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Sample records for countries including utilization

  1. A study on the enhancement of nuclear cooperation with African countries including utilization of radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B; Lee, H. M. and others

    2005-05-15

    In this study, potential countries for nuclear cooperation in African region and possible cooperation areas were investigated between Korea and African countries including radioisotopes and more fields were also analysed in depth in order to suggest the recommendations for future cooperation to be considered as follows; First, current status and perspectives of demand and supply of energy and electricity in the African countries, use and development of nuclear energy and international nuclear cooperation were analyzed. Second, current status of nuclear cooperation between Korea and African countries were investigated as well as analysis of future cooperation potential and countries having potential for nuclear cooperation and possible cooperative activities were suggested considering potential of nuclear market in mid- and long term base and step by step. Third, desirable strategies and directions for the establishment and promotion of nuclear cooperation relations between Korea and African developing countries were suggested in order to develope cooperative relations in efficient and effective manners with African developing countries.

  2. Utilities reforms and corruption in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estache, Antonio [ECARES, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium); Goicoechea, Ana [The World Bank, Washington, DC (United States); Trujillo, Lourdes [DAEA, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Centre for Transport Studies, University College of London (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    This paper shows empirically that 'privatization' in the energy, telecommunications, and water sectors, and the introduction of independent regulators in those sectors, have not always had the expected effects on access, affordability, or quality of services. It also shows that corruption leads to adjustments in the quantity, quality, and price of services consistent with the profit-maximizing behavior that one would expect from monopolies in the sector. Finally, our results suggest that privatization and the introduction of independent regulators have, at best, only partial effects on the consequences of corruption for access, affordability, and quality of utilities services. (author)

  3. Utilization rates of knee-arthroplasty in OECD countries.

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    Pabinger, C; Lothaller, H; Geissler, A

    2015-10-01

    The number of knee arthroplasties and the prevalence of obesity are increasing exponentially. To date there have been no published reviews on utilization rates of knee arthroplasty in OECD countries. We analysed economic, medical and population data relating to knee arthroplasty surgeries performed in OECD countries. Gross domestic product (GDP), health expenditures, obesity prevalence, knee arthroplasty utilization rates and growth in knee arthroplasty rates per 100,000 population were assessed for total population, for patients aged 65 years and over, and patients aged 64 years and younger. Obesity prevalence and utilization of knee arthroplasty have increased significantly in the past. The mean utilization rate of knee arthroplasty was 150 (22-235) cases per 100,000 total population in 2011. The strongest annual increase (7%) occurred in patients 64 years and under. Differences between individual countries can be explained by economic and medical patterns, with countries with higher medical expenditures and obesity prevalence having significantly higher utilization rates. Countries with lower utilization rates have significantly higher growth in utilization rates. The future demand for knee prostheses will increase x-fold by 2030, with exact rates dependant upon economic, social and medical factors. We observed a 10-fold variation in the utilization of knee arthroplasty among OECD countries. A significant and strong correlation of GDP, health expenditures and obesity prevalence with utilization of knee arthroplasty was found. Patients aged 64 years and younger show a two-fold higher growth rate in knee arthroplasty compared to the older population. This trend could result in a four-fold demand for knee arthroplasty in OECD countries by 2030. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Inequalities in maternal health care utilization in sub-Saharan African countries: a multiyear and multi-country analysis.

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    Nazmul Alam

    Full Text Available To assess social inequalities in the use of antenatal care (ANC, facility based delivery (FBD, and modern contraception (MC in two contrasting groups of countries in sub-Saharan Africa divided based on their progress towards maternal mortality reduction. Six countries were included in this study. Three countries (Ethiopia, Madagascar, and Uganda had 4.5% average annual reduction rate while another three (Cameroon, Zambia, and Zimbabwe had >550 MMR in 2010 with only <1.5% average annual reduction rate. All of these countries had at least three rounds of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS before 2012. We measured rate ratios and differences, as well as relative and absolute concentration indices in order to examine within-country geographical and wealth-based inequalities in the utilization of ANC, FBD, and MC. In the countries which have made sufficient progress (i.e. Ethiopia, Madagascar, and Uganda, ANC use increased by 8.7, 9.3 and 5.7 percent, respectively, while the utilization of FBD increased by 4.7, 0.7 and 20.2 percent, respectively, over the last decade. By contrast, utilization of these services either plateaued or decreased in countries which did not make progress towards reducing maternal mortality, with the exception of Cameroon. Utilization of MC increased in all six countries but remained very low, with a high of 40.5% in Zimbabwe and low of 16.1% in Cameroon as of 2011. In general, relative measures of inequalities were found to have declined overtime in countries making progress towards reducing maternal mortality. In countries with insufficient progress towards maternal mortality reduction, these indicators remained stagnant or increased. Absolute measures for geographical and wealth-based inequalities remained high invariably in all six countries. The increasing trend in the utilization of maternal care services was found to concur with a steady decline in maternal mortality. Relative inequality declined overtime in countries

  5. Utilization rates of hip arthroplasty in OECD countries.

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    Pabinger, C; Geissler, A

    2014-06-01

    Hip arthroplasty and revision surgery is growing exponentially in OECD countries, but rates vary between countries. We extracted economic data and utilization rates data about hip arthroplasty done in OECD countries between 1990 and 2011. Absolute number of implantations and compound annual growth rates were computed per 100,000 population and for patients aged 65 years old and over and for patients aged 64 years and younger. In the majority of OECD countries, there has been a significant increase in the utilization of total hip arthroplasty in the last 10 years, but rates vary to a great extent: In the United States, Switzerland, and Germany the utilization rate exceeds 200/100,000 population whereas in Spain and Mexico rates are 102 and 8, respectively. There is a strong correlation between gross domestic product (GDP) and health care expenditures per capita with utilization rate. Utilization rates in all age groups have continued to rise up to present day. A seven fold higher growth rate was seen in patients aged 64 years and younger as compared to older patients. We observed a 38-fold variation in the utilization of hip arthroplasty among OECD countries, correlating with GDP and health care expenditures. Over recent years, there has been an increase in the utilization rate in most countries. This was particularly evident in the younger patients. Due to increasing life expectancy and the disproportionally high use of arthroplasty in younger patients we expect an exponential increase of revision rate in the future. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis on the status of Plutonium utilization in various countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-01

    Generally, spent fuel reprocessing/MOX fuel fabricating capacity goes on expanding, and so does the plutonium recycling accordingly. With priority given to LWRs as pivotal reactor type for it. Such countries as France, the U.K., Japan, Germany, Belgium, Switzerland and Russia are taking very positive attitudes towards plutonium recycling, whilst Canada, China, India and the Ukraine are also seeking the possibilities. In order to promote plutonium utilization, necessity of which is recognized in various aspects, it is prerequisite for worldwide nuclear industry to create international-political environment for it. As for Korea, efforts are necessary to secure maximum choice alternatives corresponding to national benefit, by exercising initiative in the new development of surrounding situation these days. 24 refs., 4 tabs. (Author) (Author) .new.

  7. Factors affecting the utilization of antenatal care in developing countries: systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkhada, Bibha; Teijlingen, Edwin R van; Porter, Maureen; Simkhada, Padam

    2008-02-01

    This paper is a report of a systematic review to identify and analyse the main factors affecting the utilization of antenatal care in developing countries. Antenatal care is a key strategy for reducing maternal mortality, but millions of women in developing countries do not receive it. A range of electronic databases was searched for studies conducted in developing countries and published between 1990 and 2006. English-language publications were searched using relevant keywords, and reference lists were hand-searched. A systematic review was carried out and both quantitative and qualitative studies were included. Twenty-eight papers were included in the review. Studies most commonly identified the following factors affecting antenatal care uptake: maternal education, husband's education, marital status, availability, cost, household income, women's employment, media exposure and having a history of obstetric complications. Cultural beliefs and ideas about pregnancy also had an influence on antenatal care use. Parity had a statistically significant negative effect on adequate attendance. Whilst women of higher parity tend to use antenatal care less, there is interaction with women's age and religion. Only one study examined the effect of the quality of antenatal services on utilization. None identified an association between the utilization of such services and satisfaction with them. More qualitative research is required to explore the effect of women's satisfaction, autonomy and gender role in the decision-making process. Adequate utilization of antenatal care cannot be achieved merely by establishing health centres; women's overall (social, political and economic) status needs to be considered.

  8. A revised checklist of the mosquitoes of Guatemala including a new country record, Psorophora cyanescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsie, R F

    1994-12-01

    A newly erected genus, Isostomyia, a recently described subgenus, Phenacomyia, of Culex, and 15 species have been added to the mosquito fauna of Guatemala since the last checklist was published by Clark-Gil and Darsie (1983); therefore a revised list is included. One of the additions is Psorophora cyanescens, a new country record for Guatemala. Its presence in Mexico and Central America is reviewed.

  9. 21 CFR 200.10 - Contract facilities (including consulting laboratories) utilized as extramural facilities by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contract facilities (including consulting... GENERAL General Provisions § 200.10 Contract facilities (including consulting laboratories) utilized as... Cosmetic Act specifically authorizes inspection of consulting laboratories as well as any factory...

  10. Comparison of outpatient utilization of psychopharmaceuticals between Croatia and Scandinavian countries (2001-2003

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    Z. Šostar

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Neurotropic drugs account for 15% of total drug utilization in Croatia. The aim was to estimate outpatient consumption of psychotropic drugs in Croatia in correlation with Scandinavian countries. Data on drug utilization in Croatia were collected and analyzed for the 2001-2003 period. Data were obtained from Zagreb Municipal Pharmacy and extrapolated to the total number of pharmacies. All drugs were classified according to Anatomical-Therapeutic-Chemical (ATC drug classification system. These data were used to calculate a number of defined daily doses (DDD and DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day (DDD/TID. Data of the Nordic Medico-Statistical Committee were used for Scandinavian countries. In Croatia, total utilization of psychopharmaceuticals of 144.9 DDD/TID in 2001, 148.9 DDD/TID in 2002 and 141.9 DDD/TID in 2003 exceeded that recorded in Scandinavian countries. Anxiolytics accounted for 90% of psycholeptic utilization in Croatia versus 22% in Sweden and 34% in Finland. The anxiolytic/antidepressant ratio decreased in Croatia by 35.19% (7.19 in 2001 and 4.66 in 2003, whereas in Scandinavian countries it showed a constant rate (0.7 in Finland, 0.4 in Denmark and Norway, and 0.3 in Sweden.

  11. Solar energy utilization in residential buildings: A comparative investigation for the EC countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, F.

    1980-01-01

    The technical and financial efficiency of solar heating devices in the EC countries was discussed. It can be shown that the attractivity of solar energy utilization in residential buildings depends not only from the local climatic conditions but also considerably from economic factors. Such factors, the significance of which differs from country to country, from the cost level for solar heating devices, for energy price policy and the preparedness for subsidies of the governments and the financial basis available for the buyers of solar heating devices. Solar heating devices used for space heating require to be coordinated with measures taken for the improvement of thermal insulation. In order to further propagate solar energy devices all countries shall have to strive for technical improvements as for example the long term storage of heat and to lower the costs of these devices.

  12. FBC utilization prospects in decentralized cogeneration units in Caucasus region countries

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    Skodras George

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Great differences are encountered among Caucasus region countries with respect to energy resources reserves and economic conditions. Thermal power plants consist of obsolete and inefficient units, while the Soviet-type large heating systems in the area collapsed after 1992 and their reconstruction is considered uneconomic. Renovation needs of the power and heat sector, and the potential of Fluidised Bed Combustion implementations in decentralized cogeneration units were investigated, since operating oil and gas power plants exhibit high fuel consumption, low efficiency and poor environmental performance. Results showed significant prospects of Fluidised Bed Combustion utilization in decentralized cogeneration units in the Caucausus region heat and power sector. Their introduction constitutes an economically attractive way to cover power and heat demands and promotes utilization of domestic energy resources in all of three countries, provided that financial difficulties could be confronted.

  13. A simple methodology to assess the energy and electricity utilization of a country

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    M.R. Giraldi–Díaz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple methodology was developed to assess the efficiency of resource utilization in the energy sector. This was made possible by grouping several variables related to the same general concept into one parameter. Similar at tempts have been made in the case of the Human Development Index created by the United Nations, and in a more elaborate concept related to the Sustainable Development Index developed by the University of Yale and the University of Columbia. A comparison is done, and possible correlations are analyzed between these indexes and that developed in this work. Results show that when one variable has a very favorable value in the energy context of the country, the index is greatly influenced. This can be observed by the fact that the proposed index improves in the case of countries with a surplus of energy resources. Despite the general approach of the developed method, the obtained index can be a first hand tool to evaluate the energy and electricity utilization of a country. This index can be properly integrated with similar indexes to achieve a more precise diagnosis of the situation of the country in question.

  14. Utilization of antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy: Comparative patterns in 38 countries based on data from the EURAP registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battino, D.; Bonizzoni, E.; Craig, J.

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the utilization of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), 1999-2005, in 4,798 prospective epilepsy pregnancies from 38 countries participating in EURAP, an international AED and pregnancy registry. Prominent differences in utilization patterns were observed across the various countries. Exposure...

  15. Utilization of antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy: Comparative patterns in 38 countries based on data from the EURAP registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battino, D.; Bonizzoni, E.; Craig, J.

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the utilization of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), 1999-2005, in 4,798 prospective epilepsy pregnancies from 38 countries participating in EURAP, an international AED and pregnancy registry. Prominent differences in utilization patterns were observed across the various countries. Exposure...

  16. Is vaccination good value for money? A review of cost-utility analyses of vaccination strategies in eight European countries

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    Marco Barbieri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study is to review published cost-utility analyses of vaccination strategies in eight European countries and to assess whether there are differences in cost-effectiveness terms among countries and vaccinations. Methods: A systematic search of the literature was conducted using the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database and the PubMed database. Cost-utility analyses of any type of vaccination that used quality-adjusted life years (QALYs as measure of benefit and conducted in Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, the Netherlands or the UK were included. Results: A total of 94 studies were identified. As a result of our search methodology, the vast majority of studies were conducted in the Netherlands or UK (33 and 30 studies, respectively. The most frequent vaccination types were against Human papillomavirus (HPV with 23 studies, followed by vaccination against pneumococcal infections (19 studies. The analysed vaccinations were generally cost-effective but with high variability. Considering an incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER of 40,000€/QALY, we noticed that the following vaccinations studies are below this threshold, i.e. all varicella and influenza (with one outlier studies, 90% of the studies for HPV and 75% of the studies for pneumococcal vaccinations. Rotavirus vaccination was considered as not cost-effective, with only 30% of studies below the threshold of 40,000€/QALY. There was no clear trend for vaccinations being more cost-effective in some countries. Conclusions: The published literature has shown that vaccination strategies are generally cost-effective in European countries. High heterogeneity in the results among studies and countries was found.

  17. COMPARISON OF EUROPEAN UNION QUALITY LABELS UTILIZATION IN VISEGRAD GROUP COUNTRIES

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    rka Velcovsk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on European Union quality system known as Protected Designation of Origin, Protected Geographical Indication and Tradional Speciality Guaranteed used in agricultural and food products sector. The aim of the paper is to analyse and compare the utilization of these labels by Visegrad group countries. Firstly, the literature review dealing with the topical area is given. Further, the European Union quality scheme is specified and the comparison of Visegrad group countries according to selected criteria is provided. Empirical part of the paper involves marketing research results analysis and discussion. Data comes from the Database of Origin and Registration. The sample consists of all 93 product names registered as Protected Designation of Origin, Protected Geographical Indication and Traditional Speciality Guaranteed in the database by Visegrad group countries to the 30th April 2013. The frequency of using the labels is analysed according to type of label, country of origin and product class. Pearsons chi-square test of independence and Pearson's and Cramer's contingency coefficients were used in order to confirm if significant differences do exist between variables.

  18. Economic status, education and empowerment: implications for maternal health service utilization in developing countries.

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    Saifuddin Ahmed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Relative to the attention given to improving the quality of and access to maternal health services, the influence of women's socio-economic situation on maternal health care use has received scant attention. The objective of this paper is to examine the relationship between women's economic, educational and empowerment status, introduced as the 3Es, and maternal health service utilization in developing countries. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The analysis uses data from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 31 countries for which data on all the 3Es are available. Separate logistic regression models are fitted for modern contraceptive use, antenatal care and skilled birth attendance in relation to the three covariates of interest: economic, education and empowerment status, additionally controlling for women's age and residence. We use meta-analysis techniques to combine and summarize results from multiple countries. The 3Es are significantly associated with utilization of maternal health services. The odds of having a skilled attendant at delivery for women in the poorest wealth quintile are 94% lower than that for women in the highest wealth quintile and almost 5 times higher for women with complete primary education relative to those less educated. The likelihood of using modern contraception and attending four or more antenatal care visits are 2.01 and 2.89 times, respectively, higher for women with complete primary education than for those less educated. Women with the highest empowerment score are between 1.31 and 1.82 times more likely than those with a null empowerment score to use modern contraception, attend four or more antenatal care visits and have a skilled attendant at birth. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Efforts to expand maternal health service utilization can be accelerated by parallel investments in programs aimed at poverty eradication (MDG 1, universal primary education (MDG 2, and women

  19. Economic status, education and empowerment: implications for maternal health service utilization in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Saifuddin; Creanga, Andreea A; Gillespie, Duff G; Tsui, Amy O

    2010-06-23

    Relative to the attention given to improving the quality of and access to maternal health services, the influence of women's socio-economic situation on maternal health care use has received scant attention. The objective of this paper is to examine the relationship between women's economic, educational and empowerment status, introduced as the 3Es, and maternal health service utilization in developing countries. The analysis uses data from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 31 countries for which data on all the 3Es are available. Separate logistic regression models are fitted for modern contraceptive use, antenatal care and skilled birth attendance in relation to the three covariates of interest: economic, education and empowerment status, additionally controlling for women's age and residence. We use meta-analysis techniques to combine and summarize results from multiple countries. The 3Es are significantly associated with utilization of maternal health services. The odds of having a skilled attendant at delivery for women in the poorest wealth quintile are 94% lower than that for women in the highest wealth quintile and almost 5 times higher for women with complete primary education relative to those less educated. The likelihood of using modern contraception and attending four or more antenatal care visits are 2.01 and 2.89 times, respectively, higher for women with complete primary education than for those less educated. Women with the highest empowerment score are between 1.31 and 1.82 times more likely than those with a null empowerment score to use modern contraception, attend four or more antenatal care visits and have a skilled attendant at birth. Efforts to expand maternal health service utilization can be accelerated by parallel investments in programs aimed at poverty eradication (MDG 1), universal primary education (MDG 2), and women's empowerment (MDG 3).

  20. Ethnicity and cardiovascular health research: pushing the boundaries by including comparison populations in the countries of origin.

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    Agyemang, Charles; de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Bhopal, Raj

    2012-01-01

    Chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major health problems in most ethnic minority and migrant populations living in high income countries. By the same token, CVD is a looming threat that is creating a double burden in most of the countries where these populations originate from. The causes of the rising burden are unclear, but they are likely to be multifaceted. Traditionally, ethnicity and health research have mostly concentrated on comparing the health of ethnic minority groups with the majority populations of the countries in which they live. This is an important area of research which illuminates ethnic inequalities in health. However, a few studies on international comparisons show that a lot can be learned from comparing similar ethnic groups living in different industrialised countries. Equally, comparing ethnic minority and migrant populations to similar populations in their countries of origin will generate new knowledge about factors that predispose them to poor health outcomes. Thus, to make progress in the field of ethnicity and health research, we need a new conceptual framework that simultaneously studies migrant/ethnic groups in the country of settlement, in similar countries of settlement, and in the countries of ancestral origin. Such studies need to go beyond the commonest design of cross-sectional studies to include more cohort studies, interventions and linkage studies. This article discusses (1) the burden of CVD in ethnic minority and migrant populations; (2) approaches to understanding predisposing factors; and (3) application of the results to give insight into the potential threats that their countries of origin are likely to face.

  1. Evaluating preference weights for the Asthma Symptom Utility Index (ASUI across countries

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    Mörk Ann-Christin

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Asthma Symptom Utility Index (ASUI is a preference-based outcome measure used in US clinical trials and cost-effectiveness studies for asthma. This study evaluated ASUI preference weights in Europe to determine whether the multi-attribute utility function, based on preferences from a US population, is generalizable across countries. Methods Data were collected from ninety asthma patients from Italy, France, and the United Kingdom using the Asthma Control Questionnaire, the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire, and the ASUI. Subjects rated their preferences for 10 asthma health states using a visual analogue scale (VAS and a standard gamble (SG interview. Results All multi-symptom states showed statistically significant differences (p Conclusion Results of this study suggest that the ASUI may be a complementary patient-reported outcome for clinical studies and may be useful for applications in cost-effectiveness studies comparing different asthma treatments.

  2. Utility and effectiveness of orbito-ocular B-scan ultrasonography in an African developing country.

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    Eze, Boniface I; Onu, Augustine C; Imo, Augustine O; Mgbor, Samuel O

    2013-11-01

    Diagnostic orbito-ocular ultrasonography is a safe, affordable, and cost-effective procedure that is especially suited for resource-poor developing countries. Periodic evaluation of its utility and effectiveness is important in the light of phenomenal advances in medical imaging. To assess the utility and effectiveness of B-scan orbito-ocular ultrasonography in a Nigerian ophthalmic patient population. The Hansa Clinic's database was retrospectively reviewed, between January 2006 and December 2010, to obtain patients' relevant demographic and clinical data. Results . The subjects comprised 119 males and 81 females. The leading sonographic diagnoses were ocular (90.4%): retinal detachment-23.3%, cataract-14.0%, and vitreous haemorrhage-10.5%; orbital (8.3%): 'mass lesion'-4.8% and myopathies-0.8%. The agreement between clinical and sonographic diagnoses was complete in 35.5% eyes. At Hansa Clinics, intraocular lesions are the main findings of diagnostic orbito-ocular sonography. There is poor agreement between clinical and sonographic diagnoses. Improved correlation of patients' clinic-pathologic data is suggested.

  3. Eye care utilization by older adults in low, middle, and high income countries

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    Vela Claudia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of visual impairment increases dramatically with age and therefore older adults should have their eyes examined at least every 1 to 2 years. Using a world-wide, population-based dataset, we sought to determine the frequency that older people had their eyes examined. We also examined factors associated with having a recent eye exam. Methods The World Health Surveys were conducted in 70 countries throughout the world in 2002-2003 using a random, multi-stage, stratified, cluster sampling design. Participants 60 years and older from 52 countries (n = 35,839 were asked "When was the last time you had your eyes examined by a medical professional?". The income status of countries was estimated using gross national income per capita data from 2003 from the World Bank website. Prevalence estimates were adjusted to account for the complex sample design. Results Overall, only 18% (95% CI 17, 19 of older adults had an eye exam in the last year. The rate of an eye exam in the last year in low, lower middle, upper middle, and high income countries was 10%, 24%, 22%, and 37% respectively. Factors associated with having an eye exam in the last year included older age, female gender, more education, urban residence, greater wealth, worse self-reported health, having diabetes, and wearing glasses or contact lenses (p Conclusions Given that older adults often suffer from age-related but treatable conditions, they should be seen on a regular basis to prevent visual impairment and its disabling consequences.

  4. Registry data for cross-country comparisons of migrants' healthcare utilization in the EU: a survey study of availability and content

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    Krasnik Allan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cross-national comparable data on migrants' use of healthcare services are important to address problems in access to healthcare; to identify high risk groups for prevention efforts; and to evaluate healthcare systems comparatively. Some of the main obstacles limiting analyses of health care utilization are lack of sufficient coverage and availability of reliable and valid healthcare data which includes information allowing for identification of migrants. The objective of this paper was to reveal which registry data on healthcare utilization were available in the EU countries in which migrants can be identified; and to determine to what extent data were comparable between the EU countries. Methods A questionnaire survey on availability of healthcare utilization registries in which migrants can be identified was carried out among all national statistic agencies and other relevant national health authorities in the 27 EU countries in 2008-9 as part of the Migrant and Ethnic Minority Health Observatory-project (MEHO. The information received was compared with information from a general survey on availability of survey and registry data on migrants conducted by Agency of Public Health, Lazio Region, Italy within the MEHO-project; thus, the information on registries was double-checked to assure accuracy and verification. Results Available registry data on healthcare utilization which allow for identification on migrants on a national/regional basis were only reported in 11 EU countries: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Poland, Slovenia, and Sweden. Data on hospital care, including surgical procedures, were most frequently available whereas only few countries had data on care outside the hospital. Regarding identification of migrants, five countries reported having information on both citizenship and country of birth, one reported availability of information on country of birth, and

  5. Determinants of Utilization of Eye Care Services in a Rural Adult Population of a Developing Country.

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    Olusanya, Bolutife A; Ashaye, Adeyinka O; Owoaje, Eme T; Baiyeroju, Aderonke M; Ajayi, Benedictus G

    2016-01-01

    To describe the factors that determine the utilization of eye care services in a rural community in South-Western Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional survey using a multistage sampling technique was conducted. The main outcome measure was self-reported previous consultation of an orthodox medical facility for eye care. The study sample included 643 participants. Only 122 (19%) respondents had previously visited orthodox facilities in search of eye care and 24% of those with presenting visual acuity literacy (OR = 1.7, P = 0.007); and residing close to an eye care facility (OR = 2.8, P literacy; residence close to an eye facility; being diabetic or hypertensive; history of ocular symptoms, and blindness. These findings suggest that a significant proportion (75%) of adults in the study area are not utilizing eye care services and that blindness is an important determinant of utilization of eye care services. Health education and awareness campaigns about the importance and benefits of seeking eye care early, and the provision of community-based eye care programs are essential to boost the uptake of eye care services in this community as well as other rural areas of West Africa.

  6. Utility of sea snakes as bio-indicators for diverse marine environments including coral reefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redsted Rasmussen, Arne

    2016-01-01

    be a valuable tool to accomplish this goal. Recent research shows that a group of sea snakes (the sea kraits Laticauda spp.) specialised on eels as prey, bears the promise of being useful bio-indicators for surveying the Anguilliform fish (eel like fish) in coral reefs(Brischoux, Bonnet, & Legagneux, 2009...... including coral reefs. Choosing sea snakes as bio-indicators in a broader sense is not possible with the present knowledge on the group today. It is therefore most needed to get more knowledge on sea snake biology to make it possible to use them as marine indicator species to measure e.g. biodiversity...

  7. Relay telescope including baffle, and high power laser amplifier utilizing the same

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    Dane, C. Brent; Hackel, Lloyd; Harris, Fritz B.

    2006-09-19

    A laser system includes an optical path having an intracavity relay telescope with a telescope focal point for imaging an output of the gain medium between an image location at or near the gain medium and an image location at or near an output coupler for the laser system. A kinematic mount is provided within a vacuum chamber, and adapted to secure beam baffles near the telescope focal point. An access port on the vacuum chamber is adapted for allowing insertion and removal of the beam baffles. A first baffle formed using an alignment pinhole aperture is used during alignment of the laser system. A second tapered baffle replaces the alignment aperture during operation and acts as a far-field baffle in which off angle beams strike the baffle a grazing angle of incidence, reducing fluence levels at the impact areas.

  8. Assessing CO2 Mitigation Options Utilizing Detailed Electricity Characteristics and Including Renewable Generation

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    Bensaida, K.; Alie, Colin; Elkamel, A.; Almansoori, A.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a novel techno-economic optimization model for assessing the effectiveness of CO2 mitigation options for the electricity generation sub-sector that includes renewable energy generation. The optimization problem was formulated as a MINLP model using the GAMS modeling system. The model seeks the minimization of the power generation costs under CO2 emission constraints by dispatching power from low CO2 emission–intensity units. The model considers the detailed operation of the electricity system to effectively assess the performance of GHG mitigation strategies and integrates load balancing, carbon capture and carbon taxes as methods for reducing CO2 emissions. Two case studies are discussed to analyze the benefits and challenges of the CO2 reduction methods in the electricity system. The proposed mitigations options would not only benefit the environment, but they will as well improve the marginal cost of producing energy which represents an advantage for stakeholders.

  9. Immunofluorescence patterns in selected dermatoses, including blistering skin diseases utilizing multiple fluorochromes

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    Ana Maria Abreu-Velez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autoimmune vesiculobullous disorders represent a heterogeneous group of dermatoses whose diagnosis is made based on clinical history, histologic features, and immunopathologic features. The most commonly used techniques for the diagnosis of these diseases are direct and indirect immunofluorescence (DIF and IIF, including salt-split processing. NaCl split skin is used to determine the level of blister formation, and the localization of autoantibodies relative to the split. Classically, immunofluorescence has been performed with one fluorochrome in the diagnosis of autoimmune bullous skin diseases. Aims: To compare DIF and IIF of the skin, using a single fluorochrome versus multiple fluorochromes. Materials and Methods: We studied 20 autoimmune skin disease cases using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC alone, in comparison to multiple fluorochromes (with or without DNA counterstaining. Results: The use of multiple fluorochromes helped to simultaneously visualize reactivity in multiple skin areas, in contrast to using FITC alone. Conclusions: Using multiple fluorochromes allows simultaneous labeling of two or more antigens within the same cell/or tissue section, assists in colocalization of unknown antigens with known molecules, and helps in ruling out "background" staining.

  10. Biomechanical analysis of different starting strategies utilized during cross-country skiing starts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltmann, Victor Wennemar; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Pelttari, Pasi; Mikkola, Jussi; Häkkinen, Keijo; Ohtonen, Olli; Linnamo, Vesa

    2016-11-01

    The present study was designed to analyse and compare the kinetics and kinematics associated with three different starting strategies during classic cross-country ski racing. Inside a ski tunnel, 12 elite male skiers performed three sets of three 38 m starts. Each set included one start using: double poling only (DP), diagonal stride only (DIA) and freely chosen (FREE) (i.e. where subjects used the strategy or combination of strategies they felt was fastest) in random order. The first 18 m was performed on a series of force plates that measured horizontal and vertical forces followed by 20 m of a standard snow track. Additionally, cycle characteristics and joint angles were measured. DIA and FREE were faster over 38 m than DP (P skied faster when using only DIA for the entire 38 m. Furthermore, the sum duration and frequency of propulsive contacts over the first 18 m was less in DP than DIA and FREE (P < .01). In conclusion, differences between the starting strategies examined was especially pronounced during the initial cycles. Transition from DIA to DP during the start also slowed the skiers, but optimal timing for such a transition was not elucidated.

  11. Comparison of Electric Utility Restructuring in Major Foreign Countries: Empirical Analysis on the Pool Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, W.C. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    The object of this study is to suggest policy directions about the market structure and the trading system of TWBP (two-way bidding pool) under the ongoing electric power restructuring scheme in Korea. For this purpose, major foreign countries' restructuring experiences, especially the market forms and trading systems, were reviewed. Based on the review, I suggested the introduction of electricity contract markets and the short- and long-term policy alternatives for adopting them. In order to test the feasibility of the policy alternatives, an empirical analysis was performed on the comparative advantage between gross pool and net pool. The data used in the empirical analysis includes simulation results of year 2000 from KPX (Korea Power Exchange), six generators' fuels costs, etc. A supply function model was modified to an operational model to calculate the generators' bidding prices and quantities, and their variable profits. In addition, the effects of introducing contracts for differences (CfDs) and bilateral contracts were analyzed in terms of market efficiency. In this study, the criteria of market efficiency are the means and the standard deviations of generators' bidding prices and their variable profits. Based on the empirical results, the following policy implications were proposed. As a short-term alternative, it would be necessary to incorporate the concept of hedging contracts into current gross pool mechanism. Related to this, through the promotion of contract markets it should be induced to decrease the general levels of bidding prices and to manage the volatility of market prices. As a long-term alternative, the possibility to transfer gross pool into net pool should be considered. (author). 53 refs., 32 figs., 38 tabs.

  12. Utilization of solar energy in developing countries: Identifying some potential markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, G. F.; Siddiqi, T. A.

    1978-01-01

    The potential use of solar electricity generated from photovoltaic cells is examined for nineteen developing nations. Energy and economic profiles are summarized for each country. A comparison is made between the use of autogeneration and photovoltaics in a rural area of Haiti.

  13. Technologies for utilizing natural resources create new job opportunities in the geosciences in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswathanarayana, U.

    Water, soils, minerals, and biota constitute a community's most significant natural resources. Innovations in technology are generating new jobs in converting into a resource what was yesterday a non-resource; in developing process and control technologies to minimize wastes; and in waste recycling.“Resources are not, they become,” in the words of Zimmerman. In the case of the developing countries, the technologies of choice have not only to be ecologically sustainable and economically viable, but more importantly, employment generating. The new kinds of jobs—for example, in poverty alleviation projects via micro-enterprises based on value-added processing of natural resources—have a strong environmental relevance and tend to lie at the interface of several traditional scientific disciplines. Geoscience graduates in the developing countries are best placed to take advantage of these new job opportunities involving Earth materials, but only if they are exposed to broad-based geoscience instruction.

  14. Including sustainability issues in nurse education: A comparative study of first year student nurses' attitudes in four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, Janet; Heidenreich, Thomas; Álvarez-Nieto, Carmen; Fasseur, F; Grose, Jane; Huss, N; Huynen, Maud; López-Medina, IM; A, Schweizer

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Education in sustainable development is a goal recognised by a large number of countries and a vital concept in healthcare. It is therefore important that nurse education incorporates elements of sustainable development into nursing education curricula. However, there is limited

  15. RDI's Wisdom Way Solar Village Final Report: Includes Utility Bill Analysis of Occupied Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robb Aldrich, Steven Winter Associates

    2011-07-01

    In 2010, Rural Development, Inc. (RDI) completed construction of Wisdom Way Solar Village (WWSV), a community of ten duplexes (20 homes) in Greenfield, MA. RDI was committed to very low energy use from the beginning of the design process throughout construction. Key features include: 1. Careful site plan so that all homes have solar access (for active and passive); 2. Cellulose insulation providing R-40 walls, R-50 ceiling, and R-40 floors; 3. Triple-pane windows; 4. Airtight construction (~0.1 CFM50/ft2 enclosure area); 5. Solar water heating systems with tankless, gas, auxiliary heaters; 6. PV systems (2.8 or 3.4kWSTC); 7. 2-4 bedrooms, 1,100-1,700 ft2. The design heating loads in the homes were so small that each home is heated with a single, sealed-combustion, natural gas room heater. The cost savings from the simple HVAC systems made possible the tremendous investments in the homes' envelopes. The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) monitored temperatures and comfort in several homes during the winter of 2009-2010. In the Spring of 2011, CARB obtained utility bill information from 13 occupied homes. Because of efficient lights, appliances, and conscientious home occupants, the energy generated by the solar electric systems exceeded the electric energy used in most homes. Most homes, in fact, had a net credit from the electric utility over the course of a year. On the natural gas side, total gas costs averaged $377 per year (for heating, water heating, cooking, and clothes drying). Total energy costs were even less - $337 per year, including all utility fees. The highest annual energy bill for any home evaluated was $458; the lowest was $171.

  16. Economics of gas utilization in a gas-rich, oil-poor country: case of Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, G.

    1983-01-01

    It appears that for gas-rich, petroleum-poor countries like Bangladesh, the introduction and systematic promotion of gas substitution in unconventional uses is feasible. This discussion shows how the difference in relative production costs, availability, and conversion plus transport cost of gas in export markets makes it relatively more attractive to push domestic gas use as a replacement for oil. This is true even if it involves much higher usage costs than would be economically acceptable in the industrialized nations. Such a strategy also calls for the development of gas technologies not commonly used or readily available from the industrialized world. In developed areas, relative costs, prices, and availability of natural gas are such that there is no need for such extended substitution. 11 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  17. Let's Take it to the Clouds: The Potential of Educational Innovations, Including Blended Learning, for Capacity Building in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrinan, Hannah; Firth, Sonja; Hipgrave, David; Jimenez-Soto, Eliana

    2015-06-27

    In modern decentralised health systems, district and local managers are increasingly responsible for financing, managing, and delivering healthcare. However, their lack of adequate skills and competencies are a critical barrier to improved performance of health systems. Given the financial and human resource, constraints of relying on traditional face-to-face training to upskill a large and dispersed number of health managers, governments, and donors must look to exploit advances in the education sector. In recent years, education providers around the world have been experimenting with blended learning; that is, amalgamating traditional face-to-face education with web-based learning to reduce costs and enrol larger numbers of students. Access to improved information and communication technology (ICT) has been the major catalyst for such pedagogical innovations. We argue that with many developing countries already improving their ICT systems, the question is not whether but how to employ technology to facilitate the continuous professional development of district and local health managers in decentralised settings.

  18. [Initial antibiotic therapy in maternal-fetal infections which include ampicillin even in countries where listeriosis is an incidental disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukadida, J; Taher, N Bel Hadj; Seket, B; Monastiri, K; Salem, N; Snoussi, N

    2002-06-01

    Neonatal listeriosis is an exceptional disease in Northern Africa. Hence, protocols for maternal-fetal infection treatment include only a third generation cephalosporin and an aminoside. This protocol does not take into account the possibility of Listeria monocytogenes infection. We report a fatal case of neonatal listeriosis in Tunisia. The use of first antibiotics in maternal-foetal infection must be reconsidered when lacking sufficient bacteriological data and include systematically ampicillin in presumptive antibiotic protocols.

  19. 78 FR 36768 - Battery Utility of Ohio, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Battery Utility of Ohio, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Battery Utility of Ohio, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  20. Including health economic analysis in pilot studies: lessons learned from a cost-utility analysis within the PROSPECTIV pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richéal M. Burns

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available PurposeTo assess feasibility and health economic benefits and costs as part of a pilot study for a nurse-led, psychoeducational intervention (NPLI for prostate cancer in order to understand the potential for cost effectiveness as well as contribute to the design of a larger scale trial.MethodsMen with stable prostate cancer post-treatment were recruited from two cancer centres in the UK. Eighty-three men were randomised to the NLPI plus usual care or usual care alone (UCA (42 NLPI and 41 UCA; the NLPI plus usual care was delivered in the primary-care setting (the intervention and included an initial face-to-face consultation with a trained nurse, with follow-up tailored to individual needs. The study afforded the opportunity to undertake a short-term within pilot analysis. The primary outcome measure for the economic evaluation was quality of life, as measured by the EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L instrument. Costs (£2014 assessed included health-service resource use, out-of-pocket expenses and losses from inability to undertake usual activities.ResultsTotal and incremental costs varied across the different scenarios assessed, with mean cost differences ranging from £173 to £346; incremental effect, as measured by the change in utility scores over the duration of follow-up, exhibited wide confidence intervals highlighting inconclusive effectiveness (95% CI: -0.0226; 0.0438. The cost per patient of delivery of the intervention would be reduced if rolled out to a larger patient cohort.ConclusionsThe NLPI is potentially cost saving depending on the scale of delivery; however, the results presented are not considered generalisable.

  1. [Baltic connections : archival guide to the maritime relations of the countries around the Baltic Sea (including the Netherlands) 1450-1800)] / Enn Küng

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Küng, Enn

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Baltic connections : archival guide to the maritime relations of the countries around the Baltic Sea (including the Netherlands) 1450-1800). Leiden, Boston : Brill, 2007. Lisaks raamatule on arhiivijuht kättesaadav ka elektrooniliselt http://www.balticconnections.net/

  2. [Baltic connections : archival guide to the maritime relations of the countries around the Baltic Sea (including the Netherlands) 1450-1800)] / Enn Küng

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Küng, Enn

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Baltic connections : archival guide to the maritime relations of the countries around the Baltic Sea (including the Netherlands) 1450-1800). Leiden, Boston : Brill, 2007. Lisaks raamatule on arhiivijuht kättesaadav ka elektrooniliselt http://www.balticconnections.net/

  3. Gonorrhoea and gonococcal antimicrobial resistance surveillance networks in the WHO European Region, including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unemo, Magnus; Ison, Catherine A; Cole, Michelle; Spiteri, Gianfranco; van de Laar, Marita; Khotenashvili, Lali

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has emerged for essentially all antimicrobials following their introduction into clinical practice. During the latest decade, susceptibility to the last remaining options for antimicrobial monotherapy, the extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC), has markedly decreased internationally and treatment failures with these ESCs have been verified. In response to this developing situation, WHO and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) have published global and region-specific response plans, respectively. One main component of these action/response plans is to enhance the surveillance of AMR and treatment failures. This paper describes the perspectives from the diverse WHO European Region (53 countries), including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union, regarding gonococcal AMR surveillance networks. The WHO European Region has a high prevalence of resistance to all previously recommended antimicrobials, and most of the first strictly verified treatment failures with cefixime and ceftriaxone were also reported from Europe. In the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA), the European gonococcal antimicrobial surveillance programme (Euro-GASP) funded by the ECDC is running. In 2011, the Euro-GASP included 21/31 (68%) EU/EEA countries, and the programme is further strengthened annually. However, in the non-EU/EEA countries, internationally reported and quality assured gonococcal AMR data are lacking in 87% of the countries and, worryingly, appropriate support for establishment of a GASP is still lacking. Accordingly, national and international support, including political and financial commitment, for gonococcal AMR surveillance in the non-EU/EEA countries of the WHO European Region is essential.

  4. Renewable energy utilization and CO2 mitigation in the power sector: A case study in selected GMS countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Pagnarith

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is an alternative resource to substitute fossil fuels. Currently, the share of renewable energy inpower generation is very low. The selected Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS, namely, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand andVietnam is a region having abundant of renewable energy resources. Though these countries have a high potential of renewableenergy utilization, they are still highly dependent on the imported fossil fuels for electricity generation. The less contributionof renewable energy in the power sector in the region is due to the high cost of technologies. Renewable energytechnology cannot compete with the conventional power plant. However, in order to promote renewable energy utilizationand reduce dependency on imported fossil fuel as well as to mitigate CO2 emissions from the power sector, this study introducesfour renewable energy technologies, namely, biomass, wind, solar PV, and geothermal power, for substitution of conventionaltechnologies. To make the renewable energy competitive to the fossil fuels, incentives in terms of carbon credit of20$/ton-ne CO2 are taken into account. Results are analyzed by using the Long-Range Energy Alternative Planning System(LEAP modeling. Results of analyses reveal that in the renewable energy (RE scenario the biomass power, wind, solarphotovoltaics, and geothermal would contribute in electricity supply for 5.47 GW in the region, accounted for 3.5% in 2030.The RE scenario with carbon credits could mitigate CO2 emissions at about 36.0 million tonne at lower system cost whencompared to the business-as-usual scenario.

  5. New utilization and recall of carbon dioxide in domestic and foreign countries; Saikin no naigai ni okeru tansan gas no riyo to kaishu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanada, M.

    1994-09-01

    This paper summarizes the utilization technologies and recovery of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is manufactured from such inorganic materials as carbonates and cokes, and such organic materials as hydrocarbons and alcohols. Carbon dioxide used in refreshing beverages is manufactured by sulfuric acid decomposition of sodium bicarbonate or limestone, pyrolysis of carbonates, natural gushing, and alcohol fermentation. Sodium carbonate is obtained by using the Solvay process that uses NaCl, NH3 and CaCO3 as the raw materials, but CO2 from hydrocarbons is utilized recently. The sugar industry uses slaked lime and CO2 in cleaning raw sugar concentrates. Grain size, shape, and grain size distribution of the precipitated calcium carbonate light obtained from reaction of slaked lime and CO2 are affected by reaction temperatures and concentrations. This precipitated calcium carbonate light is used in rubber filling, paper manufacturing, and plastics. South Africa and other countries manufacture gypsum for cement by using limestone and sulfuric acid as the raw materials. The annual dispersion of CO2 from fossil fuel consumption amounts to 5.2 billion tons. Discussed as its reducing measures include fixation by sea algae, adsorption, absorption and clathration by zeolite and monoethanol amine. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Discussion on Development and Utilization of International Rivers for Countries on the Upper Reaches%论国际河流上游国家的开发利用权

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝少英

    2011-01-01

    Due to particular geographical conditions, development and utilization of international rivers for countries on the upper reaches are of great importance to the exploitation of water resources for countries on the lower reaches, affecting water quantity and quality, hydrology, as well as ecology of the lower reaches. Countries possess the permanent sovereignty over international water resources pertaining to their territory, which is the most critical legal basis for the national development and utilization rights of countries on the upper reaches. On the other hand, the theory of “limited territorial sovereignty” is a reflection of a positive trend that countries on the upper reaches of international rivers can utilize water resources on the premise of not leading damage to the sovereignty of other countries. In addition, development and utilization rights for countries on the upper reaches and obligations to international water resources would be further confirmed by international arbitration and case service. Therefore, in accordance with international water law, countries situated in the upper reaches of international rivers should exercise the rights of water resources development and utilization in a fair and reasonable manner.The rights and obligations include: insisting on the sovereignty over national resources development without causing significant harms to other countries; adhering to the principle of precautions to the damage; maintaining sustainable development, and accounting for the interests of countries in the lower reaches of international rivers; building certain compensation mechanisms to balance water interests between countries on the upper reaches and the lower reaches; making effort to actively cooperate with countries on the lower reaches. China, on the upper reaches of several international rivers, is committed to development, utilization, and protection of international rivers. As a result, in the light of characteristics of

  7. Design of a Class of Antennas Utilizing MEMS, EBG and Septum Polarizers including Near-field Coupling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ilkyu

    Recent developments in mobile communications have led to an increased appearance of short-range communications and high data-rate signal transmission. New technologies provides the need for an accurate near-field coupling analysis and novel antenna designs. An ability to effectively estimate the coupling within the near-field region is required to realize short-range communications. Currently, two common techniques that are applicable to the near-field coupling problem are 1) integral form of coupling formula and 2) generalized Friis formula. These formulas are investigated with an emphasis on straightforward calculation and accuracy for various distances between the two antennas. The coupling formulas are computed for a variety of antennas, and several antenna configurations are evaluated through full-wave simulation and indoor measurement in order to validate these techniques. In addition, this research aims to design multi-functional and high performance antennas based on MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) switches, EBG (Electromagnetic Bandgap) structures, and septum polarizers. A MEMS switch is incorporated into a slot loaded patch antenna to attain frequency reconfigurability. The resonant frequency of the patch antenna can be shifted using the MEM switch, which is actuated by the integrated bias networks. Furthermore, a high gain base-station antenna utilizing beam-tilting is designed to maximize gain for tilted beam applications. To realize this base-station antenna, an array of four dipole-EBG elements is constructed to implement a fixed down-tilt main beam with application in base station arrays. An improvement of the operating range with the EBG-dipole array is evaluated using a simple linkbudget analysis. The septum polarizer has been widely used in circularly polarized antenna systems due to its simple and compact design and high quality of circularity. In this research, the sigmoid function is used to smoothen the edge in the septum design, which

  8. Dental health services utilization and associated factors in children 6 to 12 years old in a low-income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Solis, Carlo Eduardo; Maupomé, Gerardo; del Socorro, Herrera Miriam; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Hector

    2008-01-01

    To determine the factors associated with the dental health services utilization among children ages 6 to 12 in León, Nicaragua. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 1,400 schoolchildren. Using a questionnaire, we determined information related to utilization and independent variables in the previous year. Oral health needs were established by means of a dental examination. To identify the independent variables associated with dental health services utilization, two types of multivariate regression models were used, according to the measurement scale of the outcome variable: a) frequency of utilization as (0) none, (1) one, and (2) two or more, analyzed with the ordered logistic regression and b) the type of service utilized as (0) none, (1) preventive services, (2) curative services, and (3) both services, analyzed with the multinomial logistic regression. The proportion of children who received at least one dental service in the 12 months prior to the study was 27.7 percent. The variables associated with utilization in the two models were older age, female sex, more frequent toothbrushing, positive attitude of the mother toward the child's oral health, higher socioeconomic level, and higher oral health needs. Various predisposing, enabling, and oral health needs variables were associated with higher dental health services utilization. As in prior reports elsewhere, these results from Nicaragua confirmed that utilization inequalities exist between socioeconomic groups. The multinomial logistic regression model evidenced the association of different variables depending on the type of service used.

  9. Adjusted indices of multiple deprivation to enable comparisons within and between constituent countries of the UK including an illustration using mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Gary A; Barclay, Matthew E; Payne, Rupert A

    2016-11-15

    Social determinants can have a major impact on health and as a consequence substantial inequalities are seen between and within countries. The study of inequalities between countries relies on having accurate and consistent measures of deprivation across the country borders. However, in the UK most socioeconomic deprivation measures are not comparable between countries. We give a method of adjusting the Indices of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) for use across the UK, describe the deprivation of each UK country, and show the problems introduced by naïvely using country-specific deprivation measures in a UK-wide analysis of mortality rates. 42 148 geographic areas covering the population of the UK. Adjusted IMD scores based on the income and employment domains of country-specific IMD scores, adjusting for the contribution of other domains. The mortality rate among people aged under 75 years standardised to the UK age structure was compared between country-specific and UK-adjusted IMD quintiles. Of the constituent countries of the UK, Northern Ireland was the most deprived with 37% of the population living in areas in the most deprived fifth of the UK, followed by Wales with 22% of the population living in the most deprived fifth of the UK. England and Scotland had similar levels of deprivation. Deprivation-specific mortality rates were similar in England and Wales. Northern Ireland had lower mortality rates than England for each deprivation group, with similar differences for each group. Scotland had higher mortality rates than England for each deprivation group, with larger differences for more deprived groups. Analyses of between-country and within-country inequalities by socioeconomic position should use consistent measures; failing to use consistent measures may give misleading results. The published adjusted IMD scores we describe allow consistent analysis across the UK. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  10. Health care utilization patterns in developing countries: role of the technology environment in "deriving" the demand for health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, A V

    1992-01-01

    Health care services, in combination with several intermediate (proximate) determinants of health such as environmental sanitation and nutrition, directly influence health status. In the economics literature, this is referred to as the health production technology. Although many studies recognize that demand for health care depends on the health production technology, otherwise known as a "derived" demand, this review indicates that few of them have so far been able to fully incorporate this technology in estimating significant determinants of health care use. Understanding the technology environment could help explain why substantial portions of the population do not gain access to care even when financial factors do not appear to be a barrier. Also, low utilization of health services may simply reflect the low productivity of these services when other complementary factors such as nutrition or clean water and sanitation are lacking. Finally, since health-producing technology is often a multistep (multivisit) process, health care demand studies generally offer an incomplete picture of health care utilization patterns because they focus on a single event such as the first visit of an illness episode. Researchers should obtain more complete information on the interaction between all health production inputs, their availability and access to them. Multidisciplinary methodologies are likely to be useful.

  11. Do Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines Represent Good Value for Money in a Lower-Middle Income Country? A Cost-Utility Analysis in the Philippines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alexander Haasis

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to assess the value for money of introducing pneumococcal conjugate vaccines as part of the immunization program in a lower-middle income country, the Philippines, which is not eligible for GAVI support and lower vaccine prices. It also includes the newest clinical evidence evaluating the efficacy of PCV10, which is lacking in other previous studies.A cost-utility analysis was conducted. A Markov simulation model was constructed to examine the costs and consequences of PCV10 and PCV13 against the current scenario of no PCV vaccination for a lifetime horizon. A health system perspective was employed to explore different funding schemes, which include universal or partial vaccination coverage subsidized by the government. Results were presented as incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs in Philippine peso (Php per QALY gained (1 USD = 44.20 Php. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the impact of parameter uncertainty.With universal vaccination at a cost per dose of Php 624 for PCV10 and Php 700 for PCV13, both PCVs are cost-effective compared to no vaccination given the ceiling threshold of Php 120,000 per QALY gained, yielding ICERs of Php 68,182 and Php 54,510 for PCV10 and PCV13, respectively. Partial vaccination of 25% of the birth cohort resulted in significantly higher ICER values (Php 112,640 for PCV10 and Php 84,654 for PCV13 due to loss of herd protection. The budget impact analysis reveals that universal vaccination would cost Php 3.87 billion to 4.34 billion per annual, or 1.6 to 1.8 times the budget of the current national vaccination program.The inclusion of PCV in the national immunization program is recommended. PCV13 achieved better value for money compared to PCV10. However, the affordability and sustainability of PCV implementation over the long-term should be considered by decision makers.

  12. The European Struggle to Educate and Include Roma People: A Critique of Differences in Policy and Practice in Western and Eastern EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine O'Hanlon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiculturalism is an established feature of the UK and other European States since the establishment of the Treaty of Rome in 1959. Enlargement has brought EU membership from six (1952 to twenty eight members since its foundation, and allowed free migration across its borders. However, many countries, in spite of agreements to adhere to ‘democratic’ practices, deny minority citizens their full rights, particularly in education contexts. Some recent accession EU States have education systems that are less adaptive to expected policy responsibilities. It is a more unstable aspect of Eastern Europe because of the failure of many of these countries to reduce social and educational inequalities and to establish rights for minority groups, particularly the Roma. An educational focus is used as a platform to highlight issues re the segregation, and discrimination against, Roma children in Europe, typically through the use of special education, which is not suitable for them. Europe generally, both East and West has failed to fully integrate the Roma. Often, institutional blame is placed on Roma communities, rather than situate them socially and economically due to ingrained structural inequalities. Stereotyped categories are often used to ‘label’ them. Countries with high Roma populations, four in Western and five in Eastern Europe are evaluated and compared in relation to the education of Roma children.

  13. INTER-COUNTRY EFFICIENCY EVALUATION IN INNOVATION ACTIVITY ON THE BASIS OF METHOD FOR DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS AMONG COUNTRIES WITH DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING ECONOMY, INCLUDING THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Zhukovski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem on efficiency evaluation of innovation activity in 63 countries with developed and developing economies while using a method for data envelopment analysis. The following results of innovation activity have been used for calculation of an efficiency factor: export of high-technology products as percentage of industrial product export, export of ICT services as percentage of services export and payments obtained due to realization of intellectual property rights (in US dollars. A model of the data envelopment analysis with a changeable scale-dependent effect and which is directed on maximization of the obtained results (output-oriented VRS model has been used for the analysis. The evaluation has shown that such countries as the USA, Israel, Sweden and some others have maximum efficiency of resource transformation into innovative activity output. The executed analysis has revealed that the Republic of Belarus has a potential for improvement of indices on innovation results.

  14. Notes on the mosquitoes of Nepal. IV. Results of the 1994 collecting in the Midwestern Region, including new country records and voucher confirmation (Diptera, Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsie, R F; Courtney, G W; Pradhan, S P

    1996-03-01

    During 1994, field studies were conducted in the Midwestern Region of Nepal. Two camps were located in the "inner terai," low mountain valleys between the Churia Range and the Mahabarat Lekh. A third camp was in the mountains at Jumla. Visits were made to 2 high mountain sites, Simikot, Humla District, and Rara National Park. The result from all these sampling sites was the recovery of 6 new country records, 5 in the genus Aedes and 1 in the genus Heizmannia. Some mosquitoes in the Nepal checklist had no voucher specimens. Locality data are given for 9 of these. Biodata on another species that is quite rare in Nepal are given.

  15. FY 1997 report on the field survey on country situations including efficient energy consumption. Vietnam; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (energy shohi koritsuka nado chiiki josei genchi chosa). Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Field survey was made on the current state of and issues on energy in Vietnam. In Vietnam, firewood is in wide use as non-commercial energy, and sums to a half of total energy consumption. Other energies such as hydroelectric power, petroleum, natural gas and coal are self-sustainable. Commercial energy consumption in 1995 is estimated at 10,070,000t in oil equivalent, which is broken down into 23% for coal, 42% in oil, 5% for natural gas and 30% for electricity. Abundant water resources will form the mainstay of future electric power supply. Commercial production of oil started in 1986 becoming an oil exporting country. Several promising natural gas fields were discovered as the result of the exploration by foreign capital. Coal deposits are estimated to be nearly 3.5 billion tons, and most of them are anthracite. Electric power demand is growing at a higher rate than the economic growth of Vietnam. The growth rate of electric power demand is set to be 1.3 times that of GDP. Since construction funds for new plants cannot be satisfied with the national budget and domestic investment alone, the country is expecting foreign capitals. 21 figs., 36 tabs.

  16. Nutrient utilization, ruminal fermentation, microbial abundances, and milk yield and composition in dairy goats fed diets including tomato and cucumber waste fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Huelva, M; Ramos-Morales, E; Molina-Alcaide, E

    2012-10-01

    The effects of replacing 35% of cereals-based concentrate with feed blocks (FB) containing waste fruits of tomato, cucumber, or barley grain in diets for lactating goats on nutrient utilization, ruminal fermentation, microbial N flow to the duodenum, milk yield and quality, methane emissions, and abundances of total bacteria and methanogens were studied. Eight Murciano-Granadina goats (39.4 ± 5.39 kg of body weight, mean ± SD) in the middle of the third lactation were used and 4 diets were studied in a replicated 4×4 Latin square experimental design. Diets consisted of alfalfa hay (A) plus concentrate (C) in a 1:1 ratio (diet AC) or diets in which 35% of the concentrate was replaced with FB including wastes of tomato fruit, cucumber, or barley. In each period, 2 goats were randomly assigned to 1 of the dietary treatments. Intakes of FB including tomato, cucumber, and barley were 208 ± 65, 222 ± 52, and 209 ± 83 g of dry matter per animal and day, respectively. The replacement of 35% of concentrate with FB did not compromise nutrient apparent digestibility, total purine derivative urinary excretion, milk yield and composition, and total bacteria and methanogen abundances. Digestible energy and that in methane and urine were higher for AC than for FB-containing diets, whereas the metabolizable energy value was not affected by diet. The inclusion of tomato and cucumber fruits in FB decreased N in urine and CH(4) emissions compared with AC, which is environmentally relevant. However, tomato-based FB decreased microbial N flow in the rumen, whereas goats fed cucumber-based FB had the highest values for this measurement. Moreover, FB containing barley or tomato and cucumber led to lower rumen volatile fatty acid and NH(3)-N concentrations, respectively. Milk from goats fed diets including tomato and cucumber-based FB had higher linoleic, linolenic, and total polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations than that from goats fed AC. Overall, our study suggests that

  17. High heterogeneity in methods used for the laboratory confirmation of pertussis diagnosis among European countries, 2010: integration of epidemiological and laboratory surveillance must include standardisation of methodologies and quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Q; Barkoff, A M; Mertsola, J; Glismann, S; Bacci, S

    2012-08-09

    Despite extensive childhood immunisation, pertussis remains one of the world’s leading causes of vaccine preventable deaths. The current methods used for laboratory diagnosis of pertussis include bacterial culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) serology. We conducted a questionnaire survey to identify variations in the laboratory methods and protocols used among participating countries included in the European surveillance network for vaccine-preventable diseases(EUVAC.NET). In February 2010, we performed the survey using a web-based questionnaire and sent it to the country experts of 25 European Union countries,and two European Economic Area (EEA) countries,Norway and Iceland. The questionnaire consisted of 37 questions which covered both general information on surveillance methods and detailed laboratory methods used. A descriptive analysis was performed.Questionnaires were answered by all 27 contacted countries. Nineteen countries had pertussis reference laboratories at the national level; their functions varied from performing diagnosis to providing technical advice for routine microbiology laboratories. Culture,PCR and serology were used in 17, 18 and 20 countries,respectively. For PCR, nine laboratories used insertion sequence IS481 as the target gene, which is present in multiple copies in the Bordetella pertussis genome and thus has a greater sensitivity over single copy targets, but has been proved not to be specific for B.pertussis. Antibodies directed against pertussis toxin(PT) are specific for B. pertussis infections. For ELISA serology, only 13 countries’ laboratories used purified PT as coating antigen and 10 included World Health Organization (WHO) or Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reference sera in their tests. This present survey shows that methods used for laboratory confirmation of pertussis differ widely among European countries and that there is a great heterogeneity of the reference

  18. Five-year examination of utilization and drug cost outcomes associated with benefit design changes including reference pricing for proton pump inhibitors in a state employee health plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jill T; Neill, Kathryn K; Davis, Dwight A

    2011-04-01

    The Arkansas State Employee Benefits Division (EBD) is a self-insured program comprising public school and other state employees, their spouses, and dependents. Previous research published in JMCP (2006) showed drug cost savings of $2.20 per member per month (PMPM; 37.6%) or annualized savings of $3.4 million associated with a benefit design change and coverage of the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) omeprazole over-the-counter (OTC) beginning in March 2004. On May 1, 2005, brand esomeprazole was excluded from coverage, with current users grandfathered for 4 months until September 2005. Reference pricing for PPIs, including esomeprazole but excluding generic omeprazole, was implemented on September 1, 2005, and the beneficiary cost share for all PPIs except generic omeprazole was determined from comparison of the PPI actual price to the $0.90 omeprazole OTC reference price per unit. To examine PPI utilization and drug costs before and after (a) excluding esomeprazole from coverage (with grandfathering current users) and (b) implementing a therapeutic maximum allowable cost (TMAC), or reference-pricing benefit design, for the PPI class in a large state employee health plan with fairly stable enrollment of approximately 127,500 members in 2005 through 2008 and approximately 128,000 members in 2009 Q1. The pharmacy claims database for the EBD was used to examine utilization and cost data for PPIs in a longitudinal analysis for the 61-month period from March 1, 2004, through March 31, 2009. Pharmacy claims data were compared for the period 14 months prior to esomeprazole exclusion (preperiod), 4 months during the esomeprazole exclusion (postperiod 1), and the ensuing 43 months of PPI reference pricing (postperiod 2). PPI cost and utilization data for the intervention group of approximately 127,500 beneficiaries were compared with a group of 122 self-insured employers with a total of nearly 1 million beneficiaries whose pharmacy benefits did not include reference pricing for

  19. A Qualitative Assessment of the Evidence Utilization for Health Policy-Making on the Basis of SUPPORT Tools in a Developing Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan Imani-Nasab, Mohammad; Seyedin, Hesam; Yazdizadeh, Bahareh; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2017-01-08

    SUPPORT tools consist of 18 articles addressing the health policy-makers so that they can learn how to make evidence-informed health policies. These tools have been particularly recommended for developing countries. The present study tries to explain the process of evidence utilization for developing policy documents in the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MoHME) and to compare the findings with those of SUPPORT tools. A qualitative research was conducted, using the framework analysis approach. Participants consisted of senior managers and technicians in MoHME. Purposeful sampling was done, with a maximum variety, for the selection of research participants: individuals having at least 5 years of experience in preparing evidence-based policy documents. Face-to-face interviews were conducted for data collection. As a guideline for the interviews, 'the Utilization of Evidence in Policy-Making Organizations' procedure was used. The data were analyzed through the analysis of the framework method using MAXQDA 10 software. The participants acquired the research evidence in a topic-based form, and they were less likely to search on the basis of the evidence pyramid. To assess the quality of evidence, they did not use standard critical tools; to adapt the evidence and interventions with the local setting, they did not use the ideas and experiences of all stakeholders, and in preparing the evidence-based policy documents, they did not take into consideration the window of opportunity, did not refrain from using highly technical terms, did not write user-friendly summaries, and did not present alternative policy options. In order to develop health policies, however, they used the following innovations: attention to the financial burden of policy issues on the agenda, sensitivity analysis of the preferred policy option on the basis of technical, sociopolitical, and economic feasibility, advocacy from other scholars, using the multi-criteria decision

  20. A Qualitative Assessment of the Evidence Utilization for Health Policy-Making on the Basis of SUPPORT Tools in a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan Imani-Nasab

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background SUPPORT tools consist of 18 articles addressing the health policy-makers so that they can learn how to make evidence-informed health policies. These tools have been particularly recommended for developing countries. The present study tries to explain the process of evidence utilization for developing policy documents in the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MoHME and to compare the findings with those of SUPPORT tools. Methods A qualitative research was conducted, using the framework analysis approach. Participants consisted of senior managers and technicians in MoHME. Purposeful sampling was done, with a maximum variety, for the selection of research participants: individuals having at least 5 years of experience in preparing evidence-based policy documents. Face-to-face interviews were conducted for data collection. As a guideline for the interviews, ‘the Utilization of Evidence in Policy Making Organizations’ procedure was used. The data were analyzed through the analysis of the framework method using MAXQDA 10 software. Results The participants acquired the research evidence in a topic-based form, and they were less likely to search on the basis of the evidence pyramid. To assess the quality of evidence, they did not use standard critical tools; to adapt the evidence and interventions with the local setting, they did not use the ideas and experiences of all stakeholders, and in preparing the evidence-based policy documents, they did not take into consideration the window of opportunity, did not refrain from using highly technical terms, did not write user-friendly summaries, and did not present alternative policy options. In order to develop health policies, however, they used the following innovations: attention to the financial burden of policy issues on the agenda, sensitivity analysis of the preferred policy option on the basis of technical, sociopolitical, and economic feasibility, advocacy from other

  1. Let’s Take it to the Clouds: The Potential of Educational Innovations, Including Blended Learning, for Capacity Building in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Marrinan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In modern decentralised health systems, district and local managers are increasingly responsible for financing, managing, and delivering healthcare. However, their lack of adequate skills and competencies are a critical barrier to improved performance of health systems. Given the financial and human resource, constraints of relying on traditional face-to-face training to upskill a large and dispersed number of health managers, governments, and donors must look to exploit advances in the education sector. In recent years, education providers around the world have been experimenting with blended learning; that is, amalgamating traditional face-to-face education with web-based learning to reduce costs and enrol larger numbers of students. Access to improved information and communication technology (ICT has been the major catalyst for such pedagogical innovations. We argue that with many developing countries already improving their ICT systems, the question is not whether but how to employ technology to facilitate the continuous professional development of district and local health managers in decentralised settings.

  2. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast cancer: Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beral, V.; Bull, D.; Doll, R.; Peto, R.; Reeves, G.; van den Brandt, P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83?000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries. Beral V, Bull D, Doll R, Peto R, Reeves G; Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. BACKGROUND: The Collaborative Group on Hormo

  3. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast cancer: Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beral, V.; Bull, D.; Doll, R.; Peto, R.; Reeves, G.; van den Brandt, P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83?000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries. Beral V, Bull D, Doll R, Peto R, Reeves G; Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. BACKGROUND: The Collaborative Group on

  4. Study concerning the utilization of the ocean spreading center environment for the conversion of biomass to a liquid fuel. (Includes Appendix A: hydrothermal petroleum genesis). [Supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steverson, M.; Stormberg, G.

    1985-01-01

    This document contains a report on the feasibility of utilizing energy obtained from ocean spreading centers as process heat for the conversion of municipal solid wastes to liquid fuels. The appendix contains a paper describing hydrothermal petroleum genesis. Both have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  5. Advanced water processing system (AWPS), including advanced filtration system (AFS) and advanced ion selective system (AISS) for improved utility (PWR/BWR) water processing performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, Mark S. [ATG, Inc.(United States); Vance, Jene N. [V and V, Inc. (United States)

    1999-07-01

    ( particularly resin volumes). Evaporation and drying has been combined to create a greatly improved process, especially when the customer can send sludges and/or resins to the ATG catalytics facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Filtration and selective media systems have been provided on a service basis (by month or gallon) or sold outright to the utility. Typical problems encountered in current demineralization/media systems include build-up, recycle, or bleed of cesium (Cs), cobalt (Co), boron (B), and iron (Fe) in BWRs and Cs, Co, antimony (Sb), and B in PWRs. The advanced Ion Selective sSystem (AISS) features specific ion removals rather than brute force techniques such as total demineralization or reverse osmosis, thus offering smaller equipment skids, eliminates the chance of accidental releases/spiking during plant upsets. Such media can also be added solely to existing, available vessels or to top off existing media. (author)

  6. Extension of the Substrate Utilization Range of Ralstonia eutropha Strain H16 by Metabolic Engineering To Include Mannose and Glucose ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichwart , Shanna; Hetzler, Stephan; Bröker, Daniel; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The Gram-negative facultative chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Ralstonia eutropha strain H16 is known for its narrow carbohydrate utilization range, which limits its use for biotechnological production of polyhydroxyalkanoates and possibly other products from renewable resources. To broaden its substrate utilization range, which is for carbohydrates and related compounds limited to fructose, N-acetylglucosamine, and gluconate, strain H16 was engineered to use mannose and glucose as sole carbon sources for growth. The genes for a facilitated diffusion protein (glf) from Zymomonas mobilis and for a glucokinase (glk), mannofructokinase (mak), and phosphomannose isomerase (pmi) from Escherichia coli were alone or in combination constitutively expressed in R. eutropha strain H16 under the control of the neokanamycin or lac promoter, respectively, using an episomal broad-host-range vector. Recombinant strains harboring pBBR1MCS-3::glf::mak::pmi or pBBR1MCS-3::glf::pmi grew on mannose, whereas pBBR1MCS-3::glf::mak and pBBR1MCS-3::glf did not confer the ability to utilize mannose as a carbon source to R. eutropha. The recombinant strain harboring pBBR1MCS-3::glf::pmi exhibited slower growth on mannose than the recombinant strain harboring pBBR1MCS-3::glf::mak::pmi. These data indicated that phosphomannose isomerase is required to convert mannose-6-phosphate into fructose-6-phosphate for subsequent catabolism via the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. In addition, all plasmids also conferred to R. eutropha the ability to grow in the presence of glucose. The best growth was observed with a recombinant R. eutropha strain harboring plasmid pBBR1MCS-2::Pnk::glk::glf. In addition, expression of the respective enzymes was demonstrated at the transcriptional and protein levels and by measuring the activities of mannofructokinase (0.622 ± 0.063 U mg−1), phosphomannose isomerase (0.251 ± 0.017 U mg−1), and glucokinase (0.518 ± 0.040 U mg−1). Cells of recombinant strains of R

  7. Performance analysis on borehole energy storage system including utilization of solar thermal and photovoltaic energies; Taiyonetsu hikari riyo wo fukumu borehole energy chozo system no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Yamaguchi, A. [Matsushita Electric Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A permanent borehole energy storage system utilizing solar energy and waste heat from coolers is simulated, to be used as an air conditioning system for super-tall buildings. A 100m-long pipe is buried vertically into the ground, and a heat medium is caused to circulate in the pipe for the exchange of heat with the soil. Thirty borehole units are used, each measuring 9m{times}9m (with the pipe pitch being 3m). Solar cells occupying half of the wall surface facing south and solar collectors installed on the roof supply electric power and heat for cooling and warming. Heat in the ground is transferred mainly by conduction but also is carried by water and gas in movement. So, an analysis is carried out using an equation in which heat and water move at the same time. Because waste heat from cooling and warming systems is accumulated in the ground and none is discharged into the air, big cities will be protected from warming (from developing heat islands). As compared with the conventional boiler-aided air conditioning system, a hybrid borehole system incorporating solar collectors and solar cells will bring about an 80% reduction in CO2 emission and annual energy consumption. 7 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Guideline-recommended therapy, including beta-blocker utilization, in patients with chronic heart failure: results from a Canadian community hospital heart function clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heffernan M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Michael Heffernan Division of Cardiology, Oakville Trafalgar Memorial Hospital, Oakville, ON, Canada Abstract: A comprehensive analysis of beta-blocker utilization and other guideline-recommended therapies for the treatment of chronic heart failure in a Canadian community hospital heart function clinic has not been undertaken and was, therefore, the focus of this study. The proportion of patients who would be potential candidates for ivabridine and sacubitril–valsartan therapy as a result of fulfilling the criteria for enrollment in either the Systolic Heart failure treatment with the If inhibitor ivabradine Trial (SHIFT study (left-ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] >35%, sinus rhythm, New York Heart Association II–IV or the Prospective Comparison of angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI to determine impact on global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure (PARADIGM-HF study (LVEF <40%, New York Heart Association II–IV, glomerular filtration rate >30 mL/min, was also assessed. A retrospective cross-sectional analysis was carried out in all 371 patients treated in this community heart function clinic for at least a 12-month period. The patients were elderly (mean age 74±13.3 years and predominately male (61.5% with symptomatic (82.5% moderate left-ventricular dysfunction (LVEF 45.4%±15.6%. A substantial proportion of the patients also had a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (52.8%. The total use of beta blockers exceeded 87%, while 100% of patients without a documented contraindication or intolerance to a beta blocker received therapy. Adherence to other guideline-recommended pharmacotherapies specifically for heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection was high: 86.1% of the eligible patients were treated with an ACEI/angiotensin receptor blocker and 61.9% received a mineralcorticoid receptor antagonist. We determined that 13.7% of the complement of this heart

  9. A REVIEW OF SELECTED RESEARCH ON POST-HARVEST LOSSES OF GRAINS AND THE UTILIZATION OF FARM LEVEL STORAGE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Vaccaro, Carlos Ma

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of food production and population trends reveals that mankind will continue to struggle to feed itself. From 1970-1976, annual per capita food production increased 1.4% in developed countries and at less than 1% in developing ones. Population growth rates have been declining in the former, but have remained more or less constant and at much higher levels in the latter. Therefore increasing food supply is more critical in developing countries. Three approaches are often mentioned t...

  10. Water Loss Management: Tools and Methods for Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutikanga, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    Water utilities in developing countries are struggling to provide customers with a reliable level of service due to their peculiar water distribution characteristics including poorly zoned networks with irregular supply operating under restricted budgets. These unique conditions demand unique tools

  11. Interlayer utilization (including metal borides) for subsequent deposition of NSD films via microwave plasma CVD on 316 and 440C stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, Jared

    Diamond thin films have promising applications in numerous fields due to the extreme properties of diamonds in conjunction with the surface enhancement of thin films. Biomedical applications are numerous including temporary implants and various dental and surgical instruments. The unique combination of properties offered by nanostructured diamond films that make it such an attractive surface coating include extreme hardness, low obtainable surface roughness, excellent thermal conductivity, and chemical inertness. Regrettably, numerous problems exist when attempting to coat stainless steel with diamond generating a readily delaminated film: outward diffusion of iron to the surface, inward diffusion of carbon limiting necessary surface carbon precursor, and the mismatch between the coefficients of thermal expansion yielding substantial residual stress. While some exotic methods have been attempted to overcome these hindrances, the most common approach is the use of an intermediate layer between the stainless steel substrate and the diamond thin film. In this research, both 316 stainless steel disks and 440C stainless steel ball bearings were tested with interlayers including discrete coatings and graded, diffusion-based surface enhancements. Titanium nitride and thermochemical diffusion boride interlayers were both examined for their effectiveness at allowing for the growth of continuous and adherent diamond films. Titanium nitride interlayers were deposited by cathodic arc vacuum deposition on 440C bearings. Lower temperature diamond processing resulted in improved surface coverage after cooling, but ultimately, both continuity and adhesion of the nanostructured diamond films were unacceptable. The ability to grow quality diamond films on TiN interlayers is in agreement with previous work on iron and low alloy steel substrates, and the similarly seen inadequate adhesion strength is partially a consequence of the lacking establishment of an interfacial carbide phase

  12. Social class inequalities in the utilization of health care and preventive services in Spain, a country with a national health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Cumbrera, Marco; Borrell, Carme; Palència, Laia; Espelt, Albert; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Pasarín, M Isabel; Kunst, Anton

    2010-01-01

    In Spain, despite the existence of a National Health System (NHS), the utilization of some curative health services is related to social class. This study assesses (1) whether these inequalities are also observed for preventive health services and (2) the role of additional private health insurance for people of advantaged social classes. Using data from the Spanish National Health Survey of 2006, the authors analyze the relationships between social class and use of health services by means of Poisson regression models with robust variance, controlling for self-assessed health. Similar analyses were performed for waiting times for visits to a general practitioner (GP) and specialist. After controlling for self-perceived health, men and women from social classes IV-V had a higher probability of visiting the GP than other social classes, but a lower probability of visiting a specialist or dentist. No large class differences were observed in frequency of hospitalization or emergency services use, or in breast cancer screening or influenza vaccination; cervical cancer screening frequency was lower among women from social classes IV-V. The inequalities in specialist visits, dentist visits, and cervical cancer screening were larger among people with only NHS insurance than those with double health insurance. Social class differences in waiting times were observed for specialist visits, but not for GP visits. Men and women from social classes IV-V had longer waits for a specialist; this was most marked among people with only NHS insurance. Clearly, within the NHS, social class inequalities are still evident for some curative and preventive services. Further research is needed to identify the factors driving these inequalities and to tackle these factors from within the NHS. Priority areas include specialist services, dental care, and cervical cancer screening.

  13. National health policy-makers' views on the clarity and utility of Countdown to 2015 country profiles and reports: findings from two exploratory qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Benjamin M; Requejo, Jennifer H; Pope, Ian; Daelmans, Bernadette; Murray, Susan F

    2014-08-15

    The use of sets of indicators to assess progress has become commonplace in the global health arena. Exploratory research has suggested that indicators used for global monitoring purposes can play a role in national policy-making, however, the mechanisms through which this occurs are poorly understood. This article reports findings from two qualitative studies that aimed to explore national policy-makers' interpretation and use of indicators from country profiles and reports developed by Countdown to 2015. An initial study aimed at exploring comprehension of Countdown data was conducted at the 2010 joint Women Deliver/Countdown conference. A second study was conducted at the 64th World Health Assembly in 2011, specifically targeting national policy-makers. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 29 and 22 participants, respectively, at each event. Participants were asked about their understanding of specific graphs and indicators used or proposed for use in Countdown country profiles, and their perception of how such data can inform national policy-making. Responses were categorised using a framework analysis. Respondents in both studies acknowledged the importance of the profiles for tracking progress on key health indicators in and across countries, noting that they could be used to highlight changes in coverage, possible directions for future policy, for lobbying finance ministers to increase resources for health, and to stimulate competition between neighbouring or socioeconomically similar countries. However, some respondents raised questions about discrepancies between global estimates and data produced by national governments, and some struggled to understand the profile graphs shown in the absence of explanatory text. Some respondents reported that use of Countdown data in national policy-making was constrained by limited awareness of the initiative, insufficient detail in the country profiles to inform policy, and the absence of indicators felt to

  14. Risk management for drinking water safety in low and middle income countries - cultural influences on water safety plan (WSP) implementation in urban water utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Yahya Y; Parker, Alison; Smith, Jennifer A; Pollard, Simon J T

    2017-01-15

    We investigated cultural influences on the implementation of water safety plans (WSPs) using case studies from WSP pilots in India, Uganda and Jamaica. A comprehensive thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews (n=150 utility customers, n=32 WSP 'implementers' and n=9 WSP 'promoters'), field observations and related documents revealed 12 cultural themes, offered as 'enabling', 'limiting', or 'neutral', that influence WSP implementation in urban water utilities to varying extents. Aspects such as a 'deliver first, safety later' mind set; supply system knowledge management and storage practices; and non-compliance are deemed influential. Emergent themes of cultural influence (ET1 to ET12) are discussed by reference to the risk management, development studies and institutional culture literatures; by reference to their positive, negative or neutral influence on WSP implementation. The results have implications for the utility endorsement of WSPs, for the impact of organisational cultures on WSP implementation; for the scale-up of pilot studies; and they support repeated calls from practitioner communities for cultural attentiveness during WSP design. Findings on organisational cultures mirror those from utilities in higher income nations implementing WSPs - leadership, advocacy among promoters and customers (not just implementers) and purposeful knowledge management are critical to WSP success.

  15. Higher utilization of the pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapies in patients with chronic low back pain in a developing country than in the USA: Treatment of chronic low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pain is a highly subjective experience and different studies have shown that the perception of the pain intensity depends on multiple factors, such as: gender, race, age, eye or hair color, socio-economic status, education, as well as psychological status of the person, etc. Despite those determinants there is an discrepancy in pain treating approach between the USA and the European countries. Low back pain has become a major socio-economic problem in the USA, with 70-85% of people in the North America being affected throughout their lifes compared with the average prevalence of back pain In Western Europe as 15%. Overall, NSAIDs are the most commonly prescribed medication for low back pain worldwide, however with liberalization of the law in the USA within past 20 years, and with the promotion of opioids as highly effective and safe treatment, they are getting prescribed widely and readily for different chronic pain conditions including chronic low back pain. Low back pain has become a major socio-economic problem in the USA, and Western Europe. The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the utilization of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for chronic low back pain in developing countries. Methods: After approval of the ethics committee Medical School University of Belgrade we enrolled 185 patients. Any patients who were > 18 years, diagnosed with chronic low back pain and did not have a history of malignancy are included in the study. All of them completed the study. Results: Patients were between 21 and 91 years old (average age 61.2 ± 14.7, 43.5% of them were males and 56.5% females. The pain duration for these patients ranged from 2 months up to 20 years. Average VAS pain scores in rest 4.7 ± 2.3 and in movement 5.2 ± 2.1. All of these patients exploited different types of non-pharmacological treatments for their painful condition. The average improvements after these treatments were: physical

  16. An analysis of investment and management models of enterprises for public utilities in western countries%西方国家公用事业企业投资及管理模式分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李心丹

    2000-01-01

    Public utilities are the foundation of a national economy. The products of public utilities are merit goods and have the characteristics of huge investment and long return terms. So it is a worldwide hot issue to probe ways to establish effective investment and management systems and models for the enterprises of public utilities. This article introduces some advanced invest ment and management models of public utilities enterprises in some western countries. According to the theory of comparative analysis and considering the Chinese situation, the author puts forward some suggestions on how to reform the investment and management system for public utilities enterprises.%公用事业是一国经济发展的基础。由于公用事业企业产品具有公益性,而且投资额巨大、投资回收期长,因而对该类企业的管理及投资模式一直是各个国家积极探索的问题。本文介绍了西方国家管理、投资公用事业企业的先进模式,通过比较分析,结合国情,笔者提出我国公用事业企业管理和投资改革方向及几点有益的启示。

  17. Registry data for cross-country comparisons of migrants' healthcare utilization in the EU: a survey study of availability and content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Smith; Krasnik, Allan; Rosano, Aldo

    2009-01-01

    Background Cross-national comparable data on migrants’ use of healthcare services are important to address problems in access to healthcare; to identify high risk groups for prevention efforts; and to evaluate healthcare systems comparatively. Some of the main obstacles limiting analyses of health...... utilization, and the diversity in the definition of migrant status hampers cross-national comparisons and calls for an urgent establishment of registries, expansion of the existing registry information, and adoption of a common, generally acceptable definition and identification method of migrants across...

  18. 六西格玛管理及在我国企业运用的建议%Six Sigma Management and Utilize Suggestion in Our Country Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷强平; 曲傲

    2011-01-01

    六西格玛管理促使企业获得和保持经营上的成功并将其经营业绩最大化。从分析六西格玛管理的涵义入手,阐述了实施六西格玛管理的必要性,并对我国企业实施六西格玛管理提出相应建议。%Six sigma management makes enterprise obtain and maintain success and maximize its business performance.This paper analyzed the connotation of six sigma management,expounded the necessity of implementing six sigma management,and put forward corresponding suggestions to implement six sigma management in our country enterprise.

  19. Utility requirements for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondrasek, R.J.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability.

  20. Speed and level of capacity utilization in terms of the import substitution strategy in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvadovskaya Yulia, V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of the import substitution strategy involves the growth of industrial production and productivity by increasing capacity utilization. Analysis of the dynamics of the capacity utilization level in developed and developing countries indicates that stands stable group of countries with a low level of capacity utilization, which include Russia. The paper substantiates that the implementation of protectionist policies in respect of domestic industrial production involves the growth of capacity utilization.

  1. Do efforts to standardize, assess and improve the quality of health service provision to adolescents by government-run health services in low and middle income countries, lead to improvements in service-quality and service-utilization by adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Chatterjee, Subidita; Bose, Krishna

    2016-02-06

    Researchers and implementers working in adolescent health, and adolescents themselves question whether government-run health services in conservative and resource-constrained settings can be made adolescent friendly. This paper aims to find out what selected low and middle income country (LMIC) governments have set out to do to improve the quality of health service provision to adolescents; whether their efforts led to measurable improvements in quality and to increased health service-utilization by adolescents. We gathered normative guidance and reports from eight LMICs in Asia, Africa, Central and Eastern Europe and the Western Pacific. We analysed national quality standards for adolescent friendly health services, findings from the assessments of the quality of health service provision, and findings on the utilization of health services. Governments of LMICs have set out to improve the accessibility, acceptability, equity, appropriateness and effectiveness of health service provision to adolescents by defining standards and actions to achieve them. Their actions have led to measurable improvements in quality and to increases in health service utilisation by adolescents. With support, government-run health facilities in LMICs can improve the quality of health services and their utilization by adolescents.

  2. CO{sub 2} emissions from future cars in the Nordic countries - including analysis of the effect on the power system of 500.000 electric cars in the Nordic countries; CO{sub 2} udledning fra fremtidens personbiler i Norden - med delanalyse af betydningen for el-systemet af 500.000 el-biler i Norden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-01-15

    Detailed calculations of the power system in Scandinavia and Germany in 2020 are made, including the countries' known and specific plans for CO{sub 2} reduction and increased use of renewable energy. The calculations analyzed three scenarios for how increased electric power consumption pulls investments in the power sector by 2020. It is shown that only if the countries through grants schemes and other incentives directly link increased consumption of electricity for electric vehicles with greater demands for investments in renewable energy, the CO{sub 2} emissions from electric vehicles will decrease significantly. Such a direct linkage is assessed not to become the case with the existing frame-work and objectives of the EU countries and Norway. The average of the more detailed calculations show a CO{sub 2} emission from electric cars in 2020 of just 650 g CO{sub 2}/kWh (excluding upstream emissions), which is about 10% lower than previously estimated. Towards 2020 increased efficiency of conventional cars (diesel) will probably be a cheaper way to achieve CO{sub 2} reductions in the transport sector than through an expansion with a larger number of electric cars. If oil prices rise to around $ 150/barrel or more, while the price of batteries for electric vehicles drops significantly in the period, this will result, however, is challenged. The same costs are assumed for development and production of diesel and electric cars. For electric cars there will be additional costs for batteries and charging infrastructure. The on manufacturers' pricing strategies for different types of cars have not been considered. The report demonstrates that it will very likely be more expensive to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from transport compared with, for example the costs in electric power and heat producing sectors that are subject to EU quota system. It can therefore be considered whether a larger part of the EU's reduction goals in the next 10-20 years should be

  3. Investigation of agricultural residues gasification for electricity production in Sudan as an example for biomass energy utilization under arid climate conditions in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhiet, Arig G.

    2008-05-15

    utilization planning is possible as for any other energy resource. In Sudan, Baggase, Groundnuts shells and Roselle stalks could be considered as possible fuels. The experimental work done in chapter 5 showed that GN.S could be gasified in down draft gasifiers, which are less costly and simpler to operate than circulating systems. Acceptable values of gas thermal properties (c.v.{proportional_to} 4 MJ/Nm{sup 3}, 30 % of burnable gases) at fairly continuing processes were obtained. In chapter 6, a concept for biomass power plant was drafted, the main components are: downdraft, air based gasifier connected to ICE, multi-stage gas cleaning system (cyclones, washer and filters) mechanical ash removal and semi closed water cycle. Main operation measures are: electricity is the sole product; working time is 150 day/year between mid November-mid Mars. Environmental hazards of waste management e.g. flue gas emission and waste water management are the limiting factors. In the last part of chapter 6 an economic analysis was carried out. At a value of 3000 Euro/kW for the initial system and fuel price of 100000 Euro/year for {proportional_to}6 GWh then a price of 0.23 Euro/kWh and a return period of 24 years could be obtained. The study concludes in chapter 7 that biomass gasification under the local conditions has its comparative merits however a high institutional support is needed at the beginning. (orig.)

  4. Denmark country note 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte; Rostgaard, Tine

    2016-01-01

    policy. As well as policies, it provides information on publications and research. The review is based on country notes from each participating country. Each country note follows a standard format: details of different types of leave; the relationship between leave policy and early childhood education...... and care policy; recent policy developments; information on take-up of leave; recent publications and current research projects. The review also includes definitions of the main types of leave policies; and cross-country comparisons. These comparative overviews cover: each main type of leave; total leave...... available; the relationship between leave and ECEC entitlements; policy changes and developments since the previous review; publications since the previous review; and ongoing research in participating countries. The 2016 review includes one new country: Korea. Altogether, it covers 39 countries...

  5. Changes in the utilization of residential energy in nine countries of the OECD and its possible effects in Mexico; Cambios en el uso de la energia residencial en nueve paises de la OECD y sus posibles efectos en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, Lee; Sheinbaum, Claudia [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This paper analyzes the changes in the residential energy utilization in nine countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) between 1973 and 1990. An analysis is presented for the end uses and the changes for the periods 1973-1979, 1979-1985 and 1985-1990 are studied. The influence of the energy saving and conservation programs as well as the changes in the price of the energy is also discussed. It is also described how in the last period the rate of decrement in the energy intensity has diminished due to the lower energy prices. Finally the potential effects of this experience in the Third World Countries, specially in Mexico, are studied. [Espanol] En este trabajo se analizan los cambios en el uso de la energia residencial en nueve paises de la Organizacion para la Cooperacion y el Desarrollo Economico (OECD) entre 1973 y 1990. Se presenta un analisis por usos finales y se estudian los cambios en los periodos 1973-1979, 1979-1985 y 1985-1990. Se discute la influencia de los programas de ahorro y conservacion asi como de los cambios en el precio de la energia. Se describe como en el ultimo periodo la tasa de decremento de la intensidad energetica ha disminuido debido al bajo precio de la energia. Finalmente se discuten los posibles efectos de esta experiencia en los paises del Tercer Mundo, en especial en Mexico.

  6. High burden of mental illness and low utilization of care among school-going youth in Central Haiti: A window into the youth mental health treatment gap in a low-income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustache, Eddy; Gerbasi, Margaret E; Smith Fawzi, Mary C; Fils-Aimé, J Reginald; Severe, Jennifer; Raviola, Giuseppe J; Legha, Rupinder; Darghouth, Sarah; Grelotti, David J; Thérosmé, Tatiana; Pierre, Ermaze L; Affricot, Emmeline; Alcindor, Yoldie; Becker, Anne E

    2017-05-01

    The mental health treatment gap for youth in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is substantial; strategies for redress are urgently needed to mitigate the serious health and social consequences of untreated mental illness in youth. To estimate the burden of major depressive episode (MDE) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as utilization of care among Haitian youth in order to describe the mental health treatment gap in a LMIC setting. We estimated the point prevalence of MDE, PTSD, and subthreshold variants in a school-based sample of youth ( n = 120, ages 18-22 years) using a modified Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders (SCID)-based interview and examined treatment utilization among those receiving one of these diagnoses. We assessed additional psychopathology with self-report measures to examine validity of study diagnostic assignments. The combined prevalence of full-syndrome or subthreshold MDE or PTSD was high (36.7%). A large majority of affected individuals (88.6%) had accessed no mental health services in the health sector, and 36.4% had accessed no care of any kind in either the health or folk sectors in the past year. Findings demonstrate a high mental health burden among Haiti's youth and that many youth with MDE and PTSD are not accessing mental health care.

  7. Denmark country note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte; Rostgaard, Tine

    2014-01-01

    parents; and early childhood education and care policy. As well as policies, it provides information on publications and research. The review is based on country notes from each participating country. Each country note follows a standard format: details of different types of leave; the relationship...... between leave policy and early childhood education and care policy; recent policy developments; information on take-up of leave; recent publications and current research projects. The review also includes definitions of the main types of leave policies; and cross-country comparisons. These comparative...... overviews cover: each main type of leave; total leave available; the relationship between leave and ECEC entitlements; policy changes and developments since the previous review; publications since the previous review; and ongoing research in participating countries. The 2014 review includes one new country...

  8. Country Profiles, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardee, J. Gilbert; Satterthwaite, Adaline P.

    A profile of Pakistan is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  9. Country Profiles, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuki, Ariffin Bin; Peng, J. Y.

    A profile of Malaysia is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  10. Country Update: Israel 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marar, Marianne Maurice

    2005-01-01

    Country Updates is a new section of "Intercultural Education." Starting in "Intercultural Education," Volume 16 No. 5, this column will focus on recent developments during the last two to three years in the field of intercultural education in one particular country. These updates can include recent policy decisions, the main…

  11. Country News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Education Newsletter and Forum, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Reports on the progress of population education programs in various countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Describes current developments in Bangladesh, China, India, Malaysia, Maldives, and Viet Nam. (TW)

  12. Cross-Country Skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Guy E.

    1980-01-01

    The cross-country ski program offered at Clarkson College in New York is described, including a brief outline of the course, necessary equipment, and suggestions for developing a similar course at other campuses. (JMF)

  13. Statistics on the distribution of contracts and purchase orders by country for the LHC Project based on payments and outstanding commitments for the period 1 January 1995 to 31 March 2000 (including adjudications by the Finance Committee up to March 2000).

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    Statistics on the distribution of contracts and purchase orders by country for the LHC Project based on payments and outstanding commitments for the period 1 January 1995 to 31 March 2000 (including adjudications by the Finance Committee up to March 2000).

  14. Manganese Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sousa Galito

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cheickna Bounajim Cissé wrote an article in Mars 2013 in the Journal Les Afriques N. º 237, suggesting a new acronym, MANGANESE, for the nine African countries: Morocco, Angola, Namibia, Ghana, Algeria, Nigeria, Egypt, South Africa and Ethiopia. According to Cissé, this group of African nations will be the fastest growing states in the region over the next few years. The purpose of this article is to test the pertinence of the acronym, discuss the credibility and reliability of the future prospects of these countries by comparing selected socioeconomic and sociopolitical indicators based on the latest global rankings and trends. Likewise, the potential of Cissé's claim will be assessed, especially in relationship to drug trafficking and terrorism that may put their recent sustainability in danger now and in the future.

  15. Literacy Campaigns in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odunuga, Segun

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the problem of eradicating illiteracy in developing countries, where the illiteracy rate may average about 70 percent. Looks at the Arab countries, Latin America, Africa, and India and the factors that thwart attempts to increase literacy in those countries. These include religious habits and the problem of language in multilingual…

  16. Pareto utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masako, I.; Laeven, R.J.A.; Magnus, J.R.; Muris, C.

    2013-01-01

    In searching for an appropriate utility function in the expected utility framework, we formulate four properties that we want the utility function to satisfy. We conduct a search for such a function, and we identify Pareto utility as a function satisfying all four desired properties. Pareto utility

  17. Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Lund

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide application of geothermal energy for direct utilization is reviewed. This paper is based on the world update for direct-use presented at the World Geothermal Congress 2010 in Bali, Indonesia (WGC2010 [1] which also includes material presented at three world geothermal congresses in Italy, Japan and Turkey (WGC95, WGC2000 and WGC2005. This report is based on country update papers prepared for WGC2010 and data from other sources. Final update papers were received from 70 countries of which 66 reported some direct utilization of geothermal energy for WGC2010. Twelve additional countries were added to the list based on other sources of information. The 78 countries having direct utilization of geothermal energy, is a significant increase from the 72 reported in 2005, the 58 reported in 2000, and the 28 reported in 1995. An estimate of the installed thermal power for direct utilization at the end of 2009, reported from WGC2010 is 48,493 MWt, almost a 72 % increased over the 2005 data, growing at a compound rate of 11.4% annually with a capacity factor of 0.28. The thermal energy used is 423,830 TJ/year (117,740 GWh/yr, about a 55% increase over 2005, growing at a compound rate of 9.2% annually. The distribution of thermal energy used by category is approximately 47.2% for ground-source heat pumps, 25.8% for bathing and swimming (including balneology, 14.9% for space heating (of which 85% is for district heating, 5.5% for greenhouses and open ground heating, 2.8% for industrial process heating, 2.7% for aquaculture pond and raceway heating, 0.4% for agricultural drying, 0.5% for snow melting and cooling, and 0.2% for other uses. Energy savings amounted to 250 million barrels (38 million tonnes of equivalent oil annually, preventing 33 million tonnes of carbon and 107 million tonnes of CO2 being release to the atmosphere which includes savings in geothermal heat pump cooling (compared to using fuel oil to generate electricity.

  18. Novel Rotavirus VP7 Typing Assay Using a One-Step Reverse Transcriptase PCR Protocol and Product Sequencing and Utility of the Assay for Epidemiological Studies and Strain Characterization, Including Serotype Subgroup Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, Daniel J.; Kraiouchkine, Nikolai; Mallette, Laura; Maliga, Marianne; Kulnis, Gregory; Keller, Paul M.; Clark, H. Fred; Shaw, Alan R.

    2005-01-01

    Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe dehydrating gastroenteritis in infants. To date, 10 different serotypes of rotavirus have been identified in human stools. While four or five serotypes dominate, serotype circulation varies with season and geography. Since our laboratory has been involved in the development of a multivalent rotavirus vaccine, it is important to identify the serotypes of rotavirus encountered during our clinical trials. We have developed methodologies for the molecular identification of rotavirus strains based on VP7 gene segment sequence. A 365-bp reverse transcriptase PCR product was generated from the VP7 gene segment using a pair of novel degenerate primers. All serotypes tested (both animal and human) yielded an identically sized product after amplification. Sequencing of these products is performed using truncated versions of the original primers. The sequence generated is compared against a database of rotavirus VP7 sequences, with the G type determined, based on the sequence homology. Using this assay, we have correctly identified human VP7 strains from a panel of available serotypes, as well as numerous animal strains. The assay was qualified using rotavirus positive stool samples, negative stool samples, and rotavirus-spiked stool samples. In addition, samples from cases of acute gastroenteritis collected at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia have been evaluated and indicate that the assay is able to discriminate subtle differences within serotypes. The assay has been utilized in the testing of >3,000 antigen-positive (enzyme immunoassay) samples collected during clinical trials of a rotavirus vaccine (RotaTeq) and identified a serotype in ∼92% of samples (3, 17, 19). PMID:16333070

  19. A European consensus report on blood cell identification: terminology utilized and morphological diagnosis concordance among 28 experts from 17 countries within the European LeukemiaNet network WP10, on behalf of the ELN Morphology Faculty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zini, Gina; Bain, Barbara; Bettelheim, Peter

    2010-01-01

    and debate. It resulted in the production of a freely accessible tool that could be useful for training as well as harmonization of morphological reports in onco-haematology especially, without geographic limitation, not limited to European countries. Moreover, this collective work resulted in the production...... of a consensus statement, taking into account individual practices, collegial agreement and literature data....

  20. Hypertension in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibazarwa, Kemi B; Damasceno, Albertino A

    2014-05-01

    The past 2 decades have seen a considerable global increase in cardiovascular disease, with hypertension remaining by far the most common. More than one-third of adults in Africa are hypertensive; as in the urban populations of most developing countries. Being a condition that occurs with relatively few symptoms, hypertension remains underdetected in many countries; especially in developing countries where routine screening at any point of health care is grossly underutilized. Because hypertension is directly related to cardiovascular disease, this has led to hypertension being the leading cause of adverse cardiovascular outcomes, as a result of patients living, often unknowingly, with uncontrolled hypertension for prolonged periods of time. In Africa, hypertension is the leading cause of heart failure; whereas at global levels, hypertension is responsible for more than half of deaths from stroke, just less than half of deaths from coronary artery disease, and for more than one-tenth of all global deaths. In this review, we discuss the escalating occurrence of hypertension in developing countries, before exploring the strengths and weaknesses of different measures to control hypertension, and the challenges of adopting these measures in developing countries. On a broad level, these include steps to curb the ripple effect of urbanization on the health and disease profile of developing societies, and suggestions to improve loopholes in various aspects of health care delivery that affect surveillance and management of hypertension. Furthermore, we consider how the industrial sectors' contributions toward the burden of hypertension can also be the source of the solution.

  1. Utilization of health care services by migrants in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graetz, V.; Rechel, B.; Groot, W.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Our study reviewed the empirical evidence on the utilization of health care services by migrants in Europe, and on differences in health service utilization between migrants and non-migrants across European countries. Sources of data: A systematic literature review was performed......, searching the databases Medline, Cinahl and Embase and covering the period from January 2009 to April 2016. The final number of articles included was 39. Areas of agreement: Utilization of accident and emergency services and hospitalizations were higher among migrants compared with non-migrants in most...... countries for which evidence was available. In contrast, screening and outpatient visits for specialized care were generally used less often by migrants. Areas of controversy: Utilization of general practitioner services among migrants compared with non-migrants presents a diverging picture. Growing points...

  2. Utilities:Other:Utilities at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Other:utilpnt_other)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents various types of utilities, not including water- and power-related utilities, at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The utilities...

  3. 国外废旧纺织材料循环利用的发展现状%Development Status of Recycling Utilization of Waste Textile Materials in Foreign Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华

    2016-01-01

    发达国家高度重视废旧纺织服装材料的回收及再利用,以欧、美、日等纺织工业发达国家为例,探讨了相关法律法规、废旧材料回收模式,分析了回收与利用需要克服的难题。%The developed countries attach great importance to the recovery and reuse of waste textiles, in Eu-rope,the United States,Japan and other developed countries,as an example,to explore the relevant laws and regula-tions,recycling of waste textiles,recycling and use problems need to overcome.

  4. THE PEACE CORPS EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION (ETV) PROJECT IN COLOMBIA--TWO YEARS OF RESEARCH. RESEARCH REPORT NO. 4, THE COLOMBIAN TEACHER AND THE UTILIZATION VOLUNTEER--MAKING ETV WORK IN THE SCHOOLS OF A DEVELOPING COUNTRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    COMSTOCK, GEORGE; MACCOBY, NATHAN

    TO FOCUS ON THE DAILY USE OF ETV IN COLOMBIAN SCHOOLS AND ON THE IMPACT OF THE PEACE CORPS UTILIZATION VOLUNTEERS WHO PROMOTED THE EFFECTIVE USE OF TV, SEVERAL SURVEYS WERE CONDUCTED WITH COLOMBIAN TEACHERS DURING 1964-65, THE LARGEST WITH 1,884 TEACHERS AT THE END OF THE SECOND SEMESTER IN 1965. IT WAS FOUND THAT NON-TEACHING PROBLEMS CONSISTUTED…

  5. 德日美英等发达国家循环经济模式的比较研究与启示%What Can We Learn from the Recycling Economics in Developed Countries Including Germany, Japan, US and UK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗泽华; 彭靖; 苗泽伟

    2015-01-01

    工业化迅速发展所带来了资源的短缺与环境污染的加剧。西方发达国家非常重视发展循环经济,尤其是德、日、美、英和欧盟等发达国家或地区,逐步形成了自己的发展模式。我国正处于经济社会快速发展阶段,发展循环经济,逐步实现工业文明向生态文明的转变是发展的主题,因而学习、借鉴发达国家发展循环经济的理念以及在立法、实施等方面的实践经验具有重要意义。%Traditional industrialization often intensifies environmental pollution and resource shortage. In some devel-oped countries including German, Japan, the United States, the Great Britain and European Union, great efforts have been input to develop recycling economy. With the rapid development of China's economy, it is important for us to determine the lessons and what we should learn from the developed countries where the recycling economics is more mature. This paper made a comparative study on the philosophy, lessons, law, policy and regulations, and implementation of recycling economy in developed countries which have the transitional experiences from industrial civilization to ecological civilization.

  6. Climate Change in Developing Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Drunen, M.A.; Lasage, R.; Dorlands, C. (eds.) [Free University, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-09-15

    This book presents an overview of the studies conducted by the Netherlands Climate Change Studies Assistance programme. The programme was set up in recognition of the need for developing countries, in particular, to face the challenges confronting all countries under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. The book presents an overview of the main results in 13 countries: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Egypt, Ghana, Kazakhstan, Mali, Mongolia, Senegal, Surinam, Vietnam, Yemen and Zimbabwe. It provides a critical evaluation of the methodologies and approaches used, a cross-country synthesis and recommendations for further studies. Subjects dealt with include not only impact studies, but also vulnerability and adaptation, mitigation and climate related policy.

  7. Biotechnology of space utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumiya, Hiroyuki

    1989-10-05

    This paper introdued the practical results of biotechnological experiments utilizing features of space and the present Japanese plan. The electrophoresis and crystal growth of protein utilize the microgravity field and cell culture utilizes the influence of microgravity on organism. Of practical results in space experiments, the electrophoresis was made by US but others were carried out by Europian countries. It was thought that the electrophoresis utilizing space environment could be demonstrated to be promosing for the separating and refining techniques by the experiment on the basis of the Apolo Project. The crystal growth of protein was reported by Litke of Denmark as to the crystal of lyzozyme. The space experiment of cell culture was carried out by Cogoli of Switzerland as to the culture of lymphocyte in the Shattle. Japan is studying the primary material experiment project(FMPT) in the Space Shattle and unmanned experiment for electrophoresis. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. Energy profiles of selected Latin American and Caribbean countries. Report series No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, K.

    1994-07-01

    Countries in this report include Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. These ten countries are the most important oil and gas producers in the Latin American and the Caribbean region. In the following sections, the primary energy supply (oil, gas, coal, hydroelectricity, and nuclear power whenever they are applicable), primary energy consumption, downstream oil sector development, gas utilization are discussed for each of the ten countries. The report also presents our latest forecasts of petroleum product consumption in each country toward 2000, which form the basis of the outlook for regional energy production and consumption outlined in Report No 1. Since the bulk of primary energy supply and demand is hydrocarbons for many countries, brief descriptions of the important hydrocarbons policy issues are provided at the end of the each country sections.

  9. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest developments in the field of renewables at country level around the world. Each profile combines analysis by IRENA's specialists with the latest available country data and additional information from a wide array of sources. The resulting reports provide a brief yet comprehensive picture of the situation with regard to renewable energy, including energy supply, electrical generation and grid capacity, and access. Energy policies, targets and projects are also considered, along with each country's investment climate and endowment with renewable energy resources. The energy statistics presented here span the period from 2009 until 2012, reflecting varying timelines in the source material. Since data availability differs from country to country, wider regional comparisons are possible only for the latest year with figures available for every country included. Despite the time lag in some cases, the evident differences and disparities between countries and regions around the world remain striking. The current package of country profiles is just a starting point. The geographic scope will continue to expand, and existing profiles will be enhanced with new indicators, with the whole series maintained as a live product on the IRENA website (www.irena.org)

  10. Diagnosis and follow-up of treatment of latent tuberculosis; the utility of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-tube assay in outpatients from a tuberculosis low-endemic country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blomberg Bjørn

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ Release Assays (IGRA are more specific than the tuberculosis skin test (TST in the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis (TB infection (LTBI. We present the performance of the QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-tube (QFT-TB assay as diagnostic test and during follow-up of preventive TB therapy in outpatients from a TB low-endemic country. Methods 481 persons with suspected TB infection were tested with QFT-TB. Thoracic X-ray and sputum samples were performed and a questionnaire concerning risk factors for TB was filled. Three months of isoniazid and rifampicin were given to patients with LTBI and QFT-TB tests were performed after three and 15 months. Results The QFT-TB test was positive in 30.8% (148/481 of the total, in 66.9% (111/166 of persons with origin from a TB endemic country, in 71.4% (20/28 previously treated for TB and in 100% (15/15 of those diagnosed with active TB with no inconclusive results. The QFT-TB test was more frequently positive in those with TST ≥ 15 mm (47.5% compared to TST 11-14 mm (21.3% and TST 6-10 mm (10.5%, (p 0.05. Conclusion Only one third of those with suspected TB infection had a positive QFT-TB test. Recent immigration from TB endemic countries and long duration of exposure are risk factors for a positive QFT-TB test and these groups should be targeted through screening. Since most patients remained QFT-TB positive after therapy, the test should not be used to monitor the effect of preventive therapy. Prospective studies are needed in order to determine the usefulness of IGRA tests during therapy.

  11. Venezuela, A Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-16

    relations with all 17 western hemisphere nations including Cuba , and joined the Adean Common Market. Internally Caldera permitted communist and other...mounted from within the country and by communist supported ( Cuba ) small units conducting guerrilla activities with the intent of producing a military...1973), pp. 14-26. 25Blutstein, op.cit., pp. 39-41. 26Ibid. pp. 41-44. 27Philip B. Taylor, Jr., The Venezuelan Golpe de Estado of 1958: The Fall of

  12. A European consensus report on blood cell identification: terminology utilized and morphological diagnosis concordance among 28 experts from 17 countries within the European LeukemiaNet network WP10, on behalf of the ELN Morphology Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, Gina; Bain, Barbara; Bettelheim, Peter; Cortez, José; d'Onofrio, Giuseppe; Faber, Edgar; Haferlach, Torsten; Kacirkova, Petra; Lewandowski, Krzysztof; Matutes, Estella; Maynadié, Marc; Meletis, John; Petersen, Bodil L; Porwit, Anna; Terpos, Evangelos; Tichelli, Andrée; Vallespí, Teresa; Woessner, Soledad; Bennett, John; Bene, Marie C

    2010-11-01

    This paper describes the methodology used to develop a consensual glossary for haematopoietic cells within Diagnostics-WP10 of European-LeukemiaNet EU-project. This highly interactive work was made possible through the use of the net, requiring only a single two-day meeting of actual confrontation and debate. It resulted in the production of a freely accessible tool that could be useful for training as well as harmonization of morphological reports in onco-haematology especially, without geographic limitation, not limited to European countries. Moreover, this collective work resulted in the production of a consensus statement, taking into account individual practices, collegial agreement and literature data.

  13. A European consensus report on blood cell identification: terminology utilized and morphological diagnosis concordance among 28 experts from 17 countries within the European LeukemiaNet network WP10, on behalf of the ELN Morphology Faculty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zini, Gina; Bain, Barbara; Bettelheim, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    and debate. It resulted in the production of a freely accessible tool that could be useful for training as well as harmonization of morphological reports in onco-haematology especially, without geographic limitation, not limited to European countries. Moreover, this collective work resulted in the production......This paper describes the methodology used to develop a consensual glossary for haematopoietic cells within Diagnostics-WP10 of European-LeukemiaNet EU-project. This highly interactive work was made possible through the use of the net, requiring only a single two-day meeting of actual confrontation...

  14. Diagnostics for Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth McNerney

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Improving the availability of high quality diagnostic tests for infectious diseases is a global priority. Lack of access by people living in low income countries may deprive them of life saving treatment and reduces opportunities to prevent onward transmission and spread of the disease. Diagnostic laboratories are often poorly resourced in developing countries, and sparsely distributed. Improved access may be achieved by using tests that do not require laboratory support, including rapid tests for use at the point-of-care. Despite increased interest, few new in vitro diagnostic (IVD products reach the majority populations in low income countries. Barriers to uptake include cost and lack of robustness, with reduced test performances due to environmental pressures such as high ambient temperatures or dust. In addition to environmental factors test developers must consider the local epidemiology. Confounding conditions such as immunosuppression or variations in antigen presentation or genotype can affect test performance. Barriers to product development include access to finance to establish manufacturing capacity and cover the costs of market entry for new devices. Costs and delays may be inflated by current regulatory preregistration processes to ensure product safety and quality, and more harmonized approaches are needed.

  15. Country profile: Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary's energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  16. Country profile: Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Country Profile: Hungary has been prepared as a background document for use by US Government agencies and US businesses interested in becoming involved with the new democracies of Eastern Europe as they pursue sustainable economic development. The focus of the Profile is on energy and highlights information on Hungary`s energy supply, demand, and utilization. It identifies patterns of energy usage in the important economic sectors, especially industry, and provides a preliminary assessment for opportunities to improve efficiencies in energy production, distribution and use by introducing more efficient technologies. The use of more efficient technologies would have the added benefit of reducing the environmental impact which, although is not the focus of the report, is an issue that effects energy choices. The Profile also presents considerable economic information, primarily in the context of how economic restructuring may affect energy supply, demand, and the introduction of more efficient technologies.

  17. Developed-developing country partnerships: Benefits to developed countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shamsuzzoha B

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today’s global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed—this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international

  18. Developed-developing country partnerships: benefits to developed countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Shamsuzzoha B; Dadwal, Viva; Rutter, Paul; Storr, Julie; Hightower, Joyce D; Gooden, Rachel; Carlet, Jean; Bagheri Nejad, Sepideh; Kelley, Edward T; Donaldson, Liam; Pittet, Didier

    2012-06-18

    Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today's global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed--this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international cooperation between developed and

  19. Explaining nascent entrepreneurship across countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Thurik (Roy); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander); P. Reynolds (Paul)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper aims at explaining cross-country variation in nascent entrepreneurship. Regression analysis is applied using various explanatory variables derived from three different approaches. We make use of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor database, including nascent entrepreneurship r

  20. Explaining nascent entrepreneurship across countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Thurik (Roy); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander); P. Reynolds (Paul)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper aims at explaining cross-country variation in nascent entrepreneurship. Regression analysis is applied using various explanatory variables derived from three different approaches. We make use of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor database, including nascent entrepreneurship r

  1. Explaining nascent entrepreneurship across countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Thurik (Roy); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander); P. Reynolds (Paul)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper aims at explaining cross-country variation in nascent entrepreneurship. Regression analysis is applied using various explanatory variables derived from three different approaches. We make use of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor database, including nascent entrepreneurship

  2. Does the distribution of healthcare utilization match needs in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfrer, Igna; van de Poel, Ellen; Grimm, Michael; Van Doorslaer, Eddy

    2014-10-01

    An equitable distribution of healthcare use, distributed according to people's needs instead of ability to pay, is an important goal featuring on many health policy agendas worldwide. However, relatively little is known about the extent to which this principle is violated across socio-economic groups in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We examine cross-country comparative micro-data from 18 SSA countries and find that considerable inequalities in healthcare use exist and vary across countries. For almost all countries studied, healthcare utilization is considerably higher among the rich. When decomposing these inequalities we find that wealth is the single most important driver. In 12 of the 18 countries wealth is responsible for more than half of total inequality in the use of care, and in 8 countries wealth even explains more of the inequality than need, education, employment, marital status and urbanicity together. For the richer countries, notably Mauritius, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland, the contribution of wealth is typically less important. As the bulk of inequality is not related to need for care and poor people use less care because they do not have the ability to pay, healthcare utilization in these countries is to a large extent unfairly distributed. The weak average relationship between need for and use of health care and the potential reporting heterogeneity in self-reported health across socio-economic groups imply that our findings are likely to even underestimate actual inequities in health care. At a macro level, we find that a better match of needs and use is realized in those countries with better governance and more physicians. Given the absence of social health insurance in most of these countries, policies that aim to reduce inequities in access to and use of health care must include an enhanced capacity of the poor to generate income. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

  3. Including the Excluded: One School for All.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EFA 2000 Bulletin, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue of "EFA 2000" focuses on the theme of inclusive education, i.e., including children with disabilities in general education classrooms. The cover story discusses a 1995 UNESCO survey of 63 countries that showed that integration of children with disabilities in regular schools is a declared policy in almost every country.…

  4. Child labour in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořáková, Pavla

    2014-01-01

    Child labour in developing countries Abstract This bachelor thesis deals with the child labour and its occurence in developing countries. The main aim is to present the basic view of this problem. The term of child labour relies here on Convention on the Rights of the Child and conventions of International Labour Organization. There are several types of child labour, in which children appear most, including the worst forms of child labour. Every type includes description of activities perform...

  5. Urban Slums and Children's Health in Less-Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. Jorgenson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We utilize first-difference panel regression analysis to assess the direct effect of urban slumprevalence on national level measures of under-5 mortality rates over the period 1990 to 2005.Utilizing data on 80 less developed countries, the results illustrate increasing urban slumprevalence over the period is a robust predictor of increasing child mortality rates. This effectobtains net the statistically significant influence of gross domestic product per capita, fertilityrate, and educational enrollment. Cross-sectional analyses for 2005 that include additionalcontrols provide further evidence of the mortality / urban slum relationship. The results confirmurban slum prevalence growth is an important contextual dynamic whereby the socialproduction of child mortality is enacted in the less developed countries.

  6. Comparison of Power Plants Efficiency among 73 Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tser-Yieth Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective and efficient production of electricity is promised to be one of the critical factors to utilize energy for sustainable development. We employ data envelopment analysis (DEA, including undesirable CO2 emissions outputs, to evaluate power plants resource utilization efficiency within 73 countries in order to incorporate the global warming effect. We find that Asia enjoys the highest technical efficiency and European countries suffer from the lowest technical efficiency among Europe, Asia, and America continents. Besides, we compare models with and without CO2 emissions and find that they have significant differences among technical and pure technical efficiencies. We also set up three hypotheses to examine gross national product (GNP, urbanization, and electricity import level factors that potentially influence power plants efficiency by Tobit regression analysis. Results show that GNP and urbanization have significant effects on power plants efficiency except electricity import level.

  7. Burr Utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikefuji, M.; Laeven, R.J.A.; Magnus, J.R.; Muris, C.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    This note proposes the Burr utility function. Burr utility is a flexible two-parameter family that behaves approximately power-like (CRRA) remote from the origin, while exhibiting exponential-like (CARA) features near the origin. It thus avoids the extreme behavior of the power family near the origi

  8. Estimating Utility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Simler, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    an information-theoretic approach to estimating cost-of-basic-needs (CBN) poverty lines that are utility consistent. Applications to date illustrate that utility-consistent poverty measurements derived from the proposed approach and those derived from current CBN best practices often differ substantially......, with the current approach tending to systematically overestimate (underestimate) poverty in urban (rural) zones....

  9. UtilityOther_ELCFRANCHISE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — ELCFRANCHISE includes Vermont's Electric Utility Franchise boundaries. It is a compilation of many data sources. The boundaries are approximate and should be used...

  10. Full Service Included

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ISABELDING

    2005-01-01

    At the beginning of the 1990s, with the opening of the market, foreign real estate consultants began to enter China. At that time, they mainly provided services such as facility management to the local clients, with their other functions seldom noticed and utilized. However, with the booming development of China's real estate market, foreign real estate consultants have become more and more important to the local developers.

  11. Explaining inequity in the use of institutional delivery services in selected countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Mai; Soelaeman, Rieza; Hotchkiss, David R

    2015-04-01

    Wealth-related disparities in the use of reproductive health services remain a substantial problem in many low- and middle-income countries. Very few studies have attempted to explain such inequalities through decomposition of the contributions made by various individual- and household-level factors. This study aims to: (1) assess the degree of wealth-related inequality and inequity in the use of institutional delivery services in selected low- and middle-income countries, and (2) to explain wealth-related inequity through decomposition by the contributions made by various components, including health insurance coverage. Data come from Demographic and Health Surveys in three countries: Ghana, Rwanda, and the Philippines. Concentration indices are used to calculate inequality and horizontal inequity in service utilization. Multivariate methods are used to decompose inequity. Findings indicate a moderate to high degree of inequity in institutional delivery service use in all study countries. The study provides some evidence of the contribution of health insurance to increased wealth-related inequity in the use of institutional delivery services, although having health insurance was also associated with increased utilization of services. Results suggest that increased health insurance coverage does not automatically translate to lower wealth-related inequity in service utilization. Inequities in service utilization exist if there are still inequities in the health insurance status. The study advocates for expanding health insurance coverage, particularly among the poor to reduce inequity in insurance coverage and increase service utilization.

  12. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Stiggelbout; P.P. Wakker

    1995-01-01

    Methods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities, and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities. Th

  13. Environmental toxicants in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky-Wegman, P; Gonsebatt, M E

    1996-05-01

    Health effects from environmental toxicants may be a more serious problem in developing countries compared with developed countries because the problem is potentiated by other factors: a) the lack of or failure to enforce regulations, which allows human exposures to genotoxic agents; b) undernourishment of the lower economic and social classes that comprise the most exposed populations from industrial and agricultural activities; and c) parasitic infections that afflict a wide range of populations in both urban and rural areas. Data on the genotoxic effects of different types of exposures, including environmental exposes (natural and industrial), occupational exposures, and infections and medical treatments, are presented and discussed with the point of view that all these factors must be taken into account with respect to regulation and the protection of human health. Occupational exposures in developing countries are higher than in developed countries due to lack of stringent regulations, lack of knowledge of the risks involved, and the negligence of workers. General pollution is another important issue since developed countries have established strict regulations and risky industrial processes are being exported to developing countries, along with banned substances and dangerous industrial wastes. It should be emphasized that stringent regulations in developed countries will not prevent exposures in the long term because toxic substances that are released into the environment will ultimately reach all our future generations.

  14. An investigation on new operation and utilization concepts for an ecological and economical integration of automobils in traffic systems in mobility-swelling countries. Untersuchung neuer Betriebs- und Nutzungskonzepte fuer eine oekologische und oekonomisch sinnvolle Integration des Automobils in Verkehrssysteme fuer Mobilitaets-Schwellenlaender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, P.

    1999-01-01

    First, a logistical orienting model is developed for different needs of mobility in different areas and for optimal choice of transport mode in cities. Thereby the differences between industrialised and developing countries are worked out. Problems and possibilities of a differentiated development of mobility are treated in a comprehensive approach including paratransit as a part of transport mode. Different organisation and utilisation concepts are presented in their respective spatial, temporal and modal shapes and opposed in their competition fields with regard to application conditions and boundaries. To evaluate the solution a monetaried model is developed for the objective fields of traffic, economy and environment. On this theoretical basis the opportunities of paratransit in mobility-swelling countries are explored using the example of China. Through a detailed literature study and transferability analysis about paratransit in industrialised and developing countries some important experiences are determined, on which a three-step installation of a professional paratransit system is compiled. Organisation, disposition and financial concepts for different steps are developed in consideration of country-specific points of view. Transformation problems and promoting possibilities of a sustainable development of paratransit are explored in regard to technical, organisational, economic and legal points of view. (orig.)

  15. Population education country programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Population education country programs in the countries of India, Malaysia, Nepal, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka are reviewed. In India the machinery is beginning to roll for the nationwide implementation of a 3-year national population education project. A variety of strategies will be used at the national and state levels using existing facilities and infrastructure for implementing various aspects of the program. Recommendations and proposed project activities arrived at during 2 workshop/training programs are outlined. The Malaysian population education program recently developed a working draft of the scope, content, and objectives of population education at the primary and lower and upper secondary levels. This working draft is being pretested among teachers and curriculum developers, and, once revised, it will serve as the overall guiding framework for those responsible for preparing curriculum and instructional materials on population education. The population education program in Nepal will be implemented by 3 units: Curriculum, Textbook, Supervision, and Development Center; Tribhuvan University; and Division of Adult Education. The longterm objective is to institutionalize population education in the formal and nonformal education programs including the university. The Population Education Program of the Philippines has prepared a reader in Filipino for grade 3 pupils. Population education in the country has been promoted to a lesser degree in private than in public schools. the Institutional Development Program of the Population Center Foundation conducted a Summer Institute in Instructional Product Development for the primary purpose of institutionalizing population in the social science curriculum at the tertiary level. The population education program of Sri Lanka will undergo a revival in the recently approved 2-year project agreement between Sri Lanka's government and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities.

  16. Constraints to waste utilization and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steadman, E.N.; Sondreal, E.A.; Hassett, D.J.; Eylands, K.E.; Dockter, B.A. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The value of coal combustion by-products for various applications is well established by research and commercial practice worldwide. As engineering construction materials, these products can add value and enhance strength and durability while simultaneously reducing cost and providing the environmental benefit of reduced solid waste disposal. In agricultural applications, gypsum-rich products can provide plant nutrients and improve the tilth of depleted soils over large areas of the country. In waste stabilization, the cementitious and pozzolanic properties of these products can immobilize hazardous nuclear, organic, and metal wastes for safe and effective environmental disposal. Although the value of coal combustion by-products for various applications is well established, the full utilization of coal combustion by-products has not been realized in most countries. The reasons for the under utilization of these materials include attitudes that make people reluctant to use waste materials, lack of engineering standards for high-volume uses beyond eminent replacement, and uncertainty about the environmental safety of coal ash utilization. More research and education are needed to increase the utilization of these materials. Standardization of technical specifications should be pursued through established standards organizations. Adoption of uniform specifications by government agencies and user trade associations should be encouraged. Specifications should address real-world application properties, such as air entrainment in concrete, rather than empirical parameters (e.g., loss on ignition). The extensive environmental assessment data already demonstrating the environmental safety of coal ash by-products in many applications should be more widely used, and data should be developed to include new applications.

  17. Country watch: international.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne, P

    1998-01-01

    The International Tribunal for Children's Rights (ITCR) was established to conduct individual and public inquiries and propose concrete solutions to violations of children's rights. This article reports on the efforts of the ITCR to enforce extraterritorial laws in response to the international dimension of child sex exploitation. The primary message being advocated is that travelers cannot go to foreign countries to engage in sexual crimes against children, evade criminal prosecution in the countries where the crimes are committed and then expect to return home without any consequences. In its first public hearings held in Paris, France to the address the effectiveness of extraterritorial legislation, governments and nongovernmental organizations informed the ITCR about their attempts to halt child sexual exploitation. Several changes needed to make extraterritorial laws more effective were cited. These include public awareness-raising; supporting existing instruments; application of preventive approaches to child abuse; and sensitizing and motivating judicial, police and administrative authorities to provide for the needs to fight child sex tourism.

  18. The first safe country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaela Puggioni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Dublin II Regulation makes the first safe country of refuge solelyresponsible for refugees and asylum seekers. In the case of Italy, thefirst responsible country has not been acting responsibly.

  19. Facility Utilization Reports -  FAA Aviation Information Utilization Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Provides: (1) Space management and planning, including area calculations, tracking space by organization and employee, and monitoring space utilization information....

  20. Cross-country Analysis of ICT and Education Indicators: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, Ahmad R.

    2017-03-01

    This paper explores the relationship between world ICT and education indicators by using the latest available data from World Bank and UNESCO in range of 2011-2014 with the help of different exploratory methods such as principal component analysis (PCA), factor analysis (FA), cluster analysis, and ordinary least square (OLS) regression. After dealing with all missing values, 119 countries were included in the final dataset. The findings show that most ICT and education indicators are highly associated with income of the respective country and therefore confirm the existence of digital divide in ICT utilization and participation gap in education between rich and poor countries. It also indicates that digital divide and participation gap is highly associated with each other. Finally, the findings also confirm reverse causality in ICT and education; higher participation rate in education increases technology utilization, which in turn helps promote better outcomes of education.

  1. Safety assessment of foods from genetically modified crops in countries with developing economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Bryan

    2015-12-01

    Population growth particularly in countries with developing economies will result in a need to increase food production by 70% by the year 2050. Biotechnology has been utilized to produce genetically modified (GM) crops for insect and weed control with benefits including increased crop yield and will also be used in emerging countries. A multicomponent safety assessment paradigm has been applied to individual GM crops to determine whether they as safe as foods from non-GM crops. This paper reviews methods to assess the safety of foods from GM crops for safe consumption from the first generation of GM crops. The methods can readily be applied to new products developed within country and this paper will emphasize the concept of data portability; that safety data produced in one geographic location is suitable for safety assessment regardless of where it is utilized.

  2. Optical modulator including grapene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  3. Food Safety Program in Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Ryuji; Hwang, Lucy Sun

    2015-01-01

    By using the ILSI network in Asia, we are holding a session focused on food safety programs in several Asian areas. In view of the external environment, it is expected to impact the global food system in the near future, including the rapid increase in food demand and in public health services due to population growth, as well as the threats to biosecurity and food safety due to the rapid globalization of the food trade. Facilitating effective information sharing holds promise for the activation of the food industry. At this session, Prof. Hwang shares the current situation of Food Safety and Sanitation Regulations in Taiwan. Dr. Liu provides a talk on the role of risk assessment in food regulatory control focused on aluminum-containing food additives in China. After the JECFA evaluation of aluminum-containing food additives in 2011, each country has carried out risk assessment based on dietary intake surveys. Ms. Chan reports on the activities of a working group on Food Standards Harmonization in ASEAN. She also explains that the ILSI Southeast Asia Region has actively supported the various ASEAN Working Groups in utilizing science to harmonize food standards. Prof. Park provides current research activities in Korea focused on the effect of climate change on food safety. Climate change is generally seen as having a negative impact on food security, particularly in developing countries. We use these four presentations as a springboard to vigorous discussion on issues related to Food Safety in Asia.

  4. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Knows What? Survey Item Bank Search for: Visual Impairment, Including Blindness Links updated, April 2017 En ... doesn’t wear his glasses. Back to top Visual Impairments in Children Vision is one of our ...

  5. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  6. Breast health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, C H; Taib, N A

    2014-12-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading cancers world-wide. While the incidence in developing countries is lower than in developed countries, the mortality is much higher. Of the estimated 1 600 000 new cases of breast cancer globally in 2012, 794 000 were in the more developed world compared to 883 000 in the less developed world; however, there were 198 000 deaths in the more developed world compared to 324 000 in the less developed world (data from Globocan 2012, IARC). Survival from breast cancer depends on two main factors--early detection and optimal treatment. In developing countries, women present with late stages of disease. The barriers to early detection are physical, such as geographical isolation, financial as well as psychosocial, including lack of education, belief in traditional medicine and lack of autonomous decision-making in the male-dominated societies that prevail in the developing world. There are virtually no population-based breast cancer screening programs in developing countries. However, before any screening program can be implemented, there must be facilities to treat the cancers that are detected. Inadequate access to optimal treatment of breast cancer remains a problem. Lack of specialist manpower, facilities and anticancer drugs contribute to the suboptimal care that a woman with breast cancer in a low-income country receives. International groups such as the Breast Health Global Initiative were set up to develop economically feasible, clinical practice guidelines for breast cancer management to improve breast health outcomes in countries with limited resources.

  7. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  8. Utilization of rice straw and different treatments to improve its feed value for ruminants: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarnklong, C.; Cone, J.W.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the availability, nutritive quality, and possible strategies to improve the utilization of rice straw as a feed ingredient for ruminants. Approximately 80% of the rice in the world is grown by small-scale farmers in developing countries, including South East Asia. The

  9. Utilization of rice straw and different treatments to improve its feed value for ruminants: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarnklong, C.; Cone, J.W.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the availability, nutritive quality, and possible strategies to improve the utilization of rice straw as a feed ingredient for ruminants. Approximately 80% of the rice in the world is grown by small-scale farmers in developing countries, including South East Asia. The

  10. Glaucoma in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the background and strategy required for the prevention of blindness from glaucoma in developing countries. Materials and Methods: Extrapolation of existing data and experience in eye care delivery and teaching models in an unequally developed country (India are used to make recommendations. Results: Parameters like population attributable risk percentage indicate that glaucoma is a public health problem but lack of simple diagnostic techniques and therapeutic interventions are barriers to any effective plan. Case detection rather than population-based screening is the recommended strategy for detection. Population awareness of the disease is low and most patients attending eye clinics do not receive a routine comprehensive eye examination that is required to detect glaucoma (and other potentially blinding eye diseases. Such a routine is not taught or practiced by the majority of training institutions either. Angle closure can be detected clinically and relatively simple interventions (including well performed cataract surgery can prevent blindness from this condition. The strategy for open angle glaucoma should focus on those with established functional loss. Outcomes of this proposed strategy are not yet available. Conclusions: Glaucoma cannot be managed in isolation. The objective should be to detect and manage all potential causes of blindness and prevention of blindness from glaucoma should be integrated into existing programs. The original pyramidal model of eye care delivery incorporates this principle and provides an initial starting point. The routine of comprehensive eye examination in every clinic and its teaching (and use in residency programs is mandatory for the detection and management of potentially preventable blinding pathology from any cause, including glaucoma. Programs for detection of glaucoma should not be initiated unless adequate facilities for diagnosis and surgical intervention are in place and

  11. VT Electric Utility Franchise Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) ELCFRANCHISE includes Vermont's Electric Utility Franchise boundaries. It is a compilation of many data sources. The boundaries are approximate...

  12. Utilization of coalbed methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavson, J.B. [Gustavson Associates Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Substantial progress has been made in capturing coalbed methane (CBM gas), which constitutes a valuable source of clean burning energy. It is of importance to study the various potential uses of coalbed methane and to understand the various technologies required, as well as their economics and any institutional constraints. In industrialised countries, the uses of coalbed methane are almost solely dependent on microeconomics; coalbed methane must compete for a market against natural gas and other energy sources - and frequently, coalbed methane is not competitive against other energy sources. In developing countries, on the other hand, particularly where other sources of energy are in short supply, coalbed methane economics yield positive results. Here, constraints to development of CBM utilization are mainly lack of technology and investment capital. Sociological aspects such as attitude and cultural habits, may also have a strong negative influence. This paper outlines the economics of coalbed methane utilization, particularly its competition with natural gas, and touches upon the many different uses to which coalbed methane may be applied. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Teaching and Research in International Law in Asia and the Pacific. Report of a Regional Consultation Meeting Including Nine Country Status Surveys (Seoul, Republic of Korea, October 10-13, 1984). Social and Human Sciences in Asia and the Pacific. RUSHSAP Series on Occasional Monographs and Papers, 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    Information on teaching and research in international law for countries of the Asia-Pacific region is presented in proceedings of a 1984 conference sponsored by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. In addition to a regional overview, suggestions are offered for promoting regional cooperation in international law.…

  14. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.

  15. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2015-07-02

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  16. Alternative method of highway traffic safety analysis for developing countries using delphi technique and Bayesian network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbakwe, Anthony C; Saka, Anthony A; Choi, Keechoo; Lee, Young-Jae

    2016-08-01

    Highway traffic accidents all over the world result in more than 1.3 million fatalities annually. An alarming number of these fatalities occurs in developing countries. There are many risk factors that are associated with frequent accidents, heavy loss of lives, and property damage in developing countries. Unfortunately, poor record keeping practices are very difficult obstacle to overcome in striving to obtain a near accurate casualty and safety data. In light of the fact that there are numerous accident causes, any attempts to curb the escalating death and injury rates in developing countries must include the identification of the primary accident causes. This paper, therefore, seeks to show that the Delphi Technique is a suitable alternative method that can be exploited in generating highway traffic accident data through which the major accident causes can be identified. In order to authenticate the technique used, Korea, a country that underwent similar problems when it was in its early stages of development in addition to the availability of excellent highway safety records in its database, is chosen and utilized for this purpose. Validation of the methodology confirms the technique is suitable for application in developing countries. Furthermore, the Delphi Technique, in combination with the Bayesian Network Model, is utilized in modeling highway traffic accidents and forecasting accident rates in the countries of research.

  17. Nuclear Energy Readiness Indicator Index (NERI): A benchmarking tool for assessing nuclear capacity in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saum-Manning,L.

    2008-07-13

    Declining natural resources, rising oil prices, looming climate change and the introduction of nuclear energy partnerships, such as GNEP, have reinvigorated global interest in nuclear energy. The convergence of such issues has prompted countries to move ahead quickly to deal with the challenges that lie ahead. However, developing countries, in particular, often lack the domestic infrastructure and public support needed to implement a nuclear energy program in a safe, secure, and nonproliferation-conscious environment. How might countries become ready for nuclear energy? What is needed is a framework for assessing a country's readiness for nuclear energy. This paper suggests that a Nuclear Energy Readiness Indicator (NERI) Index might serve as a meaningful basis for assessing a country's status in terms of progress toward nuclear energy utilization under appropriate conditions. The NERI Index is a benchmarking tool that measures a country's level of 'readiness' for nonproliferation-conscious nuclear energy development. NERI first identifies 8 key indicators that have been recognized by the International Atomic Energy Agency as key nonproliferation and security milestones to achieve prior to establishing a nuclear energy program. It then measures a country's progress in each of these areas on a 1-5 point scale. In doing so NERI illuminates gaps or underdeveloped areas in a country's nuclear infrastructure with a view to enable stakeholders to prioritize the allocation of resources toward programs and policies supporting international nonproliferation goals through responsible nuclear energy development. On a preliminary basis, the indicators selected include: (1) demonstrated need; (2) expressed political support; (3) participation in nonproliferation and nuclear security treaties, international terrorism conventions, and export and border control arrangements; (4) national nuclear-related legal and regulatory mechanisms; (5

  18. Country prototypes and translation of health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Unger, Jennifer B; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2008-06-01

    This article introduces the topic of international translation of health programs. Different perspectives toward the study of national-level variables that are relevant to translation of evidence-based programming developed outside of or in a country are discussed. Concepts including national prototypes, national stereotypes, country clusters, knowledge incompatibility, and absorptive capacity are introduced. The ideas expressed in this article serve to provide direction when considering developing a health behavior program for a country, using previous programmatic knowledge from elsewhere.

  19. Reserve requirement systems in OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Yueh-Yun C. O’Brien

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares the reserve requirements of OECD countries. Reserve requirements are the minimum percentages or amounts of liabilities that depository institutions are required to keep in cash or as deposits with their central banks. To facilitate monetary policy implementation, twenty-four of the thirty OECD countries impose reserve requirements to influence their banking systems’ demand for liquidity. These include twelve OECD countries that are also members of the European Economic and...

  20. Reserve requirement systems in OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Yueh-Yun C. O’Brien

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares the reserve requirements of OECD countries. Reserve requirements are the minimum percentages or amounts of liabilities that depository institutions are required to keep in cash or as deposits with their central banks. To facilitate monetary policy implementation, twenty-four of the thirty OECD countries impose reserve requirements to influence their banking systems’ demand for liquidity. These include twelve OECD countries that are also members of the European Economic and...

  1. Molecular mechanisms of thiamine utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, C K; Martin, P R

    2001-05-01

    Thiamine is required for all tissues and is found in high concentrations in skeletal muscle, heart, liver, kidneys and brain. A state of severe depletion is seen in patients on a strict thiamine-deficient diet in 18 days, but the most common cause of thiamine deficiency in affluent countries is alcoholism. Thiamine diphosphate is the active form of thiamine, and it serves as a cofactor for several enzymes involved primarily in carbohydrate catabolism. The enzymes are important in the biosynthesis of a number of cell constituents, including neurotransmitters, and for the production of reducing equivalents used in oxidant stress defenses and in biosyntheses and for synthesis of pentoses used as nucleic acid precursors. Because of the latter fact, thiamine utilization is increased in tumor cells. Thiamine uptake by the small intestines and by cells within various organs is mediated by a saturable, high affinity transport system. Alcohol affects thiamine uptake and other aspects of thiamine utilization, and these effects may contribute to the prevalence of thiamine deficiency in alcoholics. The major manifestations of thiamine deficiency in humans involve the cardiovascular (wet beriberi) and nervous (dry beriberi, or neuropathy and/or Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome) systems. A number of inborn errors of metabolism have been described in which clinical improvements can be documented following administration of pharmacological doses of thiamine, such as thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia. Substantial efforts are being made to understand the genetic and biochemical determinants of inter-individual differences in susceptibility to development of thiamine deficiency-related disorders and of the differential vulnerabilities of tissues and cell types to thiamine deficiency.

  2. ERAWATCH Country Reports 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph

    This analytical country report is one of a series of annual ERAWATCH reports produced for EU Member States and Countries Associated to the Seventh Framework Programme for Research of the European Union (FP7). The main objective of the ERAWATCH Annual Country Reports is to characterise and assess...... the performance of national research systems and related policies in a structured manner that is comparable across countries. The Country Report 2012 builds on and updates the 2011 edition. The report identifies the structural challenges of the national research and innovation system and assesses the match...... originally produced in December 2012, focusing on policy developments over the previous twelve months. The reports were produced by independent experts under direct contract with IPTS. The analytical framework and the structure of the reports have been developed by the Institute for Prospective Technological...

  3. Spain country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, Ines [Iberdrola Ingenieria Y Construccion Sau, Avenida Burgos, 8, Edificio Genesis, 28036 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    of an adequate number of capable engineers is the basis for the renaissance of nuclear energy; Spanish Factories and Engineering Companies are making projects for other countries (China, Russia, Ukraine, Brazil, Mexico, Finland, France); Some Spanish Electricity Utilities are interested in constructing and operating nuclear power plants out of Spain. - WIN - Spain Main achievements: Actions: Several conferences in different High Schools (Madrid, Valencia, Oviedo, Tenerife, Canary Island), Participation in courses. New initiatives: Contact with different institutions, Contact with journalists. Best practices: WIN Participation to the Annual Meeting of The Spanish Nuclear Society.

  4. Country focus: Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Since Lesotho was reached relatively late by the HIV/AIDS epidemic, the reported number of AIDS cases remains relatively low. Levels of awareness about the disease also remain low. With its high level of migrant labor, however, and very unequal gender relations, Lesotho has conditions which are highly conducive to the development of a major epidemic. The increasing incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases affirm the existence of high risk of HIV transmission in the country. By the end of 1995, 936 AIDS cases had been reported in Lesotho, including 68 pediatric cases. The head of the government's disease control division instead estimates that more than 4400 AIDS-related deaths had already occurred by the end of 1995 in a total population of a little more than 2 million. Women are dying at a 54.5:45.5 ratio to men, with female incidence being particularly high in the 20-39 year old age group. Having sex with multiple sex partners is the main risk factor for HIV transmission among adults in Lesotho. The most common presenting symptoms are described and the early stage impact of the epidemic discussed.

  5. Women's autonomy in health care decision-making in developing countries: a synthesis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osamor, Pauline E; Grady, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Autonomy is considered essential for decision-making in a range of health care situations, from health care seeking and utilization to choosing among treatment options. Evidence suggests that women in developing or low-income countries often have limited autonomy and control over their health decisions. A review of the published empirical literature to identify definitions and methods used to measure women's autonomy in developing countries describe the relationship between women's autonomy and their health care decision-making, and identify sociodemographic factors that influence women's autonomy and decision-making regarding health care was carried out. An integrated literature review using two databases (PubMed and Scopus) was performed. Inclusion criteria were 1) publication in English; 2) original articles; 3) investigations on women's decision-making autonomy for health and health care utilization; and 4) developing country context. Seventeen articles met inclusion criteria, including eleven from South Asia, five from Africa, and one from Central Asia. Most studies used a definition of autonomy that included independence for women to make their own choices and decisions. Study methods differed in that many used study-specific measures, while others used a set of standardized questions from their countries' national health surveys. Most studies examined women's autonomy in the context of reproductive health, while neglecting other types of health care utilized by women. Several studies found that factors, including age, education, and income, affect women's health care decision-making autonomy. Gaps in existing literature regarding women's autonomy and health care utilization include gaps in the areas of health care that have been measured, the influence of sex roles and social support, and the use of qualitative studies to provide context and nuance.

  6. CLIC expands to include the Southern Hemisphere

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberto Cantoni

    2010-01-01

    Australia has recently joined the CLIC collaboration: the enlargement will bring new expertise and resources to the project, and is especially welcome in the wake of CERN budget redistributions following the recent adoption of the Medium Term Plan.   The countries involved in CLIC collaboration With the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding on 26 August 2010, the ACAS network (Australian Collaboration for Accelerator Science) became the 40th member of in the multilateral CLIC collaboration making Australia the 22nd country to join the collaboration. “The new MoU was signed by the ACAS network, which includes the Australian Synchrotron and the University of Melbourne”, explains Jean-Pierre Delahaye, CLIC Study Leader. “Thanks to their expertise, the Australian institutes will contribute greatly to the CLIC damping rings and the two-beam test modules." Institutes from any country wishing to join the CLIC collaboration are invited to assume responsibility o...

  7. Enterprise Surveys : Nicaragua Country Profile 2010

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2011-01-01

    The enterprise surveys focus on the many factors that shape the business environment. The qualitative and quantitative data collected through the surveys connect a country s business environment characteristics with firm productivity and performance. The country profile for Nicaragua is based on data from the enterprise surveys conducted by the World Bank. The benchmarks include the averag...

  8. Ukraine : Country Procurement Assessment Report 2006

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    Ukraine enacted a comprehensive Public Procurement Law (PPL) on February 22, 2000. The first World Bank Country Procurement Assessment Report (CPAR) for Ukraine finalized in November 2001 included an action plan for improving systemic efficiency of public procurement. Since the 2001 CPAR, the country has undergone numerous political and economic changes with natural concurrent evolution of...

  9. Investigating water meter performance in developing countries: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-07

    Oct 7, 2011 ... in water systems of the developing countries, often with poorly- managed ... the case study, followed by the research methodology used in ..... Utilities must promote and support sub-metering as a ... The decision as to which.

  10. Country Reports on Terrorism 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    and seized a number of weapons, including semiautomatic weapons and petrol bombs, during a series of raids throughout the country and referred...Ossetia to eight years in prison for a 2006 attempt to sell 100 grams of weapons- grade highly enriched uranium to Georgian undercover agents. In June...based education ( grades 7–12) at American-sponsored schools abroad. The program was launched in Oman, Egypt, Morocco, and Jordan, for the September 2007

  11. Skewness preference across countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Zaremba

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Prospect theory implies that assets with positively skewed returns should be traded at premium to assets with negative skewness. We hypothesize that in the integrated financial markets this concept should also hold for the entire country equity portfolios. This article examines the linkages between the country-level expected returns and past skewness. We evidence a robust negative relationship between skewness and future returns. The phenomenon is most significant within large, liquid, developed, and open stock markets. Additional sorts on skewness can improve performance of both cross-country value and momentum strategies. The study is based on the sorting and cross-sectional tests conducted within a sample of 78 country equity markets for years 1999-2014.

  12. The "Happy Country"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Justin Dupré-Harbord

    2014-01-01

    .... It is also a "happy" country, at least according to well-being measures. In fact, Australia scores above average in almost all of the 11 well-being dimensions measured by the OECD Better Life Index...

  13. Public opinion: Country comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Debbie

    2015-11-01

    Climate change awareness, risk perception and policy support vary between and within countries. National-scale comparisons can help to explain this variability and be used to develop targeted interventions.

  14. Mauritius country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manraj, D.D. [Central Statistical Office (Mauritius)

    1998-10-01

    Mauritius has no known oil, gas or coal reserves but is only endowed with limited renewable energy resources namely hydropower and bagasse. Bagasse represents about one third of the country`s energy requirements and meets almost all of the sugar industries energy demand. Projects identified for mitigation options are: Energy Sector - Renewable Sources (Solar, Wind, Biomass); Transport Sector - Fuel switching and Mass transit transport; Manufacturing Sector - Increase efficiency of energy use in the manufacturing process. (EG)

  15. Biogas utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, M.A. [Resource Conservation Management, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Options for successfully using biogas depend on project scale. Almost all biogas from anaerobic digesters must first go through a gas handling system that pressurizes, meters, and filters the biogas. Additional treatment, including hydrogen sulfide-mercaptan scrubbing, gas drying, and carbon dioxide removal may be necessary for specialized uses, but these are complex and expensive processes. Thus, they can be justified only for large-scale projects that require high-quality biogas. Small-scale projects (less than 65 cfm) generally use biogas (as produced) as a boiler fuel or for fueling internal combustion engine-generators to produce electricity. If engines or boilers are selected properly, there should be no need to remove hydrogen sulfide. Small-scale combustion turbines, steam turbines, and fuel cells are not used because of their technical complexity and high capital cost. Biogas cleanup to pipeline or transportation fuel specifications is very costly, and energy economics preclude this level of treatment.

  16. Epidemiology of physiotherapy utilization among adults and elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Fernando Vinholes; Facchini, Luiz Augusto; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2005-08-01

    To analyze the prevalence of physiotherapy utilization and to explore the variables associated to its utilization. A population-based cross-sectional study, including 3,100 subjects aged 20 years or more living in the urban area of Pelotas, southern Brazil, was carried out. The sample was selected following a multiple-stage protocol; the census tracts delimited by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics) were the primary sample units. Following descriptive and crude analyses, Poisson regression models taking the clustering of the sample into account were carried out. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a standardized and pre-tested questionnaire. The lifetime utilization of physiotherapy was 30.2%; and physiotherapy utilization in the 12 months prior to the interview was reported by 4.9%. Women, elderly subjects, and those from higher socioeconomic levels were more likely to use physiotherapy. Restricting analysis to subjects who attended physiotherapy, 66% used public health services, 25% used insurance health services and 9% had private sessions. This is the first population-based study on physiotherapy utilization carried out in Brazil. Utilization of physio therapy was lower than reported in both developed and developing countries. The study findings might help public health authorities to organize healthcare service in terms of this important demand.

  17. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Miyamoto (John); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractMethods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute ut

  18. Assessment of the performance of a public water utility: A case study of Blantyre Water Board in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalulu, Khumbo; Hoko, Zvikomborero

    Water scarcity, deteriorating water quality and financial limitations to the development of new water sources affect the quality of urban water supply services. The costs would have to be transferred to governments or customers if water supply utilities are to operate effectively. Utilities therefore need to continuously minimize costs and maximize revenue to ensure affordability and consequently access to safe water. This paper presents findings of a study on the performance of Blantyre Water Board compared to best practice targets for developing countries. The study tools employed in this study included interviews and documentation review. Key aspects studied included unaccounted for water, working ratio, bill collection efficiency and; efficiency of operation and maintenance. The working ratio of the utility ranged from 0.69 to 1.3 which was above the proposed target working ratio 0.68 for developing country utilities. It was found that the level of unaccounted for water for the utility ranged from 36% to 47% compared to 25% for developing countries. The utility was not financially sustainable as it had been making losses since 2002, had a working ratio of up to 1.3 implying that the utility was unable to meet its operational and capital cost; and 70% of all the invoiced bills being collected in a maximum of 340 days against an ideal target of 90 days. The staff per thousand connections value was found to be 18 compared to an ideal value of five. It was concluded that the utility was generally performing poorly as most performance indicators were outside the range for best practice targets for utilities in developing countries.

  19. The Evaluator's Responsibility for Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    1988-01-01

    The role of the evaluator in insuring utilization and quality of evaluation results is discussed. Topics covered include a utilization-focused vision of accountability, overcoming staff fears of evaluation, eliciting the right information from users, situational responsiveness, and advocacy. (TJH)

  20. Country-level governance of global health initiatives: an evaluation of immunization coordination mechanisms in five countries of Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, John

    2010-05-01

    In recent years there have been innovations in immunization financing and new technologies, and the scaling up of investment by the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) in the Asia region. The main mechanism for coordination of this global health initiative (GHI) investment is country-level 'Inter-Agency Coordination Committees' (ICCs). The aim of the evaluation was to determine the utility and future perspectives of stakeholders regarding the role of ICCs in improving immunization services in the Asian Region. A literature review, documentary analysis and semi-structured interviews (n = 65) were undertaken in five countries (India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Indonesia), with senior level members of Ministries of Health and the GAVI partnership. The evaluation has identified that there have been significant changes recently in the strategic environment for immunization, including developments in new vaccines, increasing GAVI investment, trends towards health system integration and decentralization, and institutional development of the non-government sector. This evaluation found that ICCs are functioning well in relation to information sharing and GAVI application processes. However, they are performing less well in the areas of evaluation, strategic gap analysis and coordination of immunization technical co-operation. There are high levels of institutional and contextual complexity at country level that require a more focused global response by GAVI to the governance challenges of institutions and partners implementing GHIs at the country level. ICCs should be maintained and strengthened in the more pluralistic context of an 'immunization coordination system' that is represented by the wider health sector, regulatory authorities, and civil society and private sector interests. Managing through systems, rather than being over-reliant on committees, will broaden participation in implementation and, in doing so, expand the reach of immunization

  1. Allometric scaling of countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Tongkui

    2010-11-01

    As huge complex systems consisting of geographic regions, natural resources, people and economic entities, countries follow the allometric scaling law which is ubiquitous in ecological, and urban systems. We systematically investigated the allometric scaling relationships between a large number of macroscopic properties and geographic (area), demographic (population) and economic (GDP, gross domestic production) sizes of countries respectively. We found that most of the economic, trade, energy consumption, communication related properties have significant super-linear (the exponent is larger than 1) or nearly linear allometric scaling relations with the GDP. Meanwhile, the geographic (arable area, natural resources, etc.), demographic (labor force, military age population, etc.) and transportation-related properties (road length, airports) have significant and sub-linear (the exponent is smaller than 1) allometric scaling relations with area. Several differences of power law relations with respect to the population between countries and cities were pointed out. First, population increases sub-linearly with area in countries. Second, the GDP increases linearly in countries but not super-linearly as in cities. Finally, electricity or oil consumption per capita increases with population faster than cities.

  2. Social effects of migration in receiving countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohndorf, W

    1989-06-01

    This paper examines the impact of post-1945 migration into Western, Middle, and Northern Europe from Southern Europe, Turkey, and Northern Africa, and migration to the traditional immigration countries by Asian and Latin American immigrants, on the social structures of receiving countries. Between 1955 and 1974, 1) traditional migration to the US and Australia became less important for European countries while traditional receiving countries accepted many immigrants from developing countries; and 2) rapid economic revival in Western and Northern Europe caused a considerable labor shortage which was filled by migrant workers especially from Southern Europe, Turkey, and Northern Africa, who stayed only until they reached their economic goals. Since 1974, job vacancies have declined and unemployment has soared. This employment crisis caused some migrants 1) to return to their countries of origin, 2) to bring the rest of their families to the receiving country, or 3) to lengthen their stay considerably. The number of refugees has also significantly increased since the mid-970s, as has the number of illegal migrants. After the mid-1970s, Europe began to experience integration problems. The different aspects of the impact of migration on social structures include 1) improvement of the housing situation for foreigners, 2) teaching migrants the language of the receiving country, 3) solving the unemployment problem of unskilled migrants, 4) improvement of educational and vocational qualifications of 2nd generation migrants, 5) development of programs to help unemployed wives of migrants to learn the language and meet indigenous women, 6) encouraging migrants to maintain their cultural identity and assisting them with reintegration if they return to their original country, 7) coping with the problems of refugees, and 8) solving the problems of illegal migration. Almost all receiving countries now severely restrict further immigration. [Those policies should result in

  3. Invasive aspergillosis in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Chatterjee, Shiv Sekhar; Das, Ashim; Shivaprakash, M R

    2011-04-01

    To review invasive aspergillosis (IA) in developing countries, we included those countries, which are mentioned in the document of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), called the Emerging and Developing Economies List, 2009. A PubMed/Medline literature search was performed for studies concerning IA reported during 1970 through March 2010 from these countries. IA is an important cause of morbidity and mortality of hospitalized patients of developing countries, though the exact frequency of the disease is not known due to inadequate reporting and facilities to diagnose. Only a handful of centers from India, China, Thailand, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Sudan, South Africa, Turkey, Hungary, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Argentina had reported case series of IA. As sub-optimum hospital care practice, hospital renovation work in the vicinity of immunocompromised patients, overuse or misuse of steroids and broad-spectrum antibiotics, use of contaminated infusion sets/fluid, and increase in intravenous drug abusers have been reported from those countries, it is expected to find a high rate of IA among patients with high risk, though hard data is missing in most situations. Besides classical risk factors for IA, liver failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, and tuberculosis are the newly recognized underlying diseases associated with IA. In Asia, Africa and Middle East sino-orbital or cerebral aspergillosis, and Aspergillus endophthalmitis are emerging diseases and Aspergillus flavus is the predominant species isolated from these infections. The high frequency of A. flavus isolation from these patients may be due to higher prevalence of the fungus in the environment. Cerebral aspergillosis cases are largely due to an extension of the lesion from invasive Aspergillus sinusitis. The majority of the centers rely on conventional techniques including direct microscopy, histopathology, and culture to diagnose IA

  4. Urban agriculture and poverty alleviation in developing countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urban agriculture and poverty alleviation in developing countries. ... regular institutionalized management in a participatory manner including all relevant ... of the advantage of planning a city, a definition and pros of urban economy in country ...

  5. Dashing through the Snow--On Cross-Country Skis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Roger

    1988-01-01

    A discussion of factors to consider when developing a cross-country area for skiing includes consideration of the components of a successful cross-country operation and how the sport can be effectively promoted. (JD)

  6. Medicare Utilization for Part B

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This link takes you to the Medicare utilization statistics for Part B (Supplementary Medical Insurance SMI) which includes the Medicare Part B Physician and Supplier...

  7. Medicare Utilization for Part A

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This link takes you to the Medicare utilization statistics for Part A (Hospital Insurance HI) which include the Medicare Ranking for all Short-Stay Hospitals by...

  8. Cross-Country Trek

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    On August 8, 1998, Wu Qi and Yu Yan arrived at Beijing, the destination of a journey that had taken them more than three years. In travelling across 28 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities, by foot, bus and train, these two young women from Guangzhou had covered a distance of 120,000 kJlometers, the first continuous cross-country journey accomplished by women. On the eve of International Women’s Day (March 8th) of 1995, Wu Qi and Yu Yan quit their jobs and started out on their cross-country

  9. Global Trends in Space Access and Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shamim A.; Keim, Nicholas S.; Zeender, Peter E.

    2010-01-01

    global interdependent effort with all its likely complexities is an increasingly viable and pragmatic option. The discussion includes a breakdown of space missions into those of civil (scientific), military, and strictly commercial nature. It concludes that all three are robust components of a globally diversified portfolio of activities relying, essentially, on a common space industrial base and space infrastructure. As in other industries, the distribution of space industry assets and knowledge across countries and continents enables a diverse suite of options and arrangements, particularly in the areas of civil and commercial space utilization. A survey of several ongoing bilateral and multilateral space collaboration examples are provided to augment the observations regarding multinational work in space.

  10. Economic regulation of electricity grids in Nordic countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, H.B.; EK, G. (Energy Markets Inspectorate, Eskilstuna (Sweden)); Ilonen, M.; Nurmi, S. (Energy Market Authority, Helsinki (Finland)); Moelgaard Jakobsen, N. (Danish Energy Regulatory Authority, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Syvertsen, S.C.; Steinnes, S.H. (Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate, Oslo (Norway))

    2011-12-15

    This report is about the design of economic regulation of electricity companies in the Nordic countries. The purpose is to inform the interested reader on how the regulation of tariffs is designed. The intention is to give a short overview on the current economic regulation with an ambition to focus on differences and similarities. A common feature of the electricity distribution sector is that the industry structure consists of many independent companies with great differences in size and density of customers. This is contrary to what is common in other countries. The regulatory task can be more challenging with many separate utilities to regulate, especially if the industry is very heterogenous. In the appendices, the economic regulation of each country is presented in more detail. In the main text the focus is on differences and similarities. When comparing the regulations one can make two observations. On a superior level there are great similarities. All Nordic countries regulate the network companies by setting revenue caps. The legislation, the goals given to the regulators and the regulators general interpretation of the rules are to a great extent the same. The primary purposes are to prevent the monopolist to overcharge customers and to create a rational network industry. The regulation shall stimulate an effective management resulting in productivity development and optimal quality of the services. The differences in the Nordic economic regulations are in the details - in the setup of the regulatory models and choice of parameters. For instance; the assessment of a reasonable rate-of-return is done in all the regulations. When deciding this rate-of-return some countries use the method of weighted cost of capital (WACC) and capital asset pricing model (CAPM), other do not. Even when using the same method, the inputs in the model are not the same. Common for the regulatory models are the division of costs related to capital costs and operating costs. The

  11. Hungary country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uerge-Vorsatz, D.; Fuele, M. [eds.

    1999-09-01

    Hungary recognises the importance of limiting greenhouse gas emissions in order to prevent or mitigate their impact on the global climate. On an international level, Hungary is not a significant carbon dioxide emitter, neither to the absolute degree nor on a per capita basis. This means that the principal reason for Hungarian participation in emission`s reduction is not perceivable international consequences but solidarity and participation in the common action of the countries of the world. Hungary is a signatory to both the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto protocol. However, the (Hungarian) National Environmental Program also emphasises that the fulfilment of international conventions must happen at a level and pace reasonable for Hungary. The goal of this study is to investigate the potentials, costs and implementation strategies of greenhouse gas abatement in Hungary. First presented is a background of Hungary`s economy and a summary of the economic transitions in Hungary. A brief description of the Hungarian energy sector is included, with a short summary of carbon dioxide emissions, and of the Hungarian forestry sector. The following chapter is devoted to the development of baseline scenarios, from bottom-up and top-down perspectives. In the chapter on mitigation, the spectrum of energy efficiency measures in the residential and public sectors is discussed. Fifteen specific measures, whose impact is considered important, are selected and discussed in detail. The cost curves are developed for the discussed mitigation options. Then, we discuss the issues related to the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the Hungarian residential and commercial sectors. After a general background and a framework on the implementation of the energy efficiency measures in the sectors chosen, we elaborate on the practicality of these concepts. As a case study, the concept and the feasibility of carbon/energy taxes are examined. To complete the

  12. CAPTURED India Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donoghue, R.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the India Country Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the End Evaluation has assessed that results are commendable. I-AIM was able to design an approach in which health fol

  13. Algeria: Country Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerren, Margaret

    A survey of the status of language usage in Algeria begins with an overview of the usage patterns of Arabic, the Berber languages, and French. The country's return to Arabic as its official language after independence from France in 1962 is discussed along with the resultant language planning, issues of language of instruction at the elementary,…

  14. DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. TRANSITION ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru FILIPEANU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the modern theories of economic development – the take-off, backwardness, convergence and balanced growth hypothesis - the new industrialized states from Asia seem to have noticed the advantages of backwardness from which low income countries benefited, namely the possibility to take advantage of the latest technological discoveries of advanced countries, thus achieving a faster growth than the latter which operated closer to the technological border. The assimilation of appropriate technologies, however, required the efficient mobilization and allocation of resources and the improvement of human and physical capital. While the Western countries were confronted with crises generated by inflationary shocks and movements of speculative capital, the relative isolation of countries whose economy was planned by the world economy sheltered them until 1990, unemployment being practically non-existent. Asia's exceptional economic success is not only due to borrowing Western practices, but also to the fact that Asian societies maintained certain traditional features of their own culture - such as a strong work ethic - and integrated them in the modern business environment.

  15. Algeria: Country Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerren, Margaret

    A survey of the status of language usage in Algeria begins with an overview of the usage patterns of Arabic, the Berber languages, and French. The country's return to Arabic as its official language after independence from France in 1962 is discussed along with the resultant language planning, issues of language of instruction at the elementary,…

  16. Population Education Country Programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Education in Asia and the Pacific Newsletter, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Highlights various population education programs in Afghanistan, China, India, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam. Also describes population education programs at primary and secondary levels in Thailand, curriculum and instructional materials development in this country, and teaching units and curriculum outlines developed from a workshop for…

  17. RIO Country Report 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Mitchell, Jessica

    The 2015 series of RIO Country Reports analyse and assess the policy and the national research and innovation system developments in relation to national policy priorities and the EU policy agenda with special focus on ERA and Innovation Union. The executive summaries of these reports put forward...

  18. Kosovo : Country Environmental Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    A Kosovo CEA is a World Bank analytical tool used to integrate environmental issues into development assistance strategies, programs, and projects. To that end, the CEA synthesizes environmental issues, highlights the environmental and economic implications of development policies, and evaluates the country's environmental management capacity. Kosovo is landlocked and possesses many minera...

  19. China: A Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Appendix A). From the Plateau of Tibet other less elevated highlands, rugged east-west trending mountains and plateaus interrupted by deep depresions ...China: A Country Study Table 3. Continued Coavmtiomal Convmtioto y Pinyr to Form of Referenc Form of Ream to nn Turpan Pendi Turfan Depresion Sungari

  20. CAPTURED India Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donoghue, R.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the India Country Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the End Evaluation has assessed that results are commendable. I-AIM was able to design an approach in which health

  1. RIO Country Report 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Mitchell, Jessica

    The 2015 series of RIO Country Reports analyse and assess the policy and the national research and innovation system developments in relation to national policy priorities and the EU policy agenda with special focus on ERA and Innovation Union. The executive summaries of these reports put forward...

  2. Renal transplantation in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoh, Jacob A

    2011-07-01

    Patients with established renal failure, living in developing countries, face many obstacles including lack of access to transplantation centers, quality and safety issues, and exploittation associated with transplant tourism. This review aims to determine the state and outcome of renal transplantation performed in developing countries and to recommend some solutions. The lack of suitable legislation and infrastructure has prevented growth of deceased donor programs; so, living donors have continued to be the major source of transplantable kidneys. Transplant tourism and commercial kidney transplants are associated with a high incidence of surgical complications, acute rejection and invasive infection, which cause major morbidity and mortality. Developing transplant services worldwide has many benefits - improving the results of transplantation as they would be performed legally, increasing the donor pool, making transplant tourism unnecessary and granting various governments the moral courage to fight unacceptable practices. A private-public partnership underpinned by transparency, public audit and accountability is a prerequisite for effective transplant services in the developing world. Finally, lack of dialysis facilities coupled with better outcomes in patients spending <6 months on dialysis prior to transplantation favor pre-emptive transplantation in developing countries.

  3. Utility Energy Services Contracts Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-08-01

    This document describes best practices in the use of Utility Energy Services Contracts. The recommendations were generated by a group of innovative energy managers in many successful projects. The topics include project financing, competition between utility franchises, and water conservation.

  4. Utility Incentives for Combined Heat and Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the results of EPA's research and analysis into utility incentives for CHP. It provides information about utility-initiated policies, programs, and incentives for CHP systems, and includes case studies and tools and resources.

  5. 31. FACTORS INFLUENCING UTILIZATION OF INTERMITTENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    treatment of malaria during pregnancy(IPTp), effective IPTp service utilization ... effective case management of malaria. Despite the ... Factors influencing IPTp utilization identified in the study included; educational status of a woman,. Medical ...

  6. Chagas disease in Andean countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Guhl

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The Andean Countries' Initiative (ACI for controlling Chagas disease was officially created in 1997 within the framework of the Hipolito Unanue Agreement (UNANUE between the Ministries of Health of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Its objective was to interrupt transmission via vector and transfusion in the region, taking into account that there are 12.5 million people at risk in the four Andean countries forming the initiative in the area and around 3 million people are infected by Trypanosoma cruzi. The progress of control activities for the vector species present in the Andean sub-region, for different reasons, has been slow and control interventions have still not been installed in all geographical areas occupied by the target species. This has been partly due to lack of knowledge about these vector populations' biological characteristics, and consequent uncertainty about which are the appropriate control measures and strategies to be implemented in the region. The main vector species present important similarities in Venezuela and Colombia and in Ecuador and Northern Peru and they can be approached in a similar way throughout the whole regions, basing approaches on and adapting them to the current strategies being developed in Venezuela during the 1960s which have been progressively adopted in the Southern Cone and Central-American region. Additional measures are needed for keeping endemic areas free from Rhodnius prolixus silvatic populations, widely spread in the Orinoco region in Colombia and Venezuela. Regarding aetiological treatment, it is worth mentioning that (with the exception of Colombia none of the other countries forming the ACI have registered medicaments available for treating infected young people. There are no suitable follow-up programmes in the sub-region or for treating cases of congenital Chagas disease. An integral and integrated programme encompassing all the aspects including transmission by transfusion which

  7. Direct Heat Utilization of Geothermal Resources Worldwide 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.

    2000-01-01

    Direct utilization of geothermal energy consists of various forms for heating and cooling instead of converting the energy for electric power generation. The geothermal resources that can be utilized are in the lower temperature range that are more wide-spread than the higher temperature resources used for electricity generation. The major areas of direct utilization are: heating of swimming pools and for balneology; space heating and cooling including district heating; agriculture applications (greenhouse heating and crop drying); aquaculture applications; industrial processing; and geothermal heat pumps. Direct utilization projects are reported in 72 countries with an installed capacity of 28,268 MWt and annual energy use of 273,372 TJ (75,943 GWh) reported in 2005. The equivalent annual savings in fuel oil amounts to 170 million barrels (25.4 million tonnes) and 24 million tonnes in carbon emissions to the atmosphere. Recent trends are to combined geothermal heat and power projects in order to maximize the use of the resource and improve the economics of the project. With the recent increases in fossil fuel prices, it is estimated that direct utilizations will more than double in the next 10 years.

  8. Policy and ethical issues in applying medical biotechnology in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Minakshi; Macer, Darryl R J

    2003-02-01

    A brief review of some of the key issues in policy relating to the ethical issues raised by medical biotechnology in developing countries is presented, using India as an example. A series of some key issues is discussed, including information obtained from interviewing Indian government policy makers. Some of the issues discussed include: Economic and social incentives to encourage biotechnology; Health policy and ethics review; Patents on drugs; Medical genetics; Relationship to traditional medical practices; Positive public attitudes to biotechnology; Limited public participation; Infrastructural hurdles; Indian progress in stem cell research; and dilemmas of expensive technologies. The results show that although the needs of developing countries are different to those of rich countries, government policy utilizing guidelines and ethics committees has evolved as mechanisms to aid ethical health care delivery in India. In all countries there may be some of these concerns that are raised here, however, the integration of traditional medicine and advanced medical technology, and access to medical services by people in need, are particularly important challenges in developing countries. Better public involvement in policy making will require education and infrastructural organization as well as mutual willingness on the part of policy makers and citizens.

  9. Home Country Teachers' Advice to Non-Home Country Teachers: Some Initial Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, Nicola; Kleinsasser, Robert C.

    2006-01-01

    This study explores educational and sociocultural advice home country teachers offer non-home country teachers instructing English. It reviews various professional literature including documents (e.g. news releases), websites, and various literature (books, journals, journal articles) pertaining to the preparation of teachers who plan to teach…

  10. Are Muslim countries more prone to violence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Petter Gleditsch

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, most armed conflicts have taken place in Muslim countries. Are Muslim countries more war-prone? Not necessarily, if we look at data for the whole period after World War II. But in the post-Cold War era, most wars are civil wars and Muslim countries have a disproportionate share of these. This is not mainly because conflicts among Muslims have increased, but because other conflicts have declined. Muslim countries are also overrepresented among countries with high levels of other forms of internal violence, including non-state conflict, one-sided violence, highly repressive human rights policies, and countries that practice capital punishment. They also have a higher than average participation in interstate conflicts. This is not a “clash of civilizations”—most of the victims are Muslims. We list several hypotheses, apart from religion itself, for why this pattern has emerged, including colonial history, interventions from major powers, and economic and political development. Finally, on a more optimistic note, while many Muslims are exposed to violence, four of the five countries with the largest Muslim populations do not currently experience civil war.

  11. ACCREDITATION FOR TECHNICAL ABILITIES INCLUDING COMPUTER SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halit Hami OZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sector Skills are defined by state-sponsored, employer-led organizations that cover specific economic sectors in the European Union and other countries in the world to reduce skills gaps and shortages, improve productivity, boost the skills of their sector workforces and improve learning supply. The accreditation and registration systems used by professional bodies raise the profile of the profession. In many countries including the European Union, professional associations are beginning to accept practice-based accreditation, generally as an alternative to their mainstream systems. Besides studying the certain agencies in the European Union for assessing/accreditating practical abilities , Accreditation for practical abilities of Information Communication Technology and Business Management/Language domains developed by Accreditation Council for Practical abilities are also studied in detail as an example to establish a similar agency in Turkey.

  12. Causal Attributions for Poverty in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Juan Vázquez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes attributional differences about causes of poverty in the less developed countries, among Nicaraguan ("actors" and Spanish ("observers" undergraduates. A self–applied questionnaire was used. It included socio–demographic questions and an adaptation of the "Causes of Third World Poverty Questionnaire" (CTWPQ. Results show agreement between Spanish and Nicaraguan in attributions about the main causes of poverty in the less developed countries, although there are differences about the perception of the incidence of the different causes in that situation. Nicaraguan students consider, as causes of poverty, more dispositional attributes about the population in those countries.

  13. Country Pavilions You Should Not Miss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 World Expo site is home to numerous dazzling pavilions. The pavilions can be grouped into several categories, including theme pavilions, foreign country pavilions and international organization pavilions, China Pavilion, pavilions for China’s mainland provinces and Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan, corporate pavilions and pavilions in Urban Best Practice Areas. A total of 246 countries and international organizations have brought their distinct culture and cutting-edge technologies to this grand event. Below are some of the country pavilions you should strive not to miss.

  14. Solar energy utilization in the USSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpilrain, E. E.

    1991-05-01

    The conditions for solar energy utilization in the USSR are not too favorable. Only in the country's southern regions is there sufficient insolation to make solar energy utilization economic. In higher latitudes, only seasonal use of solar energy is reasonable. Up to now, the main application of solar energy has been to produce low-temperature heat for hot water production, drying of agricultural goods, space heating and thermal treatment of concrete. A substantial proportion of the solar heating installations are flat plate solar collectors. The total installed area of solar collectors slightly exceeds 100,000 square meters. The collectors are produced by large- and small-scale industry. Where selective coatings are applied to the absorber plates, black nickel or chromium are the main coating materials. Recently launched new projects aim to develop and produce advanced collectors, with enhanced efficiency and reliability. There has been substantial progress in developing photovoltaic (PV) cells for space applications, but terrestrial application of PV is still in a very early stage. Annual production of PV cells totals about 100 kW, based on mono- or polycrystalline silicon. R&D work on thin-film PV cells is in progress. Work is in progress on the development of automated production lines to manufacture 1 MW/yr of crystalline and amorphous silicon. A 5-MW tower-type demonstration plant, with a circular heliostat field, uses steam as the working fluid. Experience with this plant has revealed several disadvantages, including commonwealth of independent states.

  15. Macroeconomics in develpoing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Nayyar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes the differences between the economies of industrialized countriesand developing countries, which have important implications for macroeconomics interms of theory and policy. It considers the differences in macroeconomic objectives andexamines why the reach of macroeconomic policies is different in the two sets ofcountries. It argues that the distinction between short-run macroeconomic models andlong-term growth models is not quite appropriate for developing countries, wheremacroeconomic constraints on growth straddle time horizons and short-term policieshave long-term consequences. The essential hypothesis is that the nature of relationshipsand the direction of causation in macroeconomics, which shape analysis, diagnosis andprescription, depend on the institutional setting and not the analytical structure of models.And even if some laws of economics are universal, the functioning of economies can bemarkedly different. Therefore, economic theory and policy analysis should recognize,rather than ignore, such myriad differences.

  16. Botswana country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    This study was carried out in Botswana, Tanzania and Zambia as part of the project `Climate Change Mitigation in Southern Africa` funded by the Danish International Development Agency (Danida). The project was conducted parallel to the UNEP/GEF project `Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations` which involved 8 other developing countries and 2 regional projects in Latin America and the SADC region. The limitation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is a complex issue, intimately connected with economic development at local, national, regional and global levels. Key economic sectors such as energy, agriculture, industry and forestry all produce GHGs, and are likely to be affected directly and indirectly by any mitigation policy. The UNEP Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies, initiated in 1991, attempted to address these complex issues, developing a methodological framework and testing it through practical application in ten countries. (EHS) 28 refs.

  17. Animals:Country symbols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周明

    2005-01-01

    A nim als have always been used to represent cer-tain hum an characteristics.Countries also use anim alsas sym bols.From eagles to lions,m any countries usean anim al to show its national spirit and character.1.U S:T he bald eagleThe im age of an eagle is on the U SPresident’s flag,and on the one-dollarbill.The bald eagle is a large,pow erful,brow n bird with a white head and tail.The term“bald”does not m ean that thisbird lacks feathers.Instead,it com es fromthe old word piebald,that m eans,“m arked w ith ...

  18. Allometric Scaling of Countries

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jiang

    2010-01-01

    As huge complex systems consisting of geographic regions, natural resources, people and economic entities, countries follow the allometric scaling law which is ubiquitous in ecological, urban systems. We systematically investigated the allometric scaling relationships between a large number of macroscopic properties and geographic (area), demographic (population) and economic (GDP, gross domestic production) sizes of countries respectively. We found that most of the economic, trade, energy consumption, communication related properties have significant super-linear (the exponent is larger than 1) or nearly linear allometric scaling relations with GDP. Meanwhile, the geographic (arable area, natural resources, etc.), demographic(labor force, military age population, etc.) and transportation-related properties (road length, airports) have significant and sub-linear (the exponent is smaller than 1) allometric scaling relations with area. Several differences of power law relations with respect to population betwee...

  19. Republic of Austria. Country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, L C

    1985-07-01

    A summary description of Austria's demographic situation, economic conditions, labor force characteristics, housing conditions, household characteristics, and marriage patterns is provided. Austria, the former center of the Hapsburg Empire, covers 32,375 square miles and is divided into 9 provinces, including Vienna, the federal capital. Austria's population increased from 6.9 million in 1950 to 7.6 million in 1980. Since 1980 it declined slightly and in 1985 it was estimated to be 7,487,000. Between 1961-81, the industrial, western region of the country grew more rapidly than the predominantly rural eastern section of the country. Vienna, the largest city in the country, experienced a decline in population size from 1.9 million to 1.5 million since 1923. Part of the decline was due to the annihilation of the city's Jewish population in 1938. Austria has a lower urban population (56%) than most other industrialized countries. This low rate reflects the availability of tourist related jobs in the rural areas. 98% of the population is Austrian, the official language is German, and most of the inhabitants are Roman Catholic. Due to the homogeneity of the population, the country has few religious and racial problems; however, a recent study indicated that about 1/2 of the population has anti-Semetic attitudes. Life expectancy is 69 years for men and 76 years for women. Austria's population is aging. Currently, 18% of the population is under 15 years of age, and 14% is 65 years of age or older. Births are expected to increase slightly until the end of the 1900s and then decline slightly. Austrians place a high value on children and family life. Between 1978-82 the marriage rate increased from 4.5/1000 to 4.8/1000, and the median age at marriage increased from 22.4-23.0 years for women and from 25.6-25.8 years for men. The number of divorces/year increased from 11,168-14.298 between 1976-82. Currently, there are 2,767,000 households, and the average household size is 2

  20. Corruption in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Olken, Benjamin A.; Rohini Pande

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen a remarkable expansion in economists' ability to measure corruption. This in turn has led to a new generation of well-identified, microeconomic studies. We review the evidence on corruption in developing countries in light of these recent advances, focusing on three questions: how much corruption is there, what are the efficiency consequences of corruption, and what determines the level of corruption? We find robust evidence that corruption responds to standard economic...

  1. Argentina: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-17

    Forundizi stayed in office until March 29, 1962. Skillfully, Frondizi managed partially to revive the economy and set the country on the road toward... Frondizi could not win the support of all sections of the population for a concentrated effort of austerity to save Argentina’s economy from the chaos it...make sacrifices. Frondizi came to grief when the reinstated Peronist Party won control of several provinces and increased its membership in congress in

  2. Tanzania country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meena, H.E. [Centre for Energy, Environment, Science and Technology, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    An objective of this study is to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without an in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. (au)

  3. Zambia country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    The Zambia Country Study, which was part of the Danida-funded project Climate Change Mitigation in Southern Africa: Phase 2, aimed at methodological development, national mitigation analysis and institutional capacity building in Zambia. The study comprised the following five elements: Comprehensive evaluation of national social and economic development framework for climate change; Baseline scenario(s) projection(s); Mitigation scenario(s) projection(s); Macro-economic assessment; Implementation Issues. (au) 17 refs.

  4. China: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    the Shandong terr-itorv alreadyv in its possession. Beijing also recognized Tokyo’s authority oVer Southern Manchuria and eastern Inner Mongolia. In...stretching from Harbin in the northeast through the Beijing area and south to China’s largest city, the huge industrial metropoli- tan complex of...country. Nearly all counties and towns had one or more machine factories. Major machinery centers were Shanghai, Tianjin, Shen- yang, Beijing, Harbin

  5. Domestic utility attitudes toward foreign uranium supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-01

    The current embargo on the enrichment of foreign-origin uranium for use in domestic utilization facilities is scheduled to be removed in 1984. The pending removal of this embargo, complicated by a depressed worldwide market for uranium, has prompted consideration of a new or extended embargo within the US Government. As part of its on-going data collection activities, Nuclear Resources International (NRI) has surveyed 50 domestic utility/utility holding companies (representing 60 lead operator-utilities) on their foreign uranium purchase strategies and intentions. The most recent survey was conducted in early May 1981. A number of qualitative observations were made during the course of the survey. The major observations are: domestic utility views toward foreign uranium purchase are dynamic; all but three utilities had some considered foreign purchase strategy; some utilities have problems with buying foreign uranium from particular countries; an inducement is often required by some utilities to buy foreign uranium; opinions varied among utilities concerning the viability of the domestic uranium industry; and many utilities could have foreign uranium fed through their domestic uranium contracts (indirect purchases). The above observations are expanded in the final section of the report. However, it should be noted that two of the observations are particularly important and should be seriously considered in formulation of foreign uranium import restrictions. These important observations are the dynamic nature of the subject matter and the potentially large and imbalanced effect the indirect purchases could have on utility foreign uranium procurement.

  6. SMEs and CSR in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamali, Dima; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Jeppesen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    This article is the guest editors’ introduction to the special issue in Business & Society on “SMEs and CSR in Developing Countries.” The special issue includes four original research articles by Hamann, Smith, Tashman, and Marshall; Allet; Egels-Zandén; and Puppim de Oliveira and Jabbour...... on various aspects of the relationship of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to corporate social responsibility (CSR) in developing countries....

  7. Marketing in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, A H

    1979-10-27

    I fully support the views of Mr. Chetley of War on Want on the marketing of infant foods in developing countries (Oct. 6, p. 747). My experience of eight years medical work in West Africa prompts me to broaden the debate. Advertising and promotional practices used by many European and American pharmaceutical companies are in many instances directed primarily to the non-professional and often poorly educated general public and appear to be geared simply to achieve the maximum volume of sales. Likewise, the cynical disregard of cigarette manufacturers for the dangers of smoking is very apparent in the way in which advertising and promotional campaigns are conducted in developing countries. Fifteen years ago cigarettes were largely imported items but now, certainly in one major West African country, there is a large and flourishing tobacco industry which appears to be run primarily by European interests and which is obviously not there for the health benefit of the people. Is it not a sad reflection on the morality of the society in which we live that, while striving to control unethical and undesirable practices at home, we make little or no effort to regulate those practices abroad when profit is the objective?

  8. Country Report WIN Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Shin [Atomic Energy Council, 6F, No 80, Sec 1, Cheng-Gong Road, Yonghe City, 23452 Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2008-07-01

    A. Nuclear Power Facilities and Performance: In 2007, 98.24% of energy sources were imported in Taiwan. Taiwan's six existing nuclear power units, operated by the state owned utility Taiwan Power Company (TPC), generated a total of 40.55 terawatt-hours (TWh) of electricity (gross) in 2007 - a record high and up 1.7% from the previous year's figure (39.87 TWh). The three nuclear plants at Chinshan, Kuosheng and Maanshan, with two operating units at each site, provided a total installed capacity of 5,144 MWe, accounting for 11.32% of the total installed electricity capacity in 2007 - compared to 11.41% in 2006. Performance wise, the average capacity factor for all six units in 2007 was 90.28%, up from 88.93% in 2006, and best record ever in Taiwan's nuclear power operation. The annual average number of abnormal events per unit was 2.33 (or 14 events for all six units), and the average number of automatic scrams per unit was 0.33 (or 2 scrams for all six units) in 2006. Production of solidified low-level radioactive waste from all six units totaled 259 drums, also best record ever, down 21% from 327 drums in 2006 and down as much as 57% from 601 drums in 2005. A new record was also set at Unit 1 of Maanshan plant for a refueling outage of 31.62 days, shortest ever for a TPC's nuclear unit. Construction continues at Lungmen plant for two ABWR units with 77.29% completion by the end of February 2008. The project had encountered significant delays due to the suspension in 2000, rising price of construction materials, finding new subcontractors to replace the bankrupted and negotiating new contracts to succeed the expired. Commercial operation has been reset in 2006 as 2009 and 2010 for units 1 and 2, respectively, and fuel loading is expected by end of this year for unit 1. B. Highlights of Nuclear R and D and Regulatory Activities: Major research focuses of the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) include: time limited comprehensive safety

  9. Social group utility maximization

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Xiaowen; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explains how to leverage mobile users' social relationships to improve the interactions of mobile devices in mobile networks. It develops a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework that captures diverse social ties of mobile users and diverse physical coupling of mobile devices. Key topics include random access control, power control, spectrum access, and location privacy.This brief also investigates SGUM-based power control game and random access control game, for which it establishes the socially-aware Nash equilibrium (SNE). It then examines the critical SGUM-b

  10. ERAWATCH Country Reports 2012 : Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Bulanova, Oxana; Madsen, Einar Lier

    2014-01-01

    This analytical country report is one of a series of annual ERAWATCH reports produced for EU Member States and Countries Associated to the Seventh Framework Programme for Research of the European Union (FP7). The main objective of the ERAWATCH Annual Country Reports is to characterise and assess the performance of national research systems and related policies in a structured manner that is comparable across countries. The Country Report 2012 builds on and updates the 2011 edition. The re...

  11. 19 CFR 134.45 - Approved markings of country name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Method and Location of Marking Imported Articles § 134.45 Approved markings of country name. (a) Language. (1) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, the markings required by this part shall include the full English name of the country...

  12. Strategies to include sexual orientation and gender identity in health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-04

    May 4, 2015 ... abuse, and are at higher risk for sexually transmitted diseases, including. HIV.[2] Because of mistrust in the ... [5,6] In countries where legislation penalises .... HIV/ STI risks. Discuss health prevention needs of transgender men.

  13. Fuel Utilization and Environment Pollution/. (Part 1. Energy Ecology of Fuel Utilization and Standardizing of Hazardous Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Soroka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A complex of problems pertaining to environment pollution, while utilizing fuel in industrially-developed countries and in the Ukraine, is considered with due account of regional peculiarities and a pattern of the industrial production. The world balance of hydrocarbon fuel output and its utilization from energy-ecology position are analyzed. Nitrogen oxides (NOx, carbon monoxide (CO, non-bumt hydrocarbons (UHC, including poly-aromatic ones (PAH, volatile organic compounds (VOC and the smoke with the particles of size lower than 10 μm (PM 10 are considered as pollutants of hydrocarbon fuel combustion processes and their concentration is regulated by standards. National and international norms of hazardous effluents are adduced and discussed.

  14. Measures for diffusion of solar PV in selected African countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Mackenzie, Gordon A.

    2017-01-01

    that governments’ strategies to promoting solar PV are moving from isolated projects towards frameworks for market development and that there are high expectations to upgrading in the PV value chain through local assembly of panels and local production of other system elements. Commonly identified measures include......This paper investigates how African governments are considering supporting and promoting the diffusion of solar PV. This issue is explored by examining so-called ‘technology action plans (TAPs)’, which were main outputs of the Technology Needs Assessment project implemented in 10 African countries...... from 2010 to 2013. The paper provides a review of three distinct but characteristic trajectories for PV market development in Kenya (private-led market for solar home systems), Morocco (utility-led fee-for service model) and Rwanda (donorled market for institutional systems). The paper finds...

  15. The relationship of U.S. aid, trade and investment to migration pressures in major sending countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, T K

    1982-01-01

    "It has often been suggested that U.S. foreign economic policies, including the areas of aid, trade and investment, could be utilized to influence migration pressures in major sending countries. This study explores the feasibility of this proposition by examining the linkages between these U.S. economic instruments and migration 'push' factors. These linkages are shown to be indirect, are often quite complex, and the final impact on migration, except perhaps in the long run, is probably small in most cases."

  16. A structured review of health utility measures and elicitation in advanced/metastatic breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Y

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Yanni Hao,1 Verena Wolfram,2 Jennifer Cook2 1Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ, USA; 2Adelphi Values, Bollington, UK Background: Health utilities are increasingly incorporated in health economic evaluations. Different elicitation methods, direct and indirect, have been established in the past. This study examined the evidence on health utility elicitation previously reported in advanced/metastatic breast cancer and aimed to link these results to requirements of reimbursement bodies. Methods: Searches were conducted using a detailed search strategy across several electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and EconLit databases, online sources (Cost-effectiveness Analysis Registry and the Health Economics Research Center, and web sites of health technology assessment (HTA bodies. Publications were selected based on the search strategy and the overall study objectives. Results: A total of 768 publications were identified in the searches, and 26 publications, comprising 18 journal articles and eight submissions to HTA bodies, were included in the evidence review. Most journal articles derived utilities from the European Quality of Life Five-Dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D. Other utility measures, such as the direct methods standard gamble (SG, time trade-off (TTO, and visual analog scale (VAS, were less frequently used. Several studies described mapping algorithms to generate utilities from disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL instruments such as European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire – Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire – Breast Cancer 23 (EORTC QLQ-BR23, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy – General questionnaire (FACT-G, and Utility-Based Questionnaire-Cancer (UBQ-C; most used EQ-5D as the reference. Sociodemographic factors that affect health utilities, such as age, sex

  17. Geovisualization and analysis of the Good Country Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, C.; Dramowicz, K.

    2016-04-01

    The Good Country Index measures the contribution of a single country in the humanity and health aspects that are beneficial to the planet. Countries which are globally good for our planet do not necessarily have to be good for their own citizens. The Good Country Index is based on the following seven categories: science and technology, culture, international peace and security, world order, planet and climate, prosperity and equality, and health and well-being. The Good Country Index is focused on the external effects, in contrast to other global indices (for example, the Human Development Index, or the Social Progress Index) showing the level of development of a single country in benefiting its own citizens. The authors verify if these global indices may be good proxies as potential predictors, as well as indicators of a country's ‘goodness’. Non-spatial analysis included analyzing relationships between the overall Good Country Index and the seven contributing categories, as well as between the overall Good Country Index and other global indices. Data analytics was used for building various predictive models and selecting the most accurate model to predict the overall Good Country Index. The most important rules for high and low index values were identified. Spatial analysis included spatial autocorrelation to analyze similarity of index values of a country in relation to its neighbors. Hot spot analysis was used to identify and map significant clusters of countries with high and low index values. Similar countries were grouped into geographically compact clusters and mapped.

  18. Wind energy utilization: A bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Bibliography cites documents published to and including 1974 with abstracts and references, and is indexed by topic, author, organization, title, and keywords. Topics include: Wind Energy Potential and Economic Feasibility, Utilization, Wind Power Plants and Generators, Wind Machines, Wind Data and Properties, Energy Storage, and related topics.

  19. Russia: An Abnormal Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Rosefielde

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Andrei Shleifer and Daniel Treisman recently rendered a summary verdict on the post Soviet Russian transition experience finding that the Federation had become a normal country with the west's assistance, and predicting that it would liberalize and develop further like other successful nations of its type. This essay demonstrates that they are mistaken on the first count, and are likely to be wrong on the second too. It shows factually, and on the norms elaborated by Pareto, Arrow and Bergson that Russia is an abnormal political economy unlikely to democratize, westernize or embrace free enterprise any time soon

  20. The Netherlands: country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    This discussion of the Netherlands covers the country's cities and regions, population growth, households and families, housing, contruction, and spatial planning; ethnicity and religion; education; labor force and income; consumption; and transport and communications. As a small and mineral poor nation with a seafaring tradition, the Netherlands survives on foreign trade. In 1983, total export earnings amounted to nearly 62% of the entire national income. Over 72% of Dutch exports go to other member countries of the European Economic Community (EEC), but imports are more diversified, with 47% originating outside the EEC. Since 1848, the Netherlands has been a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary form of government. As such, it is one of the most stable democracies in the world. The main administrative units are the 11 provinces, of which Noord-Holland and Zuid-Holland are the most populous and economically most important. Amsterdam remains the commercial center of the country, but its role as the principal port city has been taken over by Rotterdam. No community has more than 700,000 inhabitants, but the country as a whole is highly urbanized because of the large numbers of medium-sized cities. In 1983 the population of the Netherlands totaled 14.34 million, compared to 5.10 million at the turn of the century. In 1965, the total fertility rate was 3.0. The death rate has virtually stabilized at 8/1000. The Dutch life expectancy stands at 72.7 years for men and 79.4 for women (1983). Natural increase has already dropped to 0.4% a year. Apart from the slight impact of net immigration, the positive growth rate reflects the large proportion (53%) of the population in its reproductive years. Mean household sizes in the 11 provinces vary from 2.5 in Noord-Holland (in 1981) to nearly 3 in Overijssel and Noord-Brabant, whereas the proportion of 1 person households ranges from 16% in Drenthe and 17% in the somewhat traditionalist southern provinces of Limburg and

  1. Education in European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petcu, N.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Education, vocational training and lifelong learning play a vital role in both an economic and social context. The paper herein aims to identify Romania’s place within the UE-countries, considering a series of general indices: total public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP, private expenditure on education as % of GDP, annual expenditure on public and private educational institutions per pupil/student - by level of education, school expectancy, pupils and students, students - tertiary education, mobility of students in Europe, science and technology graduates, doctorate students in science and technology fields. Analysis methods: main components analysis, cluster analysis.

  2. A Country on Wheels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    小雨

    2007-01-01

    Cars are an important part of life in the United States. Most people feel that they are poor without cars. Though he is poor, he doesn't feel really poor when he has a car. Henry Ford was the man who first started making cars. Maybe, he didn't know how much the car was going to affect(影响) the United States. The cars made the United States a country on wheels(轮子). And they have helped to make the United States rich and modern.

  3. Alternatives for the treatment and disposal of healthcare wastes in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, L F; Savage, G M; Eggerth, L L

    2005-01-01

    Waste production in healthcare facilities in developing countries has brought about a variety of concerns due to the use of inappropriate methods of managing the wastes. Inappropriate treatment and final disposal of the wastes can lead to adverse impacts to public health, to occupational health and safety, and to the environment. Unfortunately, most economically developing countries suffer a variety of constraints to adequately managing these wastes. Generally in developing countries, few individuals in the staff of the healthcare facility are familiar with the procedures required for a proper waste management program. Furthermore, the management of wastes usually is delegated to poorly educated laborers who perform most activities without proper guidance and insufficient protection. This paper presents some of the most common treatment and disposal methods utilized in the management of infectious healthcare wastes in developing countries. The methods discussed include: autoclave; microwave; chemical disinfection; combustion (low-, medium-, and high-technology); and disposal on the ground (dump site, controlled landfill, pits, and sanitary landfill). Each alternative for treatment and disposal is explained, including a description of the types of wastes that can and cannot be treated. Background information on the technologies also is included in order to provide information to those who may not be familiar with the details of each alternative. In addition, a brief presentation of some of the emissions from each of the treatment and disposal alternatives is presented.

  4. China Encourages Natural Gas Development and Utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Xuehou; Jiang Shiang

    1997-01-01

    @@ China is one of the earliest nations in developing and utilizing natural gas with modern drilling technique adopted as early as in the 1940s, and the scale of the country's gas resources exploration and development has been expanded since 1950s. At the end of 1995, its yearly gas production reached 17.4 × 109 m3.

  5. Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

  6. Introduction and Utilization of High Priced HCV Medicines across Europe; Implications for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Winnie; Ibáñez, Cristina; Frisk, Pia; Bak Pedersen, Hanne; Alkan, Ali; Vella Bonanno, Patricia; Brkičić, Ljiljana S.; Bucsics, Anna; Dedet, Guillaume; Eriksen, Jaran; Fadare, Joseph O.; Fürst, Jurij; Gallego, Gisselle; Godói, Isabella P.; Guerra Júnior, Augusto A.; Gürsöz, Hakkı; Jan, Saira; Jones, Jan; Joppi, Roberta; Kerman, Saim; Laius, Ott; Madzikwa, Newman; Magnússon, Einar; Maticic, Mojca; Markovic-Pekovic, Vanda; Massele, Amos; Ogunleye, Olayinka; O'Leary, Aisling; Piessnegger, Jutta; Sermet, Catherine; Simoens, Steven; Tiroyakgosi, Celda; Truter, Ilse; Thyberg, Magnus; Tomekova, Kristina; Wladysiuk, Magdalena; Vandoros, Sotiris; Vural, Elif H.; Zara, Corinne; Godman, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infection with the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is a widespread transmittable disease with a diagnosed prevalence of 2.0%. Fortunately, it is now curable in most patients. Sales of medicines to treat HCV infection grew 2.7% per year between 2004 and 2011, enhanced by the launch of the protease inhibitors (PIs) boceprevir (BCV) and telaprevir (TVR) in addition to ribavirin and pegylated interferon (pegIFN). Costs will continue to rise with new treatments including sofosbuvir, which now include interferon free regimens. Objective: Assess the uptake of BCV and TVR across Europe from a health authority perspective to offer future guidance on dealing with new high cost medicines. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study of medicines to treat HCV (pegIFN, ribavirin, BCV and TVR) among European countries from 2008 to 2013. Utilization measured in defined daily doses (DDDs)/1000 patients/quarter (DIQs) and expenditure in Euros/DDD. Health authority activities to influence treatments categorized using the 4E methodology (Education, Engineering, Economics and Enforcement). Results: Similar uptake of BCV and TVR among European countries and regions, ranging from 0.5 DIQ in Denmark, Netherlands and Slovenia to 1.5 DIQ in Tayside and Catalonia in 2013. However, different utilization of the new PIs vs. ribavirin indicates differences in dual vs. triple therapy, which is down to factors including physician preference and genotypes. Reimbursed prices for BCV and TVR were comparable across countries. Conclusion: There was reasonable consistency in the utilization of BCV and TVR among European countries in comparison with other high priced medicines. This may reflect the social demand to limit the transmission of HCV. However, the situation is changing with new curative medicines for HCV genotype 1 (GT1) with potentially an appreciable budget impact. These concerns have resulted in different prices across countries, with their impact on budgets and patient outcomes

  7. Influence of country brand slogan and logo in country positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Pipoli de Azambuja

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To build the image of a country minds consumers’ minds, countries apply marketing strategies that are based on their country brand development, in the same way that companies apply marketing to their products and services. The development of the logo and slogan to be used in the communication strategy, are two key elements of its success in the process of building the country brand (Keller 2008. Thus the objective of this research is to know the importance of using the logo and slogan in international marketing strategies of countries. To do this, this research analyzes the use of the logo and slogan, in country brand strategies of countries in the top places in the Country Brand Index (2009 of Future Brand.

  8. Addressing climate challenges in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, Simone; Monaghan, Andrew; Done, James

    2012-04-01

    Advanced Study Program/Early Career Scientist Assembly Workshop on Regional Climate Issues in Developing Countries; Boulder, Colorado, 19-22 October 2011 The Early Career Scientist Assembly (ECSA) and the Advanced Study Program of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) invited 35 early-career scientists from nearly 20 countries to attend a 3-day workshop at the NCAR Mesa Laboratory prior to the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Open Science Conference in October 2011. The goal of the workshop was to examine a range of regional climate challenges in developing countries. Topics included regional climate modeling, climate impacts, water resources, and air quality. The workshop fostered new ideas and collaborations between early-career scientists from around the world. The discussions underscored the importance of establishing partnerships with scientists located in typically underrepresented countries to understand and account for the local political, economic, and cultural factors on which climate change is superimposed.

  9. Country brand equity model: Sustainability perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodorović Milivoj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model of country brand equity that incorporates the issue of sustainability in determining destination brand equity. In particular, the model includes elements of sustainability as its core dimensions and promotes the concept of the country sustainability promise that transforms destination resources into the positive perception and experience. The theoretical model is empirically tested using global secondary data confirming that country image is the most important element followed by sustainability and loyalty. Also, the analysis suggests the existence of the higher order construct confirming the country brand equity concept. Based on the research findings, the article offers some implications to the destination managers by suggesting the direction for further development and strategy implementation.

  10. 10 CFR 34.71 - Utilization logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Utilization logs. 34.71 Section 34.71 Energy NUCLEAR... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.71 Utilization logs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain utilization logs showing for each sealed source the following information: (1) A description, including...

  11. LABOUR FORCE EFFECTS TO CURRENT ACCOUNT MOVEMENT OF ASEAN + 6 COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NI PUTU WIWIN SETYARI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Heckscher-Ohlin-Mundell framework suggests that if a country has unexpectedly increased the permanent labour force, there will be a change in the production structure. Increases in the relative proportion of labour-intensive product demand occur and, hence, decrease the need for investment relative to domestic saving, and encourage the current account surplus. This paper tries to fill the empirical studies gap on the effects of the labour force, especially its utilization in the data panel of ASEAN + 6 countries using the generalized method of moments (GMM used to capture the unobserved heterogeneity and endogeneity across countries that often arise in a panel data model. The estimation result shows that the labour force has an asymmetric shock and it only affects the country of origin, even when the financial institution deepening as a control variable is included. The analysis also indicates that labour regulations in these countries tend to be rigid because the speed with which the current account adjusts is relatively slow.

  12. Implementation of space satellite remote sensing programs in developing countries (Ecuador)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, A.

    1982-01-01

    The current state of space satellite remote sensing programs in developing countries is discussed. Sensors being utilized and results obtained are described. Requirements are presented for the research of resources in developing countries. It is recommended that a work procedure be developed for the use of satellite remote sensing data tailored to the necessities of the different countries.

  13. Adoption of precision agriculture technologies in India and in some developing countries: Scope, present status and strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pinaki Mondal; Manisha Basu

    2009-01-01

    Rapid socio-economic changes in some developing countries, including India, are creating new scopes for application of precision agriculture (PA). The implications of dramatic shifts for economic development, urbanization and energy consumption in some devel-oping countries are immense. High-tech nature of traditional PA technologies developed in advanced countries created a real challenge for engineers to search suitable PA technologies for developing countries. It is expected that application of balanced soft and hard PA technologies based on the need of specific socio-economic condition of a country will make PA suitable for developing countries also. 'Soft' PA depends mainly on visual observation of crop and soil and management decision based on experience and intuition, rather than on statistical and scientific analysis. 'Hard' PA utilizes all modern technologies such as GPS, RS, and VRT. Three components, namely, 'single PA technology', 'PA technology package' (for the user to select one or combination) and 'integrated PA technology', have been identified as a part of adoption strategies of PA in the developing countries. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to find out the scope, the present status and the strategies for adoption of PA in India and in some developing countries. Application of PA in cash crop, plan-tation crop, etc. has been discussed. Application of some medium and low-tech PA tools such as chlorophyll meter and leaf colour chart. in small farms has been included. This exhaustive review of the present status of PA in India and in some developing countries is expected to help to find out the adoption trend and direction of future research. Detailed strategy for the adoption of PA in India has also been proposed.

  14. Experience on healthcare utilization in seven administrative regions of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayombo, Edmund J; Uiso, Febronia C; Mahunnah, Rogasian L A

    2012-01-27

    Health care utilization in many developing countries, Tanzania included, is mainly through the use of traditional medicine (TRM) and its practitioners despite the presence of the conventional medicine. This article presents findings on the study that aimed to get an experience of health care utilization from both urban and rural areas of seven administrative regions in Tanzania. A total of 33 health facility managers were interviewed on health care provision and availability of supplies including drugs, in their respective areas. The findings revealed that the health facilities were overburden with higher population to serve than it was planned. Consequently essential drugs and other health supplies were available only in the first two weeks of the month. Conventional health practitioners considered traditional health practitioners to be more competent in mental health management, and overall, they were considered to handle more HIV/AIDS cases knowingly or unknowingly due to shear need of healthcare by this group. In general conventional health practitioners were positive towards traditional medicine utilization; and some of them admitted using traditional medicines. Traditional medicines like other medical health systems worldwide have side effects and some contentious ethical issues that need serious consideration and policy direction. Since many people will continue using traditional/alternative medicine, there is an urgent need to collaborate with traditional/alternative health practitioners through the institutionalization of basic training including hygiene in order to improved healthcare in the community and attain the Millennium Development Goals by 2015.

  15. Experience on healthcare utilization in seven administrative regions of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayombo Edmund J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health care utilization in many developing countries, Tanzania included, is mainly through the use of traditional medicine (TRM and its practitioners despite the presence of the conventional medicine. This article presents findings on the study that aimed to get an experience of health care utilization from both urban and rural areas of seven administrative regions in Tanzania. A total of 33 health facility managers were interviewed on health care provision and availability of supplies including drugs, in their respective areas. The findings revealed that the health facilities were overburden with higher population to serve than it was planned. Consequently essential drugs and other health supplies were available only in the first two weeks of the month. Conventional health practitioners considered traditional health practitioners to be more competent in mental health management, and overall, they were considered to handle more HIV/AIDS cases knowingly or unknowingly due to shear need of healthcare by this group. In general conventional health practitioners were positive towards traditional medicine utilization; and some of them admitted using traditional medicines. Traditional medicines like other medical health systems worldwide have side effects and some contentious ethical issues that need serious consideration and policy direction. Since many people will continue using traditional/alternative medicine, there is an urgent need to collaborate with traditional/alternative health practitioners through the institutionalization of basic training including hygiene in order to improved healthcare in the community and attain the Millennium Development Goals by 2015.

  16. Feasibility and reliability of a mailed questionnaire to obtain visual analogue scale valuations for health states defined by the health utilities index mark 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raat, H.; Bonsel, G.J.; Hoogeveen, W.C.; Essink-Bot, M.L.; Gemke, R.J.B.J.; Krabbe, P.F.M.; Moll, H.A.; Suijlekom van-Smit, L.W.A.; Verrips, E.

    2004-01-01

    To establish the generalizability (external validity) of the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3) as a single-summary score generic outcome measure in numerous countries/subgroups (including children), repeated studies of community preferences should be performed in various settings. In performing m

  17. Utility-Interconnected Photovoltaic Systems: Evaluating the Rationale for the Utility-Accessible External Disconnect Switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coddington, M.; Margolis, R.M.; Aabakken, J.

    2008-01-01

    The utility-accessible alternating current (AC) external disconnect switch (EDS) for distributed generators, including photovoltaic (PV) systems, is a hardware feature that allows a utility?s employees to manually disconnect a customer-owned generator from the electricity grid. This paper examines the utility-accessible EDS debate in the context of utility-interactive PV systems for residential and small commercial installations. It also evaluates the rationale for EDS requirements.

  18. Peer Country Comments Paper - Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredgaard, Thomas

    Bidrag til EU-kommissionens peer-review on "Strategies for Employment policy Reform. Implementation Challenges in Decentralised Countries"......Bidrag til EU-kommissionens peer-review on "Strategies for Employment policy Reform. Implementation Challenges in Decentralised Countries"...

  19. Peer Country Comments Paper - Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredgaard, Thomas

    Bidrag til EU-kommissionens peer-review on "Strategies for Employment policy Reform. Implementation Challenges in Decentralised Countries"......Bidrag til EU-kommissionens peer-review on "Strategies for Employment policy Reform. Implementation Challenges in Decentralised Countries"...

  20. Utilities at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (utilpnt)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents various types of utilities, including water- and power-related utilities, at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah. The utilities were...

  1. PSYCHOTHERAPY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES : A PUBLIC HEALTH PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Sriram, T.G.

    1990-01-01

    SUMMARY Psychotherapy is being increasingly recognised as an important treatment modality for various mental health problems. However, minimal efforts have been made to examine the utility of psychotherapy from the public health perspective, especially for developing countries. This paper outlines the present situation in developing countries with respect to the magnitude of mental health and related problems requiring psychotherapeutic help, the existing health and mental health facilities, ...

  2. Cleaner technology development--some practical steps for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, A K A; Bhanujan, K V

    2004-10-01

    Cleaner technologies often originate from developed countries. Little developmental work is continued on the products sourced from developing countries. These products are by and large low value products generating large quantities of hazardous waste per unit of production. Methodology is proposed for phasing out such dirty technologies! products. The development of cleaner technologies is proposed for utilizing large quantity of hazardous waste generated from identified manufacturing process.

  3. Fuel Utilization and Environment Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Soroka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An influence of utilization of various fuel types on the environment pollution has been analyzed taking into account the state and forecast of changes in consumption structure of primary energy in the world.The regional peculiarities of the environment impact have been studied methodically (regarding the Ukraine as an example: distribution of the harmful effluents has been considered in various regions of the country and inter-relations of some branches of national economy and industry with the atmosphere pollution have been examined.The CO2 effluent distribution within the European regions has been considered as the main greenhouse gas. It has been stated that the difference of the specific CO2 effluent yield per unit of GDP makes more than an order by value between some European countries.This index becomes higher if specific GDP of the country concerned is lower and portion of extractive industries, metallurgical and fuel-power complexes is higher in the country’s economy.

  4. Legal regulation on utilization of natural resources of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Azem Hajdari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Kosovo is part of South-Eastern Europe, inside the Balkan Pe-ninsula. It has a surface area of 10.877 square kilometres, surroun-ded by Albania, Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro.[1] Kosovo for-ms a geographical unit surrounded by impressive mountains and hills.[2] Kosovo’s location in the centre of the Balkan Peninsula defi-nes itself as the crossroad of important terrestrial routes, crossing from Northern and Central Europe towards South and West Euro-pe.[3] The Kosovo’s relief, taken in general, is a mountainous one. Kosovo does have agricultural land, which is generally arable, considerable forest land, large water bodies, flora and fauna rich areas, and considerable ground resources.[4] These and other resources Kosovo is endowed with represent the key supporting factors of Kosovo’s development, current and future. In fact, as any other country, Kosovo is also characterized by limiting elements in terms of extent of natural resources that may be available for utilization. As it is widely known, in conditions of free market economy and privatization, possibilities of ensuring a proper planning for the utilization of all natural resources available are considerably relative. Setting from the fact that there are no inexhaustible resources, it is necessary that relevant mechanisms are in place and authority to undertake all possible measures to provide for a diligent and rational utilization thereof. To achieve such a goal, modern countries, including Kosovo, have passed relevant laws. Setting from such terms, this article aims to present the current situation of Kosovo in terms of legal norms on utilization of natural resources it is endowed with. [1] Kosovo, an encyclopaedic view, Tirana, 1999, pg. 7. [2] Kosovo, a short history, Noel Malcolm, Tirana, 2001, pg. 1. [3] Kosovo, an encyclopaedic view, Tirana, 1999, pg. 8. [4] Ibid, pgs. 26-44.

  5. Hualapai Tribal Utility Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hualapai Tribal Nation

    2008-05-25

    The first phase of the Hualapai Tribal Utility Development Project (Project) studied the feasibility of establishing a tribally operated utility to provide electric service to tribal customers at Grand Canyon West (see objective 1 below). The project was successful in completing the analysis of the energy production from the solar power systems at Grand Canyon West and developing a financial model, based on rates to be charged to Grand Canyon West customers connected to the solar systems, that would provide sufficient revenue for a Tribal Utility Authority to operate and maintain those systems. The objective to establish a central power grid over which the TUA would have authority and responsibility had to be modified because the construction schedule of GCW facilities, specifically the new air terminal, did not match up with the construction schedule for the solar power system. Therefore, two distributed systems were constructed instead of one central system with a high voltage distribution network. The Hualapai Tribal Council has not taken the action necessary to establish the Tribal Utility Authority that could be responsible for the electric service at GCW. The creation of a Tribal Utility Authority (TUA) was the subject of the second objective of the project. The second phase of the project examined the feasibility and strategy for establishing a tribal utility to serve the remainder of the Hualapai Reservation and the feasibility of including wind energy from a tribal wind generator in the energy resource portfolio of the tribal utility (see objective 2 below). It is currently unknown when the Tribal Council will consider the implementation of the results of the study. Objective 1 - Develop the basic organizational structure and operational strategy for a tribally controlled utility to operate at the Tribe’s tourism enterprise district, Grand Canyon West. Coordinate the development of the Tribal Utility structure with the development of the Grand Canyon

  6. E-Commerce for utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malicky, M. [Metzler and Associates, Deerfield, IL (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The use of E-Commerce by energy utility and service companies was discussed. E-Commerce was described as being all communication via the web including Internet, Intranet and Extranet. E-Commerce communication includes the exchange of information, data, money services, products, ideas, conversations, knowledge, inventory and events. E-Commerce can be applied to electric and gas utilities to enhance energy marketing, delivery, retail energy, energy services, retail services and customer satisfaction. This means of communication is quickly becoming an essential part of customer care strategy. It reduces costs and improves performance. It was forecasted that E-Commerce will more than double from 1998 to 2001. 15 refs.

  7. Market leadership by example: Government sector energy efficiency in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wie McGrory, Laura; Harris, Jeffrey; Breceda, Miguel; Campbell, Stephanie; Sachu, Constantine; della Cava, Mirka; Gonzalez Martinez, Jose; Meyer, Sarah; Romo, Ana Margarita

    2002-05-20

    Government facilities and services are often the largest energy users and major purchasers of energy-using equipment within a country. In developing as well as industrial countries, government ''leadership by example'' can be a powerful force to shift the market toward energy efficiency, complementing other elements of a national energy efficiency strategy. Benefits from more efficient energy management in government facilities and operations include lower government energy bills, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, less demand on electric utility systems, and in many cases reduced dependence on imported oil. Even more significantly, the government sector's buying power and example to others can generate broader demand for energy-efficient products and services, creating entry markets for domestic suppliers and stimulating competition in providing high-efficiency products and services. Despite these benefits, with the exception of a few countries government sector actions have often lagged behind other energy efficiency policies. This is especially true in developing countries and transition economies - even though energy used by public agencies in these countries may represent at least as large a share of total energy use as the public sector in industrial economies. This paper summarizes work in progress to inventory current programs and policies for government sector energy efficiency in developing countries, and describes successful case studies from Mexico's implementation of energy management in the public sector. We show how these policies in Mexico, begun at the federal level, have more recently been extended to state and local agencies, and consider the applicability of this model to other developing countries.

  8. Utility usage forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosking, Jonathan R. M.; Natarajan, Ramesh

    2017-08-22

    The computer creates a utility demand forecast model for weather parameters by receiving a plurality of utility parameter values, wherein each received utility parameter value corresponds to a weather parameter value. Determining that a range of weather parameter values lacks a sufficient amount of corresponding received utility parameter values. Determining one or more utility parameter values that corresponds to the range of weather parameter values. Creating a model which correlates the received and the determined utility parameter values with the corresponding weather parameters values.

  9. Country differences in sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2010-01-01

    on a specific case: organic food consumption. The analyzed data are published research on why consumer purchase of organic food products differs between countries. As expected, organic food's share of total food consumption depends heavily on political regulation, including legal definitions and standards......In a sustainability perspective, consumption research has an unfortunate individualizing bias, which means that macro and structural causes of unsustainable consumption tend to be ignored. Hence, a comprehensive model of determinants of the sustainability of consumption is developed and applied...... of postmaterialism and environmental concern play an additional role. The evidence suggests that, together, macro and structural factors such as these are more, and probably considerably more, important for the sustainability of food consumption than are individual-level attitudinal variables....

  10. Attitude to plagiarism in different European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Foltýnek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plagiarism is an important and frequently discussed issue, which may have severe financial impacts for higher education institutions across Europe. However, there are different attitudes to this topic in different countries. Whereas ECTS aims to provide an objective measurement of student effort allowing students to spend part of their studies at different institutions and even different countries, the penalties for plagiarism and other types of cheating may be different. Even the definition of plagiarism may be understood differently in particular European countries. One of the aims of the project IPPHEAE is to identify these differences and try to find common solutions for related problems.The aim of the paper is to present results of research focused on attitudes to plagiarism in Great Britain, Czech Republic, Poland, Lithuania, Cyprus and Bulgaria. A questionnaire survey was conducted in these countries among students and teachers. The results are interesting and inspiring and show huge differences in attitude to plagiarism between western and post-communist countries, surprisingly including the Czech Republic in the group of western countries.

  11. Small Benefit from Country Size

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuto Masuda

    2010-01-01

    Furceri and Karras(2007, 2008) insisted that smaller countries are subject to more volatile business cycles than larger countries and country size really matters using international data from 1960 to 2000. They measure country size with population size. In this paper, we calculate welfare benefit from the less volatile busine! ss cycle, that is the positive effect of country size in Japan, US and OECD average. For calculating welfare benefit, we use “Welfare Cost of Business Cycle†approac...

  12. Country Presentation Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill Akhtar, Khalida [Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, PS, QA/QC, 44400 Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2008-07-01

    Pakistan is the home to three Nuclear Power Plants: - Karachi Nuclear Power Plant KANUPP: KANUPP Karachi Nuclear Power Plant is located at Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. KANUPP is a single unit Candu PHWR with a total gross capacity of 137 MW. The 137-MWe (Candu PHWR) Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) was commissioned earlier in 1972, supplied and built by Canada. It has completed its design life of 30 years and is undergoing indigenous refurbishment to enhance safety and extend its life for another 10-15 years. - Chashma Nuclear Power Plant CHASHNUPP 1: CHASNUPP-1 Chashma Nuclear Power Plant I is located at Kundian, Punjab, Pakistan. It forms part of the Chashma Nuclear Power Complex. The CHASNUPP-1 is a single unit. It was made operational in year 2000. The 325-MWe PWR, supplied and constructed by China. It has so far undergone four refueling outages. Its average capacity and availability factor for year 2004-05 were 93 % and 96.4 % respectively. - Chashma Nuclear Power Plant CHASHNUPP 2: The site is situated next to Chashma Nuclear Power Plant Unit-1. The CHASNUPP-2 will be a single-unit plant. The corresponding gross electric output of the turbine generator is 325 MWe. It is under construction, commercial operation expected {approx} 2011. Pakistan Current Nuclear Power Program: - All Nuclear Power Plants and fuel Cycle facilities operated by Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). - Pakistan nuclear safety issues regulated by Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA). All Nuclear Power Plants are under IAEA Safeguards. Pakistan is member of Candu Operators Group (COG), and of World Association of Nuclear (Plant) Operators (WANO). The government of Pakistan has chalked out a comprehensive plan to expand power generation to meet the demands of the country's rapidly growing economy. Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission has been given the task of increasing nuclear power generation in accordance with the country's energy security plan. Technical

  13. Entrez Programming Utilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Entrez Programming Utilities (E-utilities) are a set of eight server-side programs that provide a stable interface into the Entrez query and database system at...

  14. Use of health systems evidence by policymakers in eastern mediterranean countries: views, practices, and contextual influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Jardali Fadi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health systems evidence can enhance policymaking and strengthen national health systems. In the Middle East, limited research exists on the use of evidence in the policymaking process. This multi-country study explored policymakers’ views and practices regarding the use of health systems evidence in health policymaking in 10 eastern Mediterranean countries, including factors that influence health policymaking and barriers and facilitators to the use of evidence. Methods This study utilized a survey adapted and customized from a similar tool developed in Canada. Health policymakers from 10 countries (Algeria, Bahrain, Jordan, Lebanon Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Sudan, Tunisia, and Yemen were surveyed. Descriptive and bi-variate analyses were performed for quantitative questions and thematic analysis was done for qualitative questions. Results A total of 237 policymakers completed the survey (56.3% response rate. Governing parties, limited funding for the health sector and donor organizations exerted a strong influence on policymaking processes. Most (88.5% policymakers reported requesting evidence and 43.1% reported collaborating with researchers. Overall, 40.1% reported that research evidence is not delivered at the right time. Lack of an explicit budget for evidence-informed health policymaking (55.3%, lack of an administrative structure for supporting evidence-informed health policymaking processes (52.6%, and limited value given to research (35.9% all limited the use of research evidence. Barriers to the use of evidence included lack of research targeting health policy, lack of funding and investments, and political forces. Facilitators included availability of health research and research institutions, qualified researchers, research funding, and easy access to information. Conclusions Health policymakers in several countries recognize the importance of using health systems evidence. Study findings are important in light

  15. Nonexpected utility and coherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diecidue, E.

    2001-01-01

    The descriptive power of expected utility has been challenged by behavioral evidence showing that people deviate systematically from the expected utility paradigm. Since the end of the 70's several alternatives to the classical expected utility paradigm have been proposed in order to accommodate the

  16. Information, evolution and utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Samuelson

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Human utility embodies a number of seemingly irrational aspects. The leading example in this paper is that utilities often depend on the presence of salient unchosen alternatives. Our focus is to understand why an evolutionary process might optimally lead to such seemingly dysfunctional features in our motivations and to derive implications for the nature of our utility functions.

  17. Tanzania country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    Objectives of this study are to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass, as well as other forestry products. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without and in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. Analysis of the mitigation scenario has been based on Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis (COMAP). This study has analysed the forestry and land use sector behaviour on the basis of the current policies on land and environment. Furthermore three scenarios have been developed on the basis of what is expected to happen in the sectors, the worse scenario being a catastrophic one where if things takes the business as usual trend then the forest resources will easily be depleted. The TFAP scenario takes into account the implementation of the current plans as scheduled while the mitigation scenario takes into account the GHG mitigation in the implementation of the plans. A Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis Process (COMAP) has been used to analyse the GHG and cost implications of the various programmes under the mitigation scenario. (au) 30 refs.

  18. Burundi: country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilsum, L

    1988-10-01

    One of Africa's most rural and densely populated countries, Burundi is a landlocked nation in Central Africa. The 4.9 million people are 85% Hutus, agricultural people of Bantu origin. However, the Hutus are excluded from power by the minority Tutsis, and the 2 groups have engaged in violent conflict. After a military coup in 1987, a new president, Major Pierre Buyoya, was installed, but restrictions on the Hutus continue. The major difference in Burundi has been a relaxation of restrictions on the Catholic church, which were severe under the former President Bagaza. Most Hutus are Catholic, with a minority of Muslims. For the peasant farmer, faced with diminishing arable land and reliance on 1 export crop (coffee), life is becoming more difficult. An expansion of sugar production was planned to reduce reliance on coffee, although the government has a rather ambivalent approach to development. While promoting private sector development with the help of the World Bank and the U.S. government, the Burundi government maintains a rigid 1-party system with strict control over the lives of the people. Infant mortality stands at 196/1,000 live births and life expectancy is low--43 years for women and 40 years for men. The literacy rate is low (39% for men, 15% for women), and the GNP per capita is low ($230). Most land is used for subsistence crops such as cassava, bananas, sweet potatoes, maize, pulses, and sorghum.

  19. Area Handbook Series: Thailand. A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    of the baht-see Glossary. 7 Includes fresh and canned fish, crustaceans , and mollusks. Source: Based on information from Bank of Thailand, Quarterly...364 Published Country Studies (Area Handbook Series) 550-65 Afghanistan 550-153 Ghana 550-98 Albania 550-87 Greece 550-44 Algeria 550-78 Guatemala 550

  20. Educating Civil Engineers for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, D.

    1974-01-01

    Based on engineering teaching experience in Africa and Asia, ideas are presented on educating civil engineers for developing countries, especially those in Africa. Some of the problems facing educational planners, teachers, and students are addressed, including responsibilities of a newly graduated civil engineer, curriculum development, and…

  1. Country Pavilions You Should Not Miss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The 2010 World Expo site is home to numerous dazzling pavilions.The pavilions can be grouped into several categories,including theme pavilions,foreign country pavilions and international organization pavilions,China Pavilion,pavilions for China's mainland provinces and Hong Kong,Macao and Taiwan,corporate pavilions and pavilions in Urban Best Practice Areas.

  2. Political instability and country risk : new evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeHaan, J; Siermann, CLJ; VanLubek, E

    1997-01-01

    This note presents new estimates of a probit model for the debt rescheduling, using a sample of 65 countries over the period 1984-93. Apart from economic variables, a whole range of indicators for political instability are included in the model as explanatory variables. It turns out, that none is si

  3. Impact of remittance in developing countries South Asian countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bhandari, Bishow

    2015-01-01

    There are various examinations of the impact of remittance on poverty, education, governance, human development index, economic growth among several factors in developing countries with scattered result using the panel data of developing countries. This study aims to examine the direct impact of remittance on economic growth and the other development indicator and the long term impact of the remittance in the five south Asian developing countries. The result finds the positi...

  4. COUNTRY IMAGE VS. COUNTRY BRAND: DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa Adriana COTÎRLEA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article was written in order to provide an overview regarding the differences and similarities regarding two congruent, yet different concepts: country brand and country image. The geopolitical context and, implicitly, the current global context require a redefinition – or a more complex circumscription – of the “country image” and “country branding” concepts. In this paper, the author aimed to highlight the characteristics and particularities of the approached concepts in order to shape a framework of the context within these two operate; a brief analysis of the literature is presented, trying to emphasize the slight difference between the approached concepts

  5. INFRASTRUCTURE AS IMPORTANT DETERMINANT OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN THE COUNTRIES OF SOUTHEAST EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja JOVANOVIĆ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tourism infrastructure is the basis of tourism development and utilization of existing destination resources. Tourism infrastructure includes a large number of services, necessary to meet the needs of tourists and increase satisfaction during their stay at the destination. The subject of this paper is the consideration of relationship between the available infrastructure and the achieved level of tourism development. The paper suggests that future tourism development depends on intensive investment in infrastructure and its modernization, as an important factor of development of the tourism sector. The aim of the paper is to analyze the correlation between tourism competitiveness in the Southeast Europe (SEE countries and the level of competitiveness of tourism infrastructure. It is noted that increase in the number of hotel rooms is a factor that largely contributes to increase in the level of tourism competitiveness of the observed group of countries.

  6. Gender differences in the physiological responses and kinematic behaviour of elite sprint cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Oyvind; Ettema, Gertjan; Leirdal, Stig; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2012-03-01

    Gender differences in performance by elite endurance athletes, including runners, track cyclists and speed skaters, have been shown to be approximately 12%. The present study was designed to examine gender differences in physiological responses and kinematics associated with sprint cross-country skiing. Eight male and eight female elite sprint cross-country skiers, matched for performance, carried out a submaximal test, a test of maximal aerobic capacity (VO(2max)) and a shorter test of maximal treadmill speed (V (max)) during treadmill roller skiing utilizing the G3 skating technique. The men attained 17% higher speeds during both the VO(2max) and the V (max) tests (P kinematics, the gender difference in performance was explained by cycle length, not by cycle rate.

  7. 1999 international ash utilization symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    112 papers were presented covering various aspects of the utilization of coal and other combustion products. Topics included fundamental chemistry and mineralogy, new products, health and environmental aspects, economic development issues, agricultural and mine reclamation applications, concrete and cement, and fly ash beneficiation technologies. Selected papers will be published in the journal 'Fuel'.

  8. Development of a web-based application and multicountry analysis framework for assessing interdicted infections and cost-utility of screening donated blood for HIV, HCV and HBV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, B; Janssen, M P; Hubben, G; Vermeulen, M; van Hulst, M

    2017-08-01

    Most countries test donations for HIV, HCV and HBV using serology with or without nucleic acid testing (NAT). Cost-utility analyses provide information on the relative value of different screening options. The aim of this project was to develop an open access risk assessment and cost-utility analysis web-tool for assessing HIV, HCV and HBV screening options (http://www.isbtweb.org/working-parties/transfusion-transmitted-infectious-diseases/). An analysis for six countries (Brazil, Ghana, the Netherlands, South Africa, Thailand and USA) was conducted. Four strategies; (1) antibody assays (Abs) for HIV and HCV + HBsAg, (2) antibody assays that include antigens for HIV and HCV (Combo) + HBsAg, (3) NAT in minipools of variable size (MP NAT) and (4) individual donation (ID) NAT can be evaluated using the tool. Country-specific data on donors, donation testing results, recipient outcomes and costs are entered using the online interface. Results obtained include the number infections interdicted using each screening options, and the (incremental and average) cost-utility of the options. In each of the six countries evaluated, the use of antibody assays is cost effective or even cost saving. NAT has varying cost-utility depending on the setting, and where adopted, the incremental cost-utility exceeds any previously defined or proposed threshold in each country. The web-tool allows an assessment of infectious units interdicted and value for money of different testing strategies. Regardless of gross national income (GNI) per capita, countries appear willing to dedicate healthcare resources to blood supply safety in excess of that for other sectors of health care. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  9. ERAWATCH country reports 2011: Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    MIRA GODINHO Manuel; CORADO SIMÕES Vítor

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of the ERAWATCH Annual Country Reports is to characterise and assess the performance of national research systems and related policies in a structured manner that is comparable across countries. EW Country Reports 2011 identify the structural challenges faced by national innovation systems. They further analyse and assess the ability of the policy mix in place to consistently and efficiently tackle these challenges. The annex of the reports gives an overview of the latest n...

  10. Business Cycles in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2002-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that developing countries differ considerably from their developed counterparts when focus is on the nature and characteristics of short run macroeconomic fluctuations. Cycles are generally shorter, and the stylized facts of business cycles across countries are more diverse...... than those of the rather uniform industrialized countries. Supply-side models are generally superior in explaining changes in output, but a “one-size fits all” approach in formulating policy is inappropriate. Our results also illustrate the critical importance of understanding business regularities...... as a stepping-stone in the process of designing appropriate stabilization policy and macroeconomic management in developing countries....

  11. Developing biobanks in developing countrie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rudan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We call for the development of human biobanks in developing countries and describe several examples from low income countries which are already building their own biobanks. Developing human biobanks in developing countries requires strengthening of the research capacity to use the new technologies, as well as a shift in research investment priorities in order to reduce the inequity in international research that currently exists. A responsible approach from low-income countries to ethical issues will be another pre-requisite to the success of the ‘hypothesis-free’ research that will target the needs of the world’s poor.

  12. Utility launches computer information service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaty, W. [ed.; Ordonez, B.

    1994-12-01

    Three employees at Lee County Electric Cooperative in North Fort Meyers, Fla., have developed InterLine, an on-line computer service designed specifically for the electric utility industry. Since introducing InterLine to the public, the development team has been looking at what areas of information would be most useful to subscribers. In the initial phase, system features include forums on electrical engineering, safety and health and transmission and distribution, a library of files and the Internet gateway. If InterLIne is embraced by the electric utility industry, long range plans are to take it internationls.

  13. Adaptation to Climate Change in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole; Halsnæs, Kirsten; Olesen, Jørgen E.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptation to climate change is given increasing international attention as the confidence in climate change projections is getting higher. Developing countries have specific needs for adaptation due to high vulnerabilities, and they will in this way carry a great part of the global costs...... of climate change although the rising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations are mainly the responsibility of industrialized countries. This article provides a status of climate change adaptation in developing countries. An overview of observed and projected climate change is given, and recent literature...... on impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation are reviewed, including the emerging focus on mainstreaming of climate change and adaptation in development plans and programs. The article also serves as an introduction to the seven research articles of this special issue on climate change adaptation in developing...

  14. The Impact of FDI on Developing Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NanfeiPei; KarinvanderEsch

    2004-01-01

    Today most developing countries take FD1 as an important resource for development. There are many factors that might attract FD1 to a certain region. However, the real economic effects of FD1 on the economic growth are almost impossible to measure precisely. In this article, our analysis starts with the micro-level including the banking sector and corporate sector, then it moves to the macro-level in which trade, employment and balance of payments are discussed. Both theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that FD1 has a beneficial impact on the economic growth in host countries. Therefore FD1 will continue to remain an important engine of growth in a majority of the developing countries.

  15. Sustainable wastewater management in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Carsten Hollænder; Fryd, Ole; Koottatep, Thammarat

    Wastewater management in developing countries throughout the world is in a state of crisis. It is estimated that 2.6 billion people worldwide live without adequate sanitation.  Resources are scarce, previous management systems have failed, and traditional techniques and solutions are not immediate......, Thailand, and other countries to inspire innovation and improvement in wastewater treatment and management.  They examine the failures of traditional planning, design, and implementation, and offer localized solutions that will yield effective sustainable management systems.  These solutions include reuse...... of treated wastewater, energy conservation, and proper financial and organizational set up.   Sustainable Wastewater Management in Developing Countries will urge practitioners, decision makers, and researchers to approach these systems in new ways that are practical, innovative, and-best of all-sustainable....

  16. Horizontal inequity in public health care service utilization for non-communicable diseases in urban Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Duy Kien

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: A health system that provides equitable health care is a principal goal in many countries. Measuring horizontal inequity (HI in health care utilization is important to develop appropriate and equitable public policies, especially policies related to non-communicable diseases (NCDs. Design: A cross-sectional survey of 1,211 randomly selected households in slum and non-slum areas was carried out in four urban districts of Hanoi city in 2013. This study utilized data from 3,736 individuals aged 15 years and older. Respondents were asked about health care use during the previous 12 months; information included sex, age, and self-reported NCDs. We assessed the extent of inequity in utilization of public health care services. Concentration indexes for health care utilization and health care needs were constructed via probit regression of individual utilization of public health care services, controlling for age, sex, and NCDs. In addition, concentration indexes were decomposed to identify factors contributing to inequalities in health care utilization. Results: The proportion of healthcare utilization in the slum and non-slum areas was 21.4 and 26.9%, respectively. HI in health care utilization in favor of the rich was observed in the slum areas, whereas horizontal equity was achieved among the non-slum areas. In the slum areas, we identified some key factors that affect the utilization of public health care services. Conclusion: Our results suggest that to achieve horizontal equity in utilization of public health care services, policy should target preventive interventions for NCDs, focusing more on the poor in slum areas.

  17. Refugees in Africa: A Country by Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations High Commission for Refugees, Washington, DC.

    The status of the refugees in Africa and the work of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is charted on a country by country basis in this report. The size of the refugee population and their needs are described along with various assistance efforts directed at improving their situation. Sums of money spent by UNHCR office are…

  18. A structured review of health utility measures and elicitation in advanced/metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yanni; Wolfram, Verena; Cook, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Health utilities are increasingly incorporated in health economic evaluations. Different elicitation methods, direct and indirect, have been established in the past. This study examined the evidence on health utility elicitation previously reported in advanced/metastatic breast cancer and aimed to link these results to requirements of reimbursement bodies. Searches were conducted using a detailed search strategy across several electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and EconLit databases), online sources (Cost-effectiveness Analysis Registry and the Health Economics Research Center), and web sites of health technology assessment (HTA) bodies. Publications were selected based on the search strategy and the overall study objectives. A total of 768 publications were identified in the searches, and 26 publications, comprising 18 journal articles and eight submissions to HTA bodies, were included in the evidence review. Most journal articles derived utilities from the European Quality of Life Five-Dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D). Other utility measures, such as the direct methods standard gamble (SG), time trade-off (TTO), and visual analog scale (VAS), were less frequently used. Several studies described mapping algorithms to generate utilities from disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instruments such as European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire - Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30), European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire - Breast Cancer 23 (EORTC QLQ-BR23), Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - General questionnaire (FACT-G), and Utility-Based Questionnaire-Cancer (UBQ-C); most used EQ-5D as the reference. Sociodemographic factors that affect health utilities, such as age, sex, income, and education, as well as disease progression, choice of utility elicitation method, and country settings, were identified within the journal articles. Most

  19. Determinants of health care utilization by immigrants in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Henrique

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing diversity of population in European Countries poses new challenges to national health systems. There is a lack of data on accessibility and use of health care services by migrants, appropriateness of the care provided, client satisfaction and problems experienced when confronting the health care system. This limits knowledge about the multiple determinants of the utilization of health services. The aim of this study was to describe the access of migrants to health care and its determinants in Portugal. Methods The study sample included 1513 immigrants (53% men, interviewed at the National Immigrant Support Centre, in Lisbon. Data were collected using questionnaires. The magnitude of associations between use of National Health Service and socio-demographic variables was estimated by means of odds ratios (OR at 95% confidence intervals, calculated using logistic regression. Results Among participants, 3.6% stated not knowing where to go if facing a health problem. Approximately 20% of the respondents reported that they had never used the National Health Service, men more than women. Among National Health Service users, 35.6% attended Health Centres, 12% used Hospital services, and 54.4% used both. Among the participants that ever used the health services, 22.4% reported to be unsatisfied or very unsatisfied. After adjusting for all variables, utilization of health services, among immigrant men, remained significantly associated with length of stay, legal status, and country of origin. Among immigrant women, the use of health services was significantly associated with length of stay and country of origin. Conclusion There is a clear need to better understand how to ensure access to health care services and to deliver appropriate care to immigrants, and that special consideration must be given to recent and undocumented migrants. To increase health services use, and the uptake of prevention programs, barriers must

  20. Solar power and climate change policy in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drennen, T.E. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Program on Ethics and Public Life; Erickson, J.D.; Chapman, Duane [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Agricultural, Resource and Managerial Economics

    1996-01-01

    Solar energy is one option for reducing future greenhouse gas emissions. Offsetting 50% of all future growth in thermal electricity generation by photovoltaics (PVs) would reduce annual global carbon dioxide emission from projected increased levels by 10% in 20 years and 32% in 50 years. Several projects are under way worldwide to demonstrate the feasibility of PV systems. This paper examines the economic competitiveness of PV systems and concludes that even after including externality costs, without significant technological breakthroughs, the economics of PV applications are unlikely to allow for an unsubsidized, widespread adoption of this technology in the near future. Further, if the goal of PV transfer programmes is to limit future greenhouse gas emissions, there are larger and cheaper opportunities available in industrialized countries to achieve reductions. Alternative measures for ensuring a market for photovoltaics, hence providing manufacturers with opportunities to improve the current technology, include mandating that utilities install a certain quantity of solar technologies by a certain date. Finally, moving towards a renewable energy future that includes PV systems requires a sustained R and D programme that will lead to improvements in panel and other system efficiencies. (Author)

  1. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2009 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  2. Adaptation to climate change in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Ole; Halsnaes, Kirsten; Olesen, Jørgen E; Rasmussen, Kjeld

    2009-05-01

    Adaptation to climate change is given increasing international attention as the confidence in climate change projections is getting higher. Developing countries have specific needs for adaptation due to high vulnerabilities, and they will in this way carry a great part of the global costs of climate change although the rising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations are mainly the responsibility of industrialized countries. This article provides a status of climate change adaptation in developing countries. An overview of observed and projected climate change is given, and recent literature on impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation are reviewed, including the emerging focus on mainstreaming of climate change and adaptation in development plans and programs. The article also serves as an introduction to the seven research articles of this special issue on climate change adaptation in developing countries. It is concluded that although many useful steps have been taken in the direction of ensuring adequate adaptation in developing countries, much work still remains to fully understand the drivers of past adaptation efforts, the need for future adaptation, and how to mainstream climate into general development policies.

  3. Is astronomical research appropriate for developing countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Michael S.

    An unproductive 45-cm astronomical telescope, given by JICA (Japan) to Sri Lanka, raises general questions as to the reasons for unproductive pure science in developing countries. Before installation, site, maintenance, and scientific objectives were discussed. The facility was launched with a conference organised by the UN Office for Outer Space Affairs. Unfortunately, no research or significant education has resulted after four years. The annual operating cost is U.S. $5000 per year, including salary for a trainee, maintenance, and a modest promotional programme. Comparison with a similar installation in Auckland suggests lack of funding or technical competence do not explain the failure in Sri Lanka. The facility in New Zealand, on the roof of Auckland University's Physics Department, has a slightly smaller budget but has led to modest but useful research and teaching. Lack of financial backing and expertise are often blamed for weak science in developing countries, but examination shows most of these countries have adequately skilled people, and plenty of resources for religion and military. General lack of motivation for science appears to be the principal reason. This lack of interest and highly inefficient bureaucracies are common to scientifically unproductive countries. They mostly lack the cultural and philosophical base of the European Renaissance that motivate the pursuit of modern science, an activity that violates human preferences. There are excellent facilities (ESO, SAAO, Cerro Tololo, and GONG) in some of these same countries, when administered from the West.

  4. Finland. [CME Country Reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    At the beginning of 1973 there were slightly more than 200,000 Finnish citizens residing abroad. The great majority of these emigres (over 90 percent) have moved to Sweden, including 90,000 school age children. Trying to resolve difficulties these children face, Finnish authorities, with their Swedish counterparts, have developed 3 goals: (1) to…

  5. Disaster Risk Transfer for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linneroothbayer, J.; Mechler, R.; Pflug, G.; Hochrainer, S.

    2005-12-01

    Financing disaster recovery often diverts resources from development, which can have long-term effects on economic growth and the poor in developing countries. Moreover, post-disaster assistance, while important for humanitarian reasons, has failed to meet the needs of developing countries in reducing their exposure to disaster risks and assuring sufficient funds to governments and individuals for financing the recovery process. The authors argue that part of disaster aid should be refocused from post-disaster to pre-disaster assistance including financial disaster risk management. Such assistance is now possible with new modeling techniques for estimating and pricing risks of natural disasters coupled with the advent of novel insurance instruments for transferring catastrophe risk to the global financial markets. The authors illustrate the potential for risk transfer in developing countries using the IIASA CATSIM model, which shows the potential impacts of disasters on economic growth in selected developing countries and the pros and cons of financial risk management to reduce those adverse impacts. The authors conclude by summarizing the advantages of investing in risk-transfer instruments (coupled with preventive measures) as an alternative to traditional post-disaster donor assistance. Donor-supported risk-transfer programs would not only leverage limited disaster aid budgets, but would also free recipient countries from depending on the vagaries of post-disaster assistance. Both the donors and the recipients stand to gain, especially since the instruments can be designed to encourage preventive measures. Precedents already exist for imaginative risk-transfer programs in highly exposed developing countries, including national insurance systems, micro-insurance schemes like weather derivatives and novel instruments (e.g., catastrophe bonds) to provide insurance cover for public sector risks.

  6. Zinc: the missing link in combating micronutrient malnutrition in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Rosalind S

    2006-02-01

    The first cases of human Zn deficiency were described in the 1960s in the Middle East. Nevertheless, it was not until 2002 that Zn deficiency was included as a major risk factor in the global burden of disease, and only in 2004 did WHO/UNICEF include Zn supplements in the treatment of acute diarrhoea. Despite this recognition Zn is still not included in the UN micronutrient priority list, an omission that will continue to hinder efforts to reduce child and maternal mortality, combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases and achieve the UN Millennium Development Goals for improved nutrition in developing countries. Reasons for this omission include a lack of awareness of the importance of Zn in human nutrition, paucity of Zn and phytate food composition values and difficulties in identifying Zn deficiency. Major factors associated with the aetiology of Zn deficiency include dietary inadequacies, disease states inducing excessive losses or impairing utilization and physiological states increasing Zn requirements. To categorize countries according to likely risk of Zn deficiency the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group has developed indirect indicators based on the adequacy of Zn in the national food supplies and/or prevalence of childhood growth stunting. For countries identified as at risk confirmation is required through direct measurements of dietary Zn intake and/or serum Zn in a representative sample. Finally, in at risk countries either national or targeted Zn interventions such as supplementation, fortification, dietary diversification or modification, or biofortification should be implemented, where appropriate, by incorporating them into pre-existing micronutrient intervention programmes.

  7. Nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in OECD countries: Cross-sectionally dependent heterogeneous panel causality analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazlioglu, Saban, E-mail: snazlioglu@pau.edu.tr [Department of Econometrics, Pamukkale University, Denizli (Turkey); Lebe, Fuat, E-mail: fuat.lebe@bozok.edu.tr [Department of Economics, Bozok University, Yozgat (Turkey); Kayhan, Selim, E-mail: selim.kayhan@bozok.edu.tr [Department of Economics, Bozok University, Yozgat (Turkey)

    2011-10-15

    The purpose of this study is to determine the direction causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in OECD countries. The empirical model that includes capital and labor force as the control variables is estimated for the panel of fourteen OECD countries during the period 1980-2007. Apart from the previous studies in the nuclear energy consumption and economic growth relationship, this study utilizes the novel panel causality approach, which allows both cross-sectional dependency and heterogeneity across countries. The findings show that there is no causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in eleven out of fourteen cases, supporting the neutrality hypothesis. As a sensitivity analysis, we also conduct Toda-Yamamoto time series causality method and find out that the results from the panel causality analysis are slightly different than those from the time-series causality analysis. Thereby, we can conclude that the choice of statistical tools in analyzing the nature of causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth may play a key role for policy implications. - Highlights: > Causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth is examined for OECD countries. > Panel causality method, which allows cross-sectional dependency and heterogeneity, is utilized. > The neutrality hypothesis is supported.

  8. Assessment of economic instruments for countries with low municipal waste management performance: An approach based on the analytic hierarchy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Maximilian; Seyring, Nicole; Tzanova, Polia

    2016-09-01

    Economic instruments provide significant potential for countries with low municipal waste management performance in decreasing landfill rates and increasing recycling rates for municipal waste. In this research, strengths and weaknesses of landfill tax, pay-as-you-throw charging systems, deposit-refund systems and extended producer responsibility schemes are compared, focusing on conditions in countries with low waste management performance. In order to prioritise instruments for implementation in these countries, the analytic hierarchy process is applied using results of a literature review as input for the comparison. The assessment reveals that pay-as-you-throw is the most preferable instrument when utility-related criteria are regarded (wb = 0.35; analytic hierarchy process distributive mode; absolute comparison) mainly owing to its waste prevention effect, closely followed by landfill tax (wb = 0.32). Deposit-refund systems (wb = 0.17) and extended producer responsibility (wb = 0.16) rank third and fourth, with marginal differences owing to their similar nature. When cost-related criteria are additionally included in the comparison, landfill tax seems to provide the highest utility-cost ratio. Data from literature concerning cost (contrary to utility-related criteria) is currently not sufficiently available for a robust ranking according to the utility-cost ratio. In general, the analytic hierarchy process is seen as a suitable method for assessing economic instruments in waste management. Independent from the chosen analytic hierarchy process mode, results provide valuable indications for policy-makers on the application of economic instruments, as well as on their specific strengths and weaknesses. Nevertheless, the instruments need to be put in the country-specific context along with the results of this analytic hierarchy process application before practical decisions are made. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Indonesia country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    This study demonstrated the use of MARKAL model in carbon mitigation analysis for both energy and forestry sector. Four scenarios were used namely: 1. EbFb (baseline scenario). In this scenario, mitigation technologies in the energy sector were not included in the model and no target was set up for increasing net carbon uptake by forest activities. 2. EmFb. Mitigation technologies in the energy sector were included with the target of reducing cumulative net carbon emission by about 13% and activities in the forestry sectors were the same as those in baseline. 3. EbFm. Mitigation technologies in the energy sector were not included and the forestry activities were targeted to increase the carbon uptake so that the cumulative net carbon emission decreased by 13%. 4. EmFm. Mitigation technologies in the energy sector were included as well as forestry sector with target of reducing cumulative net carbon emission by about 35%. This study indicates that the MARKAL model has the potential to be used for mitigation analysis for both energy and forestry sectors. However, there are some limitations encountered during the study. The program is not able to accommodate the delayed emission from the forestry sector in a manner consistent to the treatment of emissions in the energy sector. In addition, there are some technical problems that still need to be resolved such as the inclusion of soil carbon uptake calculation in the model and the verification of carbon uptake calculation. In this study, all carbon uptakes was assumed to occur at the time of planting. (EHS) 37 refs.

  10. Country report from Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekine, Toshiaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1998-10-01

    The status on the production of radioisotopes by JAERI is briefly discussed. JAERI has withdrawn from the routine production of the processed unsealed radioisotopes, and is going into being more research-oriented. Recent developments include: a {sup 99m}Tc generator for (n, {gamma}){sup 99}Mo; positron emitters for plant study; pharmaceuticals with radioactive rhenium; brachytherapy sources. A plan of producing radioisotopes with a high power proton accelerator of the Neutron Science Project is presented. (author)

  11. Country Profile Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig

    2012-01-01

    This Danish national expert report for the social housing sector decribes the the legal framework for the sector, it's role for national and local housing matters, how it is managed etc. The information and the data in the report is included in the final report from the SSGI study (STUDY ON SOCIAL...... SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST publised by European Commission - DG for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion....

  12. Country Profile Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig

    2012-01-01

    This Danish national expert report for the social housing sector decribes the the legal framework for the sector, it's role for national and local housing matters, how it is managed etc. The information and the data in the report is included in the final report from the SSGI study (STUDY ON SOCIA...... SERVICES OF GENERAL INTEREST publised by European Commission - DG for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion....

  13. Somalia: A Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    included the organizacion (under Soviet direction) of the National Security Service (NSS), directed initially at halting the flow of professionals and...writing in the 52 -i.I I Historical Setting dialect spoken in northeastern Somalia. Because of the nationalis- tic symbolism offered by an indigenous script...sphere, and religious leaders were warned not to meddle in poli- tics . The new government instituted changes in law that some reli- gious figures saw as

  14. Indonesia country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murni Soedyartomo Soentono, Tri [National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia - Batan, Radioisotopes and Radiopharmaceuticals Development Centre, Pasar Jum' at, Cinere Raya, 12570 Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2008-07-01

    Several nuclear research are currently operation in Serpong, Jakarta, Bandung and Yogyakarta; these facilities has been in operation step wisely and having strong link with various universities and laboratories within the country (30 MW in Serpong, 2 MW in Bandung, Cyclotron CS-30 Serpong, Accelerator Yogyakarta, Irradiator Co-60). Public Acceptance: Further more the routine activities of the public information by WiN regarding the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, especially to the immediate environment of the NPP candidate site are indeed of important steps. Future of nuclear power: Since 1990's, Indonesia planned to build NPP station in Jepara to anticipate future energy crisis. Indonesia National Energy Policy has four main objectives: - Securing the continuity of energy supply for domestic use at price affordable to the public, - Enhancing the life quality of the people, - Stimulating economic growth, and, - Reserving an adequate supply of oil and gas for expert to provide source of foreign exchange to fund the national development program. Nuclear Waste Management Policy: Law no 10/1997 on nuclear power became the basic policy in management of radioactive waste The only national agency dealing with radioactive substances, BATAN possesses all data and information concerning the use of nuclear power. Radioactive waste management is particularly earmarked for maximum protection of living creatures, the environment and its ecosystems. In order to guarantee maximum safety and protection, all parties involved in the acquisition of radioactive materials should abide by the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle. In order to achieve radioactive waste management that complies with the principle of sustainable development, technological applications should be technically and economically viable for maximum protection of the environment and safety from any potential nuclear hazards, now and in future. The application must also be accepted by the community

  15. Country watch: Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito Lemus, A

    1996-01-01

    "LETRA S. SIDA. Cultura y Vida Cotidiana" is a monthly 16-page supplement that appears in the Mexican national newspaper "La Jornada." The supplement is produced by a nongovernmental organization (NGO) of the same name, and advertisements pay for the costs of production. Each issue studies a different AIDS theme, including women, indigenous people, migration, safe sex, homophobia, religion, and education. Each theme is approached from various perspectives, including epidemiology, medicine, sexuality, human rights, social science research, culture, and the arts. Populations most at risk are targeted. The aim is to arouse cultural criticism of taboos, prejudice and discrimination, sexual inequality, and gender issues that facilitate the transmission of HIV. Official health policies and the activities of groups, conservative and religious, which reject prevention programs are scrutinized. Each issue of the supplement includes a journalistic investigation providing statistics, facts, and opinions; interviews with health and education officials, politicians, state governors, and NGO staff; background articles by intellectuals, researchers, and well-known persons in Mexican society; PHA testimonies; reports on research and conferences; letters to the editor; cultural reviews relating to the theme of the issue; and a directory of NGOs doing HIV/AIDS work and of health institutions serving PHAs. The supplement has gone from a print run of 25,000 copies, when it was published as part of "El Nacional" (another government newspaper), to 70,000 in "La Jornada." The NGO has recently won the "Francisco Estrada Valle" award for its work.

  16. Country variations in family members' informal pressure to drink less

    OpenAIRE

    Holmila, Marja; Raitasalo, Kirsimarja; Knibbe, Ronald; Selin, Klara

    2009-01-01

    The paper examines how family members in 18 countries attempt to influence each other to drink less. Data come from the GENACIS (Gender, Alcohol and Culture: an International Study) dataset. Countries included were Argentina, Costa Rica, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, India, Japan, Nigeria, Norway, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Uganda, UK and Uruguay (overall sample 44,115). In each country, the percentage of people who had experienced family member pressure to drink...

  17. Population and employment in selected countries bordering the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepcion, M B

    1982-12-01

    This study is concerned with the dynamics of labor force composition in selected countries bordering the Pacific. The estimates presented are based on national definitions of urban and rural places and of the labor force and are derived primarily from published U.N. data. Variations in labor force composition and in urbanization levels by country are discussed. Countries considered include Canada, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Nicaragua, Peru, the Philippines, and the United States.

  18. Globalization : Countries, Cities and Multinationals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip; Acs, Zoltan J.

    2011-01-01

    McCann P. and Acs Z. J. Globalization: countries, cities and multinationals, Regional Studies. This paper explores the relationship between the size of a country, the size of its cities, and the importance of economies of scale in the modern era of globalization. In order to do this, it integrates t

  19. Globalization : Countries, Cities and Multinationals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip; Acs, Zoltan J.

    2011-01-01

    McCann P. and Acs Z. J. Globalization: countries, cities and multinationals, Regional Studies. This paper explores the relationship between the size of a country, the size of its cities, and the importance of economies of scale in the modern era of globalization. In order to do this, it integrates

  20. Globalization : Countries, Cities and Multinationals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip; Acs, Zoltan J.

    2011-01-01

    McCann P. and Acs Z. J. Globalization: countries, cities and multinationals, Regional Studies. This paper explores the relationship between the size of a country, the size of its cities, and the importance of economies of scale in the modern era of globalization. In order to do this, it integrates t

  1. Cross-Country Skiing Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, John

    This book presents changes in cross country skiing which have taken place in the last several years and is directed toward both beginning and seasoned tour skiers. Discussed are the following topics: (1) the cross-country revolution (new fiberglass skis); (2) equipment (how to choose from the new waxless touring skis); (3) care of equipment; (4)…

  2. Utilization of mining and mineral wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Ho; Hong, Seung Woong; Choi, Young Yoon; Kim, Byung Gyu; Park, Je Shin [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Up to now, it is estimated that more than 50 million tons of mineral wastes have been generated mining industries and deposited on the land in Korea. Much of cultivated land and hilly areas have been occupied by this wastes, which cause pollution of the environment. Utilization of the mineral wastes is preferable to stabilization because full use would both eliminate the waste and broaden the mineral resource base. Therefore, the development of utilization techniques of mineral wastes is very important not only for improving the environment but also for resource conservation. In countries with high population and poor natural resources like Korea, the utilization of these wastes is essential to decrease the environmental problem and the secure the resources and the study on this field play a important part. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop the utilization techniques of the mineral wastes. In first year's research, the contents and scope of this study are 1) Present condition and Field Survey on the mineral wastes with respect of their utilization, 2) Reviews of Current effects and research to utilize mineral wastes, 3) Characterization of mineral wastes and environmental test, 4) Evaluation and study on the utilization. (author). 67 refs., 25 tabs., 54 figs.

  3. Utilization of mining and mineral wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Ho; Hong, Seung Woong; Choi, Young Yoon; Kim, Byung Gyu; Park, Je Shin [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Up to now, it is estimated that more than 50 million tons of mineral wastes have been generated mining industries and deposited on the land in Korea. Much of cultivated land and hilly areas have been occupied by this wastes, which cause pollution of the environment. Utilization of the mineral wastes is preferable to stabilization because full use would both eliminate the waste and broaden the mineral resource base. Therefore, the development of utilization techniques of mineral wastes is very important not only for improving the environment but also for resource conservation. In countries with high population and poor natural resources like Korea, the utilization of these wastes is essential to decrease the environmental problem and the secure the resources and the study on this field play a important part. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop the utilization techniques of the mineral wastes. In first year's research, the contents and scope of this study are 1) Present condition and Field Survey on the mineral wastes with respect of their utilization, 2) Reviews of Current effects and research to utilize mineral wastes, 3) Characterization of mineral wastes and environmental test, 4) Evaluation and study on the utilization. (author). 67 refs., 25 tabs., 54 figs.

  4. Theory including future not excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    We study a complex action theory (CAT) whose path runs over not only past but also future. We show that, if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time T and the past state at time TA as an expectation value in the CAT, then we are allowed to have the Heisenberg equation......, Ehrenfest's theorem, and the conserved probability current density. In addition,we showthat the expectation value at the present time t of a future-included theory for large T - t and large t - T corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large t - T. Hence, the CAT...

  5. Measuring women's status in 25 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A new study, "The Status of Women: Indicators for Twenty-Five Countries, DHS Comparative Studies No. 21" by Sunita Kishor and Katherine Neitzel, ranks 25 countries in Latin America, the Caribbean, sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, the Near East, and North Africa based on the status of women there. The 29 indicators of status used included relative poverty, household headship, education, employment, workload, and marriage patterns. The Amenities and Possessions Index (API) was used to assign women to high, medium-high, medium, and low categories. Latin American women did very well based on this index. In almost all countries analyzed, at least 1 in 10 households was headed by a woman; female headship was most common in sub-Saharan Africa and least common in Asia. While a higher proportion of male-headed households were found in the richer API categories in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, there was either no difference in status, or female-headed households had higher status in Latin America and the Caribbean. Analysis of the sex ratios of the population with no education, for all countries, showed that, except in Brazil and in the Dominican Republic, women were more likely to have no education. Women's employment was highest in sub-Saharan Africa, where in 8 of 13 countries at least 1 of every 2 women was employed. In most countries, employment followed a U-shaped curve according to level of education; it was low for women with primary and secondary education and high for women with no education and those with more than secondary education. The median age at marriage ranged from 14 in Bangladesh to 25 in Namibia; it was between 18 and 21 for most of the countries. The countries were scored based on the 29 indicators of women's status and ranked according to overall score: 1) Latin American and Caribbean countries scored the best overall; 2) the Philippines scored highest in Asia; and 3) Nambia scored highest in sub-Saharan Africa.

  6. Macroenvironmental factors including GDP per capita and physical activity in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Adrian J; Van Stralen, Maartje M; Kunst, Anton E; Te Velde, Saskia J; Van Lenthe, Frank J; Salmon, Jo; Brug, Johannes

    2013-02-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity at the individual level are well reported. Whether inequalities in economic development and other macroenvironmental variables between countries are also related to physical activity at the country level is comparatively unstudied. We examined the relationship between country-level data on macroenvironmental factors (gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, public sector expenditure on health, percentage living in urban areas, and cars per 1000 population) with country-level physical activity prevalence obtained from previous pan-European studies. Studies that assessed leisuretime physical activity (n = 3 studies including 27 countries in adults, n = 2 studies including 28 countries in children) and total physical activity (n = 3 studies in adults including 16 countries) were analyzed separately as were studies among adults and children. Strong and consistent positive correlations were observed between country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and country GDP per capita in adults (average r = 0.70; all studies, P G 0.05). In multivariate analysis, country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity among adults remained associated with country GDP per capita (two of three studies) but not urbanization or educational attainment. Among school-age populations, no association was found between country GDP per capita and country prevalence of leisure-time physical activity. In those studies that assessed total physical activity (which also includes occupational and transport physical activity), no association with country GDP per capita was observed. Clear differences in national leisure-time physical activity levels throughout Europe may be a consequence of economic development. Lack of economic development of some countries in Europe may make increasing leisure-time physical activity more difficult. Further examination of the link between country GDP per capita and national physical activity levels (across

  7. Clean and Highly Efficient Utilization of Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianguo; YANG Li

    2011-01-01

    @@ Clean and highly efficient utilization of coal is an important scientific and technological issue.As the petroleum resource decreases but its consumption increases, all of the countries in the world have to face the big issue of sustainable development of energy and economy and protection of environment.Therefore, study on clean coal technology (CCT) has attracted much attention and become one of important themes of energy research.

  8. Business ethics in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. Rossouw

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Underlying this paper is the conviction that it is of the utmost importance that business ethics should indeed become an integral part of business culture in all, and therefore also in developing countries. It is not to be denied that business ethics has to a much larger extent become pari of the business culture' in developed countries than in developing countries. The primary aim of this paper is to provide an explanation for the fact that business ethics is fighting an uphill battle in becoming pari of the business culture in developing countries. Secondly, a thumbnail sketch is given of the preconditions that have to be fulfilled in order to stimulate the development of a moral business culture in developing countries. In order to achieve these goals I will focus mainly on Africa, and more specifically on South Africa.

  9. Exploring evidence-policy linkages in health research plans: A case study from six countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladepo Oladimeji

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The complex evidence-policy interface in low and middle income country settings is receiving increasing attention. Future Health Systems (FHS: Innovations for Equity, is a research consortium conducting health systems explorations in six Asian and African countries: Bangladesh, India, China, Afghanistan, Uganda, and Nigeria. The cross-country research consortium provides a unique opportunity to explore the research-policy interface. Three key activities were undertaken during the initial phase of this five-year project. First, key considerations in strengthening evidence-policy linkages in health system research were developed by FHS researchers through workshops and electronic communications. Four key considerations in strengthening evidence-policy linkages are postulated: development context; research characteristics; decision-making processes; and stakeholder engagement. Second, these four considerations were applied to research proposals in each of the six countries to highlight features in the research plans that potentially strengthen the research-policy interface and opportunities for improvement. Finally, the utility of the approach for setting research priorities in health policy and systems research was reflected upon. These three activities yielded interesting findings. First, developmental consideration with four dimensions – poverty, vulnerabilities, capabilities, and health shocks – provides an entry point in examining research-policy interfaces in the six settings. Second, research plans focused upon on the ground realities in specific countries strengthens the interface. Third, focusing on research prioritized by decision-makers, within a politicized health arena, enhances chances of research influencing action. Lastly, early and continued engagement of multiple stakeholders, from local to national levels, is conducive to enhanced communication at the interface. The approach described has four main utilities: first

  10. Country watch. Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapyepye, E

    1994-01-01

    In Mansa District, Zambia, people are unaware of the risk factors of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). To remedy this, the District HIV Prevention and Care Team invited a member of the Positive and Living Squad (PALS), John Luonde, to speak at educational sessions for various target audiences. Goals included providing information, dissipating misinformation, alleviating community fears, and mobilizing people through specific activities that addressed identified needs. The sessions began with the testimony of John Luonde and a simple question and answer period, which were followed by focus groups, often with a video, for more difficult or sensitive topics. Information materials were distributed and a condom demonstration was conducted. Although some institutions initially refused permission because of the holiday season or the possible impact on staff, Luonde returned to cover the missed groups. More than 105 people from 9 sectors of the community participated. Groups that were represented included the Mansa Sports Club, the Mutende Deaf Branch, a factory, the local army and police, and physicians from the Mansa Hospital Board. Questions from the different groups were similar. Participants saw that, although anyone could contract AIDS (the central theme of the project), they could still hope for productive years with proper treatment, self-care, and diet. Most participants wanted to change their sexual behavior and Luonde was asked to return. Women and people with physical disabilities need to be targeted. Although condoms were previously seen as promoting promiscuity, institutions are now requesting their distribution. The team is collaborating with a social marketing organization on condom use promotion. Distribution sites include bars, restaurants, filling stations, supermarkets, and hair dressers. At the request of the community, a meeting was held with the director of the Mansa Hospital Board to develop policy

  11. Country watch: Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szterenfeld, C

    1995-01-01

    The Health in Prostitution Project was launched in 1991 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The project offers a multi-year training program of health education designed to both fight the stigmatization of and violence against commercial sex workers and enhance their self-esteem, self-determination, and access to civil rights. The project therefore promotes individual awareness while influencing public opinion and policies. At first, health agents were recruited among women and transvestites who work in street-based sex work. The program was then gradually expanded to include young male sex workers and other locations, such as private parlors, saunas, and escort services. People of all sexes and sexual orientation now comprise the health agent group. The program has a paid staff of five women, three young men, and three transvestites, and approximately 70 sex workers are trained annually. Basic training includes topics such as human sexuality, personal risk assessment, HIV/STD infection, negotiation of safer sex, and STD referral services. Year two training emphasizes reproductive and women's health issues, while year three courses prioritize street work methodologies. Theatrical performances, speaking English as a second language, and performing Bach flower therapy for clients take place during the fourth year. Program trainers include medical specialists, nurses, psychologists, health educators, lawyers, and university students. At least half of the 350 health agents trained thus far are estimated to be currently engaged in paid or voluntary prevention work. Two surveys with female sex workers in 1991 and 1993 found that reported regular condom use increased from 57% to 73%; the health agents are having an effect. The program is constantly evaluated and revised.

  12. Highway and traffic engineering in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    Describes road and traffic engineering methods and problems in developing countries as opposed to similar problems in industrialized countries......Describes road and traffic engineering methods and problems in developing countries as opposed to similar problems in industrialized countries...

  13. Country watch. Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiduku, T

    1994-01-01

    One of the topics of the Second National Conference of People Affected/Infected with HIV/AIDS (Mutare, 1993) was support groups. These groups allow persons to share their experiences, which empowers the patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and informs the public about the needs of persons with HIV (PHIV). The most successful groups are those that promote activities (drama troupes which educate the public, income generating projects) that keep PHIV busy and positive, while promoting their acceptance in the community. Problems for support groups include funding, a lack of space, and the failure of income generating projects. Solutions will involve working with other organizations. It may be required to use open spaces under trees, shacks, community halls, or church buildings. Income generating projects will have to be better researched for feasibility. An HIV/AIDS Charter has been developed concerning the legal and human rights of PHIV. These include liberty and freedom of movement (no restriction on movement; no screening for travel; no segregation, isolation, or quarantine anywhere), employment (no discrimination), confidentiality, screening for HIV, education, employment, health and welfare support services, the media, spouses and sexual partners (their rights to be informed and protected), social and cultural rights, prisoners, and the responsibilities of persons with HIV. A national organization is being formed to facilitate the impact of support groups on policy and programs. 2 persons will represent each province.

  14. 77 FR 53917 - Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... countries to achieve lasting economic growth and poverty reduction. The Act requires the Millennium... to reduce poverty and generate economic growth in the country. These steps include the submission of... poorest countries as identified by the World Bank and provided that a country that changes in the...

  15. Biodiversity conservation including uncharismatic species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Joaquin

    2007-01-01

    Recent papers mention ideas on the topics of biodiversity conservation strategies and priorities (Redford et al. 2003; Lamoreux et al. 2006; Rodrı´guez et al. 2006), the current status of biodiversity (Loreau et al. 2006), the obligations of conservation biologists regarding management policies...... (Chapron 2006; Schwartz 2006), and the main threats to biodiversity (including invasive species) (Bawa 2006). I suggest, however, that these articles do not really deal with biodiversity. Rather, they all focus on a few obviously charismatic groups (mammals, birds, some plants, fishes, human culture...

  16. PFBC Utility Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    This report provides a summary of activities by American Electric Power Service Corporation during the first budget period of the PFBC Utility Demonstration Project. In April 1990, AEP signed a Cooperative Agreement with the US Department of Energy to repower the Philip Sporn Plant, Units 3 4 in New Haven, West Virginia, with a 330 KW PFBC plant. The purpose of the program was to demonstrate and verify PFBC in a full-scale commercial plant. The technical and cost baselines of the Cooperative Agreement were based on a preliminary engineering and design and a cost estimate developed by AEP subsequent to AEP's proposal submittal in May 1988, and prior to the signing of the Cooperative Agreement. The Statement of Work in the first budget period of the Cooperative Agreement included a task to develop a preliminary design and cost estimate for erecting a Greenfield plant and to conduct a comparison with the repowering option. The comparative assessment of the options concluded that erecting a Greenfield plant rather than repowering the existing Sporn Plant could be the technically and economically superior alternative. The Greenfield plant would have a capacity of 340 MW. The ten additional MW output is due to the ability to better match the steam cycle to the PFBC system with a new balance of plant design. In addition to this study, the conceptual design of the Sporn Repowering led to several items which warranted optimization studies with the goal to develop a more cost effective design.

  17. FLUXNET2015 Dataset: Batteries included

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorello, G.; Papale, D.; Agarwal, D.; Trotta, C.; Chu, H.; Canfora, E.; Torn, M. S.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2016-12-01

    The synthesis datasets have become one of the signature products of the FLUXNET global network. They are composed from contributions of individual site teams to regional networks, being then compiled into uniform data products - now used in a wide variety of research efforts: from plant-scale microbiology to global-scale climate change. The FLUXNET Marconi Dataset in 2000 was the first in the series, followed by the FLUXNET LaThuile Dataset in 2007, with significant additions of data products and coverage, solidifying the adoption of the datasets as a research tool. The FLUXNET2015 Dataset counts with another round of substantial improvements, including extended quality control processes and checks, use of downscaled reanalysis data for filling long gaps in micrometeorological variables, multiple methods for USTAR threshold estimation and flux partitioning, and uncertainty estimates - all of which accompanied by auxiliary flags. This "batteries included" approach provides a lot of information for someone who wants to explore the data (and the processing methods) in detail. This inevitably leads to a large number of data variables. Although dealing with all these variables might seem overwhelming at first, especially to someone looking at eddy covariance data for the first time, there is method to our madness. In this work we describe the data products and variables that are part of the FLUXNET2015 Dataset, and the rationale behind the organization of the dataset, covering the simplified version (labeled SUBSET), the complete version (labeled FULLSET), and the auxiliary products in the dataset.

  18. Energy policies of IEA countries: 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This compilation contains a broad analysis of recent trends and an easily accessible overview of energy policy of the 26 member countries of the International Energy Agency and other key non-member countries such as China, India and Russia, during the last 12 months. The overview section examines trends in energy markets, including an analysis of energy demand and supply, energy prices and energy related CO{sub 2} emissions. It highlights key policy trends across member and non-member countries on energy security, energy market reform, climate change mitigation, energy efficiency, renewables and energy R&D. The book contains a special chapter on energy efficiency, which compares the most successful efficiency policies of member countries on the basis of In-Depth Review findings of the past three years. It also presents the major findings of the World Energy Outlook 2006, key statistical information and brief summaries of major IEA publications released during the past year. In past years summaries of In-Depth Reviews conducted in the cycle covered by this book, as well as Standard Reviews, were published as part of the book. From this year they will only be available from the IEA's website on www.iea.org. Chapter headings are: Executive summary; Energy efficiency; World energy outlook 2006; Energy security; Energy market reform; Climate change; Renewable energy; Technology, research and development; Energy policies in key non-member countries; and Energy balances and key statistical data of IEA countries. 25 figs., 11 tabs., 4 annexes.

  19. Country watch: Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauw, J

    1999-01-01

    The Association of Workers for Education, Health and Social Integration (TESIS) works with commercial sex workers to control HIV and sexually transmitted diseases in Nicaragua through free condom distribution and education. Education includes group work, individual counseling, and demonstrations of correct condom use. Condoms are also distributed to the motels frequented by commercial sex workers. When the Condom Social Marketing (CSM) project in Central America started, it sold condoms of the same quality as the ones offered by TESIS; thus the condom donors reduced their donations, and in turn, TESIS lost its normal quota for free condom distribution. Because of this situation, TESIS dealt with a condom promotion scheme at a lower cost for the poorest women. Condom quality did not deteriorate as products only came with simpler packaging. TESIS fills the gap which CSM missed.

  20. Country watch: Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, M E

    1998-01-01

    The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Chile's Program for Health Education (EPES) has developed HIV/AIDS and reproductive health education seminars for residents of working class neighborhoods in Santiago and Concepcion. A 1996 seminar on violence and AIDS, organized by EPES in collaboration with a network of area schools, health centers, and nongovernmental organizations, was attended by 250 women. Subsequent workshops have addressed homosexuality and lesbianism, women and AIDS, sex workers and AIDS, sex education, domestic violence, and child sex abuse. These workshops have included skills-building sessions on safer sex, prevention of domestic violence, stress management, women's self-defense, and AIDS education techniques. Workshop participants are urged to distribute AIDS educational materials and help the network organize exhibits at public events. In the future, EPES plans to conduct outreach to men as well as women.

  1. Utility Solar Generation Valuation Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Thomas N.; Dion, Phillip J.

    2009-06-30

    Tucson Electric Power (TEP) developed, tested and verified the results of a new and appropriate method for accurately evaluating the capacity credit of time variant solar generating sources and reviewed new methods to appropriately and fairly evaluate the value of solar generation to electric utilities. The project also reviewed general integrated approaches for adequately compensating owners of solar generation for their benefits to utilities. However, given the limited funding support and time duration of this project combined with the significant differences between utilities regarding rate structures, solar resource availability and coincidence of solar generation with peak load periods, it is well beyond the scope of this project to develop specific rate, rebate, and interconnection approaches to capture utility benefits for all possible utilities. The project developed computer software based evaluation method models to compare solar generation production data measured in very short term time increments called Sample Intervals over a typical utility Dispatch Cycle during an Evaluation Period against utility system load data. Ten second resolution generation production data from the SGSSS and actual one minute resolution TEP system load data for 2006 and 2007, along with data from the Pennington Street Garage 60 kW DC capacity solar unit installed in downtown Tucson will be applied to the model for testing and verification of the evaluation method. Data was provided by other utilities, but critical time periods of data were missing making results derived from that data inaccurate. The algorithms are based on previous analysis and review of specific 2005 and 2006 SGSSS production data. The model was built, tested and verified by in house TEP personnel. For this phase of the project, TEP communicated with, shared solar production data with and collaborated on the development of solar generation valuation tools with other utilities, including Arizona Public

  2. Contract-based electricity markets in developing countries: Overcoming inefficiency constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, M. N. Susantha

    The electric utility sector throughout the world has been undergoing significant changes. It is changing from its traditional, central-station generation model managed under a vertically integrated monopoly to a more market-dependent business. In the rich industrialized countries, this change has progressed rapidly with the emergence of competitive markets---not only in the area of electricity generation, but also in the extension of such markets down to the level of retail domestic consumer. Developing countries, on the other hand, are trying to attract much-needed investment capital for their power sector expansion activities, particularly for the expansion of generating capacity, through the involvement of the private sector. Unlike their industrialized counterparts, they are facing many limitations in transforming the mostly government-owned monopolies into market-driven businesses, thereby creating an environment that is conducive to private sector participation. Amongst these limitations are the lack of a well-developed, local private sector or domestic financial market that can handle the sophisticated power sector financing; inadequate legal and regulatory frameworks that can address the many complexities of private power development; and numerous risk factors including political risks. This dissertation research addresses an important inefficiency faced by developing countries in the new contract-based market structure that has emerged within these countries. It examines the inefficiencies brought on by restrictions in the contracts, specifically those arising from the guaranteed purchase conditions that are typically included in contracts between the purchasing utility and independent power producers in this new market. The research attempts to provide a solution for this problem and proposes a methodology that enables the parties to conduct their businesses in a cost-efficient manner within a cooperative environment. The situation described above is

  3. Indicators of CO{sub 2} emissions and energy efficiency. Comparison of Finland with other countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtilae, A.; Savolainen, I.; Tuhkanen, S. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1997-12-31

    The generic technology options recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to reduce fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions include efficiency improvements both in the supply and use of energy, switching to less carbon-intensive fuels, and switching to renewable energy resources. The present study considers, using indicators based on statistics, to which extent these options are already being utilized in various OECD countries. The efficiency of energy production is high in Finland, due to extensive utilization of cogeneration of electricity and heat both for industry and for the tertiary and residential sectors. The use of sustainable produced biomass for combined heat and power generation is the largest in the world. About 10 % of the total national electricity production is generated using wood-derived fuels and modern power plant technologies. Improvements in the energy efficiency of manufacturing industries during the last twenty years in Finland are similar to the average in OECD countries, and the relative decrease in CO{sub 2} intensity has been more rapid than that in the OECD as a whole. In the manufacturing of pulp and paper, and iron and steel, Finnish industries are among the most efficient; however, the differences in energy intensities among the countries considered are relatively small in these sectors. The energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions attributable to the Finnish residential sector are low, despite the cold climate, due to good insulation of houses and cogeneration of heat and power. If the dependency of heating energy demand on climatic conditions is accounted for using heating degree-day corrections, the values for Finland are among the lowest among the western industrialized nations. The energy demand in Finland for the transport sector is in general relatively low; in particular, the energy use in road freight transport per tonnekilometer is the lowest of the countries studied. (orig.) 50 refs.

  4. Indicators of CO{sub 2} emissions and energy efficiency. Comparison of Finland with other countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtilae, A.; Savolainen, I.; Tuhkanen, S. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1997-12-31

    The generic technology options recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to reduce fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions include efficiency improvements both in the supply and use of energy, switching to less carbon-intensive fuels, and switching to renewable energy resources. The present study considers, using indicators based on statistics, to which extent these options are already being utilized in various OECD countries. The efficiency of energy production is high in Finland, due to extensive utilization of cogeneration of electricity and heat both for industry and for the tertiary and residential sectors. The use of sustainable produced biomass for combined heat and power generation is the largest in the world. About 10 % of the total national electricity production is generated using wood-derived fuels and modern power plant technologies. Improvements in the energy efficiency of manufacturing industries during the last twenty years in Finland are similar to the average in OECD countries, and the relative decrease in CO{sub 2} intensity has been more rapid than that in the OECD as a whole. In the manufacturing of pulp and paper, and iron and steel, Finnish industries are among the most efficient; however, the differences in energy intensities among the countries considered are relatively small in these sectors. The energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions attributable to the Finnish residential sector are low, despite the cold climate, due to good insulation of houses and cogeneration of heat and power. If the dependency of heating energy demand on climatic conditions is accounted for using heating degree-day corrections, the values for Finland are among the lowest among the western industrialized nations. The energy demand in Finland for the transport sector is in general relatively low; in particular, the energy use in road freight transport per tonnekilometer is the lowest of the countries studied. (orig.) 50 refs.

  5. Japan (country/area statements).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Japan, a country generally successful in solving population problems, now faces the problem of an aging population. It must provide welfare for its aged population and give them a role in society. Recognizing the vital importance to economic and social development of population problems in developing countries, Japan has cooperated through bilateral and multilateral channels in assisting various projects of developing countries concerned about population problems. As for bilateral aid, Japan extends technical cooperation to Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region countries by providing them with experts, by conducting surveys, by giving equipment, and by organizing training courses, particularly in the field of family planning. Japan also cooperates with some of the developing countries of the ESCAP region by providing them with financial assistance in the form of multilateral cooperation. Japan makes a cash contribution the the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) as the biggest donor country. In fiscal year 1984, the Japanese contribution to UNFPA totaled $US 40.1 million; the contribution will amount of $US 42.9 million in 1985. Aware of the importance of human resource development in the field of population, Japan has organized annual group training courses for the developing countries, namely: the Seminar on Family Planning Administration for Senior Officers; the Seminar on Community-Based Family Planning Strategy; and the Seminar on Health Aspects of Family Planning. Japan generally supports the work of ESCAP with regard to training in the field of population.

  6. Families classification including multiopposition asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Andrea; Spoto, Federica; Knežević, Zoran; Novaković, Bojan; Tsirvoulis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of our new classification of asteroid families, upgraded by using catalog with > 500,000 asteroids. We discuss the outcome of the most recent update of the family list and of their membership. We found enough evidence to perform 9 mergers of the previously independent families. By introducing an improved method of estimation of the expected family growth in the less populous regions (e.g. at high inclination) we were able to reliably decide on rejection of one tiny group as a probable statistical fluke. Thus we reduced our current list to 115 families. We also present newly determined ages for 6 families, including complex 135 and 221, improving also our understanding of the dynamical vs. collisional families relationship. We conclude with some recommendations for the future work and for the family name problem.

  7. The Economic Returns to Lifelong Learning in OECD Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Elchanan; Addison, John T.

    1998-01-01

    Examines recent returns to schooling and vocational and occupational training in OECD countries. Provides estimates of short-cut, Mincer-type, and internal rates of return to schooling and alternative estimates of returns to formal and informal post-school training investments. High-return countries include Austria, Canada, France, Mexico,…

  8. Millions Learning: Scaling up Quality Education in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jenny Perlman; Winthrop, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    "Millions Learning: Scaling up Quality Education in Developing Countries" tells the story of where and how quality education has scaled in low- and middle-income countries. The story emerges from wide-ranging research on scaling and learning, including 14 in-depth case studies from around the globe. Ultimately, "Millions…

  9. Financial structure and monetary policy transmission in transition countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbourne, A.; de Haan, J.

    2006-01-01

    Using the structural vector autoregressive methodology, we present estimates of monetary transmission for the new and future EU member countries in Central and Eastern Europe. Unlike most previous research we include ten transition countries. We examine to what extent monetary transmission in these

  10. Building Mathematics Achievement Models in Four Countries Using TIMSS 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze; Osterlind, Steven J.; Bergin, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Using the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2003 data, this study built mathematics achievement models of 8th graders in four countries: the USA, Russia, Singapore and South Africa. These 4 countries represent the full spectrum of mathematics achievement. In addition, they represent 4 continents, and they include 2 countries…

  11. Fitness Levels of University Cross-Country Skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhling, Robert O.; Storer, Thomas W.

    Dry-land training in preparation for competitive cross-country skiing proved to be effective in increasing athletes' aerobic capacity and physical fitness. Such training included bicycle racing, roller skiing, fartlek running, cross-country running, simulated ski walking on inclines, and interval training over hills. (JD)

  12. Efficiency of Secondary Education in Selected OIC Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Mohd Nahar Mohd

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the level of technical efficiency of secondary education in 16 selected Organisation of Islamic Conference (OIC) countries (including West Bank and Gaza). Educational efficiency has become an important issue given many countries' pressing levels of public deficit and debt. Since the educational sector…

  13. Financial structure and monetary policy transmission in transition countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbourne, A.; de Haan, J.

    Using the structural vector autoregressive methodology, we present estimates of monetary transmission for the new and future EU member countries in Central and Eastern Europe. Unlike most previous research we include ten transition countries. We examine to what extent monetary transmission in these

  14. Systematic Literature Review on ICF From 2001 to 2013 in the Nordic Countries Focusing on Clinical and Rehabilitation Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo, Thomas; Petersen, Kirsten Schultz; Handberg, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    We present a systematic review on International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) used in the Nordic countries from 2001 through 2013, describing and quantifying the development in utilization of ICF, and describe the extent to which the different components of the ICF have...... been used. A search was conducted in EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycInfo. Papers from Nordic countries were included if ICF was mentioned in title or abstract. Papers were assigned to one of eight categories covering the wide rehabilitation area; furthermore, area of focus was assigned. Use of ICF components...... included papers were published in the period 2011 - 2013. There was an increase in ICF-relevant papers from 2001 to 2013, especially in the categories "clinical and/or rehabilitation contexts" and "non-clinical contexts". The most represented focus areas were neurology, musculoskeletal, and work...

  15. Country watch: Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya Leiva, M

    1996-01-01

    Servicio Paz y Justicia (SERPAJ) is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) established in Chile in 1977. It supports fundamental human dignity and rights by fighting discrimination and exclusion based upon individual differences. SERPAJ promotes training, organization, and the political participation of community members as part of the democratic process, working mainly with the at risk women, street children, and youth of Santiago's working-class neighborhoods. Groups participate in workshops and training courses on human rights and development, civic education, and methods of non-violent community action. In 1987, SERPAJ-Sur Oriente began to include the topic of sexuality and AIDS/STDs in courses training working-class women as community human rights agents. The NGO is therefore one of the first mainstream Chilean human rights organizations to incorporate HIV/AIDS issues. A basic facts brochure was developed, followed by a pilot education project developed in one neighborhood which was then systematically replicated in other neighborhoods. The comments of some people who have participated in SERPAJ workshops are presented.

  16. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass

  17. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass

  18. Information Processing and Retrieval in Arab Countries: Traditional Approaches and Modern Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, M. A. K.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses underlying assumptions and prerequisites for information development in Arab countries. Administrative and environmental impediments which hinder the optimum utilization of available resources and suggestions for improvements are outlined. A brief bibliography is provided. (Author/RAA)

  19. Exploring the success, failure and factors influencing M-government implementation in developing countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ogunleye, OS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of mobile technologies and mobile phones has presented an opportunity for Government in the developing countries to utilize Mobile Information and Communication Technologies (M-ICT) to help facilitate daily administration...

  20. Establishing molecular microbiology facilities in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Salman S; Alp, Emine; Ulu-Kilic, Aysegul; Doganay, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Microbiology laboratories play an important role in epidemiology and infection control programs. Within microbiology laboratories, molecular microbiology techniques have revolutionized the identification and surveillance of infectious diseases. The combination of excellent sensitivity, specificity, low contamination levels and speed has made molecular techniques appealing methods for the diagnosis of many infectious diseases. In a well-equipped microbiology laboratory, the facility designated for molecular techniques remains indiscrete. However, in most developing countries, poor infrastructure and laboratory mismanagement have precipitated hazardous consequences. The establishment of a molecular microbiology facility within a microbiology laboratory remains fragmented. A high-quality laboratory should include both conventional microbiology methods and molecular microbiology techniques for exceptional performance. Furthermore, it should include appropriate laboratory administration, a well-designed facility, laboratory procedure standardization, a waste management system, a code of practice, equipment installation and laboratory personnel training. This manuscript lays out fundamental issues that need to be addressed when establishing a molecular microbiology facility in developing countries.

  1. Country watch: Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R A

    1998-01-01

    The Family Planning Association of Kenya (FPAK), together with the Population Council's Africa Operations Research/Technical Assistance Project I, developed a program in rural coastal Kenya to gain insight into the relative effectiveness of reaching men with family planning services. The program sent trained teams of men only, women only, and both sexes to 3 comparable sites in Kilifi District, Coast Province, an area with a contraceptive prevalence lower than the national average, to reach out to men in places where they tend to congregate, and to include them in family planning discussions during home visits. The community-based agents were local people recommended by community leaders and aged 30-40 years, married with children, and with at least primary school educations. The agents were trained in a 10-day course and the fieldwork program lasted 18 months. Subsequent program evaluation determined that husband-wife communication on family planning improved in all 3 sites, with the most communication between spouses occurring in the program with both male and female agents. The all-male team distributed the most condoms and also did well distributing female methods such as foam tablets and oral pills. The most reported behavior change among men in response to AIDS education was a move toward having sex with only one's wife. Some concern was expressed, especially among men, about male agents making home visits and men were more likely to respond to educational activities when they were specifically targeted to men. Men also reported greater current use of modern contraceptive methods than women and a major positive change in behavior in response to HIV/AIDS education.

  2. Including Magnetostriction in Micromagnetic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conbhuí, Pádraig Ó.; Williams, Wyn; Fabian, Karl; Nagy, Lesleis

    2016-04-01

    The magnetic anomalies that identify crustal spreading are predominantly recorded by basalts formed at the mid-ocean ridges, whose magnetic signals are dominated by iron-titanium-oxides (Fe3-xTixO4), so called "titanomagnetites", of which the Fe2.4Ti0.6O4 (TM60) phase is the most common. With sufficient quantities of titanium present, these minerals exhibit strong magnetostriction. To date, models of these grains in the pseudo-single domain (PSD) range have failed to accurately account for this effect. In particular, a popular analytic treatment provided by Kittel (1949) for describing the magnetostrictive energy as an effective increase of the anisotropy constant can produce unphysical strains for non-uniform magnetizations. I will present a rigorous approach based on work by Brown (1966) and by Kroner (1958) for including magnetostriction in micromagnetic codes which is suitable for modelling hysteresis loops and finding remanent states in the PSD regime. Preliminary results suggest the more rigorously defined micromagnetic models exhibit higher coercivities and extended single domain ranges when compared to more simplistic approaches.

  3. Impacts on travel and holiday accommodation online booking in selected South-East European countries: a multivariate analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Dumičić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impacts of economic indicators and the Internet penetration rate, as well as people’s ICT skills based on the Percentage of Individuals who booked travel and holiday accommodation over the Internet as the main variable under study. Recent data on member states in the European Union (EU28 are analyzed, including data on the three official EU candidate countries: Turkey, the FYR of Macedonia and Serbia. The research focuses on the position of the above mentioned EU candidates, considered part of South East Europe (SEE and the Western Balkans (WB. The main variable under study and four variables making a statistically significant impact on the main variable are explored. High positive correlations between pairs of the variables for 30 countries were found. Multiple linear regression modelling using the OLS estimators resulted in several acceptable models. Most hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering methods resulted in clear grouping of the SEE countries (Turkey, the FYR of Macedonia, Serbia, Bulgaria and Romania into the same clusters. Other more developed SEE countries in terms of the analyzed variables and utilizing specific clustering techniques joined other EU countries in different combination setups.

  4. The International Project 1992 Update Including "Microfilming Projects Abroad."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutimann, Hans

    1993-01-01

    Describes microfilming projects in 30 countries collected from questionnaire responses. Additional topics discussed include cooperative programs for preservation and access; an overview of national programs; mass deacidification; new technologies, such as digital preservation; microfilming projects abroad; and future priorities. (Contains 10…

  5. ACLED Country Report: Central African Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Rights Watch, 2014). This has led to reprisal attacks on the part of the Séléka, and targeting by both groups now frequent- ly focuses on the religion ... religion . The distribution of Figure 8: Conflict Events Involving the Anti-Balaka, Central African Republic, August 2013 - September 2014. The...of the country where Islam is the majority religion . Most of its members are Muslim, including leader Michel Djotodia, who served as president from

  6. Digital processing system for developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, C.; Wagner, H.

    1977-01-01

    An effort was undertaken to perform simple digital processing tasks using pre-existing general purpose digital computers. An experimental software package, LIGMALS, was obtained and modified for this purpose. The resulting software permits basic processing tasks to be performed including level slicing, gray mapping and ratio processing. The experience gained in this project indicates a possible direction which may be used by other developing countries to obtain digital processing capabilities.

  7. Utility FGD Survey, January--December 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. (IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1992-03-01

    The Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company.

  8. Utility FGD Survey, January--December 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. (IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1992-03-01

    The Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company.

  9. Study on information utility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Information has two aspects. One aspect is the objective one; another aspect is the subjective one. Shannon has discussed the objective aspect of information in information theory. But the subjective aspect of information has not been fully discussed. Someone use "Bayesian approaches" to evaluate the value of information. But in some cases it does not meet the information user's need. This paper is focus on the subjective aspect of objectively measurable information and gives formal definitions for information, information utility, and marginal information utility, normalized calculation of information utility. The information discussed in the paper has interdisciplinary nature. This work can be the foundation of many application areas.

  10. Physics Teaching in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, A K M A

    1977-01-01

    Outlines the first South-East Asian conference on university physics education held in Penang, Malaysia, May 16-21, 1977, to identify, analyze, and compare physics curricula and to improve physics education in developing countries. (SL)

  11. Exporting hazards to developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkes, D B

    1998-01-01

    The health of people in developing countries is threatened by the importation of hazardous products, wastes and industrial processes from the developed world. Combating this menace is a facet of environmental protection and management of the planet's resources.

  12. Absenteeism in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Jensen, Troels Wendelboe

    2007-01-01

    and Sweden. Employees working in the public sector, more specific the municipalities, have a higher level of absence compared to the private sector. According to the personal characteristics, women are more absent than men in all Nordic countries, but the effect of age differs according to the country......Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to identify the drivers of absenteeism and gives information of the relationship between absenteeism and personal and organizational characteristics in the Nordic countries. Design/methodology/approach - The theoretical assumptions are tested empirically...... in question. If the manager however is a woman and the employee likewise, then the level of absence is higher in Denmark, Norway and Finland compared to the other gender constellations. Originality/value - Because of the lack of international comparative studies of absenteeism in the Nordic countries...

  13. REDD+ Readiness progress across countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minang, P.A.; Noordwijk, van M.; Duguma, L.A.; Alemagi, D.; Do, T.H.; Bernard, F.; Agung, P.; Robiglio, V.; Catacutan, D.

    2014-01-01

    Efforts towards Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation plus conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of carbon stocks (REDD+) have grown in importance in developing countries following negotiations within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate

  14. Absenteeism in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Jensen, Troels Wendelboe

    2007-01-01

    in question. If the manager however is a woman and the employee likewise, then the level of absence is higher in Denmark, Norway and Finland compared to the other gender constellations. Originality/value - Because of the lack of international comparative studies of absenteeism in the Nordic countries......Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to identify the drivers of absenteeism and gives information of the relationship between absenteeism and personal and organizational characteristics in the Nordic countries. Design/methodology/approach - The theoretical assumptions are tested empirically...... and Sweden. Employees working in the public sector, more specific the municipalities, have a higher level of absence compared to the private sector. According to the personal characteristics, women are more absent than men in all Nordic countries, but the effect of age differs according to the country...

  15. Report on promotion of utilization of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-09-01

    This report presents results of studies made by the Atomic Energy Commission concerning research and development activities to be carried out in future to promote the utilization of radiation. First, the current state of radiation utilization is described, centering on practical applications, research and development activities (for practical and advanced applications), and international cooperation (with developing and advanced nations). The second part deals with activities required in future to promote practical utilization of radiation, research and development of advanced techniques, and cooperation to be offered to developing countries. Third, specific measures to be carried out for effective radiation utilization are described. For ..gamma..-rays and electron beams, which are widely in use at present, there are some economic and social problems remaining to be solved. For advanced utilization of radiation beams, further efforts should be focused on basic research on ..pi..-meson and ..mu..-particle beams and their application to canser treatment and nuclear fusion; research on monochromatic neutron beams; application of RI beams to the development of new materials and new analysis techniques, application of epithermal neutron beams to elementary radiography and CT; etc. The utilization, application and development of tracers are also described. (Nogami, K.).

  16. Origins of food crops connect countries worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achicanoy, Harold A.; Bjorkman, Anne D.; Navarro-Racines, Carlos; Guarino, Luigi; Flores-Palacios, Ximena; Engels, Johannes M. M.; Wiersema, John H.; Dempewolf, Hannes; Sotelo, Steven; Ramírez-Villegas, Julian; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; Fowler, Cary; Jarvis, Andy; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Struik, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Research into the origins of food plants has led to the recognition that specific geographical regions around the world have been of particular importance to the development of agricultural crops. Yet the relative contributions of these different regions in the context of current food systems have not been quantified. Here we determine the origins (‘primary regions of diversity’) of the crops comprising the food supplies and agricultural production of countries worldwide. We estimate the degree to which countries use crops from regions of diversity other than their own (‘foreign crops’), and quantify changes in this usage over the past 50 years. Countries are highly interconnected with regard to primary regions of diversity of the crops they cultivate and/or consume. Foreign crops are extensively used in food supplies (68.7% of national food supplies as a global mean are derived from foreign crops) and production systems (69.3% of crops grown are foreign). Foreign crop usage has increased significantly over the past 50 years, including in countries with high indigenous crop diversity. The results provide a novel perspective on the ongoing globalization of food systems worldwide, and bolster evidence for the importance of international collaboration on genetic resource conservation and exchange.

  17. Challenges for lupus management in emerging countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazi Mezalek, Zoubida; Bono, Wafaa

    2014-06-01

    In emerging countries, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been associated with several unfavorable outcomes including disease activity, damage accrual, work disability and mortality. Poor socioeconomic status (SES) and lack of access to healthcare, especially in medically underserved communities, may be responsible for many of the observed disparities. Diagnostic delay of SLE or for severe organ damages (renal involvement) have a negative impact on those adverse outcomes in lupus patients who either belong to minority groups or live in emerging countries. Longitudinal and observational prospective studies and registries may help to identify the factors that influence poor SLE outcomes in emerging countries. Infection is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in SLE, particularly in low SES patients and tuberculosis appears to be frequent in SLE patients living in endemic areas (mainly emerging countries). Thus, tuberculosis screening should be systematically performed and prophylaxis discussed for patients from these areas. SLE treatment in the developing world is restricted by the availability and cost of some immunosuppressive drugs. Moreover, poor adherence has been associated to bad outcomes in lupus patients with a higher risk of flares, morbidity, hospitalization, and poor renal prognosis. Low education and the lack of money are identified as the main barrier to improve lupus prognosis. Newer therapeutic agents and new protocols had contributed to improve survival in SLE. The use of corticoid-sparing agents (hydroxychloroquine, methotrexate, azathioprine and mycophenolate mofetif) is one of the most useful strategy; availability of inexpensive generics may help to optimize access to these medications.

  18. Effective Comparison of Global Financial Crisis (2007 on Inflation of OPEC Countries and Selected Countries of G8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdan Naghdi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study has attempted to examine and compare the effects of 2007 financial crisis on inflation in OPEC countries and selected countries of G8, based on a panel data regression model during 2000-2010. It should be noted that the selected countries of G8 group are 5 industrial countries member of this group, including: America, Italy, Britain, France and Japan, that crisis has been seen faster in them than other countries. Growth economic variables (real sector of the economy, oil price and stock price index (i.e. financial market have been considered as affected shared variables of the financial crisis in both countries group. According to the obtained results, the only affected variable by the crisis in OPEC countries, is oil price which has positive and significant effect on inflation in the above mentioned countries so that one percent increase in oil price lead to about 0.08 percent increase on inflation, on the other hand, according to survey results there is no relationship between output and inflation in OPEC countries, so it reflects weak manufacturing structure sector (real sector of the economy in these countries

  19. Information, Utility & Bounded Rationality

    CERN Document Server

    Ortega, Pedro A

    2011-01-01

    Perfectly rational decision-makers maximize expected utility, but crucially ignore the resource costs incurred when determining optimal actions. Here we employ an axiomatic framework for bounded rational decision-making based on a thermodynamic interpretation of resource costs as information costs. This leads to a variational "free utility" principle akin to thermodynamical free energy that trades off utility and information costs. We show that bounded optimal control solutions can be derived from this variational principle, which leads in general to stochastic policies. Furthermore, we show that risk-sensitive and robust (minimax) control schemes fall out naturally from this framework if the environment is considered as a bounded rational and perfectly rational opponent, respectively. When resource costs are ignored, the maximum expected utility principle is recovered.

  20. Chemical Search Web Utility

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical Search Web Utility is an intuitive web application that allows the public to easily find the chemical that they are interested in using, and which...

  1. Utilization of lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machihara, A.

    1981-01-01

    The chemical structure of lignin, the composition of pulping spent liquors, conversion of lignin into fine chemicals, utilization of lignin products, and physical and chemical properties of lignin and and derivatives are reviewed. (Refs 29).

  2. UtilityTelecom_TELEFAC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The UtilityTelecom_TELEFAC data layer contains points which are intended to represent the location of telecommunications facilities (towers and/or antennas) in...

  3. MSIS Drug Utilization Datamart

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This page provides background needed to take advantage of the capabilities of the MSIS Drug Utilization Datamart. This mart allows the user to develop high-level...

  4. DSM Electricity Savings Potential in the Buildings Sector in APP Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, MIchael; Letschert, Virginie; Shen, Bo; Sathaye, Jayant; de la Ru du Can, Stephane

    2011-01-12

    The global economy has grown rapidly over the past decade with a commensurate growth in the demand for electricity services that has increased a country's vulnerability to energy supply disruptions. Increasing need of reliable and affordable electricity supply is a challenge which is before every Asia Pacific Partnership (APP) country. Collaboration between APP members has been extremely fruitful in identifying potential efficiency upgrades and implementing clean technology in the supply side of the power sector as well established the beginnings of collaboration. However, significantly more effort needs to be focused on demand side potential in each country. Demand side management or DSM in this case is a policy measure that promotes energy efficiency as an alternative to increasing electricity supply. It uses financial or other incentives to slow demand growth on condition that the incremental cost needed is less than the cost of increasing supply. Such DSM measures provide an alternative to building power supply capacity The type of financial incentives comprise of rebates (subsidies), tax exemptions, reduced interest loans, etc. Other approaches include the utilization of a cap and trade scheme to foster energy efficiency projects by creating a market where savings are valued. Under this scheme, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the production of electricity are capped and electricity retailers are required to meet the target partially or entirely through energy efficiency activities. Implementation of DSM projects is very much in the early stages in several of the APP countries or localized to a regional part of the country. The purpose of this project is to review the different types of DSM programs experienced by APP countries and to estimate the overall future potential for cost-effective demand-side efficiency improvements in buildings sectors in the 7 APP countries through the year 2030. Overall, the savings potential is estimated to be

  5. New multi-country evidence on purchasing power parity: multivariate unit root test results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.J. Groen (Jan)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper a likelihood-based multivariate unit root testing framework is utilized to test whether the real exchange rates of G10 countries are non-stationary. The framework uses a likelihood ratio statistic which combines the information across all involved countries while retaining

  6. Status of mangroves along the countries bordering the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Wafar, S.; Jagtap, T.G.

    Distribution of mangroves in the countries bordering the Arabian Sea, including Gulf of Oman, Persian Gulf, Gulf of Aden and Red Sea, is reviewed and their present status is discussed. The estimated area of mangrove vegetation is 1140 sq. km...

  7. Changes in Business Model of Banks in CEE Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Eriņa, J; Lāce, N

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze the banks business models in CEE countries. To achieve the goal the following research methods were used: quantitative and qualitative methods, including monographic and descriptive methods.

  8. Reducing Developing Country Debt Reducing Developing Country Debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Krugman

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a brief primer on the economics of debt reduction for developing countries. It begins by considering the case of unilateral debt forgiveness; such forgiveness is only in the mutual interest of creditors and debtors if the country is on the wrong side of fhe "debt Laffer curve". Current empirical estimafes suggest that problem debtors are in a very flat region of the debt Laffer curve where large changes in face value of debf have only small effcts in expected payments. The paper then considers a variety of market-based debt reduction schemes. It shows that the widespread belief that the markt offers a cheap way to reduce debt is incorrect; unless new market instruments can be made credibly senior to existing debt, debt reductions that impose only small costs to creditors would be very expensive if achieved through buy back. Reducing Developing Country Debt

  9. Self-referral of imaging and increased utilization: some practical perspectives on tackling the dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Donald H

    2009-11-01

    Health care costs are higher in the United States than in any other country in the world, and imaging services have been growing much more rapidly than other services. Studies have shown a tendency for increased utilization of services, including imaging services, when referring physicians have ownership interest in the services. In recent years, the CMS has taken some action with respect to how it pays for imaging, including reducing physician payments when multiple images are taken on contiguous body parts during the same visit, establishing a cap on payments for certain imaging services, and imposing an antimarkup rule on diagnostic tests. In addition, CMS has made some changes to the Stark rules, which included adding nuclear medicine to the list of designated health services, prohibiting certain per-service or per-click leasing arrangements, and prohibiting physicians from owning entities that sell services to providers that then bill for them under arrangements. Because it is unclear whether these policy changes will have much effect on imaging utilization, CMS will continue to seek new ways to rein in utilization. In the near future, CMS and the US Department of Health and Human Services are likely to attempt to curb utilization not only through postpayment review and education but also through its various initiatives on improving the quality of services furnished to Medicare benificiaries.

  10. Measures which host countries and countries of origin could adopt to promote the return of migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debart, M H

    1986-03-01

    The immigration wave in the 1960s and 1970s brought scores of migrants to Europe. Most intended to work a few years in a foreign country and return to their homeland; however, poor economies in their own countries discouraged their return. At the same time, jobs became scarcer in their host countries. Several European countries today are resorting to measures designed to promote the return of migrants to their countries of origin. This paper outlines the two major options open to governments in their reintegration efforts. Option 1 requires instituting a definite reintegration policy. Public aid to promote reintegration may be provided. For example, the French give aid contingent upon the return of foreign workers in the labor force to the country of origin and not just upon their departure from the host country. Classical methods pay conpensation to the foreign worker; the problem then is to determine at what point to limit the funds. It must be decided whether or not unemployment benefits should be capitalized and whether or not to reimburse social security and old age contributions. It is also desirable for foreign workers to have access to a specialized organization which is able to advise them on setting up a project or business on their return; ideally, this organization should finance the project. Perhaps the best solution is to enlist participation of the governments of the countries of origin to make job openings known to their nationals desiring to return. Option 2 requires that reintegration be introduced into other economic and social programs. Returning foreign workers would be included as a factor in overall policy planning. Vocational training for return migrants could be proposed to job seekers as well as to dismissed workers. A portion of money used to finance housing projects could be earmarked for construction or reservation of housing in the country of origin. Bilateral vocational training programs can be addressed to nationals who want to

  11. Determinants of late and/or inadequate use of prenatal healthcare in high-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijen-de Jong, Esther I; Jansen, Danielle Emc; Baarveld, Frank; van der Schans, Cees P; Schellevis, François G; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2012-12-01

    Prenatal healthcare is likely to prevent adverse outcomes, but an adequate review of utilization and its determinants is lacking. To review systematically the evidence for the determinants of prenatal healthcare utilization in high-income countries. Search of publications in EMBASE, CINAHL and PubMed (1992-2010). Studies that attempted to study determinants of prenatal healthcare utilization in high-income countries were included. Two reviewers independently assessed the eligibility and methodological quality of the studies. Only high-quality studies were included. Data on inadequate use (i.e. late initiation, low-use, inadequate use or non-use) were categorized as individual, contextual and health behaviour-related determinants. Due to the heterogeneity of the studies, a quantitative meta-analysis was not possible. Ultimately eight high-quality studies were included. Low maternal age, low educational level, non-marital status, ethnic minority, planned pattern of prenatal care, hospital type, unplanned place of delivery, uninsured status, high parity, no previous premature birth and late recognition of pregnancy were identified as individual determinants of inadequate use. Contextual determinants included living in distressed neighbourhoods. Living in neighbourhoods with higher rates of unemployment, single parent families, medium-average family incomes, low-educated residents, and women reporting Canadian Aboriginal status were associated with inadequate use or entering care after 6 months. Regarding health behaviour, inadequate use was more likely among women who smoked during pregnancy. Evidence for determinants of prenatal care utilization is limited. More studies are needed to ensure adequate prenatal care for pregnant women at risk.

  12. Republic of Venezuela. Country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, R

    1985-06-01

    Venezuela's current economic and demographic situation is described. Venezuela is a major oil country, and the oil industry accounts for 90% of the country's foreign exchange, 70% of the government's revenues, and 15% of the gross domestic product. The economy experienced a sudden and high rate of economic growth in the mid-1970s as a result of high oil prices; however, in recent years, declining oil prices have had a negative effect on the economy. The country is now faced with a serious trade deficit, and the government recently imposed restrictions on imports. Imports in recently years had increased markedly. The emphasis on the oil industry weakened the agricultural sector and, as a result, food imports increased. In addition, the rapid economic growth experienced during the 1970s greatly increased the demand for imported consumer goods. Venezuela has the 4th highest foreign debt in the world (US$35 billion). Despite these problems Venezuela has a relatively high per capita income (US$4,140) and living standard, compared to other countries in the region. Venezuela's total population is 14.6 million, and the population is unevenly distributed. 86% of the population lives in cities of 2500 or more. 37.4% of the population and 70% of the industry is concentrated in the Federal District which contains Caracas, and in the surrounding states of Aragua, Miranda, and Carabobo. This area constitutes only 2.36% of the country's territory. Most of the oil fields are located in the state of Zulia which also contains the country's 2nd largest city (Maracaibo). The country's coastal area contains most of the agricultural lands, and the prairies just south of the coastal mountain ranges are devoted primarily to cattle raising. The remaining 58.2% of the country's territory is essentially jungle and contains only 6.9% of the country's population. The annual population growth rate is 3.11%. Although the rate declined in recent years it is higher than in most of the other

  13. Country variations in family members' informal pressure to drink less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmila, Marja; Raitasalo, Kirsimarja; Knibbe, Ronald; Selin, Klara

    2009-04-01

    The paper examines how family members in 18 countries attempt to influence each other to drink less. Data come from the GENACIS (Gender, Alcohol and Culture: an International Study) dataset. Countries included were Argentina, Costa Rica, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, India, Japan, Nigeria, Norway, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Uganda, UK and Uruguay (overall sample 44,115). In each country, the percentage of people who had experienced family member pressure to drink less were compared to country abstinence rate, mean drinking volume per drinker and other societal-level factors. While countries differed greatly on proportion of drinkers having experienced family members' pressure to drink less, in all countries drinking women reported less pressure than drinking men in their own society. In all studied countries, informal pressure was exerted most often by the spouse or sexual partner. However, other family members were also involved. Informal pressure was found to be highly correlated with the country's socioeconomic conditions. Informal pressure to drink less by family members is on one hand an expression of social and family problems, caused by heavy drinking, especially in the economically less developed countries, suggesting alcohol-related deprivation. On the other hand, similar gender differences were seen in all the societies, men reporting receiving more informal pressure than women. Thus, informal pressure to drink less tended to reflect the gender conflict caused by heavy use of alcohol by men.

  14. Factors affecting the use of prenatal care by non-western women in industrialized western countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerleider, Agatha W; Wiegers, Therese A; Manniën, Judith; Francke, Anneke L; Devillé, Walter L J M

    2013-03-27

    Despite the potential of prenatal care for addressing many pregnancy complications and concurrent health problems, non-western women in industrialized western countries more often make inadequate use of prenatal care than women from the majority population do. This study aimed to give a systematic review of factors affecting non-western women's use of prenatal care (both medical care and prenatal classes) in industrialized western countries. Eleven databases (PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science, Women's Studies International, MIDIRS, CINAHL, Scopus and the NIVEL catalogue) were searched for relevant peer-reviewed articles from between 1995 and July 2012. Qualitative as well as quantitative studies were included. Quality was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Factors identified were classified as impeding or facilitating, and categorized according to a conceptual framework, an elaborated version of Andersen's healthcare utilization model. Sixteen articles provided relevant factors that were all categorized. A number of factors (migration, culture, position in host country, social network, expertise of the care provider and personal treatment and communication) were found to include both facilitating and impeding factors for non-western women's utilization of prenatal care. The category demographic, genetic and pregnancy characteristics and the category accessibility of care only included impeding factors.Lack of knowledge of the western healthcare system and poor language proficiency were the most frequently reported impeding factors. Provision of information and care in women's native languages was the most frequently reported facilitating factor. The factors found in this review provide specific indications for identifying non-western women who are at risk of not using prenatal care adequately and for developing interventions and appropriate policy aimed at improving their prenatal care utilization.

  15. People with alcohol use disorders in specialized care in eight different European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Jürgen; Allamani, Allaman; Aubin, Henri-Jean; Della Vedova, Roberto; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Frick, Ulrich; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Kostogianni, Nikoleta; Landsmane, Inga; Manthey, Jakob; Miquel, Laia; Paille, François; Pieper, Lars; Probst, Charlotte; Scafuri, Francesca; Shield, Kevin D; Snikere, Sigita; Struzzo, Pierluigi; Trapencieris, Marcis; Voller, Fabio; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Gual, Antoni; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-05-01

    To provide a description of patients receiving alcohol treatment in eight different European countries, including the level of comorbidities and functional limitations. Drinking behaviours, DSM-IV alcohol use disorder (AUD), mental and somatic comorbidities, disability and health services utilization of 1767 patients from various specialized treatment settings were assessed as representative for regions of eight European countries. Severity of alcohol dependence (AD) in terms of drinking level was compared with a large representative US sample. Patients in specialized care for AUDs showed high levels of consumption [average level of daily ethanol intake: 141.1 g, standard deviation (SD): 116.0 g], comorbidity [e.g. liver problems: 19.6%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 17.5-21.6%; depression: 43.2%, 95% CI: 40.7-45.8%; anxiety: 50.3%, 95% CI: 47.8-52.9%], disability and health services utilization (average number of nights spent in hospital(s) during the last 6 months: 8.8, SD: 19.5 nights). Severity of AD was similar to the US sample, but European men consumed on average more alcohol daily. High levels of consumption, somatic and mental comorbidities, disability and functional losses were found in this representative treatment sample, indicating that treatment was initiated only at severe stages of AUDs. Earlier initiation of treatment could help avoid some of the health and social burden. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  16. EBM E-learning: Feasible and Effective for Occupational Physicians in Different Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugenholtz, Nathalie Ir; Sluiter, Judith K; van Dijk, Frank Jh; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen

    2012-09-01

    Although evidence-based medicine (EBM) is a useful method for integrating evidence into the decision-making process of occupational physicians, occupational physicians lack EBM knowledge and skills, and do not have the time to learn the EBM method. In order to enable them to educate themselves at the time and place they prefer, we designed an electronic EBM course. We studied the feasibility and utility of the course as well as its effectiveness in increasing EBM knowledge, skills, and behaviour. Occupational physicians from various countries were included in a within-subjects study. Measurements were conducted on participants' EBM knowledge, skills, behaviour, and determinants of behaviour at baseline, directly after finishing the course and 2 months later (n = 36). The feasibility and utility of the course were evaluated directly after the course (n = 42). The course is applicable as an introductory course on EBM for occupational physicians in various countries. The course is effective in enhancing EBM knowledge and self-efficacy in practising EBM. No significant effect was found on EBM skills, behaviour, and determinants of behaviour. After the course, more occupational physicians use the international journals to solve a case. An electronic introductory EBM course is suitable for occupational physicians. Although it is an effective method for increasing EBM knowledge, it does not seem effective in improving skills and behaviour. We recommend integrating e-learning courses with blended learning, where it can be used side by side with other educational methods that are effective in changing behaviour.

  17. Sustainable wastewater management in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Carsten Hollænder; Fryd, Ole; Koottatep, Thammarat

    enough, too expensive, or simply inefficient.  This book investigates the complex political, economic, and cultural reasons that so many developing nations lack the ability to provide proper and effective wastewater treatment for their citizens.      The authors draw upon their experiences in Malaysia......Wastewater management in developing countries throughout the world is in a state of crisis. It is estimated that 2.6 billion people worldwide live without adequate sanitation.  Resources are scarce, previous management systems have failed, and traditional techniques and solutions are not immediate......, Thailand, and other countries to inspire innovation and improvement in wastewater treatment and management.  They examine the failures of traditional planning, design, and implementation, and offer localized solutions that will yield effective sustainable management systems.  These solutions include reuse...

  18. Experiences and challenges in industrialized countries: control of iron deficiency in industrialized countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Usha; Yip, Ray

    2002-04-01

    This paper provides a synopsis of the experience in combating iron deficiency in industrialized countries and identifies the reasons for the considerable success and future challenges. Significant progress has been made over the last century in reducing and even eliminating iron deficiency in many industrialized countries. Current estimates are that the prevalence of iron deficiency has declined to children, compared with 30 to 70% in many developing countries. The reasons for this success cannot be attributed solely to a single approach but rather to a range of factors that have occurred over time as a result of both economic development and the implementation of specific policies. Several factors have contributed to improving both iron intakes and reducing iron losses; these include fortification, supplementation, dietary diversification and public health measures. For example, the decline in anemia in infants can be attributed to the introduction of iron-fortified formula and complementary foods in the 1960s to 1970s. Similarly, the enrichment and fortification of cereals with iron that began during World War II in North America and Europe is a result of effective public-private partnerships. Despite these successes, iron deficiency remains a public health concern in industrialized countries for selected subgroups such as women of reproductive age with excess menstrual losses and pregnant women who cannot meet increased requirements from the diet alone. Constant vigilance and innovative approaches for screening and combating this problem are thus still required even in developed countries.

  19. Utilization Patterns of Coagulation Factor Consumption for Patients with Hemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Ok; Yu, Su-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Hemophilia is a serious rare disease that requires continuous management and treatment for which the medicine is costly at the annual average of 100 million KRW for an individual. The aim of this study was to investigate trends in the utilization of coagulation factor (CF) used for hemophilia treatment using the National Health Insurance database from 2010 to 2013 in Korea and compare the utilization of CF with other countries. The consumption of CF per capita (IU) in Korea was not more than other countries with similar income to Korea. However, CF usage per patient IU was higher because the prevalence rate of hemophilia in Korea was lower than in other countries while the number of serious patients was much more. Therefore, it is difficult to say that the consumption of hemophilia medicine in Korea is higher than that in other countries. The consumption and cost of hemophilia medicine in Korea is likely to increase due to the increased utilization of expensive bypassing agents and the widespread use of prophylaxis for severe hemophilia. Even during the research period, it increased slightly and other countries show a similar trend. Thus, hemophilia patient management should accompany active monitoring on the health and cost outcomes of pharmaceutical treatment in the future. This study is expected to contribute to further insight into drug policies for other countries that face similar challenges with high price pharmaceuticals.

  20. BRICS COUNTRIES IN GLOBALIZATION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Lunev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization remains the crucial trend of global development, and it is especially evident in economic sphere. Apart from it, political, informational and cultural globalizations are actively discussed. The rapid development of global market, initiated by the West, paradoxically, fostered redistribution of economic influence towards the non-Western countries and primarily to Asia. Therefore, the record of participation of BRICS states (China and India, primarily in global processes is instructive. These two countries achieve significant developmental successes due to their integration in world economy without abandoning active participation of their government in regulation of economic and social activities. Analysis of the strategies adopted of other BRICS countries could appear quite useful for Russia. 

  1. Technical assistance to developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipler, W.

    1985-01-01

    It has long been recognized that the industrialized countries of the world have a duty to assist the developing countries in their aspirations towards an acceptable standard of living for their inhabitants. Successive increases in the price of crude oil have ruined the economies of many countries, thus, during the past decade the emphasis of aid projects has swung towards the energy field. The purpose of this article is to describe the involvement of three chartered engineering bodies in aid work, to suggest how they should act in the author's opinion, and to illustrate this by discussing a recent relevant conference. It appears that as far as power production is concerned, the future lies with conventional internal combustion engines, though they may be fed with unconventional fuels. In terms of an approach to giving aid, the secret appears to lie in encouraging and helping people to solve their own problems.

  2. The profitability of photovoltaic projects in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covell, Philip W.; Hansen, Richard D. [Enersol Associates, Inc., (United states)

    1995-12-31

    This paper shows that it is possible to recover costs and profit from photovoltaic projects, even in relatively poor countries. It explains three basic financial arrangements for full cost recovery used in several developing countries for solar home and business systems: self financing; term financing through equipment vendors, banks and non-governmental organizations, and leasing. It also describes potential sources of cost recovery (besides the end-users), including CO{sub 2} offsets. Finally, it concludes that given the success of some projects, recent efforts toward market conditioning, and the effect of environmental concerns, there are good PV business opportunities for electric power utilities in developing countries. This is an adapted and abbreviated version of a paper entitled Full Cost Recovery in Photovoltaic Projects: Debunking the Myths about Equipment Subsidization. Much of the information has been drawn from the field experiences of Enersol Associates, Inc., a nonprofit organization specializing in PV project implementation; and SOLUZ, Inc., a Massachusetts based company affiliated with Industria Electrica Bella Vista, which operates a PV System Leasing Business in the Dominican Republic. Together, these organizations have facilitated the installation of over 5000 systems on a full cost recovery basis. [Espanol] Este articulo muestra que es posible recuperar los costos y sacar provecho de los proyectos fotovoltaicos, aun en paises relativamente pobres. Explica tres arreglos financieros basicos para la recuperacion total de los gastos usados en varios paises en desarrollo para sistemas solares domesticos y de negocios: autofinanciamiento, financiamiento por un periodo dado a traves de los vendedores de equipo, bancos y organizaciones no gubernamentales y renta. Tambien describe fuentes potenciales para la recuperacion de costos (ademas de los usuarios finales), incluyendo las compensaciones por CO{sub 2}. Finalmente concluye que dado el exito de

  3. Peritoneal dialysis in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, K S; Prabhu, M V; Sinoj, K A; Subhramanyam, S V; Sridhar, G

    2009-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is acknowledged worldwide as a well-accepted form of renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Ideally, PD should be the preferred modality of RRT for ESRD in developing countries due to its many inherent advantages. Some of these are cost savings (especially if PD fluids are manufactured locally or in a neighboring country), superior rehabilitation and quality of life (QOL), home-based therapy even in rural settings, avoidance of hospital based treatment and the need for expensive machinery, and freedom from serious infections (hepatitis B and C). However, this is not the ground reality, due to certain preconceived notions of the health care givers and governmental agencies in these countries. With an inexplicable stagnation or decline of PD numbers in the developed world, the future of PD will depend on its popularization in Latin America and in Asia especially countries such as China and India, with a combined population of 2.5 billion and the two fastest growing economies worldwide. A holistic approach to tackle the issues in the developing countries, which may vary from region to region, is critical in popularizing PD and establishing PD as the first-choice RRT for ESRD. At our center, we have been pursuing a 'PD first' policy and promoting PD as the therapy of choice for various situations in the management of renal failure. We use certain novel strategies, which we hope can help PD centers in other developing countries working under similar constraints. The success of a PD program depends on a multitude of factors that are interlinked and inseparable. Each program needs to identify its strengths, special circumstances, and deficiencies, and then to strategize accordingly. Ultimately, teamwork is the 'mantra' for a successful outcome, the patient being central to all endeavors. A belief and a passion for PD are the fountainhead and cornerstone on which to build a quality PD program.

  4. Development of beam utilization/application technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, B. H.; Kim, Y.K.; Song, T.Y. [and others

    1999-05-01

    High power proton accelerator is considered as one of national fundamental research facilities and a key to advanced nuclear technology development, having been widely used in an un detachable relationship with nuclear research in advanced countries. The high power proton accelerator will be installed in several phases as an up front facility of the nuclear waste transmutation system. It is expected that a common understanding and a general agreement over proper utilization of the accelerator should be deduced and that a user program for beam utilization and application should be firmly established in time for the completion of each phase of the accelerator. This high power proton accelerator will consist of several component accelerators and, from up front, accelerators such as injector, RFQ, CCDTL, etc. will be installed in sequence and deliver respectively at each stage beams of 3MeV, 20MeV, 100Mev, etc. to be variously utilized forindustries, defence industry, medical treatment, environmental protection and basic science research. In order for the accelerator to be fully utilized as a national fundamental research facility beyond nuclear field, it is necessary to formulate a proceeding plan of the user program for the accelerator and to cultivate industrial utilization/application studies of proton beams accelerated by injector or RFQ of the accelerator. (author). 38 refs., 84 tabs., 39 figs.

  5. Preferences, country bias, and international trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Roy (Santanu); J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractAnalyzes international trade where consumer preferences exhibit country bias. Why country biases arise; How trade can occur in the presence of country bias; Implication for the pattern of trade and specialization.

  6. Preferences, country bias, and international trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Roy (Santanu); J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractAnalyzes international trade where consumer preferences exhibit country bias. Why country biases arise; How trade can occur in the presence of country bias; Implication for the pattern of trade and specialization.

  7. Health care utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Serritzlew, Søren

    An important task in governing health services is to control costs. The literatures on both costcontainment and supplier induced demand focus on the effects of economic incentives on health care costs, but insights from these literatures have never been integrated. This paper asks how economic cost...... make health professionals provide more of this service to each patient, but that lower user payment (unexpectedly) does not necessarily mean higher total cost or a stronger association between the number of patients per supplier and the health care utilization. This implies that incentives...... are important, but that economics cannot alone explain the differences in health care utilization....

  8. Community perceptions and factors influencing utilization of health services in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galea Sandro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare utilization has particular relevance as a public health and development issue. Unlike material and human capital, there is little empirical evidence on the utility of social resources in overcoming barriers to healthcare utilization in a developing country context. We sought to assess the relevance of social resources in overcoming barriers to healthcare utilization. Study Objective To explore community perceptions among three different wealth categories on factors influencing healthcare utilization in Eastern Uganda. Methods We used a qualitative study design using Focus Group Discussions (FGD to conduct the study. Community meetings were initially held to identify FGD participants in the different wealth categories, ('least poor', 'medium' and 'poorest' using poverty ranking based on ownership of assets and income sources. Nine FGDs from three homogenous wealth categories were conducted. Data from the FGDs was analyzed using content analysis revealing common barriers as well as facilitating factors for healthcare service utilization by wealth categories. The Health Access Livelihood Framework was used to examine and interpret the findings. Results Barriers to healthcare utilization exist for all the wealth categories along three different axes including: the health seeking process; health services delivery; and the ownership of livelihood assets. Income source, transport ownership, and health literacy were reported as centrally useful in overcoming some barriers to healthcare utilization for the 'least poor' and 'poor' wealth categories. The 'poorest' wealth category was keen to utilize free public health services. Conversely, there are perceptions that public health facilities were perceived to offer low quality care with chronic gaps such as shortages of essential supplies. In addition to individual material resources and the availability of free public healthcare services, social resources are perceived as

  9. A Green Enterprise Computing Architecture for Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar, Rabia; Azim, Tahir

    2016-01-01

    Developing countries often have access to limited energy resources, which frequently results in power cuts and failures. During these power cuts, enterprises rely on backup sources for power such as uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) and electric generators. This paper proposes AnywareDC, an architecture that builds on the recent work on Anyware to reduce energy utilization in the presence of such intermittent power supplies. Anyware reduces energy usage by providing enterprise users laptop...

  10. Defense, Education and Health Expenditures in Selected Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Hirnissa, M.T; Habibullah, M.S.; Baharom, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the inter-relationship between military expenditure, education expenditure and health expenditure in eight selected Asian countries namely Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Philippines, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka and South Korea. Autoregressive Distributed Lag-Restricted Error Correction Model (ARDL-RECM) procedure was utilized in the analysis. The empirical results suggest that, except for the case of Malaysia and Sri Lanka, whereby no meaningful interrelationship was det...

  11. Environmental Performance in Countries Worldwide: Determinant Factors and Multivariate Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Gallego-Alvarez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the environmental performance of countries and the variables that can influence it. At the same time, we performed a multivariate analysis using the HJ-biplot, an exploratory method that looks for hidden patterns in the data, obtained from the usual singular value decomposition (SVD of the data matrix, to contextualize the countries grouped by geographical areas and the variables relating to environmental indicators included in the environmental performance index. The sample used comprises 149 countries of different geographic areas. The findings obtained from the empirical analysis emphasize that socioeconomic factors, such as economic wealth and education, as well as institutional factors represented by the style of public administration, in particular control of corruption, are determinant factors of environmental performance in the countries analyzed. In contrast, no effect on environmental performance was found for factors relating to the internal characteristics of a country or political factors.

  12. Environmental engineering education for developing countries: framework for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujang, Z; Henze, M; Curtis, T; Schertenleib, R; Beal, L L

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the existing philosophy, approach, criteria and delivery of environmental engineering education (E3) for developing countries. In general, environmental engineering is being taught in almost all major universities in developing countries, mostly under civil engineering degree programmes. There is an urgent need to address specific inputs that are particularly important for developing countries with respect to the reality of urbanisation and industrialisation. The main component of E3 in the near future will remain on basic sanitation in most developing countries, with special emphasis on the consumer-demand approach. In order to substantially overcome environmental problems in developing countries, E3 should include integrated urban water management, sustainable sanitation, appropriate technology, cleaner production, wastewater minimisation and financial framework.

  13. Welfare reform in European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immervoll, Herwig; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup;

    2007-01-01

    microsimulation model to estimate current marginal and participation tax rates. We quantify the equity-efficiency trade-off for a range of elasticity parameters. In most countries, because of large existing welfare programmes with high phase-out rates, increasing traditional welfare is undesirable unless...

  14. Sanitation planning in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Sanitation planning in developing countries: Added value of resource recovery Worldwide 2.5 billion people lack access to sanitation. This impacts human live, the environment and represents a loss of valuable resources that can be regained from wastewater. This study shows that

  15. COUNTRIES BETWEEN 2002 AND 2025

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    modern biotechnology are to be brought to all of the world's people .... problems, but hungry people in the developing world have only one ... countries will be denied an important solution to the ... broad base of modern varieties of these major food crops .... introducing key prolin synthesis enzymes, it is intended to make a ...

  16. Senegal : Country Financial Accountability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This Country Financial Accountability Assessment (CFAA) examines the financial management in both the public and private sectors, aimed as an evaluation, not an audit, and, identifies financial risks within current practices, and procedures in Senegal. It does not however, intend to suggest an accurate, final allocation of public resources, though it facilitates implementation of action pl...

  17. Road safety in developing countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a classification of countries (developing and developed alike), divided into two main categories: an economical and historical entry. When road safety problems are placed into the economical context, it then appears that, among other things: (1) The road safety problem in the ind

  18. Knowledge Translation in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santesso, Nancy; Tugwell, Peter

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the application of knowledge in developing countries is failing. One reason is the woeful shortage of health workers, but as this is redressed, it is also crucial that we have an evidence base of what works to minimize the "know-do gap." The World Health Organization and other international organizations are…

  19. RIO Country Report 2015: Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    HERJOLFSDÓTTIR SKOGLAND Hulda

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 series of RIO Country Reports analyse and assess the policy and the national research and innovation system developments in relation to national policy priorities and the EU policy agenda with special focus on ERA and Innovation Union. The executive summaries of these reports put forward the main challenges of the research and innovation systems.

  20. Uzbekistan : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Uzbekistan inherited the Soviet system for the procurement of goods, works and services for State needs. This system was suitable for a command economy but lacks the essential elements of competitiveness, transparency and accountability, which are the hallmarks of a market-based approach to government contracting. This Country Procurement Assessment Report (CPAR) comes at a time when a num...

  1. Lessons from the eight countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battista, R.N.; David Banta, H.; Jonnson, E.; Hodge, M.; Gelband, H.

    1994-01-01

    While the eight countries presented in this issue differ considerably from each other, they have important similarities. All have faced the problem of increasing health care expenditures, and all are coming to recognize problems with health care technology such as inappropriate use and poor quality

  2. Industry Switching in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    Firm turnover (i.e. firm entry and exit) is a well-recognized source of sectorlevel productivity growth across developing and developed countries. In contrast, the role and importance of firms switching activities from one sector to another is little understood. Firm switchers are likely to be un...

  3. Clean Water for Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Aniruddha B; Kumar, Jyoti Kishen

    2015-01-01

    Availability of safe drinking water, a vital natural resource, is still a distant dream to many around the world, especially in developing countries. Increasing human activity and industrialization have led to a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological pollutants entering water bodies and affecting human lives. Efforts to develop efficient, economical, and technologically sound methods to produce clean water for developing countries have increased worldwide. We focus on solar disinfection, filtration, hybrid filtration methods, treatment of harvested rainwater, herbal water disinfection, and arsenic removal technologies. Simple, yet innovative water treatment devices ranging from use of plant xylem as filters, terafilters, and hand pumps to tippy taps designed indigenously are methods mentioned here. By describing the technical aspects of major water disinfection methods relevant for developing countries on medium to small scales and emphasizing their merits, demerits, economics, and scalability, we highlight the current scenario and pave the way for further research and development and scaling up of these processes. This review focuses on clean drinking water, especially for rural populations in developing countries. It describes various water disinfection techniques that are not only economically viable and energy efficient but also employ simple methodologies that are effective in reducing the physical, chemical, and biological pollutants found in drinking water to acceptable limits.

  4. Anxiety sensitivity in six countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zvolensky, MJ; Arrindell, WA; Taylor, S; Bouvard, M; Cox, BJ; Stewart, SH; Sandin, B; Cardenas, SJ; Eifert, GH

    2003-01-01

    In the present study, the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-Revised (ASI-R; Taylor & Cox, Journal of Anxiety Disorders 12 (1998) 463; Behaviour Research and Therapy 36 (1998) 37) was administered to a large sample of persons (n = 2786) from different cultures represented in six different countries: Canada,

  5. Sanitation planning in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Sanitation planning in developing countries: Added value of resource recovery Worldwide 2.5 billion people lack access to sanitation. This impacts human live, the environment and represents a loss of valuable resources that can be regained from wastewater. This study shows that res

  6. Teaching Cross-Country Skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jonathan E.

    1984-01-01

    Cross-country skiing instruction can be done both inside and outside the gymnasium. This article provides activities to be performed inside to prepare students for skiing. Outside organization techniques and drills are suggested. A list of common errors is given. (DF)

  7. Module utilization committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmer, K.; Praver, G.

    1984-01-01

    Photovoltaic collector modules were declared surplus to the needs of the U.S. Dept. of Energy. The Module Utilization Committee was formed to make appropriate disposition of the surplus modules on a national basis and to act as a broker for requests for these modules originating outside of the National Photovoltaics Program.

  8. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  9. Electric utilities in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Although the conference dealt specifically with concerns of the electric utilities in Illinois, the issues were dealt with in the national context as well. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 5 sections of this proceeding. A total of 25 papers were presented. Section titles are: Forecasting, Planning and Siting, Reliability, Rates and Financing, and Future Developments.

  10. Photovoltaic utility/customer interface study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, C. H.; Hayes, T. P.; Matthews, M. M.; Wilraker, V. F.

    1980-12-01

    The technical, economic, and legal and regulatory issues of interconnecting small, privately-owned, on-site photovoltaic generating systems to an electric utility are addressed. Baseline residential, commercial and industrial class photovoltaic systems were developed. Technical issues of concern affecting this interconnection were identified and included fault protection, undervoltage protection, lamp flicker, revenue metering, loss of synchromism, electrical safety, prevention of backfeeding a de-energized utility feeder, effects of on-site generation on utility relaying schemes, effects of power conditioner harmonic distortion on the electric utility, system isolation, electromagnetic interference and site power factor as seen by the utility. Typical interconnection wiring diagrams were developed for interconnecting each class of baseline photovoltaic generating system.

  11. What is the role of informal healthcare providers in developing countries? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhinaraset, May; Ingram, Matthew; Lofthouse, Heather Kinlaw; Montagu, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    Informal health care providers (IPs) comprise a significant component of health systems in developing nations. Yet little is known about the most basic characteristics of performance, cost, quality, utilization, and size of this sector. To address this gap we conducted a comprehensive literature review on the informal health care sector in developing countries. We searched for studies published since 2000 through electronic databases PubMed, Google Scholar, and relevant grey literature from The New York Academy of Medicine, The World Bank, The Center for Global Development, USAID, SHOPS (formerly PSP-One), The World Health Organization, DFID, Human Resources for Health Global Resource Center. In total, 334 articles were retrieved, and 122 met inclusion criteria and chosen for data abstraction. Results indicate that IPs make up a significant portion of the healthcare sector globally, with almost half of studies (48%) from Sub-Saharan Africa. Utilization estimates from 24 studies in the literature of IP for healthcare services ranged from 9% to 90% of all healthcare interactions, depending on the country, the disease in question, and methods of measurement. IPs operate in a variety of health areas, although baseline information on quality is notably incomplete and poor quality of care is generally assumed. There was a wide variation in how quality of care is measured. The review found that IPs reported inadequate drug provision, poor adherence to clinical national guidelines, and that there were gaps in knowledge and provider practice; however, studies also found that the formal sector also reported poor provider practices. Reasons for using IPs included convenience, affordability, and social and cultural effects. Recommendations from the literature amount to a call for more engagement with the IP sector. IPs are a large component of nearly all developing country health systems. Research and policies of engagement are needed.

  12. Transplantation in low resource countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Faulkner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia major (TM is the most common deadly genetic disorder, a major cause of chronic non-infectious morbidity and financial burden in many low and middle-income regions. In these settings few children reach adulthood because proper long-term supportive care is seldom available. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT is the only available curative modality and it can be very successful and cost-effective for young children with low-risk features and a compatible related donor. However, in countries where TM is most prevalent, there is a dire shortage of BMT centers. The Cure2Children Foundation has supported a feasibility study evaluating safety, efficacy and costs of developing a new BMT center in an underserved lower-middle-income country with relatively untrained professionals within a structured collaboration and knowledge-transfer program. A total of 24 consecutive patients who underwent BMT in Pakistan between September 2008 and August 2010 are included in this prospective analysis, 17 from an established bone marrow transplant center, the National Institute for Blood Diseases in Karachi, Pakistan and the initial 7 BMTs from a start up unit in a government civil hospital, the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences Children’s Hospital in Islamabad. Patients were matched for age, nutritional status, growth, disease, disease status and post-BMT follow-up time. All patients had a matched-related sibling donor, were younger than 10 years of age at the time of transplantation, received the same conditioning regimen. All needy families could rely on a support program throughout the 8-month post-transplant period. The Cure2Children Foundation provided professional and financial support as well as a structured web-based data management and cooperation platform. At a median follow up of 19.6 months (range 8.7 to 31.5 actuarial thalassemia-free survival is 85.6% and 85.7% and overall survival 94.1% and 85.7% in the established and start-up center

  13. Banking Regulation Of Western Balkan Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denada Hafizi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The current global economic crisis has affected the development of banking system in Western Balkan Countries, including Italy and Greece. These effects are expressed with the contraction of lending, fallen of foreign direct investments, fallen of the volume of remittances and fallen of international trade. The banking system continually faces new challenges in a dynamically changing financial system, and this makes difficult theimplementation of bank regulation and supervision.All the countries have improved their banking regulation in order to avoid the contagion effect among banks and banking system in general, effects that get increased especially when banks are engaged in international banking. The standardization of regulatory requirements provides potential solution to the problems of regulating international banking. So, there is a moving through agreements like Basel Accords.For all these countries will be a comparison of regulatory capital to risk-weighted assets ratio and of capital to assets ratio in order to find out how well is capitalized their bankingsystem. The sources of data are the reports of International Monetary Fund for a time series of 2008-2013. In the end there are some conclusions for the main problems that theimplementation of supervision and bank regulation faces.Keywords: Basel Accords, Capital Ratio, Banking Regulation

  14. Nuclear safety in EU candidate countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    Nuclear safety in the candidate countries to the European Union is a major issue that needs to be addressed in the framework of the enlargement process. Therefore WENRA members considered it was their duty to offer their technical assistance to their Governments and the European Union Institutions. They decided to express their collective opinion on nuclear safety in those candidate countries having at least one nuclear power plant: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. The report is structured as follows: A foreword including background information, structure of the report and the methodology used, General conclusions of WENRA members reflecting their collective opinion, For each candidate country, an executive summary, a chapter on the status of the regulatory regime and regulatory body, and a chapter on the nuclear power plant safety status. Two annexes are added to address the generic safety characteristics and safety issues for RBMK and VVER plants. The report does not cover radiation protection and decommissioning issues, while safety aspects of spent fuel and radioactive waste management are only covered as regards on-site provisions. In order to produce this report, WENRA used different means: For the chapters on the regulatory regimes and regulatory bodies, experts from WENRA did the work. For the chapters on nuclear power plant safety status, experts from WENRA and from French and German technical support organisations did the work. Taking into account the contents of these chapters, WENRA has formulated its general conclusions in this report.

  15. Utilization of Stimulants and Atomoxetine for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among 5.4 Million Children Using Population-Based Longitudinal Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furu, Kari; Karlstad, Øystein; Zoëga, Helga

    2017-01-01

    . Prevalence of filling ≥1 prescriptions of ADHD drugs among children aged 6-17 years increased during 2008-2012 from 5.9 to 11.2 and 19.4 to 31.0 per 1000 girls and boys, respectively. Prevalence by country showed that Iceland, Finland and Sweden had a steady increase during the study period, while in Norway......Use of stimulants to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has increased over the past two decades and varies substantially between countries. The objective of this multinational population-based study was to examine utilization of ADHD drugs (stimulants and atomoxetine) including...... comedication with other psychotropic drugs in the entire child population in the five Nordic countries. We included longitudinal data on dispensed ADHD drugs from five Nordic prescription registers during 2008-2012, which in 2012 comprised 48,296 individuals among 5.42 million inhabitants aged 0-17 years...

  16. Resilience Analysis of Countries under Disasters Based on Multisource Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Huang, Hong

    2017-04-06

    Disasters occur almost daily in the world. Because emergencies frequently have no precedent, are highly uncertain, and can be very destructive, improving a country's resilience is an efficient way to reduce risk. In this article, we collected more than 20,000 historical data points from disasters from 207 countries to enable us to calculate the severity of disasters and the danger they pose to countries. In addition, 6 primary indices (disaster, personal attribute, infrastructure, economics, education, and occupation) including 38 secondary influencing factors are considered in analyzing the resilience of countries. Using these data, we obtained the danger, expected number of deaths, and resilience of all 207 countries. We found that a country covering a large area is more likely to have a low resilience score. Through sensitivity analysis of all secondary indices, we found that population density, frequency of disasters, and GDP are the three most critical factors affecting resilience. Based on broad-spectrum resilience analysis of the different continents, Oceania and South America have the highest resilience, while Asia has the lowest. Over the past 50 years, the resilience of many countries has been improved sharply, especially in developing countries. Based on our results, we analyze the comprehensive resilience and provide some optimal suggestions to efficiently improve resilience. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Biopharmaceutical industry-sponsored global clinical trials in emerging countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Lenio Souza; Martins, Elisabeth Nogueira

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate biopharmaceutical industry-sponsored clinical trials placed in countries previously described as emerging regions for clinical research, and potential differences for those placed in Brazil. Data regarding recruitment of subjects for clinical trials were retrieved from www.clinicaltrials.gov on February 2nd 2009. Proportions of sites in each country were compared among emerging countries. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to evaluate whether trial placement in Brazil could be predicted by trial location in other countries and/or by trial features. A total of 8,501 trials were then active and 1,170 (13.8%) included sites in emerging countries (i.e., Argentina, Brazil, China, Czech Republic, Hungary, India, Mexico, Poland, Russia, South Korea, and South Africa). South Korea and China presented a significantly higher proportion of sites when compared to other countries (plogistic regressions detected no negative correlation between placement in other countries when compared to Brazil. Trials involving subjects with less than 15 years of age, those with targeted recruitment of at least 1,000 subjects, and seven sponsors were identified as significant predictors of trial placement in Brazil. No clear direct competition between Brazil and other emerging countries was detected. South Korea showed the higher proportion of sites and ranked third in total number of trials, appearing as a major player in attractiveness for biopharmaceutical industry-sponsored clinical trials.

  18. 78 FR 46792 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Least Developed Countries That Are Designated Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... 9000-AM62 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Least Developed Countries That Are Designated Countries... Representative (USTR) to the list of least developed countries that are designated countries under the Trade... President to designate least developed countries as eligible countries under the Trade Agreements Act...

  19. The electricity sector susceptibility of European countries to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Daniel R.; Olonscheck, Mady; Walther, Carsten; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2014-05-01

    Due to the close relationship between electricity consumption, production and temperature, the electricity systems of countries are particularly susceptible to climate change. Based on a number of quantitative influencing factors, we provide a relative index for 21 European countries. This allows relevant stakeholders to identify the main influencing factors that determine the electricity system susceptibility of their country. The index was determined using 14 influencing factors that include those that increase or decrease susceptibility. This includes information on monthly mean temperature, electricity consumption, import, export and production by energy source for the period 2000-2011. Moreover, we consider the results of nine global climate models regarding future temperature changes as well as data on air conditioner prevalence by country. A quantitative relative ranked index describing the susceptibility of each country's electricity system is provided. In both Luxembourg and Greece, which top the list, the inability to meet electricity demand with inland production as well as a heavy reliance on combustible fuel electricity production explain part of the high relative susceptibility. Summer electricity consumption (another influencing factor) is expected to increase in Greece where current relatively warm temperatures, in the context of the countries included in this study, are expected to increase in the future. Comparatively, Norway was the least susceptible country based on our index. Norway is expected to benefit from rising projected temperatures, which will decrease winter electricity consumption and limit susceptibility. Furthermore, Norway's current electricity production exceeds consumption demand and is largely based on hydro, which also decreases susceptibility. The findings of this study enable policy makers, scientists and energy managers to examine the most important influencing factors that increase susceptibility and focus their adaptation

  20. Exploring the Application of Community Development Methods on Water Research in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, P. E.

    2012-12-01

    In research and community development focused on water in developing countries, there is a common focus on issues of water quantity and quality. In the best circumstances both are innovative - bringing understanding and solutions to resource poor regions that is appropriate to their unique situations. But the underlying methods and measures for success often differ significantly. Applying critical aspects of community development methods to water research in developing countries could increase the probability of identifying innovative and sustainable solutions. This is examined through two case studies: the first identifies common methods across community development projects in six African countries, and the second examines water quality research performed in Benin, West Africa through the lens of these methods. The first case study is taken from observations gathered between 2008 and 2012 of community development projects focused on water quantity and quality in six sub-Saharan African countries implemented through different non-governmental organizations. These projects took place in rural and peri-urban regions where public utilities were few to none, instance of diarrheal disease was high, and most adults had received little formal education. The water projects included drilling of boreholes, building of rain water tanks, oasis rehabilitation, spring protection, and household biosand filters. All solutions were implemented with hygiene and sanitation components. Although these projects occurred in a wide array of cultural, geographical and climatic regions, the most successful projects shared methods of implementation. These methods are: high levels of stakeholder participation, environmental and cultural adaptation of process and product, and implementation over an extended length of time. The second case study focuses on water quality research performed in Benin, West Africa from 2003 to 2008. This research combined laboratory and statistical analyses with

  1. Three-dimensional Printing in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed M S; Jose, Rod R; Rabie, Amr N; Gerstle, Theodore L; Lee, Bernard T; Lin, Samuel J

    2015-07-01

    The advent of 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology has facilitated the creation of customized objects. The lack of regulation in developing countries renders conventional means of addressing various healthcare issues challenging. 3D printing may provide a venue for addressing many of these concerns in an inexpensive and easily accessible fashion. These may potentially include the production of basic medical supplies, vaccination beads, laboratory equipment, and prosthetic limbs. As this technology continues to improve and prices are reduced, 3D printing has the potential ability to promote initiatives across the entire developing world, resulting in improved surgical care and providing a higher quality of healthcare to its residents.

  2. Utility FGD survey, January--December 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. (IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1992-03-01

    This is Volume 2 part 2, of the Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. This volume particularly contains basic design and performance data.

  3. Worldwide epidemiology of liver hydatidosis including the Mediterranean area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giuseppe Grosso; Salvatore Gruttadauria; Antonio Biondi; Stefano Marventano; Antonio Mistretta

    2012-01-01

    The worldwide incidence and prevalence of cystic echinococcosis have fallen dramatically over the past several decades.Nonetheless,infection with Echinococcus granulosus (E.granulosus) remains a major public health issue in several countries and regions,even in places where it was previously at low levels,as a result of a reduction of control programmes due to economic problems and lack of resources.Geographic distribution differs by country and region depending on the presence in that country of large numbers of nomadic or semi-nomadic sheep and goat flocks that represent the intermediate host of the parasite,and their close contact with the final host,the dog,which mostly provides the transmission of infection to humans.The greatest prevalence of cystic echinococcosis in human and animal hosts is found in countries of the temperate zones,including several parts of Eurasia (the Mediterranean regions,southern and central parts of Russia,central Asia,China),Australia,some parts of America (especially South America) and north and east Africa.Echinococcosis is currently considered an endemic zoonotic disease in the Mediterranean region.The most frequent strain associated with human cystic echinococcosis appears to be the common sheep strain (G1).This strain appears to be widely distributed in all continents.The purpose of this review is to examine the distribution of E.granulosus and the epidemiology of a re-emerging disease such as cystic echinococcosis.

  4. Culture and Economic Growth——Cross Country Empirical Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤薇

    2015-01-01

    The folowing paper aims to analyze the relationship of cultural factors for economic growth, using Penn world table data and Hofstede's five dimension data from 96 countries and regions. We provide strong evidence that cultures (extremely uncertainty avoidance), together with human resource and capital stock, play an important part in a country's economic. While including standard neo-classical growth model variables such as investment rates and a substitute for human capital, the impact of cultural variables like power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, pragmatism, and indulgence are investigated. In particular, we find that uncertainty avoidance is always robust to the gross economic growth across countries.

  5. AN ATTEMPT TO ASSESS THE IMPACT OF AGRICULTURE ON THE ENVIRONMENT IN THE COUNTRIES OF CENTRAL-EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Szuba-Barańska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to identify and evaluate the progress of implementation of selected assumptions on sustainability of agriculture in countries of CentralEastern Europe in relation to environmental protection. Data from the input-output balance sheets and the European Environmental Accounts were used to realize the aim of the study. The analysis considered material fl ows to and from agriculture, pollution, and the production and consumption of biomass. The share of the participation of agribusiness sphere I, including mainly services, as well as the fuel, energy and chemical industries, has been increasing in the material infl ows to agriculture in the countries of CentralEastern Europe. This indicates production modernization, associated with a higher load on the environment. The highest emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants into the environment per 1,000 euro GDP were recorded in Lithuania, Romania and Latvia. The Czech Republic, Slovenia and Slovakia have the lowest values of emissions. In Latvia, there was no overall reduction in pollution emitted by agriculture in 2008–2012. Emission of these pollutants per 1,000 euro GDP and 1 ha UAA (utilized agricultural area of agricultural land decreased in most countries in the analysis. In EU countries of Central-Eastern Europe, a reduction in direct material input and domestic consumption of biomass from agriculture per one euro of GDP is reported. These changes indicate a decrease in the intensity of use of natural resources (dematerialising economy, which is consistent with the objectives of sustainable development. In countries where agriculture is better developed, the implementation of pro-environmental goals of sustainable development takes place to a greater extent than in countries with lower levels of socio-economic development.

  6. A review of the evidence to support influenza vaccine introduction in countries and areas of WHO's Western Pacific Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Samaan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Immunization against influenza is considered an essential public health intervention to control both seasonal epidemics and pandemic influenza. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, there are five key policy and three key programmatic issues that decision-makers should consider before introducing a vaccine. These are (a public health priority, (b disease burden, (c efficacy, quality and safety of the vaccine, (d other inventions, (e economic and financial issues, (f vaccine presentation, (g supply availability and (h programmatic strength. We analyzed the body of evidence currently available on these eight issues in the WHO Western Pacific Region. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Studies indexed in PubMed and published in English between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2010 from the 37 countries and areas of the Western Pacific Region were screened for keywords pertaining to the five policy and three programmatic issues. Studies were grouped according to country income level and vaccine target group. There were 133 articles that met the selection criteria, with most (90% coming from high-income countries. Disease burden (n = 34, vaccine efficacy, quality and safety (n = 27 and public health priority (n = 27 were most frequently addressed by studies conducted in the Region. Many studies assessed influenza vaccine policy and programmatic issues in the general population (42%, in the elderly (24% and in children (17%. Few studies (2% addressed the eight issues relating to pregnant women. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The evidence for vaccine introduction in countries and areas in this Region remains limited, particularly in low- and middle-income countries that do not currently have influenza vaccination programmes. Surveillance activities and specialized studies can be used to assess the eight issues including disease burden among vaccine target groups and the cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccine. Multi-country studies should

  7. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  8. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  9. UTILITY OF SIMPLIFIED LABANOTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Maria del Pilar Naranjo

    2016-01-01

    After using simplified Labanotation as a didactic tool for some years, the author can conclude that it accomplishes at least three main functions: efficiency of rehearsing time, social recognition and broadening of the choreographic consciousness of the dancer. The doubts of the dancing community about the issue of ‘to write or not to write’ are highly determined by the contexts and their own choreographic evolution, but the utility of Labanotation, as a tool for knowledge, is undeniable.

  10. Windpower utilization possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoetzel, C.

    1982-01-01

    The possibilities of windpower utilization for mechanical pumps, electric generators, mechanical water vortex pumps, and heat pumps are reviewed. Application possibilities can be realized by windpower systems of different size. It must however be determined for which purpose and for which power range they are used. The site and the concomitant wind potential is of utmost importance. Small units in the 10 kW power range are very interesting for autonomous or semiautonomous energy supply.

  11. UTILITY OF SIMPLIFIED LABANOTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Pilar Naranjo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available After using simplified Labanotation as a didactic tool for some years, the author can conclude that it accomplishes at least three main functions: efficiency of rehearsing time, social recognition and broadening of the choreographic consciousness of the dancer. The doubts of the dancing community about the issue of ‘to write or not to write’ are highly determined by the contexts and their own choreographic evolution, but the utility of Labanotation, as a tool for knowledge, is undeniable.

  12. Climatic Variability In Tropical Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, L. W.

    2003-04-01

    atmospheric condition and hence reduces rainfall for about 1.5 years in tropical countries. This was proved in 2001. This forecast was presented as a paper in 1998 Stockholm Water Symposium. The results were true for Brazil as well. The danger is now over when the episode is relaxed. Second half of 2002 was heavily wet and all the tanks in Sri Lanka except Kirindioya complex in Hambanthoa area got filled. This condition was seen in 1997 where all tanks got filled. El Nino analysts declared 1997 as a drought year as the previous year had experienced warming in Pacific Ocean. Southern Oscillation events are now dissociating to conformity. Discussion Hambanthoa District remained in the dry zone of Sri Lanka for 2000 years as the soil forms expressed as reddish brown earths. Original kingdoms had its base in Anuradhapura in Northcentral Province and Magama in Hambanthota district. Tools used by contemporary farmers were not powerful to use enormous water resources in wet zone. A system of diversion dams and use of run of the river irrigation has proved as the main criteria of that era. Diversion dams and canal projects were in existence. The diversion dams with special shape was mistaken by british surveyors and marked as broken dams in plans. DLOMendis later identified these as effective deflecting dams. The purpose was to wet the area to do cultivation. This system of wetting the land was suitable for dry climates with low rainfall. High technology was introduced by Irrigation Department to construct several reservoirs in Hambanthota. This was planned after the insufficient water use of Ellagala anicut from Kirindi Oya. Next step was to plan a reservoir project at Lunugamvehera dam site. Precipitation data available for 50 years were studied and a reservoir was designed for 20 000acres of paddy. It was planned to cultivate rice for Maha season and other field crops for Yala season. Cultivation commenced in 1985 and the farmers had enough water for 20000acres including

  13. Time functions as utilities

    CERN Document Server

    Minguzzi, E

    2009-01-01

    Every time function on spacetime gives a (continuous) total preordering of the spacetime events which respects the notion of causal precedence. The problem of the existence of a (semi-)time function on spacetime and the problem of recovering the causal structure starting from the set of time functions are studied. It is pointed out that these problems have an analog in the field of microeconomics known as utility theory. In a chronological spacetime the semi-time functions correspond to the utilities for the chronological relation, while in a K-causal (stably causal) spacetime the time functions correspond to the utilities for the K^+ relation (Seifert's relation). By exploiting this analogy, we are able to import some mathematical results, most notably Peleg's and Levin's theorems, to the spacetime framework. As a consequence, we prove that a K-causal (i.e. stably causal) spacetime admits a time function and that the time or temporal functions can be used to recover the K^+ (or Seifert) relation which indeed...

  14. Small Countries with Volatile Revenue

    OpenAIRE

    Naoko C. Kojo

    2015-01-01

    Bhutan and Botswana share a number of similarities. The two countries, land locked small states, have grown rapidly over the past few decades, boosted by sustained, large-scale inflows of foreign exchange. Botswana’s annual real growth rate averaged 9 percent over the past 40 years, driven by diamond exploration, whereas Bhutan has taken full advantage of generous foreign aid inflows to ac...

  15. Psychosocial rehabilitation in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaswamy, Thara; Sujit, John

    2012-10-01

    Psychosocial rehabilitation (PSR) is an essential component in the management of schizophrenia. It is especially relevant in the improvement of functioning and the quality of life of these individuals. The scarcity of mental health personnel and lack of training in many low and middle income countries (LAMIC) has led to low priority being accorded to PSR. This paper describes some of the PSR initiatives in LAMIC, especially those undertaken after disasters, home-based interventions and community-based rehabilitation programmes.

  16. Intergovernmental grants in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    A country's grant system is the product of its political environment. Such systems tend to develop over time in response to prevailing political needs and then become institutionalized. Since they have developed in a haphazard fashion over time, grant"systems"commonly are not systems at all. Hard pressed government ministries seldom undertake any thorough analysis of these arrangements; hence their overall impact is unknown in spite of the importance of this use of resources.

  17. Country Reports on Terrorism 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    tried on Fujimori -era decree laws on terrorism . All the cases must be re-tried by January 2006 or the de- fendants will be released in accordance with...i US Department of State Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism Country Reports on Terrorism 2004 April 2005 Report Documentation Page Form...DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Patterns of Global Terrorism 2005 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  18. Comparative analysis of harmonized forest area stimates for European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seebach, Lucia Maria; Strobl, P.; Miguel-Ayanz, J. San

    2011-01-01

    contain uncertainties, which must be quantified and included in the error budget. This is a prerequisite for combining and comparing data. The purpose of this study is to compare, taking into account uncertainties, forest area estimates for year 2000 derived from four different harmonized satellite...... the best accordance with official statistics due to its focus on land use. The other maps overestimated the forest area in mountainous countries and showed underestimation in countries with large forest area or open forest formations....

  19. The World Bank and Brazil : A New Country Assistance Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Furtado, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Brazil enjoys human and natural resources unavailable to most countries. Its assets include a diverse, energetic population and a vast territory that encompasses the world's largest rain forest and up to one-fifth of the world's fresh water. Brazil is the world's 9tth largest economy with a GDP of around $500 billion. But it is among the most unequal countries in the world: the wealthiest ...

  20. Lending Interest Rates’ Relationships of Malaysia and Other Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Azryani Auzairy; Chee Yong Thing

    2016-01-01

    This paper is to examine the relationship of Malaysia‟s lending interest rate with other countries which include China, Singapore, United States, Indonesia and Thailand. Those five countries are Malaysia‟s major trading partners. The daily base lending interest rates from 2006 to 2014 were applied to this study. The associations of the interest rates were tested by coefficient correlation and multivariate regression analysis. Results showed that Malaysian lending interest rate ...

  1. Towards a benchmarking paradigm in European water utilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marques, R.C.; de Witte, K.

    2010-01-01

    This article explains the benefits of using benchmarking tools in the public sector to drive up performance. The authors examine the case of European water utilities, focusing on four countries: Portugal, Belgium, The Netherlands and the UK. They argue for the creation of a European ‘observatory’ to

  2. Development perspective of transitional countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Bogdan B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The end of 20th century witnessed the affirmation and development of information technology as well as the transformation of industrial into information, "new economy", which caused changes in people and circumstances. The role and importance of nonhuman factors was increased, causing entrepreneurship and knowledge-based information to become the most significant resources. The Internet became the basis of the "new economy". It changes the way of doing business, studying, researching, communicating and competition. It also reduces operating costs, crosses national borders and leads to the globalization of the world economy. Transitional countries have to fit into modern development flows by formulating their own strategy of national development and establishing their own competitive advantages in conditions of "new economy". These advantages lie predominantly in highly qualified and skilled younger labor which learns fast and adopts new knowledge and skills, through reducing transactional costs, shortening of certain development stages through which developed countries have already gone, using their experience, scientific-technological progress, a rise in work productivity, etc. Experience of other countries should be innovated and adapted to one's own material and social conditions, not copied. This enables the emergence of "European small tigers", which are similar to "Asian small tigers".

  3. Gallstone Classification in Western Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariati, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    In order to compare gallstone disease data from India and Asian countries with Western countries, it is fundamental to follow a common gallstone classification. Gallstone disease has afflicted humans since the time of Egyptian kings, and gallstones have been found during autopsies on mummies. Gallstone prevalence in adult population ranges from 10 to 15 %. Gallstones in Western countries are distinguished into the following classes: cholesterol gallstones that contain more than 50 % of cholesterol (nearly 75 % of gallstones) and pigment gallstones that contain less than 30 % of cholesterol by weight, which can be subdivided into black pigment gallstones and brown pigment gallstones. It has been shown that ultrastructural analysis with scanning electron microscopy is useful in the classification and study of pigment gallstones. Moreover, x-ray diffractometry analysis and infrared spectroscopy of gallstones are of fundamental importance for an accurate stone analysis. An accurate study of gallstones is useful to understand gallstone pathogenesis. In fact, bacteria are not important in cholesterol gallstone nucleation and growth, but they are important in brown pigment gallstone formation. On the contrary, calcium bilirubinate is fundamental in black pigment gallstone formation and probably also plays an important role in cholesterol gallstone nucleation and growth.

  4. A framework for assessing the economic value of pharmacovigilance in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babigumira, Joseph B; Stergachis, Andy; Choi, Hye Lyn; Dodoo, Alexander; Nwokike, Jude; Garrison, Louis P

    2014-03-01

    Pharmacovigilance (PV) programs are an essential component of national healthcare systems. Well-functioning PV programs can improve population health by identifying and reducing medicines-related problems (MRPs). Many low- and middle-income countries lack functional PV systems, but this deficiency has not been described in terms of the potential economic value of strengthening PV systems. The assessment of economic value for PV can support rational decision making at the country level. We propose a framework for assessing the economic value of PV. We divide national PV systems into four levels: (1) no PV, (2) basic PV, (3) semi-functional PV, and (4) functional PV. These categories represent increasing levels of investment in PV capacity at the national or health facility level for all available medicines, including vaccines. The proposed framework can be used to estimate the costs of PV (including the value of investments to increase PV capacity and the costs of managing MRPs) and outcomes associated with PV (including improvements in morbidity, mortality, and quality of life as a result of the reduction in MRPs). The quantitative approach proposed for assessing costs and benefits uses a decision-analytic modeling framework that would estimate the value of the consequences of MRPs adjusted for their probability of occurrence. This allows the quantification of value using monetary outcomes (cost-benefit analysis), natural units (cost-effectiveness analysis), or mortality adjusted for quality of life or disability (cost-utility analysis). Evidence generated using this framework could assist policy makers, program managers, and donors in evaluating investments that aim to increase the capacity and efficiency of national and facility-level PV programs in low- and middle-income countries.

  5. Exchange Rate Volatility and Trade among the Asia Pacific Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saang Joon Baak

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of exchange rate volatility on exports among 14 Asia Pacific countries, where various measures to raise the intra-region trade are being implemented. Specifically, this paper estimates a gravity model, in which the dependent variable is the product of the exports of two trading countries. In addition, it also estimates a unilateral exports model, in which the dependent variable is not the product of the exports of two trading countries but the exports from one country to another. By doing this, the depreciation rate of the exporting country's currency value can be included as one of the explanatory variables affecting the volume of exports. As the explanatory variables of the export volume, the gravity model adopts the product of the GDPs of two trading counties, their bilateral exchange rate volatility, their distance, a time trend and dummies for the share of the border line, the use of the same language, and the APEC membership. In the case of the unilateral exports model, the product of the GDPs is replaced by the GDP of the importing country, and the depreciation rate of the exporting country's currency value is dded. In addition, considering that the export volume will also depend on various onditions of the exporting country, dummies for exporting countries are also included as an explanatory variable. The empirical tests, using annual data for the period from 1980 to 2002, detect a significant negative impact of exchange rate volatility on the volume of exports. In addition, various tests using the data for sub-sample periods indicate that the negative impact had been weakened since 1989, when APEC had launched, and surged again from 1997, when the Asian financial crisis broke out. This finding implies that the impact of exchange rate volatility is time-dependent and that it is significantlynegative at least in the present time. This phenomenon is noticed regardless which estimation

  6. The impact of health insurance on maternal health care utilization: evidence from Ghana, Indonesia and Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temsah, Gheda; Mallick, Lindsay

    2017-01-01

    Abstract While research has assessed the impact of health insurance on health care utilization, few studies have focused on the effects of health insurance on use of maternal health care. Analyzing nationally representative data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), this study estimates the impact of health insurance status on the use of maternal health services in three countries with relatively high levels of health insurance coverage—Ghana, Indonesia and Rwanda. The analysis uses propensity score matching to adjust for selection bias in health insurance uptake and to assess the effect of health insurance on four measurements of maternal health care utilization: making at least one antenatal care visit; making four or more antenatal care visits; initiating antenatal care within the first trimester and giving birth in a health facility. Although health insurance schemes in these three countries are mostly designed to focus on the poor, coverage has been highly skewed toward the rich, especially in Ghana and Rwanda. Indonesia shows less variation in coverage by wealth status. The analysis found significant positive effects of health insurance coverage on at least two of the four measures of maternal health care utilization in each of the three countries. Indonesia stands out for the most systematic effect of health insurance across all four measures. The positive impact of health insurance appears more consistent on use of facility-based delivery than use of antenatal care. The analysis suggests that broadening health insurance to include income-sensitive premiums or exemptions for the poor and low or no copayments can increase use of maternal health care. PMID:28365754

  7. Energy for Water Utilization in China and Policy Implications for Integrated Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Liu, J.; Zheng, C.

    2015-12-01

    Water and energy are two vital resources for human and are intrinsically linked. China is a country with acute water problems caused by increasing demand, uneven spatial-temporal distribution of water resources, and water quality deterioration. These issues are exacerbating the country's water scarcity. Meanwhile, demands for both traditional and non-traditional water resources continue to rise, driven by the country's rapid economic expansion and industrialization. To meet growing water demands, more and more energy is used for water extraction, transportation and treatment. While projects such as deep groundwater pumping, long distance water transfer and seawater desalination are adding crucial supplies of fresh water, they are consuming an ever greater amount of energy. Thus, a better understanding of water-energy linkages is important for integrated water and energy policy analysis and planning. In this study, data from multiple sources are compiled and used to calculate energy consumption for different processes of water utilization in China, including water abstraction, treatment, and distribution, as well as wastewater treatment and re-use. Sankey diagrams are used to display the magnitude and direction of water and energy flows in China at the national level. Spatial distributions of energy use by different components of the water supply were further mapped at the provincial level to discern regional differences. The results of this study show that, for the main processes considered, water utilization consumes 193.5 TWh of electricity, or about 4% of the total national electricity usage. The highest percentage of energy consumption for water is attributed to water provision process. The outcome of this study has important implications for policy reforms involving water conservation strategies, water supply structure changes and technical solutions, which, in turn, will contribute to achieving the goal of low-energy water utilization in the future.

  8. Corrupt practices negatively influenced food security and live expectancy in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchendu, Florence Ngozi; Abolarin, Thaddeus Olatunbosun

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is a global public health problem more prevalent in developing countries than in developed countries. Indicators of malnutrition include household food security and life expectancy. Corruption might be one of socio-political problems fuelling malnutrition in developing countries. The aim of this paper is to compare influence of corruption on food security, live expectancy (LE) and population in developed and developing countries. Thirty two least corrupt countries (LCC) and most corrupt countries (MCC) representing developed and developing countries were systematically selected using Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI). Countries' data on population, food security index (FSI) and LE scores were obtained from Global food security index (GFSI) and Population reference bureau. T-test, Multivariate (Wilks' Lambda), Pearson product moment analysis were performed to determine relationship between CPI, FSI, LE, and population in LCC and MCC at p developing countries.

  9. Analysis of how the country's divorce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Abdi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Adverse effects and consequences of divorce for the couple, their families, and the many factors that may cause the various planning and training can take forward these adverse outcomes. Therefore, this study in order to identify areas of acute, as well as plans to reduce divorce and its aftermath in various provinces of the country, has been done. In this study, we first mapped matrix provinces, each province based on the divorce rate in the country, was discussed. Therefore, according to the first field studies and library, established the potential matrix, a matrix with 10 columns, including indicators, and 30 lines, including the provinces of the country. Then, using component-based methods, hierarchical cluster analysis, the provinces, based on the divorce to happen, it was graded. Compare returns shown that among the provinces, the provinces (Kerman, Sistan and Baluchestan, Hormozgan, Southern Khorasan, Yazd, Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari, kohgiluyeh and Boyer Ahmad, North Khorasan, Golestan and Ilam, has the lowest divorce and Tehran and Semnan provinces, have the highest divorce rate. The result of this was possible is that, in the context of tribal and ethnic yet they are strong, strong family ties, and that of the more modern, have tended, and Tradition tribal beliefs, they have been forgotten, with more divorce, and family ties are low, but economic, social, political, cultural, particularly those involved, and in small towns, marriage more and less divorce, and large cities, high divorce, and marriage are less than another. So, do research and applied research and adaptive, in the context of family, plus the sum of values ​​in previous studies, and their meta-analysis, to solve family problems, and the formulation of Islamic patterns - Iranian family, is inevitable.

  10. Preferential Trade Agreements Harm the Third Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mossay, Pascal; Tabuchi, Takatoshi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study market liberalization in an imperfectly competitive environment in the presence of price effects. For this purpose, we build a three-country model of international trade under monopolistic competition with endogenous prices and wages. The neighboring effect translates how the size effect propagates across countries. When some country increases in size, its nominal wage increases, as well as that in a small and near country, while that in a large and distant country fal...

  11. Determinants of Country-of-Origin Evaluations.

    OpenAIRE

    Gurhan-Canli, Zeynep; Maheswaran, Durairaj

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments examined the factors that influence and the psychological processes that underlie country-of-origin evaluations. Subjects received attribute information that was either condensed in a single product or dispersed across several products manufactured in a country with relatively unfavorable associations. When consumers use country of origin as a basis for judgment under low motivation, or when the processing goal is to evaluate the country of origin, they focus on the country-of...

  12. Base Erosion, Profit Shifting and Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Crivelli; Ruud A. de Mooij; Michael Keen

    2015-01-01

    International corporate tax issues are prominent in public debate, notably with the G20-OECD project addressing Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (‘BEPS’). But while there is considerable empirical evidence for advanced countries on the cross-country fiscal externalities at the heart of these issues, there is almost none for developing countries. This paper uses panel data for 173 countries over 33 years to explore their magnitude and nature, focusing particularly on developing countries a...

  13. Preferential trade agreements harm third countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mossay, Pascal; Tabuchi, Takatoshi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study market liberalization in an imperfectly competitive environment in the presence of price effects. For this purpose, we build a three-country model of international trade under monopolistic competition with endogenous prices and wages. The neighboring effect translates how the size effect propagates across countries. When some country increases in size, its relative wage increases, as well as that in a small and near country, while that in a large and distant country fa...

  14. Base Erosion, Profit Shifting and Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Crivelli; De Mooij, Ruud A.; Michael Keen

    2015-01-01

    International corporate tax issues are prominent in public debate, notably with the G20-OECD project addressing Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (‘BEPS’). But while there is considerable empirical evidence for advanced countries on the cross-country fiscal externalities at the heart of these issues, there is almost none for developing countries. This paper uses panel data for 173 countries over 33 years to explore their magnitude and nature, focusing particularly on developing countries a...

  15. Malaysia mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameshvara Deva, M

    2004-01-01

    Malaysia is a tropical country in the heart of south east Asia with a population of 24 million people of diverse ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds living in harmony in 330,000 km(2) of land on the Asian mainland and Borneo. Malaysia, which lies on the crossroads of trade between east and west Asia, has an ancient history as a centre of trading attracting commerce between Europe, west Asia, India and China. It has had influences from major powers that dominated the region throughout its history. Today the country, after independence in 1957, has embarked on an ambitious development project to make it a developed country by 2020. In this effort the economy has changed from one producing raw material to one manufacturing consumer goods and services and the colonial health system has been overhauled and social systems strengthened to provide better services for its people. The per capita income, which was under 1,000 US dollars at independence, has now passed 4,000 US dollars and continues to grow, with the economy largely based on strong exports that amount to over 100 billion US dollars. The mental health system that was based on institutional care in four mental hospitals at independence from British colonial rule in 1957 with no Malaysian psychiatrists is today largely based on over 30 general hospital psychiatric units spread throughout the country. With three local postgraduate training programmes in psychiatry and 12 undergraduate departments of psychiatry in the country--all started after independence--there is now a healthy development of mental health services. This is being supplemented by a newly established primary care mental health service that covers community mental health by integrating mental health into primary health care. Mental health care at the level of psychiatrists rests with about 140 psychiatrists most of whom had undertaken a four-year masters course in postgraduate psychiatry in Malaysia since 1973. However, there continues to be

  16. Elementary Christian School Teachers Utilizing Biblical Concepts in Classroom Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Christy E.

    2014-01-01

    This phenomenological study examined biblical concepts utilized by elementary Christian school teachers in classroom management in two Christian schools in Virginia. Items examined included which biblical components were being utilized and how teachers are utilizing them. Determining factors influencing the incorporation of biblical concepts in…

  17. 24 CFR 886.326 - Adjustment of utility allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment of utility allowances... utility allowances. When the owner requests HUD approval of an adjustment in Contract Rents under § 886.312, an analysis of the project's Utility Allowances must be included. Such data as changes in...

  18. 24 CFR 886.126 - Adjustment of utility allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment of utility allowances... utility allowances. When the owner requests HUD approval of adjustment in Contract Rents under § 886.112, an analysis of the project's Utility Allowances must be included. Such data as changes in...

  19. 29 CFR 4.120 - Contracts for public utility services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Contracts for public utility services. 4.120 Section 4.120... McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act Specific Exclusions § 4.120 Contracts for public utility... utility services, including electric light and power, water, steam, and gas.” This exemption is...

  20. Quality electric motor repair: A guidebook for electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueler, V.; Douglass, J.

    1995-08-01

    This guidebook provides utilities with a resource for better understanding and developing their roles in relation to electric motor repair shops and the industrial and commercial utility customers that use them. The guidebook includes information and tools that utilities can use to raise the quality of electric motor repair practices in their service territories.

  1. Bureaucratic complexity and impacts of corruption in utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seim, Line Toendel; Soereide, Tina [Chr. Michelsen Institute, P.O.Box 6033 Postterminalen, N-5892 Bergen (Norway)

    2009-06-15

    This paper explores how the relationship between bureaucratic complexity and corruption affects the performance in utilities. We observe considerable variation in the performance of the utilities across countries, even across countries which appear to be relatively similar. Our hypothesis is that corruption plays an important role in explaining this observed difference in performance. In particular, corruption coupled with a complex regulatory structure can have negative effects on performance. The analysis points at the importance of considering the institutional framework and institutional quality when introducing new bureaucratic procedures, as the same set of policy advice will work differently in different countries. We measure bureaucratic complexity by the number of procedures needed for starting a business from the Doing Business Database provided by the World Bank. (author)

  2. Status and Development of Natural Gas Utilization in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Kangyu; Ma An

    1995-01-01

    @@ Recently, the world's proven reserves of natural gas are increasing and are likely to exceed those of oil within the future one or two decades.Natural gas has efficient and clean-burning characteristics. Many countries attach importance to the natural gas utilization. Now China is the fifth largest oil producing country and produced 147 million tons of crude oil in 1994. As natural gas once was regarded as a useless by-product of oil production, so the output of natural gas is low in comparison with that of crude oil. China is now the twentifourth natural gas producing country based on gas output and produced 16. 67 billion cubic meters natural gas in 1994. Natural gas consumption occupies only two percent of total energy consumption in China. With the growth of economy and improvement of exploration and development technologies,it is sure that the output and utilization of natural gas will develop greatly before 2000 in China.

  3. 75 FR 52990 - Report on Countries That Are Candidates for Millennium Challenge Account Eligibility in Fiscal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... countries to achieve lasting economic growth and poverty reduction. The Act requires the Millennium... to reduce poverty and generate economic growth in the country. These steps include the submission of... country in the then most recent edition of the World Development Report for Reconstruction and...

  4. Socioeconomic position, macroeconomic environment and overweight among adolescents in 35 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, P; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Rasmussen, M

    2009-01-01

    index of 25 kg/m(2) at the age of 18 years). Measures included family and school affluence (within countries), and average country income and economic inequality (between countries).Results:There were large variations in adolescent overweight, from 3.5% in Lithuanian girls to 31.7% in boys from Malta...

  5. Prospects for the power sector in nine developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, S.; Goldman, N.; Martin, N.; Friedmann, R.

    1993-04-01

    Based on information drawn primarily from official planning documents issued by national governments and/or utilities, the authors examined the outlook for the power sector in the year 2000 in nine countries: China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan, Argentina and Mexico. They found that the implicit rates of average annual growth of installed electric power capacity between 1991 and 2001 range from a low of 3.3% per year in Argentina to a high of 13.2% per year in Indonesia. In absolute terms, China and India account for the vast majority of the growth. The plans call for a shift in the generating mix towards coal in six of the countries, and continued strong reliance on coal in China and India. The use of natural gas is expected to increase substantially in a number of the countries. The historic movement away from oil continues, although some countries are maintaining dual-fuel capabilities. Plans call for considerable growth of nuclear power in South Korea and China and modest increases in India and Taiwan. The feasibility of the official plans varies among the countries. Lack of public capital is leading towards greater reliance on private sector participation in power projects in many of the countries. Environmental issues are becoming a more significant constraint than in the past, particularly in the case of large-scale hydropower projects. The financial and environmental constraints are leading to a rising interest in methods of improving the efficiency of electricity supply and end use. The scale of such activities is growing in most of the study countries.

  6. Diagnostic Radiology in Liberia: A Country Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah S. Ali

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Liberia is a tropical country located south of the Sahara Desert in coastal West Africa. It lies at 6 °30’ North Latitude and 9° 30’ West Longitude and is bordered by Guinea, Cote d’Ivoire, Sierra Leone and the Atlantic Ocean. Liberia has three distinct topographical areas: 1 coastal plain, creeks, lagoons and mangrove swamps; 2 rolling, forested hills with elevations up to 500 feet that cover most of the country; and 3 low mountains and plateaus in the Northern highlands with elevations reaching 4,748 feet (Nimba Mountains. Liberia is home to approximately four million people and is roughly the size of the US state of Tennessee. Named after former US President James Monroe, Liberia’s capital Monrovia is a coastal city with a population of one million (1. There are two major seasons in Liberia: dry and rainy. The dry season occurs between December and March, and is is characterized by warm days and cool nights, with risk of sand storms from the Sahara Desert (2. The rainy season occurs between mid-April and mid-November. The average annual rainfall is 200 inches on the coast and decreases to 80 inches in areas farthest inland, and the average temperature is 27 degrees Celsius (81 degrees Fahrenheit (1. Liberia is a low-income country that relies heavily on foreign aid (3. Liberia is the seventh poorest nation in the world, ranking 31st among 46 sub-Sarahan African countries in national income. In 2013, Liberia’s per capita GDP was $900 US (3. Liberia’s economy depends heavily on natural resources, with mining and agriculture being the dominant industries. Iron exportation has grown and in 2013 overcame rubber as Liberia’s top export. According to the 2013 Central Bank of Liberia (CBL Annual Report, iron ore and rubber represent 82% of Liberia’s total exports (4. Civil war destroyed much of Liberia’s economy, including critical infrastructure in and around Monrovia. Although conditions are favorable for agriculture, Liberia

  7. A cross-national profile of bullying and victimization among adolescents in 40 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craig, Wendy; Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Fogel-Grinvald, Haya

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: (1) To compare the prevalence of bullying and victimization among boys and girls and by age in 40 countries. (2) In 6 countries, to compare rates of direct physical, direct verbal, and indirect bullying by gender, age, and country. METHODS: Cross-sectional self-report surveys including...... items on bullying and being bullied were obtained from nationally representative samples of 11, 13 and 15 year old school children in 40 countries, N = 202,056. Six countries (N = 29,127 students) included questions about specific types of bullying (e. g., direct physical, direct verbal, indirect......). RESULTS: Exposure to bullying varied across countries, with estimates ranging from 8.6% to 45.2% among boys, and from 4.8% to 35.8% among girls. Adolescents in Baltic countries reported higher rates of bullying and victimization, whereas northern European countries reported the lowest prevalence. Boys...

  8. The utilization of aquatic bushmeat from small cetaceans and manatees in South America and West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mel Cosentino

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic bushmeat can be defined as the products derived from wild aquatic megafauna (e.g. marine mammals that are used for human consumption and non-food purposes, including traditional medicine. It is obtained through illegal or unregulated hunts as well as from stranded (dead or alive and bycaught animals. In most South American and West African countries aquatic mammals are or have been taken for bushmeat, including 33 small cetaceans and all three manatee species. Of these, two cetacean species are listed in the IUCN red list as near threatened, and one as vulnerable, as are all manatee species. Additionally, 22 cetacean species are listed as data deficient, hence some of these species may also be at risk. No reports (recent or otherwise were found for some countries, however caution is needed in concluding that aquatic bushmeat is not utilized in these nations. Moreover, although aquatic bushmeat is mostly obtained opportunistically and was likely originally taken only for local consumption, directed catches occur in most countries and may have reached unsustainable levels in some areas. For example, in Peru and Nigeria, thousands of small cetaceans are illegally hunted annually. Reliable, recent data and a better overall understanding of the drivers of aquatic bushmeat will be essential in the development of effective mitigation measures.

  9. Time Functions as Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguzzi, E.

    2010-09-01

    Every time function on spacetime gives a (continuous) total preordering of the spacetime events which respects the notion of causal precedence. The problem of the existence of a (semi-)time function on spacetime and the problem of recovering the causal structure starting from the set of time functions are studied. It is pointed out that these problems have an analog in the field of microeconomics known as utility theory. In a chronological spacetime the semi-time functions correspond to the utilities for the chronological relation, while in a K-causal (stably causal) spacetime the time functions correspond to the utilities for the K + relation (Seifert’s relation). By exploiting this analogy, we are able to import some mathematical results, most notably Peleg’s and Levin’s theorems, to the spacetime framework. As a consequence, we prove that a K-causal (i.e. stably causal) spacetime admits a time function and that the time or temporal functions can be used to recover the K + (or Seifert) relation which indeed turns out to be the intersection of the time or temporal orderings. This result tells us in which circumstances it is possible to recover the chronological or causal relation starting from the set of time or temporal functions allowed by the spacetime. Moreover, it is proved that a chronological spacetime in which the closure of the causal relation is transitive (for instance a reflective spacetime) admits a semi-time function. Along the way a new proof avoiding smoothing techniques is given that the existence of a time function implies stable causality, and a new short proof of the equivalence between K-causality and stable causality is given which takes advantage of Levin’s theorem and smoothing techniques.

  10. A comparative study in disaster planning in selected countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmode M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessment of different strategic in disaster planning in selected countries. According to the international report indicating that IRAN is among the seven countries most susceptible to disaster, experiencing 31 known disasters out of 40 in the world, occurrence of 1536 moderate to severe earthquake, during 1370-80 and 712 other disasters at the same period it seems necessary to design a disaster plan."nMethods: This research is a comparative-descriptive and case based study in which the researcher used random sampling process in selecting the statistical society from both developed and developing countries. In this goal oriented research the necessary information are extracted from valid global reports, articles and many questionnaires which were subjected to scientific analysis."nResults: Studying different countries (which includes: Canada, Japan, India, USA, Turkey, Pakistan and Iran shows that there is a direct relationship between the level of countries development and their success in disaster planning and management (including preventive measures and confrontation. In most of the studied countries, decentralized planning caused many professional planners participate in different levels of disaster management which ultimately led to development of efficient and realistic plans which in turn decreased the catastrophic effects of disasters dramatically. The results of the aforementioned countries showed that a balanced approach to disaster plan with investment in prophylactic area is very important."nConclusion: As our country uses a centralized strategy for disaster management which has proven its ineffectiveness, the researcher suggests that we should change our approach in disaster management and let our planners participate from all levels include: provincial, rural and etc. This will led to a reality based planning and using all potential capacities in disaster management. According to this study it will be possible to use

  11. A Mean-Variance Portfolio Optimal Under Utility Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hürlimann Werner

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An expected utility model of asset choice, which takes into account asset pricing, is considered. The obtained portfolio selection problem under utility pricing is solved under several assumptions including quadratic utility, exponential utility and multivariate symmetric elliptical returns. The obtained unique solution, called optimal utility portfolio, is shown mean-variance efficient in the classical sense. Various questions, including conditions for complete diversification and the behavior of the optimal portfolio under univariate and multivariate ordering of risks as well as risk-adjusted performance measurement, are discussed.

  12. Recent trend in coal utilization technology. Coal utilization workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chon Ho; Son, Ja Ek; Lee, In Chul; Jin, Kyung Tae; Kim, Seong Soo [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The 11th Korea-U.S.A. joint workshop on coal utilization technology was held in somerset, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. from october 2 to 3, 1995. In the opening ceremony, Dr.C. Low-el Miller, associate deputy assistant secretary of office of clean coal technology, U.S.DOE, gave congratulatory remarks and Dr. Young Mok Son, president of KIER, made a keynote address. In this workshop, 30 papers were presented in the fields of emission control technology, advanced power generation systems, and advanced coal cleaning and liquid fuels. Especially, from the Korean side, not only KIER but also other private research institutes and major engineering companies including KEPCO, Daewoo Institute of Construction Technology, Jindo Engineering and Construction Co. Daewoo Institute for Advanced Engineering and universities participated in this workshop, reflecting their great interests. Attendants actively discussed about various coal utilization technologies and exchanged scientific and technical information on the state-of-art clean coal technologies under development. (author)

  13. International Students in Western Developed Countries: History, Challenges, and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanwa, Emmanuel E.

    2015-01-01

    Many scholars have described the various challenges international students face in Western developed countries including the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Some of the challenges include differences in culture, language barriers, adjustment problems, medical concerns, pedagogical challenges, housing issues, lack of support…

  14. Tribal Utility Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, R. A.; Zoellick, J. J.

    2007-06-30

    The Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in investigating the feasibility of creating a permanent energy services program for the Tribe. The original purpose of the DOE grant that funded this project was to determine the feasibility of creating a full-blown Yurok Tribal electric utility to buy and sell electric power and own and maintain all electric power infrastructure on the Reservation. The original project consultant found this opportunity to be infeasible for the Tribe. When SERC took over as project consultant, we took a different approach. We explored opportunities for the Tribe to develop its own renewable energy resources for use on the Reservation and/or off-Reservation sales as a means of generating revenue for the Tribe. We also looked at ways the Tribe can provide energy services to its members and how to fund such efforts. We identified opportunities for the development of renewable energy resources and energy services on the Yurok Reservation that fall into five basic categories: • Demand-side management – This refers to efforts to reduce energy use through energy efficiency and conservation measures. • Off-grid, facility and household scale renewable energy systems – These systems can provide electricity to individual homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not currently have access to the electric utility grid. • Village scale, micro-grid renewable energy systems - These are larger scale systems that can provide electricity to interconnected groups of homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not have access to the conventional electric grid. This will require the development of miniature electric grids to serve these interconnected facilities. • Medium to large scale renewable energy development for sale to the grid – In areas where viable renewable energy resources exist and there is access to the conventional electric utility grid, these resources can be

  15. MUNI-FITS-Utils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrastina, M.; Zejda, M.; Mikulášek, Z.

    2010-12-01

    The FITS standard allows arbitrary use of name-space for keywords, except some reserved keywords. Result of this freedom is that several keywords have the same meaning. Similar problem is that values of keywords have different physical units. These facts complicate automated data processing and also creation of FITS file archives with simple structure. MUNI-FITS-Utils is a package of Python scripts which have been developed in PyFITS, a Python FITS Module. Scripts are user-friendly and allow manipulating FITS headers to get uniform shape. Further functions will be added soon.

  16. Products and Prejudice: Measuring Country-of-Origin Bias in U.S. Wine Imports

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Eileen

    2003-01-01

    Should exporters worry about country-of-origin bias? Although the pervasiveness of country-level product advertising suggests that they do, lack of data has limited the empirical study of subjective bias toward products from a specific country. Using data from the U.S. wine industry, including numerical blind tasting evaluations, this paper directly computes the impact of country-of-origin bias upon wine import prices. A hedonic pricing framework is used to control for vintage, blind-tasted q...

  17. The feasibility and appropriateness of introducing nursing curricula from developed countries into developing countries: a comprehensive systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekara, Rasika; Schultz, Tim

    2006-09-01

    Objectives  The objective of this review was to appraise and synthesise the best available evidence on the feasibility and appropriateness of introducing nursing curricula from developed countries into developing countries. Inclusion criteria  This review considered quantitative and qualitative research papers that addressed the feasibility and appropriateness of introducing developed countries' nursing curricula into developing countries. Papers of the highest level of evidence rating were given priority. Participants of interest were all levels of nursing staff, nursing students, healthcare consumers and healthcare administrators. Outcomes of interest that are relevant to the evaluation of undergraduate nursing curricula were considered in the review including cost-effectiveness, cultural relevancy, adaptability, consumer satisfaction and student satisfaction. Search strategy  The search strategy sought to find both published and unpublished studies and papers, limited to the English language. An initial limited search of MEDLINE and CINAHL was undertaken followed by an analysis of the text words contained in the title and abstract, and of the index terms used to describe the article. A second extensive search was then undertaken using all identified key words and index terms. Finally, the reference list of all identified reports and articles was searched, the contents pages of a few relevant journals were hand searched and experts in the field were contacted to find any relevant studies missed from the first two searches. Methodological quality  Each paper was assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological quality before inclusion in the review using an appropriate critical appraisal instrument from the System for the Unified Management, Assessment and Review of Information (SUMARI) package. Results  A total of four papers, including one descriptive study and three textual papers, were included in the review. Because of the diverse nature of

  18. Economical Utilization of Associated Gas in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Obayopo Alimi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil production is often accompanied by associated natural gas as valuable by-product of oil processing. Large amount of this vital energy component is flared during these processes, mostly in developing countries. For a longer period of time more gas is flares in Nigeria than anywhere else in Africa and second to Russian in the world, with daily estimates of roughly 2.5 billion cubic feet. This is equivalent to around 40% of all Africa´s natural gas consumption, and annual financial loss to Nigeria is about 1.8 billion Euros. Gas flaring contributes to major environmental pollution problems, which affects oil producing areas of the Niger Delta in Nigeria. This research attempts to look into the environmental issues in the region and proposes possible solutions, with recommendations that will contribute to improve associated gas utilization. This study describes gas to liquid (GTL conversion technology as a sustainable option to utilize associated gas in Nigeria, and also evaluates the economic attractiveness of the process. This conversion technology could contribute to total elimination of gas flaring and reduces the overdependence on importation of refined products (petrol, diesel and kerosene from foreign countries into Nigeria.

  19. Bibliometric analysis of rheumatology research in the Arab countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayoumy, Karim; MacDonald, Ross; Dargham, Soha Roger; Arayssi, Thurayya

    2016-08-08

    The Arab world has seen an increase in the burden of musculoskeletal diseases. No bibliometric studies have characterized rheumatology research in the Arab world. This study evaluates the productivity and impact of rheumatology research in the Arab world. We searched the Web of Science Core Collection for rheumatology publications, from 1976 to 2014, for each of the Arab League (AL) countries, North America, Europe and Asia. For the AL countries, the overall trend of publications and citations was analyzed, while considering the paper type and collaborations. The AL countries published 944 rheumatology papers over the period studied. The number of publications increased by a factor of 2.77 (95 % CI, 2.75-2.78) each decade, and citations increased by a factor of 2.36 (95 % CI, 0.96-5.82). The absolute number of papers included in the top-10 rheumatology journals remained constant but the proportion decreased. Papers involving collaboration among AL countries were found to increase over time. Overall, the AL countries lag in research productivity and impact compared to other regions. Three countries are responsible for the majority of publications, while four countries receive the majority of citations.

  20. ACTS for distance education in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalu, A; Ventre, G.

    1995-01-01

    The need for electrical energy supply in the rural communities of developing countries has been well documented. Equally well known is the potential for photovoltaic in cost effectively meeting this need. A major impediment to fulfilling the need is the lack of indigenous personnel with a knowledgeof photovoltaic systems, and the associated infrastructure required to implement project. Various delivery schemes for providing the needed training to developing countries personnel have been investigated. Various train methods and programs that have been employed to remedy the problem have had significant drawbacks in terms of cost, consistency, impact, reach, and sustainability. The hypothesis to be tested in this project posits that satellite-based distance education using ACTS technologies can overcome these impediments. The purpose of the project is to investigate the applicability of the ACTS satellite in providing distance education in photovoltaic systems to developing countries and rural communities. An evaluation of the cost effectiveness of using ACTS unique technologies to overcome identified problems shall be done. The limitations of ACTS in surmounting distance education problems in developing countries shall be investigated. This project will, furthermore, provide training to Savannah State College faculty in photovoltaic (PV) systems and in distance education configurations and models. It will also produce training materials adequate for use in PV training programs via distance education. Savannah State College will, as a consequence become well equipped to play a leading role in the training of minority populations in photovoltaic systems and other renewables through its Center for Advanced Water Technology and Energy Systems. This communication provides the project outline including the specific issues that will be investigated during the project. Also presented i the project design which covers the participations of the various components of a network