aluminium production in Norway and Iceland. Data are given on consumer prices for 1990 in Scandinavia, Germany and the UK, and a few graphs and a map illustrate the text. (AB)

  1. Investigations on steel slag re-utilization in developing countries; Hatten tojokoku ni okeru tekko slag sairiyo ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In order to promote steel slag re-utilization in developing countries, a possibility was presented for technical cooperation to India, Indonesia and Thailand upon putting the status of slag utilization in Japan into order. Blast furnace slag produced in Japan (having a re-utilization rate of 95%) is re-utilized and processed as cement aggregates and road beds, and converter slag as civil engineering materials and ores. Steel making slag (having a re-utilization rate of 80%) is re-utilized as road, processing and civil engineering materials. Since the steel making slag faces intensifying competition with ash made by incinerating construction and general wastes, it is important to improve its price competitiveness or mixed utilization with other materials. Re-utilization has not advanced to a recognizable level in developing countries because of having no difficulty for availability of lands for wastes. However, growth of full-scale steel industries and elevation in tendency of environment preservation now urge increase in the slag re-utilization rate. Required to achieve the goal would include wider use of re-utilization technologies, quality control on slag, joint use of facilities to produce re-utilization products, and governmental assistance on burdens of transportation cost. Assistance from Japan is expected to help meet these requirements. 25 figs., 31 tabs.

  2. The situation of computer utilization in radiation therapy in Japan and other countries and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onai, Yoshio

    1981-01-01

    The uses of computers in radiation therapy are various, such as radiation dose calculation, clinical history management, radiotherapeutical instrument automation and biological model. To grasp the situation in this field, a survey by questionnaire was carried out internationally at the time of the 7th International Conference on the Use of Computers in Radiation Therapy held in Kawasaki and Tokyo in September, 1980. The surveyed nations totaled 21 including Japan; the number of facilities answered were 203 in Japan and 111 in other countries, and the period concerned is December, 1979, to September, 1980. The results of the survey are described as follows: areas of use of computers in hospitals, computer utilization in radiation department, computer uses in radiation therapy, and evaluation of radiotherapeutical computer uses and problems. (J.P.N.)

  3. Utilities and Power - Sector Report. Malaysia: including electricity, gas, water, sewerage, telecommunications and information technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report is one of a series designed to introduce British exporters to the opportunities offered by the Malaysian market. The Seventh Malaysia Plan, covering the five year period, 1996-2000, contains an ambitious menu of infrastructure projects. Total expenditure under the Plan is envisaged at RM450 billion, of which around RM380 billion will be sourced from the private sector. This is an indication of the wealth accumulated within the Malaysian economy. The infrastructure developments identified are designed to take the country towards Vision 2020. These infrastructure developments will continue to make the country highly attractive to foreign investors, who were the catalyst for Malaysia`s explosive growth over the last few years. Malaysian Corporations have also grown rapidly and are becoming international investors and traders in their own right, including in the United Kingdom. As they expand, seeking new markets, they are looking also for partners with whom they can share technology and jointly develop projects. Such companies are often ideal partners for UK companies wishing to enter the Malaysian and Asian market. Malaysia offers opportunities to companies prepared to make the small effort to know and understand the country and its people. This report will assist companies to develop a useful understanding of the market. (author)

  4. Burden of emergency conditions and emergency care utilization: New estimates from 40 countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cindy Y.; Abujaber, Samer; Reynolds, Teri A.; Camargo, Carlos A.; Obermeyer, Ziad

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the global and national burden of emergency conditions, and compare them to emergency care utilization rates. Methods We coded all 291 Global Burden of Disease 2010 conditions into three categories to estimate emergency burden: conditions that, if not addressed within hours to days of onset, commonly lead to serious disability or death; conditions with common acute decompensations that lead to serious disability or death; and non-emergencies. Emergency care utilization rates were obtained from a systematic literature review on emergency care facilities in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), supplemented by national health system reports. Findings All 15 leading causes of death and DALYs globally were conditions with potential emergent manifestations. We identified 41 facility-based reports in 23 countries, 12 of which were in LMICs; data for 17 additional countries were obtained from national or regional reports on emergency utilization. Burden of emergency conditions was the highest in low-income countries, with median DALYs of 47,728 per 100,000 population (IQR 45,253-50,085) in low-income, 25,186 (IQR 21,982-40,480) in middle-income, and 15,691 (IQR 14,649-16,382) in high-income countries. Patterns were similar using deaths to measure burden and excluding acute decompensations from the definition of emergency conditions. Conversely, emergency utilization rates were the lowest in low-income countries, with median 8 visits per 1,000 population (IQR 6-10), 78 (IQR 25-197) in middle-income, and 264 (IQR 177-341) in high-income countries. Conclusion Despite higher burden of emergency conditions, emergency utilization rates are substantially lower in LMICs, likely due to limited access to emergency care. PMID:27334758

  5. FBC utilization prospects in decentralized cogeneration units in Caucasus region countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skodras George

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Great differences are encountered among Caucasus region countries with respect to energy resources reserves and economic conditions. Thermal power plants consist of obsolete and inefficient units, while the Soviet-type large heating systems in the area collapsed after 1992 and their reconstruction is considered uneconomic. Renovation needs of the power and heat sector, and the potential of Fluidised Bed Combustion implementations in decentralized cogeneration units were investigated, since operating oil and gas power plants exhibit high fuel consumption, low efficiency and poor environmental performance. Results showed significant prospects of Fluidised Bed Combustion utilization in decentralized cogeneration units in the Caucausus region heat and power sector. Their introduction constitutes an economically attractive way to cover power and heat demands and promotes utilization of domestic energy resources in all of three countries, provided that financial difficulties could be confronted.

  6. Utilization of antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy : Comparative patterns in 38 countries based on data from the EURAP registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battino, D.; Bonizzoni, E.; Craig, J.; Lindhout, D.; Perucca, E.; Sabers, A.; Tomson, T.; Vajda, F.

    2009-01-01

    P>We assessed the utilization of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), 1999-2005, in 4,798 prospective epilepsy pregnancies from 38 countries participating in EURAP, an international AED and pregnancy registry. Prominent differences in utilization patterns were observed across the various countries. Exposure

  7. Trends in antibiotic utilization in eight Latin American countries, 1997-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Veronika J; Dreser, Anahí; Gonzales, Ralph

    2010-03-01

    To describe the trends in antibiotic utilization in eight Latin American countries between 1997-2007 We analyzed retail sales data of oral and injectable antibiotics (World Health Organization (WHO) Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) code J01) between 1997 and 2007 for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Antibiotics were aggregated and utilization was calculated for all antibiotics (J01); for macrolides, lincosamindes, and streptogramins (J01 F); and for quinolones (J01 M). The kilogram sales of each antibiotic were converted into defined daily dose per 1 000 inhabitants per day (DID) according to the WHO ATC classification system. We calculated the absolute change in DID and relative change expressed in percent of DID variation, using 1997 as a reference Total antibiotic utilization has increased in Peru, Venezuela, Uruguay, and Brazil, with the largest relative increases observed in Peru (5.58 DID, +70.6%) and Venezuela (4.81 DID, +43.0%). For Mexico (-2.43 DID; -15.5%) and Colombia (-4.10; -33.7%), utilization decreased. Argentina and Chile showed major reductions in antibiotic utilization during the middle of this period. In all countries, quinolone use increased, particularly sharply in Venezuela (1.86 DID, +282%). The increase in macrolide, lincosaminde, and streptogramin use was greatest in Peru (0.76 DID, +82.1%), followed by Brazil, Argentina, and Chile Analyzing antibiotic utilization in Latin America presents a series of challenges. Creating policy-relevant evidence based on antimicrobial consumption patterns is needed in order to foster policies aimed at improving appropriate use of antibiotics in the region.

  8. WOMEN'S EDUCATION AND UTILIZATION OF MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES IN AFRICA: A MULTI-COUNTRY AND SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS ANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsala Dimbuene, Zacharie; Amo-Adjei, Joshua; Amugsi, Dickson; Mumah, Joyce; Izugbara, Chimaraoke O; Beguy, Donatien

    2017-11-06

    There is an abundant literature on the relationship between women's education and maternal and child outcomes, including antenatal and postnatal care, onset of antenatal care and skilled birth attendance. However, few studies have adopted the 'equity' lens, despite increasing evidence that inequities between rich and poor are increasing although maternal and child mortality is declining. This study examined the differential effects of women's education within different socioeconomic strata in Africa. The most recent Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Ghana, Nigeria and Zimbabwe were used. In each country, the original sample was stratified into three socioeconomic groups: poor, middle and rich. For each maternal health service utilization variable, the gross and net effects of women's education, controlling for age, parity, religion, marital status, health insurance, access to health facilities, partner's education and current place of residence, were estimated using logistic regression, taking into account the complex sampling design of the DHS. The findings revealed country-specific variations in maternal health service utilization, and for most indicators there was a clear gradient among socioeconomic strata: women living in better-off households exhibited greater access to, and utilization of, maternal health services. Multivariate analyses revealed that women's education had a positive association with type of antenatal care provider, timing and frequency of antenatal care visits, place of delivery and presence of a skilled birth attendant at delivery. Many other factors were found to be significantly associated with maternal health service utilization. For instance, parity had a negative and significant association with timing of first antenatal care visit. Likewise, partner's education was positively and statistically associated with timing of first antenatal care visit. It is argued that an over

  9. Is vaccination good value for money? A review of cost-utility analyses of vaccination strategies in eight European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Barbieri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study is to review published cost-utility analyses of vaccination strategies in eight European countries and to assess whether there are differences in cost-effectiveness terms among countries and vaccinations. Methods: A systematic search of the literature was conducted using the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database and the PubMed database. Cost-utility analyses of any type of vaccination that used quality-adjusted life years (QALYs as measure of benefit and conducted in Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, the Netherlands or the UK were included. Results: A total of 94 studies were identified. As a result of our search methodology, the vast majority of studies were conducted in the Netherlands or UK (33 and 30 studies, respectively. The most frequent vaccination types were against Human papillomavirus (HPV with 23 studies, followed by vaccination against pneumococcal infections (19 studies. The analysed vaccinations were generally cost-effective but with high variability. Considering an incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER of 40,000€/QALY, we noticed that the following vaccinations studies are below this threshold, i.e. all varicella and influenza (with one outlier studies, 90% of the studies for HPV and 75% of the studies for pneumococcal vaccinations. Rotavirus vaccination was considered as not cost-effective, with only 30% of studies below the threshold of 40,000€/QALY. There was no clear trend for vaccinations being more cost-effective in some countries. Conclusions: The published literature has shown that vaccination strategies are generally cost-effective in European countries. High heterogeneity in the results among studies and countries was found.

  10. Economic status, education and empowerment: implications for maternal health service utilization in developing countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifuddin Ahmed

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Relative to the attention given to improving the quality of and access to maternal health services, the influence of women's socio-economic situation on maternal health care use has received scant attention. The objective of this paper is to examine the relationship between women's economic, educational and empowerment status, introduced as the 3Es, and maternal health service utilization in developing countries.The analysis uses data from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 31 countries for which data on all the 3Es are available. Separate logistic regression models are fitted for modern contraceptive use, antenatal care and skilled birth attendance in relation to the three covariates of interest: economic, education and empowerment status, additionally controlling for women's age and residence. We use meta-analysis techniques to combine and summarize results from multiple countries. The 3Es are significantly associated with utilization of maternal health services. The odds of having a skilled attendant at delivery for women in the poorest wealth quintile are 94% lower than that for women in the highest wealth quintile and almost 5 times higher for women with complete primary education relative to those less educated. The likelihood of using modern contraception and attending four or more antenatal care visits are 2.01 and 2.89 times, respectively, higher for women with complete primary education than for those less educated. Women with the highest empowerment score are between 1.31 and 1.82 times more likely than those with a null empowerment score to use modern contraception, attend four or more antenatal care visits and have a skilled attendant at birth.Efforts to expand maternal health service utilization can be accelerated by parallel investments in programs aimed at poverty eradication (MDG 1, universal primary education (MDG 2, and women's empowerment (MDG 3.

  11. Economic status, education and empowerment: implications for maternal health service utilization in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Saifuddin; Creanga, Andreea A; Gillespie, Duff G; Tsui, Amy O

    2010-06-23

    Relative to the attention given to improving the quality of and access to maternal health services, the influence of women's socio-economic situation on maternal health care use has received scant attention. The objective of this paper is to examine the relationship between women's economic, educational and empowerment status, introduced as the 3Es, and maternal health service utilization in developing countries. The analysis uses data from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 31 countries for which data on all the 3Es are available. Separate logistic regression models are fitted for modern contraceptive use, antenatal care and skilled birth attendance in relation to the three covariates of interest: economic, education and empowerment status, additionally controlling for women's age and residence. We use meta-analysis techniques to combine and summarize results from multiple countries. The 3Es are significantly associated with utilization of maternal health services. The odds of having a skilled attendant at delivery for women in the poorest wealth quintile are 94% lower than that for women in the highest wealth quintile and almost 5 times higher for women with complete primary education relative to those less educated. The likelihood of using modern contraception and attending four or more antenatal care visits are 2.01 and 2.89 times, respectively, higher for women with complete primary education than for those less educated. Women with the highest empowerment score are between 1.31 and 1.82 times more likely than those with a null empowerment score to use modern contraception, attend four or more antenatal care visits and have a skilled attendant at birth. Efforts to expand maternal health service utilization can be accelerated by parallel investments in programs aimed at poverty eradication (MDG 1), universal primary education (MDG 2), and women's empowerment (MDG 3).

  12. Utilization of ionizing radiations and radioisotopes in plant breeding and crop improvement in Arab countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-Hegazi, A.M.T.

    1983-01-01

    A review for research work in the field of utilizing ionizing radiations and radioisotopes in plant breeding and crop improvement conducted in Arab countries has been summerized and discussed in the light of some economic features of the crop or the plant on national or regional (arab) level. Among the 241 articles in the above mentioned fields reviewed, around 230 articles were conducted in Egypt, 6 in Iraq, 2 in Algeria and 2 in Sudan. Some of the articles dealing with more than one crop and/or more than one type of radiation or radioisotope

  13. 78 FR 36768 - Battery Utility of Ohio, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1667-000] Battery Utility of Ohio, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Battery Utility of Ohio, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  14. Integrated outage management: Leveraging utility system assets including GIS and AMR for optimum outage response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finamore, E. P.

    2004-02-01

    The control of electrical system outages is discussed. The principal argument advanced is that traditional stand-alone methods of outage response will no longer get the job done without utility companies integrating their outage management systems with other system assets such as GIS (geographic information system) and AMR (advanced metering systems). Many meter reading systems, while primarily supporting customer billing, can also provide outage alarm and some are also capable of service restoration notification, which is an invaluable benefit to service operators since it obviates the need for verifying system restoration by labour-intensive on-site visits or customer call-backs. If successfully leveraged, optimization of all utility assets and improvements in labour productivity can results in improved outage management performance gains without affecting performance in other areas.

  15. Is vaccination good value for money? A review of cost-utility analyses of vaccination strategies in eight European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Barbieri, Marco; Capri, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to review published cost-utility analyses of vaccination strategies in eight European countries and to assess whether there are differences in cost-effectiveness terms among countries and vaccinations. Methods: A systematic search of the literature was conducted using the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database and the PubMed database. Cost-utility analyses of any type of vaccination that used quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) as me...

  16. Including sustainability issues in nurse education: A comparative study of first year student nurses' attitudes in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Janet; Heidenreich, Thomas; Álvarez-Nieto, Carmen; Fasseur, Fabienne; Grose, Jane; Huss, Norma; Huynen, Maud; López-Medina, Isabel M; Schweizer, Angélick

    2016-02-01

    Education in sustainable development is a goal recognised by a large number of countries and a vital concept in healthcare. It is therefore important that nurse education incorporates elements of sustainable development into nursing education curricula. However, there is limited research on student nurses' attitudes towards sustainability and no comparison of attitudes towards sustainability and its inclusion in the nursing curriculum across Europe. This project aims to assess student nurses' attitudes towards sustainability, its relevance to nursing and its inclusion in the nursing curricula. 1. To assess base-line attitudes at the start of nursing and midwifery training; 2. To compare sustainability awareness between students participating in training in a number of European universities. A comparative survey design using the Sustainability Attitudes in Nursing Survey (SANS_2) questionnaire. Nursing classes of Universities and Nursing Schools in four European countries were investigated using a questionnaire consisting of five sustainability-related items. 916 nursing students (UK: 450, Germany: 196, Spain: 124, Switzerland: 146). Standard descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used to establish psychometric quality (Principal Components Analysis, Cronbach's alpha, Pearson correlations) and compare student nurses from the four countries. The reliability of SANS_2 was good (Cronbach's alpha=.82) and the five items loaded on a single factor which explained 58% of variance. ANOVA of the SANS_2 total score showed significant differences between countries with German nursing students showing more sustainability awareness than students from the UK and Spain. SANS_2 is a reliable instrument to assess nursing students' sustainability awareness; there are significant differences in sustainability awareness of students of different European countries. Limitations of the study include non-random sampling, possible method effects and social desirability effects

  17. Solar Kilns: Feasibility of Utilizing Solar Energy for Drying Lumber in Developing Countries,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    each additional operation performed in the country. These industries are labor intensiveand "value added" manufacture is significant. There is...Bureau, Climatological Division. 1970. Clima - tological normals (1951-1970) for the Philippines, Manila. 3 Wernstedt, F. L., and J. E. Spencer. 1967...effectiveness. The construction costs, including labor , are based largely on material and labor costs in the Philippines. Where this information was

  18. Utility of sea snakes as bio-indicators for diverse marine environments including coral reefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redsted Rasmussen, Arne

    2016-01-01

    be a valuable tool to accomplish this goal. Recent research shows that a group of sea snakes (the sea kraits Laticauda spp.) specialised on eels as prey, bears the promise of being useful bio-indicators for surveying the Anguilliform fish (eel like fish) in coral reefs(Brischoux, Bonnet, & Legagneux, 2009...... including coral reefs. Choosing sea snakes as bio-indicators in a broader sense is not possible with the present knowledge on the group today. It is therefore most needed to get more knowledge on sea snake biology to make it possible to use them as marine indicator species to measure e.g. biodiversity...

  19. Utilization of antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy: Comparative patterns in 38 countries based on data from the EURAP registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battino, D.; Bonizzoni, E.; Craig, J.

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the utilization of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), 1999-2005, in 4,798 prospective epilepsy pregnancies from 38 countries participating in EURAP, an international AED and pregnancy registry. Prominent differences in utilization patterns were observed across the various countries. Exposure...... to second-generation AEDs ranged from 3.5% in India and 7.3% in Italy to 75% in Denmark. Even wider variation was recorded in exposure to individual AEDs. The utilization of second-generation AEDs increased over time (for lamotrigine, from 9.9% of all pregnancies before 2001 to 29.6% after 2003......). The differences in use of individual AEDs across countries probably reflect lack of evidence concerning the optimal treatment of epilepsy in women of childbearing age, as well as variation in country-specific traditions, medication costs, and drug promotion. Our observations underscore the need for comparative...

  20. Assessing CO2 Mitigation Options Utilizing Detailed Electricity Characteristics and Including Renewable Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensaida, K.; Alie, Colin; Elkamel, A.; Almansoori, A.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a novel techno-economic optimization model for assessing the effectiveness of CO2 mitigation options for the electricity generation sub-sector that includes renewable energy generation. The optimization problem was formulated as a MINLP model using the GAMS modeling system. The model seeks the minimization of the power generation costs under CO2 emission constraints by dispatching power from low CO2 emission-intensity units. The model considers the detailed operation of the electricity system to effectively assess the performance of GHG mitigation strategies and integrates load balancing, carbon capture and carbon taxes as methods for reducing CO2 emissions. Two case studies are discussed to analyze the benefits and challenges of the CO2 reduction methods in the electricity system. The proposed mitigations options would not only benefit the environment, but they will as well improve the marginal cost of producing energy which represents an advantage for stakeholders.

  1. Relay telescope including baffle, and high power laser amplifier utilizing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, C. Brent; Hackel, Lloyd; Harris, Fritz B.

    2006-09-19

    A laser system includes an optical path having an intracavity relay telescope with a telescope focal point for imaging an output of the gain medium between an image location at or near the gain medium and an image location at or near an output coupler for the laser system. A kinematic mount is provided within a vacuum chamber, and adapted to secure beam baffles near the telescope focal point. An access port on the vacuum chamber is adapted for allowing insertion and removal of the beam baffles. A first baffle formed using an alignment pinhole aperture is used during alignment of the laser system. A second tapered baffle replaces the alignment aperture during operation and acts as a far-field baffle in which off angle beams strike the baffle a grazing angle of incidence, reducing fluence levels at the impact areas.

  2. Registry data for cross-country comparisons of migrants' healthcare utilization in the EU: a survey study of availability and content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Smith; Krasnik, Allan; Rosano, Aldo

    2009-01-01

    care utilization are lack of sufficient coverage and availability of reliable and valid healthcare data which includes information allowing for identification of migrants. The objective of this paper was to reveal which registry data on healthcare utilization were available in the EU countries in which...... utilization, and the diversity in the definition of migrant status hampers cross-national comparisons and calls for an urgent establishment of registries, expansion of the existing registry information, and adoption of a common, generally acceptable definition and identification method of migrants across...

  3. The utility of including pathology reports in improving the computational identification of patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Celiac disease (CD is a common autoimmune disorder. Efficient identification of patients may improve chronic management of the disease. Prior studies have shown searching International Classification of Diseases-9 (ICD-9 codes alone is inaccurate for identifying patients with CD. In this study, we developed automated classification algorithms leveraging pathology reports and other clinical data in Electronic Health Records (EHRs to refine the subset population preselected using ICD-9 code (579.0. Materials and Methods: EHRs were searched for established ICD-9 code (579.0 suggesting CD, based on which an initial identification of cases was obtained. In addition, laboratory results for tissue transglutaminse were extracted. Using natural language processing we analyzed pathology reports from upper endoscopy. Twelve machine learning classifiers using different combinations of variables related to ICD-9 CD status, laboratory result status, and pathology reports were experimented to find the best possible CD classifier. Ten-fold cross-validation was used to assess the results. Results: A total of 1498 patient records were used including 363 confirmed cases and 1135 false positive cases that served as controls. Logistic model based on both clinical and pathology report features produced the best results: Kappa of 0.78, F1 of 0.92, and area under the curve (AUC of 0.94, whereas in contrast using ICD-9 only generated poor results: Kappa of 0.28, F1 of 0.75, and AUC of 0.63. Conclusion: Our automated classification system presented an efficient and reliable way to improve the performance of CD patient identification.

  4. Eye care utilization by older adults in low, middle, and high income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vela Claudia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of visual impairment increases dramatically with age and therefore older adults should have their eyes examined at least every 1 to 2 years. Using a world-wide, population-based dataset, we sought to determine the frequency that older people had their eyes examined. We also examined factors associated with having a recent eye exam. Methods The World Health Surveys were conducted in 70 countries throughout the world in 2002-2003 using a random, multi-stage, stratified, cluster sampling design. Participants 60 years and older from 52 countries (n = 35,839 were asked "When was the last time you had your eyes examined by a medical professional?". The income status of countries was estimated using gross national income per capita data from 2003 from the World Bank website. Prevalence estimates were adjusted to account for the complex sample design. Results Overall, only 18% (95% CI 17, 19 of older adults had an eye exam in the last year. The rate of an eye exam in the last year in low, lower middle, upper middle, and high income countries was 10%, 24%, 22%, and 37% respectively. Factors associated with having an eye exam in the last year included older age, female gender, more education, urban residence, greater wealth, worse self-reported health, having diabetes, and wearing glasses or contact lenses (p Conclusions Given that older adults often suffer from age-related but treatable conditions, they should be seen on a regular basis to prevent visual impairment and its disabling consequences.

  5. Registry data for cross-country comparisons of migrants' healthcare utilization in the EU: a survey study of availability and content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnik Allan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cross-national comparable data on migrants' use of healthcare services are important to address problems in access to healthcare; to identify high risk groups for prevention efforts; and to evaluate healthcare systems comparatively. Some of the main obstacles limiting analyses of health care utilization are lack of sufficient coverage and availability of reliable and valid healthcare data which includes information allowing for identification of migrants. The objective of this paper was to reveal which registry data on healthcare utilization were available in the EU countries in which migrants can be identified; and to determine to what extent data were comparable between the EU countries. Methods A questionnaire survey on availability of healthcare utilization registries in which migrants can be identified was carried out among all national statistic agencies and other relevant national health authorities in the 27 EU countries in 2008-9 as part of the Migrant and Ethnic Minority Health Observatory-project (MEHO. The information received was compared with information from a general survey on availability of survey and registry data on migrants conducted by Agency of Public Health, Lazio Region, Italy within the MEHO-project; thus, the information on registries was double-checked to assure accuracy and verification. Results Available registry data on healthcare utilization which allow for identification on migrants on a national/regional basis were only reported in 11 EU countries: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Poland, Slovenia, and Sweden. Data on hospital care, including surgical procedures, were most frequently available whereas only few countries had data on care outside the hospital. Regarding identification of migrants, five countries reported having information on both citizenship and country of birth, one reported availability of information on country of birth, and

  6. Symposium on development and utilization of biomass energy resources in developing countries. Proceedings. V. 2: Country case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The present publication presents the results of three UNIDO-sponsored case studies, each with a separate abstract, concerned with perspectives of development and utilisation of biomass energy resources in Brazil, Philippines and Romania. Emphasis is put on identifying regional biomass energy resources. Policies and strategies governing as well as barriers limiting the development and utilization of biomass energy are discussed. Innovative technologies as well as technology transfer related to biomass energy utilisation are dealt with, together with economic and environmental issues

  7. Symposium on development and utilization of biomass energy resources in developing countries. Proceedings. V. 2: Country case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The present publication presents the results of three UNIDO-sponsored case studies, each with a separate abstract, concerned with perspectives of development and utilisation of biomass energy resources in Brazil, Philippines and Romania. Emphasis is put on identifying regional biomass energy resources. Policies and strategies governing as well as barriers limiting the development and utilization of biomass energy are discussed. Innovative technologies as well as technology transfer related to biomass energy utilisation are dealt with, together with economic and environmental issues Refs, figs, tabs

  8. Production and utilization of biogas in rural areas of industrialized and developing countries. Rev. Ed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggeling, G; Mackensen, G; Sasse, L [comps.

    1986-01-01

    This handbook describes and compares the various phases of biogas technology and its parallel development in industrialized countries and developing nations for the given agricultural situation in each. Special emphasis is placed on the microbiological fundamentals of anaerobic fermentation, their technical application, examples of biogas systems in industrialized and emerging nations, cost efficiency and implementation. In their treatment of various common characteristics, parallels and differences, the authors have attempted to build a bridge between biogas practice in industrialized countries and biogas practice in developing countries.

  9. Transferability of results of cost utility analyses for biologicals in inflammatory conditions for Central and Eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulácsi, László; Rencz, Fanni; Péntek, Márta; Brodszky, Valentin; Lopert, Ruth; Hevér, Noémi V; Baji, Petra

    2014-05-01

    Several Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries require cost-utility analyses (CUAs) to support reimbursement formulary listing. However, CUAs informed by local evidence are often unavailable, and the cost-effectiveness of the several currently reimbursed biologicals is unclear. To estimate the cost-effectiveness as multiples of per capita GDP/quality adjusted life years (QALY) of four biologicals (infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, golimumab) currently reimbursed in six CEE countries in six inflammatory rheumatoid and bowel disease conditions. Systematic literature review of published cost-utility analyses in the selected conditions, using the United Kingdom (UK) as reference country and with study selection criteria set to optimize the transfer of results to the CEEs. Prices in each CEE country were pro-rated against UK prices using purchasing power parity (PPP)-adjusted per capita GDP, and local GDP per capita/QALY ratios estimated. Central and Eastern European countries list prices were 144-333% higher than pro rata prices. Out of 85 CUAs identified by previous systematic literature reviews, 15 were selected as a convenience sample for estimating the cost-effectiveness of biologicals in the CEE countries in terms of per capita GDP/QALY. Per capita GDP/QALY values varied from 0.42 to 6.4 across countries and conditions (Bulgaria: 0.97-6.38; Czech Republic: 0.42-2.76; Hungary: 0.54-3.54; Poland: 0.59-3.90; Romania: 0.77-5.07; Slovakia: 0.55-3.61). While results must be interpreted with caution, calculating pro rata (cost-effective) prices and per capita GDP/QALY ratios based on CUAs can aid reimbursement decision-making in the absence of analyses using local data.

  10. Cannabis Use and Drug Related Problems Among Adolescents in 27 European Countries: The Utility of the Prevention Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romelsjö Anders

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – To study the prevalence of cannabis use and drug-related problems among European adolescents and the utility of the prevention paradox. METHODS – Survey data from the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD in 2007 in the 27 countries with information about drug use and drug-related problems was used. We analysed the proportion of all drug-related problems that occurred in a high risk group and among others who had used cannabis in the previous 12 months. The cut-off for the high risk group was chosen to include 10-15 % of the most frequent cannabis users. RESULTS – The high risk groups accounted for a substantial, but a minority, of drug-related problems among boys as well as girls. A minority of those who had used cannabis reported any drug-related problem. The proportion of adolescents with drug-related problems and the average number of problems increased with frequency of cannabis use. CONCLUSIONS – We find support for policy measures of more general character, supported by the prevention paradox. However, this does not exclude a policy supporting frequent drug users if they can be identified

  11. Symposium on development and utilization of biomass energy resources in developing countries. Proceedings. V. 1: Thematic papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The present publication consists of papers, each with a separate abstract, from fourteen countries giving broad perspectives on the development and utilisation of biomass energy resources. Emphasis is put on identifying regional biomass energy resources. Policies and strategies governing as well as barriers limiting the development and utilization of biomass energy are discussed. Innovative technologies as well as technology transfer related to biomass energy utilisation are dealt with, together with economic and environmental issues

  12. Symposium on development and utilization of biomass energy resources in developing countries. Proceedings. V. 1: Thematic papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The present publication consists of papers, each with a separate abstract, from fourteen countries giving broad perspectives on the development and utilisation of biomass energy resources. Emphasis is put on identifying regional biomass energy resources. Policies and strategies governing as well as barriers limiting the development and utilization of biomass energy are discussed. Innovative technologies as well as technology transfer related to biomass energy utilisation are dealt with, together with economic and environmental issues Refs, figs, tabs

  13. Cost-Utility Analysis of Extending Public Health Insurance Coverage to Include Diabetic Retinopathy Screening by Optometrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Katwyk, Sasha; Jin, Ya-Ping; Trope, Graham E; Buys, Yvonne; Masucci, Lisa; Wedge, Richard; Flanagan, John; Brent, Michael H; El-Defrawy, Sherif; Tu, Hong Anh; Thavorn, Kednapa

    2017-09-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of vision loss and blindness in Canada. Eye examinations play an important role in early detection. However, DR screening by optometrists is not always universally covered by public or private health insurance plans. This study assessed whether expanding public health coverage to include diabetic eye examinations for retinopathy by optometrists is cost-effective from the perspective of the health care system. We conducted a cost-utility analysis of extended coverage for diabetic eye examinations in Prince Edward Island to include examinations by optometrists, not currently publicly covered. We used a Markov chain to simulate disease burden based on eye examination rates and DR progression over a 30-year time horizon. Results were presented as an incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. A series of one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Extending public health coverage to eye examinations by optometrists was associated with higher costs ($9,908,543.32) and improved QALYs (156,862.44), over 30 years, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $1668.43/QALY gained. Sensitivity analysis showed that the most influential determinants of the results were the cost of optometric screening and selected utility scores. At the commonly used threshold of $50,000/QALY, the probability that the new policy was cost-effective was 99.99%. Extending public health coverage to eye examinations by optometrists is cost-effective based on a commonly used threshold of $50,000/QALY. Findings from this study can inform the decision to expand public-insured optometric services for patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Including sustainability issues in nurse education: A comparative study of first year student nurses' attitudes in four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, Janet; Heidenreich, Thomas; Álvarez-Nieto, Carmen; Fasseur, F; Grose, Jane; Huss, N; Huynen, Maud; López-Medina, IM; A, Schweizer

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Education in sustainable development is a goal recognised by a large number of countries and a vital concept in healthcare. It is therefore important that nurse education incorporates elements of sustainable development into nursing education curricula. However, there is limited

  15. The MARCOPOLO Study of Ustekinumab Utilization and Efficacy in a Real-World Setting: Treatment of Patients with Plaque Psoriasis in Asia-Pacific Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Sang Woong; Tsai, Tsen-Fang; Theng, Colin; Choon, Siew-Eng; Wiryadi, Benny E.; Pires, Antonio; Tan, Weihao

    2016-01-01

    Background Ustekinumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of chronic moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis in adults. However, factors including efficacy, tolerability, ease of use, and cost burden may affect ustekinumab utilization. Noncompliance may, in turn, affect treatment response. Objective To evaluate ustekinumab utilization in the real-world setting in Asia-Pacific countries. Methods In this phase 4 observational study conducted in Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Korea, and Taiwan, adults with plaque psoriasis receiving ustekinumab were followed for up to 52 weeks. Study endpoints were the proportion of all patients using ustekinumab according to label-recommended intervals and the proportion of Korean patients who achieved a psoriasis area severity index 75 response at week 16. Safety was assessed by monitoring adverse events. Results Overall, 169 patients received ustekinumab (Korea, n=102; other countries, n=67). Just over half (56.2%) of patients used ustekinumab with the label-recommended interval from baseline to week 40; the proportion was higher in Korea (73.5%) than in other countries (29.9%), probably because ustekinumab was provided without charge for Korean patients up to week 40. Noncompliance increased after week 40 in Korea and from week 28 in other Asia-Pacific countries, with cost cited as the most common reason. At week 16, 56.9% of Korean patients achieved a Psoriasis Area Severity Index 75 response. Safety results were in line with those seen in previous studies. Conclusion More than half of all patients in Asia-Pacific countries used ustekinumab as per the label-recommended dose interval, but reimbursement variations between countries may have confounded overall results. PMID:27081271

  16. Contracts on electric power supply set up between communities (communal associations, countries) and public electricity utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedrich, B

    1976-01-01

    There is not any original communal right to energy supply for the population. The affiliation of local power supply to the local administration cannot be justified either by the public purpose of service or by the term provision of existence. The utilities do not get a communal license when getting the so-called licensing contract. According to its legal nature, the licensing contract is a mixture of legal positions composed of elements of the civil law and the public law. (Administrative lawsuit). The so-called power supply contract is a mutual legal relationship under civil law on the utilization of electric power, made to last. (Permanent obligation for utilization). When concluding both contracts, it is a matter of economic activities undertaken by the communities. Fiscal considerations are in the foreground. Legal regulations concerning roads and distances and serving as starting points for concluding a licensing contract are alien to the system and are to be abolished. Communities should only be responsible for local energy supply on a basis under public law. In lieu of it a stronger obligation to be met by large utilities ought to be ensured by ties under public law.

  17. Industrial energy utilization patterns in a developing country: a case study of selected industries in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolde-Ghiorgis, W. (Addis Ababa Univ. (Ethiopia))

    1991-01-01

    Energy utilization patterns in three factories involved in cement production, textile manufacturing, and food processing in Ethiopia are discussed. The study uses data of energy consumption and products to obtain specific energy consumption figures for two of the factories. Results show areas of apparent energy losses and corresponding conservation possibilities. (author).

  18. Including health economic analysis in pilot studies: lessons learned from a cost-utility analysis within the PROSPECTIV pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richéal M. Burns

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available PurposeTo assess feasibility and health economic benefits and costs as part of a pilot study for a nurse-led, psychoeducational intervention (NPLI for prostate cancer in order to understand the potential for cost effectiveness as well as contribute to the design of a larger scale trial.MethodsMen with stable prostate cancer post-treatment were recruited from two cancer centres in the UK. Eighty-three men were randomised to the NLPI plus usual care or usual care alone (UCA (42 NLPI and 41 UCA; the NLPI plus usual care was delivered in the primary-care setting (the intervention and included an initial face-to-face consultation with a trained nurse, with follow-up tailored to individual needs. The study afforded the opportunity to undertake a short-term within pilot analysis. The primary outcome measure for the economic evaluation was quality of life, as measured by the EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L instrument. Costs (£2014 assessed included health-service resource use, out-of-pocket expenses and losses from inability to undertake usual activities.ResultsTotal and incremental costs varied across the different scenarios assessed, with mean cost differences ranging from £173 to £346; incremental effect, as measured by the change in utility scores over the duration of follow-up, exhibited wide confidence intervals highlighting inconclusive effectiveness (95% CI: -0.0226; 0.0438. The cost per patient of delivery of the intervention would be reduced if rolled out to a larger patient cohort.ConclusionsThe NLPI is potentially cost saving depending on the scale of delivery; however, the results presented are not considered generalisable.

  19. Breast cancer screening utilization among women from Muslim majority countries in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Mandana; Lofters, Aisha; Kim, Eliane; Wong, Josephine Pui-Hing; Ellison, Lisa; Graves, Erin; Glazier, Richard H

    2017-12-01

    Breast cancer screening disparities continue to prevail with immigrant women being at the forefront of the under screened population. There is a paucity of knowledge about the role of religious affiliation or cultural orientation on immigrant women's cancer screening uptake. This study examined differences in uptake of breast cancer screening among women from Muslim and non- Muslim majority countries in Ontario, Canada. A cohort of 1,851,834 screening-eligible women living in Ontario during April 1, 2013 to March 31, 2015 was created using linked health and social administrative databases. The study found that being born in a Muslim majority country was associated with lower breast cancer screening uptake after adjusting for region of origin, neighbourhood income, and primary care-related factors. However, screening uptake in Muslim majority countries varied by world region with the greatest differences found in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Screening uptake was lower for women who had no primary care provider, were in a traditional fee-for service model of primary care, had a male physician, had an internationally trained physician, resided in a low income neighbourhood, and entered Canada under the family class of immigration. Religion may play a role in screening uptake, however, the variation in rates by regions of origin, immigration class, and access to primary care providers alludes to confluence of socio-demographic, cultural beliefs and practices, immigration trajectories and system level factors. Facilitating access for immigrant women to regular primary care providers, particularly female providers and enrollment in primary care models could enhance screening uptake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Regulatory risk in the utilities industry: An empirical study of the English-speaking countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaggero, Alberto A.

    2007-01-01

    The economic theory on regulation suggests that firms subject to incentive regulation, such as price cap, bear more risk than firms subject to cost plus regulation, such as rate of return regulation. This hypothesis is tested empirically using a sample of 93 regulated companies operating in six English-speaking countries: Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, UK and USA, during the period 1995-2004. I replicate the methodology of the existing literature and also apply panel data techniques to my sample. The results obtained do not support the hypothesis that price cap regulation imposes more risk. (author)

  1. Patterns and determinants of antenatal care utilization: analysis of national survey data in seven countdown countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Saad–Haddad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Antenatal care (ANC is critical for improving maternal and newborn health. WHO recommends that pregnant women complete at least four ANC visits. Countdown and other global monitoring efforts track the proportions of women who receive one or more visits by a skilled provider (ANC1+ and four or more visits by any provider (ANC4+. This study investigates patterns of drop–off in use between ANC1+ and ANC4+, and explores inequalities in women’s use of ANC services. It also identifies determinants of utilization and describes countries’ ANC–related policies, and programs.

  2. HIV Viral Load Trends in Six Eastern Caribbean Countries Utilizing a Regional Laboratory Referral Service: Implications for Treatment as Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, R Clive; Carmichael-Simmons, Kelly; Hambleton, Ian R; Best, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Since 2009, seven countries in the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS), Antigua & Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts & Nevis, Saint Lucia, and St. Vincent & the Grenadines, have been utilizing a laboratory referral service for HIV-1 viral load (VL) offered by The Ladymeade Reference Unit (LRU) Laboratory, Barbados. The objective of this study was to evaluate 5 year VL trends in the six larger OECS countries participating in this regional referral service. Blood samples were collected in source countries and transported to Barbados as frozen plasma according to a standardized protocol. Plasma specimens were amplified by RT PCR on a Roche TaqMan 48 analyser (Roche Diagnostics, Panama City, Panama). VL was considered optimally suppressed below a threshold level of < 200 HIV-1 copies/mL of blood. The same threshold was used as a binary indicator in an analysis of the secular change in VL suppression. Montserrat was excluded due to insufficient number of samples. A steady rise in VL referrals from OECS countries was recorded, rising from 312 samples in 2009 to 1,060 samples in 2013. A total of 3,543 samples were tested, with a sample rejection rate (9.2%) mostly due to breaks in the cold chain. Aggregate VL data showed the odds of VL suppression in the Eastern Caribbean improved by 66% for each additional year after 2009 (Odds Ratio 1.66 [95% CI 1.46 to 1.88]; p<0.001). We demonstrate the feasibility of establishing a regional laboratory referral service for HIV VL monitoring in the Eastern Caribbean. Aggregate VL trends showed a significant year-on-year improvement in VL suppression, implying public health benefits through treatment as prevention in the OECS. VL provides a powerful monitoring & evaluation tool for strengthening HIV programs at country level among the small island states participating in this regional referral network.

  3. HIV Viral Load Trends in Six Eastern Caribbean Countries Utilizing a Regional Laboratory Referral Service: Implications for Treatment as Prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Clive Landis

    Full Text Available Since 2009, seven countries in the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS, Antigua & Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts & Nevis, Saint Lucia, and St. Vincent & the Grenadines, have been utilizing a laboratory referral service for HIV-1 viral load (VL offered by The Ladymeade Reference Unit (LRU Laboratory, Barbados. The objective of this study was to evaluate 5 year VL trends in the six larger OECS countries participating in this regional referral service.Blood samples were collected in source countries and transported to Barbados as frozen plasma according to a standardized protocol. Plasma specimens were amplified by RT PCR on a Roche TaqMan 48 analyser (Roche Diagnostics, Panama City, Panama. VL was considered optimally suppressed below a threshold level of < 200 HIV-1 copies/mL of blood. The same threshold was used as a binary indicator in an analysis of the secular change in VL suppression. Montserrat was excluded due to insufficient number of samples.A steady rise in VL referrals from OECS countries was recorded, rising from 312 samples in 2009 to 1,060 samples in 2013. A total of 3,543 samples were tested, with a sample rejection rate (9.2% mostly due to breaks in the cold chain. Aggregate VL data showed the odds of VL suppression in the Eastern Caribbean improved by 66% for each additional year after 2009 (Odds Ratio 1.66 [95% CI 1.46 to 1.88]; p<0.001.We demonstrate the feasibility of establishing a regional laboratory referral service for HIV VL monitoring in the Eastern Caribbean. Aggregate VL trends showed a significant year-on-year improvement in VL suppression, implying public health benefits through treatment as prevention in the OECS. VL provides a powerful monitoring & evaluation tool for strengthening HIV programs at country level among the small island states participating in this regional referral network.

  4. Approaches for optimizing the utilization of nuclear medical resources in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelstein, S.

    1978-10-01

    Contemplation of the use of nuclear medicine technologies in developing countries raises the issue, what purposes they would serve in relation to the major health needs of the region. This investigation was an attempt to assess and to test a methodology for conducting this assessment. Several potential nuclear medicine applications were selected on the basis of their intrinsic promise and in order to evaluate a variety of techniques. These applications were then subjected to a cost-effectiveness analysis, either on their own or in comparison with some competing procedure. To give reality to the study, it was performed in the context of the Indian health scene. The situations examined were the following: Screening blood units for hepatitis B surface antigen prior to transfusion. Costs and benefits of radiorespirometry and conventional culture methods as means to improve case-finding in tuberculosis surveys. Improved tests for diagnosing tuberculous meningitis. Population screening for thyroid diseases. Studies of this type are typically impeded by an insufficiency of key data, they nevertheless can shed some light on the value of potential radionuclide applications

  5. Co-operation of the CMEA member countries in the development of different reactor types, including certain aspects of their nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panasenkov, A.; Barbur, I.; Barchenkov, A.; Molnar, L.; Tolpygo, V.; Khake, V.; Shcherbinin, B.

    1977-01-01

    The report gives an account of the problems of the projected development of atomic power and evaluates its role in the fuel and power complex and long-range development of interconnected power systems of the CMEA member countries. The report emphasizes the importance of scientific and technical co-operation in the creation of thermal and fast-neutron power reactors with 1000-1500MW(e) units, and in the elaboration of nuclear plants for heating services. The positive experience of the international scientific and research group of scientists of the CMEA member countries carrying out reactor-physics studies on critical assemblies is mentioned. The report contains basic conclusions from the forecasts for nuclear power in the CMEA member countries up to 1990, including forecasting methodology; the role of nuclear power plants in saving natural and enriched uranium for a projected period; and the impact of nuclear power development rates on its structure (thermal and fast reactor ratio). It lists the impacts of scientific and technical co-operation of the CMEA member countries on the fuel cycle, including the transport of spent nuclear fuel, its recovery, reprocessing and radioactive waste disposal. Particular effects of co-operation of the CMEA member countries on the radiation safety of nuclear power plants and environmental protection are analysed. The report notes the role of the international economic associations Interatomenergo and Interatominstrument in the accelerated development of nuclear power. (author)

  6. [Baltic connections : archival guide to the maritime relations of the countries around the Baltic Sea (including the Netherlands) 1450-1800)] / Enn Küng

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Küng, Enn

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Baltic connections : archival guide to the maritime relations of the countries around the Baltic Sea (including the Netherlands) 1450-1800). Leiden, Boston : Brill, 2007. Lisaks raamatule on arhiivijuht kättesaadav ka elektrooniliselt http://www.balticconnections.net/

  7. Gonorrhoea and gonococcal antimicrobial resistance surveillance networks in the WHO European Region, including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unemo, Magnus; Ison, Catherine A; Cole, Michelle; Spiteri, Gianfranco; van de Laar, Marita; Khotenashvili, Lali

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has emerged for essentially all antimicrobials following their introduction into clinical practice. During the latest decade, susceptibility to the last remaining options for antimicrobial monotherapy, the extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC), has markedly decreased internationally and treatment failures with these ESCs have been verified. In response to this developing situation, WHO and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) have published global and region-specific response plans, respectively. One main component of these action/response plans is to enhance the surveillance of AMR and treatment failures. This paper describes the perspectives from the diverse WHO European Region (53 countries), including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union, regarding gonococcal AMR surveillance networks. The WHO European Region has a high prevalence of resistance to all previously recommended antimicrobials, and most of the first strictly verified treatment failures with cefixime and ceftriaxone were also reported from Europe. In the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA), the European gonococcal antimicrobial surveillance programme (Euro-GASP) funded by the ECDC is running. In 2011, the Euro-GASP included 21/31 (68%) EU/EEA countries, and the programme is further strengthened annually. However, in the non-EU/EEA countries, internationally reported and quality assured gonococcal AMR data are lacking in 87% of the countries and, worryingly, appropriate support for establishment of a GASP is still lacking. Accordingly, national and international support, including political and financial commitment, for gonococcal AMR surveillance in the non-EU/EEA countries of the WHO European Region is essential.

  8. White organic light-emitting devices with tunable color emission fabricated utilizing exciplex formation at heterointerfaces including m-MDATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang Seop; Choo, Dong Chul; Kim, Tae Whan

    2011-01-01

    The electrical and the optical properties of organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) fabricated utilizing a 4,4',4''-tris(2-methylphenyl-phenylamino)triphenylamine (m-MTDATA) were investigated to clarify the effect of exciplex on their color stabilization and color purity. The electrons combined with the holes at heterointerfaces between the m-MTDATA layer and the 9,10-di(2-naphthyl)anthracene (MADN) and the 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethyl aminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM1) emitting layer (EML) resulted in the formation of the exciplex. The emission peak of the electroluminescence spectra for the OLEDs fabricated utilizing the m-MTDATA layer shifted to a lower energy side in comparison with that of the EML. This was due to the interaction of the holes in the m-MTDATA layer and the electrons in the MADN EML. Carriers in white OLEDs (WOLEDs) with exciplex emissions existed at the heterointerfaces between the m-MTDATA and the EML because the DCM1 EML was too thin to affect the EL peak related to the m-MTDATA layer. The Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage coordinates of WOLEDs at 9.5 V were (0.33, 0.36), and their maximum current efficiency at 46 mA/cm 2 was 2.03 cd/A.

  9. White organic light-emitting devices with tunable color emission fabricated utilizing exciplex formation at heterointerfaces including m-MDATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Seop; Choo, Dong Chul; Kim, Tae Whan, E-mail: twk@hanyang.ac.kr

    2011-05-31

    The electrical and the optical properties of organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) fabricated utilizing a 4,4',4''-tris(2-methylphenyl-phenylamino)triphenylamine (m-MTDATA) were investigated to clarify the effect of exciplex on their color stabilization and color purity. The electrons combined with the holes at heterointerfaces between the m-MTDATA layer and the 9,10-di(2-naphthyl)anthracene (MADN) and the 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethyl aminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM1) emitting layer (EML) resulted in the formation of the exciplex. The emission peak of the electroluminescence spectra for the OLEDs fabricated utilizing the m-MTDATA layer shifted to a lower energy side in comparison with that of the EML. This was due to the interaction of the holes in the m-MTDATA layer and the electrons in the MADN EML. Carriers in white OLEDs (WOLEDs) with exciplex emissions existed at the heterointerfaces between the m-MTDATA and the EML because the DCM1 EML was too thin to affect the EL peak related to the m-MTDATA layer. The Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage coordinates of WOLEDs at 9.5 V were (0.33, 0.36), and their maximum current efficiency at 46 mA/cm{sup 2} was 2.03 cd/A.

  10. Optimal timing in the privatisation of a utility in an emerging country: the case of electricity distribution in Delhi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruet, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Privatisation of utilities in emerging countries is impeded by informational problems. We analyse privatisation of utilities as a process, focusing on the creation of information that arises both before and after the transfer of property. We take the example of the privatisation of electricity in Delhi (). We examine the interest in creating as much information as possible before the transfer of property, and propose a model based on a trade-off between the potential benefits of creating information prior to selling of assets, vs. facing the costs of delays associated with the risks of a state's failure in creating this information prior to privatisation. We operationalise the model in the case of Delhi and argue that, in similar conditions, it is reasonable and profitable to invest a few years in information building (). We test the robustness of this model with what risks to be the most stringent critique: the inefficiency of the state (). We conclude that this simple model is fit for a clear and transparent decision-making on privatisation and reforms

  11. Assessing public and private sector contributions in reproductive health financing and utilization for six sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha; Snider, Jeremy; Ravishankar, Nirmala; Magvanjav, Oyunbileg

    2011-05-01

    The present study provides evidence to support enhanced attention to reproductive health and comprehensive measures to increase access to quality reproductive health services. We compare and contrast the financing and utilization of reproductive health services in six sub-Saharan African countries using data from National Health Accounts and Demographic and Health Surveys. Spending on reproductive health in 2006 ranged from US$4 per woman of reproductive age in Ethiopia to US$17 in Uganda. These are below the necessary level for assuring adequate services given that an internationally recommended spending level for family planning alone was US$16 for 2006. Moreover, reproductive health spending shows signs of decline in tandem with insufficient improvement in service utilization. Public providers played a predominant role in antenatal and delivery care for institutional births, but home deliveries with unqualified attendants dominated. The private sector was a major supplier of condoms, oral pills and IUDs. Private clinics, pharmacies and drug vendors were important sources of STI treatment. The findings highlight the need to commit greatly increased funding for reproductive health services as well as more policy attention to the contribution of public, private and informal providers and the role of collaboration among them to expand access to services for under-served populations. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Co-operation of the CMEA member countries in the developing power reactors of various types, including some aspects of their nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbur, I.; Barchenkov, A.; Molnar, L; Panasenkov, A.; Tolpygo, V.; Hake, V.; Shcherbinin, B.

    1977-01-01

    The report gives an account of the problems of projected development of atomic power and evaluates its role in the fuel and power complex and long-range development of interconnected power systems of the CMEA member countries. The report emphasizes the importance of scientific and technical co-operation in the creation of power reactors on thermal and fast neutrons with 1000-1500 MW unit electric capacity as well as in the elaboration of nuclear plants for heating services. It notes the positive experience of the International scientific and research group of scientists of the CMEA member countries carrying out reactor-physical studies on the critical assembly and its contribution to the elaboration of power reactors. The report contains basic conclusions from the development forecast for nuclear power of the CMEA member countries up to 1990 including forecasting methodology; role of nuclear power plants in saving natural and enriched uranium for a projected period; impact of nuclear power development rates on its structure (thermal and fast reactor ratio); relation between the beginning of mass commissioning of nuclear power plants with fast reactors and the integral demand for nuclear fuel; scale of required capacities of fuel cycle services; time dependence of fuel cycle on nuclear fuel requirements. It examines the problems and lists the results of scientific and technical co-operation of the CMEA member countries in the field of fuel cycle, including the transport of spent nuclear fuel, its recovery, reprocessing and radioactive waste disposal. Particular questions of co-operation of the CMEA member countries to secure radiation safety of nuclear power plants and environmental protection are analyzed. The report notes the role of international economic associations - ''Interatomenergo'' and ''Interatominstrument'' - in the accelerated development of nuclear power on the basis of cooperation and specialization in the manufacture of equipment for nuclear power

  13. Kinematic, dynamic, and thermodynamic impacts of hook-echo hydrometeors, including explorations into the utilization of polarimetric radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askelson, Mark Anthony

    Recent studies have revealed that the thermodynamic properties of the rear flank downdraft (RFD) may dictate whether or not a supercell becomes tornadic. Since hydrometeors are thought to be an important driving force for the RFD, it is postulated that they may be important to its thermodynamic properties and, possibly, to tornadogenesis. The role hook-echo hydrometeors play in driving RFDs is investigated by estimating hook-echo hydrometeor types and amounts from polarimetric radar data and by using that information to drive a relatively simple downdraft model. Soundings for the individual cases are used to initialize the downdraft model in order to replicate the environments of the storms as closely as possible. Since this effort and others like it require the quantitative utilization of radar data, issues pertaining to this are explored. In addition to analyses of coordinate transformation equations and an innovative objective analysis technique for weather radar data, the difficult problem of response functions for arbitrary weight functions and data distributions was considered. A novel approach to this problem revealed that the local response function for distance dependent weighted averaging schemes is the complex conjugate of the normalized Fourier transform of the effective weight function. This facilitates new research avenues, especially regarding analyses of irregularly spaced data. Simulations of hydrometeor driven RFDs show that hydrometeor fields inferred from radar data are able to drive significant downdrafts without the influence of vertical perturbation pressure gradients. Moreover, they reveal that above the boundary layer supercell environments are relatively resistant to downdrafts whereas within the boundary layer they are generally supportive of downdrafts. It appears that in many supercell environments relatively large hail (≥1 cm in diameter) or vertical perturbation pressure gradients may be needed to drive deep midlevel downdrafts that

  14. Design of a Class of Antennas Utilizing MEMS, EBG and Septum Polarizers including Near-field Coupling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ilkyu

    Recent developments in mobile communications have led to an increased appearance of short-range communications and high data-rate signal transmission. New technologies provides the need for an accurate near-field coupling analysis and novel antenna designs. An ability to effectively estimate the coupling within the near-field region is required to realize short-range communications. Currently, two common techniques that are applicable to the near-field coupling problem are 1) integral form of coupling formula and 2) generalized Friis formula. These formulas are investigated with an emphasis on straightforward calculation and accuracy for various distances between the two antennas. The coupling formulas are computed for a variety of antennas, and several antenna configurations are evaluated through full-wave simulation and indoor measurement in order to validate these techniques. In addition, this research aims to design multi-functional and high performance antennas based on MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) switches, EBG (Electromagnetic Bandgap) structures, and septum polarizers. A MEMS switch is incorporated into a slot loaded patch antenna to attain frequency reconfigurability. The resonant frequency of the patch antenna can be shifted using the MEM switch, which is actuated by the integrated bias networks. Furthermore, a high gain base-station antenna utilizing beam-tilting is designed to maximize gain for tilted beam applications. To realize this base-station antenna, an array of four dipole-EBG elements is constructed to implement a fixed down-tilt main beam with application in base station arrays. An improvement of the operating range with the EBG-dipole array is evaluated using a simple linkbudget analysis. The septum polarizer has been widely used in circularly polarized antenna systems due to its simple and compact design and high quality of circularity. In this research, the sigmoid function is used to smoothen the edge in the septum design, which

  15. Comparison and clinical utility evaluation of four multiple allergen simultaneous tests including two newly introduced fully automated analyzers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hoon Rim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: We compared the diagnostic performances of two newly introduced fully automated multiple allergen simultaneous tests (MAST analyzers with two conventional MAST assays. Methods: The serum samples from a total of 53 and 104 patients were tested for food panels and inhalant panels, respectively, in four analyzers including AdvanSure AlloScreen (LG Life Science, Korea, AdvanSure Allostation Smart II (LG Life Science, PROTIA Allergy-Q (ProteomeTech, Korea, and RIDA Allergy Screen (R-Biopharm, Germany. We compared not only the total agreement percentages but also positive propensities among four analyzers. Results: Evaluation of AdvanSure Allostation Smart II as upgraded version of AdvanSure AlloScreen revealed good concordance with total agreement percentages of 93.0% and 92.2% in food and inhalant panel, respectively. Comparisons of AdvanSure Allostation Smart II or PROTIA Allergy-Q with RIDA Allergy Screen also showed good concordance performance with positive propensities of two new analyzers for common allergens (Dermatophagoides farina and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. The changes of cut-off level resulted in various total agreement percentage fluctuations among allergens by different analyzers, although current cut-off level of class 2 appeared to be generally suitable. Conclusions: AdvanSure Allostation Smart II and PROTIA Allergy-Q presented favorable agreement performances with RIDA Allergy Screen, although positive propensities were noticed in common allergens. Keywords: Multiple allergen simultaneous test, Automated analyzer

  16. Renewable energy utilization and CO2 mitigation in the power sector: A case study in selected GMS countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Pagnarith

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is an alternative resource to substitute fossil fuels. Currently, the share of renewable energy inpower generation is very low. The selected Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS, namely, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand andVietnam is a region having abundant of renewable energy resources. Though these countries have a high potential of renewableenergy utilization, they are still highly dependent on the imported fossil fuels for electricity generation. The less contributionof renewable energy in the power sector in the region is due to the high cost of technologies. Renewable energytechnology cannot compete with the conventional power plant. However, in order to promote renewable energy utilizationand reduce dependency on imported fossil fuel as well as to mitigate CO2 emissions from the power sector, this study introducesfour renewable energy technologies, namely, biomass, wind, solar PV, and geothermal power, for substitution of conventionaltechnologies. To make the renewable energy competitive to the fossil fuels, incentives in terms of carbon credit of20$/ton-ne CO2 are taken into account. Results are analyzed by using the Long-Range Energy Alternative Planning System(LEAP modeling. Results of analyses reveal that in the renewable energy (RE scenario the biomass power, wind, solarphotovoltaics, and geothermal would contribute in electricity supply for 5.47 GW in the region, accounted for 3.5% in 2030.The RE scenario with carbon credits could mitigate CO2 emissions at about 36.0 million tonne at lower system cost whencompared to the business-as-usual scenario.

  17. When is the liquefaction of coal economic. [Including safe and secure supplies, low interest, multiplier effect of money spent inside the country, employment, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    Usually the commercialization of a technology is determined by the economic viability. However, looking at coal conversion we recognize that there is also a strategic factor to be considered. Before entering into what is almost a political debate about the strategic value of coal conversion, let us look at the economic data. Table 2 shows specific cost numbers for coal gasification, coal liquefaction and electricity from coal. When the total cost of the different fuels is calculated with capital charges as would be required by private industry, one would arrive at indeed high figures, high compared to the present day cost of liquid energy. However, in the capital intensive electricity industry, capital can be accounted for on a capital charge basis of 7 to 17%. If this type of soft financing is applied to coal, coal liquids and coal gas, the figures already become much more attractive. Money internally spent within a country will turnover a few times. This is described by economists as the effect of the multiplier. To even further improve the prospects of home-made liquids one can add the value of avoiding unemployment. A labor intensive industry like the coal gasification and liquefaction industry may give a boost to the number of jobs and as a result have even another additional value to the country involved. Such an analysis leads to the conclusion that coal gasification and liquefaction could develop as a utility type industry under rather tight Government control. This has its strategic advantages with respect to stability and security of supply. On the other hand it may discourage private industry from getting involved in this business. Much will therefore depend on the political decision making process and that maybe is one of the biggest unknowns left in answer to the question when coal conversion will become of economic significance.

  18. A simple, generalizable method for measuring individual research productivity and its use in the long-term analysis of departmental performance, including between-country comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, Richard

    2013-01-14

    A simple, generalizable method for measuring research output would be useful in attempts to build research capacity, and in other contexts. A simple indicator of individual research output was developed, based on grant income, publications and numbers of PhD students supervised. The feasibility and utility of the indicator was examined by using it to calculate research output from two similarly-sized research groups in different countries. The same indicator can be used to assess the balance in the research "portfolio" of an individual researcher. Research output scores of 41 staff in Research Department A had a wide range, from zero to 8; the distribution of these scores was highly skewed. Only about 20% of the researchers had well-balanced research outputs, with approximately equal contributions from grants, papers and supervision. Over a five-year period, Department A's total research output rose, while the number of research staff decreased slightly, in other words research productivity (output per head) rose. Total research output from Research Department B, of approximately the same size as A, was similar, but slightly higher than Department A. The proposed indicator is feasible. The output score is dimensionless and can be used for comparisons within and between countries. Modeling can be used to explore the effect on research output of changing the size and composition of a research department. A sensitivity analysis shows that small increases in individual productivity result in relatively greater increases in overall departmental research output. The indicator appears to be potentially useful for capacity building, once the initial step of research priority setting has been completed.

  19. A comparative assessment of human exposure to tetrabromobisphenol A and eight bisphenols including bisphenol A via indoor dust ingestion in twelve countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Abualnaja, Khalid O; Asimakopoulos, Alexandros G; Covaci, Adrian; Gevao, Bondi; Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; Kumosani, Taha A; Malarvannan, Govindan; Minh, Tu Binh; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Nakata, Haruhiko; Sinha, Ravindra K; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-10-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and eight bisphenol analogues (BPs) including bisphenol A (BPA) were determined in 388 indoor (including homes and microenvironments) dust samples collected from 12 countries (China, Colombia, Greece, India, Japan, Kuwait, Pakistan, Romania, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, U.S., and Vietnam). The concentrations of TBBPA and sum of eight bisphenols (ƩBPs) in dust samples ranged from exposure doses through diet, dust ingestion accounted for less than 10% of the total exposure doses in China and the U.S. For TBBPA, the EDI for infants and toddlers ranged from 0.01 to 3.4 ng/kg bw/day, and dust ingestion is an important pathway for exposure accounting for 3.8-35% (median) of exposure doses in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Trends in mammography utilization for breast cancer screening in a Middle-Eastern country: Lebanon 2005-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Fady G; Kourie, Hampig Raphael; Adib, Salim M

    2015-12-01

    In Lebanon, annual national breast awareness campaigns were started in 2002 during the international breast month of October to promote the utilization of mammography for women aged ≥ 40. The impact of the campaigns has been assessed periodically since 2003. Results of 2003-2005 campaigns have been published previously. To measure the prevalence of two behavioral outcomes of interest: ever-use of mammography, and repeat mammography in the previous 12 months among ever-users. The prevalence was described by region and age group. The aim was to document the effectiveness of the program towards reaching a nationally defined goal of 80% screening coverage. The survey's sampling frame was developed incrementally, and since 2005 it has included women aged ≥ 40 from all areas of Lebanon. The sample size has also increased incrementally from 1200 in 2005 to 2400 in 2013. Results have been tabulated biannually and presented as historical trends with regional and demographic variations covering a 9-year period. In all six consecutive surveys presented here, the mean age of participating women was about 50 years. Year-by-year increases in utilization indicators were detected, with consistent differences in favor of the more urban areas in and around the capital city Beirut and its suburbs (Greater Beirut or GB). By 2013, ever-utilization had reached 43% (41-45) and recent mammography 20% (18-22) nationwide. Utilization was significantly more important in the age group 50-59 compared with the age group 40-49 or ≥ 60. While recent rates have increased nationwide, they have reached a plateau of about 25% in GB and are tending to the same level in other areas. While initial progress was slow, it has been accelerating in the last 4-5 years, indicating that the message is being accepted by a larger audience of targeted women at each iteration. However, concern remains that women between 40 and 50 and those >60 are not responding as well as desired to the screening message

  1. Effect of mHealth in improving antenatal care utilization and skilled birth attendance in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraha, Yosef G; Gebrie, Serebe A; Garoma, Desalegn A; Deribe, Fasil M; Tefera, Mamuye H; Morankar, Sudhakar

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this review is to identify and synthesize the best available evidence on the effect of mobile health (mHealth) interventions in antenatal care utilization and skilled birth attendance in low- and middle-income countries.More specifically, the review questions are as follows.

  2. Reaching a consensus. "Global issues, including environmental ones, are things to be solved with the cooperation of developed and developing countries".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraiwa, G

    1998-01-01

    This article is an excerpt of a speech given by the Honorary Chairman of the Japan Federation of Economic Organizations at the Common Agenda Roundtable meeting in February 1996. The Common Agenda is a bilateral cooperative effort between the US and Japan, which was established in July 1993, to address common concerns through a public-private partnership. The roundtable membership includes about 50 persons who have a range of expertise and professions including scholars, journalists, civil society organizations, and businesses. There have been about 10 Roundtable meetings over the past 2 years. Each meeting includes a report by the deputy minister of foreign affairs on progress made under the Common Agenda. Members exchange views in lively debate and meet with senior government officials. The US-Japan Partnerships on Environmental Awareness and Education were held in April 1997, in Tokyo. The February 1998 meeting with 60 participants was held in Washington, DC, on the Global Context of Civil Society. The workshops focused on the ways that cooperation with civil society organizations, businesses, and governments can be reinforced in the areas of population, health, and the environment. The workshop resulted in effective proposals. This speaker urges that the US and Japan reach as many agreements as possible; that some of the agreements result quickly in Common Agenda projects; and that each country will produce a private sector organization to support the Common Agenda. This effort is moving in new directions and offers a consensus of concerns for the environment.

  3. Stakeholders' perception on including broader economic impact of vaccines in economic evaluations in low and middle income countries: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Putten, Ingeborg M; Evers, Silvia M A A; Deogaonkar, Rohan; Jit, Mark; Hutubessy, Raymond C W

    2015-04-10

    Current health economic evaluation guidelines mainly concentrate on immediate health gains and cost savings for the individual involved in the intervention. However, it has been argued that these guidelines are too narrow to capture the full impact of vaccination in low and middle income countries. The inclusion of broader economic impact of vaccines (BEIV) has therefore been proposed. Some examples of these are productivity-related gains, macro-economic impact, and different externalities. Despite their potency, the extent to which such benefits can and should be incorporated into economic evaluations of vaccination is still unclear. This mixed methods study aims to assess the relevance of BEIV to different stakeholders involved in the vaccine introduction decision making process. In this mixed method study an internet based survey was sent to attendees of the New and Underutilized Vaccines Initiative meeting in Montreux, Switzerland in 2011. Additionally, semi-structured interviews of 15 minutes each were conducted during the meeting. Study participants included decision makers, experts and funders of vaccines and immunization programs in low and middle income countries. Descriptive analysis of the survey, along with identification of common themes and factors extracted from the interviews and open survey questions was undertaken. Evidence on macro-economic impact, burden of disease and ecological effects were perceived as being most valuable towards aiding decision making for vaccine introduction by the 26 survey respondents. The 14 interviewees highlighted the importance of burden of disease and different types of indirect effects. Furthermore, some new interpretations of BEIVs were discussed, such as the potential negative impact of wastage during immunization programs and the idea of using vaccines as a platform for delivering other types of health interventions. Interviewees also highlighted the importance of using a broader perspective in connection to

  4. Counterproliferation, Border Security and Counterterrorism Subject-Related Laws and Regulations, Including Export Control Regimes in South-Eastern European Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokan, S.

    2007-01-01

    gaps exist, much less fill them. All this suggests that, to fulfil obligations under UNSC Resolutions 1540 and 1373, States must enact harmonized criminal prohibitions and authorization for law enforcement cooperation in order to establish a seamless web of security among all nations. Failure to do so implicitly poses a threat to international peace and security. One of the main issues which deserve to be further addressed and which prompts the continuation of the Southeast Europe Counterproliferation, Borger Security and Counterterrorism (CBSC) Working Group is to harmonize national laws and regulations that deal with deterring, detecting and interdicting WMD. Inventory of relevant CBSC subject-related laws of the Southeast Europe countries, including Export Control Laws was created and prepared for further consideration and harmonization by judiciary experts, with the aim to develop m odel laws . Let me very briefly present you the main features of the SEDM CBSC subject-related laws and regulations. This paper will present that inventory which includes the membership in the international Conventions, Treaties and Arrangements and also the membership in Multilateral Export Control Regimes of Southeast Europe countries. Also, it will be presented the membership in the international legal instruments that play an integral part in the global fight against terrorism. (author)

  5. Birth weight and long-term overweight risk: systematic review and a meta-analysis including 643,902 persons from 66 studies and 26 countries globally.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Schellong

    Full Text Available Overweight is among the major challenging health risk factors. It has been claimed that birth weight, being a critical indicator of prenatal developmental conditions, is related to long-term overweight risk. In order to check this important assumption of developmental and preventive medicine, we performed a systematic review and comprehensive meta-analysis.Relevant studies published up to January 2011 that investigated the relation between birth weight and later risk of overweight were identified through literature searches using MEDLINE and EMBASE. For meta-analysis, 66 studies from 26 countries and five continents were identified to be eligible, including 643,902 persons aged 1 to 75 years. We constructed random-effects and fixed-effects models, performed subgroup-analyses, influence-analyses, assessed heterogeneity and publication bias, performed meta-regression analysis as well as analysis of confounder adjusted data. Meta-regression revealed a linear positive relationship between birth weight and later overweight risk (p4,000 g was associated with increased risk of overweight (OR=1.66; 95% CI 1.55-1.77. Results did not change significantly by using normal birth weight (2,500-4,000 g as reference category (OR=0.73, 95% CI 0.63-0.84, and OR=1.60, 95% CI 1.45-1.77, respectively. Subgroup- and influence-analyses revealed no indication for bias/confounding. Adjusted estimates indicate a doubling of long-term overweight risk in high as compared to normal birth weight subjects (OR=1.96, 95% CI 1.43-2.67.Findings demonstrate that low birth weight is followed by a decreased long-term risk of overweight, while high birth weight predisposes for later overweight. Preventing in-utero overnutrition, e.g., by avoiding maternal overnutrition, overweight and/or diabetes during pregnancy, might therefore be a promising strategy of genuine overweight prevention, globally.

  6. Immigrants' utilization of specialist mental healthcare according to age, country of origin, and migration history: a nation-wide register study in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Dawit Shawel; Lien, Lars; Elstad, Jon Ivar

    2017-06-01

    As the immigrant population rises in Norway, it becomes ever more important to consider the responsiveness of health services to the specific needs of these immigrants. It has been questioned whether access to mental healthcare is adequate among all groups of immigrants. This study aims to examine the use of specialist mental healthcare services among ethnic Norwegians and specific immigrants groups. Register data were used from the Norwegian Patient Registry and Statistics Norway. The sample (age 0-59) consisted of 3.3 million ethnic Norwegians and 200,000 immigrants from 11 countries. Poisson regression models were applied to examine variations in the use of specialist mental healthcare during 2008-2011 according to country of origin, age group, reason for immigration, and length of stay. Immigrant children and adolescents had overall significantly lower use of specialist mental healthcare than ethnic Norwegians of the same age. A distinct exception was the high utilization rate among children and youth from Iran. Among adult immigrants, utilization rates were generally lower than among ethnic Norwegians, particularly those from Poland, Somalia, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam. Adult immigrants from Iraq and Iran, however, had high utilization rates. Refugees had high utilization rates of specialist mental healthcare, while labour immigrants had low use. Utilization rates of specialist mental healthcare are lower among immigrants than Norwegians. Immigrants from Poland, Somalia, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam, had generally quite low rates, while immigrants from Iran had high utilization rates. The findings suggest that specialist mental healthcare in Norway is underutilized among considerable parts of the immigrant population.

  7. Birth Weight and Long-Term Overweight Risk: Systematic Review and a Meta-Analysis Including 643,902 Persons from 66 Studies and 26 Countries Globally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Thomas; Plagemann, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Background Overweight is among the major challenging health risk factors. It has been claimed that birth weight, being a critical indicator of prenatal developmental conditions, is related to long-term overweight risk. In order to check this important assumption of developmental and preventive medicine, we performed a systematic review and comprehensive meta-analysis. Methods and Findings Relevant studies published up to January 2011 that investigated the relation between birth weight and later risk of overweight were identified through literature searches using MEDLINE and EMBASE. For meta-analysis, 66 studies from 26 countries and five continents were identified to be eligible, including 643,902 persons aged 1 to 75 years. We constructed random-effects and fixed-effects models, performed subgroup-analyses, influence-analyses, assessed heterogeneity and publication bias, performed meta-regression analysis as well as analysis of confounder adjusted data. Meta-regression revealed a linear positive relationship between birth weight and later overweight risk (poverweight (odds ratio (OR) = 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59–0.76). High birth weight (>4,000 g) was associated with increased risk of overweight (OR = 1.66; 95% CI 1.55–1.77). Results did not change significantly by using normal birth weight (2,500–4,000 g) as reference category (OR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.63–0.84, and OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.45–1.77, respectively). Subgroup- and influence-analyses revealed no indication for bias/confounding. Adjusted estimates indicate a doubling of long-term overweight risk in high as compared to normal birth weight subjects (OR = 1.96, 95% CI 1.43–2.67). Conclusions Findings demonstrate that low birth weight is followed by a decreased long-term risk of overweight, while high birth weight predisposes for later overweight. Preventing in-utero overnutrition, e.g., by avoiding maternal overnutrition, overweight and/or diabetes during pregnancy

  8. DECOMPOSING THE SOCIOECONOMIC INEQUALITY IN UTILIZATION OF MATERNAL HEALTH CARE SERVICES IN SELECTED COUNTRIES OF SOUTH ASIA AND SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goli, Srinivas; Nawal, Dipty; Rammohan, Anu; Sekher, T V; Singh, Deepshikha

    2017-10-30

    The gap in access to maternal health care services is a challenge of an unequal world. In 2015, each day about 830 women died due to complications of pregnancy and childbirth. Almost all of these deaths occurred in low-resource settings, and most could have been prevented. This study quantified the contributions of the socioeconomic determinants of inequality to the utilization of maternal health care services in four countries in diverse geographical and cultural settings: Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Nepal and Zimbabwe. Data from the 2010-11 Demographic and Health Surveys of the four countries were used, and methods developed by Wagstaff and colleagues for decomposing socioeconomic inequalities in health were applied. The results showed that although the Concentration Index (CI) was negative for the selected indicators, meaning maternal health care was poorer among lower socioeconomic status groups, the level of CI varied across the different countries for the same outcome indicator: CI of -0.1147, -0.1146, -0.2859 and -0.0638 for inequalities in maternal health care varied across the selected countries. The findings are significant for a global understanding of the various determinants of maternal health care use in high-maternal-mortality settings in different geographical and socio-cultural contexts.

  9. Five-year examination of utilization and drug cost outcomes associated with benefit design changes including reference pricing for proton pump inhibitors in a state employee health plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jill T; Neill, Kathryn K; Davis, Dwight A

    2011-04-01

    The Arkansas State Employee Benefits Division (EBD) is a self-insured program comprising public school and other state employees, their spouses, and dependents. Previous research published in JMCP (2006) showed drug cost savings of $2.20 per member per month (PMPM; 37.6%) or annualized savings of $3.4 million associated with a benefit design change and coverage of the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) omeprazole over-the-counter (OTC) beginning in March 2004. On May 1, 2005, brand esomeprazole was excluded from coverage, with current users grandfathered for 4 months until September 2005. Reference pricing for PPIs, including esomeprazole but excluding generic omeprazole, was implemented on September 1, 2005, and the beneficiary cost share for all PPIs except generic omeprazole was determined from comparison of the PPI actual price to the $0.90 omeprazole OTC reference price per unit. To examine PPI utilization and drug costs before and after (a) excluding esomeprazole from coverage (with grandfathering current users) and (b) implementing a therapeutic maximum allowable cost (TMAC), or reference-pricing benefit design, for the PPI class in a large state employee health plan with fairly stable enrollment of approximately 127,500 members in 2005 through 2008 and approximately 128,000 members in 2009 Q1. The pharmacy claims database for the EBD was used to examine utilization and cost data for PPIs in a longitudinal analysis for the 61-month period from March 1, 2004, through March 31, 2009. Pharmacy claims data were compared for the period 14 months prior to esomeprazole exclusion (preperiod), 4 months during the esomeprazole exclusion (postperiod 1), and the ensuing 43 months of PPI reference pricing (postperiod 2). PPI cost and utilization data for the intervention group of approximately 127,500 beneficiaries were compared with a group of 122 self-insured employers with a total of nearly 1 million beneficiaries whose pharmacy benefits did not include reference pricing for

  10. Do Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines Represent Good Value for Money in a Lower-Middle Income Country? A Cost-Utility Analysis in the Philippines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alexander Haasis

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to assess the value for money of introducing pneumococcal conjugate vaccines as part of the immunization program in a lower-middle income country, the Philippines, which is not eligible for GAVI support and lower vaccine prices. It also includes the newest clinical evidence evaluating the efficacy of PCV10, which is lacking in other previous studies.A cost-utility analysis was conducted. A Markov simulation model was constructed to examine the costs and consequences of PCV10 and PCV13 against the current scenario of no PCV vaccination for a lifetime horizon. A health system perspective was employed to explore different funding schemes, which include universal or partial vaccination coverage subsidized by the government. Results were presented as incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs in Philippine peso (Php per QALY gained (1 USD = 44.20 Php. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the impact of parameter uncertainty.With universal vaccination at a cost per dose of Php 624 for PCV10 and Php 700 for PCV13, both PCVs are cost-effective compared to no vaccination given the ceiling threshold of Php 120,000 per QALY gained, yielding ICERs of Php 68,182 and Php 54,510 for PCV10 and PCV13, respectively. Partial vaccination of 25% of the birth cohort resulted in significantly higher ICER values (Php 112,640 for PCV10 and Php 84,654 for PCV13 due to loss of herd protection. The budget impact analysis reveals that universal vaccination would cost Php 3.87 billion to 4.34 billion per annual, or 1.6 to 1.8 times the budget of the current national vaccination program.The inclusion of PCV in the national immunization program is recommended. PCV13 achieved better value for money compared to PCV10. However, the affordability and sustainability of PCV implementation over the long-term should be considered by decision makers.

  11. FY 1997 report on the field survey on country situations including efficient energy consumption. Vietnam; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (energy shohi koritsuka nado chiiki josei genchi chosa). Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Field survey was made on the current state of and issues on energy in Vietnam. In Vietnam, firewood is in wide use as non-commercial energy, and sums to a half of total energy consumption. Other energies such as hydroelectric power, petroleum, natural gas and coal are self-sustainable. Commercial energy consumption in 1995 is estimated at 10,070,000t in oil equivalent, which is broken down into 23% for coal, 42% in oil, 5% for natural gas and 30% for electricity. Abundant water resources will form the mainstay of future electric power supply. Commercial production of oil started in 1986 becoming an oil exporting country. Several promising natural gas fields were discovered as the result of the exploration by foreign capital. Coal deposits are estimated to be nearly 3.5 billion tons, and most of them are anthracite. Electric power demand is growing at a higher rate than the economic growth of Vietnam. The growth rate of electric power demand is set to be 1.3 times that of GDP. Since construction funds for new plants cannot be satisfied with the national budget and domestic investment alone, the country is expecting foreign capitals. 21 figs., 36 tabs.

  12. Treatment of Thyroid Cancer: A Review of the Regional Experiences (including countries from Asia-Pacific, Europe, North America, Africa and Latin America)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, D.; Nagataki, S.; Padhy, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    Radioiodine (I-131) therapy has been in use for the treatment of thyroid diseases for the past six decades. Although the use of radioiodine has been in vogue for a long time, its use in therapy for well-differentiated thyroid cancer is still controversial, varied and in many instances based on personal and institutional philosophy. The practice is also influenced by available infrastructure, national policy with regard to health, financial and human resources; as well as social, cultural and ethnic milieu of a particular region or country. The World Radiopharmaceutical Therapy Council had carried out a survey on the practice of radioiodine treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer around the world. This paper is a compilation of information from several countries/ regions around the world, which may offer insight into the practice of one of the most important and widely practiced radionuclide therapeutic procedures in clinical medicine. It is interesting to note that despite regional or national differences with regard to history, culture, finance, resources, beliefs, practices and attitude there has been more or less a universal unanimity on the 'basics' related to the practice of radioiodine therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer. (author)

  13. High heterogeneity in methods used for the laboratory confirmation of pertussis diagnosis among European countries, 2010: integration of epidemiological and laboratory surveillance must include standardisation of methodologies and quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Q; Barkoff, A M; Mertsola, J; Glismann, S; Bacci, S

    2012-08-09

    Despite extensive childhood immunisation, pertussis remains one of the world’s leading causes of vaccine preventable deaths. The current methods used for laboratory diagnosis of pertussis include bacterial culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) serology. We conducted a questionnaire survey to identify variations in the laboratory methods and protocols used among participating countries included in the European surveillance network for vaccine-preventable diseases(EUVAC.NET). In February 2010, we performed the survey using a web-based questionnaire and sent it to the country experts of 25 European Union countries,and two European Economic Area (EEA) countries,Norway and Iceland. The questionnaire consisted of 37 questions which covered both general information on surveillance methods and detailed laboratory methods used. A descriptive analysis was performed.Questionnaires were answered by all 27 contacted countries. Nineteen countries had pertussis reference laboratories at the national level; their functions varied from performing diagnosis to providing technical advice for routine microbiology laboratories. Culture,PCR and serology were used in 17, 18 and 20 countries,respectively. For PCR, nine laboratories used insertion sequence IS481 as the target gene, which is present in multiple copies in the Bordetella pertussis genome and thus has a greater sensitivity over single copy targets, but has been proved not to be specific for B.pertussis. Antibodies directed against pertussis toxin(PT) are specific for B. pertussis infections. For ELISA serology, only 13 countries’ laboratories used purified PT as coating antigen and 10 included World Health Organization (WHO) or Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reference sera in their tests. This present survey shows that methods used for laboratory confirmation of pertussis differ widely among European countries and that there is a great heterogeneity of the reference

  14. Let’s Take it to the Clouds: The Potential of Educational Innovations, Including Blended Learning, for Capacity Building in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Marrinan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In modern decentralised health systems, district and local managers are increasingly responsible for financing, managing, and delivering healthcare. However, their lack of adequate skills and competencies are a critical barrier to improved performance of health systems. Given the financial and human resource, constraints of relying on traditional face-to-face training to upskill a large and dispersed number of health managers, governments, and donors must look to exploit advances in the education sector. In recent years, education providers around the world have been experimenting with blended learning; that is, amalgamating traditional face-to-face education with web-based learning to reduce costs and enrol larger numbers of students. Access to improved information and communication technology (ICT has been the major catalyst for such pedagogical innovations. We argue that with many developing countries already improving their ICT systems, the question is not whether but how to employ technology to facilitate the continuous professional development of district and local health managers in decentralised settings.

  15. Telemedicine utilization to support the management of the burns treatment involving patient pathways in both developed and developing countries: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Scholl, Jeremiah; Chen, Chiehfeng Cliff; Santos, Martinho D P S; Jian, Wen-Shan; Liou, Der-Ming; Li, Yu-Chuan

    2012-01-01

    This case study reports on the utilization of telemedicine to support the management of the burns treatment in the islands of Sao Tome and Principe by Taipei Medical University-affiliated hospital in Taiwan. The authors share experiences about usage of telemedicine to support treatment of the burn victims in a low-income country that receive reconstructive surgery in a developed country. Throughout the entire care process, telemedicine has been used not only to provide an expert advice from distance but also to help establish and maintain the doctor-patient relationship, to keep patients in contact with their families, and to help educate and consult the medical personal physically present in Sao Tome and Principe. This case study presents the details of how this process has been conducted to date, on what were learned from this process, and on issues that should be considered to improve this process in the future. The authors plan to create instructional videos and post them on YouTube to aid clinical workers providing similar treatment during the acute care and rehabilitation process and also to support eLearning in many situations where it otherwise is not possible to use videoconferencing to establish real-time contact between doctors at the local site and remote specialists.

  16. Assessing the extent of utilization of biopsychosocial model in doctor-patient interaction in public sector hospitals of a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadir, Maha; Hamza, Muhammad; Mehmood, Nadir

    2018-01-01

    Biopsychosocial (BPS) model has been a mainstay in the ideal practice of modern medicine. It is attributed to improve patient care, compliance, and satisfaction and to reduce doctor-patient conflict. The study aimed to understand the importance given to BPS model while conducting routine doctor-patient interactions in public sector hospitals of a developing country where health resources are limited. The study was conducted in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. The study design is qualitative. Structured interviews were conducted from 44 patients from surgical and medical units of Benazir Bhutto Hospital and Holy Family Hospital. The questions were formulated based on patient-centered interviewing methods by reviewing the literature on BPS model. The analysis was done thematically using the software NVivo 11 for qualitative data. The study revealed four emerging themes: (1) Lack of doctor-patient rapport. (2) Utilization of a paternalistic approach during treatment. (3) Utilization of a reductionist biomedical approach during treatment. (4) Patients' concern with their improvement in health and doctor's demeanor. The study highlights the fact that BPS is not given considerable importance while taking routine medical history. This process remains doctor centered and paternalistic. However, patients are more concerned with their improvement in health rather than whether or not they are being provided informational care. Sequential studies will have to be conducted to determine whether this significantly affects patient care and compliance and whether BPS is a workable model in the healthcare system in the third world.

  17. Genetic improvement of under-utilized and neglected crops in low income food deficit countries through irradiation and related techniques. Proceedings of a final research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-11-01

    The majority of the world's food is produced from only a few crops, and yet many neglected and under-utilized crops are extremely important for food production in low income food deficit countries (LIFDCs). As the human population grows at an alarming rate in LIFDCs, food availability has declined and is also affected due to environmental factors, lack of improvement of local crop species, erosion of genetic diversity and dependence on a few crop species for food supply. Neglected crops are traditionally grown by farmers in their centres of origin or centres of diversity, where they are still important for the subsistence of local communities, and maintained by socio-cultural preferences and traditional uses. These crops remain inadequately characterised and, until very recently, have been largely ignored by research and conservation. Farmers are losing these crops because they are less competitive with improved major crop species. Radiation-induced mutation techniques have successfully been used that benefited the most genetic improvement of 'major crops' and their know-how have a great potential for enhancing the use of under-utilized and neglected species and speeding up their domestication and crop improvement. The FAO/IAEA efforts on genetic improvement of under-utilized and neglected species play a strategic role in complementing the work that is being carried out worldwide in their promotion. This CRP entitled Genetic Improvement of Under-utilized and Neglected Crops in LIFDCs through Irradiation and Related Techniques was initiated in 1998 with an overall objective to improve food security, enhance nutritional balance, and promote sustainable agriculture in LIFDCs. Specific objectives addressed major constraints to productivity of neglected and under-utilized crops by genetic improvement with radiation-induced mutations and biotechnology in order to enhance economic viability and sustain crop species diversity, and in future to benefit small farmers. This

  18. The choice of primary energy source including PV installation for providing electric energy to a public utility building - a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radomski, Bartosz; Ćwiek, Barbara; Mróz, Tomasz M.

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents multicriteria decision aid analysis of the choice of PV installation providing electric energy to a public utility building. From the energy management point of view electricity obtained by solar radiation has become crucial renewable energy source. Application of PV installations may occur a profitable solution from energy, economic and ecologic point of view for both existing and newly erected buildings. Featured variants of PV installations have been assessed by multicriteria analysis based on ANP (Analytic Network Process) method. Technical, economical, energy and environmental criteria have been identified as main decision criteria. Defined set of decision criteria has an open character and can be modified in the dialog process between the decision-maker and the expert - in the present case, an expert in planning of development of energy supply systems. The proposed approach has been used to evaluate three variants of PV installation acceptable for existing educational building located in Poznań, Poland - the building of Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznań University of Technology. Multi-criteria analysis based on ANP method and the calculation software Super Decisions has proven to be an effective tool for energy planning, leading to the indication of the recommended variant of PV installation in existing and newly erected public buildings. Achieved results show prospects and possibilities of rational renewable energy usage as complex solution to public utility buildings.

  19. Performance analysis on borehole energy storage system including utilization of solar thermal and photovoltaic energies; Taiyonetsu hikari riyo wo fukumu borehole energy chozo system no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Yamaguchi, A [Matsushita Electric Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A permanent borehole energy storage system utilizing solar energy and waste heat from coolers is simulated, to be used as an air conditioning system for super-tall buildings. A 100m-long pipe is buried vertically into the ground, and a heat medium is caused to circulate in the pipe for the exchange of heat with the soil. Thirty borehole units are used, each measuring 9m{times}9m (with the pipe pitch being 3m). Solar cells occupying half of the wall surface facing south and solar collectors installed on the roof supply electric power and heat for cooling and warming. Heat in the ground is transferred mainly by conduction but also is carried by water and gas in movement. So, an analysis is carried out using an equation in which heat and water move at the same time. Because waste heat from cooling and warming systems is accumulated in the ground and none is discharged into the air, big cities will be protected from warming (from developing heat islands). As compared with the conventional boiler-aided air conditioning system, a hybrid borehole system incorporating solar collectors and solar cells will bring about an 80% reduction in CO2 emission and annual energy consumption. 7 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Guideline-recommended therapy, including beta-blocker utilization, in patients with chronic heart failure: results from a Canadian community hospital heart function clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heffernan M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Michael Heffernan Division of Cardiology, Oakville Trafalgar Memorial Hospital, Oakville, ON, Canada Abstract: A comprehensive analysis of beta-blocker utilization and other guideline-recommended therapies for the treatment of chronic heart failure in a Canadian community hospital heart function clinic has not been undertaken and was, therefore, the focus of this study. The proportion of patients who would be potential candidates for ivabridine and sacubitril–valsartan therapy as a result of fulfilling the criteria for enrollment in either the Systolic Heart failure treatment with the If inhibitor ivabradine Trial (SHIFT study (left-ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] >35%, sinus rhythm, New York Heart Association II–IV or the Prospective Comparison of angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI to determine impact on global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure (PARADIGM-HF study (LVEF <40%, New York Heart Association II–IV, glomerular filtration rate >30 mL/min, was also assessed. A retrospective cross-sectional analysis was carried out in all 371 patients treated in this community heart function clinic for at least a 12-month period. The patients were elderly (mean age 74±13.3 years and predominately male (61.5% with symptomatic (82.5% moderate left-ventricular dysfunction (LVEF 45.4%±15.6%. A substantial proportion of the patients also had a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (52.8%. The total use of beta blockers exceeded 87%, while 100% of patients without a documented contraindication or intolerance to a beta blocker received therapy. Adherence to other guideline-recommended pharmacotherapies specifically for heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection was high: 86.1% of the eligible patients were treated with an ACEI/angiotensin receptor blocker and 61.9% received a mineralcorticoid receptor antagonist. We determined that 13.7% of the complement of this heart

  1. Interlayer utilization (including metal borides) for subsequent deposition of NSD films via microwave plasma CVD on 316 and 440C stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, Jared

    Diamond thin films have promising applications in numerous fields due to the extreme properties of diamonds in conjunction with the surface enhancement of thin films. Biomedical applications are numerous including temporary implants and various dental and surgical instruments. The unique combination of properties offered by nanostructured diamond films that make it such an attractive surface coating include extreme hardness, low obtainable surface roughness, excellent thermal conductivity, and chemical inertness. Regrettably, numerous problems exist when attempting to coat stainless steel with diamond generating a readily delaminated film: outward diffusion of iron to the surface, inward diffusion of carbon limiting necessary surface carbon precursor, and the mismatch between the coefficients of thermal expansion yielding substantial residual stress. While some exotic methods have been attempted to overcome these hindrances, the most common approach is the use of an intermediate layer between the stainless steel substrate and the diamond thin film. In this research, both 316 stainless steel disks and 440C stainless steel ball bearings were tested with interlayers including discrete coatings and graded, diffusion-based surface enhancements. Titanium nitride and thermochemical diffusion boride interlayers were both examined for their effectiveness at allowing for the growth of continuous and adherent diamond films. Titanium nitride interlayers were deposited by cathodic arc vacuum deposition on 440C bearings. Lower temperature diamond processing resulted in improved surface coverage after cooling, but ultimately, both continuity and adhesion of the nanostructured diamond films were unacceptable. The ability to grow quality diamond films on TiN interlayers is in agreement with previous work on iron and low alloy steel substrates, and the similarly seen inadequate adhesion strength is partially a consequence of the lacking establishment of an interfacial carbide phase

  2. Cost-utility analysis of the inhaled steroids available in a developing country for the management of pediatric patients with persistent asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Carlos E; Sossa-Briceño, Mónica P; Castro-Rodriguez, Jose A

    2013-05-01

    The choice among the different treatments available can have a great impact on the costs of asthma, The objective of this study was to estimate the incremental cost-utility ratio of three inhaled corticosteroids (ICs): budesonide (BUD), fluticasone propionate (FP), and ciclesonide, compared to beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) (the only IC included in the Compulsory Health Insurance Plan of Colombia), A Markov-type model was developed to estimate costs and health outcomes of a simulated cohort of patients less than 18 years of age with persistent asthma treated over a 12-month period. Effectiveness parameters were obtained from a systematic review of the literature. Cost data were obtained from a hospital´s bills and from the national manual of drug prices. The study assumed the perspective of the national healthcare in Colombia. The main outcome was the variable "quality-adjusted life years" (QALY), RESULTS: While treatment with BDP was associated with the lowest cost (£106.16 average cost per patient during 12 months), treatment with FP resulted in the greatest gain in QUALYs (0.9325 QALYs). FP was associated with a greater gain in QALYs compared to BUD and ciclesonide (0.9325 vs. 0.8999 and 0.9051 QALYs, respectively) at lower costs (£231.19 vs. £309.27 and £270.15, respectively), thus leading to dominance. The incremental cost-utility ratio of FP compared to BDP was £19,835.28 per QALY, CONCLUSIONS: BDP is the most cost-effective therapy for treating pediatric patients with persistent asthma when willingness to pay (WTP) is less than £21,129.22/QALY, otherwise, FP is the most cost-effective therapy.

  3. Nuclear Knowledge and Competence: Fundamental Prerequisites for the Safe Utilization of Radiation Sources in a Small Non-Nuclear Country — Experience of Montenegro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, S.; Dlabac, A.

    2016-01-01

    Provision of adequate knowledge, competence and expertise represents a major concern when addressing nuclear and radiation safety issues in small countries — if inadequate, safety will eventually be jeopardized. Montenegro is such a small, developing and “nonnuclear” country—the use of radiation sources being modest and limited to a few ordinary applications (primarily in health care). Even though, there is (or will be in the foreseeable future) a significant need in nuclear knowledge, competence and expertise — directly or indirectly related to nuclear/radiation safety and security issues. It goes about the following, the list being not exhaustive: (i) medical applications (diagnostics, radiotherapy, palliation, sterilization of equipment, consumables, blood products, etc.), (ii) radiation protection, including various dosimetry services and QC/QA of radiation sources; (iii) environmental protection (radioecology, analytical and monitoring services, etc.), (iv) low and medium activity radioactive waste management (including a newly licenced storage), (v) industrial, geological, hydrological, agricultural, biochemical and archaeological applications (non-destructive testing, various gauges, radioisotope labeling, harmful insects sterilization, etc.), (vi) scientific and educational uses, (vii) cultural heritage preservation and investigation, (viii) legislative and regulatory aspects, including complying to international safety/security norms and joining international conventions in the field, (ix) preparedness and response to radiological and nuclear emergency situations, (x) combating illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials, (xi) nuclear forensics, (xii) security systems based on X-ray and other nuclear methods, (xiii) introduction of some future topics (e.g., nuclear power for electricity generation and sea water desalination), (xiv) public information and communication with media, etc.

  4. At most hospitals in the state of Iowa, most surgeons' daily lists of elective cases include only 1 or 2 cases: Individual surgeons' percentage operating room utilization is a consistently unreliable metric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; Jarvie, Craig; Epstein, Richard H

    2017-11-01

    Percentage utilization of operating room (OR) time is not an appropriate endpoint for planning additional OR time for surgeons with high caseloads, and cannot be measured accurately for surgeons with low caseloads. Nonetheless, many OR directors claim that their hospitals make decisions based on individual surgeons' OR utilizations. This incongruity could be explained by the OR managers considering the earlier mathematical studies, performed using data from a few large teaching hospitals, as irrelevant to their hospitals. The important mathematical parameter for the prior observations is the percentage of surgeon lists of elective cases that include 1 or 2 cases; "list" meaning a combination of surgeon, hospital, and date. We measure the incidence among many hospitals. Observational cohort study. 117 hospitals in Iowa from July 2013 through September 2015. Surgeons with same identifier among hospitals. Surgeon lists of cases including at least one outpatient surgical case, so that Relative Value Units (RVU's) could be measured. Averaging among hospitals in Iowa, more than half of the surgeons' lists included 1 or 2 cases (77%; P<0.00001 vs. 50%). Approximately half had 1 case (54%; P=0.0012 vs. 50%). These percentages exceeded 50% even though nearly all the surgeons operated at just 1 hospital on days with at least 1 case (97.74%; P<0.00001 vs. 50%). The cases were not of long durations; among the 82,928 lists with 1 case, the median was 6 intraoperative RVUs (e.g., adult inguinal herniorrhaphy). Accurate confidence intervals for raw or adjusted utilizations are so wide for individual surgeons that decisions based on utilization are equivalent to decisions based on random error. The implication of the current study is generalizability of that finding from the largest teaching hospital in the state to the other hospitals in the state. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Social class inequalities in the utilization of health care and preventive services in Spain, a country with a national health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Cumbrera, Marco; Borrell, Carme; Palència, Laia; Espelt, Albert; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Pasarín, M Isabel; Kunst, Anton

    2010-01-01

    In Spain, despite the existence of a National Health System (NHS), the utilization of some curative health services is related to social class. This study assesses (1) whether these inequalities are also observed for preventive health services and (2) the role of additional private health insurance for people of advantaged social classes. Using data from the Spanish National Health Survey of 2006, the authors analyze the relationships between social class and use of health services by means of Poisson regression models with robust variance, controlling for self-assessed health. Similar analyses were performed for waiting times for visits to a general practitioner (GP) and specialist. After controlling for self-perceived health, men and women from social classes IV-V had a higher probability of visiting the GP than other social classes, but a lower probability of visiting a specialist or dentist. No large class differences were observed in frequency of hospitalization or emergency services use, or in breast cancer screening or influenza vaccination; cervical cancer screening frequency was lower among women from social classes IV-V. The inequalities in specialist visits, dentist visits, and cervical cancer screening were larger among people with only NHS insurance than those with double health insurance. Social class differences in waiting times were observed for specialist visits, but not for GP visits. Men and women from social classes IV-V had longer waits for a specialist; this was most marked among people with only NHS insurance. Clearly, within the NHS, social class inequalities are still evident for some curative and preventive services. Further research is needed to identify the factors driving these inequalities and to tackle these factors from within the NHS. Priority areas include specialist services, dental care, and cervical cancer screening.

  6. National health policy-makers' views on the clarity and utility of Countdown to 2015 country profiles and reports: findings from two exploratory qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Benjamin M; Requejo, Jennifer H; Pope, Ian; Daelmans, Bernadette; Murray, Susan F

    2014-08-15

    The use of sets of indicators to assess progress has become commonplace in the global health arena. Exploratory research has suggested that indicators used for global monitoring purposes can play a role in national policy-making, however, the mechanisms through which this occurs are poorly understood. This article reports findings from two qualitative studies that aimed to explore national policy-makers' interpretation and use of indicators from country profiles and reports developed by Countdown to 2015. An initial study aimed at exploring comprehension of Countdown data was conducted at the 2010 joint Women Deliver/Countdown conference. A second study was conducted at the 64th World Health Assembly in 2011, specifically targeting national policy-makers. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 29 and 22 participants, respectively, at each event. Participants were asked about their understanding of specific graphs and indicators used or proposed for use in Countdown country profiles, and their perception of how such data can inform national policy-making. Responses were categorised using a framework analysis. Respondents in both studies acknowledged the importance of the profiles for tracking progress on key health indicators in and across countries, noting that they could be used to highlight changes in coverage, possible directions for future policy, for lobbying finance ministers to increase resources for health, and to stimulate competition between neighbouring or socioeconomically similar countries. However, some respondents raised questions about discrepancies between global estimates and data produced by national governments, and some struggled to understand the profile graphs shown in the absence of explanatory text. Some respondents reported that use of Countdown data in national policy-making was constrained by limited awareness of the initiative, insufficient detail in the country profiles to inform policy, and the absence of indicators felt to

  7. Water Loss Management: Tools and Methods for Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutikanga, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    Water utilities in developing countries are struggling to provide customers with a reliable level of service due to their peculiar water distribution characteristics including poorly zoned networks with irregular supply operating under restricted budgets. These unique conditions demand unique tools

  8. Water Loss Management : Tools and Methods for Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutikanga, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    Water utilities in developing countries are struggling to provide customers with a reliable level of service due to their peculiar water distribution characteristics including poorly zoned networks with irregular supply operating under restricted budgets. These unique conditions demand unique tools

  9. Risk management for drinking water safety in low and middle income countries - cultural influences on water safety plan (WSP) implementation in urban water utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Yahya Y; Parker, Alison; Smith, Jennifer A; Pollard, Simon J T

    2017-01-15

    We investigated cultural influences on the implementation of water safety plans (WSPs) using case studies from WSP pilots in India, Uganda and Jamaica. A comprehensive thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews (n=150 utility customers, n=32 WSP 'implementers' and n=9 WSP 'promoters'), field observations and related documents revealed 12 cultural themes, offered as 'enabling', 'limiting', or 'neutral', that influence WSP implementation in urban water utilities to varying extents. Aspects such as a 'deliver first, safety later' mind set; supply system knowledge management and storage practices; and non-compliance are deemed influential. Emergent themes of cultural influence (ET1 to ET12) are discussed by reference to the risk management, development studies and institutional culture literatures; by reference to their positive, negative or neutral influence on WSP implementation. The results have implications for the utility endorsement of WSPs, for the impact of organisational cultures on WSP implementation; for the scale-up of pilot studies; and they support repeated calls from practitioner communities for cultural attentiveness during WSP design. Findings on organisational cultures mirror those from utilities in higher income nations implementing WSPs - leadership, advocacy among promoters and customers (not just implementers) and purposeful knowledge management are critical to WSP success. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Higher utilization of the pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapies in patients with chronic low back pain in a developing country than in the USA: Treatment of chronic low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pain is a highly subjective experience and different studies have shown that the perception of the pain intensity depends on multiple factors, such as: gender, race, age, eye or hair color, socio-economic status, education, as well as psychological status of the person, etc. Despite those determinants there is an discrepancy in pain treating approach between the USA and the European countries. Low back pain has become a major socio-economic problem in the USA, with 70-85% of people in the North America being affected throughout their lifes compared with the average prevalence of back pain In Western Europe as 15%. Overall, NSAIDs are the most commonly prescribed medication for low back pain worldwide, however with liberalization of the law in the USA within past 20 years, and with the promotion of opioids as highly effective and safe treatment, they are getting prescribed widely and readily for different chronic pain conditions including chronic low back pain. Low back pain has become a major socio-economic problem in the USA, and Western Europe. The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the utilization of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for chronic low back pain in developing countries. Methods: After approval of the ethics committee Medical School University of Belgrade we enrolled 185 patients. Any patients who were > 18 years, diagnosed with chronic low back pain and did not have a history of malignancy are included in the study. All of them completed the study. Results: Patients were between 21 and 91 years old (average age 61.2 ± 14.7, 43.5% of them were males and 56.5% females. The pain duration for these patients ranged from 2 months up to 20 years. Average VAS pain scores in rest 4.7 ± 2.3 and in movement 5.2 ± 2.1. All of these patients exploited different types of non-pharmacological treatments for their painful condition. The average improvements after these treatments were: physical

  11. Utility requirements for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondrasek, R.J.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability

  12. Cervical cancer screening and practice in low resource countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While developed countries have recorded significant reduction in the incidence of cervical cancer owing to organizedscreening programs, treatment of premalignant cervical lesions, and follow‑up of treated cases, developing countries including Nigeria are yet to optimally utilize screening services due to lack of organized ...

  13. The European Utility Requirement Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, I.I.

    1999-01-01

    The major European electricity producers work on a common requirement document for future LWR plants since 1992. They aim at requirements acceptable together by the owners, the public and the authorities. Thus the designers can develop standard LWR designs acceptable everywhere in Europe and the utilities can open their consultations to vendors on common bases. Such a standardisation promotes an improvement of generation costs and of safety : public and authorities acceptance should be improved as well ; significant savings are expected in development and construction costs. Since the early stages of the project, the EUR group has grown significantly. It now includes utilities from nine European countries. Utilities from two other European countries are joining the group. Specific cooperation agreements are also in progress with a few extra-European partners

  14. CO{sub 2} emissions from future cars in the Nordic countries - including analysis of the effect on the power system of 500.000 electric cars in the Nordic countries; CO{sub 2} udledning fra fremtidens personbiler i Norden - med delanalyse af betydningen for el-systemet af 500.000 el-biler i Norden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-01-15

    Detailed calculations of the power system in Scandinavia and Germany in 2020 are made, including the countries' known and specific plans for CO{sub 2} reduction and increased use of renewable energy. The calculations analyzed three scenarios for how increased electric power consumption pulls investments in the power sector by 2020. It is shown that only if the countries through grants schemes and other incentives directly link increased consumption of electricity for electric vehicles with greater demands for investments in renewable energy, the CO{sub 2} emissions from electric vehicles will decrease significantly. Such a direct linkage is assessed not to become the case with the existing frame-work and objectives of the EU countries and Norway. The average of the more detailed calculations show a CO{sub 2} emission from electric cars in 2020 of just 650 g CO{sub 2}/kWh (excluding upstream emissions), which is about 10% lower than previously estimated. Towards 2020 increased efficiency of conventional cars (diesel) will probably be a cheaper way to achieve CO{sub 2} reductions in the transport sector than through an expansion with a larger number of electric cars. If oil prices rise to around $ 150/barrel or more, while the price of batteries for electric vehicles drops significantly in the period, this will result, however, is challenged. The same costs are assumed for development and production of diesel and electric cars. For electric cars there will be additional costs for batteries and charging infrastructure. The on manufacturers' pricing strategies for different types of cars have not been considered. The report demonstrates that it will very likely be more expensive to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from transport compared with, for example the costs in electric power and heat producing sectors that are subject to EU quota system. It can therefore be considered whether a larger part of the EU's reduction goals in the next 10-20 years should be

  15. Do efforts to standardize, assess and improve the quality of health service provision to adolescents by government-run health services in low and middle income countries, lead to improvements in service-quality and service-utilization by adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Chatterjee, Subidita; Bose, Krishna

    2016-02-06

    Researchers and implementers working in adolescent health, and adolescents themselves question whether government-run health services in conservative and resource-constrained settings can be made adolescent friendly. This paper aims to find out what selected low and middle income country (LMIC) governments have set out to do to improve the quality of health service provision to adolescents; whether their efforts led to measurable improvements in quality and to increased health service-utilization by adolescents. We gathered normative guidance and reports from eight LMICs in Asia, Africa, Central and Eastern Europe and the Western Pacific. We analysed national quality standards for adolescent friendly health services, findings from the assessments of the quality of health service provision, and findings on the utilization of health services. Governments of LMICs have set out to improve the accessibility, acceptability, equity, appropriateness and effectiveness of health service provision to adolescents by defining standards and actions to achieve them. Their actions have led to measurable improvements in quality and to increases in health service utilisation by adolescents. With support, government-run health facilities in LMICs can improve the quality of health services and their utilization by adolescents.

  16. Investigation of agricultural residues gasification for electricity production in Sudan as an example for biomass energy utilization under arid climate conditions in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhiet, Arig G

    2008-05-15

    utilization planning is possible as for any other energy resource. In Sudan, Baggase, Groundnuts shells and Roselle stalks could be considered as possible fuels. The experimental work done in chapter 5 showed that GN.S could be gasified in down draft gasifiers, which are less costly and simpler to operate than circulating systems. Acceptable values of gas thermal properties (c.v.{proportional_to} 4 MJ/Nm{sup 3}, 30 % of burnable gases) at fairly continuing processes were obtained. In chapter 6, a concept for biomass power plant was drafted, the main components are: downdraft, air based gasifier connected to ICE, multi-stage gas cleaning system (cyclones, washer and filters) mechanical ash removal and semi closed water cycle. Main operation measures are: electricity is the sole product; working time is 150 day/year between mid November-mid Mars. Environmental hazards of waste management e.g. flue gas emission and waste water management are the limiting factors. In the last part of chapter 6 an economic analysis was carried out. At a value of 3000 Euro/kW for the initial system and fuel price of 100000 Euro/year for {proportional_to}6 GWh then a price of 0.23 Euro/kWh and a return period of 24 years could be obtained. The study concludes in chapter 7 that biomass gasification under the local conditions has its comparative merits however a high institutional support is needed at the beginning. (orig.)

  17. Expected utility without utility

    OpenAIRE

    Castagnoli, E.; Licalzi, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper advances an interpretation of Von Neumann–Morgenstern’s expected utility model for preferences over lotteries which does not require the notion of a cardinal utility over prizes and can be phrased entirely in the language of probability. According to it, the expected utility of a lottery can be read as the probability that this lottery outperforms another given independent lottery. The implications of this interpretation for some topics and models in decision theory are considered....

  18. Changes in the utilization of residential energy in nine countries of the OECD and its possible effects in Mexico; Cambios en el uso de la energia residencial en nueve paises de la OECD y sus posibles efectos en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, Lee; Sheinbaum, Claudia [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper analyzes the changes in the residential energy utilization in nine countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) between 1973 and 1990. An analysis is presented for the end uses and the changes for the periods 1973-1979, 1979-1985 and 1985-1990 are studied. The influence of the energy saving and conservation programs as well as the changes in the price of the energy is also discussed. It is also described how in the last period the rate of decrement in the energy intensity has diminished due to the lower energy prices. Finally the potential effects of this experience in the Third World Countries, specially in Mexico, are studied. [Espanol] En este trabajo se analizan los cambios en el uso de la energia residencial en nueve paises de la Organizacion para la Cooperacion y el Desarrollo Economico (OECD) entre 1973 y 1990. Se presenta un analisis por usos finales y se estudian los cambios en los periodos 1973-1979, 1979-1985 y 1985-1990. Se discute la influencia de los programas de ahorro y conservacion asi como de los cambios en el precio de la energia. Se describe como en el ultimo periodo la tasa de decremento de la intensidad energetica ha disminuido debido al bajo precio de la energia. Finalmente se discuten los posibles efectos de esta experiencia en los paises del Tercer Mundo, en especial en Mexico.

  19. Changes in the utilization of residential energy in nine countries of the OECD and its possible effects in Mexico; Cambios en el uso de la energia residencial en nueve paises de la OECD y sus posibles efectos en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, Lee; Sheinbaum, Claudia [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This paper analyzes the changes in the residential energy utilization in nine countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) between 1973 and 1990. An analysis is presented for the end uses and the changes for the periods 1973-1979, 1979-1985 and 1985-1990 are studied. The influence of the energy saving and conservation programs as well as the changes in the price of the energy is also discussed. It is also described how in the last period the rate of decrement in the energy intensity has diminished due to the lower energy prices. Finally the potential effects of this experience in the Third World Countries, specially in Mexico, are studied. [Espanol] En este trabajo se analizan los cambios en el uso de la energia residencial en nueve paises de la Organizacion para la Cooperacion y el Desarrollo Economico (OECD) entre 1973 y 1990. Se presenta un analisis por usos finales y se estudian los cambios en los periodos 1973-1979, 1979-1985 y 1985-1990. Se discute la influencia de los programas de ahorro y conservacion asi como de los cambios en el precio de la energia. Se describe como en el ultimo periodo la tasa de decremento de la intensidad energetica ha disminuido debido al bajo precio de la energia. Finalmente se discuten los posibles efectos de esta experiencia en los paises del Tercer Mundo, en especial en Mexico.

  20. High burden of mental illness and low utilization of care among school-going youth in Central Haiti: A window into the youth mental health treatment gap in a low-income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustache, Eddy; Gerbasi, Margaret E; Smith Fawzi, Mary C; Fils-Aimé, J Reginald; Severe, Jennifer; Raviola, Giuseppe J; Legha, Rupinder; Darghouth, Sarah; Grelotti, David J; Thérosmé, Tatiana; Pierre, Ermaze L; Affricot, Emmeline; Alcindor, Yoldie; Becker, Anne E

    2017-05-01

    The mental health treatment gap for youth in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is substantial; strategies for redress are urgently needed to mitigate the serious health and social consequences of untreated mental illness in youth. To estimate the burden of major depressive episode (MDE) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as utilization of care among Haitian youth in order to describe the mental health treatment gap in a LMIC setting. We estimated the point prevalence of MDE, PTSD, and subthreshold variants in a school-based sample of youth ( n = 120, ages 18-22 years) using a modified Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders (SCID)-based interview and examined treatment utilization among those receiving one of these diagnoses. We assessed additional psychopathology with self-report measures to examine validity of study diagnostic assignments. The combined prevalence of full-syndrome or subthreshold MDE or PTSD was high (36.7%). A large majority of affected individuals (88.6%) had accessed no mental health services in the health sector, and 36.4% had accessed no care of any kind in either the health or folk sectors in the past year. Findings demonstrate a high mental health burden among Haiti's youth and that many youth with MDE and PTSD are not accessing mental health care.

  1. Trends in the utilization of dental outpatient services affected by the expansion of health care benefits in South Korea to include scaling: a 6-year interrupted time-series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee-Jung; Lee, Jun Hyup; Park, Sujin; Kim, Tae-Il

    2018-02-01

    This study utilized a strong quasi-experimental design to test the hypothesis that the implementation of a policy to expand dental care services resulted in an increase in the usage of dental outpatient services. A total of 45,650,000 subjects with diagnoses of gingivitis or advanced periodontitis who received dental scaling were selected and examined, utilizing National Health Insurance claims data from July 2010 through November 2015. We performed a segmented regression analysis of the interrupted time-series to analyze the time-series trend in dental costs before and after the policy implementation, and assessed immediate changes in dental costs. After the policy change was implemented, a statistically significant 18% increase occurred in the observed total dental cost per patient, after adjustment for age, sex, and residence area. In addition, the dental costs of outpatient gingivitis treatment increased immediately by almost 47%, compared with a 15% increase in treatment costs for advanced periodontitis outpatients. This policy effect appears to be sustainable. The introduction of the new policy positively impacted the immediate and long-term outpatient utilization of dental scaling treatment in South Korea. While the policy was intended to entice patients to prevent periodontal disease, thus benefiting the insurance system, our results showed that the policy also increased treatment accessibility for potential periodontal disease patients and may improve long-term periodontal health in the South Korean population.

  2. Trends in the utilization of dental outpatient services affected by the expansion of health care benefits in South Korea to include scaling: a 6-year interrupted time-series study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Purpose This study utilized a strong quasi-experimental design to test the hypothesis that the implementation of a policy to expand dental care services resulted in an increase in the usage of dental outpatient services. Methods A total of 45,650,000 subjects with diagnoses of gingivitis or advanced periodontitis who received dental scaling were selected and examined, utilizing National Health Insurance claims data from July 2010 through November 2015. We performed a segmented regression analysis of the interrupted time-series to analyze the time-series trend in dental costs before and after the policy implementation, and assessed immediate changes in dental costs. Results After the policy change was implemented, a statistically significant 18% increase occurred in the observed total dental cost per patient, after adjustment for age, sex, and residence area. In addition, the dental costs of outpatient gingivitis treatment increased immediately by almost 47%, compared with a 15% increase in treatment costs for advanced periodontitis outpatients. This policy effect appears to be sustainable. Conclusions The introduction of the new policy positively impacted the immediate and long-term outpatient utilization of dental scaling treatment in South Korea. While the policy was intended to entice patients to prevent periodontal disease, thus benefiting the insurance system, our results showed that the policy also increased treatment accessibility for potential periodontal disease patients and may improve long-term periodontal health in the South Korean population. PMID:29535886

  3. FY 1996 report on the basic survey project on the enhancement of energy efficiency in developing countries - database construction project. Volume 1. Outline of the survey and collection of the data to be included in database; 1996 nendo hatten tojokoku energy koritsuka kiso chosa jigyo (database kochiku jigyo) hokokusho. 1. Chosa no gaiyo oyobi database ni shurokusuru data no shushu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Following the previous fiscal year, construction/study of database were carried out with the aim of energy conservation for 8 countries: Japan, China, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Taiwan and Korea. In the study of the items of the data included, the 192 data extracted in conceptual design were re-classified into 6 large-groups and 91 medium-groups. As to the data collection, in A group countries, counterparts were requested to collect data, and 1342-1740 data were newly collected. In B group countries, Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc. mostly collected 957 new data in Thailand, 814 data in Malaysia and 1312 data in Japan in cooperation with research institutes and investigating organizations in each country. In C group countries, 169 and 317 common data items were collected in Vietnam and India, respectively. Relating to plans for database promotion, as a result of the study with each country, 16 measures for promotion were extracted in terms of the leveling-up of NEDO-DB recognition, education of the use method, training of the operation method, etc. (NEDO)

  4. Utilities objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousin, Y.; Fabian, H.U.

    1996-01-01

    The policy of French and german utilities is to make use of nuclear energy as a long term, competitive and environmentally friendly power supply. The world electricity generation is due to double within the next 30 years. In the next 20 to 30 years the necessity of nuclear energy will be broadly recognized. More than for most industries, to deal properly with nuclear energy requires the combination of a consistent political will, of a proper institutional framework, of strong and legitimate control authorities, of a sophisticated industry and of operators with skilled management and human resources. One of the major risk facing nuclear energy is the loss of competitiveness. This can be achieved only through the combination of an optimized design, a consistent standardization, a proper industrial partnership and a stable long term strategy. Although the existing plants in Western Europe are already very safe, the policy is clearly to enhance the safety of the next generation of nuclear plants which are designing today. The French and German utilities have chosen an evolutionary approach based on experience and proven technologies, with an enhanced defense in depth and an objective of easier operation and maintenance. The cost objective is to maintain and improve what has been achieved in the best existing power plants in both countries. This calls for rational choices and optimized design to meet the safety objectives, a strong standardization policy, short construction times, high availability and enough flexibility to enable optimization of the fuel cycle throughout the lifetime of the plants. The conceptual design phase has proven that the French and German teams from industry and from the utilities are able to pursue both the safety and the cost objectives, basing their decision on a rational approach which could be accepted by the safety authorities. (J.S.)

  5. Trends in antibiotic utilization in eight Latin American countries, 1997-2007 Tendencias en el consumo de antibióticos en ocho países latinoamericanos entre 1997 y 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika J. Wirtz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the trends in antibiotic utilization in eight Latin American countries between 1997-2007 METHODS: We analyzed retail sales data of oral and injectable antibiotics (World Health Organization (WHO Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical (ATC code J01 between 1997 and 2007 for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Antibiotics were aggregated and utilization was calculated for all antibiotics (J01; for macrolides, lincosamindes, and streptogramins (J01 F; and for quinolones (J01 M. The kilogram sales of each antibiotic were converted into defined daily dose per 1 000 inhabitants per day (DID according to the WHO ATC classification system. We calculated the absolute change in DID and relative change expressed in percent of DID variation, using 1997 as a reference RESULTS: Total antibiotic utilization has increased in Peru, Venezuela, Uruguay, and Brazil, with the largest relative increases observed in Peru (5.58 DID, +70.6% and Venezuela (4.81 DID, +43.0%. For Mexico (-2.43 DID; -15.5% and Colombia (-4.10; -33.7%, utilization decreased. Argentina and Chile showed major reductions in antibiotic utilization during the middle of this period. In all countries, quinolone use increased, particularly sharply in Venezuela (1.86 DID, +282%. The increase in macrolide, lincosaminde, and streptogramin use was greatest in Peru (0.76 DID, +82.1%, followed by Brazil, Argentina, and Chile CONCLUSIONS: Analyzing antibiotic utilization in Latin America presents a series of challenges. Creating policy-relevant evidence based on antimicrobial consumption patterns is needed in order to foster policies aimed at improving appropriate use of antibiotics in the region.OBJETIVO: Describir las tendencias en el consumo de antibióticos en ocho países latinoamericanos entre 1997 y el 2007. MÉTODOS: Se analizaron los datos de las ventas al por menor de antibióticos orales e inyectables (Código J01 de la clasificación anat

  6. Water Loss Management: Tools and Methods for Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mutikanga, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    Water utilities in developing countries are struggling to provide customers with a reliable level of service due to their peculiar water distribution characteristics including poorly zoned networks with irregular supply operating under restricted budgets. These unique conditions demand unique tools and methods for water loss control. Water loss management: Tools and Methods for Developing Countries provide a decision support toolbox (appropriate tools and methodologies) for assessing, quantif...

  7. Country Profiles, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuki, Ariffin Bin; Peng, J. Y.

    A profile of Malaysia is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  8. Pareto utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikefuji, M.; Laeven, R.J.A.; Magnus, J.R.; Muris, C.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    In searching for an appropriate utility function in the expected utility framework, we formulate four properties that we want the utility function to satisfy. We conduct a search for such a function, and we identify Pareto utility as a function satisfying all four desired properties. Pareto utility

  9. Iceland country update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmason, G.; Gudmundsson, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides information on geothermal energy utilization in Iceland. Topics include: the present and planned production of electricity in Iceland, from all primary sources, the present and planned utilization of geothermal energy for electricity generation, the use of geothermal energy in all public district heating systems, high temperature geothermal localities, high-temperature wells drilled for electrical utilization and wells drilled for the combined use for district heating and power production, and wells drilled for direct use

  10. Utility training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaros, P.E.; Luxo, Armando; Bruant, Jacques

    1977-01-01

    The study of operational training systems for electro-nuclear utilities may be conducted through two different approaches. A first analytical approach consists of determining, for each position of a given organization chart, the necessary qualifications required and the corresponding complementary training to be provided. This approach applies preferentially to existing classical systems which are converted to nuclear operation with objectives of minimum structural changes and conservation of maximum efficiency. A second synthetical approach consists of determining the specific characteristics of nuclear plant operation, then, of deducting the training contingencies and the optimized organization chart of the plant, while taking into account, at each step, the parameters linked to local conditions. This last approach is studied in some detail in the present paper, taking advantage of its better suitability to the problems raised at the first stage of an electro-nuclear program development. In this respect, the possibility offered by this apprach to coordinate the training system of a given nuclear power station personnel with the overall problem of developing a skilled industrial labor force in the country, may lead to reconsideration of some usual priorities in the economy of operation of the nuclear power plant

  11. Effects of adding food by-products mainly including noodle waste to total mixed ration silage on fermentation quality, feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen utilization and ruminal fermentation in wethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Kyohei; Yani, Srita; Kitagawa, Masayuki; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Kumagai, Hajime

    2012-11-01

    Four wethers were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment to evaluate the applicability of two types of total mixed ration (TMR) silage with food by-products. Four food by-products (i.e., potato waste, soy sauce cake, soybean curd residue and noodle waste) were obtained and mixed with commercial concentrate (CC) as TMR silage. The two types of TMR silage, T1 and T2, each contained CC, in addition to all by-products for T1 (TRE1), and soy sauce cake and noodle waste for T2 (TRE2) on a dry matter (DM) basis. The silage was well-fermented with low pH values and high lactic acid concentration. As the experimental treatments, T1, T2 and CC (CTL) were fed with a basal diet. The result showed that the digestibility of DM and organic matter (OM) were higher for T1 than for CC (P < 0.05), while crude protein digestibility was not significantly different among T1, T2 and CC. The retained nitrogen was not affected by inclusion of food by-products. Ruminal pH in TRE1 and TRE2 immediately decreased compared to that in CTL. The study suggested that the two types of TMR silage, including food by-products, might be used as a substitute for commercial concentrate. © 2012 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Direct utilization of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide application of geothermal energy for direct utilization is reviewed. This paper is based on the world update for direct-use presented at the World Geothermal Congress 2010 in Bali, Indonesia (WGC2010) which also includes material presented at three world geothermal congresses in Italy, Japan and Turkey (WGC95, WGC2000 and WGC2005). This report is based on country update papers prepared for WGC2010 and data from other sources. Final update papers were received from 70 countries of which 66 reported some direct utilization of geothermal energy for WGC2010. Twelve additional countries were added to the list based on other sources of information. The 78 countries having direct utilization of geothermal energy, is a significant increase from the 72 reported in 2005, the 58 reported in 2000, and the 28 reported in 1995. An estimate of the installed thermal power for direct utilization at the end of 2009, reported from WGC2010 is 48,493 MW th , almost a 72 % increased over the 2005 data, growing at a compound rate of 11.4% annually with a capacity factor of 0.28. The thermal energy used is 423,830 TJ/year (117,740 GWh/yr), about a 55% increase over 2005, growing at a compound rate of 9.2% annually. The distribution of thermal energy used by category is approximately 47.2% for ground-source heat pumps, 25.8% for bathing and swimming (including balneology), 14.9% for space heating (of which 85% is for district heating), 5.5% for greenhouses and open ground heating, 2.8% for industrial process heating, 2.7% for aquaculture pond and raceway heating, 0.4% for agricultural drying, 0.5% for snow melting and cooling, and 0.2% for other uses. Energy savings amounted to 250 million barrels (38 million tonnes) of equivalent oil annually, preventing 33 million tonnes of carbon and 107 million tonnes of CO 2 being released to the atmosphere which includes savings in geothermal heat pump cooling (compared to using fuel oil to generate electricity). (author)

  13. Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Lund

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide application of geothermal energy for direct utilization is reviewed. This paper is based on the world update for direct-use presented at the World Geothermal Congress 2010 in Bali, Indonesia (WGC2010 [1] which also includes material presented at three world geothermal congresses in Italy, Japan and Turkey (WGC95, WGC2000 and WGC2005. This report is based on country update papers prepared for WGC2010 and data from other sources. Final update papers were received from 70 countries of which 66 reported some direct utilization of geothermal energy for WGC2010. Twelve additional countries were added to the list based on other sources of information. The 78 countries having direct utilization of geothermal energy, is a significant increase from the 72 reported in 2005, the 58 reported in 2000, and the 28 reported in 1995. An estimate of the installed thermal power for direct utilization at the end of 2009, reported from WGC2010 is 48,493 MWt, almost a 72 % increased over the 2005 data, growing at a compound rate of 11.4% annually with a capacity factor of 0.28. The thermal energy used is 423,830 TJ/year (117,740 GWh/yr, about a 55% increase over 2005, growing at a compound rate of 9.2% annually. The distribution of thermal energy used by category is approximately 47.2% for ground-source heat pumps, 25.8% for bathing and swimming (including balneology, 14.9% for space heating (of which 85% is for district heating, 5.5% for greenhouses and open ground heating, 2.8% for industrial process heating, 2.7% for aquaculture pond and raceway heating, 0.4% for agricultural drying, 0.5% for snow melting and cooling, and 0.2% for other uses. Energy savings amounted to 250 million barrels (38 million tonnes of equivalent oil annually, preventing 33 million tonnes of carbon and 107 million tonnes of CO2 being release to the atmosphere which includes savings in geothermal heat pump cooling (compared to using fuel oil to generate electricity.

  14. Quantitative studies of water and sanitation utilities: a literature survey

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Sanford V; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2010-01-01

    This paper performs a literature update of quantitative studies of water and sanitation services (WSS). There are 190 studies which use cost or production functions to evaluate the performance of WSS utilities. The studies examine (1) the scale, scope or density economies of utilities in a particular country or region, (2) the influence of ownership on efficiency, (3) the existence and power of incentives associated with different governance systems (including external regulation), and (4) pe...

  15. Binary circuitry including switching elements utilizing superconductive tunneling effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baechtold, W.; Gueret, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    Two Josephson gates are connected in series to a low impedance voltage source. Each junction is bridged by a load impedance. The feed voltage is maintained in the order of the gap voltage which correponds to the voltage drop across a Josephson junction when it is in its single-particle-tunneling state. Therefore, only one out of both Josephson elements can exist in the voltage state at a time, and the other junction is forced to assume the superconducting pair-tunneling state. In its symmetric form, the basic circuit can be used as flip-flop or storage means. If asymmetric, the basic circuit shows monostable switching behavior, and it can be used as logic gate. Circuit asymmetry can be caused either by design using different junction areas or electrically by proper bias control currents applied to either or both gates of the basic circuit. The degree of symmetry or asymmetry can even be shifted with electrical means. AND and OR gates and inverting embodiments which perform logic NAND and NOR functions are shown

  16. Literacy Campaigns in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odunuga, Segun

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the problem of eradicating illiteracy in developing countries, where the illiteracy rate may average about 70 percent. Looks at the Arab countries, Latin America, Africa, and India and the factors that thwart attempts to increase literacy in those countries. These include religious habits and the problem of language in multilingual…

  17. FY 2000 report on the survey of policies on cooperation in new energy/energy conservation for developing countries by developed countries/international organizations. Survey of collection/analysis of information on effective energy utilization, etc.; 2000 nendo senshinkoku kokusai kikan no tai tojokoku shin energy sho energy kyoryoku seisaku ni kakawaru chosa hokokusho. Energy yuko riyo nado joho shushu bunseki chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Looking for measures for cooperation in effective energy conservation for developing countries, the paper arranged characteristics of the policies, systems and organizations in relation to energy conservation/new energy policies in developed countries and international organizations excluding Japan. Concretely, survey was made of the following 5 fields: 1) new energy cooperation (project) for developing countries by developed countries and international organizations excluding Japan; 2) outline of activities by aid giving organizations; 3) energy conservation policies of developing countries and cooperation of developed countries and international organizations; 4) policies of new energy introduction in developed countries; 5) study to reinforce cooperation for helping developing countries by Japan and developed countries/international organizations excluding Japan. In 1), survey is composed of case study of the main project and study of the outline of activities by aid giving organizations. The activities by the following aid giving organizations were surveyed: the World Bank group, International Finance Corporation (IFC), United Nations Development Program (UNDP), the European Committee and the Asian Development Bank (ADB). (NEDO)

  18. Utility applications and broadband networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chebra, R.; Taylor, P.

    2003-02-01

    A detailed analytical model of a cable network that would be capable of providing utilities with such services as automatic meter reading, on-line ability to remotely connect and disconnect commodity service, outage notification, tamper detection, direct utility-initiated load control, indirect user prescribed load control, and user access to energy consumption information, is described. The paper provides an overview of of the zones of focus that must be addressed -- market assessment, competitive analysis, product identification, economic model development, assessment of skill set requirements, performance monitoring and tracking, and various technical issues -- to identify any gaps in the organisation's ability to fully develop such a plan. Developers of the model field tested it in 1995 using some benchmarks that were available at that time, and found that the benefit afforded by direct labor saving was not sufficient to cover the capital expenditure of the advanced utility gateway connected to the cable network. However, since 1995 the unanticipated shift in the derived consumer value from a host of cable-based communications services has rendered these original projections irrelevant. Since national communications organizations concentrate on 'tier one' or at best 'tier two' cities (roughly corresponding to the NFL franchise cities and baseball farm team cities), the uncovered rural and suburban areas of the country create a significant digital divide within the population. The developers of the model contend that these unserviced areas provide utilities, especially municipal utilities, with an excellent opportunity to step into the gap and provide a full range of services that includes water, electricity and communications. The proposed model provides the foundation for utilities upon which to base their ultimate implementation decisions.

  19. Utilization of health care services by migrants in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graetz, V.; Rechel, B.; Groot, W.

    2017-01-01

    : Compared with previous systematic reviews, the results indicate a clearer picture of the differences in health service utilization between migrants and non-migrants in Europe. Areas timely for developing research: A comprehensive comparison across European countries is impossible because the number......Introduction: Our study reviewed the empirical evidence on the utilization of health care services by migrants in Europe, and on differences in health service utilization between migrants and non-migrants across European countries. Sources of data: A systematic literature review was performed......, searching the databases Medline, Cinahl and Embase and covering the period from January 2009 to April 2016. The final number of articles included was 39. Areas of agreement: Utilization of accident and emergency services and hospitalizations were higher among migrants compared with non-migrants in most...

  20. Country nuclear power profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles was initiated within the framework of the IAEA`s programme for nuclear power plant performance assessment and feedback. It responded to a need for a database and a technical document containing a description of the energy and economic situation and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. The task was included in the IAEA`s programmes for 1993/1994 and 1995/1996. In March 1993, the IAEA organized a Technical Committee meeting to discuss the establishment of country data ``profiles``, to define the information to be included in the profiles and to review the information already available in the IAEA. Two expert meetings were convened in November 1994 to provide guidance to the IAEA on the establishment of the country nuclear profiles, on the structure and content of the profiles, and on the preparation of the publication and the electronic database. In June 1995, an Advisory Group meeting provided the IAEA with comprehensive guidance on the establishment and dissemination of an information package on industrial and organizational aspects of nuclear power to be included in the profiles. The group of experts recommended that the profiles focus on the overall economic, energy and electricity situation in the country and on its nuclear power industrial structure and organizational framework. In its first release, the compilation would cover all countries with operating power plants by the end of 1995. It was also recommended to further promote information exchange on the lessons learned from the countries engaged in nuclear programmes. For the preparation of this publication, the IAEA received contributions from the 29 countries operating nuclear power plants and Italy. A database has been implemented and the profiles are supporting programmatic needs within the IAEA; it is expected that the database will be publicly accessible in the future. Refs, figs, tabs.

  1. Country nuclear power profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles was initiated within the framework of the IAEA's programme for nuclear power plant performance assessment and feedback. It responded to a need for a database and a technical document containing a description of the energy and economic situation and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. The task was included in the IAEA's programmes for 1993/1994 and 1995/1996. In March 1993, the IAEA organized a Technical Committee meeting to discuss the establishment of country data ''profiles'', to define the information to be included in the profiles and to review the information already available in the IAEA. Two expert meetings were convened in November 1994 to provide guidance to the IAEA on the establishment of the country nuclear profiles, on the structure and content of the profiles, and on the preparation of the publication and the electronic database. In June 1995, an Advisory Group meeting provided the IAEA with comprehensive guidance on the establishment and dissemination of an information package on industrial and organizational aspects of nuclear power to be included in the profiles. The group of experts recommended that the profiles focus on the overall economic, energy and electricity situation in the country and on its nuclear power industrial structure and organizational framework. In its first release, the compilation would cover all countries with operating power plants by the end of 1995. It was also recommended to further promote information exchange on the lessons learned from the countries engaged in nuclear programmes. For the preparation of this publication, the IAEA received contributions from the 29 countries operating nuclear power plants and Italy. A database has been implemented and the profiles are supporting programmatic needs within the IAEA; it is expected that the database will be publicly accessible in the future

  2. Denmark. [CME Country Reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    According to an agreement between the parties of the labour market and the Ministry of Labour, the immigration of foreign workers into Denmark takes place on a quota basis and conforms to a series of regulations, including a rule that the foreign worker, prior to departing from his country, must have made contract arrangements for his job. This…

  3. CDM Country Guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the Clean Development Mechanism (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. Chapter 1, Introduction, is a summary of issues that developers and investors in CDM projects should be aware of. Includes tips for readers to effectively use the guidebook to find specific information. Chapter 2, Country Profile, comprises a profile that provides a broad picture of the country, including social, economic, and political information, as well as an overview of the country's energy situation, which is important for project development and investment. Chapter 3, The CDM Project Cycle, gives an explanation of the general CDM project cycle, which includes identifying a project, issuance of carbon credits, requirements, and stakeholders for each process. Chapter 4, Possible CDM Projects in the Country, is an overview of the country's potential resources and sectoral or project type categories that hold potential for CDM projects. Chapter 5, Government Authorities, gives a comprehensive picture of the CDM-related institutional framework and its inter-organisational relationships. Chapter 6, CDM Project Approval Procedures and Requirements Steps, informs about obtaining project approval and its requirements (e.g., country-specific provisions on additionality, sustainable development criteria, and environmental impact assessment) in the host country. Chapter 7, Laws and Regulations, is an overview of basic investment-related laws, environmental and property law, and sector-specific regulations relevant to CDM project activities. Chapter 8, Fiscal and Financing Issues, gives practical information on the financial market in the host country (both

  4. The Nordic countries as a cohort for pharmacoepidemiological research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furu, Kari; Wettermark, Björn; Andersen, Morten

    2010-01-01

    issues. To perform cross-national pharmacoepidemiological studies, resources, networks and time are needed, as well as methods for pooling data. Interpretation of results needs to account for inter-country heterogeneity and the possibility of spurious relationships. The Nordic countries have a unique......The Nordic countries have a long tradition of registry-based epidemiological research. Many population-based health registries were established in the 1960s, with use of unique personal identifiers facilitating linkage between registries. In recent years, each country has established a national...... health registries. Comparisons are facilitated by many similarities among the databases, including data source, content, coverage and methods used for drug utilization studies and record linkage. There are, however, some differences in coding systems and validity, as well as in some access and technical...

  5. Utilization of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    About 200 research reactors are now in operation in different parts of the world, and at least 70 such facilities, which are in advanced stages of planning and construction, should be critical within the next two or three years. In the process of this development a multitude of problems are being encountered in formulating and carrying out programs for the proper utilization of these facilities, especially in countries which have just begun or are starting their atomic energy work. An opportunity for scientific personnel from different Member States to discuss research reactor problems was given at an international symposium on the Programing and Utilization of Research Reactors organized by the Agency almost immediately after the General Conference session. Two hundred scientists from 35 countries, as well as from the European Nuclear Energy Agency and EURATOM, attended the meeting which was held in Vienna from 16 to 21 October 1961

  6. FY 2000 report on the survey of new energy policies by developing countries. Survey of collection/analysis of information on effective energy utilization, etc.; 2000 nendo tojokoku no shin energy seisaku ni kakawaru chosa hokokusho. Energy yuko riyo nado joho shushu bunseki chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of effectively introducing technologies for new energy/energy conservation in developing countries, the paper arranged the policies, systems and organizations in relation to new energy in developing countries. Survey was made of the following two fields: 1) new energy in developing countries; 2) situation of new energy introduction in developing countries (India, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, the Philippines and China). In 2), about India, for example, survey was made on the following: outline of the new energy policy, regulation for new energy promotion and law specifying concrete measures, departments in charge/promotion organizations for new energy, system and setup for new energy promotion, numerical target of new energy introduction, support from developed countries including the E.U. and the U.S. and the effects, support from international organizations including the World Bank and UNDP and the effects, the country's main industries related to new energy, the government's policy for the domestic production, outline of the use of India's biomass project, etc. (NEDO)

  7. Estimating Utility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Simler, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental premise of absolute poverty lines is that they represent the same level of utility through time and space. Disturbingly, a series of recent studies in middle- and low-income economies show that even carefully derived poverty lines rarely satisfy this premise. This article proposes a......, with the current approach tending to systematically overestimate (underestimate) poverty in urban (rural) zones.......A fundamental premise of absolute poverty lines is that they represent the same level of utility through time and space. Disturbingly, a series of recent studies in middle- and low-income economies show that even carefully derived poverty lines rarely satisfy this premise. This article proposes...... an information-theoretic approach to estimating cost-of-basic-needs (CBN) poverty lines that are utility consistent. Applications to date illustrate that utility-consistent poverty measurements derived from the proposed approach and those derived from current CBN best practices often differ substantially...

  8. Dealing with the problem countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The test of America's policies to prevent nuclear proliferation is the so-called problem countries, those states that pose the greatest risk of ''going nuclear.'' Most visible - and the source of greatest concern - are those countries which have developed or appear to be in the process of developing nuclear weapons capabilities. In addition to Pakistan, near-nuclear countries of note include India, Israel, South Africa, Argentina, South Korea, and Taiwan. Several other countries, including Iraq, Iran, Libya, and Brazil, seem to pose proliferation risks in the longer term. More problematic are countries, such as Mexico, that, although they seem to represent little or no proliferation risk themselves, pose difficult problems by challenging restrictions in nuclear export policy. The author examines US policy toward some of the problem countries, paying particular attention to Pakistan. The constants in US policy and the few changes wrought by the Reagan administration are noted throughout

  9. Utility of radiotracer methodology in scientific research of industrial relevancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, Z.I.

    1990-01-01

    Utilization of radiotracer methodology in industrial research provides substantial scientific rather than directly demonstrable economic benefits. These benefits include better understanding of industrial processes and subsequently the development of new ones. Examples are given of the use of radiotracers in technological studies and the significance of the obtained results is put down. Creative application of radiotracer methodology may contribute to the economic development and technological advancement of all countries including the developing ones. (orig.) [de

  10. Renewable Energy Country Attractiveness Indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    Since 2003 Ernst and Young team has been releasing quarterly data that ranks national renewable energy markets, and their suitability for individual technologies. The Country Attractiveness Indices now track the relative attractiveness of 30 countries' renewable energy markets across a selection of technologies each quarter. The Renewable Energy Country Attractiveness Indices publication scores and comments on various technologies, including: on-shore wind, off-shore wind, solar PV, solar CSP, biomass, and geothermal.

  11. Utility Leadership in Defining Requirements for Advanced Light Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugnet, William R.; Layman, William H.

    1990-01-01

    It is appropriate, based on twenty five years of operating experience, that utilities take a position of leadership in developing the technical design and performance requirements for the next generations of nuclear electric generating plants. The U. S. utilities, through the Electric Power Research Institute, began an initiative in 1985 to develop such Utility requirements. Many international Utility organizations, including Korea Electric Power Corporation, have joined as full participants in this important Utility industry initiative. In light of the closer linkage among countries of the world due to rapid travel and telecommunications, it is also appropriate that there be international dialogue and agreement on the principal standards for nuclear power plant acceptability and performance. The Utility/EPRI Advanced Light Water Reactor Program guided by the ALRR Utility Steering Committee has been very successful in developing these Utility requirements. This paper will summarize the state of development of the ALRR Utility Requirements for Evolutionary Plants, recent developments in their review by the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, resolution of open issues, and the extension of this effort to develop a companion set of ALRR Utility Requirements for plants employing passive safety features

  12. Does the distribution of healthcare utilization match needs in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfrer, Igna; van de Poel, Ellen; Grimm, Michael; Van Doorslaer, Eddy

    2014-10-01

    An equitable distribution of healthcare use, distributed according to people's needs instead of ability to pay, is an important goal featuring on many health policy agendas worldwide. However, relatively little is known about the extent to which this principle is violated across socio-economic groups in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We examine cross-country comparative micro-data from 18 SSA countries and find that considerable inequalities in healthcare use exist and vary across countries. For almost all countries studied, healthcare utilization is considerably higher among the rich. When decomposing these inequalities we find that wealth is the single most important driver. In 12 of the 18 countries wealth is responsible for more than half of total inequality in the use of care, and in 8 countries wealth even explains more of the inequality than need, education, employment, marital status and urbanicity together. For the richer countries, notably Mauritius, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland, the contribution of wealth is typically less important. As the bulk of inequality is not related to need for care and poor people use less care because they do not have the ability to pay, healthcare utilization in these countries is to a large extent unfairly distributed. The weak average relationship between need for and use of health care and the potential reporting heterogeneity in self-reported health across socio-economic groups imply that our findings are likely to even underestimate actual inequities in health care. At a macro level, we find that a better match of needs and use is realized in those countries with better governance and more physicians. Given the absence of social health insurance in most of these countries, policies that aim to reduce inequities in access to and use of health care must include an enhanced capacity of the poor to generate income. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

  13. Energy profiles of selected Latin American and Caribbean countries. Report series No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, K.

    1994-07-01

    Countries in this report include Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. These ten countries are the most important oil and gas producers in the Latin American and the Caribbean region. In the following sections, the primary energy supply (oil, gas, coal, hydroelectricity, and nuclear power whenever they are applicable), primary energy consumption, downstream oil sector development, gas utilization are discussed for each of the ten countries. The report also presents our latest forecasts of petroleum product consumption in each country toward 2000, which form the basis of the outlook for regional energy production and consumption outlined in Report No 1. Since the bulk of primary energy supply and demand is hydrocarbons for many countries, brief descriptions of the important hydrocarbons policy issues are provided at the end of the each country sections.

  14. Country profile: Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary`s energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  15. Country profile: Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary's energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  16. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiggelbout, A.M.; Wakker, P.P.

    1995-01-01

    Methods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities, and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities.

  17. Multiattribute utility theory without expected utility foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Miyamoto, J.

    1996-01-01

    Methods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities, and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities.

  18. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest developments in the field of renewables at country level around the world. Each profile combines analysis by IRENA's specialists with the latest available country data and additional information from a wide array of sources. The resulting reports provide a brief yet comprehensive picture of the situation with regard to renewable energy, including energy supply, electrical generation and grid capacity, and access. Energy policies, targets and projects are also considered, along with each country's investment climate and endowment with renewable energy resources. The energy statistics presented here span the period from 2009 until 2012, reflecting varying timelines in the source material. Since data availability differs from country to country, wider regional comparisons are possible only for the latest year with figures available for every country included. Despite the time lag in some cases, the evident differences and disparities between countries and regions around the world remain striking. The current package of country profiles is just a starting point. The geographic scope will continue to expand, and existing profiles will be enhanced with new indicators, with the whole series maintained as a live product on the IRENA website (www.irena.org)

  19. Electric network interconnection of Mashreq Arab Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Amin, I.M.; Al-Shehri, A.M.; Opoku, G.; Al-Baiyat, S.A.; Zedan, F.M.

    1994-01-01

    Power system interconnection is a well established practice for a variety of technical and economical reasons. Several interconnected networks exist worldwide for a number of factors. Some of these networks cross international boundaries. This presentation discusses the future developments of the power systems of Mashreq Arab Countries (MAC). MAC consists of Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Yemen. Mac power systems are operated by government or semigovernment bodies. Many of these countries have national or regional electric grids but are generally isolated from each other. With the exception of Saudi Arabia power systems, which employ 60 Hz, all other MAC utilities use 50 Hz frequency. Each country is served by one utility, except Saudi Arabia, which is served by four major utilities and some smaller utilities serving remote towns and small load centers. The major utilities are the Saudi Consolidated electric Company in the Eastern Province (SCECO East), SCECO Center, SCECO West, and SCECO South. These are the ones considered in this study. The energy resources in MAC are varied. Countries such as Egypt, Iraq, and Syria have significant hydro resources.The gulf countries and Iraq have abundant fossil fuel, The variation in energy resources as well as the characteristics of the electric load make it essential to look into interconnections beyond the national boundaries. Most of the existing or planned interconnections involve few power systems. A study involving 12 countries and over 20 utilities with different characteristics represents a very large scale undertaking

  20. New seismograph includes filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-02

    The new Nimbus ES-1210 multichannel signal enhancement seismograph from EG and G geometrics has recently been redesigned to include multimode signal fillers on each amplifier. The ES-1210F is a shallow exploration seismograph for near subsurface exploration such as in depth-to-bedrock, geological hazard location, mineral exploration, and landslide investigations.

  1. European Utility Requirements: European nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komsi, M.; Patrakka, E.

    1997-01-01

    The work procedure and the content of the European Utility Requirements (EUR) concerning the future LWRs is described in the article. European Utility Requirements, produced by utilities in a number of European countries, is a document specifying the details relating to engineered safety, operating performance, reliability and economics of the reactors to be built by manufacturers for the European market

  2. Urban Slums and Children's Health in Less-Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. Jorgenson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We utilize first-difference panel regression analysis to assess the direct effect of urban slumprevalence on national level measures of under-5 mortality rates over the period 1990 to 2005.Utilizing data on 80 less developed countries, the results illustrate increasing urban slumprevalence over the period is a robust predictor of increasing child mortality rates. This effectobtains net the statistically significant influence of gross domestic product per capita, fertilityrate, and educational enrollment. Cross-sectional analyses for 2005 that include additionalcontrols provide further evidence of the mortality / urban slum relationship. The results confirmurban slum prevalence growth is an important contextual dynamic whereby the socialproduction of child mortality is enacted in the less developed countries.

  3. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Totero Gongora, Juan Sebastian; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cuda, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  4. Saskatchewan resources. [including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The production of chemicals and minerals for the chemical industry in Saskatchewan are featured, with some discussion of resource taxation. The commodities mentioned include potash, fatty amines, uranium, heavy oil, sodium sulfate, chlorine, sodium hydroxide, sodium chlorate and bentonite. Following the successful outcome of the Cluff Lake inquiry, the uranium industry is booming. Some developments and production figures for Gulf Minerals, Amok, Cenex and Eldorado are mentioned.

  5. Developed-developing country partnerships: Benefits to developed countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shamsuzzoha B

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today’s global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed—this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international

  6. Developed-developing country partnerships: benefits to developed countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Shamsuzzoha B; Dadwal, Viva; Rutter, Paul; Storr, Julie; Hightower, Joyce D; Gooden, Rachel; Carlet, Jean; Bagheri Nejad, Sepideh; Kelley, Edward T; Donaldson, Liam; Pittet, Didier

    2012-06-18

    Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today's global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed--this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international cooperation between developed and

  7. Explaining nascent entrepreneurship across countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Thurik (Roy); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander); P. Reynolds (Paul)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper aims at explaining cross-country variation in nascent entrepreneurship. Regression analysis is applied using various explanatory variables derived from three different approaches. We make use of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor database, including nascent entrepreneurship

  8. Country update report for Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jivacate, C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the status of geothermal energy development in Thailand. Topics covered include: present and planned production of electricity, utilization of geothermal energy for direct heat, geothermal localities, wells drilled for electrical utilization of geothermal resources from January 1, 1985 to January 1, 1990, wells drilled for direct heat utilization of geothermal resources from January 1, 1985 to January 1990 and allocation of professional personnel to geothermal activities

  9. Child labour in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořáková, Pavla

    2014-01-01

    Child labour in developing countries Abstract This bachelor thesis deals with the child labour and its occurence in developing countries. The main aim is to present the basic view of this problem. The term of child labour relies here on Convention on the Rights of the Child and conventions of International Labour Organization. There are several types of child labour, in which children appear most, including the worst forms of child labour. Every type includes description of activities perform...

  10. Utility requirements for HTGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Eskom, the state utility of South Africa, is currently evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of the helium cooled Pebble Bed Modular Reactor with a closed cycle gas turbine power conversion system for future power generating additions to its electric system. This paper provides an overview of the Eskom system including the needs of the utility for future generation capacity and the key performance requirements necessary for incorporation of this gas cooled reactor plant. (author)

  11. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... community politics. On the one hand, their mobility and decision-making powers decrease with the increase in the labor mobility of men and their newly gained education is politically devalued when compared to the informal education that men gain through mobility, but on the other hand, schooling strengthens...

  12. Export and Economic Growth in the West Balkan Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Xhelili Krasniqi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore the effects of exports and other variables (foreign direct investment, remittances, capital formation, and labour force on economic growth in West Balkan countries (Albania, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia. This study utilizes a strongly balanced panel data over the 2005-2015 period for Western Balkan countries using the ordinary least squares method (OLS, ie Pooled regression model to evaluate the parameters. The relationship between export and economic growth has turned to be statistically significant and positively related for the countries under the study. Results also indicate the statistically significant positive relationship between economic growth and other variables included in the model such is remittances, capital formation, and labor. The relationship between economic growth and foreign direct investment has turned out to be statistically insignificant and negatively related.

  13. Energy problems in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasugi, Hirosaburo [Japan Industrial Tech. Association, Tokyo, Japan

    1989-06-20

    In order to rid the people's living of poverty in developing countries, first, the production of food has been planned to increase. And then, resource development and industrialization have been tried to improve with efforts. Because of such development and an increase in population, energy consumption has been increasing. Advanced countries have supported these countries in many ways, however, there is much difference in their assistance depend on various situations such as racial, religious, and political ones. Moreover, a gap between cities and farm villages has widen since infrastructure has not been fully equipped in developing countries. The electrification ratio is used as an index to show the degree of development in developing countries. It is low in the countries where development is lagging, particularly in farm villages. This gap is an urgent problem that faces developing countries. In order to cope with the actual conditions, advanced countries including Japan should be plan to reinforce their technological and economic assistance more suitable for farm villages. Furthermore, they should also improve the assistance system which includes a measure for environmental pollution control, considering the spot directly. 3 figs., 14 tabs.

  14. Facility Utilization Reports - FAA Aviation Information Utilization Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Provides: (1) Space management and planning, including area calculations, tracking space by organization and employee, and monitoring space utilization information....

  15. Managing the nuclear utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.W. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The Florida Power and Light Company (FP and L) is the fifth largest investor-owned utility in the country. The success of nuclear power generation at the St. Lucie Units 1 and 2 and Turkey Point Units 3 and 4 has resulted from a continuing management commitment to the nuclear program. The management of the power plants rely strongly on teamwork for most large projects and activities whether they entail plant operation, construction, or maintenance. Various examples of how teamwork has been used to realize the successful completion of projects or solutions to problems are given

  16. Geothermal country update of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higo, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the status of geothermal energy in Japan. Topics covered include: present and planned production of electricity, present utilization of geothermal energy for direct heat, information about geothermal localities, and wells drilled for electrical utilization of geothermal resources to January 1, 1990

  17. Regulatory difficulties in a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, W.R. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The regulatory agency assigned the task of regulating the initial entry into the field of nuclear power generation by a developing country has a very difficult job. Based on the authors' experience during the start-up and initial operation of Ko-Ri Unit I, the first power reactor in the Republic of Korea, observations on regulatory difficulties and recommendations for improved regulatory effectiveness are offered. The problem areas can be loosely grouped into three general categories: (1) Lack of adequate technical knowledge which is the basis for all effective regulation; (2) Difficulties with understanding and utilization of the required regulatory documentation; (3) Failure to establish the proper regulatory environment. Examples are cited from actual experience during the Ko-Ri Unit I start-up to demonstrate the impact that regulatory activities can have on a plant construction and testing programme. The problems encountered are not unique to developing countries but also exist in the United States of America. Recommendations are offered which should be beneficial to either newly formed regulatory agencies or agencies wishing to improve their abilities and effectiveness. These include: (1) Additional training of regulatory inspectors in plant operations; (2) Additional experience gained by participation in regulatory activities in other countries; (3) Increased attention given to regulatory documents, especially plant technical specifications; (4) Establishment of formal lines of communication between the utility and the regulatory agency; (5) Clear definition of regulatory responsibilities to avoid areas of overlapping jurisdiction; (6) Active participation by the regulatory staff very early in the project. It is hoped that these and other recommendations offered will greatly improve regulatory effectiveness and at the same time demonstrate that when the decision is made to 'go nuclear', a strong commitment must be made to develop and support a technically

  18. Projected uranium requirements of developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the uranium requirements of developing countries both in aggregate and individually. Although the cumulative uranium requirements of these countries are expected to account for less than eight percent of total requirements, the fact that many of these countries are expressing renewed interest in nuclear is, in itself, encouraging. The countries analyzed in this paper are Argentina, Brazil, Egypt, India, Israel, Mexico, Pakistan, South Africa, South Korea and Taiwan. For each country, the existing and planned nuclear capacity levels have been identified and capacity factors have been projected. For countries with no previous nuclear power, the world weighted average capacity factor for the specific reactor type is utilized. Other factors influencing nuclear power demand and operations of these developing countries will be discussed, and finally, uranium requirements based on a calculated optimal tails assay of .30 will be provided

  19. Constraints to waste utilization and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steadman, E.N.; Sondreal, E.A.; Hassett, D.J.; Eylands, K.E.; Dockter, B.A. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The value of coal combustion by-products for various applications is well established by research and commercial practice worldwide. As engineering construction materials, these products can add value and enhance strength and durability while simultaneously reducing cost and providing the environmental benefit of reduced solid waste disposal. In agricultural applications, gypsum-rich products can provide plant nutrients and improve the tilth of depleted soils over large areas of the country. In waste stabilization, the cementitious and pozzolanic properties of these products can immobilize hazardous nuclear, organic, and metal wastes for safe and effective environmental disposal. Although the value of coal combustion by-products for various applications is well established, the full utilization of coal combustion by-products has not been realized in most countries. The reasons for the under utilization of these materials include attitudes that make people reluctant to use waste materials, lack of engineering standards for high-volume uses beyond eminent replacement, and uncertainty about the environmental safety of coal ash utilization. More research and education are needed to increase the utilization of these materials. Standardization of technical specifications should be pursued through established standards organizations. Adoption of uniform specifications by government agencies and user trade associations should be encouraged. Specifications should address real-world application properties, such as air entrainment in concrete, rather than empirical parameters (e.g., loss on ignition). The extensive environmental assessment data already demonstrating the environmental safety of coal ash by-products in many applications should be more widely used, and data should be developed to include new applications.

  20. Thorium utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trauger, D B [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1978-01-01

    Some of the factors that provide incentive for the utilization of thorium in specific reactor types are explored and the constraints that stand in the way are pointed out. The properties of thorium and derived fuels are discussed, and test and reactor operating experience is reviewed. In addition, symbiotic systems of breeder and converter reactor are suggested as being particularly attractive systems for energy production. Throughout the discussion, the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor and Molten Salt Reactor are treated in some detail because they have been developed primarily for use with thorium fuel cycles.

  1. Japanese utilities' plutonium utilization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuichiro.

    1996-01-01

    Japan's 10 utility companies are working and will continue to work towards establishing a fully closed nuclear fuel cycle. The key goals of which are: (1) reprocessing spent fuel; (2) recycling recovered uranium and plutonium; and (3) commercializing fast breeder technology by around the year 2030. This course of action by the Japanese electric power industry is in full accordance with Japan's national policy outlined in the government's report ''The Long-Term Program for Research, Development, and Nuclear Energy,'' which was published in June 1994. The Japanese civilian nuclear program is a long-term program that looks into the 21st century and beyond. It is quite true that sustaining the recycling option for energy security and the global environment demands a large investment. For it to be accepted by the public, safety must be the highest priority and will be pursued at a great cost if necessary. In its history, Japan has learned that as technology advances, costs will come down. The Japanese utility industry will continue investment in technology without compromising safety until the recycling option becomes more competitive with other options. This effort will be equally applied to the development of the commercial FBRs. The Japanese utility industry is confident that Japan's stable policy and strong objective to develop competitive and peaceful technology will contribute to the global economy and the environment without increasing the threat of plutonium proliferation

  2. VT Electric Utility Franchise Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) ELCFRANCHISE includes Vermont's Electric Utility Franchise boundaries. It is a compilation of many data sources. The boundaries are approximate...

  3. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Miyamoto (John); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractMethods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute

  4. Romania biomass energy. Country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, M; Easterly, J L; Mark, P E; Keller, A [DynCorp, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The present report was prepared under contract to UNIDO to conduct a case study of biomass energy use and potential in Romania. The purpose of the case study is to provide a specific example of biomass energy issues and potential in the context of the economic transition under way in eastern Europe. The transition of Romania to a market economy is proceeding at a somewhat slower pace than in other countries of eastern Europe. Unfortunately, the former regime forced the use of biomass energy with inadequate technology and infrastructure, particularly in rural areas. The resulting poor performance thus severely damaged the reputation of biomass energy in Romania as a viable, reliable resource. Today, efforts to rejuvenate biomass energy and tap into its multiple benefits are proving challenging. Several sound biomass energy development strategies were identified through the case study, on the basis of estimates of availability and current use of biomass resources; suggestions for enhancing potential biomass energy resources; an overview of appropriate conversion technologies and markets for biomass in Romania; and estimates of the economic and environmental impacts of the utilization of biomass energy. Finally, optimal strategies for near-, medium- and long-term biomass energy development, as well as observations and recommendations concerning policy, legislative and institutional issues affecting the development of biomass energy in Romania are presented. The most promising near-term biomass energy options include the use of biomass in district heating systems; cofiring of biomass in existing coal-fired power plants or combined heat and power plants; and using co-generation systems in thriving industries to optimize the efficient use of biomass resources. Mid-term and long-term opportunities include improving the efficiency of wood stoves used for cooking and heating in rural areas; repairing the reputation of biogasification to take advantage of livestock wastes

  5. Romania biomass energy. Country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, M.; Easterly, J.L.; Mark, P.E.; Keller, A.

    1995-01-01

    The present report was prepared under contract to UNIDO to conduct a case study of biomass energy use and potential in Romania. The purpose of the case study is to provide a specific example of biomass energy issues and potential in the context of the economic transition under way in eastern Europe. The transition of Romania to a market economy is proceeding at a somewhat slower pace than in other countries of eastern Europe. Unfortunately, the former regime forced the use of biomass energy with inadequate technology and infrastructure, particularly in rural areas. The resulting poor performance thus severely damaged the reputation of biomass energy in Romania as a viable, reliable resource. Today, efforts to rejuvenate biomass energy and tap into its multiple benefits are proving challenging. Several sound biomass energy development strategies were identified through the case study, on the basis of estimates of availability and current use of biomass resources; suggestions for enhancing potential biomass energy resources; an overview of appropriate conversion technologies and markets for biomass in Romania; and estimates of the economic and environmental impacts of the utilization of biomass energy. Finally, optimal strategies for near-, medium- and long-term biomass energy development, as well as observations and recommendations concerning policy, legislative and institutional issues affecting the development of biomass energy in Romania are presented. The most promising near-term biomass energy options include the use of biomass in district heating systems; cofiring of biomass in existing coal-fired power plants or combined heat and power plants; and using co-generation systems in thriving industries to optimize the efficient use of biomass resources. Mid-term and long-term opportunities include improving the efficiency of wood stoves used for cooking and heating in rural areas; repairing the reputation of biogasification to take advantage of livestock wastes

  6. Capacity Utilization in European Railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khadem Sameni, Melody; Landex, Alex

    2013-01-01

    and unprecedented approach for this aim. Relative operational efficiency of 24 European railways in capacity utilization is studied for the first time by data envelopment analysis (DEA). It deviates from previous applications of DEA in the railway industry that are conducted to analyze cost efficiency of railways....... Six DEA models quantify various aspects of micro, macro and quality of railway capacity utilization in these countries. New inputs like gross domestic product, population and area of the country help to provide a better picture of the status of railways. Passenger satisfaction data about different...... aspects of railway services in European countries has recently been quantified by European commission and are used for the first time in the literature. Invaluable insights can be inferred from the results which can provide a ground basis for railway practitioners and policy makers....

  7. Utilization of coalbed methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavson, J.B. [Gustavson Associates Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Substantial progress has been made in capturing coalbed methane (CBM gas), which constitutes a valuable source of clean burning energy. It is of importance to study the various potential uses of coalbed methane and to understand the various technologies required, as well as their economics and any institutional constraints. In industrialised countries, the uses of coalbed methane are almost solely dependent on microeconomics; coalbed methane must compete for a market against natural gas and other energy sources - and frequently, coalbed methane is not competitive against other energy sources. In developing countries, on the other hand, particularly where other sources of energy are in short supply, coalbed methane economics yield positive results. Here, constraints to development of CBM utilization are mainly lack of technology and investment capital. Sociological aspects such as attitude and cultural habits, may also have a strong negative influence. This paper outlines the economics of coalbed methane utilization, particularly its competition with natural gas, and touches upon the many different uses to which coalbed methane may be applied. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Transport in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, B.; Pettersson, S.; Vilkamo, S.

    1989-01-01

    Transport of radioactive material from different fields of operation is well advanced in the Nordic countries: waste from the medical sector, industry, research, and now in increasing amounts from reactor operation, including spent fuel. In the future, waste from decommissioning will also be transported. This report gives the amount of radioactive waste material to be transported in the Nordic countries. Transport routes, transport containers, and transport systems are described. Legislations and transport regulatins are discussed. (author)

  9. Design and engineering of a gas-engine driven heat pump heating station including heat distribution system and utilization of waste heat from an ice rink for the residential area Dorsten - Maria Lindenhof. Planung eines Gasmotor-Waermepumpenheizwerkes mit angeschlossenem Waermeverteilungsnetz und Abwaermenutzung einer Eisenbahn fuer das zentralstaedtische Gebiet 'Maria-Lindenhof' in Dorsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huelsemann, R.

    1984-05-01

    A gas-engine driven heat pump heating station including the required heat destribution system and utilization of waste heat from an ice rink to be realized in the residential area Dorsten - Maria Lindenhof. The total heat capacity was to be reached in two stages, corresponding to the progress of the building and housing structure in this specific area: First stage of construction 5,6 MW, final stage of construction 7,6 MW. With regard to the final stage of construction only a relatively small part of the buildings is provided with heating systems designed for supply and return temperatures of 90/70/sup 0/C respectively. The old people's home built in 1980 was already equipped with low temperature heating systems and all buildings still to be built shall be provided with low-temperature systems. As far as old heating systems are concerned, the required measures must be taken to reduce the temperature in the return lines.

  10. Republic of Botswana. Country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, J

    1985-08-01

    A summary of Botswana's population characteristics, population distribution, labor force characteristics, health situation, and transportation and communication facilities is provided. 87% of the country's 941,027 inhabitants live in the catchment area of the Limpopo River in the eastern region of the country. Much of the remaining area is covered by the Kalahari Desert. The population is growing at an annual rate of 3.6%, the birth rate is 50 and the total fertility rate is 6.6. The government has no official population policy. Major ethnic groups are the cattle raising Tswanas, which make up 50% of the population, the Herero, and the Basarwa, or Bushmen, of the Kalahri Desert. Urban areas are officially defined as population centers which contain 5000 or more residents and in which at least 75% of the inhabitants are engaged in nonagricultural work. According to this classification, 84% of the population is rural; however, most rural inhabitants live in agrotowns and temporarily move to outlying cattle and land posts during part of the year. Some of the agrotowns have almost 25,000 inhabitants. Major urban centers include 1) Gaborone, the capital and major administrative center, with a popualtion of 59,657; 2) Francistown, a large commercial center, with a population of 31,065; 3) Selebi-Phikwe, a mining center, populated by 29,469; and 4) Lobatse, a livestock marketing and processing center, with 19,034 residents. The urban population increased from 54,416 to 150,021 between 1971-81. The population has a young age structure. A large number of working aged males migrate temporarily to the Republic of South Africa to work in the gold mines. 37% of the economically active population is engaged in government services, 26% in mining, manufacturing, and construction, 21% in trade and finance, 6% in transportation, utilities, and communication, and 4.5% in agriculture. Only 1.3% of the land is cultivatable. The working age population is expected to double by the end of

  11. Utilization of rice straw and different treatments to improve its feed value for ruminants: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarnklong, C.; Cone, J.W.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the availability, nutritive quality, and possible strategies to improve the utilization of rice straw as a feed ingredient for ruminants. Approximately 80% of the rice in the world is grown by small-scale farmers in developing countries, including South East Asia. The

  12. Country report for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heusener, Gerhard

    2001-01-01

    The status of the nuclear energy in Germany can be summarised as follows: 19 operating NPPs (22 GWe); electricity production in 200 amounted to 170 TWh (one third of the total production); average availability 91%; goal of the Federal Government is to phase out nuclear energy without paying to the utilities. Fast reactor activities involve participation of FZK in the European Project 'Burning of Pu and MAs in Critical Fast Reactors'; shifting to burning of actinides in subcritical accelerator driven systems (ADS). This includes neutronics, safety analysis, Pb-Bi technology, development of spallation target, corrosion in Pb and Pb-Bi

  13. Informational and Cultural Situation in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadirova, Goulnar

    Cultural development of modern countries in the East, including the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a complicated and contradictory process, where common cultural ways were shaped differently and specifically in the countries. Common historical fate has influenced this development and given these countries some common problems, but there is some…

  14. 31 CFR 500.301 - Foreign country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign country. 500.301 Section 500.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 500.301 Foreign country. The term foreign country also includes, but not by way of limitation: (a) The...

  15. 31 CFR 515.301 - Foreign country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign country. 515.301 Section 515.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 515.301 Foreign country. The term foreign country also includes, but not by way of limitation: (a) The...

  16. Country programming mission. Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In response to a request from the Government of Namibia conveyed in a letter dated 29 November 1990 IAEA provided a multi-disciplinary Programming Mission which visited Namibia from 15 - 19 July 1991. The terms of reference of the Mission were: 1. To assess the possibilities and benefits of nuclear energy applications in Namibia's development; 2. To advise on the infrastructure required for nuclear energy projects; 3. To assist in the formulation of project proposals which could be submitted for Agency assistance. This report is based on the findings of the Mission and falls into 3 sections with 8 appendices. The first section is a country profile providing background information, the second section deals with sectorial needs and institutional review of the sectors of agriculture including animal production, life sciences (nuclear medicine and radiotherapy) and radiation protection. The third section includes possible future technical co-operation activities

  17. Play and recreation in a developing country context: Assessing utility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Play and recreation programming are increasingly becoming part of the modern city. This study explored the level of access to, satisfaction with, and perceptions of quality of Jardin Public Gardens, the only public open green space in Bujumbura, Burundi's capital. The study evaluated distance, age, perceived quality, and ...

  18. Utility involvement in uranium exploration and development - a growing trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, R.P.; Riedel, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear power commitments by United States utilities at the beginning of 1979 represent 137,000 MW(e) of capacity from 147 nuclear units scheduled for operation by 1985 plus an additional 52,000 MW(e) from 48 units scheduled beyond 1985. Including the minority owners there are over 100 independent electric utilities in the United States of America with some financial commitment to these 195 nuclear power plants. United States uranium requirements to the year 2000 have been projected at 35 to 40% of the world requirements (exclusive of centrally planned economies). Also United States uranium resources represent a substantial fraction of present estimated world resources. Thus, decisions by US electric utilities regarding their financial involvement in uranium exploration and development can be expected to have a large impact on the development of the world-wide uranium industry. Unlike the situation in most countries with large commitments to nuclear power, the US government is not directly involved financially in uranium exploration and development except in a supportive role to the industry as a whole. Investment decisions by US utilities and US mining companies are based on their individual perceptions of the risks and benefits to be gained. Public attitudes towards nuclear power and public regulatory commission treatment of utility expenditures for resource development vary throughout the country. Thus, US utilities have shown a wide range of responses in formulating their uranium procurement strategies. About half the utilities with nuclear commitments are at present involved financially in uranium exploration and development. This paper traces the development of this trend and elaborates on the types of financial involvement and the factors that affect a utility's selection of its overall uranium procurement strategy

  19. Preconception health assessment in China, Lebanon and the Philippines: applicability to other countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Mary-Elizabeth; Charafeddine, Lama; Zhong, Nanbert; Padilla, Carmencita D; Yunis, Khalid; El Rafei, Reem; Alamiddine, Kawthar; Zhao, Xinliang; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Howson, Christopher P

    2014-07-01

    To test the utility of a preconception checklist tool in identifying preconception health needs of women in three countries; China, Lebanon and the Philippines. An academic medical center within each country participated in the development and testing of a preconception checklist tool, which was administered over a 6 month period to selected target groups in each country. The checklist provided valuable data on the preconception health of 6,530 women. Aggregated data identified common preconception health needs across all countries, including provision of modern contraceptives and adequate immunization coverage; HIV and STI screening; treatment for anemia; and counseling for maintenance of a healthy weight. A preconception checklist tool was found to be useful in distinct cultural settings. The study was a pilot. Future steps include validation and standardization of the checklist, data from which could be used to help shape preconception care policies and implementation strategies.

  20. Bureau Management Technologies and Information Systems in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Altınöz

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on bureau management technologies and information systems in developing countries. Developing countries use such systems which facilitate executive and organizational functions through the utilization of bureau management technologies and provide the executive staff with necessary information. The concepts of data and information differ from each other in developing countries, and thus the concepts of data processing and information processing are di...

  1. Building country image process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubović Jovan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The same branding principles are used for countries as they are used for the products, only the methods are different. Countries are competing among themselves in tourism, foreign investments and exports. Country turnover is at the level that the country's reputation is. The countries that begin as unknown or with a bad image will have limits in operations or they will be marginalized. As a result they will be at the bottom of the international influence scale. On the other hand, countries with a good image, like Germany (despite two world wars will have their products covered with a special "aura".

  2. CLIC expands to include the Southern Hemisphere

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberto Cantoni

    2010-01-01

    Australia has recently joined the CLIC collaboration: the enlargement will bring new expertise and resources to the project, and is especially welcome in the wake of CERN budget redistributions following the recent adoption of the Medium Term Plan.   The countries involved in CLIC collaboration With the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding on 26 August 2010, the ACAS network (Australian Collaboration for Accelerator Science) became the 40th member of in the multilateral CLIC collaboration making Australia the 22nd country to join the collaboration. “The new MoU was signed by the ACAS network, which includes the Australian Synchrotron and the University of Melbourne”, explains Jean-Pierre Delahaye, CLIC Study Leader. “Thanks to their expertise, the Australian institutes will contribute greatly to the CLIC damping rings and the two-beam test modules." Institutes from any country wishing to join the CLIC collaboration are invited to assume responsibility o...

  3. Safety assessment of foods from genetically modified crops in countries with developing economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Bryan

    2015-12-01

    Population growth particularly in countries with developing economies will result in a need to increase food production by 70% by the year 2050. Biotechnology has been utilized to produce genetically modified (GM) crops for insect and weed control with benefits including increased crop yield and will also be used in emerging countries. A multicomponent safety assessment paradigm has been applied to individual GM crops to determine whether they as safe as foods from non-GM crops. This paper reviews methods to assess the safety of foods from GM crops for safe consumption from the first generation of GM crops. The methods can readily be applied to new products developed within country and this paper will emphasize the concept of data portability; that safety data produced in one geographic location is suitable for safety assessment regardless of where it is utilized. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. The first safe country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaela Puggioni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Dublin II Regulation makes the first safe country of refuge solelyresponsible for refugees and asylum seekers. In the case of Italy, thefirst responsible country has not been acting responsibly.

  5. Reactor physics needs in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solanilla, R.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of this paper the identification of needs on Reactor Physics in developing countries embarked in the installation and later on in the operation of Commercial Nuclear Power Plants. In this context the main task of Reactor Physics should be focused in the application of Physical models with inclusion of thermohydraulic process to solve the various realistic problems which appear to ensure a safe, economical and reliable core design and reactor operation. The first part of the paper deals with the scope of Reactor Physics and its interrelation with other disciplines as seen from the view point of developing countries possibilities. Needs requiring a quick response, i.e., those demands coming during the development of a specific Nuclear Power Plant Project, are summarized in the second part of the lecture. Plant startup has been chosen as reference to separate two categories of requirements: Requirements prior to startup phase include reactor core verification, licensing aspects review and study of fuel utilization alternatives; whereas the period during and after startup mainly embraces codes checkup and normalization, core follow-up and long term prediction

  6. Food Safety Program in Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Ryuji; Hwang, Lucy Sun

    2015-01-01

    By using the ILSI network in Asia, we are holding a session focused on food safety programs in several Asian areas. In view of the external environment, it is expected to impact the global food system in the near future, including the rapid increase in food demand and in public health services due to population growth, as well as the threats to biosecurity and food safety due to the rapid globalization of the food trade. Facilitating effective information sharing holds promise for the activation of the food industry. At this session, Prof. Hwang shares the current situation of Food Safety and Sanitation Regulations in Taiwan. Dr. Liu provides a talk on the role of risk assessment in food regulatory control focused on aluminum-containing food additives in China. After the JECFA evaluation of aluminum-containing food additives in 2011, each country has carried out risk assessment based on dietary intake surveys. Ms. Chan reports on the activities of a working group on Food Standards Harmonization in ASEAN. She also explains that the ILSI Southeast Asia Region has actively supported the various ASEAN Working Groups in utilizing science to harmonize food standards. Prof. Park provides current research activities in Korea focused on the effect of climate change on food safety. Climate change is generally seen as having a negative impact on food security, particularly in developing countries. We use these four presentations as a springboard to vigorous discussion on issues related to Food Safety in Asia.

  7. Radiotherapy in small countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Michael B; Zubizarreta, Eduardo H; Polo Rubio, J Alfredo

    2017-10-01

    To examine the availability of radiotherapy in small countries. A small country was defined as a country with a population less than one million persons. The economic status of each country was defined using the World Bank Classification. The number of cancers in each country was obtained from GLOBOCAN 2012. The number of cancer cases with an indication or radiotherapy was calculated using the CCORE model. There were 41 countries with a population of under 1 million; 15 were classified as High Income, 15 Upper Middle Income, 10 Lower Middle Income and one Low Income. 28 countries were islands. Populations ranged from 799 (Holy See) to 886450 (Fiji) and the total number of cancer cases occurring in small countries was 21,043 (range by country from 4 to 2476). Overall the total number of radiotherapy cases in small countries was 10982 (range by country from 2 to 1239). Radiotherapy was available in all HIC islands with 80 or more new cases of cancer in 2012 but was not available in any LMIC island. Fiji was the only LMIC island with a large radiotherapy caseload. Similar caseloads in non-island LMIC all had radiotherapy services. Most non-island HIC did not have radiotherapy services presumably because of the easy access to radiotherapy in neighbouring countries. There are no radiotherapy services in any LMIC islands. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Japan country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morisaki, Rieko [Energy Communication Planning, 3-9-16 Aobadai, 818-0137 Dazaifu (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    1. Nuclear 2007 highlights: - A magnitude 6.8 earthquake occurred in Niigata on July 16 2007. Owing to this earthquake, 3 units operating and 1 unit during start-up were shutdown automatically at TEPCO's Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPS. Now, all 7 units of the NPS are in an outage for investigation. This influenced the capacity factor of Japanese NPPs in FY 2007, which stood at just 60.7%. - Debate on global warming is more and more active in Japan, as it is the host country of the G8 Hokkaido Toyako Summit in July. The Japan Atomic Energy Commission released 'White Paper on Nuclear Energy 2007' in March 2008. In the paper, they first expressed the view that the expansion of the peaceful use of nuclear energy is indispensable. 2. Nuclear overview: a. Energy policy: Electricity share: 25.4% of nuclear. The energy policy of Japan aims at nuclear power generation being maintained at the current level (30 to 40% of the total electricity generation) or increasing even after 2030, for stable energy supply and as a countermeasure against global warming. - Nuclear Fuel Cycle: The active tests at the JNFL reprocessing plant in Rokkasho-mura are in the final phase for commercial operation in 2008. By FY 2010 Plutonium utilization in LWRs in 16 to 18 NPP units. Around FY 2010 Installment of new centrifuges at the uranium enrichment plant at Rokkasho-mura. In FY 2012 Start of commercial operation of MOX fuel fabrication plant. Fast-breeder reactor cycle: Operation of the prototype reactor 'MONJU' has been suspended since a secondary sodium leak in 1995. JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) completed full-scale remodeling work and is implementing various tests to confirm the capabilities and soundness of MONJU. They aim to start its operation within FY 2008. Around 2025 Building a demonstration FBR. Before 2050 Development of a commercial FBR. - Electricity production (Operating): BWR: 32 units (including 4 units of APWR), PWR: 23 units. - Electricity production

  9. Glaucoma in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the background and strategy required for the prevention of blindness from glaucoma in developing countries. Materials and Methods: Extrapolation of existing data and experience in eye care delivery and teaching models in an unequally developed country (India are used to make recommendations. Results: Parameters like population attributable risk percentage indicate that glaucoma is a public health problem but lack of simple diagnostic techniques and therapeutic interventions are barriers to any effective plan. Case detection rather than population-based screening is the recommended strategy for detection. Population awareness of the disease is low and most patients attending eye clinics do not receive a routine comprehensive eye examination that is required to detect glaucoma (and other potentially blinding eye diseases. Such a routine is not taught or practiced by the majority of training institutions either. Angle closure can be detected clinically and relatively simple interventions (including well performed cataract surgery can prevent blindness from this condition. The strategy for open angle glaucoma should focus on those with established functional loss. Outcomes of this proposed strategy are not yet available. Conclusions: Glaucoma cannot be managed in isolation. The objective should be to detect and manage all potential causes of blindness and prevention of blindness from glaucoma should be integrated into existing programs. The original pyramidal model of eye care delivery incorporates this principle and provides an initial starting point. The routine of comprehensive eye examination in every clinic and its teaching (and use in residency programs is mandatory for the detection and management of potentially preventable blinding pathology from any cause, including glaucoma. Programs for detection of glaucoma should not be initiated unless adequate facilities for diagnosis and surgical intervention are in place and

  10. Biogas utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, M.A. [Resource Conservation Management, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Options for successfully using biogas depend on project scale. Almost all biogas from anaerobic digesters must first go through a gas handling system that pressurizes, meters, and filters the biogas. Additional treatment, including hydrogen sulfide-mercaptan scrubbing, gas drying, and carbon dioxide removal may be necessary for specialized uses, but these are complex and expensive processes. Thus, they can be justified only for large-scale projects that require high-quality biogas. Small-scale projects (less than 65 cfm) generally use biogas (as produced) as a boiler fuel or for fueling internal combustion engine-generators to produce electricity. If engines or boilers are selected properly, there should be no need to remove hydrogen sulfide. Small-scale combustion turbines, steam turbines, and fuel cells are not used because of their technical complexity and high capital cost. Biogas cleanup to pipeline or transportation fuel specifications is very costly, and energy economics preclude this level of treatment.

  11. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  12. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  13. NON-EXPECTED UTILITY THEORIES: WEIGHTED EXPECTED, RANK DEPENDENT, AND CUMULATIVE PROSPECT THEORY UTILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Tuthill, Jonathan W.; Frechette, Darren L.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the failings of expected utility including the Allais paradox and expected utility's inadequate one dimensional characterization of risk. Three alternatives to expected utility are discussed at length; weighted expected utility, rank dependent utility, and cumulative prospect theory. Each alternative is capable of explaining Allais paradox type problems and permits more sophisticated multi dimensional risk preferences.

  14. Pharmaceutical policies in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Pedro Pita

    2010-01-01

    Pharmaceutical expenditures have an important role in Europe. The attempts to control expenditure have used a wide range of policy measures. We reviewed the main measures adopted by the European Union countries, especially in countries where governments are the largest third-party payers. To complement a literature review on the topic, data was gathered from national reviews of health systems and direct inquiries to several government bodies. Almost all countries regulate prices of pharmaceutical products. Popular policy measures include international referencing to set prices (using as benchmark countries that have set lower prices), internal reference pricing systems to promote price competition in domestic markets, and positive lists for reimbursement to promote consumption of generics (including in some cases substitution by pharmacists of drugs prescribed by physicians). Despite the wide range of policy measures, it is not possible to identify a "silver bullet" to control pharmaceutical expenditures. We also identified two main policy challenges: policy coordination among countries within the European Union to maintain incentives for R&D at the global level, and the development of new relationships with the pharmaceutical industry; namely, the so-called risk-sharing agreements between the pharmaceutical industry and governments/regulators (or large third-party payers).

  15. Country report of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonsuk, Manit

    2005-01-01

    At the Fast Neutron Research Facility (FNRF) of Chiang Mai University, the SURIYA project has been established in 2000 aiming to produce femtosecond electron pulses utilizing a combination of a S-band thermoionic rf-gun and an alpha-magnet as the buncher. The presently obtained results with the SURIYA project, the setup of a linear accelerator is reported. The research on hydrogel: (1) preparation of wound dressing of polyvinyl alcohol/silk fibroin hydrogel by gamma radiation, (2) water vapor permeability studies and bacterial growth suppression of irradiated PVA/SF blend hydrogels for wound-dressing, and (3) synthesis and characterization of PVP-grafted-starch hydrogels using gamma radiation, is introduced. Finally, the report describes the present situation of the air pollution problems in Thailand, including air pollution legislation, pollution emission amounts estimated, and sulfur oxides emission. Thailand has no plan of electron beam treatment of flue gas. (S. Ohno)

  16. Bulgaria : Country Financial Accountability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Bulgaria's ambitious program of reforms in several areas, including public financial management (PFM), focuses greatly on its entry into the European Union (EU). Thus, the country has a well developed system, and structure of financial management, that relies heavily on information technology (such as in the area of cash management), and has independent external audits, and parliamentary o...

  17. The Country of Origin Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Lala; Baldin, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the country of origin (COO) effect on wine purchase in China by considering a sample from an e-commerce website. The paper contribute to the literature on hedonic pricing by applying this model to the Chinese market and including COO as product attribute....

  18. Pigmentary disorders in Western countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, J. P. Wietze

    2007-01-01

    Countries in the so-called "Western" world, especially in Europe, witnessed a dramatic change in ethnic backgrounds of their populations starting in the last decennia of the last century. This had repercussions on various aspects of our society, including medical practice. In dermatology for

  19. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.

  20. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa

  1. Reactor utilization, Annex A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinc, R.; Stanic, A.

    1984-01-01

    Reactor was operated until August 1984 due to prohibition issued by the Ministry since the reactor does not have the emergency cooling system nor special filters in the ventilation system yet. This means that the operation plan was fulfilled by 69%. This annex includes detailed tables containing data about utilization of reactor experimental channels, irradiated samples, as well as interruptions of operation. Detailed data about reactor power during this period are shown as well

  2. Utilization of biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, J L; Ross, C C; Smith, M S; Harper, S R [Georgia Tech Research Corp., Atlanta, GA (USA)

    1989-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the systems and equipment required to convert biogas into useful thermal and/or electrical energy was conducted, and the results published in the Handbook on Biogas Utilization (Walsh et al., Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, 1988). The physical, chemical and combustion characteristics of biogas, and the impact of these characteristics on both new and modified combustion equipment, were considered. The study also included consideration of auxiliary equipment for biogas collection, clean-up, compression and storage. (author).

  3. Alternative method of highway traffic safety analysis for developing countries using delphi technique and Bayesian network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbakwe, Anthony C; Saka, Anthony A; Choi, Keechoo; Lee, Young-Jae

    2016-08-01

    Highway traffic accidents all over the world result in more than 1.3 million fatalities annually. An alarming number of these fatalities occurs in developing countries. There are many risk factors that are associated with frequent accidents, heavy loss of lives, and property damage in developing countries. Unfortunately, poor record keeping practices are very difficult obstacle to overcome in striving to obtain a near accurate casualty and safety data. In light of the fact that there are numerous accident causes, any attempts to curb the escalating death and injury rates in developing countries must include the identification of the primary accident causes. This paper, therefore, seeks to show that the Delphi Technique is a suitable alternative method that can be exploited in generating highway traffic accident data through which the major accident causes can be identified. In order to authenticate the technique used, Korea, a country that underwent similar problems when it was in its early stages of development in addition to the availability of excellent highway safety records in its database, is chosen and utilized for this purpose. Validation of the methodology confirms the technique is suitable for application in developing countries. Furthermore, the Delphi Technique, in combination with the Bayesian Network Model, is utilized in modeling highway traffic accidents and forecasting accident rates in the countries of research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Report on surveys in fiscal 1999 on technological trends in overseas countries in research and development of the technology to create biological bonding substances utilizing particulates under the industrial and scientific technology research and development theme (university collaborated type); 1999 nendo biryushi riyogata seitai ketsugo busshitsu nado sosei gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu kaigai gijutsu doko chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper describes the surveys in fiscal 1999 on technological trends in overseas countries in research and development of the technology to create biological bonding substances utilizing particulates. Attendance was made at the U.S. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology '99 to survey signal transmission in cells, new molecules related to gene transcription control, and the mechanisms thereof. A visit was made to the U.S.A. to collect the chromatin research information. In order to analyze efficiently specific biological receptors relative chemical substances, and structure an activity evaluation system, attendance was made at a society meeting in Britain to incorporate the high throughput screening technology. Attendance was made at a publication meeting in the U.S.A. to understand the current status of the DNA micro-array process. Visits were made to American business entities and societies to survey information that contributes to efficient separation and analysis of biological receptors. American business entities and universities were visited to survey the cDNA manifestation library system, technological trends, and researches on intra-living organism systems by using molecular biology. Visits were made to research institutes and societies in the U.S.A. to survey the method for carrying ligands onto latex beads, combinatorial chemistry, and solid phase synthesis. (NEDO)

  5. Report on investigations in fiscal 2000. International infrastructure improving project for rationalization of energy use (Fundamental survey on effective utilization of unutilized biomass energy in ASEAN countries); 2000 nendo kokusai energy shiyo gorika kiban seibi jigyo chosa hokokusho. ASEAN shokoku ni okeru miriyo baiomasu energy no yuko riyo ni kansuru kisochosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective to utilize 'biomass' being the unutilized and reproducible energy source, which exists affluently in the ASEAN countries, investigations and discussions have been carried out on electric power generation using palm shells as fuel in Malaysia. This paper reports the achievement in fiscal 2000. The biomass energy plant project was discussed with the followings as the conditions: an output of 1 MW, use of biomass in the form of wastes discharged from oil palm mills, the system of direct combustion process with boiler/steam turbine generation process, and power transmission to public grids. As a result of the discussions, the following conclusions were obtained: reduction of greenhouse effect gas exhaust will amount to 81,540 t-CO2/year, reduction will be realized on white smoke pollution caused by wastes incineration being criticized from various sectors and such harmful gas exhaust as SOx and NOx discharged from fossil fuel power generation, the uncertainty of electric power supply currently depending on DG power generation will be mitigated resulting in acquisition of economic effects, and electric power supply to 1,000 households will be possible, contributing to enhancement of living standard due to electrification. (NEDO)

  6. PNRA Process for Utilizing Experience Feedback for Enhancing Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Z.H.

    2016-01-01

    One of the elements essential for any organization to become a learning organization is to learn from its own and others experience. The importance of utilizing experience feedback for enhancing operational safety is highlighted in nuclear industry again and again and this has resulted in establishment of several national and international forums. In addition, IAEA action plan on nuclear safety issued after Fukushima accident further highlighted the importance of experience sharing among nuclear community to enhance global nuclear safety regime. PNRA utilizes operating experience feedback gathered through different sources in order to improve its regulatory processes. During the review of licensing submissions, special emphasis is given to utilize the lessons learnt from experience feedback relating to nuclear industry within and outside the country. This emphasis has gradually resulted in various safety improvements in the facilities and processes. Accordingly, PNRA has developed a systematic process of evaluation of international operating experience feedback with the aim to create safety conscious approach. This process includes collecting information from different international forums such as IAEA, regulatory bodies of other countries and useful feedback of past accidents followed by its screening, evaluation and suggesting recommendations both for PNRA and its licensees. As a result of this process, several improvements concerning regulatory inspection plans of PNRA as well as in regulatory decision making and operational practices of licensees have been highlighted. This paper will present PNRA approach for utilizing experience feedback in its regulatory processes for enhancing / improving nuclear safety. (author)

  7. Radioassay services in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belcher, E.H.

    1978-01-01

    The findings and recommendations of an advisory group convened by the IAEA to give guidance relating to the development of IAEA projects involving radioassay are presented. The current status of radioassay services in different countries is reviewed; guiding principles relating to the organization of such services are affirmed, with particular reference to services in developing countries; the needs of services at various levels as regards accommodation, staff, equipment, supporting services and running costs, including minimum initial needs, are specified; operational problems are identified and indications given how they may be solved; facilities for training in radioassay are reviewed; finally, reference is made to IAEA activities in the field in question. (author)

  8. Water and Sewage Utilities Sector (NAICS 2213)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental regulation information for water utilities, including drinking and wastewater treatment facilities. Includes links to NESHAP for POTW, compliance information, and information about pretreatment programs.

  9. Preliminary Country Reports on Feasibility Survey: Policy Research and Education Institutions for Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James M.; Luikart, F. W.

    The feasibility of creating independent research and education centers that deal with public policy issues in developing countries is assessed. Countries that were surveyed include Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, South Korea, Philippines, Pakistan, and Nepal. For each country, a report describes the social and political climate…

  10. Privatization of municipal electrical utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J.

    1998-01-01

    The challenges and special issues which arise through the sale of a municipal electric utility were discussed. The recent sales of two utilities, the Kentville Electric Commission in Nova Scotia and Cornwall Electric in Ontario, were used as examples to show how the sale of an electric utility differs from the sale of most business enterprises. Municipal utilities are integral parts of the communities they serve which introduces several complexities into the sale. Factors that require special attention in the sale of the utilities, including electricity rates, local accountability, treatment of employees and local economic development, and the need for a comprehensive communication program to deal with the substantial public interest that sale of a municipal utility will engender, were reviewed

  11. Country Presentation Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oriada, R.; Byakagaba, A.; Kiza, M.; Magembe, M.

    2010-01-01

    Like Many African countries, Uganda is not Immune to the problem of illicit trafficking of Nuclear and Radioactive materials. This has been worsened by the porosity of the Ugandan Borders. There is control on the few Entry points and much of the border line does not have adequate control on what enters and leaves the country. Uganda is also used as a transit route with the neighboring countries like Sudan, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya,Tanzania.

  12. Reactor utilization, Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinc, R.; Stanic, A.

    1981-01-01

    The reactor operating plan for 1981 was subject to the needs of testing operation with the 80% enriched fuel and was fulfilled on the whole. This annex includes data about reactor operation, review of shorter interruptions due to demands of the experiments, data about safety shutdowns caused by power cuts. Period of operation at low power levels was used mostly for activation analyses, and the operation at higher power levels were used for testing and regular isotope production. Detailed data about samples activation are included as well as utilization of the reactor as neutron source and the operating plan for 1982 [sr

  13. Traditional Medicine in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Rikke Stamp

    or spiritual healer and self-treatment with herbal medicine or medicinal plants. Reliance on traditional medicine varies between countries and rural and urban areas, but is reported to be as high as 80% in some developing countries. Increased realization of the continued importance of traditional medicine has......People use traditional medicine to meet their health care needs in developing countries and medical pluralism persists worldwide despite increased access to allopathic medicine. Traditional medicine includes a variety of treatment opportunities, among others, consultation with a traditional healer...... led to the formulation of policies on the integration of traditional medicine into public health care. Local level integration is already taking place as people use multiple treatments when experiencing illness. Research on local level use of traditional medicine for health care, in particular the use...

  14. Options for electric power generation and distribution in developing countries: proceedings of the GTDC symposium'95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the symposium on options for electric power generation and distribution in developing countries organised by Global Technology Development Centre (GTDC), Vienna in cooperation with Agency for Non-Conventional Energy and Rural Technology (ANERT), Thiruvananthapuram. The focus of the symposium was on problems of electricity generation and distribution mainly in the developing countries of the world and the issues addressed included : 1) an overview of existing electric power services; 2) options on fuel and technology; 3) options on operation of electricity utilities; 4) options on financing investments and planning of capacity extension or replacement. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  15. Determinants of debt rescheduling in Eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laušev Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study utilizes Panel Logit Models applied to a set of macroeconomic, financial, and political variables to estimate the debt rescheduling probabilities of 15 Eastern European countries during the transition period from 1990-2005. These transition economies became a very attractive region for foreign investment. Specifically, the region became the largest recipient of net non-FDI flows among all emerging market regions in 2005. Therefore, it is relevant for policy makers and institutional and private foreign investors to investigate factors that influence debt rescheduling probabilities, as these may directly affect the size of and return on investments in these countries. Our findings suggest that policy efforts focused on reducing government expenditure, attracting foreign direct investment, increasing export revenues, and keeping a good repayment record result in low debt rescheduling probabilities and, in turn, decrease the cost of debt for these countries. This is a common finding for all countries in the sample, including those that have become EU members.

  16. Medicare Utilization for Part B

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This link takes you to the Medicare utilization statistics for Part B (Supplementary Medical Insurance SMI) which includes the Medicare Part B Physician and Supplier...

  17. Medicare Utilization for Part A

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This link takes you to the Medicare utilization statistics for Part A (Hospital Insurance HI) which include the Medicare Ranking for all Short-Stay Hospitals by...

  18. Export opportunities in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, J.

    1992-01-01

    Developing countries will offer major opportunities to US exporters of energy and related environmental equipment in the next ten years. These opportunities arise because the markets in developing countries will be growing much faster than those in the developed countries during this period, and because these countries will not in most cases have strong domestic manufacturers to compete against. US technologies will help these countries solve their energy, environmental, and economic development problems, and help the US solve its serious trade balance problems. This market will represent over $200 billion between now and 2000. There are, however, many potential problems. These include a lack of focus and coordination among US government trade assistance organizations, a lack of interest on the part of US firms in exporting and an unwillingness to make the needed investments, barriers put up by the governments of potential foreign customers, and strong international competition. This paper describes how the United States Agency for International Development's (A.I.D.) Office of Energy and other US agencies are helping US firms resolve these problems with a comprehensive program of information, trade promotion assistance, and co-funding of feasibility studies. In addition, there are monies available to match unfair concessionary financing offered by our major competitors

  19. Nuclear power for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, J.; Kupitz, J.; Rogner, H. H.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power is a proven technology which currently makes a large contribution to the electricity supply in a number of countries and, to a much less extent, to heat supply in some countries. Nuclear power is economically competitive with fossil fuels for base load electricity generation in many countries, and is one of the commercially proven energy supply options that could be expanded in the future to reduce environmental burdens, especially greenhouse gas emissions, from the electricity sector. Over the past five decades, nearly ten thousand reactor-years of operating experience have been accumulated with current nuclear power plants. Building upon this background of success and applying lessons learned from the experience of operating plants, new generations of nuclear power plants have been, or are being developed. Improvements incorporated into these advance designs include features that will allow operators more time to perform equipment protection and safety actions in response to equipment failures and other off normal operating conditions, and that will reduce and simplify the actions required. Great attention is also paid to making new plants simpler to operate, inspect, maintain and repair, thus increasing their overall cost efficiency and their compatibility with the infrastructure of developing countries. The paper provides a discussion of future world energy supply and demand projections, current status and prospects for nuclear power, a short summary of advanced reactor concepts and non-electrical applications of nuclear energy for developing countries, and a review of the role of the IAEA. (author)

  20. Feasibility study on plan to utilize livestock excreta for bio-gas in Miyagi Village (Gunma Prefecture). Investigations on projects including district new energy vision establishment in fiscal 2000, and on feasibility for commercialization; Miyagimura chikusan haisetsubutsu bio gas ka energy riyo keikaku feasibility study. 2000 nendo chiiki shin energy vision sakutei nado jigyo, jigyoka feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    With objectives to utilize energy available from livestock excreta, and to properly treat the livestock excreta, a feasibility study was performed on a plan to utilize livestock excreta for bio-gas. The system to be developed is a livestock wastes treatment system to utilize gas generated by efficiently fermenting the excreta as fuel, and residual sludge solids as compost. The activity achievements were put into order by the following nine items: 1) purpose of the feasibility study, 2) method for the feasibility study, 3) the situation where the livestock industry and the hog raising industry were selected as the object of the investigation, 4) properties of hog excreta, characteristics in urine foul water treatment, technologies for urine foul water treatment (biological treatment), 5) bio-gasification of livestock wastes, 6) the basic conditions for investigating the demonstration bio-bas plants, 7) proposals and standard cases of the demonstration bio gas plants, 8) discussions and positioning of the basic system for the demonstration bio gas plants, and 9) conclusion. (NEDO)

  1. Eight is enough. The 8 millennium development goals for cutting poverty are affordable and within reach... if we can renew the push to do it. The push includes a special global effort to build up science and technology in the poorest countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, J.D.; McArthur, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    This year marks a pivotal moment in international efforts to fight extreme poverty. During the United Nations (UN) Millennium Summit in 2000, a total of 147 Heads of State gathered and adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to address extreme poverty in its many dimensions - income poverty, hunger, disease, lack of adequate shelter, and exclusion - while promoting education, gender equality, and environmental sustainability, with quantitative targets set for the year 2015. The UN committed to reviewing progress towards the goals in 2005, recognising that by this time only a decade would be left to fulfil the MDGs. We are now at the 5-year juncture with a stark realisation: many of the poorest regions of the world, most notably in sub-Saharan Africa, are far off-track to achieve the goals. Yet the MDGs are still achievable. The lives of hundreds of millions of people could be dramatically improved and millions could be saved every year, but only if the world takes bold steps in 2005. The UN Millennium Project, an independent advisory body of Secretary-General Kofi Annan, was launched in 2002 to identify practical steps for achieving the Goals. In the course of the project's work, it became clear that the scarcity of financial resources is a critical constraint in the poorest countries. Increased financing, linked to effective governance structures in low-income countries, can produce dramatic results.Reaching the MDGs will bring tremendous benefits worldwide. If the goals are achieved over the next ten years: More than 500 million people will be lifted out of poverty in 2015; More than 300 million people will no longer suffer from hunger; Roughly 30 million fewer children will die before their fifth birthdays, and about 20 million fewer will die compared with the current declining trajectory of child mortality. More than 2 million others will be saved. Safe drinking water will become accessible for another 350 million people, and the benefits of basic

  2. Day Care: Other Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjartarson, Freida; And Others

    This collection of 5 bilingual papers on day care programs in foreign countries (China, the Soviet Union, and 3 Scandinavian countries) is part of a series of papers on various aspects of day care published by the Canadian Department of Health and Welfare. Each paper is presented in both English and French. Paper I considers day care services in…

  3. Serbia : Systematic Country Diagnostic

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD) aims to identify the major constraints on and opportunities for sustaining poverty reduction and shared prosperity in Serbia. The SCD serves as the analytic foundation on which the World Bank Group and the Government of Serbia will define a new Country Partnership Framework for FY2016 to FY2020. It is based on the best possible analysis, drawing on ...

  4. Telemedicine for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combi, Carlo; Pozzani, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Developing countries need telemedicine applications that help in many situations, when physicians are a small number with respect to the population, when specialized physicians are not available, when patients and physicians in rural villages need assistance in the delivery of health care. Moreover, the requirements of telemedicine applications for developing countries are somewhat more demanding than for developed countries. Indeed, further social, organizational, and technical aspects need to be considered for successful telemedicine applications in developing countries. Objective We consider all the major projects in telemedicine, devoted to developing countries, as described by the proper scientific literature. On the basis of such literature, we want to define a specific taxonomy that allows a proper classification and a fast overview of telemedicine projects in developing countries. Moreover, by considering both the literature and some recent direct experiences, we want to complete such overview by discussing some design issues to be taken into consideration when developing telemedicine software systems. Methods We considered and reviewed the major conferences and journals in depth, and looked for reports on the telemedicine projects. Results We provide the reader with a survey of the main projects and systems, from which we derived a taxonomy of features of telemedicine systems for developing countries. We also propose and discuss some classification criteria for design issues, based on the lessons learned in this research area. Conclusions We highlight some challenges and recommendations to be considered when designing a telemedicine system for developing countries. PMID:27803948

  5. Women's autonomy in health care decision-making in developing countries: a synthesis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osamor, Pauline E; Grady, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Autonomy is considered essential for decision-making in a range of health care situations, from health care seeking and utilization to choosing among treatment options. Evidence suggests that women in developing or low-income countries often have limited autonomy and control over their health decisions. A review of the published empirical literature to identify definitions and methods used to measure women's autonomy in developing countries describe the relationship between women's autonomy and their health care decision-making, and identify sociodemographic factors that influence women's autonomy and decision-making regarding health care was carried out. An integrated literature review using two databases (PubMed and Scopus) was performed. Inclusion criteria were 1) publication in English; 2) original articles; 3) investigations on women's decision-making autonomy for health and health care utilization; and 4) developing country context. Seventeen articles met inclusion criteria, including eleven from South Asia, five from Africa, and one from Central Asia. Most studies used a definition of autonomy that included independence for women to make their own choices and decisions. Study methods differed in that many used study-specific measures, while others used a set of standardized questions from their countries' national health surveys. Most studies examined women's autonomy in the context of reproductive health, while neglecting other types of health care utilized by women. Several studies found that factors, including age, education, and income, affect women's health care decision-making autonomy. Gaps in existing literature regarding women's autonomy and health care utilization include gaps in the areas of health care that have been measured, the influence of sex roles and social support, and the use of qualitative studies to provide context and nuance.

  6. ERAWATCH Country Reports 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph

    between the national priorities and the structural challenges, highlighting the latest developments, their dynamics and impact in the overall national context. They further analyse and assess the ability of the policy mix in place to consistently and efficiently tackle these challenges. These reports were......This analytical country report is one of a series of annual ERAWATCH reports produced for EU Member States and Countries Associated to the Seventh Framework Programme for Research of the European Union (FP7). The main objective of the ERAWATCH Annual Country Reports is to characterise and assess...... the performance of national research systems and related policies in a structured manner that is comparable across countries. The Country Report 2012 builds on and updates the 2011 edition. The report identifies the structural challenges of the national research and innovation system and assesses the match...

  7. Utilization of nuclear research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Full text: Report on an IAEA interregional training course, Budapest, Hungary, 5-30 November 1979. The course was attended by 19 participants from 16 Member States. Among the 28 training courses which the International Atomic Energy Agency organized within its 1979 programme of technical assistance was the Interregional Training Course on the Utilization of Nuclear Research Reactors. This course was held at the Nuclear Training Reactor (a low-power pool-type reactor) of the Technical University, Budapest, Hungary, from 5 to 30 November 1979 and it was complemented by a one-week Study Tour to the Nuclear Research Centre in Rossendorf near Dresden, German Democratic Republic. The training course was very successful, with 19 participants attending from 16 Member States - Bangladesh, Bolivia, Czechoslovakia, Ecuador, Egypt, India, Iraq, Korean Democratic People's Republic, Morocco, Peru, Philippines, Spain, Thailand, Turkey, Vietnam and Yugoslavia. Selected invited lecturers were recruited from the USA and Finland, as well as local scientists from Hungarian institutions. During the past two decades or so, many research reactors have been put into operation around the world, and the demand for well qualified personnel to run and fully utilize these facilities has increased accordingly. Several developing countries have already acquired small- and medium-size research reactors mainly for isotope production, research in various fields, and training, while others are presently at different stages of planning and installation. Through different sources of information, such as requests to the IAEA for fellowship awards and experts, it became apparent that many research reactors and their associated facilities are not being utilized to their full potential in many of the developing countries. One reason for this is the lack of a sufficient number of trained professionals who are well acquainted with all the capabilities that a research reactor can offer, both in research and

  8. Reserve requirement systems in OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Yueh-Yun C. O’Brien

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares the reserve requirements of OECD countries. Reserve requirements are the minimum percentages or amounts of liabilities that depository institutions are required to keep in cash or as deposits with their central banks. To facilitate monetary policy implementation, twenty-four of the thirty OECD countries impose reserve requirements to influence their banking systems’ demand for liquidity. These include twelve OECD countries that are also members of the European Economic and...

  9. Potential for sharing nuclear power infrastructure between countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-10-01

    The introduction or expansion of a nuclear power programme in a country and its successful execution is largely dependent on the network of national infrastructure, covering a wide range of activities and capabilities. The infrastructure areas include legal framework, safety and environmental regulatory bodies, international agreements, physical facilities, finance, education, training, human resources and public information and acceptance. The wide extent of infrastructure needs require an investment that can be too large or onerous for the national economy. The burden of infrastructure can be reduced significantly if a country forms a sharing partnership with other countries. The sharing can be at regional or at multinational level. It can include physical facilities, common programmes and knowledge, which will reflect in economic benefits. The sharing can also contribute in a significant manner to harmonization of codes and standards in general and regulatory framework in particular. The opportunities and potential of sharing nuclear power infrastructure is determined by the objectives, strategy and scenario of the national nuclear power programme. A review of individual infrastructure items shows that there are several opportunities for sharing of nuclear power infrastructure between countries if they cooperate with each other. International cooperation and sharing of nuclear power infrastructure are not new. This publication provides criteria and guidance for analyzing and identifying the potential for sharing of nuclear power infrastructure during the stages of nuclear power project life cycle. The target users are decision makers, advisers and senior managers in utilities, industrial organizations, regulatory bodies and governmental organizations in countries adopting or extending nuclear power programmes. This publication was produced within the IAEA programme directed to increase the capability of Member States to plan and implement nuclear power

  10. Country branding: an imperative for developing countries | Akotia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clarifying what a country brand and country branding encompasses, this paper examines the competitive advantage a country brand engenders for developing countries. Furthermore, emphasising country branding as a social construction, this paper argues that for developing countries entrenched in the poverty cycle there ...

  11. Country watch. Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turra, M D

    1994-01-01

    Persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or who suffer from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) often have their civil rights violated in Brazil. To remedy this, the Candido Mendes College in Rio de Janeiro introduced a voluntary course, "AIDS - Legal Approaches", into its law curriculum. Incentive was provided by the college's Model Law Office (MLO), where students learn to defend the rights of people in need. Class size is about 25; law professors use recent magazine and newspaper articles, and documentation on lawsuits concerning persons with HIV to teach the class. Course topics include relevant civil law (suits against blood banks), contract law (suits against private health insurance companies which refuse to cover treatment expenses related to HIV or AIDS), family law, inheritance law, labor law (unjust dismissal of persons with HIV), criminal law (intentional transmission of AIDS), violations of basic human rights, and comparative jurisprudence and constitutional law (a comparison of Brazilian law in this area to the laws of other countries). Students, during their field practice periods at the MLO, provide legal assistance to persons with HIV. Approximately 150 cases have been handled, often with positive outcomes, to date. Clients hear about the program via television, radio, and newspapers. Materials and information about lawsuits handled by the MLO are available to other colleges and universities with the hope of stimulating the formation of similar programs elsewhere.

  12. Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

  13. Utility Energy Services Contracts Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-08-01

    This document describes best practices in the use of Utility Energy Services Contracts. The recommendations were generated by a group of innovative energy managers in many successful projects. The topics include project financing, competition between utility franchises, and water conservation.

  14. Country watch: India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, A; Sehgal, P N

    1995-01-01

    Linking more than 3000 health and development organizations, the Voluntary Health Association of India (VHAI) is one of the largest networks in the country. In 1990 VHAI began incorporating HIV/STD-related activities into its broader programs. An existing infrastructure for intersectoral collaboration in the areas of community health promotion, public policy, information and documentation, and communications facilitated inclusion of the new activities. Several VHAI departments collaborate in offering training courses, workshops, and seminars at the state and community levels to involve nongovernmental organizations and professional groups in HIV/STD prevention and counseling. More than 950 persons have been trained so far, including trainers of primary health care workers, family physicians, medical practitioners, social scientists, teachers, community volunteer workers, and youth leaders. Local experts act as training resource persons; materials produced locally, abroad, and by VHAI itself are used. Training facilities are offered free of charge to member organizations; VHAI also awards fellowships for field training and financial support for approved projects. VHAI suggests intervention measures to governmental and nongovernmental organizations related to drug users, youth, truck drivers, blood donors, and people living with HIV/AIDS. The information, documentation, and communications departments provide members with a wide variety of information, education, and communication (IEC) materials that can be translated into local languages: posters, folders, flip charts, stickers, and folk songs. VHAI advocacy issues that have been highlighted through the press include: confidentiality, protection against discrimination, the right of all persons to health care, and the need to make properly-equipped STD clinics available. VHAI has established sub-networks in Tamil Nadu (155 organizations) and Manipur (55 organizations) states. VHAI has found that incorporating HIV

  15. Radioimmunotherapy: Opportunities, obstacles and challenges, with special reference to developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divgi, C.

    2001-01-01

    The targeting characteristics of, combined with the ease of radionuclide conjugation to, monoclonal antibodies makes them ideally suited for the selective delivery of potentially cytotoxic radioactivity to tumour. While early murine monoclonal antibodies were immunogenic, precluding repeat administration, genetic engineering has made possible the development of less immunogenic molecules, including fragments that can be grown in bacterial systems at relatively low cost. It is therefore currently feasible to produce relatively non-immunogenic tumour targeting antibody molecules at a reasonable cost, permitting their application in developing countries. As with chemotherapy, the utility of radioimmunotherapy has been most evident in lymphoma and leukemia. Progress in solid tumours has been exciting but slow. As with thyroid cancer therapy, the most utilized radionuclide in radioimmunotherapy has been iodine-131. The use of radioimmunotherapy as first- or second-line therapy in lymphoma and leukemia is being studied, and it appears likely that radioimmunotherapy could be a suitable, lower-cost alternative to chemotherapy in the treatment of these disorders, especially in developing countries. The cost-benefit of radioimmunotherapy compared to chemotherapy is especially stark when the cost of treating complications of chemotherapy is taken into account. Radioimmunotherapy as cost-effective therapy in developing countries is therefore feasible and has tremendous potential. This review will highlight milestones and pitfalls; suggest guidelines for future development; and outline potential clinical utility for radioimmunotherapy in developing countries. (author)

  16. Global Trends in Space Access and Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shamim A.; Keim, Nicholas S.; Zeender, Peter E.

    2010-01-01

    global interdependent effort with all its likely complexities is an increasingly viable and pragmatic option. The discussion includes a breakdown of space missions into those of civil (scientific), military, and strictly commercial nature. It concludes that all three are robust components of a globally diversified portfolio of activities relying, essentially, on a common space industrial base and space infrastructure. As in other industries, the distribution of space industry assets and knowledge across countries and continents enables a diverse suite of options and arrangements, particularly in the areas of civil and commercial space utilization. A survey of several ongoing bilateral and multilateral space collaboration examples are provided to augment the observations regarding multinational work in space.

  17. European countries in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, Celia; Pescia, Dimitri; Ferreira, Francisco; Antunes, Rita; Claustre, Raphael; Priesner, Goerg C.; Pidous, Blandine; Dufour, Manon; Zuloaga, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    From the Atlantic Ocean to the Baltic Sea, from Portugal to Poland through UK, Germany or Austria, energy transition is in progress everywhere in Europe, but at different rhythms and in various conditions from one country to the other. How does the European framework promote the energy transition at the local and regional scales? What advantages the most advanced countries are relying on? How do citizens and local projects take over slow or retrograde governmental policies? This dossier gives some elements of answer through an overview of some energy policy scenarios under implementation in some European countries (Germany, Portugal, Denmark, Austria, UK, Spain)

  18. Education and training on radiation safety for Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitahara, Y.; Sakurai, N.; Kamei, M.

    1993-01-01

    The long-term program for development and Utilization of nuclear energy planned by Japan Atomic Energy Commission decided to promote the international corporation with Asian countries in nuclear fields. PNC (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation) has three programs in radiation safety field. They are STA program, JICA program and IAEA/RCA program. It is necessary to continue international cooperative activities to establish safety culture for development and utilization of nuclear energy in Asian countries

  19. Utilities in UNIX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, L.

    2002-01-01

    This manual goes to the users with some or much experience in the unix operating system. In such manner that they can get more efficiency using the unix of the most vendors. Include the majority of UNIX commands, shell built-in functions to create scripts, and a brief explication of the variables in several environments. In addition, other products are included, more and more integrated in the most of the unix operating systems. For example: the scanning and processing language awk, the print server LPRng, GNU Utilities, batch subsystem, etc. The manual was initially based in an specific unix. But it and been written for use of the most unix that exist: Tru64 unix, aix, iris, hpux. solaris y linux. In this way, many examples in the chapter had been included. The purpose of this manual is to provide an UNIX reference for advanced users in any of the unix operating systems family. (Author)

  20. Clean energy utilization technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Takuya

    1992-01-01

    The technical development of clean energy including the utilization of solar energy was begun in 1973 at the time of the oil crisis, and about 20 years elapsed. Also in Japan, the electric power buying system by electric power companies for solar light electric power and wind electric power has been started in 1992, namely their value as a merchandise was recognized. As for these two technologies, the works of making the international standards and JIS were begun. The range of clean energy or natural energy is wide, and its kinds are many. The utilization of solar heat and the electric power generation utilizing waves, tide and geotherm already reached the stage of practical use. Generally in order to practically use new energy, the problem of price must be solved, but the price is largely dependent on the degree of spread. Also the reliability, durability and safety must be ensured, and the easiness of use, effectiveness and trouble-saving maintenance and operation are required. For the purpose, it is important to packaging those skillfully in a system. The cases of intelligent natural energy systems are shown. Solar light and wind electric power generation systems and the technology of transporting clean energy are described. (K.I.)

  1. A study on the neighboring countries' nuclear potentials in terms of technical capabilities and their impact on our national security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. J.; Kim, H. S.; Yang, M. H.

    2001-12-01

    Neighbouring countries surrounding Korean Peninsula, which are the US, China, Russia, Japan and Taiwan, are all the nuclear countries. Some of the neighbouring countries, the US, China and Russia, are nuclear weapon states as well as the nuclear peaceful use countries. Other countries, Japan and Taiwan are not the nuclear weapon states but keep the high level of nuclear energy technologies. Meanwhile, Korea is recognized as the country of which peaceful activities for nuclear energy utilization are much more vigorous. Therefore, Korean national policies on politics, diplomacy and defense may be highly possible to be impacted on by nuclear policies of the neighbouring countries. This study defined the neighbouring countries as those which have politically or economically a direct or indirect relationship with Korea. And then, nuclear capabilities of the neighbouring countries and their impacts on our national security were analyzed in terms of nuclear techniques. Defensive response is technically most probable measure against nuclear threats and terrors. It include the establishment of national nuclear emergency response system as well as the development of environmental radiation protection, decontamination and environment recovering technology. Finally, it was suggested that a cooperation agency of enhancing the development of dual-use technologies be located at a science and technology complex

  2. Country differences in sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2010-01-01

    In a sustainability perspective, consumption research has an unfortunate individualizing bias, which means that macro and structural causes of unsustainable consumption tend to be ignored. Hence, a comprehensive model of determinants of the sustainability of consumption is developed and applied...... on a specific case: organic food consumption. The analyzed data are published research on why consumer purchase of organic food products differs between countries. As expected, organic food's share of total food consumption depends heavily on political regulation, including legal definitions and standards...

  3. Social group utility maximization

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Xiaowen; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explains how to leverage mobile users' social relationships to improve the interactions of mobile devices in mobile networks. It develops a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework that captures diverse social ties of mobile users and diverse physical coupling of mobile devices. Key topics include random access control, power control, spectrum access, and location privacy.This brief also investigates SGUM-based power control game and random access control game, for which it establishes the socially-aware Nash equilibrium (SNE). It then examines the critical SGUM-b

  4. Direct Heat Utilization of Geothermal Resources Worldwide 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.

    2000-01-01

    Direct utilization of geothermal energy consists of various forms for heating and cooling instead of converting the energy for electric power generation. The geothermal resources that can be utilized are in the lower temperature range that are more wide-spread than the higher temperature resources used for electricity generation. The major areas of direct utilization are: heating of swimming pools and for balneology; space heating and cooling including district heating; agriculture applications (greenhouse heating and crop drying); aquaculture applications; industrial processing; and geothermal heat pumps. Direct utilization projects are reported in 72 countries with an installed capacity of 28,268 MWt and annual energy use of 273,372 TJ (75,943 GWh) reported in 2005. The equivalent annual savings in fuel oil amounts to 170 million barrels (25.4 million tonnes) and 24 million tonnes in carbon emissions to the atmosphere. Recent trends are to combined geothermal heat and power projects in order to maximize the use of the resource and improve the economics of the project. With the recent increases in fossil fuel prices, it is estimated that direct utilizations will more than double in the next 10 years.

  5. The Philippines. Country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, E.B.

    1995-01-01

    Biomass is organic matter produced in a renewable and sustainable manner, by plants through the process of photosynthesis. Biomass can be used as an energy resource to produce heat, power and transport fuels. The integration of biomass into a national energy supply mix may confer a number of local and national benefits. These benefits include displacement of imported fossil fuels with concomitant savings in foreign exchange, abatement of greenhouse gas release and possible reductions in levels of air pollution. The present case study evaluates the status of energy development in the Philippines to determine current levels of biomass utilization and the potential to further develop and use indigenous biomass energy resources. The study is based on: (a) Discussions held with representatives of the various agencies involved with biomass production and energy planning and programme implementation, during a brief mission to the Philippines; (b) An evaluation of current conversion technologies and facilities with the potential to fully utilize available biomass resources in domestic, industrial and power generation sectors; (c) An analysis of existing biomass production data, energy policies and plans, and projections for energy supply and consumption supplied by the relevant agencies and government departments of the Philippines. The Department of Energy is responsible for development and management of national energy policy and programmes. They have prepared an energy policy and projections for energy supply and consumption for the period 1996 to 2025. Non-conventional energy resources have been given a high priority, and a separate programme has been developed under the administration of the Non-conventional Energy Division of the Department of Energy. Total energy consumption in 1994 was estimated at 198 million barrels of fuel oil equivalent (BFOE). Imported fossil fuels accounted for 58% of the total energy supply in 1994, biomass being the most important

  6. The Philippines. Country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, E B [Agro-industrial Consultancy, Burgess Hill, Sussex (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-01

    Biomass is organic matter produced in a renewable and sustainable manner, by plants through the process of photosynthesis. Biomass can be used as an energy resource to produce heat, power and transport fuels. The integration of biomass into a national energy supply mix may confer a number of local and national benefits. These benefits include displacement of imported fossil fuels with concomitant savings in foreign exchange, abatement of greenhouse gas release and possible reductions in levels of air pollution. The present case study evaluates the status of energy development in the Philippines to determine current levels of biomass utilization and the potential to further develop and use indigenous biomass energy resources. The study is based on: (a) Discussions held with representatives of the various agencies involved with biomass production and energy planning and programme implementation, during a brief mission to the Philippines; (b) An evaluation of current conversion technologies and facilities with the potential to fully utilize available biomass resources in domestic, industrial and power generation sectors; (c) An analysis of existing biomass production data, energy policies and plans, and projections for energy supply and consumption supplied by the relevant agencies and government departments of the Philippines. The Department of Energy is responsible for development and management of national energy policy and programmes. They have prepared an energy policy and projections for energy supply and consumption for the period 1996 to 2025. Non-conventional energy resources have been given a high priority, and a separate programme has been developed under the administration of the Non-conventional Energy Division of the Department of Energy. Total energy consumption in 1994 was estimated at 198 million barrels of fuel oil equivalent (BFOE). Imported fossil fuels accounted for 58% of the total energy supply in 1994, biomass being the most important

  7. Public opinion: Country comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Debbie

    2015-11-01

    Climate change awareness, risk perception and policy support vary between and within countries. National-scale comparisons can help to explain this variability and be used to develop targeted interventions.

  8. Investment in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motooka, Takeshi

    1973-01-01

    The fundamental problems of investment in rural education in the present developing countries are analyzed. Needs of rural education are outlined and financial considerations related to investment in the improvement of rural educational programs are discussed. (SM)

  9. Role of the utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellin, A.

    1986-03-01

    It is common to say that a nuclear programme needs basic infrastructures such as an appropriate educational system, governmental organizations for regulation, decision and inspection, engineering organizations for design and implementation, industrial infrastructures for manufacturing, erection and commissioning, operation organizations for running and maintaining power plants. This schematic organization is not sufficient to succeed in a nuclear programme: one has to consider very carefully the attribution of responsibilities. It appears, that, among all the different systems which exist in the world for the organization of a nuclear project, it is always the utility which bears the overall responsibility for the implementation of the project. It defines objectives such as production capacity, schedule, price; it takes part in the definition of a national policy for energy supply, for the choice of a type of reactor, for the implementation of a national nuclear industry; it selects sites and conducts feasibility studies including a preliminary project; it participates in the definition of organization charts and selects contractors; it calls for and obtains authorizations from regulatory bodies; it manages the project, coordinates contractors and permanently ensures that goals are attained as regards safety, quality, schedule, costs. The French utility has directly taken charge of all these basic responsibilities and this is commonly considered as a major reason of the success of the French nuclear programme. Depending on its capacities, the utility may delegate some of these responsibilities - mainly concerning engineering and project management - to experienced firms. Nevertheless, one has to remember that the utility bears the final responsibility and that it is probably the organization most fully aware of the fact that the final goal is not the construction of a nuclear power station but the production of nuclear electricity in the best and safest conditions

  10. Country Nuclear Power Profiles - 2009 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-08-01

    The Country Nuclear Power Profiles compiles background information on the status and development of nuclear power programs in Member States. It consists of organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programs and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory, and international framework in each country. Its descriptive and statistical overview of the overall economic, energy, and electricity situation in each country, and its nuclear power framework is intended to serve as an integrated source of key background information about nuclear power programs in the world. The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles (CNPP) was initiated in 1990s. It responded to a need for a database and a technical publication containing a description of the energy and economic situation, the energy and the electricity sector, and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. This is the 2009 edition issued on CD-ROM and Web pages. It updates the country information for 44 countries. The CNPP is updated based on information voluntarily provided by participating IAEA Member States. Participants include the 30 countries that have operating nuclear power plants, as well as 14 countries having past or planned nuclear power programmes (Bangladesh, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Italy, Kazakhstan, Nigeria, Philippines, Poland, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey and Vietnam). For the 2009 edition, 26 countries provided updated or new profiles. For the other countries, the IAEA updated the profile statistical tables on nuclear power, energy development, and economic indicators based on information from IAEA and World Bank databases

  11. Mauritius country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manraj, D D [Central Statistical Office (Mauritius)

    1998-10-01

    Mauritius has no known oil, gas or coal reserves but is only endowed with limited renewable energy resources namely hydropower and bagasse. Bagasse represents about one third of the country`s energy requirements and meets almost all of the sugar industries energy demand. Projects identified for mitigation options are: Energy Sector - Renewable Sources (Solar, Wind, Biomass); Transport Sector - Fuel switching and Mass transit transport; Manufacturing Sector - Increase efficiency of energy use in the manufacturing process. (EG)

  12. Inequality in OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thévenot, Celine

    2017-08-01

    This article recalls the state of play of inequality levels and trends in OECD countries, with a special focus on Nordic countries. It sheds light on explaining the drivers of the rise in inequality and its economic consequences. It addresses in particular the issue of redistribution through taxes and transfers. It concludes with an overview of policy packages that should be considered to address the issue of rising inequalities.

  13. A snapshot of geothermal energy potential and utilization in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2009-01-01

    Turkey is one of the countries with significant potential in geothermal energy. It is estimated that if Turkey utilizes all of her geothermal potential, she can meet 14% of her total energy need (heat and electricity) from geothermal sources. Therefore, today geothermal energy is an attractive option in Turkey to replace fossil fuels. Besides, increase in negative effects of fossil fuels on the environment has forced many countries, including Turkey, to use renewable energy sources. Also, Turkey is an energy importing country; more than two-thirds of her energy requirement is supplied by imports. In this context, geothermal energy appears to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Since geothermal energy will be used more and more in the future, its current potential, usage, and assessment in Turkey is the focus of the present study. The paper not only presents a review of the potential and utilization of the geothermal energy in Turkey but also provides some guidelines for policy makers. (author)

  14. Electric utility deregulation - A nuclear opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMella, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    The implications of electric deregulation are and will continue to be pervasive and significant. Not only will the fundamental monopoly regulatory concepts of managing electric utilities change but deregulation will have a profound and dramatic impact on the way electric generating plants are managed and operated. In the past, under the various approaches to financial regulation, the economic benefits normally attributed to competition or that would have otherwise been derived from competitive or open market forces, were assumed to be embodied in and inherent to the various processes, methods and principles of financial oversight of utility companies by regional, state and municipal regulatory authorities. Traditionally, under the various forms of regulated monopolies, a utility company, in exchange for an exclusive franchise to produce and sell electricity in a particular region, was obligated to provide an adequate supply to all consumers wanting it, at a price that was 'just and reasonable'. The determination of adequate supply and reasonable price was a matter of interpretation by utility companies and their regulators. In essence, the ultimate economic benefits, normally attributed to price equilibrium, in balance with supply, demand and other market forces, were expected to be achieved through a complex, political process of financial regulatory oversight, in which utility companies were usually reimbursed for all annual expenses or their 'cost of service' and additionally allowed to earn a 'reasonable' rate of return on plant investments. The result was often escalating electric prices, over supplies of electric capacity, by justifying unnecessarily high reserve margins based on long planning horizons (typically 20 years or greater) with extrapolated demand requirements that were generally in excess of what actually occurred over time. Although the regulatory process varied from country or country and region-to-region, the fundamental principles, which

  15. Domestic utility attitudes toward foreign uranium supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    The current embargo on the enrichment of foreign-origin uranium for use in domestic utilization facilities is scheduled to be removed in 1984. The pending removal of this embargo, complicated by a depressed worldwide market for uranium, has prompted consideration of a new or extended embargo within the US Government. As part of its on-going data collection activities, Nuclear Resources International (NRI) has surveyed 50 domestic utility/utility holding companies (representing 60 lead operator-utilities) on their foreign uranium purchase strategies and intentions. The most recent survey was conducted in early May 1981. A number of qualitative observations were made during the course of the survey. The major observations are: domestic utility views toward foreign uranium purchase are dynamic; all but three utilities had some considered foreign purchase strategy; some utilities have problems with buying foreign uranium from particular countries; an inducement is often required by some utilities to buy foreign uranium; opinions varied among utilities concerning the viability of the domestic uranium industry; and many utilities could have foreign uranium fed through their domestic uranium contracts (indirect purchases). The above observations are expanded in the final section of the report. However, it should be noted that two of the observations are particularly important and should be seriously considered in formulation of foreign uranium import restrictions. These important observations are the dynamic nature of the subject matter and the potentially large and imbalanced effect the indirect purchases could have on utility foreign uranium procurement

  16. The impact of demographic, health-related and social factors on dental services utilization: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, Seif Magdy; Krois, Joachim; Reda, Sophie Franziska; Thomson, William Murray; Schwendicke, Falk

    2018-04-16

    Regular and/or preventive dental services utilization is an indicator of healthcare access and associated with improved health outcomes. We assessed the proportion of individuals regularly/preventively utilizing dental services, and how this was affected by demographic, health-related and social factors. Three electronic databases (Medline, Embase, Central) were searched (2005-2017). We included observational studies investigating the association between preventive/regular dental service utilization and age, oral and general health, edentulism, family structure and health literacy. The proportion of individuals with regular/preventive utilization overall and in different sub-groups were extracted. Random-effects meta-analyses, with subgroup analyses by region, were performed. Meta-regression was used to assess whether and how associations changed with time and countries' human developmental status (HDI). 103 studies on 7,395,697 participants from 28 countries were included. The global mean (95% CI) proportion of individuals regularly/preventively utilizing dental services was 54% (50-59%). In countries with higher HDI, more individuals regularly/preventively utilized services (p Age did not have a significant impact on utilization in adults (OR = 1.00; 0.89-1.12). Utilization was significantly lower in younger than older children (OR = 0.52; 0.46-0.59), individuals with poorer general health (OR = 0.73; 0.65-0.80) and poorer oral health (OR = 0.64; 0.52-0.75), edentulous individuals (OR = 0.32; 0.23-0.41), and individuals with less supportive family structures (OR = 0.81; 0.73-0.89) or poor health literacy (OR = 0.41; 0.01-0.81). The observed differences within populations did not significantly change with time and were universally present. Regular/preventive utilization varied widely between and within countries. Understanding and tackling the reasons underlying this may help to consistently improve utilization. Higher developmental

  17. Joint balance handling in the Nordic Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    In September 2002 Nordel introduced new principles for disposing of regulation power for balancing production and consumption of electricity. The new principles imply that the regulation power in the joint Nordic power system is better utilized, and that the settlement of imbalances between the countries follows joint rules. The settlement of imbalances in the individual countries follows different principles but Nordel is looking into the possibilities of a harmonization. EU's most recent draft of a strategy report on development of the power market points among other things towards a joint regulation power market as a tool against misuse of market power. (BA)

  18. Country Nuclear Power Profiles - 2007 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles (CNPP) was initiated within the framework of the IAEA's programme on assessment and feedback of nuclear power plant performance. It responded to a need for a database and a technical publication containing a description of the energy and economic situation, the energy and the electricity sector, and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. It covers background information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in countries having nuclear plants in operation and/or plants under construction. This is the 2007 edition issued on CD-ROM and Web pages. It updates the country information, in general, to the end of 2006 for 39 countries. The CNPP is updated based on information voluntarily provided by participating IAEA Member States. Participants include the 30 countries that have operating nuclear power plants, as well as nine countries having past or planned nuclear power programmes (Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Italy, Kazakhstan, Poland, Turkey, and Vietnam). For the 2007 edition, 21 countries provided information to the IAEA to update their profiles. For the 18 other countries, the IAEA updated the profile statistical tables on nuclear power, energy development, and economic indicators based on information from IAEA and World Bank databases. These 18 countries are Argentina, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Egypt, Finland, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, and Ukraine. Overall, the CNPP reviews the organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes in participating countries, and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international frameworks in each country. It compiles the current issues in the new environment within which the electricity and nuclear sector operates, i.e. energy policy, and privatization and deregulation in

  19. Labour Productivity Convergence in 52 Industries: A Panel Data Analysis of Some European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Beta convergence and the speed of convergence of labour productivity for 52 industries are studied with a panel of data including 13 European countries. We use fixed effect approach to model the heterogeneity across countries. In primary sector and in service sector, the existence of -convergence is found for all industries. In manufacturing sector, convergence is found for all industries except for electronic and computing equipment industries. In general the speed of convergence estimates show slow adjustment. Speed is highest in the capital intensive industries. In primary production the convergence is slowest in agriculture and fastest in fishing industry. In manufacturing sector the convergence is slowest in food, drink and tobacco, and it is fastest in oil refining and nuclear fuel manufacturing industries. By augmenting the productivity models with labour utilization variable speeds up the convergence. Labour utilization is positively related to productivity growth in primary production industries, ICT producing manufacturing industries, and ICT producing services industries.

  20. The diversity of regulation and public financing of IVF in Europe and its impact on utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg Brigham, K; Cadier, B; Chevreul, K

    2013-03-01

    How do the different forms of regulation and public financing of IVF affect utilization in otherwise similar European welfare state systems? Countries with more liberal social eligibility regulations had higher levels of IVF utilization, which diminished as the countries' policies became more restrictive. Europe is a world leader in the development and utilization of IVF, yet surveillance reveals significant differences in uptake among countries which have adopted different approaches to the regulation and and public financing of IVF. A descriptive and comparative analysis of legal restrictions on access to IVF in 13 of the EU15 countries that affirmatively regulate and publicly finance IVF. Using 2009 data from the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology study of regulatory frameworks in Europe and additional legislative research, we examined and described restrictions on access to IVF in terms of general eligibility, public financing and the scope of available services. Multiple correspondence analysis was used to identify patterns of regulation and groups of countries with similar regulatory patterns and to explore the effects on utilization of IVF, using data from the most recent European and international IVF monitoring reports. Regulations based on social characteristics of treatment seekers who are not applicable to other medical treatments, including relationship status and sexual orientation, appear to have the greatest impact on utilization. Countries with the most generous public financing schemes tend to restrict access to covered IVF to a greater degree. However, no link could be established between IVF utilization and the manner in which coverage was regulated or the level of public financing. Owing to the lack of data regarding the actual level of public versus private financing of IVF it is impossible to draw conclusions regarding equity of access. Moreover, the regulatory and utilization data were not completely temporally matched in

  1. Wind energy utilization: A bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Bibliography cites documents published to and including 1974 with abstracts and references, and is indexed by topic, author, organization, title, and keywords. Topics include: Wind Energy Potential and Economic Feasibility, Utilization, Wind Power Plants and Generators, Wind Machines, Wind Data and Properties, Energy Storage, and related topics.

  2. Fostering applications of neutron scattering techniques in developing countries: IAEA's role

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranjpe, Shriniwas K. [Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: S.K.Paranjpe@iaea.org; Mank, G. [Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Ramamoorthy, N. [Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-11-15

    Over the last 60 years research reactors have played an important role in technological and socio-economical development of mankind. Neutron scattering has been the workhorse for research and development in materials science. Developing countries with moderate flux research reactors have also been involved in using this technique. The reactors and the facilities around them have a large potential for applications, while their under-utilization has been a concern for many member states. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been supporting its member states in the enhancement of utilization of their research reactors. Technical meetings focussing on the area of current interests with potential applications are organized under the project on 'effective utilization of research reactors,' e.g. on residual stress measurement, neutron reflectometry. Coordinated research projects (CRPs) bring together scientists from developed and developing countries, build collaborations, and exchange expertise and technology. The CRPs on research reactor utilization include topics like development of small-angle neutron scattering applications and development of sources and imaging systems for neutron radiography. New CRPs on the measurement of residual stress and accelerator-driven neutron sources will be initiated soon. The results from these meetings of CRPs are published as technical documents of the IAEA that would act as guidelines for capacity building for research reactor managers. This paper will present some of the salient features of IAEA activities in promoting research reactor utilization.

  3. Pesticide Applicator Certification in Indian Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    This website provides information about the EPA Plan for the Federal Certification of Applicators of Restricted Use Pesticides within Indian Country, including plan requirements, how to become certified, how to register for training, and who is certified.

  4. Investigating water meter performance in developing countries: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High levels of water losses in distribution systems are the main challenge that water utilities in developing countries currently face. The water meter is an essential tool for both the utility and the customers to measure and monitor consumption. When metering is inefficient and coupled with low tariffs, the financial ...

  5. Energy policies of IEA countries: 1994 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This 1994 edition contributes to the IEA's on-going analysis of countries'energy policies and market developments. it reviews recent trends and developments in energy demand and supply, efficiency, technology and environment. This year's Energy Policies includes: - critical reviews of all 23 IEA Member countries, including in-depth reviews of Finland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg and Switzerland; - a synthesis report highlighting major energy policy developments and market trends in IEA Member countries and an overview of significant energy developments elsewhere in the world; -an analysis of trends in key energy indicators over a twenty year period. (authors)

  6. Country report: a methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology which could be applicable to establish a country report. In the framework of nuclear non proliferation appraisal and IAEA safeguards implementation, it is important to be able to assess the potential existence of undeclared nuclear materials and activities as undeclared facilities in the country under review. In our views a country report should aim at providing detailed information on nuclear related activities for each country examined taken 'as a whole' such as nuclear development, scientific and technical capabilities, etc. In order to study a specific country, we need to know if there is already an operating nuclear civil programme or not. In the first case, we have to check carefully if it could divert nuclear material, if there are misused declared facilities or if they operate undeclared facilities and conduct undeclared activities aiming at manufacturing nuclear weapon. In the second case, we should pay attention to the development of a nuclear civil project. A country report is based on a wide span of information (most of the time coming from open sources but sometimes coming also from confidential or private ones). Therefore, it is important to carefully check the nature and the credibility (reliability?) of these sources through cross-check examination. Eventually, it is necessary to merge information from different sources and apply an expertise filter. We have at our disposal a lot of performing tools to help us to assess, understand and evaluate the situation (cartography, imagery, bibliometry, etc.). These tools allow us to offer the best conclusions as far as possible. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (author)

  7. THE ANALYSIS OF THE RELATION COUNTRY RISK – MULTIPLE VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Nicolescu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial theory state that high expected growth, low risk in the company’s sector and low interest rates will push multiples higher. In this respect the goal of the empirical work is to examine country risk-multiple value relation, for the companies from emerging and frontier markets such as Central and East European ones. Specific control variables have been included in the model as proxy for growth opportunities, profitability, capital structure, and asset utilization. Using panel data analysis for period 2010-2015 as well as other financial variables for a sample of Central and East European countries during 2010-2015. The results partially support financial theories, mainly the significance of country risk and debt ratio and reject the growth opportunities hypothesis.

  8. Social effects of migration in receiving countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohndorf, W

    1989-06-01

    This paper examines the impact of post-1945 migration into Western, Middle, and Northern Europe from Southern Europe, Turkey, and Northern Africa, and migration to the traditional immigration countries by Asian and Latin American immigrants, on the social structures of receiving countries. Between 1955 and 1974, 1) traditional migration to the US and Australia became less important for European countries while traditional receiving countries accepted many immigrants from developing countries; and 2) rapid economic revival in Western and Northern Europe caused a considerable labor shortage which was filled by migrant workers especially from Southern Europe, Turkey, and Northern Africa, who stayed only until they reached their economic goals. Since 1974, job vacancies have declined and unemployment has soared. This employment crisis caused some migrants 1) to return to their countries of origin, 2) to bring the rest of their families to the receiving country, or 3) to lengthen their stay considerably. The number of refugees has also significantly increased since the mid-970s, as has the number of illegal migrants. After the mid-1970s, Europe began to experience integration problems. The different aspects of the impact of migration on social structures include 1) improvement of the housing situation for foreigners, 2) teaching migrants the language of the receiving country, 3) solving the unemployment problem of unskilled migrants, 4) improvement of educational and vocational qualifications of 2nd generation migrants, 5) development of programs to help unemployed wives of migrants to learn the language and meet indigenous women, 6) encouraging migrants to maintain their cultural identity and assisting them with reintegration if they return to their original country, 7) coping with the problems of refugees, and 8) solving the problems of illegal migration. Almost all receiving countries now severely restrict further immigration. [Those policies should result in

  9. Tales From Two Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    2006-01-01

    Place branding has become popular. Places brand themselves to attract tourists, talented foreign workers, investments and businesses. The brand accentuates the positive characteristics of the place; it frames the society and sells its cultures. In the context of tourism, this paper examines...... to present a prevailing reality. To the Danes, the brand is descriptive and should portray the country in a positive and accurate manner. To the Singaporeans, the brand is normative and a vision of what Singaporean society ought to become. These countries share common goals when branding themselves...

  10. Country report Egypt 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The 'Laenderberichte' (country reports), published at irregular intervals, give detailed information on the economic and social structure and development of the country discussed. Extensive tables with a highly specific classification contain data on population and economics, also for longer periods of time. The data appear in a detailed text part with maps, illustrations and tables. There are tables on: Territory and population, health services, social affairs, education and culture, employment, agriculture and forestry, fishery, manufacturing industry, civil engineering, inland trade, external trade, transportation, money and credits, investments, prices and wages, supply and consumption, total balance of national economy. (orig.) [de

  11. Country report Belgium 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The 'Laenderberichte' (country reports), published at irregular intervals, give detailed information on the economic and social structure and development of the country discussed. Extensive tables with a highly specific classification contain data on population and economics, also for longer periods of time. The data appear in a detailed text part with maps, illustrations and tables. There are tables on: Territory and population, health services, social affairs, education and culture, employment, agriculture and forestry, fishery, manufacturing industry, civil engineering, inland trade, external trade, transportation, money and credits, investments, prices and wages, supply and consumption, total balance of national economy. (orig.) [de

  12. Country report Belarus 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The 'Laenderberichte' (country reports), published at irregular intervals, give detailed information on the economic and social structure and development of the country discussed. Extensive tables with a highly specific classification contain data on population and economics, also for longer periods of time. The data appear in a detailed text part with maps, illustrations and tables. There are tables on: Territory and population, health services, social affairs, education and culture, employment, agriculture and forestry, fishery, manufacturing industry, civil engineering, inland trade, external trade, transportation, money and credits, investments, prices and wages, supply and consumption, total balance of national economy. (orig.) [de

  13. Country report Brazil 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The 'Laenderberichte' (country reports), published at irregular intervals, give detailed information on the economic and social structure and development of the country discussed. Extensive tables with a highly specific classification contain data on population and economics, also for longer periods of time. The data appear in a detailed text part with maps, illustrations and tables. There are tables on: Territory and population, health services, social affairs, education and culture, employment, agriculture and forestry, fishery, manufacturing industry, civil engineering, inland trade, external trade, transportation, money and credits, investments, prices and wages, supply and consumption, total balance of national economy. (orig.) [de

  14. Role of biofuels in Finland; Utility viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, P.

    1993-01-01

    The use of wood biomass in Finland to generate energy (4.3 Mtoe) is one of the largest in the western industrialized countries. It represents 14 % of the primary energy use, while the use of peat for energy generation (1.4 Mtoe), often included in the same group, makes up 4-5 %. Significant energy groups include bark and sawdust (0.95 Mtoe) and waste liquors (2.4 Mtoe) from the chemical forest industry. Peat has primarily been used in population centres and by industry for combined generation of heat and power. The utilization of own by-products and other back-pressure generation based on peat or on imported fuels (in southern Finland), is typical for the industrial power plants. Wood biomass utilization will also be competitive in the future if it is readily collected in sufficient quantities at a given place as waste wood for industry. These biomasses include bark, various sawdusts, industrial waste chips and screenings, and as a separate group black liquor in the process circulation of the wood processing industry. The development of fluidized bed boilers in particular has provided improvement prerequisites for the use of low grade fuel batches of varying quality in combined heat and power plants. Most of the combined heat and power plants now built in Finland exceed the limit set for the competitiveness. Consequently, the prospects for an economical increase of combined heat and power generation capacity in Finland based on present technology is relatively small. The size of a competitive power plant has been determined to be about 50 MWe

  15. A structured review of health utility measures and elicitation in advanced/metastatic breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Y

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Yanni Hao,1 Verena Wolfram,2 Jennifer Cook2 1Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ, USA; 2Adelphi Values, Bollington, UK Background: Health utilities are increasingly incorporated in health economic evaluations. Different elicitation methods, direct and indirect, have been established in the past. This study examined the evidence on health utility elicitation previously reported in advanced/metastatic breast cancer and aimed to link these results to requirements of reimbursement bodies. Methods: Searches were conducted using a detailed search strategy across several electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and EconLit databases, online sources (Cost-effectiveness Analysis Registry and the Health Economics Research Center, and web sites of health technology assessment (HTA bodies. Publications were selected based on the search strategy and the overall study objectives. Results: A total of 768 publications were identified in the searches, and 26 publications, comprising 18 journal articles and eight submissions to HTA bodies, were included in the evidence review. Most journal articles derived utilities from the European Quality of Life Five-Dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D. Other utility measures, such as the direct methods standard gamble (SG, time trade-off (TTO, and visual analog scale (VAS, were less frequently used. Several studies described mapping algorithms to generate utilities from disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL instruments such as European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire – Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire – Breast Cancer 23 (EORTC QLQ-BR23, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy – General questionnaire (FACT-G, and Utility-Based Questionnaire-Cancer (UBQ-C; most used EQ-5D as the reference. Sociodemographic factors that affect health utilities, such as age, sex

  16. Dealing with the difficult utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keats, D.E.; Sundquist, M.J.; Cross, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    STS HydroPower, Ltd. (STS) is an independent hydroelectric power developer involved in the full scope of hydroelectric activities. This includes the permitting, design, financing, turbine design and manufacturing, site construction and operation of small to mid-sized hydroelectric sites across the United States. At the present time, STS owns and operates nine sites in four states with a combined capacity of 20 megawatts. In dealing with the implementation of these sites, STS has dealt with five different utilities. In addition, in pursuing additional development opportunities throughout the United States, STS has had contact with numerous other utilities. During this time it would be fair to conclude that each of these utilities has exhibited its own personality with respect to dealing with independent developers. To the credit of the utility industry, the majority of these utilities have been helpful and supportive of independent projects, but a small number of utilities have approached projects from an initial and continuing adversarial position. The purpose of this paper is to examine those options and procedures available to the developer when a utility is encountered with a negative predisposition

  17. Energy systems Diagnosis in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girod, J.

    1991-01-01

    Energy systems diagnosis is necessary to allow evaluation of energy balance by administration and political authorities of a country. First, the author describes the principle stages of energetic diagnosis. Then this work is divided into three parts: First part: Energy consumption diagnosis in several districts (families, utilities, agriculture, transport, industry) Second part: Energy supplies diagnosis (energy markets). Third part: Interactions between energy consumption and energy supply. 28 figs.; 52 tabs.; 107 refs

  18. Hungary country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uerge-Vorsatz, D.; Fuele, M. [eds.

    1999-09-01

    Hungary recognises the importance of limiting greenhouse gas emissions in order to prevent or mitigate their impact on the global climate. On an international level, Hungary is not a significant carbon dioxide emitter, neither to the absolute degree nor on a per capita basis. This means that the principal reason for Hungarian participation in emission`s reduction is not perceivable international consequences but solidarity and participation in the common action of the countries of the world. Hungary is a signatory to both the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto protocol. However, the (Hungarian) National Environmental Program also emphasises that the fulfilment of international conventions must happen at a level and pace reasonable for Hungary. The goal of this study is to investigate the potentials, costs and implementation strategies of greenhouse gas abatement in Hungary. First presented is a background of Hungary`s economy and a summary of the economic transitions in Hungary. A brief description of the Hungarian energy sector is included, with a short summary of carbon dioxide emissions, and of the Hungarian forestry sector. The following chapter is devoted to the development of baseline scenarios, from bottom-up and top-down perspectives. In the chapter on mitigation, the spectrum of energy efficiency measures in the residential and public sectors is discussed. Fifteen specific measures, whose impact is considered important, are selected and discussed in detail. The cost curves are developed for the discussed mitigation options. Then, we discuss the issues related to the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the Hungarian residential and commercial sectors. After a general background and a framework on the implementation of the energy efficiency measures in the sectors chosen, we elaborate on the practicality of these concepts. As a case study, the concept and the feasibility of carbon/energy taxes are examined. To complete the

  19. Economic regulation of electricity grids in Nordic countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, H.B.; EK, G. (Energy Markets Inspectorate, Eskilstuna (Sweden)); Ilonen, M.; Nurmi, S. (Energy Market Authority, Helsinki (Finland)); Moelgaard Jakobsen, N. (Danish Energy Regulatory Authority, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Syvertsen, S.C.; Steinnes, S.H. (Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate, Oslo (Norway))

    2011-12-15

    This report is about the design of economic regulation of electricity companies in the Nordic countries. The purpose is to inform the interested reader on how the regulation of tariffs is designed. The intention is to give a short overview on the current economic regulation with an ambition to focus on differences and similarities. A common feature of the electricity distribution sector is that the industry structure consists of many independent companies with great differences in size and density of customers. This is contrary to what is common in other countries. The regulatory task can be more challenging with many separate utilities to regulate, especially if the industry is very heterogenous. In the appendices, the economic regulation of each country is presented in more detail. In the main text the focus is on differences and similarities. When comparing the regulations one can make two observations. On a superior level there are great similarities. All Nordic countries regulate the network companies by setting revenue caps. The legislation, the goals given to the regulators and the regulators general interpretation of the rules are to a great extent the same. The primary purposes are to prevent the monopolist to overcharge customers and to create a rational network industry. The regulation shall stimulate an effective management resulting in productivity development and optimal quality of the services. The differences in the Nordic economic regulations are in the details - in the setup of the regulatory models and choice of parameters. For instance; the assessment of a reasonable rate-of-return is done in all the regulations. When deciding this rate-of-return some countries use the method of weighted cost of capital (WACC) and capital asset pricing model (CAPM), other do not. Even when using the same method, the inputs in the model are not the same. Common for the regulatory models are the division of costs related to capital costs and operating costs. The

  20. HUG - the Hydrogen Utility Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinkler, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Hydrogen Utility Group (HUG) was formally established in October 2005 by a group of leading electric utilities with a common interest in sharing hydrogen experiences and lessons learned. HUG's Mission Statement is: 'To accelerate utility integration of promising hydrogen energy related business applications through the coordinated efforts and actions of its members in collaboration with key stakeholders, including government agencies and utility support organizations.' In February 2006, HUG members presented a briefing to the US Senate Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Caucus in Washington, DC, outlining the significant role that the power industry should play in an emerging hydrogen economy. This presentation provides an overview of that briefing, summarizing the HUG's ongoing interests and activities

  1. Hualapai Tribal Utility Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hualapai Tribal Nation

    2008-05-25

    The first phase of the Hualapai Tribal Utility Development Project (Project) studied the feasibility of establishing a tribally operated utility to provide electric service to tribal customers at Grand Canyon West (see objective 1 below). The project was successful in completing the analysis of the energy production from the solar power systems at Grand Canyon West and developing a financial model, based on rates to be charged to Grand Canyon West customers connected to the solar systems, that would provide sufficient revenue for a Tribal Utility Authority to operate and maintain those systems. The objective to establish a central power grid over which the TUA would have authority and responsibility had to be modified because the construction schedule of GCW facilities, specifically the new air terminal, did not match up with the construction schedule for the solar power system. Therefore, two distributed systems were constructed instead of one central system with a high voltage distribution network. The Hualapai Tribal Council has not taken the action necessary to establish the Tribal Utility Authority that could be responsible for the electric service at GCW. The creation of a Tribal Utility Authority (TUA) was the subject of the second objective of the project. The second phase of the project examined the feasibility and strategy for establishing a tribal utility to serve the remainder of the Hualapai Reservation and the feasibility of including wind energy from a tribal wind generator in the energy resource portfolio of the tribal utility (see objective 2 below). It is currently unknown when the Tribal Council will consider the implementation of the results of the study. Objective 1 - Develop the basic organizational structure and operational strategy for a tribally controlled utility to operate at the Tribe’s tourism enterprise district, Grand Canyon West. Coordinate the development of the Tribal Utility structure with the development of the Grand Canyon

  2. Utilization of byproducts and waste materials from meat, poultry and fish processing industries: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayathilakan, K; Sultana, Khudsia; Radhakrishna, K; Bawa, A S

    2012-06-01

    India is bestowed with vast livestock wealth and it is growing at the rate of 6% per annum. The contribution of livestock industry including poultry and fish is increasing substantially in GDP of country which accounts for >40% of total agricultural sector and >12% of GDP. This contribution would have been much greater had the animal by-products been also efficiently utilized. Efficient utilization of by-products has direct impact on the economy and environmental pollution of the country. Non-utilization or under utilization of by-products not only lead to loss of potential revenues but also lead to the added and increasing cost of disposal of these products. Non-utilization of animal by-products in a proper way may create major aesthetic and catastrophic health problems. Besides pollution and hazard aspects, in many cases meat, poultry and fish processing wastes have a potential for recycling raw materials or for conversion into useful products of higher value. Traditions, culture and religion are often important when a meat by-product is being utilized for food. Regulatory requirements are also important because many countries restrict the use of meat by-products for reasons of food safety and quality. By-products such as blood, liver, lung, kidney, brains, spleen and tripe has good nutritive value. Medicinal and pharmaceutical uses of by-product are also highlighted in this review. Waste products from the poultry processing and egg production industries must be efficiently dealt with as the growth of these industries depends largely on waste management. Treated fish waste has found many applications among with which the most important are animal feed, biodiesel/biogas, dietectic products (chitosan), natural pigments (after extraction) and cosmetics (collagen). Available information pertaining to the utilization of by-products and waste materials from meat, poultry and fish and their processing industries has been reviewed here.

  3. Country programme review. Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolnicar, J.; Kamel, R.; Perera, O.; Tauchid, M.

    1992-08-01

    This document reviews the current nuclear program in Mongolia, identifying the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in the country and possible future technical co-operation activities. Separate brief sections deal with food and agriculture; mineral resources; nuclear chemistry, nuclear physics and instrumentation; human health; radiation protection; water resources and nuclear energy. 1 tab

  4. RIO Country Report 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Mitchell, Jessica

    The 2015 series of RIO Country Reports analyse and assess the policy and the national research and innovation system developments in relation to national policy priorities and the EU policy agenda with special focus on ERA and Innovation Union. The executive summaries of these reports put forward...

  5. Touring the Low Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, van Kees

    1998-01-01

    Touring the Low Countries is an anthology of approximately forty travel documents by British tourists - journals, letters, and financial accounts - most of them published here for the first time.The United Provinces and the Spanish Netherlands, with all the variety of their contrasting cultural

  6. in a Developing Country

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    This could have contributed to the refusal for readmission. In conclusion, identification and management of mucopolysaccharidosis type II in affected patients pose a problem in resource-constrained countries due to late identification and presentation, lack of facilities for diagnosis and treatment, as well as the cost and the.

  7. Algeria: Country Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerren, Margaret

    A survey of the status of language usage in Algeria begins with an overview of the usage patterns of Arabic, the Berber languages, and French. The country's return to Arabic as its official language after independence from France in 1962 is discussed along with the resultant language planning, issues of language of instruction at the elementary,…

  8. CAPTURED India Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donoghue, R.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the India Country Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the End Evaluation has assessed that results are commendable. I-AIM was able to design an approach in which health

  9. Radiotherapy in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The Symposium presentations are divided into 6 chapters devoted to the following topics: radiation therapy for carcinoma of the cervix (6 papers), different approaches in radiation therapy (15 papers), hyperthermia (7 papers), chemical modifiers (7 papers), dosimetry and technology (5 papers), organization of radiation therapy in developing countries (5 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  10. DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. TRANSITION ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru FILIPEANU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the modern theories of economic development – the take-off, backwardness, convergence and balanced growth hypothesis - the new industrialized states from Asia seem to have noticed the advantages of backwardness from which low income countries benefited, namely the possibility to take advantage of the latest technological discoveries of advanced countries, thus achieving a faster growth than the latter which operated closer to the technological border. The assimilation of appropriate technologies, however, required the efficient mobilization and allocation of resources and the improvement of human and physical capital. While the Western countries were confronted with crises generated by inflationary shocks and movements of speculative capital, the relative isolation of countries whose economy was planned by the world economy sheltered them until 1990, unemployment being practically non-existent. Asia's exceptional economic success is not only due to borrowing Western practices, but also to the fact that Asian societies maintained certain traditional features of their own culture - such as a strong work ethic - and integrated them in the modern business environment.

  11. Country programme review. Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This document reviews the current nuclear program in Ethiopia, identifying the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in the country and possible future technical cooperation activities. Separate brief sections deal with food and agriculture; human health; water and geothermal resources; industrial applications and instrumentation; radiation protection; higher education; programming, coordination and development

  12. Countries in transition

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    tant role in an open global economy? Would it have the ... topics such as urban migration, labour issues, HIV/AIDS, and the ... A new approach to finding local solutions to armed conflict grew ... the fighting in four test countries: Somalia,. Eritrea ...

  13. Country programme review. Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This document reviews the current nuclear program in Guatemala, identifying the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in the country and possible future technical co-operation activities. Separate brief sections deal with food and agriculture; human health; radiation protection; industrial applications and hydrology; nuclear analytical techniques; nuclear instrumentation and nuclear information

  14. Problems facing developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Financing, above all political and technical considerations, remains the major obstacle faced by developing countries who wish to embark on a nuclear power programme. According to the IAEA, the support of the official lending agencies of the suppliers is essential. (author)

  15. E-Commerce for utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malicky, M. [Metzler and Associates, Deerfield, IL (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The use of E-Commerce by energy utility and service companies was discussed. E-Commerce was described as being all communication via the web including Internet, Intranet and Extranet. E-Commerce communication includes the exchange of information, data, money services, products, ideas, conversations, knowledge, inventory and events. E-Commerce can be applied to electric and gas utilities to enhance energy marketing, delivery, retail energy, energy services, retail services and customer satisfaction. This means of communication is quickly becoming an essential part of customer care strategy. It reduces costs and improves performance. It was forecasted that E-Commerce will more than double from 1998 to 2001. 15 refs.

  16. An application by Centra Gas Manitoba Inc. for an order of the Manitoba Public Utilities Board approving: Rates for the sale of natural gas and the provision of transportation services, to be effective with respect to all gas consumed on and after January 1, 1994; determination of a year-end rate base, rate of return and revenue requirement based on a 1993 test year including new gas supply arrangements; confirmation of interim ex parte order 113/93 related to franchise agreements with the rural municipality of Elton and the rural municipality of Grey; and other related matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-28

    Centra Gas Manitoba, a gas utility, applied before the Manitoba Public Utilities Board for an order approving a year-end rate base, rate of return, cost of service, and revenue requirement based on a 1993 test year and increased rates to be effective in 1994. A hearing was held to consider matters related to Centra's application, and views of intervenors at the hearings, the utility, and the Board are summarized along with the Board decision. Issues considered at the hearings include year-end net plant values, computer expenditures, working capital allowance, capital structure and risk, cost adjustments, gas sales and cost of gas, operating and maintenance expenses, financial expenses, cost allocation, rate design, and other matters including service policies. The revenue requirement increase approved was $30.4 million, which included a $24.8 million increase in the commodity cost of gas. The allowed overall rate of return was 10.17%. 2 figs., 33 tabs.

  17. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  18. Rural electrification. Utilities' chafe or challenge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zomers, A.N.

    2001-01-01

    The majority of people living in developing countries do not have access to electricity and most of these two billion people live in rural areas. Social and political pressure to supply power to these areas will increase and the question will not be whether these areas will get electricity, but when. This book contains a comprehensive analysis of rural electrification programmes implemented in both industrialised and developing countries. The impact of current developments and trends on the approach to rural electricity supply in these countries is also examined. The author has identified a number of critical success factors for rural electrification, such as a politically and socially stable environment, an appropriate electrification process, support from the international community, and a utility organisation based on decentralisation and operational autonomy. The broad handling of the subject makes this book useful to utility managers, development agencies, academics, and others involved in the electrification of rural and remote areas refs

  19. Natural Resources and FDI in GCC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mahjoub Elheddad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural resources are a blessing for some countries to attract FDI but cursed for others. Existing literature argues the suggestion that resource-rich countries attract less FDI because of resource (oil price volatility. This study examines that natural resources discourage FDI in GCC countries (the FDI-Natural resources curse hypothesis, using panel data analysis for six oil dependent countries during 1980-2013 and applying several econometrics techniques. The main findings of this paper is that natural resources measured by oil rents have a negative association with FDI inflows; this negative impact is robust even when other FDI determinates of FDI  are included. FDI inflows decreased between 0.15 and 0.92% when oil rents increased by 1%. In addition, the empirical results show that trade openness and labour force are the main factors that encourage FDI, while political instability and corruption deter FDI inflows into GCC countries.

  20. Palliative radiotherapy in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The International Agency for Research on Cancer predicts that cancer incidence in developing countries will increase dramatically in the first two decades of this millennium. Already some 80% of cancer patients in developing countries present with incurable disease. [n many cases pain is a severe problem and palliation is needed to improve quality of life as well as extending survival. This paper will consider the physical and clinical aspects of palliative radiotherapy (PRT), choice of radiation modality, alternative approaches to imaging and therapy and cost-benefit considerations. The potential benefits of a dedicated palliative centre include lower cost and therefore more centres, enabling more patients access to regional palliative care. Whilst there is an obvious need for palliative radiotherapy, simple curative treatments could also be managed. C060 radiotherapy has important advantages in developing countries, because of the higher initial cost of a linear accelerator, as well as the need for reliable power supply and the level of skill required by linac technicians and physicists. The beam characteristics of both C060 units and low energy linacs are compared and both are found to be acceptable for palliation. The concept of telemedicine is also discussed, using mobile phones and internet communication to allow rural clinics to receive support from specialists based in the cities, to send images for remote diagnosis and remote dose planning for radiotherapy. (author)

  1. Entrez Programming Utilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Entrez Programming Utilities (E-utilities) are a set of eight server-side programs that provide a stable interface into the Entrez query and database system at...

  2. Introduction and Utilization of High Priced HCV Medicines across Europe; Implications for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Winnie; Ibáñez, Cristina; Frisk, Pia; Bak Pedersen, Hanne; Alkan, Ali; Vella Bonanno, Patricia; Brkičić, Ljiljana S.; Bucsics, Anna; Dedet, Guillaume; Eriksen, Jaran; Fadare, Joseph O.; Fürst, Jurij; Gallego, Gisselle; Godói, Isabella P.; Guerra Júnior, Augusto A.; Gürsöz, Hakkı; Jan, Saira; Jones, Jan; Joppi, Roberta; Kerman, Saim; Laius, Ott; Madzikwa, Newman; Magnússon, Einar; Maticic, Mojca; Markovic-Pekovic, Vanda; Massele, Amos; Ogunleye, Olayinka; O'Leary, Aisling; Piessnegger, Jutta; Sermet, Catherine; Simoens, Steven; Tiroyakgosi, Celda; Truter, Ilse; Thyberg, Magnus; Tomekova, Kristina; Wladysiuk, Magdalena; Vandoros, Sotiris; Vural, Elif H.; Zara, Corinne; Godman, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infection with the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is a widespread transmittable disease with a diagnosed prevalence of 2.0%. Fortunately, it is now curable in most patients. Sales of medicines to treat HCV infection grew 2.7% per year between 2004 and 2011, enhanced by the launch of the protease inhibitors (PIs) boceprevir (BCV) and telaprevir (TVR) in addition to ribavirin and pegylated interferon (pegIFN). Costs will continue to rise with new treatments including sofosbuvir, which now include interferon free regimens. Objective: Assess the uptake of BCV and TVR across Europe from a health authority perspective to offer future guidance on dealing with new high cost medicines. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study of medicines to treat HCV (pegIFN, ribavirin, BCV and TVR) among European countries from 2008 to 2013. Utilization measured in defined daily doses (DDDs)/1000 patients/quarter (DIQs) and expenditure in Euros/DDD. Health authority activities to influence treatments categorized using the 4E methodology (Education, Engineering, Economics and Enforcement). Results: Similar uptake of BCV and TVR among European countries and regions, ranging from 0.5 DIQ in Denmark, Netherlands and Slovenia to 1.5 DIQ in Tayside and Catalonia in 2013. However, different utilization of the new PIs vs. ribavirin indicates differences in dual vs. triple therapy, which is down to factors including physician preference and genotypes. Reimbursed prices for BCV and TVR were comparable across countries. Conclusion: There was reasonable consistency in the utilization of BCV and TVR among European countries in comparison with other high priced medicines. This may reflect the social demand to limit the transmission of HCV. However, the situation is changing with new curative medicines for HCV genotype 1 (GT1) with potentially an appreciable budget impact. These concerns have resulted in different prices across countries, with their impact on budgets and patient outcomes

  3. Nuclear power in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, J.A.; Covarrubias, A.J.; Csik, B.J.; Fattah, A.; Woite, G.

    1977-01-01

    This paper is intended to be a companion to similar papers by OECD/NEA and CMEA and will summarize the nuclear power system plans of developing Member States most likely to have nuclear programmes before the year 2000. The information that is presented is derived from various sources such as the Agency 1974 study of the market for nuclear power in developing countries, the annual publication, ''Power Reactors in Member States - 1976 Edition'', various nuclear power planning studies carried out by the Agency during the period 1975 and 1976, direct correspondence with selected Member States and published information in the open literature. A preliminary survey of the prospects for nuclear power in Member States not belonging to the OECD or having centrally planned economies indicates that about 27 of these countries may have operating nuclear power plants by the end of the century. In the 1974 Edition of the ''Market Survey'' it was estimated that the installed nuclear capacity in these countries might reach 24 GW by 1980, 157 GW by 1190 and 490 GW by the year 2000. It now appears that these figures are too high for a number of reasons. These include 1) the diminished growth in electrical demand which has occurred in many Member States during the last several years, 2) the extremely high cost of nuclear plant construction which has placed financial burdens on countries with existing nuclear programmes, 3) the present lack of commercially available small and medium power reactors which many of the smaller Member States would need in order to expand their electric power systems and 4) the growing awareness of Member States that more attention should be paid to exploitation of indigenous energy sources such as hydroelectric power, coal and lignite

  4. Theory including future not excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    We study a complex action theory (CAT) whose path runs over not only past but also future. We show that, if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time T and the past state at time TA as an expectation value in the CAT, then we are allowed to have the Heisenberg equation......, Ehrenfest's theorem, and the conserved probability current density. In addition,we showthat the expectation value at the present time t of a future-included theory for large T - t and large t - T corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large t - T. Hence, the CAT...

  5. Do country-specific preference weights matter in the choice of mapping algorithms? The case of mapping the Diabetes-39 onto eight country-specific EQ-5D-5L value sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamu, Admassu N; Chen, Gang; Gamst-Klaussen, Thor; Olsen, Jan Abel

    2018-03-22

    To develop mapping algorithms that transform Diabetes-39 (D-39) scores onto EQ-5D-5L utility values for each of eight recently published country-specific EQ-5D-5L value sets, and to compare mapping functions across the EQ-5D-5L value sets. Data include 924 individuals with self-reported diabetes from six countries. The D-39 dimensions, age and gender were used as potential predictors for EQ-5D-5L utilities, which were scored using value sets from eight countries (England, Netherland, Spain, Canada, Uruguay, China, Japan and Korea). Ordinary least squares, generalised linear model, beta binomial regression, fractional regression, MM estimation and censored least absolute deviation were used to estimate the mapping algorithms. The optimal algorithm for each country-specific value set was primarily selected based on normalised root mean square error (NRMSE), normalised mean absolute error (NMAE) and adjusted-r 2 . Cross-validation with fivefold approach was conducted to test the generalizability of each model. The fractional regression model with loglog as a link function consistently performed best in all country-specific value sets. For instance, the NRMSE (0.1282) and NMAE (0.0914) were the lowest, while adjusted-r 2 was the highest (52.5%) when the English value set was considered. Among D-39 dimensions, the energy and mobility was the only one that was consistently significant for all models. The D-39 can be mapped onto the EQ-5D-5L utilities with good predictive accuracy. The fractional regression model, which is appropriate for handling bounded outcomes, outperformed other candidate methods in all country-specific value sets. However, the regression coefficients differed reflecting preference heterogeneity across countries.

  6. Utilization of social networks in education and their impact on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of social networks in education and their impact on knowledge acquisition ... Developed countries are known to be quick adopters of modern advanced ... in education changing traditional systems to more open and interactive ones.

  7. Utilization of Stimulants and Atomoxetine for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among 5.4 Million Children Using Population-Based Longitudinal Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furu, Kari; Karlstad, Øystein; Zoëga, Helga

    2017-01-01

    Use of stimulants to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has increased over the past two decades and varies substantially between countries. The objective of this multinational population-based study was to examine utilization of ADHD drugs (stimulants and atomoxetine) including...... the importance of close monitoring of treatment for ADHD among children.......Use of stimulants to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has increased over the past two decades and varies substantially between countries. The objective of this multinational population-based study was to examine utilization of ADHD drugs (stimulants and atomoxetine) including...... comedication with other psychotropic drugs in the entire child population in the five Nordic countries. We included longitudinal data on dispensed ADHD drugs from five Nordic prescription registers during 2008-2012, which in 2012 comprised 48,296 individuals among 5.42 million inhabitants aged 0-17 years...

  8. Fuel manufacturing and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The efficient utilisation of nuclear fuel requires manufacturing facilities capable of making advanced fuel types, with appropriate quality control. Once made, the use of such fuels requires a proper understanding of their behaviour in the reactor environment, so that safe operation for the design life can be achieved. The International Atomic Energy Agency supports Member States to improve in-pile fuel performance and management of materials; and to develop advanced fuel technologies for ensuring reliability and economic efficiency of the nuclear fuel cycle. It provides assistance to Member States to support fuel-manufacturing capability, including quality assurance techniques, optimization of manufacturing parameters and radiation protection. The IAEA supports the development fuel modelling expertise in Member States, covering both normal operation and postulated and severe accident conditions. It provides information and support for the operation of Nuclear Power Plant to ensure that the environment and water chemistry is appropriate for fuel operation. The IAEA supports fuel failure investigations, including equipment for failed fuel detection and for post-irradiation examination and inspection, as well as fuel repair, it provides information and support research into the basic properties of fuel materials, including UO 2 , MOX and zirconium alloys. It further offers guidance on the relationship with back-end requirement (interim storage, transport, reprocessing, disposal), fuel utilization and management, MOX fuels, alternative fuels and advanced fuel technology

  9. Macroeconomics in develpoing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Nayyar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes the differences between the economies of industrialized countriesand developing countries, which have important implications for macroeconomics interms of theory and policy. It considers the differences in macroeconomic objectives andexamines why the reach of macroeconomic policies is different in the two sets ofcountries. It argues that the distinction between short-run macroeconomic models andlong-term growth models is not quite appropriate for developing countries, wheremacroeconomic constraints on growth straddle time horizons and short-term policieshave long-term consequences. The essential hypothesis is that the nature of relationshipsand the direction of causation in macroeconomics, which shape analysis, diagnosis andprescription, depend on the institutional setting and not the analytical structure of models.And even if some laws of economics are universal, the functioning of economies can bemarkedly different. Therefore, economic theory and policy analysis should recognize,rather than ignore, such myriad differences.

  10. Botswana country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    This study was carried out in Botswana, Tanzania and Zambia as part of the project `Climate Change Mitigation in Southern Africa` funded by the Danish International Development Agency (Danida). The project was conducted parallel to the UNEP/GEF project `Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations` which involved 8 other developing countries and 2 regional projects in Latin America and the SADC region. The limitation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is a complex issue, intimately connected with economic development at local, national, regional and global levels. Key economic sectors such as energy, agriculture, industry and forestry all produce GHGs, and are likely to be affected directly and indirectly by any mitigation policy. The UNEP Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies, initiated in 1991, attempted to address these complex issues, developing a methodological framework and testing it through practical application in ten countries. (EHS) 28 refs.

  11. Are Muslim countries more prone to violence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Petter Gleditsch

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, most armed conflicts have taken place in Muslim countries. Are Muslim countries more war-prone? Not necessarily, if we look at data for the whole period after World War II. But in the post-Cold War era, most wars are civil wars and Muslim countries have a disproportionate share of these. This is not mainly because conflicts among Muslims have increased, but because other conflicts have declined. Muslim countries are also overrepresented among countries with high levels of other forms of internal violence, including non-state conflict, one-sided violence, highly repressive human rights policies, and countries that practice capital punishment. They also have a higher than average participation in interstate conflicts. This is not a “clash of civilizations”—most of the victims are Muslims. We list several hypotheses, apart from religion itself, for why this pattern has emerged, including colonial history, interventions from major powers, and economic and political development. Finally, on a more optimistic note, while many Muslims are exposed to violence, four of the five countries with the largest Muslim populations do not currently experience civil war.

  12. Mauritius country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manraj, D.D.

    1998-01-01

    Mauritius has no known oil, gas or coal reserves but is only endowed with limited renewable energy resources namely hydropower and bagasse. Bagasse represents about one third of the country's energy requirements and meets almost all of the sugar industries energy demand. Projects identified for mitigation options are: Energy Sector - Renewable Sources (Solar, Wind, Biomass); Transport Sector - Fuel switching and Mass transit transport; Manufacturing Sector - Increase efficiency of energy use in the manufacturing process. (EG)

  13. Tanzania country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meena, H E [Centre for Energy, Environment, Science and Technology, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    An objective of this study is to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without an in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. (au)

  14. MICROFINANCE AND POOREST COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    阿部, 清司

    2004-01-01

    The world is divided into developing and developed countries. There are two kinds of banks: conventional ones and unconventional. Commercial banks are usually based on mutual distrust, while new unconventional banks, microfinances, are based on mutual trust. The origin of micro finance is deeply rooted in Asia. In 1976, Grameen Bank in Bangladesh was founded by Dr. Muhammad Yunus. It reverses conventional banking practice by removing the need for collateral. It creates a banking system based ...

  15. Cyclotrons in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera Ruiz, Hernan

    2004-01-01

    Cyclotron accelerators are prolific sources of charged particle for the production of radionuclides and have become an essential tool in the practice of modern nuclear medicine by providing reliable radiotracers for SPECT and PET studies. In a recent survey conducted by the IAEA in 2001, the growth in the number of cyclotron facilities installed in laboratories and hospitals in developed as well as developing countries was recorded. This trend, which started in the late 70's, continues in the present time also and all indications are that it will continue in the next five to ten years. The reasons for this growth are several: technology involved has become more user or 'hospital friendly', third party reimbursement for several clinical studies based on F-18 PET radiopharmaceuticals at least in some of the advanced countries started in 1998 and above all, the clear irrefutable and demonstrable conclusion of the positive cost/benefit outcomes of PET studies in the field of oncology to a lesser degree, thus far, for cardiology and neurology. It is however recognizable that the overall financial cost of the technology, which comprises the premises to house the facility, the cyclotron accelerator, the corresponding radiochemistry and quality control equipment and the PET cameras can be nevertheless an expensive proposition that requires careful advance planning. This fact is even more relevant when the facility is planned for installation in a developing country, which, frequently, in addition to having a lack of sufficient financial resources, do have shortage of qualified human resources to efficiently run the facility. In spite of the above, it is fact that more and more public as well as private organizations in the developing countries are setting up cyclotron/PET programmes or are seriously considering the installation of such a facility

  16. Germany - an immigration country

    OpenAIRE

    Siebert, Horst

    2003-01-01

    Germany has about the same proportion of foreigners in its population as the United States, it is an immigration country. In a way, Germany has let immigration happen, but it did not really have an explicit immigration policy in the past. Now it has to make up its mind on its immigration policy in the future. The paper looks at the experience with immigration in the past, at the integration of foreigners and at the issues of immigration policy.

  17. Zambia country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    The Zambia Country Study, which was part of the Danida-funded project Climate Change Mitigation in Southern Africa: Phase 2, aimed at methodological development, national mitigation analysis and institutional capacity building in Zambia. The study comprised the following five elements: Comprehensive evaluation of national social and economic development framework for climate change; Baseline scenario(s) projection(s); Mitigation scenario(s) projection(s); Macro-economic assessment; Implementation Issues. (au) 17 refs.

  18. Tanzania country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meena, H.E.

    1998-01-01

    An objective of this study is to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without an in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. (au)

  19. Achievement report for fiscal 1993. International clean energy system technology to utilize hydrogen - WE-NET (Sub-task 8. Development of hydrogen burning turbines - Development of main components including turbine blades and rotors); 1993 nendo seika hokokusho. Suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) (Sub tusk 8: Suiso nensho tabin no kaihatsu - tabin yoku rota tou shuyou kosei kiki no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Among the research and development items in relation with the 'development of hydrogen burning turbines' based on the WE-NET project, surveys have been performed on developing the main components including turbine blades and rotors. The current fiscal year has surveyed the latest trends in the existing gas turbine and rotor cooling technologies, and the technological problems were extracted from the viewpoint of application to the hydrogen fueled turbines. Since the hydrogen fueled turbines have the entrance temperature higher than that of power generation gas turbines, development of the blade cooling technology is important. Main cooling methods available are the film cooling and transpiration cooling, whose technological development is necessary in the advanced forms. Cooling method for the inner side of blades includes the impingement cooling and the pin fin cooling, whereas the V-letter shaped turbulence accelerating rib and the serpentine flow path structure are considered promising. Increasing the anti-heat temperature of blades may be realized by utilizing ceramics. As a technology close to putting it into practical use, application of heat shield coating is promising. (NEDO)

  20. Causal Attributions for Poverty in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Juan Vázquez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes attributional differences about causes of poverty in the less developed countries, among Nicaraguan ("actors" and Spanish ("observers" undergraduates. A self–applied questionnaire was used. It included socio–demographic questions and an adaptation of the "Causes of Third World Poverty Questionnaire" (CTWPQ. Results show agreement between Spanish and Nicaraguan in attributions about the main causes of poverty in the less developed countries, although there are differences about the perception of the incidence of the different causes in that situation. Nicaraguan students consider, as causes of poverty, more dispositional attributes about the population in those countries.

  1. Bureaucratic Complexity and Impacts of Corruption in Utilities

    OpenAIRE

    Tøndel, Line; Søreide, Tina

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores how the relationship between bureaucratic complexity and corruption affects the performance in utilities. We observe considerable variation in the performance of the utilities across countries, also across countries which appear to be relatively similar in terms of GDP per capita. Our hypothesis is that corruption is an important explanatory factor. In particular, corruption coupled with a complex regulatory structure can have negative effects on performance in this sector...

  2. Energy demand in seven OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patry, M.

    1990-01-01

    The intensity of utilization of energy has been declining in all OECD countries since the first oil price shock of 1973. In 1988, the OECD countries were consuming 1.7 billion tonnes of crude oil, that is two hundred million tonnes less than fifteen years ago. From 1974 to 1988, OECD oil consumption decreased at an average annual rate of 1.3% while the GDP of these countries rose by an average of 2.6% per annum. The authors present here a model of sectoral energy demand and interfuel substitution for the G-7 countries: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States. The ultimate goal is to determine the relative importance of the contributing factors to the observed reversal in energy consumption per unit of production in these countries. The results they present should be viewed as preliminary. They point in the paper to a number of extensions that should improve the theoretical quality of the modeling effort and the statistical robustness of the results. They are presently expanding the data set to pinpoint more adequately the effects of structural change and conservation

  3. Measures for diffusion of solar PV in selected African countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Mackenzie, Gordon A.

    2017-01-01

    that governments’ strategies to promoting solar PV are moving from isolated projects towards frameworks for market development and that there are high expectations to upgrading in the PV value chain through local assembly of panels and local production of other system elements. Commonly identified measures include......This paper investigates how African governments are considering supporting and promoting the diffusion of solar PV. This issue is explored by examining so-called ‘technology action plans (TAPs)’, which were main outputs of the Technology Needs Assessment project implemented in 10 African countries...... from 2010 to 2013. The paper provides a review of three distinct but characteristic trajectories for PV market development in Kenya (private-led market for solar home systems), Morocco (utility-led fee-for service model) and Rwanda (donorled market for institutional systems). The paper finds...

  4. Measures for diffusion of solar PV in selected African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Mackenzie, Gordon; Pedersen, Mathilde Brix

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates how African governments are considering supporting and promoting the diffusion of solar PV. This issue is explored by examining so-called 'technology action plans (TAPs)', which were main outputs of the Technology Needs Assessment project implemented in 10 African countries from 2010 to 2013. The paper provides a review of three distinct but characteristic trajectories for PV market development in Kenya (private-led market for solar home systems), Morocco (utility-led fee-for service model) and Rwanda (donor-led market for institutional systems). The paper finds that governments' strategies to promoting solar PV are moving from isolated projects towards frameworks for market development and that there are high expectations to upgrading in the PV value chain through local assembly of panels and local production of other system elements. Commonly identified measures include support to: local production; financing schemes; tax exemptions; establishment and reinforcement of standards; technical training; and research and development.

  5. Measures for increased nutrition and utilization of non-conventional food resources during disasters in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, I M

    1999-01-01

    The basic causes of the poor performance of the food and agricultural sector in the different parts of Africa are external, internal, and natural. The general recession in the Continent limits the capacity of the respective countries to import food to supplement inadequate domestic production and supplies. There are a number of nutritious food resources, both cultivated and gathered in the different ecological zones of Africa, whose production and consumption can be increased to ensure adequate food security and a nutritious diet, especially during disasters. These food resources could include: cereals, legumes, fruits, vegetables, fish, and insects. These food resources already are available over wide geographical areas in Africa and are utilized or utilized to a limited extent. Therefore, strategies to increase food supply, eradicate hunger and malnutrition, and keep people alive in times of disasters should have as a priority, the cultivation and consumption of non-conventional food resources in the respective communities and countries.

  6. Female labor force participation in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Verick, Sher

    2014-01-01

    While women’s labor force participation tends to increase with economic development, the relationship is not straightforward or consistent at the country level. There is considerably more variation across developing countries in labor force participation by women than by men. This variation is driven by a wide variety of economic and social factors, which include economic growth, education, and social norms. Looking more broadly at improving women’s access to quality employment, a critica...

  7. Causal Attributions for Poverty in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    José Juan Vázquez; Sonia Panadero

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes attributional differences about causes of poverty in the less developed countries, among Nicaraguan ("actors") and Spanish ("observers") undergraduates. A self–applied questionnaire was used. It included socio–demographic questions and an adaptation of the "Causes of Third World Poverty Questionnaire" (CTWPQ). Results show agreement between Spanish and Nicaraguan in attributions about the main causes of poverty in the less developed countries, although there are difference...

  8. Measuring evolution of income-related inequalities in health and health care utilization in selected Latin American and Caribbean countries Medición de la evolución de las desigualdades en la salud y la utilización de la atención sanitaria relacionadas con los ingresos en países seleccionados de América Latina y el Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Almeida

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the methodology used to measure and explain income-related inequalities in health and health care utilization over time in selected Latin American and Caribbean countries. METHODS: Data from nationally representative household surveys in Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Jamaica, Mexico, and Peru were used to analyze income-related inequalities in health status and health care utilization. Health was measured by self-reported health status, physical limitations, and chronic illness when available. Hospitalization, physician, dentist, preventive, curative, and preventive visits were proxies for health care utilization. Household income was a proxy for socioeconomic status except in Peru, which used household expenditures. Concentration indices were calculated before and after standardization for all dependent variables. Standardized concentration indices are also referred to as horizontal inequity index. Decomposition analysis was used to identify the main determinants of inequality in health care utilization. RESULTS: Results of analysis of the evolution of income-related inequality in health and health care utilization in Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Jamaica, Mexico, and Peru are presented in separate articles in this issue. CONCLUSIONS: The methodology used for analysis of equity in all six country research studies attempts not to determine causality but to describe and explain income-related inequalities in health status and health care utilization over time. While this methodology is robust, it is not free of errors. When possible, errors have been identified and corrected.OBJETIVO: Describir la metodología usada para medir y explicar la evolución de las desigualdades en la salud y la utilización de la atención sanitaria relacionadas con los ingresos en países seleccionados de América Latina y el Caribe. MéTODOS: Se utilizaron datos de encuestas nacionales de hogares representativas de Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Jamaica, M

  9. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area......The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of the test sample by movement of the probe relative to the surface of the test sample into the specific orientation.; The probe may further comprise a contact detector (14) extending from the supporting body arranged so as to contact the surface of the test sample prior to any one of the plurality...

  10. Neoclassical transport including collisional nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, J; Belli, E A

    2011-06-10

    In the standard δf theory of neoclassical transport, the zeroth-order (Maxwellian) solution is obtained analytically via the solution of a nonlinear equation. The first-order correction δf is subsequently computed as the solution of a linear, inhomogeneous equation that includes the linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. This equation admits analytic solutions only in extreme asymptotic limits (banana, plateau, Pfirsch-Schlüter), and so must be solved numerically for realistic plasma parameters. Recently, numerical codes have appeared which attempt to compute the total distribution f more accurately than in the standard ordering by retaining some nonlinear terms related to finite-orbit width, while simultaneously reusing some form of the linearized collision operator. In this work we show that higher-order corrections to the distribution function may be unphysical if collisional nonlinearities are ignored.

  11. Fuel safety criteria in NEA member countries - Compilation of responses received from member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    In 2001 the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) issued a report on Fuel Safety Criteria Technical Review. The objective was to review the present fuel safety criteria and judge to which extent they are affected by the 'new' design elements, such as different cladding materials, higher burnup, the use of MOX fuels, etc. The report stated that the current framework of fuel safety criteria remains generally applicable, being largely unaffected by the 'new' or modern design elements. The levels (numbers) in the individual safety criteria may, however, change in accordance with the particular fuel and core design features. Some of these levels have already been - or are continuously being - adjusted. The level adjustments of several other criteria (RIA, LOCA) also appears to be needed, on the basis of experimental data and the analysis thereof. As a follow-up, among its first tasks, the CSNI Special Expert Group on Fuel Safety Margins (SEG FSM) initiated the collection of information on the present fuel safety criteria used in NEA member states with the objective to solicit national practices in the use of fuel safety criteria, in particular to get information on their specific national levels/values, including their recent adjustments, and to identify the differences and commonalties between the different countries. Two sources of information were used to produce this report: a compilation of responses to a questionnaire prepared for the June 2000 CNRA meeting, and individual responses from the SEGFSM members to the new revised questionnaire issued by the task Force preparing this report. In accordance with the latter, the fuel safety criteria discussed in this report were divided into three categories: (A) safety criteria - criteria imposed by the regulator; (B) operational criteria - specific to the fuel design and provided by the fuel vendor as part of the licensing basis; (C) design criteria - limits employed by vendors and/or utilities for fuel

  12. Is debt replacing equity in regulated privatized infrastructure in developing countries?

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, Luis Correia; Estache, Antonio; Jarvela, Sakari

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to describe the evolution of the financing structure of regulated privatized utilities and transport companies. To do so, the authors rely on a sample of 121 utilities distributed over 16 countries, and 23 transport infrastructure operators and 23 transport services operators distributed over 23 countries. They show that leverage rates vary significantly a...

  13. Country Nuclear Power Profiles - 2010 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-08-01

    The Country Nuclear Power Profiles compiles background information on the status and development of nuclear power programs in Member States. It consists of organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programs and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory, and international framework in each country. Its descriptive and statistical overview of the overall economic, energy, and electricity situation in each country, and its nuclear power framework is intended to serve as an integrated source of key background information about nuclear power programs in the world. The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles (CNPP) was initiated in 1990s. It responded to a need for a database and a technical publication containing a description of the energy and economic situation, the energy and the electricity sector, and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. This is the 2010 edition issued on CD-ROM and Web pages. It updates the country information for 48 countries. The CNPP is updated based on information voluntarily provided by participating IAEA Member States. Participants include the 29 countries that have operating nuclear power plants, as well as 19 countries having past or planned nuclear power programmes (Bangladesh, Belarus, Chile, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Italy, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Morocco, Nigeria, Philippines, Poland, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey and Vietnam). For the 2010 edition, 24 countries provided updated or new profiles. For the other countries, the IAEA updated the profile statistical tables on nuclear power, energy development, and economic indicators based on information from IAEA and World Bank databases. The CNPP reports have been prepared by each Member State in accordance with the IAEA format. The IAEA is not responsible for the content of these reports

  14. Country Nuclear Power Profiles - 2011 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-08-01

    The Country Nuclear Power Profiles compiles background information on the status and development of nuclear power programs in Member States. It consists of organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programs and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory, and international framework in each country. Its descriptive and statistical overview of the overall economic, energy, and electricity situation in each country, and its nuclear power framework is intended to serve as an integrated source of key background information about nuclear power programs in the world. The preparation of Country Nuclear Power Profiles (CNPP) was initiated in 1990s. It responded to a need for a database and a technical publication containing a description of the energy and economic situation, the energy and the electricity sector, and the primary organizations involved in nuclear power in IAEA Member States. This is the 2011 edition issued on CD-ROM and Web pages. It updates the country information for 50 countries. The CNPP is updated based on information voluntarily provided by participating IAEA Member States. Participants include the 29 countries that have operating nuclear power plants, as well as 21 countries having past or planned nuclear power programmes (Bangladesh, Belarus, Chile, Egypt, Ghana, Indonesia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Italy, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Lithuania, Morocco, Nigeria, Philippines, Poland, Syrian Arab Republic, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey and Vietnam). For the 2011 edition, 23 countries provided updated or new profiles. For the other countries, the IAEA updated the profile statistical tables on nuclear power, energy development, and economic indicators based on information from IAEA and World Bank databases.

  15. Women's autonomy in health care decision-making in developing countries: a synthesis of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamor PE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pauline E Osamor, Christine Grady Department of Bioethics, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA Abstract: Autonomy is considered essential for decision-making in a range of health care situations, from health care seeking and utilization to choosing among treatment options. Evidence suggests that women in developing or low-income countries often have limited autonomy and control over their health decisions. A review of the published empirical literature to identify definitions and methods used to measure women’s autonomy in developing countries describe the relationship between women’s autonomy and their health care decision-making, and identify sociodemographic factors that influence women’s autonomy and decision-making regarding health care was carried out. An integrated literature review using two databases (PubMed and Scopus was performed. Inclusion criteria were 1 publication in English; 2 original articles; 3 investigations on women’s decision-making autonomy for health and health care utilization; and 4 developing country context. Seventeen articles met inclusion criteria, including eleven from South Asia, five from Africa, and one from Central Asia. Most studies used a definition of autonomy that included independence for women to make their own choices and decisions. Study methods differed in that many used study-specific measures, while others used a set of standardized questions from their countries’ national health surveys. Most studies examined women’s autonomy in the context of reproductive health, while neglecting other types of health care utilized by women. Several studies found that factors, including age, education, and income, affect women’s health care decision-making autonomy. Gaps in existing literature regarding women’s autonomy and health care utilization include gaps in the areas of health care that have been measured, the influence of sex roles and social support, and the

  16. Barriers to Utilizing ICT in Education in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhawaldeh, Nayef Ibrahim; Menchaca, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study explored barriers to utilizing information and communication technologies (ICT) for teaching and learning in the country of Jordan as indicated by participating stakeholders: students, teachers, and administrators. Jordan is a developing country in the heart of the Middle East with both tremendous opportunity as well as significant…

  17. Strengthening Health Systems of Developing Countries: Inclusion of Surgery in Universal Health Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoroh, Juliet S; Chia, Victoria; Oliver, Emily A; Dharmawardene, Marisa; Riviello, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Universal health coverage (UHC) has its roots in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and has recently gained momentum. Out-of-pocket payments (OPP) remain a significant barrier to care. There is an increasing global prevalence of non-communicable diseases, many of which are surgically treatable. We sought to provide a comparative analysis of the inclusion of surgical care in operating plans for UHC in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). We systematically searched PubMed and Google Scholar using pre-defined criteria for articles published in English, Spanish, or French between January 1991 and November 2013. Keywords included "insurance," "OPP," "surgery," "trauma," "cancer," and "congenital anomalies." World Health Organization (WHO), World Bank, and Joint Learning Network for UHC websites were searched for supporting documents. Ministries of Health were contacted to provide further information on the inclusion of surgery. We found 696 articles and selected 265 for full-text review based on our criteria. Some countries enumerated surgical conditions in detail (India, 947 conditions). Other countries mentioned surgery broadly. Obstetric care was most commonly covered (19 countries). Solid organ transplantation was least covered. Cancer care was mentioned broadly, often without specifying the therapeutic modality. No countries were identified where hospitals are required to provide emergency care regardless of insurance coverage. OPP varied greatly between countries. Eighty percent of countries had OPP of 60% or more, making these services, even if partially covered, largely inaccessible. While OPP, delivery, and utilization continue to represent challenges to health care access in many LMICs, the inclusion of surgery in many UHC policies sets an important precedent in addressing a growing global prevalence of surgically treatable conditions. Barriers to access, including inequalities in financial protection in the form of high OPP, remain a fundamental

  18. Assessing the risk of expansion into a foreign country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krijgsman, J.P.W.

    1994-01-01

    Experience has shown that country risks are not only reasonably predictable but that risks have remained stable despite the turbulence of the times. Country risk, the additional dangers to business in other than the domestic economy, include credit and market risk. Comparison of three regions and individual country ranking rates China highest followed by Venezuela with Russia last. (author)

  19. Health Care Spending in the United States and Other High-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanicolas, Irene; Woskie, Liana R; Jha, Ashish K

    2018-03-13

    Health care spending in the United States is a major concern and is higher than in other high-income countries, but there is little evidence that efforts to reform US health care delivery have had a meaningful influence on controlling health care spending and costs. To compare potential drivers of spending, such as structural capacity and utilization, in the United States with those of 10 of the highest-income countries (United Kingdom, Canada, Germany, Australia, Japan, Sweden, France, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Denmark) to gain insight into what the United States can learn from these nations. Analysis of data primarily from 2013-2016 from key international organizations including the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), comparing underlying differences in structural features, types of health care and social spending, and performance between the United States and 10 high-income countries. When data were not available for a given country or more accurate country-level estimates were available from sources other than the OECD, country-specific data sources were used. In 2016, the US spent 17.8% of its gross domestic product on health care, and spending in the other countries ranged from 9.6% (Australia) to 12.4% (Switzerland). The proportion of the population with health insurance was 90% in the US, lower than the other countries (range, 99%-100%), and the US had the highest proportion of private health insurance (55.3%). For some determinants of health such as smoking, the US ranked second lowest of the countries (11.4% of the US population ≥15 years smokes daily; mean of all 11 countries, 16.6%), but the US had the highest percentage of adults who were overweight or obese at 70.1% (range for other countries, 23.8%-63.4%; mean of all 11 countries, 55.6%). Life expectancy in the US was the lowest of the 11 countries at 78.8 years (range for other countries, 80.7-83.9 years; mean of all 11 countries, 81.7 years), and infant

  20. Environmental issues: I - Energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincer, I.

    2001-01-01

    In this article, energy utilization and its major environmental impacts are discussed from the standpoint of sustainable development, including anticipated patterns of future energy use and consequent environmental issues and policies. Overall, the paper also examines several issues related to energy utilization, environment, sustainable development from both current and future perspectives, and energy use and its environmental impacts in the transportation sector. Finally, the conclusions and recommendations are presented in the form to be beneficial to energy scientists, engineers and energy policy makers. (author)

  1. Alternatives for the treatment and disposal of healthcare wastes in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, L.F.; Savage, G.M.; Eggerth, L.L.

    2005-01-01

    Waste production in healthcare facilities in developing countries has brought about a variety of concerns due to the use of inappropriate methods of managing the wastes. Inappropriate treatment and final disposal of the wastes can lead to adverse impacts to public health, to occupational health and safety, and to the environment. Unfortunately, most economically developing countries suffer a variety of constraints to adequately managing these wastes. Generally in developing countries, few individuals in the staff of the healthcare facility are familiar with the procedures required for a proper waste management program. Furthermore, the management of wastes usually is delegated to poorly educated laborers who perform most activities without proper guidance and insufficient protection. This paper presents some of the most common treatment and disposal methods utilized in the management of infectious healthcare wastes in developing countries. The methods discussed include: autoclave; microwave; chemical disinfection; combustion (low-, medium-, and high-technology); and disposal on the ground (dump site, controlled landfill, pits, and sanitary landfill). Each alternative for treatment and disposal is explained, including a description of the types of wastes that can and cannot be treated. Background information on the technologies also is included in order to provide information to those who may not be familiar with the details of each alternative. In addition, a brief presentation of some of the emissions from each of the treatment and disposal alternatives is presented

  2. Energy utilization, environmental pollution and renewable energy sources in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocak, M.; Ocak, Z.; Bilgen, S.; Keles, S.; Kaygusuz, K. [Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2004-04-01

    In this study, energy utilization and its major environmental impacts are discussed from the standpoint of sustainable development, including anticipated patterns of future energy use and subsequent environmental issues in Turkey. Several aspects relating to energy utilization, renewable energy, energy efficiency, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. Turkey is an energy importing country, more than half of the energy requirement has been supplied by imports. Domestic oil and lignite reserves are limited, and the lignites are characterised by high ash, sulfur and moisture content. Because of increasing energy consumption, environmental pollution is becoming a serious problem in the future for the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. Especially hydropower, biomass, geothermal, solar and wind energy should be considered and seriously supported by governments and private sectors.

  3. Energy utilization, environmental pollution and renewable energy sources in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocak, M.; Ocak, Z.; Bilgen, S.; Keles, S.; Kaygusuz, K.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, energy utilization and its major environmental impacts are discussed from the standpoint of sustainable development, including anticipated patterns of future energy use and subsequent environmental issues in Turkey. Several aspects relating to energy utilization, renewable energy, energy efficiency, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. Turkey is an energy importing country, more than half of the energy requirement has been supplied by imports. Domestic oil and lignite reserves are limited, and the lignites are characterised by high ash, sulfur and moisture content. Because of increasing energy consumption, environmental pollution is becoming a serious problem in the future for the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. Especially hydropower, biomass, geothermal, solar and wind energy should be considered and seriously supported by governments and private sectors

  4. Economic Indicators Selected Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    DEFENCE I ECONOMIC INDICATORS SELECTED COUNTRIES DECEMBER QUARTER 1987 . ’-H ISSUED BY MANPOWER POLICY & STRATEGIES BRANCH " "’ :.S S ’,1l f ,am -m mW...100 Sour:e: Main Economic Indicators (OECD) Manufactured Basic Metal Year Goods Chemicals Metals Products 1980 100 100 100 100 1981 110 117 102 107...Earnings of all 1982 1986 7.4 Male Employees (a) Aug 1986 Aug 1987 4.8 Hourly Wace Rates 3 1979 1987 lt.2 Garden Island 1983 1987 6.7 Dockyards Dec

  5. Denmark country report 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte; Rostgaard, Tine

    2016-01-01

    The LP&R network produces an annual review of leave policies and related research, starting in 2004. The review covers Maternity, Paternity and Parental leaves; leave to care for sick children and other employment-related measures to support working parents; and early childhood education and care....... In addition to the new country, these are: Australia, Austria, Brazil, Belgium, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal...

  6. Denmark country note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte; Rostgaard, Tine

    2014-01-01

    The LP&R network produces an annual review of leave policies and related research, starting in 2004 (for earlier reviews, go to Archive 2005-2013). The review covers Maternity, Paternity and Parental leaves; leave to care for sick children and other employment-related measures to support working......, Israel. Altogether, it covers 35 countries. In addition to Israel, these are: Austria, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland...

  7. Education in European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petcu, N.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Education, vocational training and lifelong learning play a vital role in both an economic and social context. The paper herein aims to identify Romania’s place within the UE-countries, considering a series of general indices: total public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP, private expenditure on education as % of GDP, annual expenditure on public and private educational institutions per pupil/student - by level of education, school expectancy, pupils and students, students - tertiary education, mobility of students in Europe, science and technology graduates, doctorate students in science and technology fields. Analysis methods: main components analysis, cluster analysis.

  8. Country profiles: Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Within months, Belgium will have to import practically all of its energy requirements; coal production will stop in 1992. Though nuclear will continue to provide the bulk of the country's power supply, government policy has shifted away from reliance on the atom for electricity generation towards natural gas. With no oil reserves of its own, keeping demand under check has been a priority for governments down the years. The actual level of oil imports runs well above consumption since the refining sector supplies products for the European market. Belgium's own petrol station businesses face considerable rationalisation, with average throughput well below EC levels. (author)

  9. Regulatory pathways for vaccines for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milstien, Julie; Belgharbi, Lahouari

    2004-01-01

    Vaccines that are designed for use only in developing countries face regulatory hurdles that may restrict their use. There are two primary reasons for this: most regulatory authorities are set up to address regulation of products for use only within their jurisdictions and regulatory authorities in developing countries traditionally have been considered weak. Some options for regulatory pathways for such products have been identified: licensing in the country of manufacture, file review by the European Medicines Evaluation Agency on behalf of WHO, export to a country with a competent national regulatory authority (NRA) that could handle all regulatory functions for the developing country market, shared manufacturing and licensing in a developing country with competent manufacturing and regulatory capacity, and use of a contracted independent entity for global regulatory approval. These options have been evaluated on the basis of five criteria: assurance of all regulatory functions for the life of the product, appropriateness of epidemiological assessment, applicability to products no longer used in the domestic market of the manufacturing country, reduction of regulatory risk for the manufacturer, and existing rules and regulations for implementation. No one option satisfies all criteria. For all options, national infrastructures (including the underlying regulatory legislative framework, particularly to formulate and implement local evidence-based vaccine policy) must be developed. WHO has led work to develop this capacity with some success. The paper outlines additional areas of action required by the international community to assure development and use of vaccines needed for the developing world. PMID:15042235

  10. Decision support for utility environmental risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balson, W.E.; Wilson, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews a number of decision support methods developed and applied by Decision Focus Incorporated to help utility personnel manage current environmental problems. This work has been performed for the Environmental Risk Analysis Program of EPRI's Environment Division, and also for a number of electric utilities across the country. These are two distinct types of decision support software tools that have been created: economic risk management and environmental risk analysis. These types differ primarily in the identification of who will make a decision. Economic risk management tools are directed primarily at decisions made by electric utilities. Environmental risk analysis tools are directed primarily at decisions made by legislative or regulatory agencies, about which a utility may wish to comment

  11. Evaluation of Antibacterial Utilization in Olabisi Onabanjo University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is particularly important as most hospitals in the country if not all have neglected the Drug Utilization Review aspects of Drug and Therapeutic Committee roles. It can also form basis for intervention be it educational, managerial or regulatory. METHODS: It is a retrospective drug utilization review studies, in addition a ...

  12. Argentina [Country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreyra, R.

    2005-01-01

    The airborne geophysical surveys developed in Argentina are described. They have got more than 500.000 km 2 acquiring data for U, Th, K and total background activity. Other types of published data are also mentioned (satellite imagery, seismic hazard, climate, soil distributions, etc.). The availability of maps with the abundances of elements analyzed at the country and also at laboratories from Canada is described, as well as data of analysis of several elements at two study areas proposed at the outset of the project. The availability of process rate data and epidemiological data is also explained. Argentina intended fully to participate in the CRP at the outset of the project. Due, however, to external resource constraints imposed on the participating organization (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, CNEA), the level of participation had to be significantly reduced. Nonetheless, in the first period of the CRP, Argentina undertook to collate existing geological and geochemical information within the country, and began to define potential areas for site specific natural systems safety indicator studies. (author)

  13. Country Presentation Congo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwata, P.K.; SAKI, A.; KAZADI, J.

    2010-01-01

    Illicit trafficking of radioactive minerals, precious metals and nuclear materials is generally expanded practice in some parts of the Democratic Republic of Congo. The phenomenon took place early in 1990 and amplified from 1998. The main causes of this practice are political instability that led to general poverty among population and the lack of legal framework governing the exploitation of minerals. Nuclear Illicit trafficking in Congo concerns radioactive mineral sand precious metals in eastern and southern parts of the country. The unfavorable political environment that took place in Congo in the 1990s resulted in local manpower and mine workers immigrating to neighboring countries. A great fraction of these new jobless started exploiting abandoned mines residues searching for Cu, Co and Au for survival. First cases of illicit exploitation of uranium minerals were reported very soon after rock sliding that occurred in 2004 on Shinkolobwe site in Katanga region. This uncontrolled mineral exploitation got worse when several mining companies were licensed by GECAMINES company to explore, exploit, purchase minerals from individuals and export raw materials and concentrates.

  14. Influence of country brand slogan and logo in country positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Pipoli de Azambuja

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To build the image of a country minds consumers’ minds, countries apply marketing strategies that are based on their country brand development, in the same way that companies apply marketing to their products and services. The development of the logo and slogan to be used in the communication strategy, are two key elements of its success in the process of building the country brand (Keller 2008. Thus the objective of this research is to know the importance of using the logo and slogan in international marketing strategies of countries. To do this, this research analyzes the use of the logo and slogan, in country brand strategies of countries in the top places in the Country Brand Index (2009 of Future Brand.

  15. Can renewable energies be turned to a source of advantage by developing countries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, J.

    2007-01-01

    Traditional industrial development pathways, that did not take into explicit consideration the issue of energy technologies to be utilized, now imperil development prospects around the world. As oil supplies approach their peak globally, and energy security becomes a major issue, so developing countries have everything to lose by simply following fossil fuel based industrialization, and everything to gain by recasting their development strategies around the prospects for renewable energies and biofuels. This is now a feasible prospect, as shown dramatically by the Brazilian experience, now being replicated in many developing countries, including most notably in India and China. This paper argues that the time is therefore ripe for developing countries, and development agencies such as the World Bank, to re-evaluate their stance on biofuels. Developing countries, particularly in the tropics, have an abundance of land, water and sunshine that give them a competitive advantage in biofuels, and for the development of a new industry ergo-culture that will stand alongside traditional agriculture. The paper argues that a swing behind biofuels can unlock a chain reaction of favorable developmental processes provided developing countries seize the initiative and set in place renewable energy industry creation projects before the developed world has managed to shake itself out of its fossil fuel dependence. In doing so, they will do a great service to themselves and to everyone concerned with the disastrous prospects of global climate change. (author)

  16. US utility partnerships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthington, B.

    1995-01-01

    Activities of the United States Energy Association were reviewed, as well as the manner in which its members are benefitting from the Association's programs. The principal cooperative program set up is the Utility Partnership Program, which was described. Through this program the Association is matching US companies, both electric utilities and gas utilities, with counterparts in Eastern Europe or the former Soviet Union. So far, about 25 partnerships were signed, e.g. in the Czech Republic, in Kazakhstan, in Poland, and in Slovakia. It was estimated that the return to the United States from the investments made by the American government in these Utility Partnership Programs has been well over 100-fold

  17. Production and application of radioisotopes in Asian Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Youfeng

    1997-01-01

    Production and application of radioisotopes in some Asian countries including Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, Uzbekistan, and Viet Nam are introduced

  18. Country brand equity model: Sustainability perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodorović Milivoj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model of country brand equity that incorporates the issue of sustainability in determining destination brand equity. In particular, the model includes elements of sustainability as its core dimensions and promotes the concept of the country sustainability promise that transforms destination resources into the positive perception and experience. The theoretical model is empirically tested using global secondary data confirming that country image is the most important element followed by sustainability and loyalty. Also, the analysis suggests the existence of the higher order construct confirming the country brand equity concept. Based on the research findings, the article offers some implications to the destination managers by suggesting the direction for further development and strategy implementation.

  19. Precipitation Indices Low Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Engelen, A. F. V.; Ynsen, F.; Buisman, J.; van der Schrier, G.

    2009-09-01

    Since 1995, KNMI published a series of books(1), presenting an annual reconstruction of weather and climate in the Low Countries, covering the period AD 763-present, or roughly, the last millennium. The reconstructions are based on the interpretation of documentary sources predominantly and comparison with other proxies and instrumental observations. The series also comprises a number of classifications. Amongst them annual classifications for winter and summer temperature and for winter and summer dryness-wetness. The classification of temperature have been reworked into peer reviewed (2) series (AD 1000-present) of seasonal temperatures and temperature indices, the so called LCT (Low Countries Temperature) series, now incorporated in the Millennium databases. Recently we started a study to convert the dryness-wetness classifications into a series of precipitation; the so called LCP (Low Countries Precipitation) series. A brief outline is given here of the applied methodology and preliminary results. The WMO definition for meteorological drought has been followed being that a period is called wet respectively dry when the amount of precipitation is considerable more respectively less than usual (normal). To gain a more quantitative insight for four locations, geographically spread over the Low Countries area (De Bilt, Vlissingen, Maastricht and Uccle), we analysed the statistics of daily precipitation series, covering the period 1900-present. This brought us to the following definition, valid for the Low Countries: A period is considered as (very) dry respectively (very) wet if over a continuous period of at least 60 days (~two months) cq 90 days (~three months) on at least two out of the four locations 50% less resp. 50% more than the normal amount for the location (based on the 1961-1990 normal period) has been measured. This results into the following classification into five drought classes hat could be applied to non instrumental observations: Very wet period

  20. Online Marketing Including the Utilization of Social Networks for Marketing Communications of XYZ Company

    OpenAIRE

    Ohlídal, Evžen

    2016-01-01

    Cílem provedeného výzkumu v diplomové práci je analýza současných nástrojů užívaných pro online marketing, včetně pohledu na oblast sociálních sítí. Na základě teoretických poznatků práce analyzuje konkrétní způsoby užití online marketingových nástrojů firmy XYZ, jakožto výhradního distributor značky Messoa pro Českou a Slovenskou republiku. Messoa vyrábí kamerové a dohledové systémy. Následně práce navrhuje změny, které vedou k vyšší efektivitě využití online marketingu firmy. The goal of...

  1. Teacher labor markets in developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Helen F

    2007-01-01

    Helen Ladd takes a comparative look at policies that the world's industrialized countries are using to assure a supply of high-quality teachers. Her survey puts U.S. educational policies and practices into international perspective. Ladd begins by examining teacher salaries-an obvious, but costly, policy tool. She finds, perhaps surprisingly, that students in countries with high teacher salaries do not in general perform better on international tests than those in countries with lower salaries. Ladd does find, however, that the share of underqualified teachers in a country is closely related to salary. In high-salary countries like Germany, Japan, and Korea, for example, only 4 percent of teachers are underqualified, as against more than 10 percent in the United States, where teacher salaries, Ladd notes, are low relative to those in other industrialized countries. Teacher shortages also appear to stem from policies that make salaries uniform across academic subject areas and across geographic regions. Shortages are especially common in math and science, in large cities, and in rural areas. Among the policy strategies proposed to deal with such shortages is to pay teachers different salaries according to their subject area. Many countries are also experimenting with financial incentive packages, including bonuses and loans, for teachers in specific subjects or geographic areas. Ladd notes that many developed countries are trying to attract teachers by providing alternative routes into teaching, often through special programs in traditional teacher training institutions and through adult education or distance learning programs. To reduce attrition among new teachers, many developed countries have also been using formal induction or mentoring programs as a way to improve new teachers' chances of success. Ladd highlights the need to look beyond a single policy, such as higher salaries, in favor of broad packages that address teacher preparation and certification

  2. The fight against tobacco in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, J L

    1994-02-01

    The battle to reduce the tobacco epidemic is not being won; the epidemic is merely being transferred from rich to poor countries. Tobacco-related mortality will rise from the present annual global toll of 3 million to over 10 million by the year 2025. Currently, most of these deaths are in developed countries but 7 out of the 10 million deaths will occur in developing countries by 2025. Developing countries cannot afford this increase, either in terms of human health or in economic costs, such as medical and health care costs, costs of lost productivity, costs of fires or costs of the misuse of land used to grow tobacco. As many of the tobacco-related illnesses, such as lung cancer or emphysema, are incurable even with expensive technology, the key to tobacco control lies in prevention. The essential elements of a national tobacco control policy are the same for all countries throughout the world--the only differences lie in fine tuning to a country's current situation. While indigenous production and consumption of tobacco remain a problem, of particular concern is the penetration of developing countries by the transnational tobacco companies, with aggressive promotional campaigns and the use of political and commercial pressures to open up markets and to promote foreign cigarettes. This includes specific targeting of women, few of whom currently smoke in developing countries. Also, tobacco advertising revenue prevents the media from reporting on the hazards of tobacco, a particularly serious problem in developing countries where awareness of the harmfulness of tobacco is low.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Infection control in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meers, P D

    1988-02-01

    The level of socio-political and economic development achieved by a country determines the quality and quantity of the health care its citizens receive. These factors also govern the amount of attention given to hospital-acquired infection. The problems of infection control in 'developing' countries include, first, the international problems that arise from clashes of personality and viewpoint among those responsible for it, exacerbated in some places by ethnic or religious traditions. Second are problems imposed by factors that affect the spectrum of infectious disease, and third is a variable deficiency of human and financial resources. In the search for solutions, an analysis suggests that nurses are particularly suited to take the lead in the prevention of infection, so that a special initiative directed towards their education in the rapidly developing science of hospital infection and its control is likely to be the most cost effective and appropriate initial approach. This needs to be accompanied by parallel improvements in the education of medical undergraduates. Anything else should be applied in response to measured need, and then only as money and manpower permit. Careful thought is required to avoid squandering scarce resources by applying inappropriate infection control technology.

  4. Eastern countries - WIN activity review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiopol, Mihaela

    1998-01-01

    Women can play this important role in informing people about nuclear energy. WIN is a world-wide association of women working professionally in the fields of nuclear energy and radiation application who want to devote their time to public information. The main goal of the WIN is to establish an objective and effective communication with the public through educational programmes, information exchange and arranging study visits. The membership includes women working in medicine and health care, in regulatory authorities, in industry and as independent researches at Universities. They want to contribute to objectively informing the public by making presentation, discussing and giving information materials on subjects such as; radiation, radioactivity and health effects medical applications nuclear energy nuclear power plants and their safety nuclear and environment uranium mining radiation protection energy sustainable development WIN is also open to men, supporting the goals of WIN. The intention of this paper was to underline the main aspects which reflect WIN activity in some Eastern and Central countries. There are common features and also specific elements for each country. But the goal is the same: to assure an effective and a real information of the public related to the nuclear field

  5. A structured review of health utility measures and elicitation in advanced/metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yanni; Wolfram, Verena; Cook, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Health utilities are increasingly incorporated in health economic evaluations. Different elicitation methods, direct and indirect, have been established in the past. This study examined the evidence on health utility elicitation previously reported in advanced/metastatic breast cancer and aimed to link these results to requirements of reimbursement bodies. Searches were conducted using a detailed search strategy across several electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and EconLit databases), online sources (Cost-effectiveness Analysis Registry and the Health Economics Research Center), and web sites of health technology assessment (HTA) bodies. Publications were selected based on the search strategy and the overall study objectives. A total of 768 publications were identified in the searches, and 26 publications, comprising 18 journal articles and eight submissions to HTA bodies, were included in the evidence review. Most journal articles derived utilities from the European Quality of Life Five-Dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D). Other utility measures, such as the direct methods standard gamble (SG), time trade-off (TTO), and visual analog scale (VAS), were less frequently used. Several studies described mapping algorithms to generate utilities from disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instruments such as European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire - Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30), European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire - Breast Cancer 23 (EORTC QLQ-BR23), Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - General questionnaire (FACT-G), and Utility-Based Questionnaire-Cancer (UBQ-C); most used EQ-5D as the reference. Sociodemographic factors that affect health utilities, such as age, sex, income, and education, as well as disease progression, choice of utility elicitation method, and country settings, were identified within the journal articles. Most

  6. Heat utilization for light industries through ISER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kingo

    1987-01-01

    The inherently safe feature of ISER seems to make it easier to get public assimilation for urban siting or siting adjacent to industrial complexes. In this sense, energies from ISER should not be limited only to electric power generation. The present report reviews the current status of energy demand in industries and discusses the possibility of multi-purpose use of ISER. It is very important to consider the nuclear energy as a substitution for the primary energy (oil, coal, etc.). In multiple application of a nuclear power plant, high pressure and high temperature stram can be used for plants, and low pressure and low temperature steam can be used for district heating-cooling and so on. Bleeding steam (at low pressure) from the turbine can be supplied to desalination plants. For agriculture, waste heat from steam can be effectively used. Multi-purpose nuclear power utilization projects are currently under way or planned in various countries in the world, including Sweden, the Soviet Union and France. There are a lot of difficult problems, however, for the economical multi-purpose use of nuclear power. There are too many variety of industries in limited districts, and it is very difficult to cope with various kinds of energy demand. Energy demand of each plant is relatively small. Reliable supply is indispensable. Energy cost should be cheaper than or at least the same as that for existing fossile fuel plants. (Nogami, K.)

  7. Indonesian country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munawir Zulqarnain, M.

    2005-01-01

    BATAN started to study EB (electron beam) flue gas treatment in 2001 after a joint memorandum of understanding on application of EB flue gas treatment in Power Plant between BATAN (National Nuclear Energy Agency), BPPT (Technology Implementation and Assessment Agency) and Indonesia Power Company was signed. Among several power plants (coal or oil) in Indonesia only one is installed with flue gas treatment equipment. This is to reduce CO 2 emission from the newest of coal power plant in Indonesia with 1200 MWe. The BATAN starts by seeking and learning data and engineering concept and processes from other countries to install an EB flue gas treatment equipment. The role of demonstration plant installation is very important to the future EB flue gas treatment in Indonesia. (S. Ohno)

  8. Country programme review Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, R.; Maluszynski, Y.; Maudarbocus, Y.; Cherif, H.S.; Morre, P.

    1993-12-01

    A five-expert mission was organized from 21-26 August 1993 and this document reflects the findings and recommendations of the team. Intensive contacts with heads of institutions, scientists and decision making persons in various sectors in the country were co-ordinated by the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission. The terms of reference of the mission were: To assess the on-going TC projects; to assist the Bangladesh nationals to finalize the formulation of the new requests for 1995-96 TC programme and to establish priority areas with regard to the introduction of national projects involving accelerated technological transfer in order to catalyze national development plans in specific areas; to examine institutional framework suitable for the introduction of these priority nuclear techniques

  9. Country Presentation Angola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, L.; Ferreira, Edson; Goma, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Republic of Angola joined the IAEA in September 1999. Since then, the country started by designing, promoting and developing its programme on nuclear and technology through the Unit for Nuclear Science and Technology created by the Ministry of Science and Technology.The Angolan Atomic Law was approved on June 28 and published on September 05, 2007.Radioactive Waste Every person who is licensed to generate, keep or manage radioactive waste shall be responsible for the safe management of radioactive waste generated by the practice or source for which he/she is authorized. No person shall transport any radioactive material, radioactive substance or radiation generator on any vessel or boat within the territorial waters or the exclusive economic zone of Angola; on any aircraft within the airspace of Angola; or any means of land transport without authorization from the Regulatory Authority of Atomic Energy

  10. Export and Economic Growth in the West Balkan Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Florentina Xhelili Krasniqi; Rahmije Mustafa Topxhiu

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the effects of exports and other variables (foreign direct investment, remittances, capital formation, and labour force) on economic growth in West Balkan countries (Albania, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia). This study utilizes a strongly balanced panel data over the 2005-2015 period for Western Balkan countries using the ordinary least squares method (OLS), ie Pooled regression model to evaluate the parameters. The rela...

  11. Present and possible utilization of PUSPATI reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gui Ah Auu.

    1983-01-01

    The utilization of PUSPATI TRIGA Mark II Reactor (PTR) has increased reasonably well since its commissioning last year. PTR was used mainly for training of operators, neutron flux measurements and neutron activation analysis. However, the present utilization data indicates that further increase in PTR utilization to include teaching and the usage of the beam ports is desirable. Some possible areas of PTR applications in the future in relevance to our needs are also described in this paper. (author)

  12. Impact of the legislation on electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Long, M.

    1982-01-01

    The possible impact of Federal nuclear waste legislation on electric utilities is discussed. The proposed legislation will set forth a well defined program enabling utilities with nuclear plants to make long term plans under a statutory mandate committed to an available technology and implementation timetable. The legislation includes the necessary specificity for the utility companies to fulfill their responsibilities in describing their waste disposal plans to their customers, the concerned public, and state and local legislators

  13. Peer Country Comments Paper - Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredgaard, Thomas

    Bidrag til EU-kommissionens peer-review on "Strategies for Employment policy Reform. Implementation Challenges in Decentralised Countries"......Bidrag til EU-kommissionens peer-review on "Strategies for Employment policy Reform. Implementation Challenges in Decentralised Countries"...

  14. The AEC and developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouvrieu, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    A historical background shows how AEC's activities have changed and consequently, the development of the AEC's relations with developing countries. Some examples serve to illustrate the different types of AEC cooperation with developing countries [fr

  15. Zambia mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeya, John; Chazulwa, Roy; Mayeya, Petronella Ntambo; Mbewe, Edward; Magolo, Lonia Mwape; Kasisi, Friday; Bowa, Annel Chishimba

    2004-01-01

    This country profile for Zambia was compiled between 1998 and 2002. The objectives of the exercise were to first of all avail policymakers, other key decision makers and leaders in Zambia, information about mental health in Zambia in order to assist policy and services development. Secondly, to facilitate comparative analyses of mental health services between countries. The work involved formation of a core group of experts who coordinated the collection of information from the various organizations in Zambia. The information was later shared to a broad spectrum of stakeholders for consensus. A series of focus group discussions (FGDs) supplemented the information collected. There are various factors that contribute to mental health in Zambia. It is clear from the Zambian perspective that social, demographic, economic, political, environmental, cultural and religious influences affect the mental health of the people. With a population of 10.3 million and annual growth rate of 2.9%, Zambia is one of the most urbanized countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Poverty levels stood at 72.9% in 1998. In terms of unemployment, the most urbanized provinces, Lusaka (the capital city), and the copper-belt are the most affected. The gross domestic product (GDP) is US$3.09 billion dollars while per capita income is US$300. The total budget allocation for health in the year 2002 was 15% while the proportion of the GDP per capita expenditure for health was 5.6%. The HIV/AIDS prevalence rates stand at 20% among the reproductive age group 15-49 years. Political instability and wars in neighbouring states has resulted in an influx of refugees. Environmental factors affecting the country include natural and man-made disasters such as floods and drought, mine accidents, and deforestation. To a large extent in Zambia, people who are mentally ill are stigmatized, feared, scorned at, humiliated and condemned. However, caring for mental ill health in old age is positively perceived. It is

  16. SYMPAL: utilities guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.A.; Sublet, J.-Ch.

    1997-02-01

    The processing code SYMPAL is used to perform the data treatment for creating a new version of the European Activation File (EAF). The entire process is handled by different modules of the code in a sequential and orderly manner. The modular code system accesses, translates and processes cross section data from a wide variety of libraries and calculations with nuclear model codes. Two major data bases are accessed and merged so as to create a new library version. The Master Data File (MDF) contains the original cross section data extracted, unmodified but reformatted, from numerous sources. The Master Parameter File (MPF) contains a compilation of all physical information necessary to renormalise, split and internally validate any particular type of cross section. The combination of these two files generates a new activation library in pointwise and various groupwise formats. The SYMPAL utilities guide describes a set of programs developed to handle certain aspects of the procedure done outside of the main processing tasks. These include counting, translating, selecting and plotting data streams. Special printing and plotting procedures have been written to handle the large amounts of information present in activation libraries. (author)

  17. Gnuastro: GNU Astronomy Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    Gnuastro (GNU Astronomy Utilities) manipulates and analyzes astronomical data. It is an official GNU package of a large collection of programs and C/C++ library functions. Command-line programs perform arithmetic operations on images, convert FITS images to common types like JPG or PDF, convolve an image with a given kernel or matching of kernels, perform cosmological calculations, crop parts of large images (possibly in multiple files), manipulate FITS extensions and keywords, and perform statistical operations. In addition, it contains programs to make catalogs from detection maps, add noise, make mock profiles with a variety of radial functions using monte-carlo integration for their centers, match catalogs, and detect objects in an image among many other operations. The command-line programs share the same basic command-line user interface for the comfort of both the users and developers. Gnuastro is written to comply fully with the GNU coding standards and integrates well with all Unix-like operating systems. This enables astronomers to expect a fully familiar experience in the source code, building, installing and command-line user interaction that they have seen in all the other GNU software that they use. Gnuastro's extensive library is included for users who want to build their own unique programs.

  18. X-rays utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebigan, F.

    1979-03-01

    The modality of X-ray utilization in different activities and economy is given. One presents firstly quantities and units used in radiation dosimetry and other fields. One gives the generation of X-rays, their properties as well as the elements of radiation protection. The utilization characteristics of these radiations in different fields are finally given. (author)

  19. Utilization of mining and mineral wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Ho; Hong, Seung Woong; Choi, Young Yoon; Kim, Byung Gyu; Park, Je Shin [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Up to now, it is estimated that more than 50 million tons of mineral wastes have been generated mining industries and deposited on the land in Korea. Much of cultivated land and hilly areas have been occupied by this wastes, which cause pollution of the environment. Utilization of the mineral wastes is preferable to stabilization because full use would both eliminate the waste and broaden the mineral resource base. Therefore, the development of utilization techniques of mineral wastes is very important not only for improving the environment but also for resource conservation. In countries with high population and poor natural resources like Korea, the utilization of these wastes is essential to decrease the environmental problem and the secure the resources and the study on this field play a important part. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop the utilization techniques of the mineral wastes. In first year's research, the contents and scope of this study are 1) Present condition and Field Survey on the mineral wastes with respect of their utilization, 2) Reviews of Current effects and research to utilize mineral wastes, 3) Characterization of mineral wastes and environmental test, 4) Evaluation and study on the utilization. (author). 67 refs., 25 tabs., 54 figs.

  20. Utilization of mining and mineral wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Ho; Hong, Seung Woong; Choi, Young Yoon; Kim, Byung Gyu; Park, Je Shin [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Up to now, it is estimated that more than 50 million tons of mineral wastes have been generated mining industries and deposited on the land in Korea. Much of cultivated land and hilly areas have been occupied by this wastes, which cause pollution of the environment. Utilization of the mineral wastes is preferable to stabilization because full use would both eliminate the waste and broaden the mineral resource base. Therefore, the development of utilization techniques of mineral wastes is very important not only for improving the environment but also for resource conservation. In countries with high population and poor natural resources like Korea, the utilization of these wastes is essential to decrease the environmental problem and the secure the resources and the study on this field play a important part. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop the utilization techniques of the mineral wastes. In first year's research, the contents and scope of this study are 1) Present condition and Field Survey on the mineral wastes with respect of their utilization, 2) Reviews of Current effects and research to utilize mineral wastes, 3) Characterization of mineral wastes and environmental test, 4) Evaluation and study on the utilization. (author). 67 refs., 25 tabs., 54 figs.

  1. Which Countries Become Tax Havens?

    OpenAIRE

    Dhammika Dharmapala; James R. Hines Jr.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the factors influencing whether countries become tax havens. Roughly 15 percent of countries are tax havens; as has been widely observed, these countries tend to be small and affluent. This paper documents another robust empirical regularity: better-governed countries are much more likely than others to become tax havens. Using a variety of empirical approaches, and controlling for other relevant factors, governance quality has a statistically significant and quantitativel...

  2. Export Variety and Country Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Feenstra, Robert; Looi Kee, Hiau

    2004-01-01

    The authors study the link between export product variety and country productivity based on data from 34 industrial and developing countries, from 1982 to 1997. They measure export product variety by the share of U.S. imports on the set of goods exported by each sampled country relative to the world. It is a theoretically sound index which is consistent with within-country GDP maximization...

  3. Genetic opportunities to enhance sustainability of pork production in developing countries: A model for food animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Golovan, S.P.; Ajakaiye, A.; Fan, M.Z.; Hacker, R.R.; Phillips, J.P.; Meidinger, R.G.; Kelly, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Currently there is a shortage of food and potable water in many developing countries. Superimposed upon this critical situation, because of the increasing urban wealth in these countries, there is a strong trend of increased consumption of meat, and pork in particular. The consequence of this trend will be increased agricultural pollution, resulting not only from greater use of chemical fertilizer, but also from manure spread on land as fertilizer that may enter freshwater and marine ecosystems causing extensive eutrophication and decreased water quality. The application of transgenic technologies to improve the digestive efficiency and survival of food animals, and simultaneously decreasing their environmental impact is seen as an opportunity to enhance sustainability of animal agriculture without continued capital inputs. Transgenes expressed in pigs that have potential include, for example, genes coding for phytase, lactalbumin and lactoferrin. At the University of Guelph, Escherichia coli phytase has been expressed in the salivary glands of the pig. Selected lines of these pigs utilize plant phytate phosphorus efficiently as a source of phosphorus and excrete faecal material with more than a 60 percent reduction in phosphorus content. Because of their capacity to utilize plant phytate phosphorus and to produce less polluting manure they have a valuable trait that will contribute to enhanced sustainability of pork production in developing countries, where there is less access to either high quality phosphate supplement or phytase enzyme to include in the diet. Issues that require continued consideration as a prelude to the introduction of transgenic animals into developing countries include food and environmental safety, and consumer acceptance of meat products from genetically modified animals. (author)

  4. Market leadership by example: Government sector energy efficiency in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wie McGrory, Laura; Harris, Jeffrey; Breceda, Miguel; Campbell, Stephanie; Sachu, Constantine; della Cava, Mirka; Gonzalez Martinez, Jose; Meyer, Sarah; Romo, Ana Margarita

    2002-05-20

    Government facilities and services are often the largest energy users and major purchasers of energy-using equipment within a country. In developing as well as industrial countries, government ''leadership by example'' can be a powerful force to shift the market toward energy efficiency, complementing other elements of a national energy efficiency strategy. Benefits from more efficient energy management in government facilities and operations include lower government energy bills, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, less demand on electric utility systems, and in many cases reduced dependence on imported oil. Even more significantly, the government sector's buying power and example to others can generate broader demand for energy-efficient products and services, creating entry markets for domestic suppliers and stimulating competition in providing high-efficiency products and services. Despite these benefits, with the exception of a few countries government sector actions have often lagged behind other energy efficiency policies. This is especially true in developing countries and transition economies - even though energy used by public agencies in these countries may represent at least as large a share of total energy use as the public sector in industrial economies. This paper summarizes work in progress to inventory current programs and policies for government sector energy efficiency in developing countries, and describes successful case studies from Mexico's implementation of energy management in the public sector. We show how these policies in Mexico, begun at the federal level, have more recently been extended to state and local agencies, and consider the applicability of this model to other developing countries.

  5. Analysis of Smart Composite Structures Including Debonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Seeley, Charles E.

    1997-01-01

    Smart composite structures with distributed sensors and actuators have the capability to actively respond to a changing environment while offering significant weight savings and additional passive controllability through ply tailoring. Piezoelectric sensing and actuation of composite laminates is the most promising concept due to the static and dynamic control capabilities. Essential to the implementation of these smart composites are the development of accurate and efficient modeling techniques and experimental validation. This research addresses each of these important topics. A refined higher order theory is developed to model composite structures with surface bonded or embedded piezoelectric transducers. These transducers are used as both sensors and actuators for closed loop control. The theory accurately captures the transverse shear deformation through the thickness of the smart composite laminate while satisfying stress free boundary conditions on the free surfaces. The theory is extended to include the effect of debonding at the actuator-laminate interface. The developed analytical model is implemented using the finite element method utilizing an induced strain approach for computational efficiency. This allows general laminate geometries and boundary conditions to be analyzed. The state space control equations are developed to allow flexibility in the design of the control system. Circuit concepts are also discussed. Static and dynamic results of smart composite structures, obtained using the higher order theory, are correlated with available analytical data. Comparisons, including debonded laminates, are also made with a general purpose finite element code and available experimental data. Overall, very good agreement is observed. Convergence of the finite element implementation of the higher order theory is shown with exact solutions. Additional results demonstrate the utility of the developed theory to study piezoelectric actuation of composite

  6. Macroenvironmental factors including GDP per capita and physical activity in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Adrian J; Van Stralen, Maartje M; Kunst, Anton E; Te Velde, Saskia J; Van Lenthe, Frank J; Salmon, Jo; Brug, Johannes

    2013-02-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity at the individual level are well reported. Whether inequalities in economic development and other macroenvironmental variables between countries are also related to physical activity at the country level is comparatively unstudied. We examined the relationship between country-level data on macroenvironmental factors (gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, public sector expenditure on health, percentage living in urban areas, and cars per 1000 population) with country-level physical activity prevalence obtained from previous pan-European studies. Studies that assessed leisuretime physical activity (n = 3 studies including 27 countries in adults, n = 2 studies including 28 countries in children) and total physical activity (n = 3 studies in adults including 16 countries) were analyzed separately as were studies among adults and children. Strong and consistent positive correlations were observed between country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and country GDP per capita in adults (average r = 0.70; all studies, P G 0.05). In multivariate analysis, country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity among adults remained associated with country GDP per capita (two of three studies) but not urbanization or educational attainment. Among school-age populations, no association was found between country GDP per capita and country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity. In those studies that assessed total physical activity (which also includes occupational and transport physical activity), no association with country GDP per capita was observed. Clear differences in national leisure-time physical activity levels throughout Europe may be a consequence of economic development. Lack of economic development of some countries in Europe may make increasing leisure-time physical activity more difficult. Further examination of the link between country GDP per capita and national physical activity levels (across

  7. GRS current activities in East-European countries overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teske, H.; Janke, R.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the following items: agreement between the Federal Government and Utility Companies about the future utilization of the existing nuclear power plants in Germany, June 2001; GRS current activities in the Eastern European countries; science-technical co-operation with Russia; assessment of safety significance of the events for German NPP; Leningrad in-depth safety assessment, co-operation SEC NRS and GRS

  8. Kyoto : implications for utility regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunsky, P.

    2003-01-01

    The author provided a historical perspective of energy use and the role of carbon in the western hemisphere by displaying a series of graphs showing carbon intensity of energy, carbon emissions from energy, and the long path to green power. The 1990s represented a decade of progress. Almost three times as much wind capacity as nuclear capacity was added worldwide in 2001. The main challenge for the 21st century will be to bring under-developed countries into the fold while perpetuating the economic and human progress of the twentieth century. It was emphasized that environmental damage caused by utilities must be reversed. The contemporary context for the Kyoto Protocol was reviewed. Canada's commitment under the Kyoto Protocol is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 6 per cent below 1990 levels. The challenge for utility regulators to meet this commitment was examined. The costs are not entirely excessive. Some of the regulatory issues were discussed, namely revising a broad rate making framework, cost recovery and others. The Kyoto compliance plan was also reviewed with reference to internal options, external options, identification of regulatory barriers, and consideration of greenhouse gas credit markets. figs

  9. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass

  10. Strategic Utility of the Russian Spetsnaz

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    sapping Czechoslovakia of resources that could have helped the reformers in the country.102 Albania, Yugoslavia, and Warsaw Pact’s Romania...to the outcome remain unknown. However, there were sufficient human resources inside, or insiders, ready to act and facilitate the invasion when...and resources at hand. In theory, the strategic utility of special forces is mostly based on the strategy, task distribution, and capability of the

  11. Utilization of Geothermal Energy in Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Wittenberger; Ján Pinka

    2005-01-01

    Owing to favourable geological conditions, Slovakia is a country abundant in occurrence of low-enthalpy sources. The Slovakian government sponsors new renewable ecological energy sources, among which belongs the geothermal energy. Geothermal water is utilized for recreation (swimming pools, spas), agriculture (heating of greenhouses, fishing) and heating of houses. The effectivity of utilisation is about 30 % due to its seasonal use. That is why the annual house-heating and the hot water supp...

  12. 24 CFR 982.517 - Utility allowance schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... utilities and services paid by energy-conservative households that occupy housing of similar size and type... utility allowance for an individual family, must include the utilities and services that are necessary in...-family detached, and manufactured housing) that are typical in the community. (4) The utility allowance...

  13. Climate targets for all countries: the options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philibert, C.; Pershing, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper assesses five options for targets that could be taken by all countries to meet the ultimate objective of the Climate Change Convention: fixed, binding targets, dynamic targets; non-binding targets; sectoral targets, policies and measures. Each is evaluated according to criteria of environmental effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, contribution to economic growth and sustainable development, and equity. While fixed, binding targets continue to be viable for industrialized countries, they do not seem suitable for many developing countries in the near future. Dynamic targets could alleviate developing countries' concerns about constraining their development as well as broader concerns about possible introduction of 'hot air' in a world trading regime; they could also be considered for some or all industrialized countries. Non-binding targets could be politically appealing to developing counties, alleviate fears about development and/or hot air, but might only allow conditional participation in emissions trading by developing countries. Sectoral targets could offer a pragmatic first step - although their cost-effectiveness might be questioned. Finally, targets based on commitments to implement specific policies and measures might drive mitigation action and be part of negotiated packages including financial and technological cooperation. All these options may coexist in the future. (authors)

  14. Energy policies of IEA countries: 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This compilation contains a broad analysis of recent trends and an easily accessible overview of energy policy of the 26 member countries of the International Energy Agency and other key non-member countries such as China, India and Russia, during the last 12 months. The overview section examines trends in energy markets, including an analysis of energy demand and supply, energy prices and energy related CO{sub 2} emissions. It highlights key policy trends across member and non-member countries on energy security, energy market reform, climate change mitigation, energy efficiency, renewables and energy R&D. The book contains a special chapter on energy efficiency, which compares the most successful efficiency policies of member countries on the basis of In-Depth Review findings of the past three years. It also presents the major findings of the World Energy Outlook 2006, key statistical information and brief summaries of major IEA publications released during the past year. In past years summaries of In-Depth Reviews conducted in the cycle covered by this book, as well as Standard Reviews, were published as part of the book. From this year they will only be available from the IEA's website on www.iea.org. Chapter headings are: Executive summary; Energy efficiency; World energy outlook 2006; Energy security; Energy market reform; Climate change; Renewable energy; Technology, research and development; Energy policies in key non-member countries; and Energy balances and key statistical data of IEA countries. 25 figs., 11 tabs., 4 annexes.

  15. Utilization of research reactors - A global perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muranaka, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents 1) a worldwide picture of research reactors, operable, shutdown, under construction and planned, 2) statistics on utilization of research reactors including TRIGA reactors, and 3) some results of a survey conducted during 1988 on the utilization of research reactors in developing Member States in the Asia-Pacific Region

  16. Uranium exploration in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premoli, C.

    1982-01-01

    The advantages to the developing countries of exploiting their uranium deposits in the next two decades to aid their own economic growth are considered. It is pointed out that in spite of the little known geology of these countries less sophisticated surveying methods have turned up large uranium deposits even in developed countries. Carborne surveys with simple crystal-detectors coupled to scintillators can be effective. Intelligent exploration in developing countries can be cheap due to low labour costs and less stringent environmental restraints and the uranium found could be sold to developed countries for their nuclear power programme. (U.K.)

  17. Germany, high-tech country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The Nuclear Technology Conference organized annually by the Deutsches Atomforum (DAtF) e.V. and the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft (KTG) e.V. was held in Aachen on May 13-15, 1997. Approximately 1000 participants from seventeen countries met to exchange information with experts from industry, research, science, and politics. Unlike earlier events, this one was not disturbed by demonstrations. DAtF President Dr. Wilfried Steuer welcomed Joachim H. Witt, Chief Executive Officer of the city of Aachen, who expressed words of welcome on behalf of his city at the opening of the plenary day of the conference. Energy policy and global competition were the optics of the address by Dr. Norbert Lammert, Parliamentary Undersecretary of State with the German Federal Ministry of Economics. He advocated grasping the changes offered by expanding global markets by reforming the structures of the energy supply sector. The rank of nuclear power in European research policy was explained by Fabricio Caccia Dominioni as representative of the European Commission. The electricity utilities were represented by Dr. Dietmar Kuhnt, Chief Executive Officer of RWE AG, who spoke about the security of energy investments. A thoughtful analysis of Germany as an industrial location was presented by Professor Dr. Herbert Henzler of McKinsey and Company Inc. The President of the European Nuclear Society (ENS), Ger R. Kuepers, sketched the development of nuclear power in the Netherlands, combining national and European aspects and emphasizing, in particular, the important function of ENS. Uranium enrichment as an European project was subject of the report by Dr. Klaus Messer, Urenco Ltd. The General Manager of Tractabel Energy Engineering and Chairman of Belgatom, Guy Frederic, examined the economic viability of nuclear power, appealing to the audience to reduce capital costs by innovation without detracting from safety. (orig./DG) [de

  18. International symposium on utilization of accelerators. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    fluorescence microprobe techniques can be used to explore the trace element content of medical, environmental and historical samples. Synchrotron light may also be applied using photolithographic techniques to manufacture mechanical parts down to sizes in the range of hundredths of a millimeter ( n anotechnology ) . This five day symposium was attended by 137 delegates from 35 countries and was hosted by the Government of Brazil through its Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) in Sao Paolo. Overall, 61 papers, including 9 invited papers, and 22 poster papers were presented. The main objectives of the symposium were to bring together scientists to exchange information and review the status of current accelerator developments and applications, to discuss new trends and technologies and to promote research collaborations between laboratories in IAEA Member States

  19. Utility portfolio diversification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffes, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses portfolio analysis as a method to evaluate utility supply decisions. Specifically a utility is assumed to increase the value of its portfolio of assets whenever it invests in a new supply technology. This increase in value occurs because the new asset either enhances the return or diversifies the risks of the firm's portfolio of assets. This evaluation method is applied to two supply innovations in the electric utility industry: jointly-owned generating plants and supply contracts with independent power producers (IPPs)

  20. Importance of rural bioenergy for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayse Hilal; Demirbas, Imren

    2007-01-01

    Energy resources will play an important role in the world's future. Rural bioenergy is still the predominant form of energy used by people in the less developed countries, and bioenergy from biomass accounts for about 15% of the world's primary energy consumption and about 38% of the primary energy consumption in developing countries. Furthermore, bioenergy often accounts for more than 90% of the total rural energy supplies in some developing countries. Earth life in rural areas of the world has changed dramatically over time. Industrial development in developing countries, coming at a time of low cost plentiful oil supplies, has resulted in greater reliance on the source of rural bioenergy than is true in the developed countries. In developed countries, there is a growing trend towards employing modern technologies and efficient bioenergy conversion using a range of biofuels, which are becoming cost wise competitive with fossil fuels. Currently, much attention has been a major focus on renewable alternatives in the developing countries. Renewable energy can be particularly appropriate for developing countries. In rural areas, particularly in remote locations, transmission and distribution of energy generated from fossil fuels can be difficult and expensive. Producing renewable energy locally can offer a viable alternative. Renewable energy can facilitate economic and social development in communities but only if the projects are intelligently designed and carefully planned with local input and cooperation. Particularly in poor rural areas, the costs of renewable energy projects will absorb a significant part of participants' small incomes. Bio-fuels are important because they replace petroleum fuels. Biomass and biofuels can be used as a substitute for fossil fuels to generate heat, power and/or chemicals. Generally speaking, biofuels are generally considered as offering many benefits, including sustainability, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, regional

  1. Knowledge Base for Strainer Clogging - Modifications performed in different countries since 1992 - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    A review has been conducted of modifications performed primarily in the ECCS (Emergency Core Cooling System) and CSS (Containment Spray System) of nuclear power plants in different countries following the Barsebaeck event in July 1992. The information about these modifications has been gathered through a literature study of internationally published reports, contacts with the regulatory body from the different countries, and in some cases, directly from utility specialists and plant representatives. The information reflects the plants and research status as per December 2001. It covers 15 countries encompassing nine countries with PWRs, seven with BWRs, five with VVERs and one country with CANDU-reactors. The review indicates that: 1. Many countries have carried out very thorough and expeditious actions in response to the Barsebaeck event, often within a noteworthy constructive co-operation climate between the regulatory body and the plant owners. 2. All countries have performed extensive studies. 3. Many countries have performed extensive experiments. 4. Corrective actions have been taken in: most BWRs, a limited number of PWRs and a relatively significant number of VVERs and CANDU reactors (installation of new strainers / material). 5. Experiments and theoretical studies are still on going in some countries, mostly for PWR designs. All countries covered in the report have performed extensive studies to assess the amount of insulation materials that could be dislodged during pipe break events inside the containment. In many countries, the analyses were based on the double cone model of the USNRC. The analyses have also included specific studies of the transport of insulation materials and other debris in the containment, and of strainer pressure drops. The analyses were often conducted in parallel with extensive experiments utilising different insulation materials to assess the physical and time aspects of the clogging of the suction strainers. Many countries also

  2. Countries and companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenning, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    The trends and factors currently emerging are likely to have significant influence on the way the upstream oil and gas industry evolves in the coming decade. This paper discusses how these trends might influence events in the 1990s, particularly how they might influence relationships between host countries and companies in the oil industry. State owned companies will dominate the industry in resource terms. These statcos fall into three groups: a small group of technically able, financially sound, well-managed companies; a group of consumer statcos that have limited domestic production but significant domestic demand; a large group that are finding it difficult to maintain their production facilities in good standing to maximize recovery from their resources. This paper describes the future private sector as consisting of the Surviving Sisters and smaller, private companies very active in the upstream. How will these various players behave in the years to come? Conventional activity in the upstream will continue as companies seek to optimize their upstream portfolios

  3. Country risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the oil industry has been an internationally based industry that has been heavily dependent on outside financing sources. Historically, financing came from investment houses that, in most cases, participated in the projects as equity investors. However, investment companies can no longer satisfy the capital requirements of the current high level of exploration and development activities. The current trend is to involve commercial banks on a purely lending basis. Commercial banks, by their nature, are risk averse. In the case of oil and gas exploration and production they are asked to take not only technical risk and price risk but geopolitical risk as well. Methods have been developed by commercial banks to reduce technical and price risks to point which enables them to be comfortable with a loan. However, geopolitical risks are more difficult to assess. The risk associated with many countries are the nationalization of the investment, new tax restrictions, restriction of currency movements, and/or revisions to the production sharing agreements

  4. Tanzania country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    Objectives of this study are to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass, as well as other forestry products. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without and in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. Analysis of the mitigation scenario has been based on Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis (COMAP). This study has analysed the forestry and land use sector behaviour on the basis of the current policies on land and environment. Furthermore three scenarios have been developed on the basis of what is expected to happen in the sectors, the worse scenario being a catastrophic one where if things takes the business as usual trend then the forest resources will easily be depleted. The TFAP scenario takes into account the implementation of the current plans as scheduled while the mitigation scenario takes into account the GHG mitigation in the implementation of the plans. A Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis Process (COMAP) has been used to analyse the GHG and cost implications of the various programmes under the mitigation scenario. (au) 30 refs.

  5. Swaziland: country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, L

    1988-06-01

    Although Swaziland had been independent from colonialism for 20 years, a powerful monarch, King Mswati II, continues to control the country's political, religious, and social system. Swaziland has a population of 676,000, half of whom are under 15 years of age. The infant mortality rate is 105/1000 live births and 25% of children die before they reach their 5th birthday. Life expectancy is 54 years. Tribal chiefs, representing the king, hold and distribute about half of the national land. Most of the fertile land remains in the hands of white settler farmers. The concentration of income in foreign companies and urban centers has exacerbated poverty in rural areas. Depreciation of rand-linked local currency has boosted export earnings, but it has also raised the price of food and medical imports. Swaziland's main exports are sugar, wood pulp, chemicals, and fruit, most of which go to the UK and South Africa. The major food crops are maize, beans, groundnuts, and sorghum. About half of the working population is engaged in small-scale subsistence farming, but food yields are declining. The major producers are foreign companies attracted by Swaziland's low taxes and cheap labor supply.

  6. Utility FGD Survey, January--December 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. (IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1992-03-01

    The Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company.

  7. Drought resistant rice mutants, characteristics and discussions on possibilities for planting them in some Arab Countries which import rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-Hegazi, A.M.T.

    1994-01-01

    A number of drought resistant mutants of rice were produced from ordinary rice varieties being planted in several parts of Egypt through utilization of gamma rays as a mutagen. The mutants have water requirements less than one half of that of their mother varieties. According to official data, authorities in Egypt insure about 18000 M 3 of irrigation water for every hectare (10000 M 2 ) of rice and about 6700 M 3 , 6900 M 3 for every hectare of corn and ground nuts, respectively. Peanuts and corn are summer crops like the drought resistant rice mutants. The mentioned mutants can produce good yield under water requirements very near to that of corn and peanuts. The wide gap in agricultural food stuffs for the Arab Countries (more than 20000 million US $ annually) includes rice imports usually exceeds 700 million US $ per year> Rice imports of Arab Countries such as Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Syria, Libya and the Sudan, reached 180, 47, 21, 16 and 14 million US $ in 1988 as an example. Such countries could make use of the drought resistant rice mutants for plantation on water requirements very near to those of usual summer crops such as corn and peanuts which is significantly less than one half of water requirements of their mother varieties. Some characteristics of such mutants as well as discussions on possibilities for planting them in some of the nominated Arab Countries are presented. However, arrangements for ensuring the minimum water requirements during the growing period irrespective to rain which in many cases did not accord the growing period of the mutants should be taken if such countries wants to make use of the drought resistant rice mutants. The author believe that most if not all requirements of rice of such countries could locally be ensured through planting of the above mentioned rice mutants. In this case, maximizing the efficiency of utilizing the limited water resources of such countries could also be counted as another cause for presenting this

  8. Electric power prices: variable tendency depending on the country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    The deregulation of the electric power sector is very much in the news in most countries and at different stages. A study carried out by the national utility service (NUS) in 17 countries worldwide takes stock of the influence of deregulation on electric power prices. According to this study, the most important price increases are found in 4 non-European countries (Norway, South Africa, USA, New Zealand) while the most important decreases are found within Europe (Sweden 20%, Denmark 15.6%, Italy 12% and Germany 8%). In France the decrease of tariffs reaches only 3%. This short paper analyzes the evolution of prices in the different countries selected in the study, but no real tendency is outlined as the stage of competition is different in each country. (J.S.)

  9. Disability weights for infectious diseases in four European countries: comparison between countries and across respondent characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens de Noordhout, Charline; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Salomon, Joshua A; Turner, Heather; Cassini, Alessandro; Colzani, Edoardo; Speybroeck, Niko; Polinder, Suzanne; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E; Havelaar, Arie H; Haagsma, Juanita A

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background In 2015, new disability weights (DWs) for infectious diseases were constructed based on data from four European countries. In this paper, we evaluated if country, age, sex, disease experience status, income and educational levels have an impact on these DWs. Methods We analyzed paired comparison responses of the European DW study by participants’ characteristics with separate probit regression models. To evaluate the effect of participants’ characteristics, we performed correlation analyses between countries and within country by respondent characteristics and constructed seven probit regression models, including a null model and six models containing participants’ characteristics. We compared these seven models using Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). Results According to AIC, the probit model including country as covariate was the best model. We found a lower correlation of the probit coefficients between countries and income levels (range rs: 0.97–0.99, P European countries. We recommend future researches studying the effect of other characteristics of respondents on health assessment. PMID:29020343

  10. Women’s autonomy in health care decision-making in developing countries: a synthesis of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osamor, Pauline E; Grady, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Autonomy is considered essential for decision-making in a range of health care situations, from health care seeking and utilization to choosing among treatment options. Evidence suggests that women in developing or low-income countries often have limited autonomy and control over their health decisions. A review of the published empirical literature to identify definitions and methods used to measure women’s autonomy in developing countries describe the relationship between women’s autonomy and their health care decision-making, and identify sociodemographic factors that influence women’s autonomy and decision-making regarding health care was carried out. An integrated literature review using two databases (PubMed and Scopus) was performed. Inclusion criteria were 1) publication in English; 2) original articles; 3) investigations on women’s decision-making autonomy for health and health care utilization; and 4) developing country context. Seventeen articles met inclusion criteria, including eleven from South Asia, five from Africa, and one from Central Asia. Most studies used a definition of autonomy that included independence for women to make their own choices and decisions. Study methods differed in that many used study-specific measures, while others used a set of standardized questions from their countries’ national health surveys. Most studies examined women’s autonomy in the context of reproductive health, while neglecting other types of health care utilized by women. Several studies found that factors, including age, education, and income, affect women’s health care decision-making autonomy. Gaps in existing literature regarding women’s autonomy and health care utilization include gaps in the areas of health care that have been measured, the influence of sex roles and social support, and the use of qualitative studies to provide context and nuance. PMID:27354830

  11. Determinants of Mental Health Care Utilization in a Suicide High-risk Group With Suicidal Ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Moo-Sik; Hong, Jee-Young

    2016-01-01

    The suicide rate in Korea is increasing every year, and is the highest among the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries. Psychiatric patients in particular have a higher risk of suicide than other patients. This study was performed to evaluate determinants of mental health care utilization among individuals at high risk for suicide. Korea Health Panel data from 2009 to 2011 were used. Subjects were individuals at high risk of suicide who had suicidal ideation, a past history of psychiatric illness, or had utilized outpatient services for a psychiatric disorder associated with suicidal ideation within the past year. The chi-square test and hierarchical logistic regression were used to identify significant determinants of mental health care utilization. The total number of subjects with complete data on the variables in our model was 989. Individuals suffering from three or more chronic diseases used mental health care more frequently. Mental health care utilization was higher in subjects who had middle or high levels of educational attainment, were receiving Medical Aid, or had a large family size. It is important to control risk factors in high-risk groups as part of suicide prevention strategies. The clinical approach, which includes community-based intervention, entails the management of reduction of suicidal risk. Our study identified demographic characteristics that have a significant impact on mental health care utilization and should be considered in the development of suicide prevention strategies. Further studies should examine the effect of mental health care utilization on reducing suicidal ideation.

  12. The impact of chronic hepatitis B on quality of life: a multinational study of utilities from infected and uninfected persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Adrian R; Kowdley, Kris V; Iloeje, Uchenna; Tafesse, Eskinder; Mukherjee, Jayanti; Gish, Robert; Bzowej, Natalie; Briggs, Andrew H

    2008-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a condition that results in substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide because of progressive liver damage. Investigators undertaking economic evaluations of new therapeutic agents require estimates of health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Recently, evidence has begun to accumulate that differences in cultural backgrounds have a quantifiable impact on perceptions of health. The objective was to elicit utilities for six health states that occur after infection with the hepatitis B virus from infected and uninfected respondents living in jurisdictions with low and with high CHB endemicity. Standard gamble utilities were elicited from hepatitis patients and uninfected respondents using an interviewer-administered survey in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Spain, Hong Kong, and mainland China. Generalized linear models were used to the effect on utilities of current health, age and sex, jurisdiction and, for infected respondents, current disease state. The sample included 534 CHB-infected patients and 600 uninfected respondents. CHB and compensated cirrhosis had a moderate impact on HRQOL with utilities ranging from 0.68 to 0.80. Decompensated cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma had a stronger impact with utilities ranging from 0.35 to 0.41. Significant variation was observed between countries, with both types of respondents in mainland China and Hong Kong reporting systematically lower utilities. Health states related to CHB infection have substantial reductions in HRQOL and the utilities reported in this study provide valuable information for comparing new treatment options. The observed intercountry differences suggest that economic evaluations may benefit from country-specific utility estimates. The extent that systematic intercountry differences in utilities hold true for other infectious and chronic diseases remains an open question and has considerable implications for the proper conduct and interpretation of

  13. Country-specific determinants of world university rankings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrucha, Jacek

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines country-specific factors that affect the three most influential world university rankings (the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the QS World University Ranking, and the Times Higher Education World University Ranking). We run a cross sectional regression that covers 42-71 countries (depending on the ranking and data availability). We show that the position of universities from a country in the ranking is determined by the following country-specific variables: economic potential of the country, research and development expenditure, long-term political stability (freedom from war, occupation, coups and major changes in the political system), and institutional variables, including government effectiveness.

  14. Economic dynamics of exporting countries and restructuring their oil industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De La Vega Navarro, A.

    1994-01-01

    The author analyses the re-organization of oil industries in exporting countries. The approach takes internal and external dynamics of these countries' economic crisis into account. It finally makes proposals with a view to a different consistency for the economic development of these countries. This could include a change from pure ''exporting countries'' to ''countries that (among other activities) export oil'' and which will not be conditioned by the incertitude of the international oil market. This in turn means that public oil companies will have to replace thinking in terms of oil rents and assume their industrial and productive role on both national and international levels. (Author). 21 refs., 1 tab

  15. Consideration of probabilistic safety objectives in OECD/NEA member countries: Short overview and update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Versteeg, M.F.; Andrews, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    Almost every member country of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) uses probabilistic safety criteria (PSC), in one way or another, for the safety assessment of nuclear power plants. The choice of the PSC, their applicability, and whether or not these PSC are used in a formal and/or legal way, is dependent on the political and regulatory situation. The spectrum of utilization includes the use as design requirements and the use as a regulatory and licensing tool be the authorities. The paper summarises the various PSC applied to the assessment of nuclear power plant in the OECD member countries and presents in more detail the use of PSC on the public health level in the Netherlands, United Kingdom and USA. 10 refs, 1 fig., 6 tabs

  16. Perception and Utilization of Primary Health Care Services in a Semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The health status of most people living in developing countries of the world remains poor. Linked to this are some factors, of which low utilization of PHC facilities remain a major issue. This study therefore aimed to determine the utilization of PHC services in a sub-urban community in a developing country in West ...

  17. Gas in Andean countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos Pinzon, Rafael

    2000-01-01

    The paper explores aspects of gas integration among Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru. A comparison of the GDP is made, gas reserves are provided and the existent nets of gas-pipe are included in Colombia and Venezuela

  18. MSIS Drug Utilization Datamart

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This page provides background needed to take advantage of the capabilities of the MSIS Drug Utilization Datamart. This mart allows the user to develop high-level...

  19. Utility franchises reconsidered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidner, B.

    1981-11-01

    It is easier to obtain a public utility franchise than one for a fast food store because companies like Burger King value the profit share and control available with a franchise arrangement. The investor-owned utilities (IOUs) in Chicago and elsewhere gets little financial or regulatory benefit, although they do have an alternative because the franchise can be taken over by the city with a one-year notice. As IOUs evolved, the annual franchise fee has been incorporated into the rate in a move that taxes ratepayers and maximizes profits. Cities that found franchising unsatisfactory are looking for ways to terminate the franchise and finance a takeover, but limited-term and indeterminate franchises may offer a better mechanism when public needs and utility aims diverge. A directory lists franchised utilities by state and comments on their legal status. (DCK)

  20. Chemical Search Web Utility

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical Search Web Utility is an intuitive web application that allows the public to easily find the chemical that they are interested in using, and which...

  1. A comparative examination of tuberculosis immigration medical screening programs from selected countries with high immigration and low tuberculosis incidence rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) in migrants is an ongoing challenge in several low TB incidence countries since a large proportion of TB in these countries occurs in migrants from high incidence countries. To meet these challenges, several countries utilize TB screening programs. The programs attempt to identify and treat those with active and/or infectious stages of the disease. In addition, screening is used to identify and manage those with latent or inactive disease after arrival. Between nations, considerable variation exists in the methods used in migration-associated TB screening. The present study aimed to compare the TB immigration medical examination requirements in selected countries of high immigration and low TB incidence rates. Methods Descriptive study of immigration TB screening programs Results 16 out of 18 eligible countries responded to the written standardized survey and phone interview. Comparisons in specific areas of TB immigration screening programs included authorities responsible for TB screening, the primary objectives of the TB screening program, the yield of detection of active TB disease, screening details and aspects of follow up for inactive pulmonary TB. No two countries had the same approach to TB screening among migrants. Important differences, common practices, common problems, evidence or lack of evidence for program specifics were noted. Conclusions In spite of common goals, there is great diversity in the processes and practices designed to mitigate the impact of migration-associated TB among nations that screen migrants for the disease. The long-term goal in decreasing migration-related introduction of TB from high to low incidence countries remains diminishing the prevalence of the disease in those high incidence locations. In the meantime, existing or planned migration screening programs for TB can be made more efficient and evidenced based. Cooperation among countries doing research in the areas outlined in this study should

  2. Country clustering applied to the water and sanitation sector: a new tool with potential applications in research and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Kyle; Crocker, Jonny; Kayser, Georgia Lyn; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-03-01

    The fields of global health and international development commonly cluster countries by geography and income to target resources and describe progress. For any given sector of interest, a range of relevant indicators can serve as a more appropriate basis for classification. We create a new typology of country clusters specific to the water and sanitation (WatSan) sector based on similarities across multiple WatSan-related indicators. After a literature review and consultation with experts in the WatSan sector, nine indicators were selected. Indicator selection was based on relevance to and suggested influence on national water and sanitation service delivery, and to maximize data availability across as many countries as possible. A hierarchical clustering method and a gap statistic analysis were used to group countries into a natural number of relevant clusters. Two stages of clustering resulted in five clusters, representing 156 countries or 6.75 billion people. The five clusters were not well explained by income or geography, and were distinct from existing country clusters used in international development. Analysis of these five clusters revealed that they were more compact and well separated than United Nations and World Bank country clusters. This analysis and resulting country typology suggest that previous geography- or income-based country groupings can be improved upon for applications in the WatSan sector by utilizing globally available WatSan-related indicators. Potential applications include guiding and discussing research, informing policy, improving resource targeting, describing sector progress, and identifying critical knowledge gaps in the WatSan sector. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. SMEs and CSR in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamali, Dima; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Jeppesen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    This article is the guest editors’ introduction to the special issue in Business & Society on “SMEs and CSR in Developing Countries.” The special issue includes four original research articles by Hamann, Smith, Tashman, and Marshall; Allet; Egels-Zandén; and Puppim de Oliveira and Jabbour...

  4. Sources of Macroeconomic Fluctuations in MENA Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Balcilar, Mehmet; Bagzibagli, Kemal

    2010-01-01

    A close examination of the MENA region economies reveals a number of fundamental sources of macroeconomic fluctuations. These include economic factors such as exchange rate instability, large public debt, current account deficits, and escalation of inflation. The political factors such as government instability, corruption, bureaucracy, and internal conflicts also are major sources of macroeconomic instability. Thus, the sources of macroeconomic fluctuations in these countri...

  5. Public sector achievement in 36 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benedikt Goderis

    2015-01-01

    This report examines the inputs, outputs and outcomes of the public sector in 36 countries (including the EU-28) over the period 1995-2012. We study two sectors – education and health – in some detail, while taking a more general look at the sectors social safety, housing, social security and

  6. Political instability and country risk : new evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeHaan, J; Siermann, CLJ; VanLubek, E

    1997-01-01

    This note presents new estimates of a probit model for the debt rescheduling, using a sample of 65 countries over the period 1984-93. Apart from economic variables, a whole range of indicators for political instability are included in the model as explanatory variables. It turns out, that none is

  7. Educating Civil Engineers for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, D.

    1974-01-01

    Based on engineering teaching experience in Africa and Asia, ideas are presented on educating civil engineers for developing countries, especially those in Africa. Some of the problems facing educational planners, teachers, and students are addressed, including responsibilities of a newly graduated civil engineer, curriculum development, and…

  8. Utility, games, and narratives

    OpenAIRE

    Fioretti, Guido

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a general overview of theories and tools to model individual and collective decision-making. In particular, stress is laid on the interaction of several decision-makers. A substantial part of this paper is devoted to utility maximization and its application to collective decision-making, Game Theory. However, the pitfalls of utility maximization are thoroughly discussed, and the radically alternative approach of viewing decision-making as constructing narratives is pre...

  9. Modernizing Agrifood Markets : Including Small Producers in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Observers fear that new patterns of supply and marketing are biased in ... these concerns in the following countries: China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Poland, ... prevent gender-based violence, and make digital platforms work for inclusive ...

  10. Future global manpower shortages in nuclear industries with special reference to india including remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh Hazra, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Radiation Protection Program of the Environmental Protection Agencies of countries employ scientists, engineers, statisticians, economists, lawyers, policy analysts, and public affairs professionals amongst others. These professionals aim to protect workers, the general public, and the environment from harmful radiation exposures and to provide the technical basis for radiation protection policies and regulations. Professionals include Health physicists, Bio statistician, Radio chemist, Radio ecologist, Radio biologist etc. With a large proportion of the population of the nuclear workforce of many countries now approaching retirement age, existing power plants of these countries will be hard pressed to find enough qualified professionals to support their operations. The potential shortage of skilled manpower not only affects utilities, but also impacts the entire nuclear infrastructure, including national laboratories, federal and state agencies, nuclear technology vendors and manufacturing companies, nuclear construction companies, and university nuclear engineering departments. Manpower requirements exist in the nuclear power industry, universities and research establishments, hospitals, government departments, general industry e.g. radiography, transport, instrumentation etc., specialist contractors, agencies and consultancies serving radiation protection. India is no exception. India has the world's 12 th largest economy. Assuming India's average growth rate p.a. of more than 5%, total GDP by 2050 will increase substantially which will require proportionate increase of manpower for all industries. Also chance of brain drain is very high from developing countries e.g. from India to developed countries because of much higher pay and better lifestyle as there will be shortage of manpower in developed countries as explained above. With population growth to be stabilized in future in India, the working age population may not increase in the year 2030

  11. COUNTRY IMAGE VS. COUNTRY BRAND: DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa Adriana COTÎRLEA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article was written in order to provide an overview regarding the differences and similarities regarding two congruent, yet different concepts: country brand and country image. The geopolitical context and, implicitly, the current global context require a redefinition – or a more complex circumscription – of the “country image” and “country branding” concepts. In this paper, the author aimed to highlight the characteristics and particularities of the approached concepts in order to shape a framework of the context within these two operate; a brief analysis of the literature is presented, trying to emphasize the slight difference between the approached concepts

  12. Report on promotion of utilization of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report presents results of studies made by the Atomic Energy Commission concerning research and development activities to be carried out in future to promote the utilization of radiation. First, the current state of radiation utilization is described, centering on practical applications, research and development activities (for practical and advanced applications), and international cooperation (with developing and advanced nations). The second part deals with activities required in future to promote practical utilization of radiation, research and development of advanced techniques, and cooperation to be offered to developing countries. Third, specific measures to be carried out for effective radiation utilization are described. For γ-rays and electron beams, which are widely in use at present, there are some economic and social problems remaining to be solved. For advanced utilization of radiation beams, further efforts should be focused on basic research on π-meson and μ-particle beams and their application to canser treatment and nuclear fusion; research on monochromatic neutron beams; application of RI beams to the development of new materials and new analysis techniques, application of epithermal neutron beams to elementary radiography and CT; etc. The utilization, application and development of tracers are also described. (Nogami, K.)

  13. Evaluation of the electric utility missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrota, J.

    2000-01-01

    The French law from February 10, 2000, about the modernization and development of the electric utility, has created new missions of public utility and foresees some compensation mechanisms for not handicapping the power operators in charge of these missions and for not creating competition distortions to their detriment on the European market. The author explains, first, the financial and economical stakes linked with these new missions. Then, he evokes the evolution of the energy context that has taken place between the 2. World war and the enforcement of the February 10, 2000 law, and he analyzes the systems foreseen for the power generation and distribution. For each public utility charge, the existing dispositions and those introduced by the law are analyzed and compared to the equivalent systems existing in other countries. Then, charge evaluation criteria and sharing rules and proposed. (J.S.)

  14. Country programme review Republic of Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherif, H.C.; Hasling, W.; Hera, C.H.; Maudarbocus, A.Y.; Mtimet, S.

    1993-10-01

    A multi-disciplinary country programme review and programming mission was undertaken to the Republic of Cameroon, from 21 to 25 June 1993. This report reflects the findings and recommendations of the mission and falls into four sections. The first section describes the country profile and includes information about its economy and its development plans and policies. The second reviews the Agency's past and present technical co-operation programmes in Cameroon. The third section deals with a sectoral programme and institutional review, and the fourth section presents possible future technical co-operation activities

  15. Nuclear power programmes in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The paper on ''Nuclear power programmes in developing countries'' is a report to the IAEA by a Senior Expert Group. A description is given of the requirements for a successful nuclear power programme, including the constraints that developing countries might face in the introduction and execution of the programme. The group attempted to identify the main issues affecting the financing of nuclear power projects and suggested specific actions that could be undertaken in order to reduce economic and financial risks. The various issues were discussed under the topic headings:-programme-project-related factors, investment climate, financing plan, export credits and creditworthiness. (U.K.)

  16. Surgical audit in the developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankole, J O; Lawal, O O; Adejuyigbe, O

    2003-01-01

    Audit assures provision of good quality health service at affordable cost. To be complete therefore, surgical practice in the young developing countries, as elsewhere, must incorporate auditing. Peculiarities of the developing countries and insufficient understanding of auditing may be, however, responsible for its been little practised. This article, therefore, reviews the objectives, the commonly evaluated aspects, and the method of audit, and includes a simple model of audit cycle. It is hoped that it will kindle the idea of regular practice of quality assurance by surgeons working in the young developing nations and engender a sustainable interest.

  17. Industry activities to resolve utility procurement issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosch, F.

    1993-01-01

    There are several industry organizations which are active in assisting the utilities in their equipment procurement enhancement. They include the Nuclear Management Resources Council (NUMARC), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Nuclear Procurement Issues Committee (NUPIC). The products include the NUMARC Procurement Initiatives, EPRI procurement related guidelines and databases, and NUPIC joint audits and commercial grade surveys. The industry procurement activities and products are reviewed, and their use by utilities to enhance their procurement process is related. 1 fig

  18. Archival Education in Scandinavian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Hanefi Kutluoğlu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Every country has responsibilities to provide the necessary personnel needed for their archival inheritance by education. Education can be shaped through tradition, historical inheritance and scientifi c necessities by defi ning the right educational method. Scandinavian countries have determined different education models based on their tradition, historical inheritance and requirements. In this article we focused on the formation of archival tradition, application of archival education in Scandinavian countries and the infl uence of the developments taking place in Europe on these countries. The relation between the archival education in European and Scandinavian countries is evaluated through a comparative method, and similarities to other countries are also evaluated. Finally, the present situation of archival education and the measures needed in this fi eld are taken into consideration.

  19. Country Demographic Profiles: Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD. Population Div.

    This profile of the population of Thailand contains 35 tables of selected demographic information, including size of population and estimates of fertility and mortality, beginning in 1950. An adjusted distribution of the population by age and sex is given for the latest census year, as well as for 1976. Projections of the number of women of…

  20. Country report Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Finn; Breiting, Søren

    2005-01-01

    Quality criteria for the work of Danish schools working with environmental education or education for sustainable development as they can be revealed in documents related to special initiatives like green flag - green school projects and ecoschools. These are described as part of the state...... of environmental education and education for sustainable development in Denmark, and include explicit criteria as well as implicit criteria....

  1. Role of forest biomass energy in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattar, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Forest biomass holds a significant position for energy production in developing countries. Its importance is elucidated through various activities performed by the rural industries. The socio-economic and environmental aspects in utilizing this type of energy are also discussed. (Author)

  2. FY 2000 report on the survey of the project for arrangement of the basis of the international energy utilization rationalization. Survey of diagnosis of energy conservation in main industries of ASEAN countries; 2000 nendo kokusai energy shiyo gorika kiban seibi jigyo chosa hokokusho. ASEAN shokoku shuyo sangyo ni okeru sho energy shindan chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of securing the stable energy supply/demand and contributing to the sustainable economic growth in ASEAN countries, survey of the diagnosis of energy conservation was conducted. In this survey, the diagnosis on energy conservation was made in terms of typical plants/works jointly with ASEAN-side engineers to grasp the actual state of energy consumption of each of the plants and to give advice on energy conservation policies. The countries and companies selected as objects in this fiscal year are a fiber plant in Malaysia (Arab-Malaysian Development Berhad), a paper mill in Indonesia (P.T.Kertas Leces Pulp Paper Mill) and a cement plant in Brunei (Butra Djajanti Cement SDN BHD). Diagnosis was made for each of them on January 15-19, on January 22-26 and on February 5-9, 2001, respectively. Through Workshops No. 1 (November 2000) and No. 2 (December 2000), this diagnosis program was carried out in 2001. On the basis of the results of the diagnosis, presented were the necessary energy conservation policies to be taken. (NEDO)

  3. Nuclear energy for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemery, L.S.

    1980-01-01

    This paper examines the circumstances which must prevail before a reasonable technical, administrative and sociological case can be made to justify the introduction of nuclear power technology to a developing country. The role played by the IAEA in responding to needs of developing countries is considered and problems of nuclear plant safety and materials safeguards discussed. Plans for nuclear power in several developing countries are outlined

  4. Nuclear medicine in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremenchuzky, S.; Degrossi, O.J.

    1991-01-01

    The economic crisis through which developing countries are passing means that every field of endeavour must adapt to new realities imposed by each particular's country's situation. Public health is no exception, although it is obviously a priority field in view of the repercussions which social and economic phenomena can have on the health of a country's inhabitants. This article briefly considers ways in which nuclear medicine facilities in Argentina may be improved

  5. Culture at the Country Level

    OpenAIRE

    Maseland, R.K.J.; Hoorn, A.A.J. van; Herk, H. van; Torelli, C.J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter introduces and critically discusses the idea of measuring the culture of countries and cross-national differences therein. We start by elaborating the theoretical foundations for studying culture at the country level. We highlight the use of countries or nations as a unit of analysis and pay special attention to the way in which a group-level construct such as culture has implications at lower levels of analysis, affecting the values and beliefs of individuals. After briefly trac...

  6. Country Nuclear Power Profiles - 2012 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-08-01

    The Country Nuclear Power Profiles compile background information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in Member States. The CNPP's main objectives are to consolidate information about the nuclear power infrastructures in participating countries, and to present factors related to the effective planning, decision making and implementation of nuclear power programmes that together lead to safe and economical operations of nuclear power plants. The CNPP summarizes organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programs and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory, and international framework in each country. Its descriptive and statistical overview of the overall economic, energy, and electricity situation in each country and its nuclear power framework is intended to serve as an integrated source of key background information about nuclear power programs in the world. Topics such as reactor safety, nuclear fuel cycle, radioactive waste management and research programmes are for the most part not discussed in detail. Statistical data about nuclear plant operations, population, energy and electricity use are drawn from the PRIS, EEDB, World Development Indicators (WDI) of the World Bank and the national contributions. This publication is updated and the scope of coverage expanded annually. This is the 2012 edition, issued on CD-ROM and Web pages. It contains updated country information for 51 countries. The CNPP is updated based on information voluntarily provided by participating IAEA Member States. Participants include the 29 countries that have operating nuclear power plants, as well as 22 countries with past or planned nuclear power. Each of the 51 profiles in this publication is self-standing, and contains information officially provided by the respective national authorities. For the 2012 edition, 20 countries provided updated or new profiles. These are Argentina, Armenia, Bangladesh, Chile, Germany, Ghana

  7. Labor Productivity Growth, Education, Health and Technological Progress: A Cross-Country Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Supachet Chansarn

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to calculate the growth rates of labor productivity of 30 countries categorized into four groups, including G7 countries, western developed countries, eastern developed countries and eastern developing countries, during 1981 – 2005 and examine the influences of education, health and technological progress on the growth rate of labor productivity. The findings reveal that the growth rates of labor productivity of every country, except the Philippines, were greater than four per...

  8. Income-related inequality in health and health care utilization in Chile, 2000-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Felipe; Paraje, Guillermo; Estay, Manuel

    2013-02-01

    To measure and explain income-related inequalities in health and health care utilization in the period 2000 - 2009 in Chile, while assessing variations within the country and determinants of inequalities. Data from the National Socioeconomic Characterization Survey for 2000, 2003, and 2009 were used to measure inequality in health and health care utilization. Income-related inequality in health care utilization was assessed with standardized concentration indices for the probability and total number of visits to specialized care, generalized care, emergency care, dental care, mental health care, and hospital care. Self-assessed health status and physical limitations were used as proxies for health care need. Standardization was performed with demographic and need variables. The decomposition method was applied to estimate the contribution of each factor used to calculate the concentration index, including ethnicity, employment status, health insurance, and region of residence. In Chile, people in lower-income quintiles report worse health status and more physical limitations than people in higher quintiles. In terms of health service utilization, pro-rich inequities were found for specialized and dental visits with a slight pro-rich utilization for general practitioners and all physician visits. All pro-rich inequities have decreased over time. Emergency room visits and hospitalizations are concentrated among lower-income quintiles and have increased over time. Higher education and private health insurance contribute to a pro-rich inequity in dentist, general practitioner, specialized, and all physician visits. Income contributes to a pro-rich inequity in specialized and dentist visits, whereas urban residence and economic activity contribute to a pro-poor inequity in emergency room visits. The pattern of health care utilization in Chile is consistent with policies implemented in the country and in the intended direction. The significant income inequality in the

  9. Assessment of economic instruments for countries with low municipal waste management performance: An approach based on the analytic hierarchy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Maximilian; Seyring, Nicole; Tzanova, Polia

    2016-09-01

    Economic instruments provide significant potential for countries with low municipal waste management performance in decreasing landfill rates and increasing recycling rates for municipal waste. In this research, strengths and weaknesses of landfill tax, pay-as-you-throw charging systems, deposit-refund systems and extended producer responsibility schemes are compared, focusing on conditions in countries with low waste management performance. In order to prioritise instruments for implementation in these countries, the analytic hierarchy process is applied using results of a literature review as input for the comparison. The assessment reveals that pay-as-you-throw is the most preferable instrument when utility-related criteria are regarded (wb = 0.35; analytic hierarchy process distributive mode; absolute comparison) mainly owing to its waste prevention effect, closely followed by landfill tax (wb = 0.32). Deposit-refund systems (wb = 0.17) and extended producer responsibility (wb = 0.16) rank third and fourth, with marginal differences owing to their similar nature. When cost-related criteria are additionally included in the comparison, landfill tax seems to provide the highest utility-cost ratio. Data from literature concerning cost (contrary to utility-related criteria) is currently not sufficiently available for a robust ranking according to the utility-cost ratio. In general, the analytic hierarchy process is seen as a suitable method for assessing economic instruments in waste management. Independent from the chosen analytic hierarchy process mode, results provide valuable indications for policy-makers on the application of economic instruments, as well as on their specific strengths and weaknesses. Nevertheless, the instruments need to be put in the country-specific context along with the results of this analytic hierarchy process application before practical decisions are made. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Measurement of utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavorncharoensap, Montarat

    2014-05-01

    The Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) is the most widely recommended health outcome measure for use in economic evaluations. The QALY gives a value to the effect of a given health intervention in terms of both quantity and quality. QALYs are calculated by multiplying the duration of time spent in a given health state, in years, by the quality of life weighted, known as utility. Utility can range from 0 (the worst health state-the equivalent of death) to 1 (the best health state-full health). This paper provides an overview of the various methods that can be used to measure utility and outlines the recommended protocol for measuring utility, as described in the Guidelines for Health Technology Assessment in Thailand (second edition). The recommendations are as follows: Wherever possible, primary data collection using EQ-5D-3L in patients using Thai value sets generated from the general public should be used. Where the EQ-5D-3L is considered inappropriate, other methods such as Standard gamble (SG), Time-trade-off (TTO), Visual analogue scale (VAS), Health Utilities Index (HUI), SF-6D, or Quality of well being (QWB) can be used. However, justification and full details on the chosen instrument should always be provided.

  11. Adaptation to Climate Change in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole; Halsnæs, Kirsten; Olesen, Jørgen E.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptation to climate change is given increasing international attention as the confidence in climate change projections is getting higher. Developing countries have specific needs for adaptation due to high vulnerabilities, and they will in this way carry a great part of the global costs...... of climate change although the rising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations are mainly the responsibility of industrialized countries. This article provides a status of climate change adaptation in developing countries. An overview of observed and projected climate change is given, and recent literature...... on impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation are reviewed, including the emerging focus on mainstreaming of climate change and adaptation in development plans and programs. The article also serves as an introduction to the seven research articles of this special issue on climate change adaptation in developing...

  12. Maternal employment and childhood overweight in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, Vanessa M; Mueller, Noel T; Pollack, Keshia M; Surkan, Pamela J; Bleich, Sara N; Jones-Smith, Jessica C

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the association between maternal employment and childhood overweight in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Design/Setting We utilized cross-sectional data from forty-five Demographic and Health Surveys from 2010 to 2016 (n 268 763). Mothers were categorized as formally employed, informally employed or non-employed. We used country-specific logistic regression models to investigate the association between maternal employment and childhood overweight (BMI Z-score>2) and assessed heterogeneity in the association by maternal education with the inclusion of an interaction term. We used meta-analysis to pool the associations across countries. Sensitivity analyses included modelling BMI Z-score and normal weight (weight-for-age Z-score≥-2 to employment was associated with childhood overweight. However, children of employed mothers, compared with children of non-employed mothers, had higher BMI Z-score and higher odds of normal weight. In countries where the association varied by education, children of formally employed women with high education, compared with children of non-employed women with high education, had higher odds of overweight (pooled OR=1·2; 95 % CI 1·0, 1·4). We find no clear association between employment and child overweight. However, maternal employment is associated with a modestly higher BMI Z-score and normal weight, suggesting that employment is currently associated with beneficial effects on children's weight status in most LMIC.

  13. The critical issue of nuclear power plant safety in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.

    1977-01-01

    A little more than a decade from now, large commercial nuclear power facilities will be in operation in almost 40 countries, of which approximately one-half are presently considered industrially less developed. Ambitious nuclear programmes coupled with minimal and frequently under-staffed regulatory and utility organizations are only one aspect of the difficulties related to the safety of nuclear plants that face these developing countries. Inherent problems of meeting current safety standards and requirements for the significantly non-standard nuclear power plant exports can be compounded by financial considerations that may lead to purchases of reactors of various types, from more than one supplier country and with different safety standards and requirements. An examination of these issues points to the necessity and opportunity for effective action which could include provision for adequate funding for safety considerations in the purchase contract, and for sufficient regulatory assistance and training from the developed countries. The article will introduce the topic, discuss specific examples, and offer some suggestions. (author)

  14. Predicting Maternal Health Care Use by Age at Marriage in Multiple Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godha, Deepali; Gage, Anastasia J; Hotchkiss, David R; Cappa, Claudia

    2016-05-01

    In light of the global pervasiveness of child marriage and given that improving maternal health care use is an effective strategy in reducing maternal and child morbidity and mortality, the available empirical evidence on the association of child marriage with maternal health care utilization seems woefully inadequate. Furthermore, existing studies have not considered the interaction of type of place of residence and parity with child marriage, which can give added insight to program managers. Demographic Health Survey data for seven countries are used to estimate logistic regression models including interactions of age at marriage with area of residence and birth order. Adjusted predicted probabilities at representative values and marginal effects are computed for each outcome. The results show a negative association between child marriage and maternal health care use in most study countries, and this association is more negative in rural areas and with higher orders of parity. However, the association between age at marriage and maternal health care use is not straightforward but depends on parity and area of residence and varies across countries. The marginal effects in use of delivery care services between women married at age 14 years or younger and those married at age 18 years or older are more than 10% and highly significant in Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, and Nepal. The study's findings call for the formulation of country-and age at marriage-specific recommendations to improve maternal and child health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in OECD countries: Cross-sectionally dependent heterogeneous panel causality analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazlioglu, Saban; Lebe, Fuat; Kayhan, Selim

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the direction causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in OECD countries. The empirical model that includes capital and labor force as the control variables is estimated for the panel of fourteen OECD countries during the period 1980-2007. Apart from the previous studies in the nuclear energy consumption and economic growth relationship, this study utilizes the novel panel causality approach, which allows both cross-sectional dependency and heterogeneity across countries. The findings show that there is no causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in eleven out of fourteen cases, supporting the neutrality hypothesis. As a sensitivity analysis, we also conduct Toda-Yamamoto time series causality method and find out that the results from the panel causality analysis are slightly different than those from the time-series causality analysis. Thereby, we can conclude that the choice of statistical tools in analyzing the nature of causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth may play a key role for policy implications. - Highlights: → Causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth is examined for OECD countries. → Panel causality method, which allows cross-sectional dependency and heterogeneity, is utilized. → The neutrality hypothesis is supported.

  16. Country report from Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekine, Toshiaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1998-10-01

    The status on the production of radioisotopes by JAERI is briefly discussed. JAERI has withdrawn from the routine production of the processed unsealed radioisotopes, and is going into being more research-oriented. Recent developments include: a {sup 99m}Tc generator for (n, {gamma}){sup 99}Mo; positron emitters for plant study; pharmaceuticals with radioactive rhenium; brachytherapy sources. A plan of producing radioisotopes with a high power proton accelerator of the Neutron Science Project is presented. (author)

  17. Country Profile Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig

    2012-01-01

    This Danish national expert report for the social housing sector decribes the the legal framework for the sector, it's role for national and local housing matters, how it is managed etc. The information and the data in the report is included in the final report from the SSGI study (STUDY ON SOCIAL...... SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST publised by European Commission - DG for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion....

  18. Indonesia country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    This study demonstrated the use of MARKAL model in carbon mitigation analysis for both energy and forestry sector. Four scenarios were used namely: 1. EbFb (baseline scenario). In this scenario, mitigation technologies in the energy sector were not included in the model and no target was set up for increasing net carbon uptake by forest activities. 2. EmFb. Mitigation technologies in the energy sector were included with the target of reducing cumulative net carbon emission by about 13% and activities in the forestry sectors were the same as those in baseline. 3. EbFm. Mitigation technologies in the energy sector were not included and the forestry activities were targeted to increase the carbon uptake so that the cumulative net carbon emission decreased by 13%. 4. EmFm. Mitigation technologies in the energy sector were included as well as forestry sector with target of reducing cumulative net carbon emission by about 35%. This study indicates that the MARKAL model has the potential to be used for mitigation analysis for both energy and forestry sectors. However, there are some limitations encountered during the study. The program is not able to accommodate the delayed emission from the forestry sector in a manner consistent to the treatment of emissions in the energy sector. In addition, there are some technical problems that still need to be resolved such as the inclusion of soil carbon uptake calculation in the model and the verification of carbon uptake calculation. In this study, all carbon uptakes was assumed to occur at the time of planting. (EHS) 37 refs.

  19. Country watch: Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito Lemus, A

    1996-01-01

    "LETRA S. SIDA. Cultura y Vida Cotidiana" is a monthly 16-page supplement that appears in the Mexican national newspaper "La Jornada." The supplement is produced by a nongovernmental organization (NGO) of the same name, and advertisements pay for the costs of production. Each issue studies a different AIDS theme, including women, indigenous people, migration, safe sex, homophobia, religion, and education. Each theme is approached from various perspectives, including epidemiology, medicine, sexuality, human rights, social science research, culture, and the arts. Populations most at risk are targeted. The aim is to arouse cultural criticism of taboos, prejudice and discrimination, sexual inequality, and gender issues that facilitate the transmission of HIV. Official health policies and the activities of groups, conservative and religious, which reject prevention programs are scrutinized. Each issue of the supplement includes a journalistic investigation providing statistics, facts, and opinions; interviews with health and education officials, politicians, state governors, and NGO staff; background articles by intellectuals, researchers, and well-known persons in Mexican society; PHA testimonies; reports on research and conferences; letters to the editor; cultural reviews relating to the theme of the issue; and a directory of NGOs doing HIV/AIDS work and of health institutions serving PHAs. The supplement has gone from a print run of 25,000 copies, when it was published as part of "El Nacional" (another government newspaper), to 70,000 in "La Jornada." The NGO has recently won the "Francisco Estrada Valle" award for its work.

  20. Country watch: Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laver, S

    1999-01-01

    Tsungirirai is a counseling and information service developed during 1994 in response to the growing problem of HIV/AIDS in the small town of Norton, southwest of Harare, Zimbabwe. The objectives of the project include identification of key leaders in the area, determination of the setting in which HIV was spreading, and community consultation in program design and implementation. Tsungirirai's initial activities included a series of workshops on participatory techniques particularly the LADA (Listening-Appraisal-Dialogue-Action) method for key leaders, community men, women, and adolescents. Workshop participants demonstrated different views concerning HIV/AIDS problems. Key leaders viewed the HIV/AIDS problem within the context of existing laws that contradict traditional mores, while the youth linked the problem of HIV to the issue of unemployment and lack of recreation. Lessons learned include the following: 1) stop talking and listen; 2) start where people are at instead of telling them what they already know; 3) let the people decide; 4) turn a dream into reality; and 5) facilitate awareness process instead of leading it.

  1. Universal health coverage in 'One ASEAN': are migrants included?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinto, Ramon Lorenzo Luis R; Curran, Ufara Zuwasti; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Pocock, Nicola S

    2015-01-01

    As the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) gears toward full regional integration by 2015, the cross-border mobility of workers and citizens at large is expected to further intensify in the coming years. While ASEAN member countries have already signed the Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers, the health rights of migrants still need to be addressed, especially with ongoing universal health coverage (UHC) reforms in most ASEAN countries. This paper seeks to examine the inclusion of migrants in the UHC systems of five ASEAN countries which exhibit diverse migration profiles and are currently undergoing varying stages of UHC development. A scoping review of current migration trends and policies as well as ongoing UHC developments and migrant inclusion in UHC in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand was conducted. In general, all five countries, whether receiving or sending, have schemes that cover migrants to varying extents. Thailand even allows undocumented migrants to opt into its Compulsory Migrant Health Insurance scheme, while Malaysia and Singapore are still yet to consider including migrants in their government-run UHC systems. In terms of predominantly sending countries, the Philippines's social health insurance provides outbound migrants with portable insurance yet with limited benefits, while Indonesia still needs to strengthen the implementation of its compulsory migrant insurance which has a health insurance component. Overall, the five ASEAN countries continue to face implementation challenges, and will need to improve on their UHC design in order to ensure genuine inclusion of migrants, including undocumented migrants. However, such reforms will require strong political decisions from agencies outside the health sector that govern migration and labor policies. Furthermore, countries must engage in multilateral and bilateral dialogue as they redefine UHC beyond the basis of

  2. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2009 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  3. Is astronomical research appropriate for developing countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Michael S.

    An unproductive 45-cm astronomical telescope, given by JICA (Japan) to Sri Lanka, raises general questions as to the reasons for unproductive pure science in developing countries. Before installation, site, maintenance, and scientific objectives were discussed. The facility was launched with a conference organised by the UN Office for Outer Space Affairs. Unfortunately, no research or significant education has resulted after four years. The annual operating cost is U.S. $5000 per year, including salary for a trainee, maintenance, and a modest promotional programme. Comparison with a similar installation in Auckland suggests lack of funding or technical competence do not explain the failure in Sri Lanka. The facility in New Zealand, on the roof of Auckland University's Physics Department, has a slightly smaller budget but has led to modest but useful research and teaching. Lack of financial backing and expertise are often blamed for weak science in developing countries, but examination shows most of these countries have adequately skilled people, and plenty of resources for religion and military. General lack of motivation for science appears to be the principal reason. This lack of interest and highly inefficient bureaucracies are common to scientifically unproductive countries. They mostly lack the cultural and philosophical base of the European Renaissance that motivate the pursuit of modern science, an activity that violates human preferences. There are excellent facilities (ESO, SAAO, Cerro Tololo, and GONG) in some of these same countries, when administered from the West.

  4. Indonesia country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murni Soedyartomo Soentono, Tri [National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia - Batan, Radioisotopes and Radiopharmaceuticals Development Centre, Pasar Jum' at, Cinere Raya, 12570 Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2008-07-01

    Several nuclear research are currently operation in Serpong, Jakarta, Bandung and Yogyakarta; these facilities has been in operation step wisely and having strong link with various universities and laboratories within the country (30 MW in Serpong, 2 MW in Bandung, Cyclotron CS-30 Serpong, Accelerator Yogyakarta, Irradiator Co-60). Public Acceptance: Further more the routine activities of the public information by WiN regarding the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, especially to the immediate environment of the NPP candidate site are indeed of important steps. Future of nuclear power: Since 1990's, Indonesia planned to build NPP station in Jepara to anticipate future energy crisis. Indonesia National Energy Policy has four main objectives: - Securing the continuity of energy supply for domestic use at price affordable to the public, - Enhancing the life quality of the people, - Stimulating economic growth, and, - Reserving an adequate supply of oil and gas for expert to provide source of foreign exchange to fund the national development program. Nuclear Waste Management Policy: Law no 10/1997 on nuclear power became the basic policy in management of radioactive waste The only national agency dealing with radioactive substances, BATAN possesses all data and information concerning the use of nuclear power. Radioactive waste management is particularly earmarked for maximum protection of living creatures, the environment and its ecosystems. In order to guarantee maximum safety and protection, all parties involved in the acquisition of radioactive materials should abide by the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle. In order to achieve radioactive waste management that complies with the principle of sustainable development, technological applications should be technically and economically viable for maximum protection of the environment and safety from any potential nuclear hazards, now and in future. The application must also be accepted by the community

  5. Treatment patterns of schizophrenia based on the data from seven Central and Eastern European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkultecka-Dębek, Monika; Miernik, Katarzyna; Stelmachowski, Jarosław; Jakovljević, Miro; Jukić, Vlado; Aadamsoo, Kaire; Janno, Sven; Bitter, István; Tolna, Judit; Jarema, Marek; Jankovic, Slobodan; Pecenak, Jan; Vavrusova, Livia; Tavčar, Rok; Walczak, Jacek; Talbot, Darren; Augustyńska, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    The aim is to analyze how schizophrenia is pharmacologically treated in seven CEE countries: Croatia, Estonia, Hungary, Poland, Serbia, Slovakia and Slovenia. Psychiatrists from selected centers in each of participating countries were asked to complete a pre-defined questionnaire on their current clinical practice. Information on protocols and resource utilization in schizophrenia treatment was included and derived from randomly selected patient medical records. Expert opinions on country-wide treatment patterns were additionally sought. This sub-analysis focuses on pharmacological treatment patterns in the last six months and over the course of the disease. 961 patients' data show that during last six months the most commonly prescribed medications were oral atypical antipsychotics: olanzapine (n=268), clozapine (n=234) and risperidone (n=160). The most frequently prescribed atypical antipsychotics over course of disease were: risperidone (54.5%), olanzapine (52.4%) and clozapine (35.1%), along with haloperidol (39.3%). Experts reported risperidone (four countries) and olanzapine (three countries) as first-line treatment, with the same two medications prescribed as second-line treatment. Clozapine was the most reported medication for refractory patients. Approximately 22% of patients received polypharmacy with antipsychotics in at least one period over the disease course. Mean time since diagnosis was 13.1 years and on average 4.8 treatment courses received during that period. Anxiolytics (70%), antidepressants (42%), mood-stabilizers (27%) were also prescribed, with diazepam (35.4%), sertraline (10.5%), valproic acid (17.5%) the most commonly reported, respectively, in each group. The most frequently reported treatment change was switch from one oral atypical antipsychotic to another (51%). Oral atypical antipsychotics, mostly older drugs (risperidone, olanzapine, clozapine), were most commonly prescribed for schizophrenia treatment in participating countries

  6. Electric utility report '80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    A collection of brief atricles describes the trends and developments in Canada's electric utilities for the 1980's. Generating stations planned or under construction are listed. The trends in technology discused at a recent Canadian Electrical Association meeting are summarized in such areas as turbine stability control, power line vibration control, system reliability, substations and transformer specifications. Developments in nuclear generation are discussed and compared on the world scale where Japan, for example, has the world's largest nuclear program. Progress on fusion is discussed. In Canada the electric utilities are receiving the support of the comprehensive nuclear R and D program of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. New innovations in utility technology such as street lighting contactors, superconductive fault limiters and demand profile analyzers are discussed. (T.I.)

  7. Utility planning for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    Though the biggest impact on a utility of nuclear power plant decommissioning may occur many years from now, procrastination of efforts to be prepared for that time is unwarranted. Foresight put into action through planning can significantly affect that impact. Financial planning can assure the recovery of decommissioning costs in a manner equitable to customers. Decision-making planning can minimize adverse affects of current decisions on later decommissioning impacts and prepare a utility to be equipped to make later decommissioning decisions. Technological knowledge base planning can support all other planning aspects for decommissioning and prepare a utility for decommissioning decisions. Informed project planning can ward off potentially significant pitfalls during decommissioning and optimize the effectiveness of the actual decommissioning efforts

  8. Markets: green utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Elisa

    2006-01-01

    Publicly owned utilities have consistently led the United States in the rate of customer participation in green power programmes. The US has about 2000 community and state-owned utilities, which serve 43 million customers and account for about 16.6% of kilowatt-hour sales to consumers. In all, public power is responsible for about 10% of the nation's installed electric capacity. Investor owned utilities account for 39%, with the remainder of the nation's power mostly from independent power generators. Although IOUs have almost four times as much electric capacity as public power, they edge out public power by only a small margin when it comes to renewable capacity. IOUs are responsible for 24,577.5 MW of renewable capacity, compared to the 21,338 MW installed by public power. The reasons discussed by the author range from small town advantage to clean and cheap power. (Author)

  9. Mapping the use of research to support strategies tackling maternal and child health inequities: evidence from six countries in Africa and Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Emily; Becerril-Montekio, Victor; Gonzalez-Block, Miguel Ángel; Akweongo, Patricia; Hazel, Cynthia N A; Cuembelo, Maria de Fatima; Limbani, Felix; Bernardo, Wanderley; Muñoz, Fernando

    2016-01-07

    Striving to foster collaboration among countries suffering from maternal and child health (MCH) inequities, the MASCOT project mapped and analyzed the use of research in strategies tackling them in 11 low- and middle-income countries. This article aims to present the way in which research influenced MCH policies and programs in six of these countries - three in Africa and three in Latin America. Qualitative research using a thematic synthesis narrative process was used to identify and describe who is producing what kind of research, how research is funded, how inequities are approached by research and policies, the countries' research capacities, and the type of evidence base that MCH policies and programs use. Four tools were designed for these purposes: an online survey for researchers, a semi-structured interview with decision makers, and two content analysis guides: one for policy and programs documents and one for scientific articles. Three modalities of research utilization were observed in the strategies tackling MCH inequities in the six included countries - instrumental, conceptual and symbolic. Instrumental utilization directly relates the formulation and contents of the strategies with research results, and is the least used within the analyzed policies and programs. Even though research is considered as an important input to support decision making and most of the analyzed countries count five or six relevant MCH research initiatives, in most cases, the actual impact of research is not clearly identifiable. While MCH research is increasing in low- and middle-income countries, the impact of its outcomes on policy formulation is low. We did not identify a direct relationship between the nature of the financial support organizations and the kind of evidence utilization within the policy process. There is still a visible gap between researchers and policymakers regarding their different intentions to link evidence and decision making processes.

  10. Utility machinery vibration monitoring guide: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, T.T.; Thomas, C.C.

    1987-08-01

    Section I of this guide presents a methodology for developing machinery vibration monitoring programs specifically designed for application within the utility industry. The methodology is designed to enhance a monitoring program and can be used at the outset of program development or as a reference after programs have been started. Section I evaluates all aspects of the monitoring program, including Objectives and Goals, Information Type, Timing and Format, Data Analysis, Data Acquisition, Measurement and Transducer Selection, Personnel and Organization, Program Instrumentation, Program Costs, Program Justification, and Implementation of a Monitoring Program. The methodology is then applied to two host utility plants in Section II, which contains the monitoring programs developed by Gulf States Utilities and Philadelphia Electric Company using this guide. Section III contains the histories of several different types of existing utility monitoring programs. Some of the lessons learned, including the recommendations of these ''mature'' programs for persons starting new programs, are included

  11. Octopus: LLL's computing utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The Laboratory's Octopus network constitutes one of the greatest concentrations of computing power in the world. This power derives from the network's organization as well as from the size and capability of its computers, storage media, input/output devices, and communication channels. Being in a network enables these facilities to work together to form a unified computing utility that is accessible on demand directly from the users' offices. This computing utility has made a major contribution to the pace of research and development at the Laboratory; an adequate rate of progress in research could not be achieved without it. 4 figures

  12. Estimating the relative utility of screening mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Craig K; Eckstein, Miguel P; Boone, John M

    2013-05-01

    The concept of diagnostic utility is a fundamental component of signal detection theory, going back to some of its earliest works. Attaching utility values to the various possible outcomes of a diagnostic test should, in principle, lead to meaningful approaches to evaluating and comparing such systems. However, in many areas of medical imaging, utility is not used because it is presumed to be unknown. In this work, we estimate relative utility (the utility benefit of a detection relative to that of a correct rejection) for screening mammography using its known relation to the slope of a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve at the optimal operating point. The approach assumes that the clinical operating point is optimal for the goal of maximizing expected utility and therefore the slope at this point implies a value of relative utility for the diagnostic task, for known disease prevalence. We examine utility estimation in the context of screening mammography using the Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trials (DMIST) data. We show how various conditions can influence the estimated relative utility, including characteristics of the rating scale, verification time, probability model, and scope of the ROC curve fit. Relative utility estimates range from 66 to 227. We argue for one particular set of conditions that results in a relative utility estimate of 162 (±14%). This is broadly consistent with values in screening mammography determined previously by other means. At the disease prevalence found in the DMIST study (0.59% at 365-day verification), optimal ROC slopes are near unity, suggesting that utility-based assessments of screening mammography will be similar to those found using Youden's index.

  13. Country watch: Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szterenfeld, C

    1995-01-01

    The Health in Prostitution Project was launched in 1991 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The project offers a multi-year training program of health education designed to both fight the stigmatization of and violence against commercial sex workers and enhance their self-esteem, self-determination, and access to civil rights. The project therefore promotes individual awareness while influencing public opinion and policies. At first, health agents were recruited among women and transvestites who work in street-based sex work. The program was then gradually expanded to include young male sex workers and other locations, such as private parlors, saunas, and escort services. People of all sexes and sexual orientation now comprise the health agent group. The program has a paid staff of five women, three young men, and three transvestites, and approximately 70 sex workers are trained annually. Basic training includes topics such as human sexuality, personal risk assessment, HIV/STD infection, negotiation of safer sex, and STD referral services. Year two training emphasizes reproductive and women's health issues, while year three courses prioritize street work methodologies. Theatrical performances, speaking English as a second language, and performing Bach flower therapy for clients take place during the fourth year. Program trainers include medical specialists, nurses, psychologists, health educators, lawyers, and university students. At least half of the 350 health agents trained thus far are estimated to be currently engaged in paid or voluntary prevention work. Two surveys with female sex workers in 1991 and 1993 found that reported regular condom use increased from 57% to 73%; the health agents are having an effect. The program is constantly evaluated and revised.

  14. Country watch: Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namutebi, S K

    1996-01-01

    During its work in Rakai district, CONCERN recognized that women lack property/inheritance rights, a situation which increases their vulnerability to HIV infection. Widows are being disinherited of all their properties, including their marital homes. Since many of these women lack both education and skills, their survival often depends upon either marrying again or engaging in sex work. Many women are ignorant of their rights under the national law. Lawyers from the Ugandan Women Lawyers Association help women and children understand their rights, but they do not provide continuously available services. CONCERN therefore initiated a program of community-based legal educators (paralegals) selected by village communities and recommended by local leaders. The paralegals must be over age 28 years, respected by the community, able to maintain confidentiality, and have participated in previous HIV/AIDS sensitization work. Selected candidates are subsequently trained by lawyers from a governmental ministry in the basics of the law pertaining to sexual abuse, marriage, inheritance, divorce, domestic violence, children's rights and responsibilities, and the legal system in Uganda, as well as referrals, gender sensitization, and adult education methods. The paralegals now provide awareness seminars in their communities which include brainstorming, role plays, use of picture codes, group discussions, and lectures.

  15. Do all countries grow alike?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J. W. B.; Economidou, C.; Koetter, M.; Kolari, J. W.

    This paper investigates the driving forces of output change in 77 countries during the period 1970-2000. A flexible modeling strategy is adopted that accounts for (i) the inefficient use of resources, and (ii) different production technologies across countries. The proposed model can identify

  16. Ukraine : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    The main objectives of the country procurement assessment are to diagnose the public procurement system in Ukraine, assess compatibility of the country's laws, policies and procedures with international best practices, review compliance with the procurement laws and regulations and identify areas for improvement of the procurement system in Ukraine. With due recognition of the considerable...

  17. Rural poverty in transition countries

    OpenAIRE

    Macours, K; Swinnen, Jo

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses new poverty data based on household level surveys to analyze changes in rural poverty and rural-urban poverty differences in 23 transition countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the firmer Soviet Union. The paper presents a series of hypotheses to explain differences across countries and changes over time.

  18. List of High risk countries

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Francine Sinzinkayo

    2013-07-26

    Higher Risk Countries and Territories. Reviewed regularly. Last update: July 26, 2013. Country/Territory. Note (1). Sources of Concern. Canadian. Law or. Policy. Knowledge of research setting. Ability to monitor research activities. (Note 2). Operational. Issues. (Note 3). Banking. Restrictions. (Note 4). Afghanistan. X. X.

  19. Natural gas in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holwerda, B.

    1998-01-01

    Everywhere in the world plans are being made to stimulate the natural gas industry in developing countries. High investment costs are the biggest problem almost everywhere. Even countries with a closed economy realize that they do not get far without foreign capital. Cases are presented for Africa, Pakistan, and Indonesia

  20. Photovoltaic marketing in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muntasser, M.A.; Bara, M.F.; Quadri, H.A.; El-Tarabelsi, R.; La-azebi, I.F.

    2000-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) insolation-harnessing is acknowledged as the most practical economic solution to meet the requirements of one hundred million people without electricity in the developing countries. Industrialised countries in particular, have been active in utilising such technologies because they can afford the current peak watt prices of US $3-15 for such systems. The market in those countries will soon be close to saturation and attention by suppliers will have to be shifted to the already established larger market in less developed countries (LDCs). PV marketing in these developing countries, i.e. ability to penetrate the potential market, is facing tremendous hurdles. This paper reviews the present status and future directions of the PV market in developing countries as well as discusses the current technical, social, financial or geopolitical barriers and constraints, which are in line with the trends in the world. The paper concludes by making a global policy package proposal, in terms of an appeal on the global community concerned with PV to propagate proposal, in terms of an appeal on the global community concerned with PV to propagate this proposal more convincingly, perhaps to emanate from an internationally recognised 'forum', like a PV conference and exhibition, with cooperation and participation of PV manufacturers, suppliers, industrialised countries, NGOs, financial institutions and developing countries. (Author)