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Sample records for countries harness biotechnology

  1. How can developing countries harness biotechnology to improve health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persad Deepa L

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of genomics and biotechnology are concentrated primarily in the industrialized world, while their potential to combat neglected diseases in the developing world has been largely untapped. Without building developing world biotechnology capacity to address local health needs, this disparity will only intensify. To assess the potential of genomics to address health needs in the developing world, the McLaughlin-Rotman Centre for Global Health, along with local partners, organized five courses on Genomics and Public Health Policy in the developing world. The overall objective of the courses was to collectively explore how to best harness genomics to improve health in each region. This article presents and analyzes the recommendations from all five courses. Discussion In this paper we analyze recommendations from 232 developing world experts from 58 countries who sought to answer how best to harness biotechnology to improve health in their regions. We divide their recommendations into four categories: science; finance; ethics, society and culture; and politics. Summary The Courses' recommendations can be summarized across the four categories listed above: Science - Collaborate through national, regional, and international networks - Survey and build capacity based on proven models through education, training, and needs assessments Finance - Develop regulatory and intellectual property frameworks for commercialization of biotechnology - Enhance funding and affordability of biotechnology - Improve the academic-industry interface and the role of small and medium enterprise Ethics, Society, Culture - Develop public engagement strategies to inform and educate the public about developments in genomics and biotechnology - Develop capacity to address ethical, social and cultural issues - Improve accessibility and equity Politics - Strengthen understanding, leadership and support at the political level for biotechnology

  2. How can developing countries harness biotechnology to improve health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daar, Abdallah S; Berndtson, Kathryn; Persad, Deepa L; Singer, Peter A

    2007-01-01

    Background The benefits of genomics and biotechnology are concentrated primarily in the industrialized world, while their potential to combat neglected diseases in the developing world has been largely untapped. Without building developing world biotechnology capacity to address local health needs, this disparity will only intensify. To assess the potential of genomics to address health needs in the developing world, the McLaughlin-Rotman Centre for Global Health, along with local partners, organized five courses on Genomics and Public Health Policy in the developing world. The overall objective of the courses was to collectively explore how to best harness genomics to improve health in each region. This article presents and analyzes the recommendations from all five courses. Discussion In this paper we analyze recommendations from 232 developing world experts from 58 countries who sought to answer how best to harness biotechnology to improve health in their regions. We divide their recommendations into four categories: science; finance; ethics, society and culture; and politics. Summary The Courses' recommendations can be summarized across the four categories listed above: Science - Collaborate through national, regional, and international networks - Survey and build capacity based on proven models through education, training, and needs assessments Finance - Develop regulatory and intellectual property frameworks for commercialization of biotechnology - Enhance funding and affordability of biotechnology - Improve the academic-industry interface and the role of small and medium enterprise Ethics, Society, Culture - Develop public engagement strategies to inform and educate the public about developments in genomics and biotechnology - Develop capacity to address ethical, social and cultural issues - Improve accessibility and equity Politics - Strengthen understanding, leadership and support at the political level for biotechnology - Develop policies outlining

  3. How can developing countries harness biotechnology to improve health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daar, Abdallah S; Berndtson, Kathryn; Persad, Deepa L; Singer, Peter A

    2007-12-03

    The benefits of genomics and biotechnology are concentrated primarily in the industrialized world, while their potential to combat neglected diseases in the developing world has been largely untapped. Without building developing world biotechnology capacity to address local health needs, this disparity will only intensify. To assess the potential of genomics to address health needs in the developing world, the McLaughlin-Rotman Centre for Global Health, along with local partners, organized five courses on Genomics and Public Health Policy in the developing world. The overall objective of the courses was to collectively explore how to best harness genomics to improve health in each region. This article presents and analyzes the recommendations from all five courses. In this paper we analyze recommendations from 232 developing world experts from 58 countries who sought to answer how best to harness biotechnology to improve health in their regions. We divide their recommendations into four categories: science; finance; ethics, society and culture; and politics. The Courses' recommendations can be summarized across the four categories listed above: SCIENCE: - Collaborate through national, regional, and international networks- Survey and build capacity based on proven models through education, training, and needs assessments FINANCE: - Develop regulatory and intellectual property frameworks for commercialization of biotechnology- Enhance funding and affordability of biotechnology- Improve the academic-industry interface and the role of small and medium enterprise ETHICS, SOCIETY, CULTURE: - Develop public engagement strategies to inform and educate the public about developments in genomics and biotechnology- Develop capacity to address ethical, social and cultural issues- Improve accessibility and equity POLITICS: - Strengthen understanding, leadership and support at the political level for biotechnology- Develop policies outlining national biotechnology strategy

  4. Biotechnology and food systems in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, C Peter

    2003-11-01

    Even in a world with adequate food supplies in global markets, which is the situation today, biotechnology offers important opportunities to developing countries in four domains. First, many agronomically hostile or degraded environments require major scientific breakthroughs to become productive agricultural systems. Few of these breakthroughs are likely to be achieved through traditional breeding approaches. Second, biofortification offers the promise of greater quantities and human availabilities of micronutrients from traditional staple foods, with obvious nutritional gains for poor consumers, especially their children. Third, many high yielding agricultural systems are approaching their agronomic potential. Radically new technologies will be required to sustain productivity growth in these systems, and only modern genetic technology offers this hope. Finally, many cropping systems use large quantities of chemical inputs, such as herbicides, pesticides and fertilizers that can be unhealthy for people and soils alike. Biotechnology offers the potential to reduce the need for these inputs in economically and environmentally sustainable ways. Applying these new technologies to society's basic foods raises obvious concerns for both human and ecological health. For some, these concerns have become outright fear, and this has mobilized a backlash against genetically modified foods in any form. These concerns (and fears) must be addressed carefully and rationally so that the public understands the risks (which are not zero) and benefits (which might be enormous). Only the scientific community has the expertise and credibility to build this public understanding.

  5. Legislation on biotechnology in the Nordic Countries - an overview 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvale, Hallvard; Gudmundsdóttir, Laufey Helga; Stoll, Jane;

    This overview on the legislation of biotechnology in the Nordic Countries from The Nordic Committee on Bioethics provides an overview over the core biomedical legislation in the Nordic Countries, thus facilitating management of cross-border activities....

  6. Biotechnology to harness the benefits of dietary phenolics; focus on Lamiaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, K

    1997-09-01

    Phytochemicals from herbs and fermented legumes are excellent dietary sources of phenolic metabolites. These phenolics have importance not only as food preservatives but increasingly have therapeutic and pharmaceutical applications. The long-term research objecitves of the food biotechnology program at the University of Massachusetts are to elucidate the molecular and physiological mechanisms associated with synthesis of important health-related, therapeutic phenolic metabolites in food-related plants and fermented plant foods. Current efforts focus on elucidation of the role of the proline-linked pentose phosphate pathway in regulating the synthesis of anti-inflammatory compound, rosmarinic acid (RA). Specific aims of the current research efforts are: (i) To develop novel tissue culture-based selection techniques to isolate high RA-producing, shoot-based clonal lines from genetically heterogeneous, cross-pollinating species in the family Lamiaceae; (ii) To target genetically uniform, regenerated shoot-based clonal lines for: (a) preliminary characterization of key enzymes associated with the pentose phosphate pathway and linked to RA synthesis; (b) development of genetic transformation techniques for subsequent engineering of metabolic pathways associated with RA synthesis. These research objectives have substantial implications for harnessing the genetic and biochemical potential of genetically heterogeneous, food-related medicinal plant species. The success of this research also provides novel methods and strategies to gain access to metabolic pathways of pharmaceutically important metabolites from ginger, curcuma, chili peppers, melon or other food-related species with novel phenolics.

  7. Biotechnology developments in the livestock sector in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onteru, Suneel; Ampaire, Agatha; Rothschild, Max

    2010-01-01

    Global meat and milk consumption is exponentially increasing due to population growth, urbanization and changes in lifestyle in the developing world. This is an excellent opportunity for developing countries to improve the livestock sector by using technological advances. Biotechnology is one of the avenues for improved production in the "Livestock revolution". Biotechnology developments applied to livestock health, nutrition, breeding and reproduction are improving with a reasonable pace in developing countries. Simple bio-techniques such as artificial insemination have been well implemented in many parts of the developing world. However, advanced technologies including transgenic plant vaccines, marker assisted selection, solid state fermentation for the production of fibrolytic enzymes, transgenic fodders, embryo transfer and animal cloning are confined largely to research organizations. Some developing countries such as Taiwan, China and Brazil have considered the commercialization of biotechnology in the livestock sector. Organized livestock production systems, proper record management, capacity building, objective oriented research to improve farmer's income, collaborations with the developed world, knowledge of the sociology of an area and research on new methods to educate farmers and policy makers need to be improved for the creation and implementation of biotechnology advances in the livestock sector in the developing world.

  8. Biotechnology to improve health in developing countries: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Acharya

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The growing health disparities between the developing and the developed world call for urgent action from the scientific community. Science and technology have in the past played a vital role in improving public health. Today, with the tremendous potential of genomics and other advances in the life sciences, the contribution of science to improve public health and reduce global health disparities is more pertinent than ever before. Yet the benefits of modern medicine still have not reached millions of people in developing countries. It is crucial to recognize that science and technology can be used very effectively in partnership with public health practices in developing countries and can enhance their efficacy. The fight to improve global health needs, in addition to effective public health measures, requires rapid and efficient diagnostic tools; new vaccines and drugs, efficient delivery methods and novel approaches to therapeutics; and low-cost restoration of water, soil and other natural resources. In 2002, the University of Toronto published a report on the "Top 10 Biotechnologies for Improving Health in Developing Countries". Here we review these new and emerging biotechnologies and explore how they can be used to support the goals of developing countries in improving health.

  9. Agricultural biotechnology and smallholder farmers in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Vivienne M; Ferroni, Marco

    2012-04-01

    Agricultural biotechnology holds much potential to contribute towards crop productivity gains and crop improvement for smallholder farmers in developing countries. Over 14 million smallholder farmers are already benefiting from biotech crops such as cotton and maize in China, India and other Asian, African and Central/South American countries. Molecular breeding can accelerate crop improvement timescales and enable greater use of diversity of gene sources. Little impact has been realized to date with fruits and vegetables because of development timescales for molecular breeding and development and regulatory costs and political considerations facing biotech crops in many countries. Constraints to the development and adoption of technology-based solutions to reduce yield gaps need to be overcome. Full integration with broader commercial considerations such as farmer access to seed distribution systems that facilitate dissemination of improved varieties and functioning markets for produce are critical for the benefits of agricultural biotechnology to be fully realized by smallholders. Public-private partnerships offer opportunities to catalyze new approaches and investment while accelerating integrated research and development and commercial supply chain-based solutions.

  10. The emerging CHO systems biology era: harnessing the ‘omics revolution for biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup; Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Lewis, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the primary factories for biopharmaceuticals because of their capacity to correctly fold and post-translationally modify recombinant proteins compatible with humans. New opportunities are arising to enhance these cell factories, especially since the CHO-K1 cell...... into mathematical models that describe CHO phenotypes will provide crucial biotechnology insights. As ‘omics technologies and computational systems biology mature, genome-scale approaches will lead to major innovations in cell line development and metabolic engineering, thereby improving protein production...

  11. Case studies on the use of biotechnologies and on biosafety provisions in four African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Robert; Fava, Fabio; Mattei, Niccolo; Robert, Vincent; Seal, Susan; Verdier, Valerie

    2011-12-20

    This review is based on a study commissioned by the European Commission on the evaluation of scientific, technical and institutional challenges, priorities and bottlenecks for biotechnologies and regional harmonisation of biosafety in Africa. Biotechnology was considered within four domains: agricultural biotechnologies ('Green'), industrial biotechnologies and biotechnologies for environmental remediation ('White'), biotechnologies in aquaculture ('Blue') and biotechnologies for healthcare ('Red'). An important consideration was the decline in partnerships between the EU and developing countries because of the original public antipathy to some green biotechnologies, particularly genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and food from GM crops in Europe. The study focus reported here was West Africa (Ghana, Senegal, Mali and Burkina Faso). The overall conclusion was that whereas high-quality research was proceeding in the countries visited, funding is not sustained and there is little evidence of practical application of biotechnology and benefit to farmers and the wider community. Research and development that was being carried out on genetically modified crop varieties was concentrating on improving food security and therefore unlikely to have significant impact on EU markets and consumers. However, there is much non-controversial green biotechnology such as molecular diagnostics for plant and animal disease and marker-assisted selection for breeding that has great potential application. Regarding white biotechnology, it is currently occupying only a very small industrial niche in West Africa, basically in the sole sector of the production of liquid biofuels (i.e., bio-ethanol) from indigenous and locally planted biomass (very often non-food crops). The presence of diffused small-scale fish production is the basis to develop and apply new (Blue) aquaculture technologies and, where the research conditions and the production sector can permit, to increase this type of

  12. Development of health biotechnology in developing countries: can private-sector players be the prime movers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuduxike, Gulifeiya; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Health biotechnology has rapidly become vital in helping healthcare systems meet the needs of the poor in developing countries. This key industry also generates revenue and creates employment opportunities in these countries. To successfully develop biotechnology industries in developing nations, it is critical to understand and improve the system of health innovation, as well as the role of each innovative sector and the linkages between the sectors. Countries' science and technology capacities can be strengthened only if there are non-linear linkages and strong interrelations among players throughout the innovation process; these relationships generate and transfer knowledge related to commercialization of the innovative health products. The private sector is one of the main actors in healthcare innovation, contributing significantly to the development of health biotechnology via knowledge, expertise, resources and relationships to translate basic research and development into new commercial products and innovative processes. The role of the private sector has been increasingly recognized and emphasized by governments, agencies and international organizations. Many partnerships between the public and private sector have been established to leverage the potential of the private sector to produce more affordable healthcare products. Several developing countries that have been actively involved in health biotechnology are becoming the main players in this industry. The aim of this paper is to discuss the role of the private sector in health biotechnology development and to study its impact on health and economic growth through case studies in South Korea, India and Brazil. The paper also discussed the approaches by which the private sector can improve the health and economic status of the poor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Biotechnology 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-12-15

    This book deals with Bio-vision 2016 on the meaning and important contents Next, it reveals vision of biotechnology, current condition of biotechnology in the main countries such as the U.S, Japan, Eu and China, promoting nation biotechnology with promotion policy, support policy for biotechnology such as agriculture and forestry and information and communication, competitiveness of biotechnology, research development by fields and related industries and regulation and system on biotechnology.

  14. Policy and ethical issues in applying medical biotechnology in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Minakshi; Macer, Darryl R J

    2003-02-01

    A brief review of some of the key issues in policy relating to the ethical issues raised by medical biotechnology in developing countries is presented, using India as an example. A series of some key issues is discussed, including information obtained from interviewing Indian government policy makers. Some of the issues discussed include: Economic and social incentives to encourage biotechnology; Health policy and ethics review; Patents on drugs; Medical genetics; Relationship to traditional medical practices; Positive public attitudes to biotechnology; Limited public participation; Infrastructural hurdles; Indian progress in stem cell research; and dilemmas of expensive technologies. The results show that although the needs of developing countries are different to those of rich countries, government policy utilizing guidelines and ethics committees has evolved as mechanisms to aid ethical health care delivery in India. In all countries there may be some of these concerns that are raised here, however, the integration of traditional medicine and advanced medical technology, and access to medical services by people in need, are particularly important challenges in developing countries. Better public involvement in policy making will require education and infrastructural organization as well as mutual willingness on the part of policy makers and citizens.

  15. Biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The guidelines of the Biotechnology Program are research and development aiming at developing and manufacturing products of pharmaceutical interest. This Program has two main research areas, namely Pituitary Hormones and Biopharmaceuticals. The first one comprises a group with a long experience on Recombinant Human Pituitary Hormone synthesis, purification and characterization. Up to now they have worked mostly with human growth hormone (hGH), human prolactin (hPRL), human thyrotropin (hTSH), human follicle stimulating hormone (hFSH) and human luteotropin (hLH), with a particular emphasis on glycoprotein carbohydrate structures. An important research line is devoted to Growth Hormone Gene Therapy, working mostly on animal models: immunocompetent and immunodeficient-dwarf mice. For several years this development has been based on ex vivo grafting of transduced keratinocytes, while more recently very promising results have been obtained with the injections and electroporation of naked plasmid DNA. Besides research, they have also activities in the Biotechnological Production and Downstream Processing of the same recombinant hormones, which are produced in both E. coli and mammalian cells and in the development of joint-ventures with the National Industry. The biological effects of radiation on cells are also studied, specially concerning the administration of {sup 131}I together with thyroid-stimulating hormone in thyroid cancer. The Biopharmaceutical area is dedicated to the research of isolation, structural analysis and biological activities in different biological systems of macromolecules. These macromolecules are peptides or proteins, either native or recombinant with medical or pharmaceutical interest. During this period new proteins related to serine protease activity, breast cancer development and angiogenesis were described. The effects of ionizing radiation on macromolecules have also been investigated to detoxify animal venoms in order to improve antigens

  16. Agricultural biotechnologies in developing countries and their possible contribution to food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, John; Sonnino, Andrea

    2011-12-20

    Latest FAO figures indicate that an estimated 925 million people are undernourished in 2010, representing almost 16% of the population in developing countries. Looking to the future, there are also major challenges ahead from the rapidly changing socio-economic environment (increasing world population and urbanisation, and dietary changes) and climate change. Promoting agriculture in developing countries is the key to achieving food security, and it is essential to act in four ways: to increase investment in agriculture, broaden access to food, improve governance of global trade, and increase productivity while conserving natural resources. To enable the fourth action, the suite of technological options for farmers should be as broad as possible, including agricultural biotechnologies. Agricultural biotechnologies represent a broad range of technologies used in food and agriculture for the genetic improvement of plant varieties and animal populations, characterisation and conservation of genetic resources, diagnosis of plant or animal diseases and other purposes. Discussions about agricultural biotechnology have been dominated by the continuing controversy surrounding genetic modification and its resulting products, genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The polarised debate has led to non-GMO biotechnologies being overshadowed, often hindering their development and application. Extensive documentation from the FAO international technical conference on Agricultural Biotechnologies in Developing Countries (ABDC-10), that took place in Guadalajara, Mexico, on 1-4 March 2010, gave a very good overview of the many ways that different agricultural biotechnologies are being used to increase productivity and conserve natural resources in the crop, livestock, fishery, forestry and agro-industry sectors in developing countries. The conference brought together about 300 policy-makers, scientists and representatives of intergovernmental and international non

  17. Biotechnologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rival Alain

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, a range of biotechnological approaches, from somatic embryogenesis to biomolecular research, play an increasingly important role in breeding strategies for oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.. Clonal micropropagation. Methods of cloning by in vitro culture led to the development of a micropropagation technique for oil palm based on somatic embryogenesis which was tested at the pilot stage on elite genotypes, thus enabling the production of high oil yielding clones. This phase allowed the identification of limiting factors associated with scaling-up, with respect in particular to the scale of mass production required to meet the needs of planters and to the problem of ensuring genetic fidelity in the regenerated plant material. These two concerns led researchers to look further into the underlying physiological and/or molecular mechanisms involved in somatic embryogenesis and the somaclonal variation events induced by the in vitro cloning procedure. Structural and functional genomics. Marker-assisted breeding in oil palm is a long-term multi-stage project including: molecular analysis of genetic diversity in both E. guineensis and E. oleifera germplasms; large scale development of PCR-based microsatellite markers; and parallel development of three genome mapping and QTL detection projects studying key agronomic characters. Post-genomics. In order to tackle the problem of the mantled flowering abnormality, which is induced during the micropropagation process, studies of gene expression have been carried out in tissue cultures as a means of establishing an early clonal conformity testing procedure. It is important to assess what kind of methodology is the most appropriate for clonal conformity testing by comparing RNA, protein and DNA (PCR based approaches. Parallel studies on genomic DNA methylation changes induced by tissue culture suggest that the latter may play an important role in the determination of the mantled abnormality.

  18. Benefits of new tools in biotechnology to developing countries in south Asia: a perspective from UNESCO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmi, Ahmed

    2011-12-20

    South Asia, once considered as a laggard, has grown at about 6% on average over the past two decades and the current growth outlook is much brighter. However, this growth is not always well distributed and the challenges of institutionalising policies and mechanisms to ensure inclusive growth are now being seriously considered by these countries governments. The targets set by south Asian countries are primarily based on the investments in infrastructural sector with an objective to generate educated and skilled human resources. The other most important inclusive growth area is the core public services; Agriculture, Health, and Energy, which are increasingly becoming technology driven. Biotechnology has been increasingly seen now to be an area of technology that holds the greatest new potential to address problems arising from low productivity, overburdened health systems, high-cost unsustainable energy supplies and the need for developing new materials for industrial and environmental applications. This article attempts to highlight perspectives on some of the emerging areas of biotechnology that have good potential for economic development in the context of south Asia, as well as discuss briefly some of UNESCO's initiatives in biotechnology for that region. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Biotechnological interventions for harnessing podophyllotoxin from plant and fungal species: current status, challenges, and opportunities for its commercialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Anita; Singh, Dharam; Kumar, Sanjay

    2016-09-20

    Podophyllotoxin is an aryltetralin lignan synthesized in several plant species, which is used in chemotherapies for cancers and tumor treatment. More potent semisynthetic derivatives of podophyllotoxin such as etoposide and teniposide are being developed and evaluated for their efficacy. To meet the ever increasing pharmaceutical needs, species having podophyllotoxin are uprooted extensively leading to the endangered status of selective species mainly Sinopodophyllum hexandrum. This has necessitated bioprospection of podophyllotoxin from different plant species to escalate the strain on this endangered species. The conventional and non-conventional mode of propagation and bioprospection with the integration of biotechnological interventions could contribute to sustainable supply of podophyllotoxin from the available plant resources. This review article is focused on the understanding of different means of propagation, development of genomic information, and its implications for elucidating podophyllotoxin biosynthesis and metabolic engineering of pathways. In addition, various strategies for sustainable production of this valuable metabolite are also discussed, besides a critical evaluation of future challenges and opportunities for the commercialization of podophyllotoxin.

  20. SUDBIOTECH: A Training Initiative in Plant Biotechnology Dedicated to Scientific Communities in Developing and Emerging Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain RIVAL

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The SudBiotech project is targeting PhD and Masters Programmes in Universities and Excellence Research Centres located in developing countries. It proposes an integrative and multidisciplinary approach under the form of a one-week discovery and training itinerary. SudBiotech is aimed at addressing various different fields of Plant Biotechnology, under the specific socioeconomic context of scientific communities from these countries. Our main goal is to train students, research staff, deciders, professionals and journalists to the basic knowledge underlying applications of plant biotechnologies, in order to both update the amount of knowledge which is requested at Master’s level and to acquire a solid body of information which is indispensable for any decision making, in a field of research which is often the target of political, social and media-related pressure. The team of Professors involved in the project shares a strong experience in teaching and training in overseas French Speaking Universities (AUPELF-UREF projects in Marocco, Tunisia, Togo, Côte d’Ivoire, TEMPUS Programme in Lebanon, AUF-Actions de Recherche en Réseau in Benin. The team is composed of senior scientists acting in various complementary fields, namely: Biochemistry/Physiology (A. Nato, Plant Breeding/Molecular Biology (Y. Henry, Tropical Agriculture/Epigenetics (A. Rival. Thanks to these complementarities, SudBiotech is able to propose a training itinerary which is diversified and integrated, covering areas from the plant cell and its original potentialities to the most recent industrial applications of plant biotechnologies (GMOs, their public acceptance in developing and emerging nations and their applicability to tropical plant commodities. The training offer is amplified and enriched through the active role of local research and training staff, who are encouraged to actively participate in the SudBiotech project under various forms including lectures, field visits

  1. Biotechnology 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    This book first reveals prospect on biotechnology with low-carbon green growth Next, it consists of four chapters, which deal with vision of biotechnology, trend of biotechnology in main countries like the U.S, Eu, Japan and China, current condition for biotechnology with support and promoting policy such as health and medical treatment and maritime and fisheries, major product on investment, human power, paper and pattern, research development such as genomic, system biology, bio new medicine, agriculture, stock breeding and food, biological resources and legal system related biotechnology.

  2. Agricultural Biotechnology : Transgenics in Agriculture and their Implications for Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pehu, Eija; Ragasa, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    Technological innovation in agriculture can bring enormous benefits to the poor. High-yielding varieties of staple food crops have improved agricultural productivity, raised incomes, and reduced food prices. Innovations in plant breeding research based on advances in genetics that make it possible to manipulate plant DNA. Referred to as 'biotechnology,' its use in agriculture is controversial, particularly with regard to the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), also k...

  3. Biotechnology in defence (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lazar Mathew

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology, in its present perspective, encompasses activities, such as recombination of genes; cloning, or making genetically identical copies of a living thing; and splicing of genes from DNA of one organism into the genome of unrelated species, to create new, self-reproducing forms of life. The vast potential of biotechnology is being increasingly realised, and efforts are in progress to harness it for improving quality and quantity of bio-weapons, The bio-weapons, as such, are highly attractive because of their non-detection by routine security systems, ease of access, low production cost and easy transportation, A wide range of genetically manipulated organisms and their by-products are considered to have an added advantage, because these genetically manipulated biologics not only accentuate the existing properties of bio-weapons, but also could be made target-specific. Biotechnology, if used prudently, can play a significant role to counter such threats of biologics, viz., by producing (i bio-armoury comprising powerful antibiotics, antisera toxoids and vaccines to neutralise and eliminate a wide range of diseases, and (ii bio-sensors for rapid detection, identification and neutralisation of biological warfare agents. This article elucidates some facets of biological warfare, legal protective strategies emphasised through international consultation, cooperation and adherence to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, and discusses how biotechnology could be effectively used to strengthen countries' defence and combat the threat of biological warfare.

  4. Food Biotechnology: A Step Towards Improving Nutritional Quality of Food for Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Archana; Kundu, Debajyoti; Das, Mohan; Bose, Debalina; Adak, Sunita; Banerjee, Rintu

    2016-01-01

    Food-based technologies established itself as a vast, inter-disciplinary and multifaceted research area are at crossroads of scientific and technological advancements. The review of patents reveals that growing concerns over the source of nourishment for the burgeoning population, its quality, quantity and safety, along with associated human and environmental welfare has inspired global researchers to implement several new bio-based technologies. Biotechnological interventions in food sector have been aimed at enhancing/modifying taste, aroma, shelf-life, texture and nutritional value of food products employing fermentation, enzyme technology, nanotechnology and molecular biology. The use of whole microbes as a source of nutrition and genetically modified microorganisms to be used as food or genetically modified food have been successfully attempted, which has addressed the mass population and malnutrition. Further, the processing techniques have been improved along with the proper utilization of food wastes for the generation of many useful byproducts. The article covers broadly the impact of biotechnological interventions in food sector. Techniques mostly discussed include not only the nutrient enriched food production but also byproduct utilization through proper improvisation of food waste into bioenergy, biomanure and other value added products, which is of great economic and environmental importance. This article reviews the overall aspects in relation to some of the recent advancements in food sector.

  5. Harnessing information and communication technologies to leverage scarce resources for cancer education, research and practice in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andela Valentine B

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In developing countries, low levels of awareness, cost and organizational constraints on access to specialized care contribute to inadequate patient help-seeking behavior. As much as 95% of cancer patients in developing countries are diagnosed at late to end stage disease. Consequently, treatment outcome is dismally poor and a vicious cycle sets in, with public mystification of cancer and the admonishment of cancer medicine as a futile effort, all, to the further detriment of patient help-seeking behavior and treatment engagement. The situation spirals down, when the practice of cancer medicine is not gratifying to the medical practitioner and does not appeal as a medical specialty to those in training. The future of cancer medicine in developing countries thus hinges on the demystification of cancer through positive information, coupled to an effective organization that allows for the optimal use of available resources, facilitates access to specialized care and promotes the flow of knowledge and technology amongst various stakeholders. This paper strives to make a cogent argument and highlight the capital importance of information and communication technologies in organizing and leveraging scarce resources for cancer education, research and practice in developing countries.

  6. Harnessing inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2016-09-01

    Living in the era of "big-data" information, we are ubiquitously inundated by overabundances of sizes-non-negative numerical values representing count, score, length, area, volume, duration, mass, energy, etc. Datasets of sizes display numerous types of statistical variability that are commonly quantified either by the standard deviation, or by the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy. The standard deviation measures the sizes' Euclidean divergence from their mean, the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy measures the sizes' informational divergence from the benchmark of pure determinism, and both these gauges are one-dimensional. In this paper we overview a methodology that harnesses inequality in order to quantify statistical variability. The methodology follows a socioeconomic approach of measuring the sizes' inequality-their divergence from the benchmark of pure egalitarianism-and yields frameworks that gauge statistical variability in a multi-dimensional fashion. The aim of this overview is to serve both researchers and practitioners as a crash-introduction to the "harnessing inequality" methodology, and as a crash-manual to the implementation of this methodology.

  7. Harnessing genomics to improve health in the Eastern Mediterranean Region - an executive course in genomics policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Tara; Rab, Mohammed Abdur; Singer, Peter A; Daar, Abdallah S

    2005-01-21

    BACKGROUND: While innovations in medicine, science and technology have resulted in improved health and quality of life for many people, the benefits of modern medicine continue to elude millions of people in many parts of the world. To assess the potential of genomics to address health needs in EMR, the World Health Organization's Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office and the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics jointly organized a Genomics and Public Health Policy Executive Course, held September 20th-23rd, 2003, in Muscat, Oman. The 4-day course was sponsored by WHO-EMRO with additional support from the Canadian Program in Genomics and Global Health. The overall objective of the course was to collectively explore how to best harness genomics to improve health in the region. This article presents the course findings and recommendations for genomics policy in EMR. METHODS: The course brought together senior representatives from academia, biotechnology companies, regulatory bodies, media, voluntary, and legal organizations to engage in discussion. Topics covered included scientific advances in genomics, followed by innovations in business models, public sector perspectives, ethics, legal issues and national innovation systems. RESULTS: A set of recommendations, summarized below, was formulated for the Regional Office, the Member States and for individuals.* Advocacy for genomics and biotechnology for political leadership;* Networking between member states to share information, expertise, training, and regional cooperation in biotechnology; coordination of national surveys for assessment of health biotechnology innovation systems, science capacity, government policies, legislation and regulations, intellectual property policies, private sector activity;* Creation in each member country of an effective National Body on genomics, biotechnology and health to:- formulate national biotechnology strategies- raise biotechnology awareness- encourage teaching and

  8. Unlocking Marine Biotechnology in the Developing World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cristiane C; Kruger, Ricardo H; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2017-09-07

    Fulfilling the promise of marine biotechnology as a source for environmental and biomedical applications remains challenging. New technologies will be necessary to harness marine biodiversity, and collaboration across government, academic, and private sectors will be crucial to create mechanisms of technology transfer and promote the development of new marine biotechnology companies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Harnessing genomics to improve health in the Eastern Mediterranean Region – an executive course in genomics policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer Peter A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While innovations in medicine, science and technology have resulted in improved health and quality of life for many people, the benefits of modern medicine continue to elude millions of people in many parts of the world. To assess the potential of genomics to address health needs in EMR, the World Health Organization's Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office and the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics jointly organized a Genomics and Public Health Policy Executive Course, held September 20th–23rd, 2003, in Muscat, Oman. The 4-day course was sponsored by WHO-EMRO with additional support from the Canadian Program in Genomics and Global Health. The overall objective of the course was to collectively explore how to best harness genomics to improve health in the region. This article presents the course findings and recommendations for genomics policy in EMR. Methods The course brought together senior representatives from academia, biotechnology companies, regulatory bodies, media, voluntary, and legal organizations to engage in discussion. Topics covered included scientific advances in genomics, followed by innovations in business models, public sector perspectives, ethics, legal issues and national innovation systems. Results A set of recommendations, summarized below, was formulated for the Regional Office, the Member States and for individuals. • Advocacy for genomics and biotechnology for political leadership; • Networking between member states to share information, expertise, training, and regional cooperation in biotechnology; coordination of national surveys for assessment of health biotechnology innovation systems, science capacity, government policies, legislation and regulations, intellectual property policies, private sector activity; • Creation in each member country of an effective National Body on genomics, biotechnology and health to: - formulate national biotechnology strategies - raise

  10. Practicing environmental biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce E.Rittmann

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental biotechnology involves ″managing microbial communities to provide services to society″.Its success comes from partnering with prokaryotic microorganisms,whose wide ranging metabolic capabilities can be harnessed to destroy pollutants and to generate renewable materials.Partnering with microorganisms requires that we understand them well,and important advances in molecular microbial ecology,analytical chemistry,and mathematical modeling are making it possible to look inside the black box of microbial communities.Also crucial is translating the understanding to biotechnological processes that ″work for the microorganisms so that they work for us″.Successful translation demands novel reactor designs,application of advanced materials,and partnering with practitioners and users.The Swette Center for Environmental Biotechnology,founded in at Arizona State University in 2005,brings together the science and engineering tools in an inter disciplinary environment.The Center emphasizes teamwork and collaborations with research and practice partners around the world.Three new technologies illustrate how the Center applies these principles to ″work for the microorganisms″:the H2-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR for reducing many oxidized contaminants in water,the microbial electrochemical cells (MXCs for converting organic wastes into renewable products,and Intimately Coupled PhotoBioCatalysis (ICPBC to detoxify very difficult to biodegrade organic pollutants.

  11. Helle har din ryg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Christian Erik J

    2015-01-01

    Thornings 1. maj-tale er ikke noget mesterværk af en levende, inciterende, inviterende tekst. Her er stadig for mange slatne sætninger og metaforer, der har overskredet sidste muggenhedsdato. Men talen her har bestemt sine takter – af noget, som er alt for sjældent i dansk politisk diskurs: gnist...

  12. Helle har din ryg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Christian Erik J

    2015-01-01

    Thornings 1. maj-tale er ikke noget mesterværk af en levende, inciterende, inviterende tekst. Her er stadig for mange slatne sætninger og metaforer, der har overskredet sidste muggenhedsdato. Men talen her har bestemt sine takter – af noget, som er alt for sjældent i dansk politisk diskurs: gnist...

  13. Agave biotechnology: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava-Cruz, Naivy Y; Medina-Morales, Miguel A; Martinez, José L; Rodriguez, R; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2015-01-01

    Agaves are plants of importance both in Mexican culture and economy and in other Latin-American countries. Mexico is reported to be the place of Agave origin, where today, scientists are looking for different industrial applications without compromising its sustainability and preserving the environment. To make it possible, a deep knowledge of all aspects involved in production process, agro-ecological management and plant biochemistry and physiology is required. Agave biotechnology research has been focusing on bio-fuels, beverages, foods, fibers, saponins among others. In this review, we present the advances and challenges of Agave biotechnology.

  14. Biotechnologizing Jatropha for local sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puente, D.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores whether and how the biotechnologization process that the fuel-plant Jatropha curcas is undergoing might strengthen local sustainable development. It focuses on the ongoing efforts of the multi-stakeholder network Gota Verde to harness Jatropha within local small-scale productio

  15. Wire harness twisting aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, E. J.; Commadore, C. C.; Ingles, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Long wire bundles twist into uniform spiral harnesses with help of simple apparatus. Wires pass through spacers and through hand-held tool with hole for each wire. Ends are attached to low speed bench motor. As motor turns, operator moves hand tool away forming smooth twists in wires between motor and tool. Technique produces harnesses that generate less radio-frequency interference than do irregularly twisted cables.

  16. STRENGTHENING BIOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sastrapradja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The wave of biotechnology promises has struck not only the developed countries but the developing countries as well. The scientific community in Indonesia is aware of the opportunities and is eager to take an active part in this particular endeavour. Meanwhile resources are required to welcoming the biotech­nology era. The need of trained manpower, appropriate infrastructure and equipment, operational and maintenance costs requires serious consideration if a unit or a laboratory is expected to be functional in biotechnology. There is a good opportunity of applying biotechnology in the field of agriculture and industry considering the availability of biological resources in Indonesia. This paper outlines what have been done so far, the difficulties encountered and the efforts made to strengthening biotechnology research in Indonesia.

  17. Bioceres: AG Biotechnology from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Feeney

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this case we present a business decision-making situation in which the CEO of an Argentine Ag Biotech company, Bioceres, has to decide the best way to commercialize a new drought-tolerant transgenic technology. The company was founded by twenty three farmers, who shared a common dream that Argentina could become a benchmark in the development of Ag biotechnology. The case has strategic and financial implications, as well as decision-making situation involving a joint venture with an American biotechnology company. It also introduces to discussion the business models of Ag biotechnology companies in developing countries.

  18. Quick-donning backpack harness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D. F., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Harness device permits user to quickly put on or take off load carried in backpack arrangement. It can be attached with one hand; has controlled deformation belt that automatically encircles user upon application of pressure; has rigid shoulder harness elements which move automatically into place; and primary attachment components cannot be displaced while harness is in place.

  19. Harnessing sorghum and millet biotechnology for food and health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Kennedy, MM

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights recombinant DNA technology as a powerful tool to enhance the gene pools of sorghum and pearl millet crops regarded as jewels of Africa. Although important advances in the improvement of these species have been made...

  20. Biotechnology - The role of perceptions of consumers

    OpenAIRE

    P. Van Heerden; N. Lessing

    2002-01-01

    The development of Biotechnology is aimed at creating improved products. Without the acceptance of biotechnology enhancements by consumers, the development of new products will be hampered. Consumers in different countries perceive genetic engineering differently. In this article the views of foreign and local consumers are investigated.

  1. Editorial: Biotechnology Journal brings more than biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbauer, Alois; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-09-01

    Biotechnology Journal always brings the state-of-the-art biotechnologies to our readers. Different from other topical issues, this issue of Biotechnology Journal is complied with a series of exiting reviews and research articles from spontaneous submissions, again, addressing society's actual problems and needs. The progress is a real testimony how biotechnology contributes to achievements in healthcare, better utilization of resources, and a bio-based economy. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Editorial: Biotechnology Journal's diverse coverage of biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Michael

    2014-03-01

    This issue of Biotechnology Journal is a regular issue edited by Prof. Michael Wink. The issue covers all the major focus areas of the journal, including medical biotechnology, synthetic biology, and novel biotechnological methods. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Harnessing solar heat

    CERN Document Server

    Norton, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Systems engineered by man to harness solar heat in a controlled manner now include a diverse range of technologies each serving distinctive needs in particular climate contexts. This text covers the breadth of solar energy technologies for the conversion of solar energy to provide heat, either as the directly-used output or as an intermediary to other uses such as power generation or cooling. It is a wholly updated, extended and revised version of “Solar Energy Thermal Technology” first published in 1992. The text draws on the own author’s research and that of numerous colleagues and

  4. Review - Harnessing Fortune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa C. Fischler

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Empson, Rebecca M. 2011. Harnessing Fortune: Personhood, Memory, and Place in Mongolia. UK: Oxford University Press. xv+388. Illustrations, notes on the text, appendices, bibliography, index. ISBN: 978-0197264737 (hardcover, 115USD. Harnessing Fortune explores the multiple meanings of personhood in the daily lives of the Hori Buriad, pastoral herders residing in Eastern Mongolia near the Russian border, by emphasizing unitary, as opposed to binary, relationships between the separation (blood, mobility, and containment (bone, replication of fortune. "The concept of separating and containing fortune" provides "a window through which differing modes of relatedness can be discerned" (183. The book's introduction provides an overview of the area, including the urbanizing district center and the countryside; briefly explains the notion of location in a household; outlines the chapters; and delineates the major concepts that mutually shape the relationship between people and things among the Hori Buriad. The concise conclusion reintegrates the chapters, suggesting different ways of understanding personhood among the Buriad in Mongolia in relation to the existing anthropological literature, and a broader application for the study's findings. By casting previously conceived binaries, such as affinity and consanguinity, as "intertwined, consumed, and internal to each other" (325, the ethnographic material suggests that "the tension between separation and containment seems a motif that could be used to explore different spheres" (326.

  5. An Overview on Indian Patents on Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Anusaya; Chandra Santra, Subhas; Samal, Alok Chandra

    2015-01-01

    The application of biotechnology is a potential tool for mitigating the present and future fooding and clothing demands in developing countries like India. The commercialization of biotechnological products might benefiting the poor`s in developing countries are unlikely to be developed. Biotechnology has the potential to provide a wide range of products and the existing production skills in the industrial, pharmaceuticals and the agricultural sector. Ownership of the intellectual property rights is the key factors in determining the success of any technological invention, which was introduced in the market. It provides the means for technological progress to continue of the industry of the country. The new plans, animal varieties, new methods of treatments, new crops producing food articles as such are the inventions of biotechnology. Biotechnology is the result of the application of human intelligence and knowledge to the biological processes. Most of the tools of biotechnology have been developed, by companies, governments, research in- stitutes and universities in developed nations. These human intellectual efforts deserve protection. India is a developing country with advance biotechnology based segments of pharmaceutical and agricultural industries. The Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is not likely to have a significant impact on incentives for innovation creation in the biotechnology sectors. In the recent years, the world has seen the biotechnology sector as one of greatest investment area through the Patent Law and will giving huge profit in future. The Research and Development in the field of biotechnology should be encouraged for explor- ing new tools and improve the biological systems for interest of the common people. Priority should be given to generation, evaluation, protection and effective commercial utilization of tangible products of intellectual property in agriculture and pharmaceuticals. To support the future growth and

  6. Biotechnology: reality or dream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinov Kosana

    2002-01-01

    foreign gene with a genome of an integrated organism. Also application of biotechnology provides transfer of one or several favorable genes from any evolutionary category into other category of an organism and in such a way it is possible to develop genetically modified organisms (GMO having expressed desired, target traits. A survey of the application of biotechnology in the world and our country is presented in this paper.

  7. HARNESSING BIG DATA VOLUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan DINU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Big Data can revolutionize humanity. Hidden within the huge amounts and variety of the data we are creating we may find information, facts, social insights and benchmarks that were once virtually impossible to find or were simply inexistent. Large volumes of data allow organizations to tap in real time the full potential of all the internal or external information they possess. Big data calls for quick decisions and innovative ways to assist customers and the society as a whole. Big data platforms and product portfolio will help customers harness to the full the value of big data volumes. This paper deals with technical and technological issues related to handling big data volumes in the Big Data environment.

  8. Biotechnology Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Countries Growing GMO , 2007). Herbicide and insect resistance traits will continue to be pursued since 25% of food crops are lost each year to insect...daily lives from the clothing we wear, the fuel we use, the food we eat, and the medicines we take. From the earliest days, humans have used the...industry is very broad and includes health care, food , agriculture, industrial, and environmental industries. It is one of the fastest growing sciences

  9. Biotechnological applications of microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Loy Chu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are important biologicalresources that have a wide range of biotechnologicalapplications. Due to their high nutritional value,microalgae such as Spirulina and Chlorella are beingmass cultured for health food. A variety of high-valueproducts including polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA,pigments such as carotenoids and phycobiliproteins, andbioactive compounds are useful as nutraceuticals andpharmaceuticals, as well as for industrial applications. Interms of environmental biotechnology, microalgae areuseful for bioremediation of agro-industrial wastewater,and as a biological tool for assessment and monitoring ofenvironmental toxicants such as heavy metals, pesticidesand pharmaceuticals. In recent years, microalgae haveattracted much interest due to their potential use asfeedstock for biodiesel production. In Malaysia, therehas been active research on microalgal biotechnologyfor the past 30 years, tapping into the potential of ourrich microalgal resources for high-value products andapplications in wastewater treatment and assessmentof environmental toxicants. A culture collection ofmicroalgae has been established, and this serves asan important resource for microalgal biotechnologyresearch. Microalgal biotechnology should continue tobe regarded as a priority area of research in this country.

  10. Biotechnology of space utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumiya, Hiroyuki

    1989-10-05

    This paper introdued the practical results of biotechnological experiments utilizing features of space and the present Japanese plan. The electrophoresis and crystal growth of protein utilize the microgravity field and cell culture utilizes the influence of microgravity on organism. Of practical results in space experiments, the electrophoresis was made by US but others were carried out by Europian countries. It was thought that the electrophoresis utilizing space environment could be demonstrated to be promosing for the separating and refining techniques by the experiment on the basis of the Apolo Project. The crystal growth of protein was reported by Litke of Denmark as to the crystal of lyzozyme. The space experiment of cell culture was carried out by Cogoli of Switzerland as to the culture of lymphocyte in the Shattle. Japan is studying the primary material experiment project(FMPT) in the Space Shattle and unmanned experiment for electrophoresis. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. Harnessing Next-Generation Sequencing Capabilities for Microbial Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-15

    a sophisticated analysis identified the source, many countries acted proactively to remove cucumbers and tomatoes from store shelves, Russia issued...Eisenstein, M. (2012). Oxford Nanopore announcement sets sequencing sector abuzz. Nature Biotechnology , 30(4), 295–6. doi:10.1038/nbt0412-295... Biotechnology , 29(7). Grad, Y. H., Lipsitch, M., Feldgarden, M., Arachchi, H. M., Cerqueira, G. C., Fitzgerald, M., .. . Hanage, W. P. (2012). Genomic

  12. Biotechnology organizations in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norus, Jesper

    This volume analyzes the dynamics and interactive processes among the players (individuals, institutions, and organizations/firms) that have constituted and legitimized the development of the biotechnology industries. The unit of analysis is small entrepreneurial firms developing biotechnological...

  13. BIOTECHNOLOGY – SCIENCE AND SECTOR OF AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Doroshenko N. P.; Troshin L. P.; Alzubaidi K. K.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents information about the features of biotechnology as the driving force of scientific and technological progress. The national programs of the leading countries of the world, it is one of the priority sectors, reflecting the level of the socio-economic condition of the society. Biotechnology is now successfully solves such vital tasks as providing food, the establishment of effective medicaments, obtaining fuel based on renewable raw materials, maintaining ecological balanc...

  14. Environmental Control Unit Harness Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    Testing four new Environmental Control Unit Harnesses for improved user comfort during SCAPE operations. Phase I, testing in a lab environment, Phase II will continue testing the best candidates in a field environment.

  15. Harnessing the Wind

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francois Essomba

    2011-01-01

    THINK of the Kingdom of Morocco and you would not imagine wind farms stretching into the horizon.But the North African country has set itself a windfilled challenge,one that could be a model for sustainable development.Morocco aims to increase its electricity output from wind from its current 280 MW (megawatt) to 2,000 MW by 2020.

  16. Harnessing the Wind

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francois; Essomba

    2011-01-01

    Morocco expands its wind energy program to provide much needed clean energy resource THINK of the Kingdom of Morocco and you would not imagine wind farms stretching into the horizon. But the North African country has set itself a windfilled challenge,one that could be a model for sustainable development.Morocco aims to increase its electricity output from wind from its current 280 MW (megawatt) to 2,000 MW by 2020.

  17. Constraints on the development of biotechnology in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewanika, M M; Mulenga, K D

    1996-09-01

    Biotechnology can play an essential role in fostering the economic and social development of developing countries like Zambia. However, due to a number of constraints, Zambia is not in a position to exploit the emerging opportunities from biotechnology. Prominent among these constraints are the lack of a biotechnology policy, an insufficient number of trained personnel, a poor science and technology base and very little basic research in universities and research institutions. The challenge Zambia must overcome is to establish a capacity and capability to innovate its own biotechnology as well as to adapt biotechnologies developed elsewhere to the Zambian conditions and environment. Despite all the hurdles and setbacks Zambia will face as she endeavours to enter the world of biotechnology, Zambia cannot afford to be a mere spectator as the rest of the world invests and benefits from the promise of biotechnology.

  18. Prediction of Swedish Harness Racing.

    OpenAIRE

    Josefsson, Jonas; Hellander, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Harness racing is a sport where betting most often is done based on historical performances and known conditions from each horse. With up to 12-15 horses in each race and with a quite large set of data for each horse, harness racing seemed to be very suitable for some statistical modeling and regression analysis. The main goal of this project was to construct a model that predicts the outcome of a race better than the odds. To achieve this, many dierent covariates, and combinations of them, h...

  19. Biotechnology essay competition: biotechnology and sustainable food practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Judy; Schoeb, Helena; Lee, Gina

    2013-06-01

    Biotechnology Journal announces our second biotechnology essay competition with the theme "biotechnology and sustainable food practices", open to all undergraduate students. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Biotechnology policies and performance in central and eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senker, J.; Enzing, C.; Reiss, T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses how far ten Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries have 'caught up' in biotechnology on the basis of information about the policies and funding for biotechnology research and commercialisation from 2002-2005 and on the research and commercialisation performance of these cou

  1. [Trends of microalgal biotechnology: a view from bibliometrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoqiu; Wu, Yinsong; Yan, Jinding; Song, Haigang; Fan, Jianhua; Li, Yuanguang

    2015-10-01

    Microalgae is a single-cell organism with the characteristics of high light energy utilization rate, fast growth rate, high-value bioactive components and high energy material content. Therefore, microalgae has broad application prospects in food, feed, bioenergy, carbon sequestration, wastewater treatment and other fields. In this article, the microalgae biotechnology development in recent years were fully consulted, through analysis from the literature and patent. The progress of microalgal biotechnology at home and abroad is compared and discussed. Furthermore, the project layout, important achievements and development bottlenecks of microalgae biotechnology in our country were also summarized. At last, future development directions of microalgae biotechnology were discussed.

  2. Biotechnology: A Dutch perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Apeldoorn, J.H.F.

    1981-01-01

    Biotechnology: a Dutch Perspective assesses the future potential of biotechnology in the Netherlands. It has been published in English because it is felt that the Dutch case could be of relevance to other industrialised nations. Although the report is aimed primarily at policy planners and decision

  3. Biotechnology: A Dutch perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Apeldoorn, J.H.F.

    1981-01-01

    Biotechnology: a Dutch Perspective assesses the future potential of biotechnology in the Netherlands. It has been published in English because it is felt that the Dutch case could be of relevance to other industrialised nations. Although the report is aimed primarily at policy planners and decision

  4. Medical Biotechnology Trends and Achievements in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboudi, Fereidoun; Hamedifar, Haleh; Aghajani, Hamideh

    2012-01-01

    A healthcare system has been the most important priority for all governments worldwide. Biotechnology products have affected the promotion of health care over the last thirty years. During the last several decades, Iran has achieved significant success in extending healthcare to the rural areas and in reducing the rates of infant mortality and increasing population growth. Biomedical technology as a converging technology is considered a helpful tool to fulfill the Iranian healthcare missions. The number of biotechnology products has reached 148 in 2012. The total sales have increased to 98 billion USD without considering vaccines and plasma derived proteins in 2012. Iran is one of the leading countries in the Middle East and North Africa in the area of Medical biotechnology. The number of biotechnology medicines launched in Iran is 13 products until 2012. More than 15 products are in pipelines now. Manufacturers are expecting to receive the market release for more than 8 products by the end of 2012. Considering this information, Iran will lead the biotechnology products especially in area of biosimilars in Asia after India in next three years. The present review will discuss leading policy, decision makers’ role, human resource developing system and industry development in medical biotechnology. PMID:23407888

  5. Fostering biotechnology entrepreneurship in developing countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fred

    by the rapid pace of discovery in the biological sciences, ... Furthermore, potential benefits from tissue culture, bio- fertilizers .... boosted their wealth over the past year. Some of the activities ... fingerprinting for identification of parents or solving.

  6. A bibliometric assessment of ASEAN collaboration in plant biotechnology

    KAUST Repository

    Payumo, Jane

    2015-04-03

    This study draws on publication and citation data related to plant biotechnology from a 10-year (2004–2013) period to assess the research performance, impact, and collaboration of member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Plant biotechnology is one of the main areas of cooperation between ASEAN member states and among the research areas promoted to achieve regional food security and sustainable development. In general, findings indicate increased scientific output, influence, and overall collaboration of ASEAN countries in plant biotechnology over time. Research performance and collaboration (domestic, regional, and international) of the region in plant biotechnology are linked to the status of the economic development of each member country. Thailand produced the most publications of the ASEAN member states while Singapore had the highest influence as indicated by its citation activity in plant biotechnology among the ASEAN countries. Domestic and international collaborations on plant biotechnology are numerous. Regional collaboration or partnership among ASEAN countries was, however, was found to be very limited, which is a concern for the region’s goal of economic integration and science and technology cooperation. More studies using bibliometric data analysis need to be conducted to understand plant biotechnology cooperation and knowledge flows between ASEAN countries. © 2015 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary

  7. Biotechnology Education in India: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Kirti; Mehra, Kavita; Govil, Suman; Singh, Nitu

    2013-01-01

    Among the developing countries, India is one of those that recognises the importance of biotechnology. The trajectory of different policies being formulated over time is proof that the government is progressing towards achieving self-sufficiency. However, to cater to the ever-growing biotech industry, skilled manpower is required. This article…

  8. Biotechnology Education in India: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Kirti; Mehra, Kavita; Govil, Suman; Singh, Nitu

    2013-01-01

    Among the developing countries, India is one of those that recognises the importance of biotechnology. The trajectory of different policies being formulated over time is proof that the government is progressing towards achieving self-sufficiency. However, to cater to the ever-growing biotech industry, skilled manpower is required. This article…

  9. Medical Biotechnology: Problems and Prospects in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Mizan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology is the knowledge and techniques of developing and using biological systems for deriving special products and services. The age-old technology took a new turn with the advent of recombinant DNA techniques, and boosted by the development of other molecular biological techniques, cell culture techniques and bioinformatics. Medical biotechnology is the major thrust area of biotechnology. It has brought revolutions in medicine – quick methods for diagnosing diseases, generation of new drugs and vaccines, completely novel approach of treatment are only a few to mention. The industrial and financial bulk of the industry mushroomed very rapidly in the last three decades, led by the USA and western advanced nations. Asian countries like China, India, South Korea, Taiwan and Singapore joined late, but advancing forward in a big way. In all the Asian countries governments supported the initiatives of the expert and entrepreneur community, and invested heavily in its development. Bangladesh has got great potential in developing biotechnology and reaping its fruits. However, lack of commitment and patriotism, and too much corruption and irresponsibility in political and bureaucratic establishment are the major hindrance to the development of biotechnology in Bangladesh.

  10. A novel approach for harnessing biofilm communities in moving bed biofilm reactors for industrial wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Joe A Lemire; Demeter, Marc A.; Iain George; Howard Ceri; Turner, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    Moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) are an effective biotechnology for treating industrial wastewater. Biomass retention on moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) carriers (biofilm support materials), allows for the ease-of-operation and high treatment capacity of MBBR systems. Optimization of MBBR systems has largely focused on aspects of carrier design, while little attention has been paid to enhancing strategies for harnessing microbial biomass. Previously, our research group demonstrated that ...

  11. Modern Biotechnology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned.

  12. Modern biotechnology in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned.

  13. Alle har en historie, IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydegaard, Torbjørn

    Alle har en historie IV: Pædagogik med Freedom Writers lader et væld af pædagogiske facetter udspringe af den kendte skole-film Freedom Writers’ scener og handlinger. Der er både fokus på en almen tilgang til pædagogik og på Freedom Writer-metodikken, dels gennem de filmscener, der sættes til...

  14. Corporate intelligence in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persidis

    1999-05-01

    'Know thy neighbor' is a critical component of today's biotechnology practice. The industry is extremely rich in science and business information, and the pace of change is dramatic. Successful participation in biotechnology will always depend on good technology, management and money. In addition, an ingredient that needs more attention is competitive information- gathering and analysis. Competitive intelligence can be defined as actionable information that requires the ability to filter and synthesize relevant knowledge for the benefit of the company. Why is this necessary? How can it be done well? What examples are there? These are good questions that are inevitably faced by all biotechnology practitioners, and some answers are provided herein.

  15. Cable Harness Assembly Planning in Virtual Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jianhua; NING Ruxin; BAI Shuqing; WANG Bile

    2006-01-01

    Based on the analysis of characteristic of cable harness planning in virtual environment, a discrete control node modeling (DCNM) method of cable harness in virtual environment and the cable harness assembly routing technique based on it are proposed. DCNM converts a cable harness into continuous flexed line segments connected by a series of section center points, and the design can realize cable harness planning through controlling those control nodes. This method of cable harness routing in the virtual environment breaks the status that virtual assembly process planning is just suitable for the rigid components at present, and impulse the virtual assembly process planning to be more practical. Relation algorithms have been verified in a self-developed system named virtual cable harness assembly planning (VCHAP) system, and this VCHAP system has been applied in assembly process planning of aerospace-related products.

  16. The biotechnology and bioeconomy landscape in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arujanan, Mahaletchumy; Singaram, Muthu

    2017-06-28

    Since 1990s Malaysia aspired to make biotechnology and bioeconomy as her engines of economic growth to utlise the abundance of natural resources and biodiversity. The public sector plays an integral role in developing the sector and various incentives are in place for the private sector to be actively involved and to forge collaboration with the public sector. The country launched its National Biotechnology Policy in 2005 and later launched its National Bioeconomy Programme in 2010 to become the first country in South East Asia and second in Asia after China to have such an initiative. Malaysia is also very proactive in its biosafety law and regulations and has most of the related legal instrument in place. A lot of success has been recorded since the inception of the National Biotechnology Policy in terms of job creation, contribution to GDP through biobusinesses and investment from foreign companies, but the sector is not spared from challenges too. Due to the nature of the discipline that is multidisciplinary and that requires huge amount of investment, expertise and political will, there are a lot of barriers before the country emerges as a bioeconomy player. This paper discusses the public policies, initiatives and funding mechanisms in place in Malaysia that drive its research, development and commercialisation in the area of biotechnology and bioeconomy. The authors also discuss the challenges faced in Malaysia in implementing the policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  18. Trends in food biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Ramón, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    For thousands of years man has been applying genetics to improve both foodstuffs and food products. Using selective breeding and/or spontaneous mutations, a large number of plant varieties, animal breeds and microbial strains have been produced. In fact, food biotechnology is the oldest form of biotechnology. Recently, recombinant DNA techniques have been applied in food technology, creating so-called ‘genetically modified foods’ (GM foods). Examples include transgenic potatoes able to act as...

  19. BIOTECHNOLOGY BIOPRODUCTS "HEALING-1"

    OpenAIRE

    S. I. Artiukhova; T. T. Tolstoguzova

    2014-01-01

    Summary. The article presents data on the development of technology and qualitative research, bio-products «Healing-1». One of the promising directions in food biotechnology is the development of new integrated starter-based consortia of microorganisms, which have higher activity compared with cultures prepared using pure cultures. So it was interesting studies on the development of new biotechnology and bio-based microbial consortium of lactic acid bacteria. Based on the analysis of biotechn...

  20. Patent activity in biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Ekaterina, Streltsova

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnologies are a priority area of development due to the scope of global challenges and social problems they help to resolve. There is demand for updated information about the the current state of research and challenges faced. This paper discusses the potential of patent analysis and surveys the Russian biotechnological market with both quantitative and qualitative methods. It reviews key statistical and analytical findings of empirical research. The main finding is that the Russian bio...

  1. BIOTECHNOLOGY : AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John I. Bruce

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology as a science includes various aspects of the management and manipulation of biological systems. Recent advances in immunology, molecular biology, cell culture and other associated areas provide an opportunity for scientists to move biology out of the laboratory and into the realms of society. This has many implications which mankind on a whole may not be prepared to cope with at this time. This new capability has been referred to as "Biotechnology". Biotechnology has also been defined as "the integrated use of biochemistry, microbiology, and chemical engineering in order to achieve the capacities of microbes and culture cells". Genetic engineering which includes gene splicing and recombinant DNA-cloning is an example of a recent offshoot of biotechnology. Because of the advent of biotechnology, one can now think of the prospect of engineering tomorrows vaccines. In the past, vaccine development has been laborious and in many instances an unrewarding task. After years of effort only a handful of safe, effective vaccines have emerged. In the biotechnology arena, new methodologies and strategies for immunizing humans and domestic animals against infectious diseases are providing new hope for discovering successful vaccines. While most of the effort in the past has focused on viral vaccine development, attention is now being directed towards vaccines for protection against parasitic diseases. Currently, considerable effort is being made to develop vaccines for malaria, coccidiosis (in fowl, cholera, malaria, schistosomiasis and trypanosomiasis among others.

  2. Fungal biodiversity to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambergo, Felipe S; Valencia, Estela Y

    2016-03-01

    Fungal habitats include soil, water, and extreme environments. With around 100,000 fungus species already described, it is estimated that 5.1 million fungus species exist on our planet, making fungi one of the largest and most diverse kingdoms of eukaryotes. Fungi show remarkable metabolic features due to a sophisticated genomic network and are important for the production of biotechnological compounds that greatly impact our society in many ways. In this review, we present the current state of knowledge on fungal biodiversity, with special emphasis on filamentous fungi and the most recent discoveries in the field of identification and production of biotechnological compounds. More than 250 fungus species have been studied to produce these biotechnological compounds. This review focuses on three of the branches generally accepted in biotechnological applications, which have been identified by a color code: red, green, and white for pharmaceutical, agricultural, and industrial biotechnology, respectively. We also discuss future prospects for the use of filamentous fungi in biotechnology application.

  3. BIOTECHNOLOGY : AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John I. Bruce

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology as a science includes various aspects of the management and manipulation of biological systems. Recent advances in immunology, molecular biology, cell culture and other associated areas provide an opportunity for scientists to move biology out of the laboratory and into the realms of society. This has many implications which mankind on a whole may not be prepared to cope with at this time. This new capability has been referred to as "Biotechnology". Biotechnology has also been defined as "the integrated use of biochemistry, microbiology, and chemical engineering in order to achieve the capacities of microbes and culture cells". Genetic engineering which includes gene splicing and recombinant DNA-cloning is an example of a recent offshoot of biotechnology. Because of the advent of biotechnology, one can now think of the prospect of engineering tomorrows vaccines. In the past, vaccine development has been laborious and in many instances an unrewarding task. After years of effort only a handful of safe, effective vaccines have emerged. In the biotechnology arena, new methodologies and strategies for immunizing humans and domestic animals against infectious diseases are providing new hope for discovering successful vaccines. While most of the effort in the past has focused on viral vaccine development, attention is now being directed towards vaccines for protection against parasitic diseases. Currently, considerable effort is being made to develop vaccines for malaria, coccidiosis (in fowl, cholera, malaria, schistosomiasis and trypanosomiasis among others.

  4. [Biotechnology's macroeconomic impact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dones Tacero, Milagros; Pérez García, Julián; San Román, Antonio Pulido

    2008-12-01

    This paper tries to yield an economic valuation of biotechnological activities in terms of aggregated production and employment. This valuation goes beyond direct estimation and includes the indirect effects derived from sectorial linkages between biotechnological activities and the rest of economic system. To deal with the proposed target several sources of data have been used, including official data from National Statistical Office (INE) such us national accounts, input-output tables, and innovation surveys, as well as, firms' level balance sheets and income statements and also specific information about research projects compiled by Genoma Spain Foundation. Methodological approach is based on the estimation of a new input-output table which includes the biotechnological activities as a specific branch. This table offers both the direct impact of these activities and the main parameters to obtain the induced effects over the rest of the economic system. According to the most updated available figures, biotechnological activities would have directly generated almost 1,600 millions of euros in 2005, and they would be employed more than 9,000 workers. But if we take into account the full linkages with the rest of the system, the macroeconomic impact of Biotechnological activities would reach around 5,000 millions euros in production terms (0.6% of total GDP) and would be responsible, directly or indirectly, of more than 44,000 employments.

  5. Biotechnology of marine fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damare, Samir; Singh, Purnima; Raghukumar, Seshagiri

    2012-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are the most widely used eukaryotes in industrial and pharmaceutical applications. Their biotechnological uses include the production of enzymes, vitamins, polysaccharides, pigments, lipids and others. Marine fungi are a still relatively unexplored group in biotechnology. Taxonomic and habitat diversity form the basis for exploration of marine fungal biotechnology. This review covers what is known of the potential applications of obligate and marine-derived fungi obtained from coastal to the oceanic and shallow water to the deep-sea habitats. Recent studies indicate that marine fungi are potential candidates for novel enzymes, bioremediation, biosurfactants, polysaccharides, polyunsaturated fatty acids and secondary metabolites. Future studies that focus on culturing rare and novel marine fungi, combined with knowledge of their physiology and biochemistry will provide a firm basis for marine mycotechnology.

  6. Colloids in Biotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Fanun, Monzer

    2010-01-01

    Colloids have come a long way from when Thomas Graham coined the term colloid to describe 'pseudo solutions'. This book enables scientists to close the gap between extensive research and translation into commercial options in biomedicine and biotechnology. It covers biosurfactants and surface properties, phase behavior, and orientational change of surfactant mixtures with peptides at the interface. It also covers adsorption of polymers and biopolymers on the surface and interface, discusses colloidal nanoparticles and their use in biotechnology, and delves into bioadhesion and microencapsulati

  7. Improving biotechnology communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitze, Marc-Denis; Pühler, Alfred

    2013-09-01

    Successful dialog between science and the public is vital for the development and introduction of new technologies. The National Academy of Science and Engineering in Germany has analysed experiences gained from controversies and communication strategies surrounding green genetic engineering and other fields of biotechnology, from a communications and social science viewpoint, as well as a historical perspective. From this, recommendations on how to communicate biotechnology in the future, with objectivity and balance, have been derived. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Harnessing Folksonomies for Resource Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Zubiaga, Arkaitz

    2012-01-01

    In our daily lives, organizing resources into a set of categories is a common task. Categorization becomes more useful as the collection of resources increases. Large collections of books, movies, and web pages, for instance, are cataloged in libraries, organized in databases and classified in directories, respectively. However, the usual largeness of these collections requires a vast endeavor and an outrageous expense to organize manually. Recent research is moving towards developing automated classifiers that reduce the increasing costs and effort of the task. Little work has been done analyzing the appropriateness of and exploring how to harness the annotations provided by users on social tagging systems as a data source. Users on these systems save resources as bookmarks in a social environment by attaching annotations in the form of tags. It has been shown that these tags facilitate retrieval of resources not only for the annotators themselves but also for the whole community. Likewise, these tags provid...

  9. Disclosing Biology Teachers' Beliefs about Biotechnology and Biotechnology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Maria Joao; Costa, Patricio; Lencastre, Leonor; Tavares, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Teachers have been shown to frequently avoid addressing biotechnology topics. Aiming to understand the extent to which teachers' scarce engagement in biotechnology teaching is influenced by their beliefs and/or by extrinsic constraints, such as practical limitations, this study evaluates biology teachers' beliefs about biotechnology and…

  10. Disclosing Biology Teachers' Beliefs about Biotechnology and Biotechnology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Maria Joao; Costa, Patricio; Lencastre, Leonor; Tavares, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Teachers have been shown to frequently avoid addressing biotechnology topics. Aiming to understand the extent to which teachers' scarce engagement in biotechnology teaching is influenced by their beliefs and/or by extrinsic constraints, such as practical limitations, this study evaluates biology teachers' beliefs about biotechnology and…

  11. Plant biotechnology : Future perspectives (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ananda Kumar

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant biotechnology has made significant strides in thc past 15 years encompassing within its fold the spectacular developments in plant molecular biology and genetic engineering. Some of the most vexing problems faced in agricultural ecosystems could be solved with the introduction of transgenic crops endowed with traits for insect pest resistance, herbicide tolerance and resistance to viral diseases. Attention is now being focussed on the development of transgenic plants having industrial, economic, pharmaceutical, nutritional and environmental importance. In the next millennium, crops will serve as factories for the synthesis of valuable metabolites and organic compounds. Agronomically important characters, such as drought tolerance, efficiency in photosynthesis, nutrient use and nitrogen fixation will be manipulated in the next century to enhance the genetic and physiological potential of the crops. Recent developments in the genome sequencing of Arabidopsis, rice and maize will have far reaching implications for future agriculture. Structural and functional genomics of plant species will virtually revolutionise the complexion of agricultural biotechnology as well as human health care. It is imperative that the developing world adopts these fast-changing technologies soon and harness their unprecedented potential for the benefit of the mankind. "

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL RISK MANAGEMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The last two decades have shown remarkable advances in the field of biotechnology. We have processes using biotechnology to produce materials from commodity chemicals to pharmaceuticals. The application to agriculture has shown the introduction of transgenic crops with pesticidal...

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL RISK MANAGEMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The last two decades have shown remarkable advances in the field of biotechnology. We have processes using biotechnology to produce materials from commodity chemicals to pharmaceuticals. The application to agriculture has shown the introduction of transgenic crops with pesticidal...

  14. National Center for Biotechnology Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to NCBI Sign Out NCBI National Center for Biotechnology Information Search database All Databases Assembly Biocollections BioProject ... Search Welcome to NCBI The National Center for Biotechnology Information advances science and health by providing access ...

  15. Biotechnology in the 21st Century (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Das

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The two technologies that will essentially determine the shape of things to come in the present century are biotechnology and information technology. A merger of biotechnology and information technology is happening right now, a significant example of which is the success of the human genome project. Biotechnology can be said to have started with the unravelling of the structure of DNA in 1953. The next decade saw exciting developments in our understanding of the fundamentals of functioning of biological system, including the role of DNA in protein synthesis. The discovery of reverse transcriptase and restriction enzymes in 1970s paved the way for further advances, including recombinant DNA and hybridoma technologies, often called 'genetic engineering'. The discovery of polymerase chain reaction in 1986 laid the foundation for large-scale applications of biotechnology in various fields. The practical applications of mapping of the entire human genome would be enormous in terms of better overall health care (diagnosis, therapy and management of disorders. In the field of flora and fauna, it generally happens that biotechnologically-rich countries have poor biodiversity and vice versa. But countries like India and China that have rich biodiversity have, by the use of biotechnology, the potential to become also biotechnologically rich.

  16. Biotechnologies and Human Dignity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, William; Masciulli, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors review some contemporary cases where biotechnologies have been employed, where they have had global implications, and where there has been considerable debate. The authors argue that the concept of dignity, which lies at the center of such documents as the 2005 Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, the…

  17. State responses to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Rebecca C

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews biotechnology legislation in the 50 states for 11 policy areas spanning 1990-2010, an era of immense growth in biotechnology, genetic knowledge, and significant policy development. Policies regarding health insurance, life insurance, long-term care insurance, DNA data bank collection, biotech research protection, biotech promotion and support, employment discrimination, genetic counselor licensing, human cloning, and genetic privacy each represent major policy responses arising from biotechnology and coinciding with key areas of state regulation (insurance, criminal justice, economic development, labor law, health and safety, privacy, and property rights). This analysis seeks to answer three questions regarding biotechnology legislation at the state level: who is acting (policy adoption), when is policy adopted (policy timing), and what is policy doing (policy content). Theoretical concerns examine state ideology (conservative or liberal), policy type (economic or moral), and the role of external events (federal law, news events, etc.) on state policy adoption. Findings suggest ideological patterns in adoption, timing, and content of biotech policy. Findings also suggest economic policies tend to be more uniform in content than moral policies, and findings also document a clear link between federal policy development, external events, and state policy response.

  18. Biotechnology of trees: Chestnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.D. Nelson; W.A. Powell; S.A. Merkle; J.E. Carlson; F.V. Hebard; N Islam-Faridi; M.E. Staton; L. Georgi

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnology has been practiced on chestnuts (Castanea spp.) for many decades, including vegetative propagation, controlled crossing followed by testing and selection, genetic and cytogenetic mapping, genetic modifi cation, and gene and genome sequencing. Vegetative propagation methods have ranged from grafting and rooting to somatic embryogenesis, often in...

  19. Biotechnology in weed control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotechnology can be used to enhance the management of weeds in several ways. Crops have been made resistant to herbicides by inserting transgenes that impart herbicide resistance into the plant genome. Glyphosate and glufosinate-resistant crops are commercialized in North America and crops made res...

  20. TSCA Biotechnology Notifications Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Notifications Table lists only those submissions received under the Biotechnology Regulation, beginning in 1998. From the Table, you can link to a brief summary of select submission and, in many cases, to a fact sheet on the decision reached by OPPT.

  1. Applied biotechnology in nematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell-Chen, E P; Williamson, V M; Westerdahl, B B

    1993-12-01

    During the past two decades, rapid advances in biotechnology and molecular biology have affected the understanding and treatment of human and plant diseases. The human and Caenorhabditis elegans genome-sequencing projects promise further techniques and results useful to applied nematology. Of course, biotechnology is not a panacea for nematological problems, but it provides many powerful tools that have potential use in applied biology and nematode management. The tools will facilitate research on a range of previously intractable problems in nematology, from identification of species and pathotypes to the development of resistant cultivars that have been inaccessible because of technical limitations. However, to those unfamiliar or not directly involved with the new technologies and their extensive terminology, the benefits of the advances in biotechnology may not be readily discerned. The sustainable agriculture of the future will require ecology-based management, and successful integrated nematode management will depend on combinations of control tactics to reduce nematode numbers. In this review we discuss how biotechnology may influence nematode management, define terminology relative to potential applications, and present current and future avenues of research in applied nematology, including species identification, race and pathotype identification, development of resistant cultivars, definition of nematode-host interactions, nematode population dynamics, establishment of optimal rotations, the ecology of biological control and development of useful biological control agents, and the design of novel nematicides.

  2. Biotechnological Innovations in Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangesh M. Bhosale

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture is gaining commendable importance to meet the required protein source for ever increasing human population. The aquaculture industry is currently facing problems on developing economically viable production systems by reducing the impact on environment. Sustainable and enhanced fish production from aquaculture may be better achieved through application of recent biotechnological innovations. Utilisation of transgenic technology has led to production of fishes with faster growth rate with disease resistance. The full advantage of this technology could not be achieved due to concern of acceptance for Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs. The biotechnological intervention in developing plant based feed ingredient in place of fish meal which contain high phosphorus is of prime area of attention for fish feed industry. The replacement of fish meal will also reduce fish feed cost to a greater extent. Year round fish seed production of carps through various biotechnological interventions is also need of the hour. This paper discusses technical, environmental and managerial considerations regarding the use of these biotechnological tools in aquaculture along with the advantages of research application and its commercialization.

  3. Biotechnology, Ethics and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, Peter John

    2007-01-01

    Fundamental differences between current and past knowledge in the field of biotechnology mean that we now have at our disposal the means to irreversibly change what is meant by "human nature". This paper explores some of the ethical issues that accompany the (as yet tentative) attempt to increase scientific control over the human genetic code in…

  4. National Strategies to Harness Information Technology Seeking Transformation in Singapore, Finland, the Philippines, and South Africa

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The ability to harness Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) is increasingly at the heart of competitiveness and sustainable growth. As countries engage in an increasingly competitive global economy, they are trying to weave ICT into their development strategies, in the same way enterprises have learned to use ICT to transform their business models and strategies. This integration offers a new path to development that is responsive to the challenges of our times.  In National Strategies to Harness Information Technology, Nagy Hanna and Peter Knight provide a framework for assessing the opportunities, challenges, and prospects for “e-transformation” and for analyzing the options and innovations adopted to manage the e-transformation process.  They ask hard questions: what does it take to harness ICT to transform an economy?  Why some countries accelerate their development journey with ICT while others fail?  How did successful countries balance the need for strategic leadership with bottom up ...

  5. How Japanese students reason about agricultural biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Fumi; Macer, Darryl

    2004-10-01

    Many have claimed that education of the ethical issues raised by biotechnology is essential in universities, but there is little knowledge of its effectiveness. The focus of this paper is to investigate how university students assess the information given in class to make their own value judgments and decisions relating to issues of agricultural biotechnology, especially over genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Analysis of homework reports related with agricultural biotechnology after identification of key concepts and ideas in each student report is presented. The ideas were sorted into different categories. The ideas were compared with those in the reading materials using the same categories. These categories included: concern about affects on humans, affects on the environment, developing countries and starvation, trust in industry, responsibility of scientists, risk perception, media influence, need for (international) organizations or third parties, and information dissemination. What was consistent through the different years was that more than half of the students took a "neutral" position. A report was scored as "neutral" when the report included both the positive and negative side of an issue, or when the student could not make a definite decision about the use of GMOs and GM food. While it may be more difficult to defend a strong ''for" or "against" position, some students used logical arguments successfully in doing so. Sample comments are presented to depict how Japanese students see agricultural technology, and how they value its application, with comparisons to the general social attitudes towards biotechnology.

  6. Life sciences and biotechnology in China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhu; Wang, Hong-Guang; Wen, Zhao-Jun; Wang, Yihuang

    2007-01-01

    Life science and biotechnology have become a top priority in research and development in many countries as the world marches into the new century. China as a developing country with a 1.3 billion population and booming economy is actively meeting the challenge of a new era in this area of research. Owing to support from the government and the scientific community, and reform to improve the infrastructure, recent years have witnessed a rapid progress in some important fields of life science an...

  7. A TCP-Over-UDP Test Harness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunigan, TH

    2002-10-31

    This report describes an implementation of a TCP-like protocol that runs over UDP. This TCP-like implementation, which does not require kernel modifications, provides a test harness for evaluating variations of the TCP transport protocol over the Internet. The test harness provides a tunable and instrumented version of TCP that supports Reno, NewReno, and SACK/FACK. The test harness can also be used to characterize the TCP-performance of a network path. Several case studies illustrate how one can tune the transport protocol to improve performance.

  8. Elemental analysis in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hann, Stephan; Dernovics, Mihaly; Koellensperger, Gunda

    2015-02-01

    This article focuses on analytical strategies integrating atomic spectroscopy in biotechnology. The rationale behind developing such methods is inherently linked to unique features of the key technique in elemental analysis, which is inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: (1) the high sensitivity and selectivity of state of the art instrumentation, (2) the possibility of accurate absolute quantification even in complex matrices, (3) the capability of combining elemental detectors with chromatographic separation methods and the versatility of the latter approach, (4) the complementarity of inorganic and organic mass spectrometry, (5) the multi-element capability and finally (6) the capability of isotopic analysis. The article highlights the most recent bio-analytical developments exploiting these methodological advantages and shows the potential in biotechnological applications.

  9. Electron shuttles in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuya; Manefield, Mike; Lee, Matthew; Kouzuma, Atsushi

    2009-12-01

    Electron-shuttling compounds (electron shuttles [ESs], or redox mediators) are essential components in intracellular electron transfer, while microbes also utilize self-produced and naturally present ESs for extracellular electron transfer. These compounds assist in microbial energy metabolism by facilitating electron transfer between microbes, from electron-donating substances to microbes, and/or from microbes to electron-accepting substances. Artificially supplemented ESs can create new routes of electron flow in the microbial energy metabolism, thereby opening up new possibilities for the application of microbes to biotechnology processes. Typical examples of such processes include halogenated-organics bioremediation, azo-dye decolorization, and microbial fuel cells. Herein we suggest that ESs can be applied widely to create new microbial biotechnology processes.

  10. Biotechnology and Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Biotechnology, in general terms, is the science and engineering of using living organisms for making useful products such as pharmaceuticals, foods , fuels...chemicals, materials or in waste treatment processes and clinical and chemical analyses. It encompases the prosaic form of using yeast cells to make...ductile component of the composite. Table 1. Mechanical Properties of Ceramics, Cermets, and Abalone Shell •if KIC Hardness MPa MPam 1n 2 /2 Mohs KIlN

  11. Genetic manipulation in biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, R.; Atkinson, T.

    1981-04-04

    The role of genetic manipulation in opening up new possibilities in biotechnology is discussed and the basic steps in a recombinant DNA experiment are summarized. Some current and future applications of this technology in the fields of medicine, industry and agriculture are presented, including, conversion of wastes to SCP, chemicals and alcohols, plant improvement and the introduction of nitrogen fixation genes into plants as an alternative to the use of nitrogen fertilizers.

  12. BIOTECHNOLOGY BIOPRODUCTS "HEALING-1"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Artiukhova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The article presents data on the development of technology and qualitative research, bio-products «Healing-1». One of the promising directions in food biotechnology is the development of new integrated starter-based consortia of microorganisms, which have higher activity compared with cultures prepared using pure cultures. So it was interesting studies on the development of new biotechnology and bio-based microbial consortium of lactic acid bacteria. Based on the analysis of biotechnological properties of native cultures created a new consortium of microorganisms containing lactic acid streptococci and bacilli, allowing the maximum extent possible to implement the physiological, biochemical and technological potential of microorganisms. Scientifically substantiated and experimentally developed a new biotechnology production of bioproducts «Healing-1», obtained on the basis of microbial consortium with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Experimentally investigated quality parameters of organic food «Healing-1» using a new microbial consortium as freshly prepared and during storage. Found that antagonistic activity of microflora bio «Healing-1» with respect to pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic bacteria, as well as its resistance to substances in the gastrointestinal tract of man is more pronounced compared to bioproducts obtained using a separate starter, members of the microbial consortium. It should be noted a more pronounced synthesis of exopolysaccharides in bioproduct «Healing-1», which leads to increased viscosity of the system and improves the consistency of bio. New bioproducts have good organoleptic characteristics and contain a high number of viable cells of lactic acid bacteria. High stability and survival of lactic acid bacteria during storage. In the study of attacked proteins bioproducts digestive proteinases «in vitro» found that the fermentation of milk microbial consortium increases the digestibility

  13. Biotechnology for renewable chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Jensen, Niels Bjerg

    2014-01-01

    The majority of the industrial organic chemicals are derived from fossil sources. With the oil and gas resources becoming limiting, biotechnology offers a sustainable alternative for production ofchemicals from renewable feedstocks. Yeast is an attractive cell factory forsustainable production of...... for the production of non-native 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP).3HP can be chemically dehydrated into acrylic acid and thus can serve as a biosustainable building block for acrylate-based products (diapers, acrylic paints, acrylic polymers, etc.)...

  14. Biotechnology in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.

  15. Biotechnology's foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldbaum, Carl

    2002-01-01

    From its inception, biotechnology has been a uniquely international enterprise. An American and an Englishman working together elucidated the structure of DNA almost 50 years ago; more recently, the Human Genome Project linked researchers around the world, from the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston to the Beijing Human Genome Center. Today our industry's researchers hail from African villages and Manhattan high rises; from Munich and Melbourne; from London, Ontario, and London, England; from Scotland and Nova Scotia--New Scotland; from Calcutta and Calgary. But in the beginning, the infrastructure that supported these efforts--intellectual property, venture capital, streamlined technology transfer--was less widely dispersed and the world's brightest biotech researchers clustered in only half a dozen scientific Meccas. Previous technological revolutions have spread around the world. Following in their footsteps, biotechnology's global diaspora seems inevitable, especially since governments are promoting it. But as our science and business emigrate from early strongholds in the United States, Canada and Europe across oceans and borders and into new cultures, international tensions over biotechnology continue to grow. In just the last few years, controversies have rolled over R&D spending priorities, genetic patents, bioprospecting, transgenic agriculture and drug pricing. My premise today is that our industry needs to formulate its first foreign policy, one which is cognizant of the miserable judgments and mistakes of other industries--and avoids them.

  16. Harnessing Solar Energy for Every Home: Energy Saving Applications

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Most of the present day resources of energy are limited and irreplaceable. The next generation will face acute energy crisis if alternate resources of energy are not developed concurrently. Increasing cost and import of conventional resources have bad effect on the economy of a country, and the only cheaper solution is “unlimited power” from the sun. The use of solar energy is so far limited in household applications. In fact, if we harness only 0.0034 percent of the solar energy reaching the...

  17. BIOTECHNOLOGY – SCIENCE AND SECTOR OF AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko N. P.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents information about the features of biotechnology as the driving force of scientific and technological progress. The national programs of the leading countries of the world, it is one of the priority sectors, reflecting the level of the socio-economic condition of the society. Biotechnology is now successfully solves such vital tasks as providing food, the establishment of effective medicaments, obtaining fuel based on renewable raw materials, maintaining ecological balance, conservation of biological resources of the Earth. The development of agriculture in modern conditions is impossible without agricultural biotechnology. It is directly related to viticulture. Choosing an object of an integrated system (embryos, apical meristem, axillary buds, it is possible to clone plants, i.e. produce plants identical to the original. If the same as the object to use isolated cells or protoplasts, in this case, there will most likely altered versions, creating diversity for the breeder. Genetic engineering – the science of younger, since the establishment of the first chimeric DNA molecule. The origin of genetic engineering is rooted in the development of molecular genetics, biochemistry. These technologies, undoubtedly progressive, but their biological safety is still insufficiently explored and is a danger to all life on Earth. The leading Western powers carried out strict control over the introduction of transgenic crop plants, as they are in agrocenosis new biological risks that may adversely affect the plants, animals and humans. In Russia, as in other countries, have already adopted the law “State regulation of genetic engineering”

  18. Biotechnology worldwide and the 'European Biotechnology Thematic Network' Association (EBTNA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, F; Dundar, M; Gahan, P B; Gartland, K; Szente, M; Viola-Magni, M P; Akbarova, Y

    2011-09-01

    The European Biotechnology Congress 2011 held under the auspices of the European Biotechnology Thematic Network Association (EBTNA) in conjunction with the Turkish Medical Genetics Association brings together a broad spectrum of biotechnologists from around the world. The subsequent abstracts indicate the manner in which biotechnology has permeated all aspects of research from the basic sciences through to small and medium enterprises and major industries. The brief statements before the presentation of the abstracts aim to introduce not only Biotechnology in general and its importance around the world, but also the European Biotechnology Thematic Network Association and its aims especially within the framework of education and ethics in biotechnology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. "Othering" agricultural biotechnology: Slovenian media representation of agricultural biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajc, Jožica; Erjavec, Karmen

    2014-08-01

    While studies on media representations of agricultural biotechnology mostly analyse media texts, this work is intended to fill a research gap with an analysis of journalistic interpretations of media representations. The purpose of this project was to determine how news media represent agricultural biotechnology and how journalists interpret their own representations. A content and critical discourse analysis of news texts published in the Slovenian media over two years and in-depth interviews with their authors were conducted. News texts results suggest that most of the news posts were "othering" biotechnology and biotechnologists: biotechnology as a science and individual scientists are represented as "they," who are socially irresponsible, ignorant, arrogant, and "our" enemies who produce unnatural processes and work for biotechnology companies, whose greed is destroying people, animals, and the environment. Most journalists consider these representations to be objective because they have published the biotechnologists' opinions, despite their own negative attitudes towards biotechnology.

  20. Construction Biotechnology: a new area of biotechnological research and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabnikov, Viktor; Ivanov, Volodymyr; Chu, Jian

    2015-09-01

    A new scientific and engineering discipline, Construction Biotechnology, is developing exponentially during the last decade. The major directions of this discipline are selection of microorganisms and development of the microbially-mediated construction processes and biotechnologies for the production of construction biomaterials. The products of construction biotechnologies are low cost, sustainable, and environmentally friendly microbial biocements and biogrouts for the construction ground improvement. The microbial polysaccharides are used as admixtures for cement. Microbially produced biodegradable bioplastics can be used for the temporarily constructions. The bioagents that are used in construction biotechnologies are either pure or enrichment cultures of microorganisms or activated indigenous microorganisms of soil. The applications of microorganisms in the construction processes are bioaggregation, biocementation, bioclogging, and biodesaturation of soil. The biotechnologically produced construction materials and the microbially-mediated construction technologies have a lot of advantages in comparison with the conventional construction materials and processes. Proper practical implementations of construction biotechnologies could give significant economic and environmental benefits.

  1. Teachers' Concerns About Biotechnology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgerding, Lisa A.; Sadler, Troy D.; Koroly, Mary Jo

    2013-04-01

    The impacts of biotechnology are found in nearly all sectors of society from health care and food products to environmental issues and energy sources. Despite the significance of biotechnology within the sciences, it has not become a prominent trend in science education. In this study, we seek to more fully identify biology teachers' concerns about biotechnology instruction and their reported practices. Consistent with the Stages of Concern framework as modified by Hord et al., we investigated teachers' awareness, informational, personal, management, consequences, collaboration, and refocusing concerns about biotechnology teaching by employing a qualitative design that allowed for the emergence of teachers' ideas. Twenty high school life science teachers attending a biotechnology institute were interviewed using an interview protocol specifically designed to target various Stages of Concern. Although the Stages of Concern framework guided the development of interview questions in order to target a wide range of concerns, data analysis employed a grounded theory approach wherein patterns emerged from teachers' own words and were constantly compared with each other to generate larger themes. Our results have potential to provide guidance for professional development providers and curriculum developers committed to supporting initial implementation of biotechnology education. Recommendations include supporting teacher development of biotechnology content knowledge; promoting strategies for obtaining, storing and managing biotechnology equipment and materials; providing opportunities for peer teaching as a means of building teacher confidence; and highlighting career opportunities in biotechnology and the intersections of biotechnology and everyday life.

  2. Intelligent electrical harness connector assembly using Bell Helicopter Textron's 'Wire Harness Automated Manufacturing System'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, D. W.

    Bell Helicopter Textron, Incorporated (BHTI) installed two Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-11 computers and an American Can Inc. Ink Jet printer in 1980 as the cornerstone of the Wire Harness Automated Manufacturing System (WHAMS). WHAMS is based upon the electrical assembly philosophy of continuous filament harness forming. This installation provided BHTI with a 3 to 1 return-on-investment by reducing wire and cable identification cycle time by 80 percent and harness forming, on dedicated layout tooling, by 40 percent. Yet, this improvement in harness forming created a bottle neck in connector assembly. To remove this bottle neck, BHTI has installed a prototype connector assembly cell that integrates the WHAMS' data base and innovative computer technologies to cut harness connector assembly cycle time. This novel connector assembly cell uses voice recognition, laser identification, and animated computer graphics to help the electrician in the correct assembly of harness connectors.

  3. Seaweed Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves Pereira, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Macroscopic marine algae, typically known as macroalgae or seaweeds, form an important living resource of the oceans, as primary producers. People have collected seaweeds for food, both for humans and animals for millennia. They also have been a source of nutrient rich fertilizers, as well as a source of gelling agents known as phycocolloids. More recently macroalgae are playing significant roles in medicine and biotechnology. Although Biotechnology and in particular marine biotechnology may ...

  4. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF THE FISH AQUACULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    L. P. Buchatsky

    2013-01-01

    The latest progress in biotechnology on fish aquaculture and different modern methods of investigations for increasing of fish productivity in aquaculture are analyzed. Except for the applied aspect, the use of modern biotechnological methods of investigations opens new possibilities for fundamental researches of sex-determining mechanisms, polyploidy, distant hybridization, and developmental biology of bony fishes. Review contains examples of utilizing modern biotechnology methods to obtain ...

  5. Biotechnological production of citric acid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Max, Belén; Salgado, José Manuel; Rodríguez, Noelia; Cortés, Sandra; Converti, Attilio; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This work provides a review about the biotechnological production of citric acid starting from the physicochemical properties and industrial applications, mainly in the food and pharmaceutical sectors...

  6. Industrial biotechnology: tools and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weng Lin; Zhao, Huimin

    2009-12-01

    Industrial biotechnology involves the use of enzymes and microorganisms to produce value-added chemicals from renewable sources. Because of its association with reduced energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and waste generation, industrial biotechnology is a rapidly growing field. Here we highlight a variety of important tools for industrial biotechnology, including protein engineering, metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, systems biology, and downstream processing. In addition, we show how these tools have been successfully applied in several case studies, including the production of 1, 3-propanediol, lactic acid, and biofuels. It is expected that industrial biotechnology will be increasingly adopted by chemical, pharmaceutical, food, and agricultural industries.

  7. BIOTECHNOLOGY IN FRUIT GROWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Jurković

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Research studies in the area of biotechnologies in fruit growing started at the Agricultural Institute Osijek in 2006 with the establishment of the first experimental in vitro laboratory for micropropagation. The laboratory started an active research related to the Project "Biotechnological methods in fruit tree identification, selection and propagation" Project is part of program "Preservation and revitalization of grape and fruit autochthonous cultivars". The goal of this research is to determine genetic differences between autochthonous and introduced cultivars of cherry as well as cultivars and types of sour cherry, to find and optimize a method for fast recovery of clonal material. A great number of cherry cultivars and types within the population of cv. Oblacinska sour cherry exists in Croatia. A survey with the purpose of selecting autochthonous cultivars for further selection has been done in previous research. Differences have been found in a number of important agronomic traits within the populations of cv. Oblačinska sour cherry. Autochthonous cherry cultivars are suspected to be synonyms of known old cultivars which were introduced randomly and have been naturalized under a local name. Identification and description of cultivars and types of fruits is based on special visible properties which were measurable or notable. In this approach difficulties arise from the effect of non-genetic factors on expression of certain traits. Genetic-physiological problem of S allele autoincompatibility exists within cherry cultivars. Therefore it is necessary to put different cultivars in the plantation to pollinate each other. Apart form the fast and certain sort identification independent of environmental factors, biotechnological methods based on PCR enable faster virus detection compared with classical serologic methods and indexing and cover a wider range of plant pathogens including those undetectable by other methods. Thermotherapy and

  8. Universities plan revolution in research; Four institutes will harness top brains

    CERN Multimedia

    Buie, E

    2003-01-01

    "Scotland is on the brink of revolutionising its approach to university research by creating four institutions that would harness the country's top brains to work together in specific areas. The move to create pan-academic institutes in physics, life-sciences, economics and creative arts has won the backing of the principals of every higher education institution in Scotland..." (1 page).

  9. MARKET STRUCTURE IN BIOTECHNOLOGY: IMPLICATIONS FOR LONG-RUN COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Lavoie, Brian F.; Sheldon, Ian M.

    2000-01-01

    A country specializing in a high technology industry may find that excess returns stemming from innovation are reallocated overseas as foreign-based multinationals access ongoing domestic R&D through alliances with or acquisition of established domestic start-ups. Computer simulation illustrates this process in the context of the current US specialization in biotechnology. Keywords: Biotechnology, market structure, comparative advantage

  10. Biotechnology Towards Energy Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritopoulou, Theoni; Roka, Loukia; Alexopoulou, Efi; Christou, Myrsini; Rigas, Stamatis; Haralampidis, Kosmas; Milioni, Dimitra

    2016-03-01

    New crops are gradually establishing along with cultivation systems to reduce reliance on depleting fossil fuel reserves and sustain better adaptation to climate change. These biological assets could be efficiently exploited as bioenergy feedstocks. Bioenergy crops are versatile renewable sources with the potential to alternatively contribute on a daily basis towards the coverage of modern society's energy demands. Biotechnology may facilitate the breeding of elite energy crop genotypes, better suited for bio-processing and subsequent use that will improve efficiency, further reduce costs, and enhance the environmental benefits of biofuels. Innovative molecular techniques may improve a broad range of important features including biomass yield, product quality and resistance to biotic factors like pests or microbial diseases or environmental cues such as drought, salinity, freezing injury or heat shock. The current review intends to assess the capacity of biotechnological applications to develop a beneficial bioenergy pipeline extending from feedstock development to sustainable biofuel production and provide examples of the current state of the art on future energy crops.

  11. Excitement of biotechnology in the new economy (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available "Today the world economy is no longer driven by material wealth but instead powered by intellectual wealth. Knowledge in the economic context translates to technology, of which information technology and biotechnology are the prime drivers, India has made it in information technology. but not yet in biotechnology. The exciting synergy between information technology and biotechnology in the form of bioinformatics is paving the way for intellectual wealth creation in the areas of health care (including pharmaceuticals, food and agriculture. The race for discovering new lead molecules is frenzied in the pharmaceutical arena, being mined by high throughput screening techniques for new chemical entities. The Himalayan yew tree. for example, has provided a billion dollar cancer drug. taxol. Pharmacogenomics is providing ' a wealth of information pertaining to defective or missing genes-a new avenue for drug research. A new trend in bioinformatics is in silica testing, which involves computational simulation of in vivo and in vitro tests, providing better predictability of clinical trials. In gene therapy cloning and expressing healthy genes is simple, but finding a mechanism to deliver these genes into target cells is the difficult part. Promising methods include virus as well as non-virus-based delivery systems. How Indians can take advantage of the exciting opportunities in biotechnology? One can boast of a treasure chest of biodiversities-microbial, plant, animal and human, but it is largely unutilised. A large number of inbred communities in India are offering unique human genome pools for genomic studies. We have the main ingredient for global success in biotechnology-our scientific manpower. We need to harness this talent in an enabling business environment and a pragmatic, entrepreneurial mindset. "

  12. [Social perception of biotechnology: a new tool for decision making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, E

    1999-01-01

    The increase in critical opinions of scientific and technological development in advanced societies has led to the development of studies examining the links between science, technology and society. Among these studies are those on public perception, a particularly topical issue being the perception of biotechnology. There has been considerable European activity in this area of reflection and research, as evidenced by the wide range of initiatives at European Union and member state level. Some special instruments, such as the consensus conferences which began in Scandinavian countries, are now being applied in various EU countries. In Spain several public bodies and foundations are involved in a growing number of activities in this field. Biotechnology has become a particularly interesting research area for promoting new conditions for analysis of the social and economic repercussions of advances in science and technology. The study of the social perception of biotechnology is a crucial instrument for policy design and management and hence a methodological review is warranted.

  13. biotechnology in aquaculture: prospects and challenges

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JOSEPH

    to study ways that biotechnology can increase the production of fish and shellfish. Biotechnology allows ... This article describes ways in which biotechnology is .... Vaccines: Modern technology is also of great value in the field of vaccines and.

  14. Teachers' Concerns about Biotechnology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgerding, Lisa A.; Sadler, Troy D.; Koroly, Mary Jo

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of biotechnology are found in nearly all sectors of society from health care and food products to environmental issues and energy sources. Despite the significance of biotechnology within the sciences, it has not become a prominent trend in science education. In this study, we seek to more fully identify biology teachers' concerns…

  15. A Case for Teaching Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaros, Edward; Embree, Caleb

    2016-01-01

    Biotechnology is an innovative field that is consistently growing in popularity. It is important that students are taught about this technology at an early age, so they are motivated to join the field, or at least motivated to become informed citizens and consumers (Gonzalez, et al, 2013). An increase in biotechnology knowledge can result in an…

  16. Teachers' Concerns about Biotechnology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgerding, Lisa A.; Sadler, Troy D.; Koroly, Mary Jo

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of biotechnology are found in nearly all sectors of society from health care and food products to environmental issues and energy sources. Despite the significance of biotechnology within the sciences, it has not become a prominent trend in science education. In this study, we seek to more fully identify biology teachers' concerns…

  17. A Case for Teaching Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaros, Edward; Embree, Caleb

    2016-01-01

    Biotechnology is an innovative field that is consistently growing in popularity. It is important that students are taught about this technology at an early age, so they are motivated to join the field, or at least motivated to become informed citizens and consumers (Gonzalez, et al, 2013). An increase in biotechnology knowledge can result in an…

  18. Biotechnology's new wave in Florida

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Marine biotechnology is a new economic sector globally, and is in its infancy in Florida. As an industry, it is still a very small part of biotechnology overall, but one where Florida has potential and real advantages over many areas for developing a robust commercial, technical and educational investment. (8pp.)

  19. A Brave New World: Students Debate Ethics of Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barksdale, Francia

    1996-01-01

    This article describes an interdisciplinary classroom project in which ninth graders simulate a "World Council on Genetic Technology." Students in small groups take on the persona and interests of individuals from specific countries in the group effort to develop a covenant for regulating the use of biotechnology. The benefits of having gifted…

  20. Consortia of cyanobacteria/microalgae and bacteria: biotechnological potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subashchandrabose, Suresh R; Ramakrishnan, Balasubramanian; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Naidu, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    Microbial metabolites are of huge biotechnological potential and their production can be coupled with detoxification of environmental pollutants and wastewater treatment mediated by the versatile microorganisms. The consortia of cyanobacteria/microalgae and bacteria can be efficient in detoxification of organic and inorganic pollutants, and removal of nutrients from wastewaters, compared to the individual microorganisms. Cyanobacterial/algal photosynthesis provides oxygen, a key electron acceptor to the pollutant-degrading heterotrophic bacteria. In turn, bacteria support photoautotrophic growth of the partners by providing carbon dioxide and other stimulatory means. Competition for resources and cooperation for pollutant abatement between these two guilds of microorganisms will determine the success of consortium engineering while harnessing the biotechnological potential of the partners. Relative to the introduction of gene(s) in a single organism wherein the genes depend on the regulatory- and metabolic network for proper expression, microbial consortium engineering is easier and achievable. The currently available biotechnological tools such as metabolic profiling and functional genomics can aid in the consortium engineering. The present review examines the current status of research on the consortia, and emphasizes the construction of consortia with desired partners to serve a dual mission of pollutant removal and commercial production of microbial metabolites. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Peculiarities of Pycnoporus species for applications in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomascolo, Anne; Uzan-Boukhris, Eva; Herpoël-Gimbert, Isabelle; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude; Lesage-Meessen, Laurence

    2011-12-01

    The genus Pycnoporus forms a cosmopolitan group of four species belonging to the polyporoid white-rot fungi, the most representative group of homobasidiomycetes causing wood decay. Pycnoporus fungi are listed as food- and cosmetic-grade microorganisms and emerged in the early 1990s as a genus whose biochemistry, biodegradation and biotechnological properties have since been progressively detailed. First highlighted for their original metabolic pathways involved in the functionalization of plant cell wall aromatic compounds to yield high-value molecules, e.g. aromas and antioxidants, the Pycnoporus species were later explored for their potential to produce various enzymes of industrial interest, such as hydrolases and oxidases. However, the most noteworthy feature of the genus Pycnoporus is its ability to overproduce high redox potential laccase-a multi-copper extracellular phenoloxidase-as the predominant ligninolytic enzyme. A major potential use of the Pycnoporus fungi is thus to harness their laccases for various applications such as the bioconversion of agricultural by-products and raw plant materials into valuable products, the biopulping and biobleaching of paper pulp and the biodegradation of organopollutants, xenobiotics and industrial contaminants. All the studies performed in the last decade show the genus Pycnoporus to be a strong contender for white biotechnology. In this review, we describe the properties of Pycnoporus fungi in relation to their biotechnological applications and potential.

  2. New and emerging analytical techniques for marine biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, J Grant

    2012-02-01

    Marine biotechnology is the industrial, medical or environmental application of biological resources from the sea. Since the marine environment is the most biologically and chemically diverse habitat on the planet, marine biotechnology has, in recent years delivered a growing number of major therapeutic products, industrial and environmental applications and analytical tools. These range from the use of a snail toxin to develop a pain control drug, metabolites from a sea squirt to develop an anti-cancer therapeutic, and marine enzymes to remove bacterial biofilms. In addition, well known and broadly used analytical techniques are derived from marine molecules or enzymes, including green fluorescence protein gene tagging methods and heat resistant polymerases used in the polymerase chain reaction. Advances in bacterial identification, metabolic profiling and physical handling of cells are being revolutionised by techniques such as mass spectrometric analysis of bacterial proteins. Advances in instrumentation and a combination of these physical advances with progress in proteomics and bioinformatics are accelerating our ability to harness biology for commercial gain. Single cell Raman spectroscopy and microfluidics are two emerging techniques which are also discussed elsewhere in this issue. In this review, we provide a brief survey and update of the most powerful and rapidly growing analytical techniques as used in marine biotechnology, together with some promising examples of less well known earlier stage methods which may make a bigger impact in the future. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Structural synthetic biotechnology: from molecular structure to predictable design for industrial strain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Wilmanns, Matthias; Zeng, An-Ping

    2010-10-01

    The future of industrial biotechnology requires efficient development of highly productive and robust strains of microorganisms. Present praxis of strain development cannot adequately fulfill this requirement, primarily owing to the inability to control reactions precisely at a molecular level, or to predict reliably the behavior of cells upon perturbation. Recent developments in two areas of biology are changing the situation rapidly: structural biology has revealed details about enzymes and associated bioreactions at an atomic level; and synthetic biology has provided tools to design and assemble precisely controllable modules for re-programming cellular metabolic circuitry. However, because of different emphases, to date, these two areas have developed separately. A linkage between them is desirable to harness their concerted potential. We therefore propose structural synthetic biotechnology as a new field in biotechnology, specifically for application to the development of industrial microbial strains. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Harnessing Collaborative Annotations on Online Formative Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian-Wei; Lai, Yuan-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    This paper harnesses collaborative annotations by students as learning feedback on online formative assessments to improve the learning achievements of students. Through the developed Web platform, students can conduct formative assessments, collaboratively annotate, and review historical records in a convenient way, while teachers can generate…

  5. Harnessing Collective Knowledge Inherent in Tag Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cress, U.; Held, C.

    2013-01-01

    Tagging systems represent the conceptual knowledge of a community. We experimentally tested whether people harness this collective knowledge when navigating through the Web. As a within-factor we manipulated people's prior knowledge (no knowledge vs. prior knowledge that was congruent/incongruent to the collective knowledge inherent in the tags).…

  6. Harnessing Collaborative Annotations on Online Formative Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian-Wei; Lai, Yuan-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    This paper harnesses collaborative annotations by students as learning feedback on online formative assessments to improve the learning achievements of students. Through the developed Web platform, students can conduct formative assessments, collaboratively annotate, and review historical records in a convenient way, while teachers can generate…

  7. Kyllinger har effektivt immunforsvar mod herpes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Forskere ved Københavns Universitet, Fakultet for Biovidenskab har studeret kyllingens MHC molekyler og kan derigennem forklare hvorfor en særlig stamme indenfor denne art er modstandsdygtige mod en særlig herpesvirus. Udgivelsesdato: 18. januar 2008...

  8. Medicinalindustrien har brug for diagnoser som ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugl, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Det er ikke første gang, at medicinalindustriens evne til at finde nye markeder har medført nye eller bredere diagnoser. I det forrige årti så vi et parallelt forløb mellem et boom i antallet af depressionsdiagnoser og forbruget af lykkepiller. Interview med sociolog Thomas Brante. Udgivelsesdato...

  9. Plant biotechnological patents from the legal perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhah Abdullah

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which plant biotechnological patent in terms of natural product which has human intervention, different from other product and the entitlement of such a patent whether it is the inventor or biological donor s patent? In addition, the article discusses how would one determine the value added” by the company s researchers as opposed to the value contributed by the original genetic material. Meanwhile, the poor farmers and indigenous people who are the pioneers in terms of the knowledge of the plant, they are left unprivileged and deprived of their contribution and benefits. Thus, this article would highlight the significance of the contribution made by the original donor especially, in a poor developing country whose natural heritage has been taken away without any consideration, acknowledgment and how to strike a balance between the rights of an inventor and biological donor? Keywords: Plant Biotechnology, Patents, Inventor, Biological Donor, Developing countries Received: 7 July 2009 / Received in revised form: 28 August 2009, Accepted: 28 August 2009, Published online: 22 September 2009

  10. The globalization of health research: harnessing the scientific diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Nalini P; Hofman, Karen J; Glass, Roger I

    2009-04-01

    The scientific diaspora is a unique resource for U.S. universities. By drawing on the expertise, experience, and catalytic potential of diaspora scientists, universities can capitalize more fully on their diverse intellectual resources to make lasting contributions to global health. This article examines the unique contributions of the diaspora in international research collaborations, advantages of harnessing the diaspora and benefits to U.S. universities of fostering these collaborations, challenges faced by scientists who want to work with their home countries, examples of scientists engaging with their home countries, and specific strategies U.S. universities and donors can implement to catalyze these collaborations. The contributions of the diaspora to the United States are immense: International students enrolled in academic year 2007-2008 contributed an estimated $15 billion to the U.S. economy. As scientific research becomes increasingly global, the percentage of scientific publications with authors from foreign countries has grown from 8% in 1988 to 20% in 2005. Diaspora scientists can help build trusting relationships with scientists abroad, and international collaborations may improve the health of underserved populations at home. Although opportunities for diaspora networks are increasing, most home countries often lack enabling policies, infrastructure, and resources to effectively utilize their diaspora communities abroad. This article examines how some governments have successfully mobilized their scientific diaspora to become increasingly engaged in their national research agendas. Recommendations include specific strategies, including those that encourage U.S. universities to promote mini-sabbaticals and provide seed funding and flexible time frames.

  11. Dry Electrode Harness System For Wireless 12-LEAD ECG Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The dry-electrode harness is composed of a variety of components.  The harness interfaces with the human via a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) FDA cleared dry...

  12. Biochemical Engineering and Industrial Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moo-Young, Murray

    1986-01-01

    Describes the biochemical engineering and industrial biotechnology programs of the University of Waterloo (Ontario, Canada). Provides descriptions of graduate courses, along with a sample of current research activities. Includes a discussion of the programs' mechanisms for technology transfer. (TW)

  13. An Overview of NASA Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusey, Marc L.

    1997-01-01

    Biotechnology research at NASA has comprised three separate areas; cell science and tissue culture, separations methods, and macromolecular crystal growth. This presentation will primarily focus on the macromolecular crystal growth.

  14. Re-Harnessing the Genie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1996-06-01

    Fifty years ago Vannevar Bush, with the aid of the Federal Government, released the academic research genie. It was argued at the time, and it still may be true, that only academic laboratories could provide the research and trained personnel needed to sustain American's scientific and technological needs. As history has shown, Bush's instinctive distrust of industrial laboratories as a potential training ground was basically correct. In those days, the country's needs were associated with warfare-the end of WWII and the collective hostile activities historically described as the "cold war." Today the country's needs derive from attempts to stay globally competitive. The government's decision to have universities turning out the bulk of the nation's basic research and to use those universities as a venue for developing research talent has created a network of more than 100 research-intensive universities, the output of which is the envy of the world. But, now there is another growing national need-improving the quality of science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (SMET) education throughout the educational system. The genie released 50 years ago, either has to go back into the bottle, or it needs to be re-purposed. The former is highly unlikely, which leaves only the latter as a viable strategy. Indeed, the National Science Foundation, which could be described as the master of the genie, is attempting to do just that. In the past several years, the budget for NSF's suite of "undergraduate" programs has grown to the point where the Foundation currently spends about $180 million on such projects. These programs represent initiatives at the pre-college and undergraduate college levels that are focused on instructional activities (teacher preparation, curriculum development, faculty enhancement, etc.) and research-oriented activities to compliment undergraduate education in a variety of traditional nonresearch environments. These programs are an attempt by NSF

  15. New Directions in Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The macromolecule crystallization program within NASA is undergoing considerable pressure, particularly budgetary pressure. While it has shown some successes, they have not lived up to the expectations of others, and technological advances may rapidly overtake the natural advantages offered by crystallization in microgravity. Concomitant with the microgravity effort has been a research program to study the macromolecule crystallization process. It was believed that a better understanding of the process would lead to growth of improved crystals for X-ray diffraction studies. The results of the various research efforts have been impressive in improving our understanding of macromolecule crystallization, but have not led to any improved structures. Macromolecule crystallization for structure determination is "one of", the job being unique for every protein and finished once a structure is obtained. However, the knowledge gained is not lost, but instead lays the foundation for developments in new areas of biotechnology and nanotechnology. In this it is highly analogous to studies into small molecule crystallization, the results of which have led to our present day microelectronics-based society. We are conducting preliminary experiments into areas such as designed macromolecule crystals, macromolecule-inorganic hybrid structures, and macromolecule-based nanotechnology. In addition, our protein crystallization studies are now being directed more towards industrial and new approaches to membrane protein crystallization.

  16. Novel biocatalysts for white biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drepper, Thomas; Eggert, Thorsten; Hummel, Werner; Leggewie, Christian; Pohl, Martina; Rosenau, Frank; Wilhelm, Susanne; Jaeger, Karl-Erich

    2006-01-01

    White Biotechnology uses microorganisms and enzymes to manufacture a large variety of chemical products. Therefore, the demand for new and useful biocatalysts is steadily and rapidly increasing. We have developed methods for the isolation of new enzyme genes, constructed novel expression systems, and optimized existing enzymes for biotechnological applications by methods of directed evolution. Furthermore, we have isolated and characterized biocatalysts relevant for the preparation of enantiopure compounds.

  17. Nutrition by design: a review of biotechnology in functional food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Reynolds

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Medical institutions in industrial and developing countries are increasingly turning to functional foods as intervention in chronic disease. Advances in genetic engineering have provided methods of purposefully designing functional foods and bioactive compound-producing organisms. This literature review examines the recent history of biotechnological applications in functional food, the state of bioagricultural engineering for high-value compound production, and the challenges that developers face in promulgatingfunctional foods from biotechnological sources. Based on the literature reviewed, it is predicted that adding biotechnologically-produced compounds will be more successful in producing novel functional foods. Conclusion: Current functional food application is frequently hampered by a dearth of foods suitable to the purpose. The concurrent advent of biotechnology means that producers and clinicians are not constrained by limited and precarious natural development. Biotechnology has already produced altered dietary staples that can safely induce real health benefits, but the social approval of genetically modified foodstuffs is inconsistent at best. Modifying microalgae to produce micro and macronutrients, for harvest and incorporation into functional food products, provides the ideal specificity and reliability for bioactive compound use. However, its application in biomedical science is impeded by technical difficulty. It remains to be seen if microorganism engineering willbe able to meet the needs of its many stakeholders, including the functional food community. Nonetheless,the prospect of a flourishing functional food market, and the healthier population it will bring about, certainly makes it worth a try.

  18. Identifying a Path Towards Rapid Discrimination of Infection Disease Outbreaks: Harnessing Next-Generation Sequencing Capabilities for Microbial Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-15

    a sophisticated analysis identified the source, many countries acted proactively to remove cucumbers and tomatoes from store shelves, Russia issued...Eisenstein, M. (2012). Oxford Nanopore announcement sets sequencing sector abuzz. Nature Biotechnology , 30(4), 295–6. doi:10.1038/nbt0412-295... Biotechnology , 29(7). Grad, Y. H., Lipsitch, M., Feldgarden, M., Arachchi, H. M., Cerqueira, G. C., Fitzgerald, M., .. . Hanage, W. P. (2012). Genomic

  19. Harnessing private sector conservation of biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Productivity Commission

    2002-01-01

    'Harnessing Private Sector Conservation of Biodiversity' was released on 4 December 2001. This paper provides an economic perspective on the role the private sector can play in conservation of biodiversity. It focuses on opportunities for governments to facilitate biodiversity conservation by enabling markets to allocate resources better. With more than 60 per cent of Australia's land area under private management, conservation cannot be adequately addressed without private sector participati...

  20. Genome engineering empowers the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum for biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daboussi, Fayza; Leduc, Sophie; Maréchal, Alan; Dubois, Gwendoline; Guyot, Valérie; Perez-Michaut, Christophe; Amato, Alberto; Falciatore, Angela; Juillerat, Alexandre; Beurdeley, Marine; Voytas, Daniel F; Cavarec, Laurent; Duchateau, Philippe

    2014-05-29

    Diatoms, a major group of photosynthetic microalgae, have a high biotechnological potential that has not been fully exploited because of the paucity of available genetic tools. Here we demonstrate targeted and stable modifications of the genome of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, using both meganucleases and TALE nucleases. When nuclease-encoding constructs are co-transformed with a selectable marker, high frequencies of genome modifications are readily attained with 56 and 27% of the colonies exhibiting targeted mutagenesis or targeted gene insertion, respectively. The generation of an enhanced lipid-producing strain (45-fold increase in triacylglycerol accumulation) through the disruption of the UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene exemplifies the power of genome engineering to harness diatoms for biofuel production.

  1. Sustainable Use of Biotechnology for Bioenergy Feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hong S.; Abercrombie, Jason M.; Kausch, Albert P.; Stewart, C. Neal

    2010-10-01

    Done correctly, cellulosic bioenergy should be both environmentally and economically beneficial. Carbon sequestration and decreased fossil fuel use are both worthy goals in developing next-generation biofuels. We believe that biotechnology will be needed to significantly improve yield and digestibility of dedicated perennial herbaceous biomass feedstocks, such as switchgrass and Miscanthus, which are native to the US and China, respectively. This Forum discusses the sustainability of herbaceous feedstocks relative to the regulation of biotechnology with regards to likely genetically engineered traits. The Forum focuses on two prominent countries wishing to develop their bioeconomies: the US and China. These two countries also share a political desire and regulatory frameworks to enable the commercialization and wide release of transgenic feedstocks with appropriate and safe new genetics. In recent years, regulators in both countries perform regular inspections of transgenic field releases and seriously consider compliance issues, even though the US framework is considered to be more mature and stringent. Transgene flow continues to be a pertinent environmental and regulatory issue with regards to transgenic plants. This concern is largely driven by consumer issues and ecological uncertainties. Regulators are concerned about large-scale releases of transgenic crops that have sexually compatible crops or wild relatives that can stably harbor transgenes via hybridization and introgression. Therefore, prior to the commercialization or extensive field testing of transgenic bioenergy feedstocks, we recommend that mechanisms that ensure biocontainment of transgenes be instituted, especially for perennial grasses. A cautionary case study will be presented in which a plant’s biology and ecology conspired against regulatory constraints in a non-biomass crop perennial grass (creeping bentgrass, Agrostis stolonifera), in which biocontainment was not attained. Appropriate

  2. Behavior of sandhill cranes harnessed with different satellite transmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.; Ellis, D.H.; Landfried, S.E.; Miller, L.H.; Klugman, S.S.; Fuller, M.R.; Vermillion, C.H.

    1992-01-01

    The effectiveness of various attachment methods and designs of platform transmitting terminals (PTT's) was tested on captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, during 1989-91. Combinations of attachment and transmitter designs included neoprene cord harness with batteries separate from the transmitter (2 harness designs), Teflon ribbon harness with batteries incorporated into the transmitter package (4 transmitter models), and a package attached directly to the bird with epoxy glue only. Physical effects seen on cranes wearing PTT's ranged from skin lacerations (caused by rubbing of harness material) to no observed effects (other than feather wear). The most successful harness material and design utilized a Teflon ribbon harness with the 4 ribbon ends from the transmitter forming a neck loop and a body loop joined at the sternum. Time spent by sandhill cranes performing most activities did not change after transmitter attachment using this harness method.

  3. Cosmetics - chemical technology or biotechnology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, G

    1984-04-01

    Synopsis Over the past 25 years the cosmetic industry has become increasingly technological. The origins of many of these advances were based upon chemical technology usually related to colloid science, although more recent developments have had clear biological improvements. A number of recent innovations are examined to consider how far developments in the future will stem from biotechnology rather than chemical technology. The working of surface active materials (e.g. CTAB) is discussed as an example of cosmetic effects being generated purely from chemical technology. The role of fluoride toothpaste in decreasing the incidence of dental caries is discussed as an effect based essentially on chemical technology in an area where future alternatives might come from biotechnology. Skin research is highlighted as the area where new understanding, e.g. of the role of epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibronectin and laminin, could lead to a whole new biotechnological approach to the appraisal of skin. As we venture into innovations based on biotechnology we may be introducing new dimensions in product safety which will need an even closer relationship with the medical fraternity. Consequently the introduction of products based on biotechnology may not be as rapid as is sometimes suggested.

  4. Biotechnology Industry, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    trying to deal with GMOs . Countries around the world are trying to keep their citizens safe while many face food shortages. Interestingly, India...Washington Post, April 7, 2006, A11. GMO Compass. (2006). Food and Feed from GMOs : The Long Road to Authorisation. Retrieved March 31, 2006 from http...the environment, and nanotechnology. Genetically modified (GM) foods are feeding millions. GM bacteria and plants are cleaning up pollution quietly

  5. CHS Application In Automotive wiring Harness Design%Capital Harness XC线束设计软件的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春芝

    2015-01-01

    Capital Harness XC是Captial Harness System (CHS)软件中一个设计模块,本文介绍了Capital Harness XC线束设计模块的应用,及以Capital Harness XC在设计流程中的作用和使用过程中应注意的事项,使读者能够理解Capital Harness XC在汽车设计中的操作应用方法.同时指出其在设计过程中的优点及在实际汽车领域中的意义.

  6. Cacao biotechnology: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasuriya, Anushka M; Dunwell, Jim M

    2017-10-06

    Theobroma cacao - The Food of the Gods, provides the raw material for the multi-billion dollar chocolate industry, and is also the main source of income for about 6 million smallholders around the world. Additionally, cocoa beans have a number of other non-food uses in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Specifically, the potential health benefits of cocoa have received increasing attention as it is rich in polyphenols, particularly flavonoids. At present, the demand for cocoa and cocoa-based products in Asia is growing particularly rapidly and chocolate manufacturers are increasing investment in this region. However, in many Asian countries, cocoa production is hampered due to many reasons including technological, political and socio-economic issues. This review provides an overview of the present status of global cocoa production and recent advances in biotechnological applications for cacao improvement, with special emphasis on genetics/genomics, in vitro embryogenesis and genetic transformation. In addition, in order to obtain an insight into the latest innovations in the commercial sector, a survey was conducted on granted patents relating to T. cacao biotechnology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of Brazilian biotechnology patent activity from 1975 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, F; Delfim, F; Drummond, I; Carmo, A O; Barroca, T M; Horta, C C; Kalapothakis, E

    2012-08-01

    The analysis of patent activity is one methodology used for technological monitoring. In this paper, the activity of biotechnology-related patents in Brazil were analyzed through 30 International Patent Classification (IPC) codes published by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). We developed a program to analyse the dynamics of the major patent applicants, countries and IPC codes extracted from the Brazilian Patent Office (INPI) database. We also identified Brazilian patent applicants who tried to expand protection abroad via the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT). We had access to all patents published online at the INPI from 1975 to July 2010, including 9,791 biotechnology patent applications in Brazil, and 163 PCTs published online at World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) from 1997 to December 2010. To our knowledge, there are no other online reports of biotechnology patents previous to the years analyzed here. Most of the biotechnology patents filed in the INPI (10.9%) concerned measuring or testing processes involving nucleic acids. The second and third places belonged to patents involving agro-technologies (recombinant DNA technology for plant cells and new flowering plants, i.e. angiosperms, or processes for obtaining them, and reproduction of flowering plants by tissue culture techniques). The majority of patents (87.2%) were filed by nonresidents, with USA being responsible for 51.7% of all biotechnology patents deposited in Brazil. Analyzing the resident applicants per region, we found a hub in the southeast region of Brazil. Among the resident applicants for biotechnology patents filed in the INPI, 43.5% were from São Paulo, 18.3% were from Rio de Janeiro, and 9.7% were from Minas Gerais. Pfizer, Novartis, and Sanofi were the largest applicants in Brazil, with 339, 288, and 245 biotechnology patents filed, respectively. For residents, the largest applicant was the governmental institution FIOCRUZ (Oswaldo Cruz

  8. Biotechnology and the Third World: Panacea or Recipe for Social Disaster? Academy for Educational Development 25th Anniversary Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morehouse, Ward

    Asserting that developmental growth is easier to attain in developing countries than social change, this paper assesses the prospective impact of biotechnology on the developing nations. Biotechnology is defined as the integrated use of biochemistry, microbiology, and chemical engineering to achieve the industrial processes of fermentation, enzyme…

  9. The impact of industrial biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soetaert, Wim; Vandamme, Erick

    2006-01-01

    In this review, the impact of industrial (or "white") biotechnology can have on our society and economy is discussed. An overview is given of industrial biotechnology and its applications in a number of product categories ranging from food ingredients, vitamins, bio-colorants, solvents, plastics and biofuels. The use of fossil resources is compared with renewable resources as the preferred feedstock for industrial biotechnology. A brief discussion is also given of the expected changes in society and technology, ranging from the shift in the supply of resources, the growing need for efficiency and sustainability of the production systems, changing consumer perception and behaviour and changing agricultural systems and practices. Many of these changes are expected to speed up the transition from a fossil-based to a bio-based economy and society.

  10. Current biotechnological developments in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masschelein, C A; Callegari, J P; Laurent, M; Simon, J P; Taeymans, D

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, actions have been undertaken by the Belgian government to promote process innovation and technical diversification. Research programs are initiated and coordinated by the study committee for biotechnology setup within the Institute for Scientific Research in Industry and Agriculture (IRSIA). As a result of this action, the main areas where biotechnological processes are developed or commercially exploited include plant genetics, protein engineering, hybridoma technology, biopesticides, production by genetic engineering of vaccines and drugs, monoclonal detection of human and animal deseases, process reactors for aerobic and anaerobic wastewater treatment, and genetic modification of yeast and bacteria as a base for biomass and energy. Development research also includes new fermentation technologies principally based on immobilization of microorganisms, reactor design, and optimization of unit operations involved in downstream processing. Food, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries are involved in genetic engineering and biotechnology and each of these sectors is overviewed in this paper.

  11. Synthetic microbial ecosystems for biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandhal, Jagroop; Noirel, Josselin

    2014-06-01

    Most highly controlled and specific applications of microorganisms in biotechnology involve pure cultures. Maintaining single strain cultures is important for industry as contaminants can reduce productivity and lead to longer "down-times" during sterilisation. However, microbes working together provide distinct advantages over pure cultures. They can undertake more metabolically complex tasks, improve efficiency and even expand applications to open systems. By combining rapidly advancing technologies with ecological theory, the use of microbial ecosystems in biotechnology will inevitably increase. This review provides insight into the use of synthetic microbial communities in biotechnology by applying the engineering paradigm of measure, model, manipulate and manufacture, and illustrate the emerging wider potential of the synthetic ecology field. Systems to improve biofuel production using microalgae are also discussed.

  12. Is biotechnology the new alchemy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, Georgiana

    2009-03-01

    In this article I examine similarities between the science and ethics of biotechnology on the one hand, and those of alchemy on the other, and show that the understanding of nature and naturalness upon which many contemporary ethical responses to biotechnology are predicated is, in fact, significantly similar to the understanding of nature that was the foundation of the practice of alchemy. In doing so I demonstrate that the ethical issues and social responses that are currently arising from advances in the field of biotechnology are interestingly similar to those that arose in reaction to the practice and prevalence of alchemy from its inception in Europe in the mid-twelfth century until at least the early modern period. I argue that a proper conception of the ethical issues and a sensible interpretation of the power and the promise of the science of biotechnology are most likely if we understand such attitudes to nature, and to the ethical issues surrounding technological and scientific developments, in terms of an historical and cultural continuum. That is, we should regard biotechnology as merely the latest in a string of technological and scientific developments rather than, as is often alleged, as something entirely new, requiring its own special ethical response. Finally, I suggest that examining the parallels between the ethical issues generated by alchemy and by biotechnology show us that such issues are best situated and discussed within a framework of virtue ethics, as it allows us to think seriously about the relationship between art and nature and the proper role of humans in relation to their technology.

  13. Biotechnology opportunities on Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Jess; Henderson, Keith; Phillips, Robert W.; Dickey, Bernistine; Grounds, Phyllis

    1987-01-01

    Biotechnology applications which could be implemented on the Space Station are examined. The advances possible in biotechnology due to the favorable microgravity environment are discussed. The objectives of the Space Station Life Sciences Program are: (1) the study of human diseases, (2) biopolymer processing, and (3) the development of cryoprocessing and cryopreservation methods. The use of the microgravity environment for crystal growth, cell culturing, and the separation of biological materials is considered. The proposed Space Station research could provide benefits to the fields of medicine, pharmaceuticals, genetics, agriculture, and industrial waste management.

  14. Management in biophotonics and biotechnologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meglinski, I. V.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2005-10-01

    Biophotonics, one of the most exciting and rapidly growing areas, offers vast potential for changing traditional approaches to meeting many critical needs in medicine, biology, pharmacy, food, health care and cosmetic industries. Follow the market trends we developed new MSc course Management in Biophotonics and Biotechnologies (MBB) that provide students of technical disciplines with the necessary training, education and problem-solving skills to produce professionals and managers who are better equipped to handle the challenges of modern science and business in biophotonics and biotechnology. A major advantage of the course is that it provides skills not currently available to graduates in other Master programs.

  15. Ethical aspects of biotechnology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, M

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines ethical issues associated with two recent major developments in biotechnology: 1. The question of whether it is ethically acceptable to patent living organisms and genes and 2. Ethical issues related to the ability to predict or prognosticate disease susceptibility using increasingly refined genetic markers. In both instances, a pragmatic consequentialist approach is proposed which encourages biotechnology development while adhering to ethical standards. The paper concludes by encouraging public education about modern genetics in order to avoid inappropriate public fear and concern.

  16. Development of agricultural biotechnology and biosafety regulations used to assess the safety of genetically modified crops in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Amir; Malboobi, Mohammad A; Esmailzadeh, Nasrin S

    2007-01-01

    Rapid progress in the application of biotechnological methodologies and development of genetically modified crops in Iran necessitated intensive efforts to establish proper organizations and prepare required rules and regulations at the national level to ensure safe application of biotechnology in all pertinent aspects. Practically, preparation of a national biotechnology strategic plan in the country coincided with development of a national biosafety framework that was the basis for the drafted biosafety law. Although biosafety measures were observed by researchers voluntarily, the establishment of national biosafety organizations since the year 2000 built a great capacity to deal with biosafety issues in the present and future time, particularly with respect to food and agricultural biotechnology.

  17. Membrane engineering in biotechnology: quo vamus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Gilbert M; Belleville, Marie-Pierre; Paolucci-Jeanjean, Delphine

    2007-06-01

    Membranes are essential to a range of applications, including the production of potable water, energy generation, tissue repair, pharmaceutical production, food packaging, and the separations needed for the manufacture of chemicals, electronics and a range of other products. Therefore, they are considered to be "dominant technologies" by governments and industry in several prominent countries--for example, USA, Japan and China. When combined with catalysts, membranes are at the basis of life, and membrane-based biomimetism is a key tool to obtain better quality products and environmentally friendly developments for our societies. Biology has a main part in this global landscape because it simultaneously provides the "model" (with natural biological membranes) and represents a considerable field of applications for new artificial membranes (biotreatments, bioconversions and artificial organs). In this article, our objective is to open up this enthralling area and to give our views about the future of membranes in biotechnology.

  18. A cross-sectional study of biotechnology awareness and teaching in European high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderschuren, Hervé; Heinzmann, Dominik; Faso, Carmen; Stupak, Martin; Arga, Kazim Yalçin; Hoerzer, Helen; Laizet, Yech'an; Leduchowska, Paulina; Silva, Nádia; Simková, Klára

    2010-12-31

    Undoubtedly, biotechnology has a tremendous impact on our daily lives. As a result of this and in parallel to the advancement of knowledge in this field of applied research, consumer awareness of the potential benefits and risks of this technology has steadily increased, leading to a thorough investigation of the public perception of biotechnology in the past years. Indeed, it has become clear that it is in the general interest of science and especially of applied research to inform the public of its advances. A promising next step is to strengthen biotechnology communication in scholastic institutions. In this paper, we investigate the perception of biotechnology in a specific target group, namely high-school students in the 16-20-year-old age range. We conducted a questionnaire-based survey on a total of 1410 students in six European countries to investigate students' perception, concern, scientific knowledge, and awareness. Our data revealed some unexpected patterns of acceptance and concern about biotechnology. Knowledge analysis indicated that pupils lack specific knowledge about biotechnological applications and their interest in biotechnology appeared to be linked to knowledge. Analysis of specific questions about teaching practices at schools suggests that a better targeted choice in media as vehicles for information together with selected speakers could be instrumental in increasing students' interest in science and more specifically in biotechnology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of technology generating institutions in biotechnology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... generating institutions in biotechnology innovation system of South-Eastern Nigeria. ... data from a sample of forty-three heads of departments from research institutes and ... for development and safe application of biotechnology innovations.

  20. Applied thermodynamics: A new frontier for biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    The scientific career of one of the most outstanding scientists in molecular thermodynamics, Professor John M. Prausnitz at Berkeley, reflects the change in the agenda of molecular thermodynamics, from hydrocarbon chemistry to biotechnology. To make thermodynamics a frontier for biotechnology...

  1. Modernizing the Regulatory System for Biotechnology Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Web page describes the continuing effort to modernize the federal regulatory system for biotechnology products as well as clarify various roles of EPA, FDA and USDA in evaluating new biotechnology products.

  2. Assessment of technology generating institutions in biotechnology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... biotechnology innovation system of South-Eastern. Nigeria. E. N. Ajani, M. C. ... Agricultural biotechnology provides new technological tools and aims to ..... constraints include poor fringe benefit to researchers ( x. = 2.90) ...

  3. Biotechnology and society: we scientists have responsibilities too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaull, G E; Woo, R W

    1996-04-01

    When a new technology is introduced, scientists can help improve public understanding and acceptance. In the case of biotechnology, scientists should communicate more effectively: to provide accurate scientific data to facilitate policy analysis; to clarify issues in active political debate; to explain science to the lay public to dispel general ignorance and enable rational choice; to assist the media in producing more thoughtful journalism; to share expertise to allow beneficial applications in developing countries; and to advance scientific discovery.

  4. Public Acceptance of Plant Biotechnology and GM Crops

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A wide gap exists between the rapid acceptance of genetically modified (GM) crops for cultivation by farmers in many countries and in the global markets for food and feed, and the often-limited acceptance by consumers. This review contrasts the advances of practical applications of agricultural biotechnology with the divergent paths—also affecting the development of virus resistant transgenic crops—of political and regulatory frameworks for GM crops and food in different parts of the world. T...

  5. COUNTRIES BETWEEN 2002 AND 2025

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    modern biotechnology are to be brought to all of the world's people .... problems, but hungry people in the developing world have only one ... countries will be denied an important solution to the ... broad base of modern varieties of these major food crops .... introducing key prolin synthesis enzymes, it is intended to make a ...

  6. Biotechnology Facility (BTF) for ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Engineering mockup shows the general arrangement of the plarned Biotechnology Facility inside an EXPRESS rack aboard the International Space Station. This layout includes a gas supply module (bottom left), control computer and laptop interface (bottom right), two rotating wall vessels (top right), and support systems.

  7. Biotechnological sulphide removal with oxygen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buisman, C.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis deals with the development of a new process for biotechnological sulphide removal from wastewater, in which it is attempted to convert sulphide into elemental sulphur by colourless sulphur bacteria. The toxicity, corrosive properties, unpleasant odor and high oxygen demand of sulphide di

  8. Infusing Authentic Inquiry into Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanegan, Nikki L.; Bigler, Amber

    2009-01-01

    Societal benefit depends on the general public's understandings of biotechnology (Betsch in "World J Microbiol Biotechnol" 12:439-443, 1996; Dawson and Cowan in "Int J Sci Educ" 25(1):57-69, 2003; Schiller in "Business Review: Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia" (Fourth Quarter), 2002; Smith and Emmeluth in "Am Biol Teach" 64(2):93-99, 2002). A…

  9. Marine biotechnology: Opportunities for India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, D.

    the variety of bio-active compounds available in marine organisms, the pharmaceutical and other industries can expect more and more new compounds for useful applications in human society. A brief review of the work done in the field of marine biotechnology...

  10. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF THE FISH AQUACULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Buchatsky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The latest progress in biotechnology on fish aquaculture and different modern methods of investigations for increasing of fish productivity in aquaculture are analyzed. Except for the applied aspect, the use of modern biotechnological methods of investigations opens new possibilities for fundamental researches of sex-determining mechanisms, polyploidy, distant hybridization, and developmental biology of bony fishes. Review contains examples of utilizing modern biotechnology methods to obtain transgenic fishes with accelerated growth and for designing surrogate fishes. Methods for receiving unisexual shoals of salmon and sturgeon female fishes with the view of obtaining a large quantity of caviar, as well as receiving sterile (triploid fishes are analyzed. Great attention is given to androgenesis, particularly to disperm one, in connection with the problem of conserving rare and vanishing fish species using only sperm genetic material. Examples how distant hybrids may be obtained with the use of disperm androgenesis and alkylated DNA are given. Methods of obtaining fish primordium germ cells, recent developments in cultivation of fish stem cells and their use in biotechnology, as well as ones of transplantation of oogonium and spermatogonium to obtain surrogate fishes. The examples of successful experiments on spermatogonial xenotransplantation and characteristic of antifreezing fish proteins and also the prospect of their practical usage are given.

  11. The Future of Plant Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant biotechnology has been wildly successful and has literally transformed plant agriculture. There are still undulating concerns about safety and sustainability that critics demand to be addressed. In that light, there are some biotechnoloogies that are being developed that might not only improve...

  12. The Development of Plant Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrey, John G.

    1985-01-01

    Examines major lines of thought leading to what is meant by plant biotechnology, namely, the application of existing techniques of plant organ, tissue, and cell culture, plant molecular biology, and genetic engineering to the improvement of plants and of plant productivity for the benefit of man. (JN)

  13. Cotton, biotechnology, and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Baffes, John

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade, cotton prices remained considerably below other agricultural prices (although they recovered toward the end of 2010). Yet, between 2000-04 and 2005-09 world cotton production increased 13 percent. This paper conjectures that biotechnology-induced productivity improvements increased supplies by China and India, which, in addition to keeping cotton prices low, aided t...

  14. Biotechnology and the developing world. Finding ways to bridge the agricultural technology gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platais, K W; Collinson, M P

    1992-03-01

    Biotechnology is a controversial subject that involves a range of scientific principles from basic tissue culture to genetic manipulation. Proponents include private sector capitalists, public sector researchers, and developing nation governments. Opponents include environmental organizations and social organizations involved in protecting the rights of developing nations. Biotechnology is being presented as the next step after the Green Revolution and the only way that the people of the developing world will be able to feed themselves in the next half century. Research by industrialized nations world wide total an estimated $11 billion with 66% being contributed by the private sector. Biotechnology represents somewhat of a dilemma. Since the majority of the work is being done by the private sector the interests of shareholders and profit are greater done by the private sector the interests of shareholders and profit are greater than that of public welfare or safety. The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) is one public sector group that is concerned about this problem. The countries of the developing world fall into 2 categories in relation to use of biotechnology: (1) those that have the potential to adapt imported biotechnologies to local conditions; (2) those that have little or no applied research capacity to effectively use biotechnologies. Currently only Brazil, China, India, and Thailand belong in the 1st category, all other developing countries fall into the 2nd. CGIAR believes it can help in 2 ways: (1) it can provide a bridge for needed information and germplasm between developed and developing countries; (2) it can help to ensure that the agricultural needs of developing countries are not lost. In 1990 CGIAR's plant and animal biotechnology research totaled $14.5 million which was less than 5% of the total CGIAR budget. Networking and institutions building are areas that CGIAR focuses on in an attempt to increase its affect

  15. Turkish university students' knowledge of biotechnology and attitudes toward biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk-Akar, Ebru

    2016-09-10

    This study questions the presumed relation between formal schooling and scientific literacy about biotechnologies. Comparing science and nonscience majors' knowledge of and attitudes toward biotechnological applications, conclusions are drawn if their formal learnings improve pupils' understandings of and attitudes toward biotechnology applications. Sample of the study consists of 403 undergraduate and graduate students, 198 nonscience, and 205 science majors. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire and the Biotechnology Attitude Questionnaire were administered. Descriptive statistics (mean and percentages), t test, and correlations were used to examine the participants' knowledge of biotechnology and attitudes toward biotechnological applications and differences as regards their majors. Although the science majors had higher knowledge and attitude scores than the nonscience majors, it is not possible to say that they have sufficient knowledge of biotechnologies. Besides, the participants' attitudes toward biotechnological applications were not considerably related to their knowledge of biotechnology. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2016.

  16. Biotechnology: Challenge for the food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Stevan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the broadest definition, biotechnology is the use of living matter (plants, animals and microorganisms in industry, environment protection, medicine and agriculture. Biotechnology takes a key position in the field of food processing during thousands of years. Last about fifty years brought dynamical development of knowledges in the natural sciences especially in domain of genetics and manipulation of genes. Biotechnology for which active role in the on-coming times could be foreseen, not only with respect of R&D, but also in general technological development represents scope of priority in the USA and in European Union (EU as well. It is accepted that the results achieved in biotechnology oversize scientific domain and find their entrance into economics, legislation, quality of life and even of politics. Corresponding with the definition of biotechnology as "the integration of natural sciences and engineering in the application of microorganisms, cells, their components and molecular analogues in production (General assembly of the European federation for Biotechnology, 1989 European Commission (1999 adopted the biotechnological taxonomy, i.e. fields and sub-fields of biotechnology. R&D activities in this domain are oriented to eight fields and branched through them. Fields of biotechnology (EC, 1999 are: 1 Plant biotechnology (agricultural cultivars, trees, bushes etc; 2 Animal biotechnology; 3 Biotechnology in environment protection; 4 Industrial biotechnology (food, feed, paper, textile, pharmaceutical and chemical productions; 5 Industrial biotechnology (production of cells and research of cells - producers of food and of other commodities; 6 Development of humane and veterinarian diagnostics (therapeutical systems 7 Development of the basic biotechnology, and 8 Nontechnical domains of biotechnology. In concordance with some judgments, in the World exist about 4000 biotechnological companies. World market of biotechnological

  17. A novel approach for harnessing biofilm communities in moving bed biofilm reactors for industrial wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe A. Lemire

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs are an effective biotechnology for treating industrial wastewater. Biomass retention on moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR carriers (biofilm support materials, allows for the ease-of-operation and high treatment capacity of MBBR systems. Optimization of MBBR systems has largely focused on aspects of carrier design, while little attention has been paid to enhancing strategies for harnessing microbial biomass. Previously, our research group demonstrated that mixed-species biofilms can be harvested from an industrial wastewater inoculum [oil sands process water (OSPW] using the Calgary Biofilm Device (CBD. Moreover, the resultant biofilm communities had the capacity to degrade organic toxins (naphthenic acids—NAs that are found in OSPW. Therefore, we hypothesized that harnessing microbial communities from industrial wastewater, as biofilms, on MBBR carriers may be an effective method to bioremediate industrial wastewater.Here, we detail our methodology adapting the workflow employed for using the CBD, to generate inoculant carriers to seed an MBBR.In this study, OSPW-derived biofilm communities were successfully grown, and their efficacy evaluated, on commercially available MBBR carriers affixed within a modified CBD system. The resultant biofilms demonstrated the capacity to transfer biomass to recipient carriers within a scaled MBBR. Moreover, MBBR systems inoculated in this manner were fully active 2 days post-inoculation, and readily degraded a select population of NAs. Together, these findings suggest that harnessing microbial communities on carriers affixed within a modified CBD system may represent a facile and rapid method for obtaining functional inoculants for use in wastewater MBBR treatment systems.

  18. The costly benefits of opposing agricultural biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Andrew

    2010-11-30

    Rigorous application of a simple definition of what constitutes opposition to agricultural biotechnology readily encompasses a wide array of key players in national and international systems of food production, distribution and governance. Even though the sum of political and financial benefits of opposing agricultural biotechnology appears vastly to outweigh the benefits which accrue to providers of agricultural biotechnology, technology providers actually benefit from this opposition. If these barriers to biotechnology were removed, subsistence farmers still would not represent a lucrative market for improved seed. The sum of all interests involved ensures that subsistence farmers are systematically denied access to agricultural biotechnology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Current state of biotechnology in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundar, Munis; Akbarova, Yagut

    2011-09-01

    Biotechnology is an interdisciplinary branch of science that encompasses a wide range of subjects like genetics, virology, microbiology, immunology, engineering to develop vaccines, and so on and plays a vital role in health systems, crop and seed management, yield improvement, agriculture, soil management, ecology, animal farming, cellular process, bio statistics, and so on. This article is about activities in medical and pharmaceutical biotechnology, environmental biotechnology, agricultural biotechnology and nanobiotechnology carried out in Turkey. Turkey has made some progress in biotechnology projects for research and development.

  20. Biomining-biotechnologies for extracting and recovering metals from ores and waste materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D Barrie

    2014-12-01

    The abilities of acidophilic chemolithotrophic bacteria and archaea to accelerate the oxidative dissolution of sulfide minerals have been harnessed in the development and application of a biotechnology for extracting metals from sulfidic ores and concentrates. Biomining is currently used primarily to leach copper sulfides and as an oxidative pretreatment for refractory gold ores, though it is also used to recover other base metals, such as cobalt, nickel and zinc. Recent developments have included using acidophiles to process electronic wastes, to extract metals from oxidized ores, and to selectively recover metals from process waters and waste streams. This review describes the microorganisms and mechanisms involved in commercial biomining operations, how the technology has developed over the past 50 years, and discusses the challenges and opportunities for mineral biotechnologies in the 21st century.

  1. Microbially derived artemisinin: a biotechnology solution to the global problem of access to affordable antimalarial drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Victoria; Keasling, Jay D; Renninger, Neil; Diagana, Thierry T

    2007-12-01

    Despite considerable efforts by multiple governmental and nongovernmental organizations to increase access to artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs), these life-saving antimalarial drugs remain largely unaffordable to the most vulnerable populations. The cost of artemisinin derivatives, ACTs' crucial active ingredients, contributes significantly to the high price of these therapies. With a grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, a partnership between Amyris Biotechnologies, the Institute for OneWorld Health, and the University of California, Berkeley is using synthetic biology to help reduce the cost of artemisinin. This article presents a description of the technological platform the partnership--called the Artemisinin Project--is developing to manufacture a low-cost, semi-synthetic artemisinin through a fermentation process. By making life-saving ACTs affordable to the people who most need them, the Artemisinin Project hopes to show that the power of biotechnology can be harnessed to provide solutions to global health problems.

  2. The rise (and decline?) of biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinch, Michael S

    2014-11-01

    Since the 1970s, biotechnology has been a key innovator in drug development. An analysis of FDA-approved therapeutics demonstrates pharmaceutical companies outpace biotechs in terms of new approvals but biotechnology companies are now responsible for earlier-stage activities (patents, INDs or clinical development). The number of biotechnology organizations that contributed to an FDA approval began declining in the 2000s and is at a level not seen since the 1980s. Whereas early biotechnology companies had a decade from first approval until acquisition, the average acquisition of a biotechnology company now occurs months before their first FDA approval. The number of hybrid organizations that arise when pharmaceutical companies acquire biotechnology is likewise declining, raising questions about the sustainability of biotechnology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Agricultural biotechnology safety assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Scott; Jones, Wendelyn; He, Xiaoyun; Ladics, Gregory; Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Raybould, Alan; Lutter, Petra; Xu, Haibin; Wang, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first introduced to farmers in 1995 with the intent to provide better crop yield and meet the increasing demand for food and feed. GM crops have evolved to include a thorough safety evaluation for their use in human food and animal feed. Safety considerations begin at the level of DNA whereby the inserted GM DNA is evaluated for its content, position and stability once placed into the crop genome. The safety of the proteins coded by the inserted DNA and potential effects on the crop are considered, and the purpose is to ensure that the transgenic novel proteins are safe from a toxicity, allergy, and environmental perspective. In addition, the grain that provides the processed food or animal feed is also tested to evaluate its nutritional content and identify unintended effects to the plant composition when warranted. To provide a platform for the safety assessment, the GM crop is compared to non-GM comparators in what is typically referred to as composition equivalence testing. New technologies, such as mass spectrometry and well-designed antibody-based methods, allow better analytical measurements of crop composition, including endogenous allergens. Many of the analytical methods and their intended uses are based on regulatory guidance documents, some of which are outlined in globally recognized documents such as Codex Alimentarius. In certain cases, animal models are recommended by some regulatory agencies in specific countries, but there is typically no hypothesis or justification of their use in testing the safety of GM crops. The quality and standardization of testing methods can be supported, in some cases, by employing good laboratory practices (GLP) and is recognized in China as important to ensure quality data. Although the number of recommended, in some cases, required methods for safety testing are increasing in some regulatory agencies, it should be noted that GM crops registered to date have been shown to be

  4. Harnessing yeast organelles for metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Sarah K; Avalos, José L

    2017-08-01

    Each subcellular compartment in yeast offers a unique physiochemical environment and metabolite, enzyme, and cofactor composition. While yeast metabolic engineering has focused on assembling pathways in the cell cytosol, there is growing interest in embracing subcellular compartmentalization. Beyond harnessing distinct organelle properties, physical separation of organelles from the cytosol has the potential to eliminate metabolic crosstalk and enhance compartmentalized pathway efficiency. In this Perspective we review the state of the art in yeast subcellular engineering, highlighting the benefits of targeting biosynthetic pathways to subcellular compartments, including mitochondria, peroxisomes, the ER and/or Golgi, vacuoles, and the cell wall, in different yeast species. We compare the performances of strains developed with subcellular engineering to those of native producers or yeast strains previously engineered with cytosolic pathways. We also identify important challenges that lie ahead, which need to be addressed for organelle engineering to become as mainstream as cytosolic engineering in academia and industry.

  5. Harnessing supramolecular peptide nanotechnology in biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kiat Hwa; Lee, Wei Hao; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Ni, Ming

    2017-01-01

    The harnessing of peptides in biomedical applications is a recent hot topic. This arises mainly from the general biocompatibility of peptides, as well as from the ease of tunability of peptide structure to engineer desired properties. The ease of progression from laboratory testing to clinical trials is evident from the plethora of examples available. In this review, we compare and contrast how three distinct self-assembled peptide nanostructures possess different functions. We have 1) nanofibrils in biomaterials that can interact with cells, 2) nanoparticles that can traverse the bloodstream to deliver its payload and also be bioimaged, and 3) nanotubes that can serve as cross-membrane conduits and as a template for nanowire formation. Through this review, we aim to illustrate how various peptides, in their various self-assembled nanostructures, possess great promise in a wide range of biomedical applications and what more can be expected. PMID:28223805

  6. Harnessing dendritic cells in inflammatory skin diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chung-Ching; Di Meglio, Paola; Nestle, Frank O

    2011-02-01

    The skin immune system harbors a complex network of dendritic cells (DCs). Recent studies highlight a diverse functional specialization of skin DC subsets. In addition to generating cellular and humoral immunity against pathogens, skin DCs are involved in tolerogenic mechanisms to ensure the maintenance of immune homeostasis, as well as in pathogenesis of chronic inflammation in the skin when excessive immune responses are initiated and unrestrained. Harnessing DCs by directly targeting DC-derived molecules or selectively modulate DC subsets is a convincing strategy to tackle inflammatory skin diseases. In this review we discuss recent advances underlining the functional specialization of skin DCs and discuss the potential implication for future DC-based therapeutic strategies.

  7. Harnessing Dendritic Cells for Tumor Antigen Presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nierkens, Stefan [Department of Tumor Immunology, Nijmegen Centre for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Geert Grooteplein 28, Nijmegen 6525 GA (Netherlands); Janssen, Edith M., E-mail: edith.janssen@cchmc.org [Division of Molecular Immunology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Research Foundation, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States)

    2011-04-26

    Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen presenting cells that are crucial for the induction of anti-tumor T cell responses. As a consequence, research has focused on the harnessing of DCs for therapeutic interventions. Although current strategies employing ex vivo-generated and tumor-antigen loaded DCs have been proven feasible, there are still many obstacles to overcome in order to improve clinical trial successes and offset the cost and complexity of customized cell therapy. This review focuses on one of these obstacles and a pivotal step for the priming of tumor-specific CD8{sup +} and CD4{sup +} T cells; the in vitro loading of DCs with tumor antigens.

  8. Microfluidic tools toward industrial biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Aline F; Pessoa, Amanda C S N; Bastos, Reinaldo G; de la Torre, Lucimara G

    2016-11-01

    Microfluidics is a technology that operates with small amounts of fluids and makes possible the investigation of cells, enzymes, and biomolecules and encapsulation of biocatalysts in a greater variety of conditions than permitted using conventional methods. This review discusses technological possibilities that can be applied in the field of industrial biotechnology, presenting the principal definitions and fundamental aspects of microfluidic parameters to better understand advanced approaches. Specifically, concentration gradient generators, droplet-based microfluidics, and microbioreactors are explored as useful tools that can contribute to industrial biotechnology. These tools present potential applications, inclusive as commercial platforms to optimizing in bioprocesses development as screening cells, encapsulating biocatalysts, and determining critical kinetic parameters. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1372-1389, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  9. Biotechnology Science Experiments on Mir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, Roger L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the microgravity biotechnology experiments carried out on the Shuttle/Mir program. Four experiments investigated the growth of protein crystals, and three investigated cellular growth. Many hundreds of protein samples were processed using four different techniques. The objective of these experiments was to determine optimum conditions for the growth of very high quality single crystals to be used for structure determination. The Biotechnology System (BTS) was used to process the three cell growth investigations. The samples processed by these experiments were: bovine chondrocytes, human renal epithelial cells, and human breast cancer cells and endothelial cells. The objective was to determine the unique properties of cell aggregates produced in the microgravity environment.

  10. New challenges in microalgae biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Federico; Romero-Campero, Francisco J; León, Rosa; Guerrero, Miguel G; Serrano, Aurelio

    2016-08-01

    Photosynthetic protists, also called microalgae, have been systematically studied for more than a century. However, only recently broad biotechnological applications have fostered a novel wave of research on their potentialities as sustainable resources of renewable energy as well as valuable industrial and agro-food products. At the recent VII European Congress of Protistology held in Seville, three outstanding examples of different research strategies on microalgae with biotechnological implications were presented, which suggested that integrative approaches will produce very significant advances in this field in the next future. In any case, intense research and the application of systems biology and genetic engineering techniques are absolutely essential to reach the full potential of microalgae as cell-factories of bio-based products and, therefore, could contribute significantly to solve the problems of biosustainability and energy shortage.

  11. Biotechnology Science Experiments on Mir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, Roger L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the microgravity biotechnology experiments carried out on the Shuttle/Mir program. Four experiments investigated the growth of protein crystals, and three investigated cellular growth. Many hundreds of protein samples were processed using four different techniques. The objective of these experiments was to determine optimum conditions for the growth of very high quality single crystals to be used for structure determination. The Biotechnology System (BTS) was used to process the three cell growth investigations. The samples processed by these experiments were: bovine chondrocytes, human renal epithelial cells, and human breast cancer cells and endothelial cells. The objective was to determine the unique properties of cell aggregates produced in the microgravity environment.

  12. Drugs obtained by biotechnology processing

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo de Almeida; Maria Helena Amaral; Paulo Lobão

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the number of drugs of biotechnological origin available for many different diseases has increased exponentially, including different types of cancer, diabetes mellitus, infectious diseases (e.g. AIDS Virus / HIV) as well as cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, and autoimmune diseases, among others. The pharmaceutical industry has used different technologies to obtain new and promising active ingredients, as exemplified by the fermentation technique, recombinant DNA tec...

  13. Applications of cyanobacteria in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, R M M; Dobretsov, S; Sudesh, K

    2009-01-01

    Cyanobacteria have gained a lot of attention in recent years because of their potential applications in biotechnology. We present an overview of the literature describing the uses of cyanobacteria in industry and services sectors and provide an outlook on the challenges and future prospects of the field of cyanobacterial biotechnology. Cyanobacteria have been identified as a rich source of biologically active compounds with antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer activities. Several strains of cyanobacteria were found to accumulate polyhydroxyalkanoates, which can be used as a substitute for nonbiodegradable petrochemical-based plastics. Recent studies showed that oil-polluted sites are rich in cyanobacterial consortia capable of degrading oil components. Cyanobacteria within these consortia facilitated the degradation processes by providing the associated oil-degrading bacteria with the necessary oxygen, organics and fixed nitrogen. Cyanobacterial hydrogen has been considered as a very promising source of alternative energy, and has now been made commercially available. In addition to these applications, cyanobacteria are also used in aquaculture, wastewater treatment, food, fertilizers, production of secondary metabolites including exopolysaccharides, vitamins, toxins, enzymes and pharmaceuticals. Future research should focus on isolating new cyanobacterial strains producing high value products and genetically modifying existing strains to ensure maximum production of the desired products. Metagenomic libraries should be constructed to discover new functional genes that are involved in the biosynthesis of biotechnological relevant compounds. Large-scale industrial production of the cyanobacterial products requires optimization of incubation conditions and fermenter designs in order to increase productivity.

  14. Insect Cell Culture and Biotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert R.Granados; Guoxun Li; G.W.Blissard

    2007-01-01

    The continued development of new cell culture technology is essential for the future growth and application of insect cell and baculovirus biotechnology. The use of cell lines for academic research and for commercial applications is currently dominated by two cell lines; the Spodoptera frugiperda line, SF21 (and its clonal isolate, SF9), and the Trichoplusia ni line, BTI 5B1-4, commercially known as High Five cells. The long perceived prediction that the immense potential application of the baculovirus-insect cell system, as a tool in cell and molecular biology, agriculture, and animal health, has been achieved. The versatility and recent applications of this popular expression system has been demonstrated by both academia and industry and it is clear that this cell-based system has been widely accepted for biotechnological applications. Numerous small to midsize startup biotechnology companies in North America and the Europe are currently using the baculovirus-insect cell technology to produce custom recombinant proteins for research and commercial applications. The recent breakthroughs using the baculovirus-insect cell-based system for the development of several commercial products that will impact animal and human health will further enhance interest in this technology by pharma. Clearly, future progress in novel cell and engineering advances will lead to fundamental scientific discoveries and serve to enhance the utility and applications of this baculovirus-insect cell system.

  15. 42 CFR 84.151 - Harness test; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Respirators § 84.151 Harness test; minimum requirements. (a)(1) Shoulder straps employed on Type A supplied-air respirators shall be tested for strength of material, joints, and seams and must separately... harness employed on Type B supplied-air respirators shall not be uncomfortable, disturbing, or...

  16. 42 CFR 84.201 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Cartridge Respirators § 84.201 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a)(1) Facepieces for chemical cartridge respirators other than single-use vinyl chloride shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable... chloride respirators shall be equipped with adjustable head harnesses designed and constructed to...

  17. Alderdommen er ikke, hvad den har været

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Tine; Munksgaard, Marianne Eilsø

    2009-01-01

    Samtidens alderende personer har hang til forsat udvikling i alderdommens livsalder og protesterer derfor imod forestillingen om aldringens universelle naturlov, hvor man i alderdommen har sygdom og død tæt inde på livet, at det eneste man skal bekymre sig om er at afvikle sit liv. Men alderdomme...

  18. A KBE Application for Automatic Aircraft Wire Harness Routing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Z.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.; La Rocca, G.

    2012-01-01

    Wire harness design is an increasingly complex task. Knowledge Based Engineering (KBE) and optimization techniques can be used to support designers in handling this complexity. The wire harness design process can be divided in three main parts, namely electrical design, configuration design and geom

  19. High throughput biotechnology in traditional fermented food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Xu, Rong-man; Song, Jia; Wang, Wei-min

    2010-11-01

    Traditional fermented food is not only the staple food for most of developing countries but also the key healthy food for developed countries. As the healthy function of these foods are gradually discovered, more and more high throughput biotechnologies are being used to promote the old and new industry. As a result, the microflora, manufacturing processes and product healthy function of these foods were pushed forward either in the respect of profundity or extensiveness nowadays. The application and progress of the high throughput biotechnologies into traditional fermented food industries were different from each other, which was reviewed and detailed by the catalogues of fermented milk products (yogurt, cheese), fermented sausages, fermented vegetables (kimchi, sauerkraut), fermented cereals (sourdough) and fermented beans (tempeh, natto). Given the further promotion by high throughput biotechnologies, the middle and/or down-stream process of traditional fermented foods would be optimized and the process of industrialization of local traditional fermented food having many functional factors but in small quantity would be accelerated. The article presents some promising patents on traditional fermented food industry.

  20. Connecting learners: The role of biotechnology programme in preparing students for the industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Saruan, Nadiah; Sagran, Avinash; Fadzil, Kamal Solhaimi; Razali, Zuliana; Ow Phui San, Rebecca; Somasundram, Chandran

    2015-01-01

    The recent growth of biotechnology requires a wide range of expertise within the industry. Education is the primary platform for students to gain information and knowledge on biotechnology. In Malaysia where biotechnology is relatively new, education programs and courses must be tailored to meet the demands of the industry. A combination of theoretical knowledge as well as practical and industrial training is essential to ensure graduates are prepared for their career in the fields of biotechnology. Results from this study show that university students lack literacy on biotechnology information and access to facilities provided by the universities. This may be a significant contributing factor to the lack of knowledge and information amongst graduates. Furthermore comparative analysis on the biotechnology program in Malaysian universities with that of other countries show the need to restructure the program by offering more specialized courses as well as soft skills and business subjects. This is to meet the demands of the related professionals as well as the various branches that exist in the biotechnology industry. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  1. [Sustainable production of bulk chemicals by application of "white biotechnology"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, M K; Dornburg, V; Hermann, B G; Shen, Li; van Overbeek, Leo

    2008-12-01

    Practically all organic chemicals and plastics are nowadays produced from crude oil and natural gas. However, it is possible to produce a wide range of bulk chemicals from renewable resources by application of biotechnology. This paper focuses on White Biotechnology, which makes use of bacteria (or yeasts) or enzymes for the conversion of the fermentable sugar to the target product. It is shown that White Biotechnology offers substantial savings of non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for nearly all of the products studied. Under favorable boundary conditions up to two thirds (67%) of the current non-renewable energy use for the production of the selected chemicals can be saved by 2050 if substantial technological progress is made and if the use of lignocellulosic feedstocks is successfully developed. The analysis for Europe (E.U. 25 countries) shows that land requirements related to White Biotechnology chemicals are not likely to become a critical issue in the next few decades, especially considering the large unused and underutilized resources in Eastern Europe. Substantial macroeconomic savings can be achieved under favourable boundary conditions. In principle, natural bacteria and enzymes can be used for White Biotechnology but, according to many experts in the fields, Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) will be necessary in order to achieve the high yields, concentrations and productivities that are required to reach economic viability. Safe containment and inactivation of GMOs after release is very important because not all possible implications caused by the interaction of recombinant genes with other populations can be foreseen. If adequate precautionary measures are taken, the risks related to the use of genetically modified organisms in White Biotechnology are manageable. We conclude that the core requirements to be fulfilled in order to make clear steps towards a bio-based chemical industry are substantial technological progress in the

  2. Intellectual Property Rights and Agro-Biotechnology: Limitations and Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Luz Yaya-Lancheros

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual property rights have led to stimulating innovation in different fields such as biotechnology. Patents, plant variety protection, industrial secrets and material transfer agreements are legal terms individually and/or collectively protecting materials or processes deemed necessary for agricultural-biotech product development. Such terms may often accumulate to such an extent that this hinders a product’s development and commercial release. Some current initiatives are aimed at facilitating access to basic technology for agricultural-biotech product development, including public organisation cooperation networks, requests for special licences for humanitarian programmes and open access projects. These may be good short-and medium-term alternatives for carrying out biotechnological research in countries like Colombia.

  3. Registration of two confection sunflower germplasm Lines, HA-R10 and HA-R11, Resistant to sunflower rust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasm lines, HA-R10 (Reg. No.xxx, PI670043) and HA-R11 (Reg. No.xxx, PI670044) were developed by the USDA-ARS Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit in collaboration with the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station and released December, 20...

  4. Registration of two double rust resistant germplasms, HA-R12 and HA-R13 for confection sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    The confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasms HA-R12 (Reg. No. ______, PI 673104) and HA-R13 (Reg. No. ______, PI 673105) were developed by the USDA-ARS, Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit in collaboration with the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station, and released in Jul...

  5. Agenda 21: biotechnology at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylhardat, A R; Zilinskas, R A

    1992-04-01

    Preparation has yet to be completed for the 1992 Earth Summit, UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Nonetheless, it has been planned as a forum in which recommendations will be made to governments and international organizations on how to alleviate environmental damage caused by human activities and how to prevent future damage without retarding development in the Third World. It will declare basic principles for national and individual conduct regarding environmental preservation and sustainable development; adopt international conventions to protect biodiversity and manage climatic change; lay out Agenda 21 activities as specified by UNCED; provide an agenda to help Third World governments manage environmental matters; and provide an agenda for improving the transfer of technology to developing countries. Where biotechnology is concerned, scientists and policy makers in developing countries have shown their interest. Limited resources and capabilities, however, constrain their abilities to engage in serious research and development. International organizations such as the UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) may help UNCED and developing countries with biotechnology. Since 1986, UNIDO has held the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB) as a special project. The ICGEB conducts research and development (R&D) on high priority topics in developing countries; trains scientific and technical personnel from member countries in advanced biotechnology techniques; helps member countries implement and operate ICGEB-affiliated R&D and training centers; and manages an information exchange for internationally affiliated centers. To maximize the potential of biotechnology to help Third World nations clear their environments of pollutants while safely exploiting natural resources, organizations should promote full use of available training resources; promote biosafety and the dissemination of

  6. "Harnessing genomics to improve health in Africa" – an executive course to support genomics policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer Peter A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Africa in the twenty-first century is faced with a heavy burden of disease, combined with ill-equipped medical systems and underdeveloped technological capacity. A major challenge for the international community is to bring scientific and technological advances like genomics to bear on the health priorities of poorer countries. The New Partnership for Africa's Development has identified science and technology as a key platform for Africa's renewal. Recognizing the timeliness of this issue, the African Centre for Technology Studies and the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics co-organized a course on Genomics and Public Health Policy in Nairobi, Kenya, the first of a series of similar courses to take place in the developing world. This article presents the findings and recommendations that emerged from this process, recommendations which suggest that a regional approach to developing sound science and technology policies is the key to harnessing genome-related biotechnology to improve health and contribute to human development in Africa. Methods The objectives of the course were to familiarize participants with the current status and implications of genomics for health in Africa; to provide frameworks for analyzing and debating the policy and ethical questions; and to begin developing a network across different sectors by sharing perspectives and building relationships. To achieve these goals the course brought together a diverse group of stakeholders from academic research centres, the media, non-governmental, voluntary and legal organizations to stimulate multi-sectoral debate around issues of policy. Topics included scientific advances in genomics innovation systems and business models, international regulatory frameworks, as well as ethical and legal issues. Results Seven main recommendations emerged: establish a network for sustained dialogue among participants; identify champions among politicians; use the

  7. Medical Biotechnology: Problems and Prospects in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikh Mizan

    2013-01-01

    Biotechnology is the knowledge and techniques of developing and using biological systems for deriving special products and services. The age-old technology took a new turn with the advent of recombinant DNA techniques, and boosted by the development of other molecular biological techniques, cell culture techniques and bioinformatics. Medical biotechnology is the major thrust area of biotechnology. It has brought revolutions in medicine – quick methods for diagnosing diseases, generation of ne...

  8. Editorial: Latest methods and advances in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Yup; Jungbauer, Alois

    2014-01-01

    The latest "Biotech Methods and Advances" special issue of Biotechnology Journal continues the BTJ tradition of featuring the latest breakthroughs in biotechnology. The special issue is edited by our Editors-in-Chief, Prof. Sang Yup Lee and Prof. Alois Jungbauer and covers a wide array of topics in biotechnology, including the perennial favorite workhorses of the biotech industry, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell and Escherichia coli. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Cancer Biotechnology | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotechnology advances continue to underscore the need to educate NCI fellows in new methodologies. The Cancer Biotechnology course will be held on the NCI-Frederick campus on January 29, 2016 (Bldg. 549, Main Auditorium) and the course will be repeated on the Bethesda campus on February 9, 2016 (Natcher Balcony C). The latest advances in DNA, protein and image analysis will be presented. Clinical and postdoctoral fellows who want to learn about new biotechnology advances are encouraged to attend this course.

  10. Relevance of chemistry to white biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Raghava Smita; Gupta Munishwar N

    2007-01-01

    Abstract White biotechnology is a fast emerging area that concerns itself with the use of biotechnological approaches in the production of bulk and fine chemicals, biofuels, and agricultural products. It is a truly multidisciplinary area and further progress depends critically on the role of chemists. This article outlines the emerging contours of white biotechnology and encourages chemists to take up some of the challenges that this area has thrown up.

  11. Relevance of chemistry to white biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghava Smita

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract White biotechnology is a fast emerging area that concerns itself with the use of biotechnological approaches in the production of bulk and fine chemicals, biofuels, and agricultural products. It is a truly multidisciplinary area and further progress depends critically on the role of chemists. This article outlines the emerging contours of white biotechnology and encourages chemists to take up some of the challenges that this area has thrown up.

  12. Relevance of chemistry to white biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Munishwar N; Raghava, Smita

    2007-06-20

    White biotechnology is a fast emerging area that concerns itself with the use of biotechnological approaches in the production of bulk and fine chemicals, biofuels, and agricultural products. It is a truly multidisciplinary area and further progress depends critically on the role of chemists. This article outlines the emerging contours of white biotechnology and encourages chemists to take up some of the challenges that this area has thrown up.

  13. Les Biotechnologies Marines dans le Grand Ouest

    OpenAIRE

    Boyen, Catherine; Jaouen, Pascal; Blanchard, Gilbert; Compere, Chantal; Dufour, Alain; Durand, Patrick; Guerard, Fabienne; Hallouin, Florence; Jebbar, Mohamed; Le Blay, Gwenaelle; Le Deit, Hervé; Le Seyec, Jocelyne; Monks, Brian; Portal-sellin, Rachel; Probert, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Marine (= blue) biotechnology, i.e. the utilization of marine bio-resources as a target or source of biotechnological applications, is a field with massive potential for innovation and economic growth. In a context of rapid climate change and increasing pressure on natural resources, renewed interest in marine biotechnology has been promoted by application of recent methodological and technological advances, notably in bioprocessing and in the various –omics domains, to the study of marine bi...

  14. The current biotechnology outlook in Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khairiah Salwa MOKHTAR; Ravi MAHALINGAM

    2010-01-01

    .... Biotechnology has been identified as an appropriate driver that can deliver economic gains through research and development, improvement of food security, creation of entrepreneurial opportunities...

  15. BIOTECHNOLOGY – SCIENCE AND SECTOR OF AGRICULTURE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doroshenko N. P; Troshin L. P; Alzubaidi K. K

    2016-01-01

    .... Biotechnology is now successfully solves such vital tasks as providing food, the establishment of effective medicaments, obtaining fuel based on renewable raw materials, maintaining ecological...

  16. Current status of biotechnology in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuchlík, Stanislav; Turna, Ján

    2013-07-01

    The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity defines biotechnology as: 'Any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use.' In other words biotechnology is 'application of scientific and technical advances in life science to develop commercial products' or briefly 'the use of molecular biology for useful purposes'. This short overview is about different branches of biotechnology carried out in Slovakia and it shows that Slovakia has a good potential for further development of modern biotechnologies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An Integrated Environmental Biotechnology for Enhanced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Integrated Environmental Biotechnology for Enhanced Bioremediation of Crude Oil ... nitrogen fixation and cometabolism of solubilized petroleum hydrocarbons. ... suggests a significant soil fertility recovery to warrant immediate cultivation.

  18. Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology : the international journal for ... Microbial Genetics, Molecular Biology, Bacteriology, Virology, Mycology, and ... Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments, ...

  19. [Biotechnology: hail to man and animal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordhuizen-Stassen, E N; Brom, F W A

    2002-06-01

    There are two basic remarks that must be made about this series of articles on the theme 'Modern biotechnology: a blessing or concern?'. Firstly, it is difficult to define what 'biotechnology' is due to the diversity of techniques employed. Secondly, it is striking how biotechnological techniques may be employed for such a wide variety of goals. In this article, the ethics of using biotechnology within veterinary science and research will be discussed. Aside from its usefulness to humankind, an animal has its own value as a living creature; a fact that we should always take into account. Ethical issues such as the health, welfare and integrity of animals are discussed here in relation to developments in biotechnology. These ethical arguments reveal that biotechnology does not always have a positive impact on animals. This does not necessarily mean that biotechnology should be rejected out of hand, but that it is essential that the purpose for which the animals are being used be adequately justified. In this regard, the veterinarian may play a unique role as the guardian of both animal and human health. The veterinary profession, in all its diversity, is a participant in the development and (future) practical application of biotechnological techniques. Changes in the broader society and within the veterinary profession may continue to play a role in the societal discourse on biotechnology and its practical application, it must actively consider the ethical aspects and consequences of these scientific developments.

  20. Infusing Authentic Inquiry into Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanegan, Nikki L.; Bigler, Amber

    2009-10-01

    Societal benefit depends on the general public's understandings of biotechnology (Betsch in World J Microbiol Biotechnol 12:439-443, 1996; Dawson and Cowan in Int J Sci Educ 25(1):57-69, 2003; Schiller in Business Review: Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia (Fourth Quarter), 2002; Smith and Emmeluth in Am Biol Teach 64(2):93-99, 2002). A National Science Foundation funded survey of high school biology teachers reported that hands-on biotechnology education exists in advanced high school biology in the United States, but is non-existent in mainstream biology coursework (Micklos et al. in Biotechnology labs in American high schools, 1998). The majority of pre-service teacher content preparation courses do not teach students appropriate content knowledge through the process of inquiry. A broad continuum exists when discussing inquiry-oriented student investigations (Hanegan et al. in School Sci Math J 109(2):110-134, 2009). Depending on the amount of structure in teacher lessons, inquiries can often be categorized as guided or open. The lesson can be further categorized as simple or authentic (Chinn and Malhotra in Sci Educ 86(2):175-218, 2002). Although authentic inquiries provide the best opportunities for cognitive development and scientific reasoning, guided and simple inquiries are more often employed in the classroom (Crawford in J Res Sci Teach 37(9):916-937, 2000; NRC in Inquiry and the national science education standards: a guide for teaching and learning, 2000). For the purposes of this study we defined inquiry as "authentic" if original research problems were resolved (Hanegan et al. in School Sci Math J 109(2):110-134, 2009; Chinn and Malhotra in Sci Educ 86(2):175-218, 2002; Roth in Authentic school science: knowing and learning in open-inquiry science laboratories, 1995). The research question to guide this study through naturalistic inquiry research methods was: How will participants express whether or not an authentic inquiry experience enhanced

  1. Biotechnology: employing organism as bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Baniasad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological products, especially proteins, have numerous applications including prevention, diagnosis, and treating diseases. Advances in biotechnology in recent years have opened up many ways to manufacture these products in large scales. To engineer biopharmaceuticals, often pro and/or eukaryotic sustainable resources are used. Selection of the cellular factory depends on the type and application of protein needed. In this review, we explore current resources used to produce biologics, examine these resources critically for their biological output, and finally highlight impact of using sustainable resources in modern medicine.

  2. Harnessing Ocean Energy by Tidal Current Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Mehmood

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The world is heavily dependent on fossil fuels since most of its energy requirements are fulfilled by conventional methods of burning these fuels. The energy demand is increasing by day with growing population. The energy production by fossil fuels is devastating the environment and survival of life on globe is endangered. The renewal energy technologies are vital to ensure future energy sustenance and environmental issues. Ocean is a vast resource of renewable energy. The technology today makes it possible to extract energy from tides. The growing interest in exploring tidal current technologies has compelling reasons such as security and diversity of supply, intermittent but predictable and limited social and environmental impacts. The purpose of this study is to present a comprehensive review of tidal current technologies to harness ocean energy. The ocean energy resources are presented. The author discusses tidal energy technologies. The tidal current turbines are discussed in detail. The author reviews today’s popular tidal current technologies. The present status of ocean energy development is also reported.

  3. Harnessing adolescent values to motivate healthier eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Christopher J; Yeager, David S; Hinojosa, Cintia P; Chabot, Aimee; Bergen, Holly; Kawamura, Mari; Steubing, Fred

    2016-09-27

    What can be done to reduce unhealthy eating among adolescents? It was hypothesized that aligning healthy eating with important and widely shared adolescent values would produce the needed motivation. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled experiment with eighth graders (total n = 536) evaluated the impact of a treatment that framed healthy eating as consistent with the adolescent values of autonomy from adult control and the pursuit of social justice. Healthy eating was suggested as a way to take a stand against manipulative and unfair practices of the food industry, such as engineering junk food to make it addictive and marketing it to young children. Compared with traditional health education materials or to a non-food-related control, this treatment led eighth graders to see healthy eating as more autonomy-assertive and social justice-oriented behavior and to forgo sugary snacks and drinks in favor of healthier options a day later in an unrelated context. Public health interventions for adolescents may be more effective when they harness the motivational power of that group's existing strongly held values.

  4. Harnessing optical forces in integrated photonic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo; Pernice, W H P; Xiong, C; Baehr-Jones, T; Hochberg, M; Tang, H X

    2008-11-27

    The force exerted by photons is of fundamental importance in light-matter interactions. For example, in free space, optical tweezers have been widely used to manipulate atoms and microscale dielectric particles. This optical force is expected to be greatly enhanced in integrated photonic circuits in which light is highly concentrated at the nanoscale. Harnessing the optical force on a semiconductor chip will allow solid state devices, such as electromechanical systems, to operate under new physical principles. Indeed, recent experiments have elucidated the radiation forces of light in high-finesse optical microcavities, but the large footprint of these devices ultimately prevents scaling down to nanoscale dimensions. Recent theoretical work has predicted that a transverse optical force can be generated and used directly for electromechanical actuation without the need for a high-finesse cavity. However, on-chip exploitation of this force has been a significant challenge, primarily owing to the lack of efficient nanoscale mechanical transducers in the photonics domain. Here we report the direct detection and exploitation of transverse optical forces in an integrated silicon photonic circuit through an embedded nanomechanical resonator. The nanomechanical device, a free-standing waveguide, is driven by the optical force and read out through evanescent coupling of the guided light to the dielectric substrate. This new optical force enables all-optical operation of nanomechanical systems on a CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor)-compatible platform, with substantial bandwidth and design flexibility compared to conventional electrical-based schemes.

  5. Harnessing adolescent values to motivate healthier eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Christopher J.; Yeager, David S.; Hinojosa, Cintia P.; Chabot, Aimee; Bergen, Holly; Kawamura, Mari; Steubing, Fred

    2016-01-01

    What can be done to reduce unhealthy eating among adolescents? It was hypothesized that aligning healthy eating with important and widely shared adolescent values would produce the needed motivation. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled experiment with eighth graders (total n = 536) evaluated the impact of a treatment that framed healthy eating as consistent with the adolescent values of autonomy from adult control and the pursuit of social justice. Healthy eating was suggested as a way to take a stand against manipulative and unfair practices of the food industry, such as engineering junk food to make it addictive and marketing it to young children. Compared with traditional health education materials or to a non–food-related control, this treatment led eighth graders to see healthy eating as more autonomy-assertive and social justice-oriented behavior and to forgo sugary snacks and drinks in favor of healthier options a day later in an unrelated context. Public health interventions for adolescents may be more effective when they harness the motivational power of that group’s existing strongly held values. PMID:27621440

  6. Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    scientific world successfully cloned plants and animals, discovered and created new pharmaceuticals and mapped the human genome. However, where does...ethical concerns currently being debated are the FDA’s requirements for testing new pharmaceuticals before being approved for use. Generally, the

  7. Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    impact of the bioattack. The combined initiatives of BioWatch,113 and BioSurveillance ,114 among others, provide fundamental building blocks for ensuring...nationwide grid of air sampling devices and routine analysis. 114 The CDC has also submitted an FY2005 initiative called BioSurveillance that...terrorism,” 2 March 2005, <http://www.fbis.gov/ portal /server.pt/gateway/PTARGS_0_1518_215_240_0_43/> (accessed 23 March 2005). “New MS drug

  8. Biotechnology for Non-biology Majors: An Activity Using a Commercial Biotechnology Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Francis P.; Fox, Mary C.; Huether, Carl A.; Schurdak, Eric R.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an inexpensive activity to stimulate student interest in biotechnology that was developed in partnership with a biotechnology company. Focuses on the use of DNA by a commercial laboratory; describing the analysis procedure; important uses of DNA technology in modern society; and ethical, social, and legal issues related to biotechnology.…

  9. SSME Electrical Harness and Cable Development and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Russ; Heflin, Johnny; Burns, Bob; Camper, Scott J.; Hill, Arthur J.

    2010-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) electrical harness and cable system consists of the various interconnecting devices necessary for operation of complex rocket engine functions. Thirty seven harnesses incorporate unique connectors, backshell adapters, conductors, insulation, shielding, and physical barriers for a long maintenance-free life while providing the means to satisfy performance requirements and to mitigate adverse environmental influences. The objective of this paper is to provide a description of the SSME electrical harness and cable designs as well as the development history and lessons learned.

  10. Developing a TTCN-3 Test Harness for Legacy Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okika, Joseph C.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Siddalingaiah, Lokesh;

    2006-01-01

    control software in C, a Graphical User Interface (GUI) and the connectors in Java. Our experience shows that it is feasible to use TTCN-3 in developing a test harness for a legacy software for an embedded system, even when it involves different heterogeneous components....... challenge in developing the test harness is to interface a generic test driver to the legacy software and provide a suitable interface for test engineers. The main contribution of this paper is a demonstration of a suitable design for such a test harness. It includes: a TTCN-3 test driver in C++, the legacy...

  11. Students' Knowledge of, and Attitudes towards Biotechnology Revisited, 1995-2014: Changes in Agriculture Biotechnology but Not in Medical Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Yen; Chu, Yih-Ru; Lin, Chen-Yung; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh

    2016-01-01

    Modern biotechnology is one of the most important scientific and technological revolutions in the 21st century, with an increasing and measurable impact on society. Development of biotechnology curriculum has become important to high school bioscience classrooms. This study has monitored high school students in Taiwan on their knowledge of and…

  12. Advanced biotechnology: metabolically engineered cells for the bio-based production of chemicals and fuels, materials, and health-care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Judith; Wittmann, Christoph

    2015-03-09

    Corynebacterium glutamicum, Escherichia coli, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in particular, have become established as important industrial workhorses in biotechnology. Recent years have seen tremendous progress in their advance into tailor-made producers, driven by the upcoming demand for sustainable processes and renewable raw materials. Here, the diversity and complexity of nature is simultaneously a challenge and a benefit. Harnessing biodiversity in the right manner through synergistic progress in systems metabolic engineering and chemical synthesis promises a future innovative bio-economy.

  13. Fibrinogen: a journey into biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratek-Skicki, Anna; Żeliszewska, Paulina; Ruso, Juan M

    2016-10-26

    Fibrinogen has been known since the mid-nineteenth century. Although initially its interest had been within the field of physiology over time its study has spread to new disciplines such as biochemistry, colloids and interfaces or biotechnology. First, we will describe the bulk properties of the molecule as well as its supramolecular assembly with different ligands by using different techniques and theoretical models. In the next step we will analyze the interfacial properties, an important topic because fibrinogen is considered to be a major inhibitor of lung surfactants' function at the lining layer of alveoli. The final step will be devoted to its main application in biotechnology. Thus, the adsorption of fibrinogen at solid/electrolyte interfaces and at carrier particles will be discussed. The reversibility of adsorption, fibrinogen molecule orientation, and maximum coverage will be thoroughly discussed. The stability of fibrinogen monolayers formed at these surfaces with respect to pH and ionic strength cyclic changes will also be presented. Based on the physicochemical data, adsorption kinetics and colloid particle deposition measurements, probable adsorption mechanisms of fibrinogen on solid/electrolyte interfaces will be defined.

  14. Food biotechnology: benefits and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Michael C; Chassy, Bruce M; Harlander, Susan K; Hoban, Thomas J; McGloughlin, Martina N; Akhlaghi, Amin R

    2002-06-01

    Recent advances in agricultural biotechnology have highlighted the need for experimental evidence and sound scientific judgment to assess the benefits and risks to society. Nutrition scientists and other animal biologists need a balanced understanding of the issues to participate in this assessment. To date most modifications to crop plants have benefited producers. Crops have been engineered to decrease pesticide and herbicide usage, protect against stressors, enhance yields and extend shelf life. Beyond the environmental benefits of decreased pesticide and herbicide application, consumers stand to benefit by development of food crops with increased nutritional value, medicinal properties, enhanced taste and esthetic appeal. There remains concern that these benefits come with a cost to the environment or increased risk to the consumer. Most U.S. consumers are not aware of the extent that genetically modified foods have entered the marketplace. Consumer awareness of biotechnology seems to have increased over the last decade, yet most consumers remain confused over the science. Concern over the impact on the safety of the food supply remains low in the United States, but is substantially elevated in Europe. Before a genetically engineered crop is introduced into commerce it must pass regulatory scrutiny by as many as four different federal regulatory bodies to ensure a safe food supply and minimize the risk to the environment. Key areas for more research are evaluation of the nutritional benefits of new crops, further investigation of the environmental impact, and development of better techniques to identify and track genetically engineered products.

  15. Harnessing Scientific Literature Reports for Pharmacovigilance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripple, Anna; Tonning, Joseph; Munoz, Monica; Hasan, Rashedul; Ly, Thomas; Francis, Henry; Bodenreider, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Summary Objectives We seek to develop a prototype software analytical tool to augment FDA regulatory reviewers’ capacity to harness scientific literature reports in PubMed/MEDLINE for pharmacovigilance and adverse drug event (ADE) safety signal detection. We also aim to gather feedback through usability testing to assess design, performance, and user satisfaction with the tool. Methods A prototype, open source, web-based, software analytical tool generated statistical disproportionality data mining signal scores and dynamic visual analytics for ADE safety signal detection and management. We leveraged Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) indexing terms assigned to published citations in PubMed/MEDLINE to generate candidate drug-adverse event pairs for quantitative data mining. Six FDA regulatory reviewers participated in usability testing by employing the tool as part of their ongoing real-life pharmacovigilance activities to provide subjective feedback on its practical impact, added value, and fitness for use. Results All usability test participants cited the tool’s ease of learning, ease of use, and generation of quantitative ADE safety signals, some of which corresponded to known established adverse drug reactions. Potential concerns included the comparability of the tool’s automated literature search relative to a manual ‘all fields’ PubMed search, missing drugs and adverse event terms, interpretation of signal scores, and integration with existing computer-based analytical tools. Conclusions Usability testing demonstrated that this novel tool can automate the detection of ADE safety signals from published literature reports. Various mitigation strategies are described to foster improvements in design, productivity, and end user satisfaction. PMID:28326432

  16. Harnessing quantum transport by transient chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso; Pecora, Louis M

    2013-03-01

    Chaos has long been recognized to be generally advantageous from the perspective of control. In particular, the infinite number of unstable periodic orbits embedded in a chaotic set and the intrinsically sensitive dependence on initial conditions imply that a chaotic system can be controlled to a desirable state by using small perturbations. Investigation of chaos control, however, was largely limited to nonlinear dynamical systems in the classical realm. In this paper, we show that chaos may be used to modulate or harness quantum mechanical systems. To be concrete, we focus on quantum transport through nanostructures, a problem of considerable interest in nanoscience, where a key feature is conductance fluctuations. We articulate and demonstrate that chaos, more specifically transient chaos, can be effective in modulating the conductance-fluctuation patterns. Experimentally, this can be achieved by applying an external gate voltage in a device of suitable geometry to generate classically inaccessible potential barriers. Adjusting the gate voltage allows the characteristics of the dynamical invariant set responsible for transient chaos to be varied in a desirable manner which, in turn, can induce continuous changes in the statistical characteristics of the quantum conductance-fluctuation pattern. To understand the physical mechanism of our scheme, we develop a theory based on analyzing the spectrum of the generalized non-Hermitian Hamiltonian that includes the effect of leads, or electronic waveguides, as self-energy terms. As the escape rate of the underlying non-attracting chaotic set is increased, the imaginary part of the complex eigenenergy becomes increasingly large so that pointer states are more difficult to form, making smoother the conductance-fluctuation pattern.

  17. Hvem har snor i biblioteksvæsenet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorch, Bertil F.

    2015-01-01

    Situationen er, at FFU-bibliotekerne kun har ringe indflydelse på opgaveprioriteringen i den nye konstruktion, uanset at vi udgør en ikke ubetydelig sektor, samt at vi medfinansierer både drift og udvikling....

  18. Detection System Design of Electric Vehicle Wiring Harness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jian-Xin; LI Xiao-Peng

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a method of harness testing system for electric vehicle wiring harness wiring .The system has implemented some commonly used electric wiring harness state detection using the way of the upper machine and lower machine communicate with each other, Such as normal, open circuit, short circuit, fault, etc. And then the lower machine send the wiring harness status to the upper machine, and then the upper machine parses the line state, and at the same time shows the test results, And then stores the test results in the database. After all, we can call at any time to check the date and the results of detection. It changes the traditional manual test mode of operation and Implements the detection process of automation and intellectualization.

  19. New trends in biotechnology. Biotechnology no atarashii choryu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karube, I. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology)

    1993-11-30

    This paper focuses on application of the recent biotechnology and introduces its new trends. What has triggered the boom in the application is when the technology has been applied to medicines in the 1970's. Beginning with insulin and interferon, various fibrinolytic agents including tPA and monoclonals have been put on markets one after another in 1991. Progress in humangenomic analysis has led to implementation of gene therapies and diagnoses using genes on gene diseases. Sweeteners used in a large quantity in the foodstuff field are fructoses made by isomerizing glucose produced by using enzymatic bioreactors. Needless to say about production of amino acid, organic acids, saccharides, antibiotics, steroids, and nucleic acid-based compounds by using enzymatic bioreactors, chemicals including acrylic amide from acrylonitrile, enzyme detergents, and bio-herbicides are available commercially. Progress in the technology is seen in all of the fields, including electronics industry and environmental preservation. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Agricultural biotechnology and its contribution to the global knowledge economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerni, Philipp

    2007-01-01

    The theory of neoclassical welfare economics largely shaped international and national agricultural policies during the Cold War period. It treated technology as an exogenous factor that could boost agricultural productivity but not necessarily sustainable agriculture. New growth theory, the economic theory of the new knowledge economy, treats technological change as endogenous and argues that intangible assets such as human capital and knowledge are the drivers of sustainable economic development. In this context, the combined use of agricultural biotechnology and information technology has a great potential, not just to boost economic growth but also to empower people in developing countries and improve the sustainable management of natural resources. This article outlines the major ideas behind new growth theory and explains why agricultural economists and agricultural policy-makers still tend to stick to old welfare economics. Finally, the article uses the case of the Cassava Biotechnology Network (CBN) to illustrate an example of how new growth theory can be applied in the fight against poverty. CBN is a successful interdisciplinary crop research network that makes use of the new knowledge economy to produce new goods that empower the poor and improve the productivity and nutritional quality of cassava. It shows that the potential benefits of agricultural biotechnology go far beyond the already known productivity increases and pesticide use reductions of existing GM crops.

  1. Biotechnology in the Middle School Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, De Ann

    2007-01-01

    Biotechnology is a fairly new concept for middle school students as well as teachers. If the latest craze of TV shows focused on crime scene investigation events were not so popular, the term and concept might be even obscure to the public. There is an increased presence of biotechnology in our daily surroundings that makes it practical and…

  2. Assessment and diffusion of biotechnology drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart-van Rijkom, J.E.F.

    2002-01-01

    Biotechnology, viewed as a young and innovative field, is associated with great possibilities and high expectation on patient benefits. But there are also public controversies on ethical, social and economic issues. Beginning with recombinant human insulin in 1982, more than 50 biotechnology drugs

  3. Agricultural Biotechnology Research and Development in Hunan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Recent agricultural biotechnology research and advances in the province are reviewed. Targets and practices for biotechnological development in depth are discussed, with stress on the talent's training, new techniques' establishment and its industrialization, starting from the existing level and problems in the field in the province.

  4. Principles of biotechnological treatment of industrial wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roig, M.G.; Martin Rodriguez, M.J.M.; Cachaza, J.M. (Univ. de Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Fisica); Mendoza Sanchez, L. (C/Sol Oriente, Salamanca (Spain). Estudios y Proyectos); Kennedy, J.F. (Univ. of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom). Research Lab. for the Chemistry of Bioactive Carbohydrates and Proteins)

    1993-07-01

    This review includes current information on biodegradation processes of pollutants, digestor biocenosis and bioadditives, sludge production, measurement of pollution, and advances regarding biotechnological treatment of a series of specific industrial effluents. It was foreseen in 1980 that biotechnology would foster the creation of new industries with low energy requirements. This is because the growth of microorganisms provides a renewable source of energy.

  5. Undergraduate Biotechnology Students' Views of Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondston, Joanne Elisabeth; Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2010-01-01

    Despite rapid growth of the biotechnology industry worldwide, a number of public concerns about the application of biotechnology and its regulation remain. In response to these concerns, greater emphasis has been placed on promoting biotechnologists' public engagement. As tertiary science degree programmes form the foundation of the biotechnology…

  6. Undergraduate Biotechnology Students' Views of Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondston, Joanne Elisabeth; Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2010-01-01

    Despite rapid growth of the biotechnology industry worldwide, a number of public concerns about the application of biotechnology and its regulation remain. In response to these concerns, greater emphasis has been placed on promoting biotechnologists' public engagement. As tertiary science degree programmes form the foundation of the biotechnology…

  7. Matching Society Values: Students' Views of Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saez, Maria J.; Nino, Angela Gomez; Carretero, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    The rapid growth of biotechnology knowledge during the past decades has made it necessary to rethink the contents of the school curriculum and has provoked a consideration of the ethical and social issues related to the use of biotechnological applications. With the financial assistance of the European Union, the European Initiative for…

  8. Assessment and diffusion of biotechnology drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart-van Rijkom, J.E.F.

    2002-01-01

    Biotechnology, viewed as a young and innovative field, is associated with great possibilities and high expectation on patient benefits. But there are also public controversies on ethical, social and economic issues. Beginning with recombinant human insulin in 1982, more than 50 biotechnology drugs h

  9. Vi har brug for en ny værdipolitik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böss, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Den stærke fokusering på udlændingespørgsmålet har bidraget til at forarme et politisk klima, som i forvejen lider under mangel på visioner. Derved har vi undladt at tage hul på en nødvendig og mere dybtgående værdipolitisk debat om, hvad der sker med det danske samfund og dets værdigrundlag....

  10. HarTAC– The Harvard TAC SCM'03 Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Rui; Tai, Terry; Yeung, Wilfred; Parkes, David C.

    2004-01-01

    The Trading Agent Competition (TAC) is an annual event in which teams from around the world compete in a given scenario concerning the trading agent problem. This paper describes some of the key features and strategies employed by HarTAC, the Harvard University TAC SCM 2003 agent. HarTAC was built to be a moderately aggressive, production-oriented agent, combining a semi-conservative component purchasing strategy with a highly aggressive cycle-based sell side.

  11. Army Social Media: Harnessing the Power of Networked Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    9/1/2011 Army Social Media : harnessing the power of networked communications Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Army Social Media : harnessing the power of networked communications 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...the Chief of Public Affairs,Online and Social Media Division,1500 Pentagon,Washington,DC,20301 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9

  12. The current biotechnology outlook in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairiah Salwa MOKHTAR

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Blessed with extremely rich biodiversity, Malaysia is all geared up to explore new high technology to utilize the advantage it possesses whilst to protect its environment. Biotechnology has been identified as an appropriate driver that can deliver economic gains through research and development, improvement of food security, creation of entrepreneurial opportunities for industrial growth, health and environmental sustainability. This paper attempts to address the evolution of biotechnology institutions and the stumbling blocks in developing the Malaysian biotechnology industry. This paper identifies three main impediments in the current Malaysian biotechnology, namely lack of skilled human capital; weak industrial base; and lack of commercialization effort. Besides, a set of strategies are discussed with aim to further improve and strengthen the Malaysian biotechnology industry. In general, the arguments are presented by mapping out the symbiotic relationship between data from elite interviews, archival data and observations.

  13. Termites as targets and models for biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Michael E

    2015-01-07

    Termites have many unique evolutionary adaptations associated with their eusocial lifestyles. Recent omics research has created a wealth of new information in numerous areas of termite biology (e.g., caste polyphenism, lignocellulose digestion, and microbial symbiosis) with wide-ranging applications in diverse biotechnological niches. Termite biotechnology falls into two categories: (a) termite-targeted biotechnology for pest management purposes, and (b) termite-modeled biotechnology for use in various industrial applications. The first category includes several candidate termiticidal modes of action such as RNA interference, digestive inhibition, pathogen enhancement, antimicrobials, endocrine disruption, and primer pheromone mimicry. In the second category, termite digestomes are deep resources for host and symbiont lignocellulases and other enzymes with applications in a variety of biomass, industrial, and processing applications. Moving forward, one of the most important approaches for accelerating advances in both termite-targeted and termite-modeled biotechnology will be to consider host and symbiont together as a single functional unit.

  14. Western Australian school students' understanding of biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2003-01-01

    Are science educators providing secondary school students with the background to understand the science behind recent controversies such as the recently introduced compulsory labelling of genetically modified foods? Research from the UK suggests that many secondary school students do not understand the processes or implications of modern biotechnology. The situation in Australia is unclear. In this study, 1116 15-year-old students from eleven Western Australian schools were surveyed to determine their understanding of, and attitude towards, recent advances in modern biotechnology. The results indicate that approximately one third of students have little or no understanding of biotechnology. Many students over-estimate the use of biotechnology in our society by confusing current uses with possible future applications. The results provide a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the school science curriculum

  15. Les biotechnologies végétales appropriées dans le contexte du dialogue Nord-Sud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepoivre P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate plant biotechnology in the context of the dialogue between North and South. Appropriateness of any technology must take into consideration the ethical problems and the social, economical, scientific and ecological environment. For developing countries, plant biotechnologies definitely open interesting perspectives, but also raise potential problems, because their integration and valorisation require a progressive and adapted development. Biotechnologies depend on legal and physical infrastructures, as well as human skills for on-site control corresponding to the needs of the relevant populations and to the global environment.

  16. Progress towards the 'Golden Age' of biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, K M A; Bruschi, F; Dundar, M; Gahan, P B; Viola Magni, M p; Akbarova, Y

    2013-07-01

    Biotechnology uses substances, materials or extracts derived from living cells, employing 22 million Europeans in a € 1.5 Tn endeavour, being the premier global economic growth opportunity this century. Significant advances have been made in red biotechnology using pharmaceutically and medically relevant applications, green biotechnology developing agricultural and environmental tools and white biotechnology serving industrial scale uses, frequently as process feedstocks. Red biotechnology has delivered dramatic improvements in controlling human disease, from antibiotics to overcome bacterial infections to anti-HIV/AIDS pharmaceuticals such as azidothymidine (AZT), anti-malarial compounds and novel vaccines saving millions of lives. Green biotechnology has dramatically increased food production through Agrobacterium and biolistic genetic modifications for the development of 'Golden Rice', pathogen resistant crops expressing crystal toxin genes, drought resistance and cold tolerance to extend growth range. The burgeoning area of white biotechnology has delivered bio-plastics, low temperature enzyme detergents and a host of feedstock materials for industrial processes such as modified starches, without which our everyday lives would be much more complex. Biotechnological applications can bridge these categories, by modifying energy crops properties, or analysing circulating nucleic acid elements, bringing benefits for all, through increased food production, supporting climate change adaptation and the low carbon economy, or novel diagnostics impacting on personalized medicine and genetic disease. Cross-cutting technologies such as PCR, novel sequencing tools, bioinformatics, transcriptomics and epigenetics are in the vanguard of biotechnological progress leading to an ever-increasing breadth of applications. Biotechnology will deliver solutions to unimagined problems, providing food security, health and well-being to mankind for centuries to come. Copyright © 2013

  17. A Review of EDVOTEK - The Biotechnology Education Company

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Stein

    2011-01-01

    Review of: EDVOTEK - The Biotechnology Education Company, a science equipment and supplies vendor specializing in biotechnology materials for middle school, high school and undergraduate college students.

  18. A Mathematical Approach in Evaluating Biotechnology Attitude Scale: Rough Set Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narli, Serkan; Sinan, Olcay

    2011-01-01

    Individuals' thoughts and attitudes towards biotechnology have been investigated in many countries. A Likert-type scale is the most commonly used scale to measure attitude. However, the weak side of a likert-type scale is that different responses may produce the same score. The Rough set method has been regarded to address this shortcoming. A…

  19. Flashing light in microalgae biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Ghosh, Said; Fixler, Dror; Dubinsky, Zvy; Iluz, David

    2016-03-01

    Flashing light can enhance photosynthesis and improve the quality and quantity of microalgal biomass, as it can increase the products of interest by magnitudes. Therefore, the integration of flashing light effect into microalgal cultivation systems should be considered. However, microalgae require a balanced mix of the light/dark cycle for higher growth rates, and respond to light intensity differently according to the pigments acquired or lost during the growth. This review highlights recently published results on flashing light effect on microalgae and its applications in biotechnology, as well as the recently developed bioreactors designed to fulfill this effect. It also discusses how this knowledge can be applied in selecting the optimal light frequencies and intensities with specific technical properties for increasing biomass production and/or the yield of the chemicals of interest by microalgae belonging to different genera.

  20. Ergot: from witchcraft to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarmann, Thomas; Rolke, Yvonne; Giesbert, Sabine; Tudzynski, Paul

    2009-07-01

    The ergot diseases of grasses, caused by members of the genus Claviceps, have had a severe impact on human history and agriculture, causing devastating epidemics. However, ergot alkaloids, the toxic components of Claviceps sclerotia, have been used intensively (and misused) as pharmaceutical drugs, and efficient biotechnological processes have been developed for their in vitro production. Molecular genetics has provided detailed insight into the genetic basis of ergot alkaloid biosynthesis and opened up perspectives for the design of new alkaloids and the improvement of production strains; it has also revealed the refined infection strategy of this biotrophic pathogen, opening up the way for better control. Nevertheless, Claviceps remains an important pathogen worldwide, and a source for potential new drugs for central nervous system diseases.

  1. Environmental biotechnology research: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, J C

    1994-05-01

    Cleanup and treatment of hazardous wastes incur major operational costs for the U.S. Air Force. Bioremediation can provide a cost-effective alternative to traditional technologies for a wide range of natural organic compounds such as jet fuel. Bioventing and natural attenuation are emerging as treatments of choice in many instances. Synthetic organic chemicals are much more resistant to biodegradation. However, recent advances in biotechnology allow the development of strains able to use nitro- and chloro-substituted organic compounds as their sole source of carbon and energy. Current basic research is focused on expanding the range of synthetic chemicals amenable to biodegradation. At the same time, development of appropriate bioreactors and models for scale up are essential for practical application of the technology.

  2. Biotechnology and bioforensics new trends

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Amit

    2015-01-01

    This Brief covers broad areas of Applied Biology specifically into the domains of Biotechnology/Biomedicine and Forensic Science. Chapters included here would also explain the role of bioinformatics in protein and gene characterization, modeling of the protein structure, survey related to the chromosomal effect on Human Disorders like Diabetes and Cardiac Problems. This Brief is full of Innovative Literature like Use of Microbes in Electricity Production, Brain connection to Type 2 Diabetes etc. Interesting issues in Forensic biology and the aspects of Bioforensics like STR profiling of exhumed bones makes this brief truly useful and informative for Researchers. It also includes the advancements and new ideologies in understanding crop improvements & crop quality. This Brief witnesses Innovative Research related to the Bio and Agri software development too which are capable of accelerating Insilico biological data analysis.

  3. Biotechnological production of citric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Max

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work provides a review about the biotechnological production of citric acid starting from the physicochemical properties and industrial applications, mainly in the food and pharmaceutical sectors. Several factors affecting citric acid fermentation are discussed, including carbon source, nitrogen and phosphate limitations, pH of culture medium, aeration, trace elements and morphology of the fungus. Special attention is paid to the fundamentals of biochemistry and accumulation of citric acid. Technologies employed at industrial scale such as surface or submerged cultures, mainly employing Aspergillus niger, and processes carried out with Yarrowia lipolytica, as well as the technology for recovering the product are also described. Finally, this review summarizes the use of orange peels and other by-products as feedstocks for the bioproduction of citric acid.

  4. New technologies in agricultural biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Szekacs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Technologies that emerged during the last decade as new tools occasionally represent fundamentally new means of genome modification, which, in addition to the scientific novelty, faces legislators with new challenge by giving a new meaning to both the biochemical/molecular biological and legal meaning to genetically modified organisms (GMOs. Emerging plant genetic technologies are categorized as zinc finger nuclease (ZFN technology; oligonucleotide directed mutagenesis; cisgenesis and intragenesis; RNA-dependent DNA methylation by RNA interference; grafting on GM rootstock; reverse breeding; agro-infiltration; and synthetic genomics. Although all these methods apply biotechnology processes to create new plant varieties, it debated whether all result in GMOs according to the current legal definition. Official risk assessment of these technologies is a task of outstanding weight of the authority.

  5. Fructose Syrup: A Biotechnology Asset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia L. Figueiredo Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to the growing demand for the consumption of natural, healthy and low-calorie food, a large number of so-called alternative sugars has emerged since the early 80s, among them fructose. This sugar is a ketohexose, known as D-fructose or levulose, and is considered the sweetest sugar found in nature. Currently, fructose is mostly produced through the acid hydrolysis of sucrose, or through the multi-enzymatic hydrolysis of starch. Processes involving specific enzymes like inulinases, acting on widely available fructose polysaccharides such as inulin, have been studied as alternatives to the current approaches, in order to reduce time, complexity and costs involved in this process. Fructose syrup is used worldwide, mainly because of its sweetening power and functional properties. The present work aims to provide an overview of the properties of fructose and of the present and envisaged production processes, within the scope of a biotechnological approach.

  6. Harnessing the Power of Wind Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Tawny M.

    2009-01-01

    "Where the wind comes sweepin' down the plain" is more than just a song lyric for Oklahoma's career and technical education community. It's the acknowledgement of an untapped natural resource that has the potential to translate into both energy independence for the country and jobs for the state. Statewide, technology center instructors…

  7. Challenge of Biotechnology (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm R. Dando

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The unravelling of the human genetic code whose first draft was announced in June 2000 has rightly blood been hailed as a momentous achievement, opening thc book of life, certain to be the dominant technology of the 21st century, which will inform all about medicine and biology. and lead us to a total understanding of life. Simultaneously, concerns have been expressed about thc implications of this work. In the past, major new technologies have been used intensively for hostile purposes. What is thc challenge that biotechnology poses in this regard'? This review paper looks at the enormous changes in civil society that thc genomics revolution could bring. Against this background, thc growing concerns about its potential misuses have been reviewed. Thc strengths and weaknesses or the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC are then touched upon. The BTWC presently lacks an adequate verification mechanism. Although biotechnology has been used by human beings since prehistoric times (eg. making of bread. cheese. wines its scientific understanding came only in the latter part of the 19th century. Thc decisive turning point in the field came in the 1970s with the advent of genetic engineering. In the military context classical agents like anthrax and toxin remain the threat today. Although thc current level or sophistication for many biological agents is low, there is enormous potential for making more sophisticated weapons. It might be possible to specifically target the genetic makeup of different ethnic groups. The limited varieties of staple crops and the limited strains of modern animals make agriculture particularly open to attack. Another serious possibility is the impact of genomics in neuroscience. With a better understanding of cellular receptor systems and bioregulators, it is not inconceivable that new means would be evolved for disturbing the functions of the nervous system. Thc genomics revolution can be used for peaceful purposes

  8. Drugs obtained by biotechnology processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Almeida

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the number of drugs of biotechnological origin available for many different diseases has increased exponentially, including different types of cancer, diabetes mellitus, infectious diseases (e.g. AIDS Virus / HIV as well as cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, and autoimmune diseases, among others. The pharmaceutical industry has used different technologies to obtain new and promising active ingredients, as exemplified by the fermentation technique, recombinant DNA technique and the hybridoma technique. The expiry of the patents of the first drugs of biotechnological origin and the consequent emergence of biosimilar products, have posed various questions to health authorities worldwide regarding the definition, framework, and requirements for authorization to market such products.Nos últimos anos, tem aumentado exponencialmente o número de fármacos de origem biotecnológica ao dispor das mais diversas patologias, entre elas destacam-se, os diferentes tipos de cancêr, as doenças infecciosas (ex. vírus AIDS/HIV, as doenças autoimunes, as doenças cardiovasculares, a Diabetes Mellitus, as doenças neurológicas, as doenças respiratórias, entre outras. A indústria farmacêutica tem recorrido a diferentes tecnologias para a obtenção de novos e promissores princípios ativos, como são exemplo a fermentação, a técnica de DNA Recombinante, a técnica de hidridoma, entre outras. A queda das patentes dos primeiros fármacos de origem biotecnológica e o consequente aparecimento dos produtos biossimilares têm colocado diferentes questões às autoridades de saúde mundiais, sobre a definição, enquadramento e exigências para a autorização de entrada no mercado deste tipo de produtos.

  9. UE-ACP relations and the strategy for Europe on life sciences and biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Manzano San Román

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A reflection on the opportunities and risks deriving from the strategy designed by the European Commission for biotechnology and life sciences or developing countries. Specifically, it analyses the possible impact of the application of this strategy in the new framework of the relations between the European Union and the countries of Africa, theCaribbean and the Pacific regulated by the Cotonú Agreement.

  10. Biotechnologies for the management of genetic resources for food and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidder, Preetmoninder; Sonnino, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the land area under agriculture has declined as also has the rate of growth in agricultural productivity while the demand for food continues to escalate. The world population now stands at 7 billion and is expected to reach 9 billion in 2045. A broad range of agricultural genetic diversity needs to be available and utilized in order to feed this growing population. Climate change is an added threat to biodiversity that will significantly impact genetic resources for food and agriculture (GRFA) and food production. There is no simple, all-encompassing solution to the challenges of increasing productivity while conserving genetic diversity. Sustainable management of GRFA requires a multipronged approach, and as outlined in the paper, biotechnologies can provide powerful tools for the management of GRFA. These tools vary in complexity from those that are relatively simple to those that are more sophisticated. Further, advances in biotechnologies are occurring at a rapid pace and provide novel opportunities for more effective and efficient management of GRFA. Biotechnology applications must be integrated with ongoing conventional breeding and development programs in order to succeed. Additionally, the generation, adaptation, and adoption of biotechnologies require a consistent level of financial and human resources and appropriate policies need to be in place. These issues were also recognized by Member States at the FAO international technical conference on Agricultural Biotechnologies for Developing Countries (ABDC-10), which took place in March 2010 in Mexico. At the end of the conference, the Member States reached a number of key conclusions, agreeing, inter alia, that developing countries should significantly increase sustained investments in capacity building and the development and use of biotechnologies to maintain the natural resource base; that effective and enabling national biotechnology policies and science-based regulatory frameworks can

  11. Harnessing wind power with sustained policy support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meera, L. [BITS-Pilani. Dept. of Economics, Hyderabad (India)

    2012-07-01

    The development of wind power in India began in the 1990s, and has significantly increased in the last few years. The ''Indian Wind Turbine Manufacturers Association (IWTMA)'' has played a leading role in promoting wind energy in India. Although a relative newcomer to the wind industry compared with Denmark or the US, a combination of domestic policy support for wind power and the rise of Suzlon (a leading global wind turbine manufacturer) have led India to become the country with the fifth largest installed wind power capacity in the world. Wind power accounts for 6% of India's total installed power capacity, and it generates 1.6% of the country's power. (Author)

  12. Surface biotechnology for refining cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Fei; Walshe, Peter; Viani, Laura; Al-Rubeai, Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    The advent of the cochlear implant is phenomenal because it is the first surgical prosthesis that is capable of restoring one of the senses. The subsequent rapid evolution of cochlear implants through increasing complexity and functionality has been synchronized with the recent advancements in biotechnology. Surface biotechnology has refined cochlear implants by directly influencing the implant–tissue interface. Emerging surface biotechnology strategies are exemplified by nanofibrous polymeric materials, topographical surface modification, conducting polymer coatings, and neurotrophin-eluting implants. Although these novel developments have received individual attention in the recent literature, the time has come to investigate their collective applications to cochlear implants to restore lost hearing.

  13. Frontiers in biomedical engineering and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Goodarzi, Ali; Wang, Haifeng; Stasiak, Joanna; Sun, Jianbo; Zhou, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (iCBEB 2013), held in Wuhan on 11–13 October 2013, is an annual conference that aims at providing an opportunity for international and national researchers and practitioners to present the most recent advances and future challenges in the fields of Biomedical Information, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology. The papers published by this issue are selected from this conference, which witnesses the frontier in the field of Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, which particularly has helped improving the level of clinical diagnosis in medical work.

  14. Les Biotechnologies Marines dans le Grand Ouest

    OpenAIRE

    Boyen, Catherine; Jaouen, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Travaux d'un groupe de réflexion au sein de l'Europole Mer sur le thème des biotechnologies marines.; Marine (= blue) biotechnology, i.e. the utilization of marine bio-resources as a target or source of biotechnologicalapplications, is a field with massive potential for innovation and economic growth. In a context of rapid climate change and increasing pressure on natural resources, renewed interest in marine biotechnology has been promoted by application of recent methodological and technolo...

  15. Evaluation of Cable Harness Post-Installation Testing. Part B

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, M. S.; Iannello, C. J.

    2011-01-01

    The Cable Harness Post-Installation Testing Report was written in response to an action issued by the Ares Project Control Board (PCB). The action for the Ares I Avionics & Software Chief Engineer and the Avionics Integration and Vehicle Systems Test Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Manager in the Vehicle Integration Office was to develop a set of guidelines for electrical cable harnesses. Research showed that post-installation tests have been done since the Apollo era. For Ares I-X, the requirement for post-installation testing was removed to make it consistent with the avionics processes used on the Atlas V expendable launch vehicle. Further research for the report involved surveying government and private sector launch vehicle developers, military and commercial aircraft, spacecraft developers, and harness vendors. Responses indicated crewed launch vehicles and military aircraft perform post-installation tests. Key findings in the report were as follows: Test requirements identify damage, human-rated vehicles should be tested despite the identification of statistically few failures, data does not support the claim that post-installation testing damages the harness insulation system, and proper planning can reduce overhead associated with testing. The primary recommendation of the report is for the Ares projects to retain the practice of post-fabrication and post-installation cable harness testing.

  16. Risk, regulation and biotechnology: the case of GM crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J; Phillips, Peter W B

    2014-07-03

    The global regulation of products of biotechnology is increasingly divided. Regulatory decisions for genetically modified (GM) crops in North America are predictable and efficient, with numerous countries in Latin and South America, Australia and Asia following this lead. While it might have been possible to argue that Europe's regulations were at one time based on real concerns about minimizing risks and ensuring health and safety, it is increasingly apparent that the entire European Union (EU) regulatory system for GM crops and foods is now driven by political agendas. Countries within the EU are at odds with each other as some have commercial production of GM crops, while others refuse to even develop regulations that could provide for the commercial release of GM crops. This divide in regulatory decision-making is affecting international grain trade, creating challenges for feeding an increasing global population.

  17. IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY ON ENVIRONMENT AND FOOD SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijan Jošt

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of modern biotechnology in agricultural production processes has generated new ethical, economic, social and environmental dilemmas confronting scientists all over the world. While current knowledge is insufficient for assessing the promised benefits and possible risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs, the principle of “substantial equivalence” in comparing GM and conventional food is profoundly flawed and scientifically insupportable. The current generation of GMOs provide small benefits except corporate profit and marginally improved grower returns. The TRIPS agreement has allowed worldwide patenting of genes and microorganisms, as well as genetically engineered organisms. Granting patents on life encourages biopiracy and the theft of genetic resources belonging to the local community. At the same time, the patented products are sold at relatively high prices to developing countries – the same countries from which the product originated.

  18. [The past 30 years of Chinese Journal of Biotechnology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ning

    2015-06-01

    This review addresses the association of "Chinese Journal of Biotechnology" and the development of biotechnology in China in the past 30 years. Topics include relevant awards and industrialization, development of the biotechnology discipline, and well know scientists in biotechnology, as well as perspectives on the journal.

  19. Biotechnology, nanotechnology, and pharmacogenomics and pharmaceutical compounding, Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Loyd V

    2015-01-01

    The world of pharmaceuticals is changing rapidly as biotechnology continues to grow and nanotechnology appears on the horizon. Biotechnology is gaining in importance in extemporaneous pharmaceutical compounding, and nanotechnology and pharmacogenomics could drastically change the practice of pharmacy. This article discusses biotechnology and the factors to consider when compounding biotechnology drugs.

  20. Development and application of modern agricultural biotechnology in Botswana: the potentials, opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batlang, Utlwang; Tsurupe, Gorata; Segwagwe, Amogelang; Obopile, Motshwari

    2014-07-03

    In Botswana, approximately 40% of the population live in rural areas and derive most of their livelihood from agriculture by keeping livestock and practising arable farming. Due to the nature of their farming practises livestock and crops are exposed to diseases and environmental stresses. These challenges offer opportunities for application of biotechnology to develop adaptable materials to the country's environment. On the other hand, the perceived risk of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has dimmed the promise of the technology for its application in agriculture. This calls for a holistic approach to the application of biotechnology to address issues of biosafety of GMOs. We have therefore assessed the potentials, challenges and opportunities to apply biotechnology with specific emphasis on agriculture, taking cognisance of requirement for its research, development and application in research and teaching institutions. In order to achieve this, resource availability, infrastructure, human and laboratory requirements were analyzed. The analysis revealed that the country has the capacity to carry out research in biotechnology in the development and production of genetically modified crops for food and fodder crops. These will include gene discovery, genetic transformation and development of systems to comply with the world regulatory framework on biosafety. In view of the challenges facing the country in agriculture, first generation biotech crops could be released for production. Novel GM products for development may include disease diagnosis kits, animal disease vaccines, and nutrient use efficiency, drought, and pest and disease resistant food and fodder crops.

  1. Application of biotechnology to improve livestock products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Gupta

    Full Text Available Biotechnological achievements of recent years have emerged as powerful tool to improve quality attributes of livestock products including milk and meat products. Biotechnological approaches can be employed for improving productivity, economy, physicochemical and nutritional attributes of a wide range of livestock products. The target areas of biotechnological research in the field of livestock products can be envisaged as production of high yielding food animal, improvement in quality of their products, enhanced production of natural food grade preservatives, efficient byproduct utilization and so forth. Many of the biotechnological techniques can be explored in the area of quality assurance programmes, which would be of great help to produce livestock products of assured quality and public health safety. [Vet World 2012; 5(10.000: 634-638

  2. Biotechnology Education: A Multiple Instructional Strategies Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Trey; Wells, John; White, Karissa

    2002-01-01

    Provides a rationale for inclusion of biotechnology in technology education. Describes an instructional strategy that uses behaviorist, cognitive, and constructivist learning theories in two activities involving photobioreactors and bovine somatotropin (growth hormone). (Contains 39 references.) (SK)

  3. Biotechnological production of bioflavors and functional sugars

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bicas, Juliano Lemos; Silva, Júnio Cota; Dionísio, Ana Paula; Pastore, Gláucia Maria

    2010-01-01

    .... The use of agro-industrial residues as substrates in biotechnological processes seems to be a valuable alternative in helping to overcome the high manufacturing costs of industrial fermentations...

  4. Principles of biotechnological treatment of industrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, M G; Martín Rodriguez, M J; Cachaza, J M; Mendoza Sánchez, L; Kennedy, J F

    1993-01-01

    This review includes current information on biodegradation processes of pollutants, digestor biocenosis and bioadditives, sludge production, measurement of pollution, and advances regarding biotechnological treatment of a series of specific industrial effluents.

  5. Developing legal regulatory frameworks for modern biotechnology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    analytical; the challenges that are posed by GMO technology are analysed from public ... the pressing issues that are raised by biotechnology generally and GMOs in particular. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  6. Mechatronics design principles for biotechnology product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik; Björkman, Mats

    2010-05-01

    Traditionally, biotechnology design has focused on the manufacture of chemicals and biologics. Still, a majority of biotechnology products that appear on the market today is the result of mechanical-electric (mechatronic) construction. For these, the biological components play decisive roles in the design solution; the biological entities are either integral parts of the design, or are transformed by the mechatronic system. This article explains how the development and production engineering design principles used for typical mechanical products can be adapted to the demands of biotechnology products, and how electronics, mechanics and biology can be integrated more successfully. We discuss three emerging areas of biotechnology in which mechatronic design principles can apply: stem cell manufacture, artificial organs, and bioreactors.

  7. Yeasts: from genetics to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, S; Berkovitz Siman-Tov, R; Poli, G

    1995-01-01

    Yeasts have been known and used in food and alcoholic fermentations ever since the Neolithic Age. In more recent times, on the basis of their peculiar features and history, yeasts have become very important experimental models in both microbiological and genetic research, as well as the main characters in many fermentative production processes. In the last 40 years, advances in molecular biology and genetic engineering have made possible not only the genetic selection of organisms, but also the genetic modification of some of them, especially the simplest of them, such as bacteria and yeasts. These discoveries have led to the availability of new yeast strains fit to fulfill requests of industrial production and fermentation. Moreover, genetically modified and transformed yeasts have been constructed that are able to produce large amounts of biologically active proteins and enzymes. Thus, recombinant yeasts make it easier to produce drugs, biologically active products, diagnostics, and vaccines, by inexpensive and relatively simple techniques. Yeasts are going to become more and more important in the "biotechnological revolution" by virtue of both their features and their very long and safe use in human nutrition and industry.

  8. Biology and biotechnology of Trichoderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, André

    2010-01-01

    Fungi of the genus Trichoderma are soilborne, green-spored ascomycetes that can be found all over the world. They have been studied with respect to various characteristics and applications and are known as successful colonizers of their habitats, efficiently fighting their competitors. Once established, they launch their potent degradative machinery for decomposition of the often heterogeneous substrate at hand. Therefore, distribution and phylogeny, defense mechanisms, beneficial as well as deleterious interaction with hosts, enzyme production and secretion, sexual development, and response to environmental conditions such as nutrients and light have been studied in great detail with many species of this genus, thus rendering Trichoderma one of the best studied fungi with the genome of three species currently available. Efficient biocontrol strains of the genus are being developed as promising biological fungicides, and their weaponry for this function also includes secondary metabolites with potential applications as novel antibiotics. The cellulases produced by Trichoderma reesei, the biotechnological workhorse of the genus, are important industrial products, especially with respect to production of second generation biofuels from cellulosic waste. Genetic engineering not only led to significant improvements in industrial processes but also to intriguing insights into the biology of these fungi and is now complemented by the availability of a sexual cycle in T. reesei/Hypocrea jecorina, which significantly facilitates both industrial and basic research. This review aims to give a broad overview on the qualities and versatility of the best studied Trichoderma species and to highlight intriguing findings as well as promising applications. PMID:20461510

  9. New biotechnologies in Serbian forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galović Vladislava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the results achieved in the laboratory for molecular studies of the Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment, University of Novi Sad, in the field of biotechnology, mainly in molecular genetics, genomics and functional genomics. Researches are designed to serve as a breeding tool. The aim was to clarify the processes of classical genetics by applying modern methods and enable a qualitative and rapid progress in understanding the processes that occur at the level of genes in the genome of forest plant species and thus help the processes of conservation of valuable taxa at the time of global climate change. The results are presented within various research fields and by type of forest trees that were given priority by importance in forest ecosystems. Studies have in most cases been of applicative character with the aim of solving the major problems in forestry, but also of fundamental nature when they were necessary to elucidate the response of forest species to the induced stress, which is an inevitable component of the time characterized by tolerance and adaptation as keywords. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike SRbije, br. III 43002: Biosenzing tehnologije i globalni sistem za kontinuirano istraživanje i integrisano upravljanje ekosistemima i br. III 43007: Istraživanje klimatskih promena i njihovog uticaja na životnu sredinu - praćenje uticaja, adaptacija i ublažavanje i IPA - OXIT

  10. Biotechnological applications of bacterial cellulases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Menendez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cellulases have numerous applications in several industries, including biofuel production, food and feed industry, brewing, pulp and paper, textile, laundry, and agriculture.Cellulose-degrading bacteria are widely spread in nature, being isolated from quite different environments. Cellulose degradation is the result of a synergic process between an endoglucanase, an exoglucanase and a,β-glucosidase. Bacterial endoglucanases degrade ß-1,4-glucan linkages of cellulose amorphous zones, meanwhile exoglucanases cleave the remaining oligosaccharide chains, originating cellobiose, which is hydrolyzed by ß-glucanases. Bacterial cellulases (EC 3.2.1.4 are comprised in fourteen Glycosil Hydrolase families. Several advantages, such as higher growth rates and genetic versatility, emphasize the suitability and advantages of bacterial cellulases over other sources for this group of enzymes. This review summarizes the main known cellulolytic bacteria and the best strategies to optimize their cellulase production, focusing on endoglucanases, as well as it reviews the main biotechnological applications of bacterial cellulases in several industries, medicine and agriculture.

  11. Yeast Genetics and Biotechnological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Saroj; Baranwal, Richa

    Yeast can be recognized as one of the very important groups of microorganisms on account of its extensive use in the fermentation industry and as a basic eukaryotic model cellular system. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been extensively used to elucidate the genetics and regulation of several key functions in the cell such as cell mating, electron transport chain, protein trafficking, cell cycle events and others. Even before the genome sequence of the yeast was out, the structural organization and function of several of its genes was known. With the availability of the origin of replication from the 2 μm plasmid and the development of transformation system, it became the host of choice for expression of a number of important proteins. A large number of episomal and integrative shuttle vectors are available for expression of mammalian proteins. The latest developments in genomics and micro-array technology have allowed investigations of individual gene function by site-specific deletion method. The application of metabolic profiling has also assisted in understanding the cellular network operating in this yeast. This chapter is aimed at reviewing the use of this system as an experimental tool for conducting classical genetics. Various vector systems available, foreign genes expressed and the limitations as a host will be discussed. Finally, the use of various yeast enzymes in biotechnology sector will be reviewed.

  12. Biotechnological improvement of ornamental plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Soledad Darqui

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of commercial transgenic varieties of orange petunias sold in Europe and the United States although they had never reached the approved status, and the consequent recommendation to destroy them, was the trigger to discuss about biotechnological improvement of ornamental plants. Inside the restricted world of 26 vegetal transgenic species, according to the ISAAA’s reports (http://www.isaaa.org, there are three ornamental species: carnation, rose and the Beijing University developed petunia; all of them with the same trait, a change in their colour. On the other hand, in 2014, the whole-genome sequence of carnation appeared which was the first and until now the only one among ornamental species. In this context, we review the publications from the last five years in petunia, rose, chrysanthemum and carnation. In these papers there are detailed descriptions of modification of the cascade of genes and transcription factors involved in stress situations, in different developmental stages and their regulation through different plant hormones. This knowledge will allow breeding for better and new varieties with changes in their abiotic or biotic stress tolerance, altered growth or yield and modified product quality as colour or fragrance.

  13. Ethics in biotechnology and biosecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Jameel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Great advances in technology produce unique challenges. Every technology also has a dual use, which needs to be understood and managed to extract maximum benefits for mankind and the development of civilization. The achievements of physicists in the mid-20th century resulted in the nuclear technology, which gave us the destructive power of the atomic bomb as also a source of energy. Towards the later part of the 20th century, information technology empowered us with fast, easy and cheap access to information, but also led to intrusions into our privacy. Today, biotechnology is yielding life- saving and life-enhancing advances at a fast pace. But, the same tools can also give rise to fiercely destructive forces. How do we construct a security regime for biology? What have we learnt from the management of earlier technological advances? How much information should be in the public domain? Should biology, or more broadly science, be regulated? Who should regulate it? These and many other ethical questions need to be addressed.

  14. Sustainable development: how can biotechnology contribute?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechendorf, B

    1999-06-01

    Sustainable development has become a priority for the world's policy makers. Among the broad range of technologies with the potential to reach the goal of sustainability, biotechnology could take an important place, especially in the fields of food production, renewable raw materials and energy, pollution prevention, and bioremediation. However, technical and economic problems still need to be solved. In some cases, the environmental impact of biotechnological applications has been misjudged; in other cases, expectations cannot yet be matched.

  15. The current biotechnology outlook in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Khairiah Salwa MOKHTAR; Mahalingam, Ravi

    2010-01-01

    Blessed with extremely rich biodiversity, Malaysia is all geared up to explore new high technology to utilize the advantage it possesses whilst to protect its environment. Biotechnology has been identified as an appropriate driver that can deliver economic gains through research and development, improvement of food security, creation of entrepreneurial opportunities for industrial growth, health and environmental sustainability. This paper attempts to address the evolution of biotechnology in...

  16. Biotechnology and the bioeconomy-Towards inclusive and sustainable industrial development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokko, Yvonne; Heijde, Marc; Schebesta, Karl; Scholtès, Philippe; Van Montagu, Marc; Giacca, Mauro

    2017-06-27

    To transform developing and least developing countries into industrialised ones, biotechnology could be deployed along the value chain, to provide support to the development of the bio-based industries in such a way to ensure sustainability of the sector and to reduce negative environmental impacts that might otherwise occur. In agribusiness development, for instance, interventions could start from inputs and agricultural mechanization, modern processing technologies, packaging of perishable products, the promotion of food safety in the processing and regulatory environment; and interventions to improve competitiveness and productivity. Worth over USD 300 billion in revenue, the role of the biotechnology goes beyond industrial growth, since it provides opportunities for progress towards many of the UN sustainable development goals (SDGs). This paper reviews the status of industrial biotechnology as it relates to inclusive and sustainable industrial development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The potential impact of plant biotechnology on the Millennium Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dawei; Bassie, Ludovic; Sabalza, Maite; Miralpeix, Bruna; Dashevskaya, Svetlana; Farre, Gemma; Rivera, Sol M; Banakar, Raviraj; Bai, Chao; Sanahuja, Georgina; Arjó, Gemma; Avilla, Eva; Zorrilla-López, Uxue; Ugidos-Damboriena, Nerea; López, Alberto; Almacellas, David; Zhu, Changfu; Capell, Teresa; Hahne, Gunther; Twyman, Richard M; Christou, Paul

    2011-03-01

    The eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are international development targets for the year 2015 that aim to achieve relative improvements in the standards of health, socioeconomic status and education in the world's poorest countries. Many of the challenges addressed by the MDGs reflect the direct or indirect consequences of subsistence agriculture in the developing world, and hence, plant biotechnology has an important role to play in helping to achieve MDG targets. In this opinion article, we discuss each of the MDGs in turn, provide examples to show how plant biotechnology may be able to accelerate progress towards the stated MDG objectives, and offer our opinion on the likelihood of such technology being implemented. In combination with other strategies, plant biotechnology can make a contribution towards sustainable development in the future although the extent to which progress can be made in today's political climate depends on how we deal with current barriers to adoption.

  18. Biosafety Assessment of Microbial Strains Used in Biotechnology According to Their Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia I. Sheina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A great variety of biotechnological products are now widely used in different ways in agriculture, medicine, food manufacturing and other areas of our life. Industrialized societies now more than ever depend on the use of genetically engineered products, with many of them synthesized using recombinant strains of microorganisms. There is an opinion that microbial strains used in biotechnology are potentially harmful for human health and the environment. Similar to many other countries, we have enacted environmental legislation in an effort to balance the risks and benefits of using biotechnological strains. Although environmental monitoring rules focus mainly on safety assessments of chemicals, the biosafety assessment of microbial strains used in biotechnology is a very important issue as well. This article summarizes 15 years of research on the biotechnological strains of microbes widely used as producers of various biological substances for industrial purposes, and their environmental and biotechnological applications. In our survey, we tried to evaluate possible adverse effects (general toxicity and damage to the immune system, potential sensitizing effects, and damage to normal microbiota caused by these microbes. It was shown that microscopical fungi of genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and Candida, and some gram-negative bacteria can affect the immune system and disrupt the normal balance of microbial flora of the intestinal tract in rats. The actinomycetes are less dangerous in that they cause fewer side effects. The investigation data obtained can be used to develop safety and hygienic standards for industrial microbes that will help decrease or minimize the occupational risk of infection or damage to the immune system when working with biotechnological strains of microbes.

  19. Factors Affecting the Survival of SMEs: A Study of Biotechnology Firms in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangsoo Shin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Past studies examining survival factors of biotechnology firms have focused on pioneer countries, such as the USA, the UK and Germany. However, as the biotechnology industry in Asia is reaching the take-off stage and showing a high growth rate, the research on survival factors in the context of Asian latecomers is needed. The present research investigates internal and external factors affecting the survival of SMEs (Small and Medium-sized Enterprises in the biotechnology industry in South Korea. The Cox hazard model was employed to perform a robust estimation in survival analysis. The analysis of internal factors showed that the origin of a firm (i.e., having prior experience or spin-offs and the business sub-sector (i.e., platform-based affect the hazard rates of biotechnology firms. In terms of external factors, unlike strategic alliances, government R&D funding lowered hazard rates for the firm’s survival. Additionally, considering that the reasons of firm exit can be divided into bankruptcy and M&A (Mergers and Acquisitions, the different effects of origins from other firms and strategic alliance for firm survival are confirmed. The results suggest that prior experience, platform-based and constant government R&D funding contribute to the sustainable development of SMEs in the biotechnology industry.

  20. Global unbalance in seaweed production, research effort and biotechnology markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarrasa, Inés; Olsen, Ylva S; Mayol, Eva; Marbà, Núria; Duarte, Carlos M

    2014-01-01

    Exploitation of the world's oceans is rapidly growing as evidenced by a booming patent market of marine products including seaweed, a resource that is easily accessible without sophisticated bioprospecting technology and that has a high level of domestication globally. The investment in research effort on seaweed aquaculture has recently been identified to be the main force for the development of a biotechnology market of seaweed-derived products and is a more important driver than the capacity of seaweed production. Here, we examined seaweed patent registrations between 1980 and 2009 to assess the growth rate of seaweed biotechnology, its geographic distribution and the types of applications patented. We compare this growth with scientific investment in seaweed aquaculture and with the market of seaweed production. We found that both the seaweed patenting market and the rate of scientific publications are rapidly growing (11% and 16.8% per year respectively) since 1990. The patent market is highly geographically skewed (95% of all registrations belonging to ten countries and the top two holding 65% of the total) compared to the distribution of scientific output among countries (60% of all scientific publications belonging to ten countries and the top two countries holding a 21%), but more homogeneously distributed than the production market (with a 99.8% belonging to the top ten countries, and a 71% to the top two). Food industry was the dominant application for both the patent registrations (37.7%) and the scientific publications (21%) followed in both cases by agriculture and aquaculture applications. This result is consistent with the seaweed taxa most represented. Kelp, which was the target taxa for 47% of the patent registrations, is a traditional ingredient in Asian food and Gracilaria and Ulva, which were the focus of 15% and 13% of the scientific publications respectively, that are also used in more sophisticated applications such as cosmetics, chemical

  1. Biotechnology Education. Engaging the Learner: Embedding Information Literacy Skills into a Biotechnology Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Helena; Hockey, Julie

    2007-01-01

    One of the challenges of the Biotechnology industry is keeping up to date with the rapid pace of change and that much of the information, which students learn in their undergraduate studies, will be out of date in a few years. It is therefore crucial that Biotechnology students have the skills to access the relevant information for their studies…

  2. New Developments in Biotechnology: U.S. Investment in Biotechnology. [Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    Since the discovery of recombinant DNA in the early 1970s, biotechnology has become an essential tool for many industries. The potential of biotechnology to improve the Nation's health, food supply, and the quality of the environment leads logically to questions of whether current levels of investment in research and development, human resources,…

  3. New Developments in Biotechnology: U.S. Investment in Biotechnology. Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    Since the discovery of recombinant DNA in the early 1970s, biotechnology has become an essential tool for many industries. The potential of biotechnology to improve the Nation's health, food supply, and the quality of the environment leads logically to questions of whether current levels of investment in research and development, human resources,…

  4. Turkish University Students' Knowledge of Biotechnology and Attitudes toward Biotechnological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk-Akar, Ebru

    2017-01-01

    This study questions the presumed relation between formal schooling and scientific literacy about biotechnologies. Comparing science and nonscience majors' knowledge of and attitudes toward biotechnological applications, conclusions are drawn if their formal learnings improve pupils' understandings of and attitudes toward biotechnology…

  5. Life sciences today and tomorrow: emerging biotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, E Diane

    2016-07-03

    The purpose of this review is to survey current, emerging and predicted future biotechnologies which are impacting, or are likely to impact in the future on the life sciences, with a projection for the coming 20 years. This review is intended to discuss current and future technical strategies, and to explore areas of potential growth during the foreseeable future. Information technology approaches have been employed to gather and collate data. Twelve broad categories of biotechnology have been identified which are currently impacting the life sciences and will continue to do so. In some cases, technology areas are being pushed forward by the requirement to deal with contemporary questions such as the need to address the emergence of anti-microbial resistance. In other cases, the biotechnology application is made feasible by advances in allied fields in biophysics (e.g. biosensing) and biochemistry (e.g. bio-imaging). In all cases, the biotechnologies are underpinned by the rapidly advancing fields of information systems, electronic communications and the World Wide Web together with developments in computing power and the capacity to handle extensive biological data. A rationale and narrative is given for the identification of each technology as a growth area. These technologies have been categorized by major applications, and are discussed further. This review highlights: Biotechnology has far-reaching applications which impinge on every aspect of human existence. The applications of biotechnology are currently wide ranging and will become even more diverse in the future. Access to supercomputing facilities and the ability to manipulate large, complex biological datasets, will significantly enhance knowledge and biotechnological development.

  6. Third-generation biofuels: current and future research on microalgal lipid biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Beisson Yonghua

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available One pressing issue faced by modern societies is to develop renewable energy for transportation. Microalgal biomass offers an attractive solution due to its high (annual surface biomass productivity, efficient conversion of solar energy into chemical energy and the ability to grow on non-agricultural land. Despite these considerable advantages, microalgal biofuels are not yet commercially sustainable. Major challenges lie in improving both cultivation technologies and microalgal strains. A microalgal crop species is yet to emerge. In this review, we focus on researches aiming at understanding and harnessing lipid metabolism in microalgae in view of producing lipid-based biofuels such as biodiesel. Current biotechnological challenges and key progresses made in the development of algal models, genetic tools and lipid metabolic engineering strategies are reviewed. Possible future research directions to increase oil yields in microalgae are also highlighted.

  7. Dansk Taxi Råd har brug for et sprogkursus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Helle Bach

    2011-01-01

    16.10. afviser formanden for Dansk Taxi Råd, John Lindbom, at det nyindførte pointsystem har til hensigt at holde indvandrere fra at blive vognmænd. I stedet siger han, at det handler om at højne fagets status og serviceniveau. Dansk Taxi Råd kan komme langt ved at forbedre sin interkulturelle...

  8. Harness: Development of a multifunctional protective ship bulkhead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, R. van der; Meuers, R.J.C.

    2016-01-01

    HARNESS is a joint project between governments, industry and TNO with the objective to develop a multifunctional protective bulkhead for application on naval vessels. The multifunctional bulkhead aims at increasing the resilience of naval vessels, reduce damage and repair time and provide a safer en

  9. Taso Mähar : avatud vannitoaga vanalinna korter / Gitte Hint

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hint, Gitte

    2003-01-01

    Modernne korter (220 m2). Sisearhitekt Taso Mähar, tema kommentaarid. Kogu korteri ulatuses on sisekujundusmaterjalidena kasutatud väärispuitu, metalli, marmorit ja klaasi. T. Mähari projekteeritud on trepp ja piirded, kamin, baarilett ja õhukesed alumiiniumraamidel mattklaasidega uksed. Ill.: I ja II korruse plaan, 8 värv. vaadet

  10. PetroChina to Harness New Natural Gas Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ As climate change is alarming policymakers,a string of oil companies are eyeing to harness China's plentiful unconventional natural gas resources,such as coalbed methane gas,deeply locked in China's bountiful coal reserves,which is expected to reduce China's reliance on natural gas imports for decades to come.

  11. Harnessing Linguistic Variation to Improve Education. Rethinking Education. Volume 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiakoumetti, Androula, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This volume brings together research carried out in a variety of geographic and linguistic contexts including Africa, Asia, Australia, Canada, the Caribbean, Europe and the United States and explores efforts to incorporate linguistic diversity into education and to "harness" this diversity for learners' benefit. It challenges the largely…

  12. Taso Mähar : avatud vannitoaga vanalinna korter / Gitte Hint

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hint, Gitte

    2003-01-01

    Modernne korter (220 m2). Sisearhitekt Taso Mähar, tema kommentaarid. Kogu korteri ulatuses on sisekujundusmaterjalidena kasutatud väärispuitu, metalli, marmorit ja klaasi. T. Mähari projekteeritud on trepp ja piirded, kamin, baarilett ja õhukesed alumiiniumraamidel mattklaasidega uksed. Ill.: I ja II korruse plaan, 8 värv. vaadet

  13. Analytical assessments on the potential of harnessing tidal currents for electricity generation in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Yun Seng; Koh, Siong Lee [Department of Physical Science, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tunku Abdul Rahman University (Malaysia)

    2010-05-15

    Malaysia is heavily dependent on fossil fuel for electricity generation. With the rapidly diminishing of its fuel reserve and the increasingly negative effects of fossil fuels to the environment, the government has begun to utilise bio-fuel and solar radiation for electricity generation. However, the potential of harnessing other renewable sources, particular ocean energy, in Malaysia has not been fully realised. Therefore, studies were carried out to identify the potential of harnessing ocean energy for electricity generation. The Princeton Ocean Model was used to create a three-dimensional numerical ocean model for Malaysia which was calibrated against measurement by a means of adjoint data assimilation approach. A set of reliable tidal speed and tidal elevation data was therefore generated to determine the types of tides available in Malaysia, the potential areas of installing marine current turbines (MCTs), the total amount of electricity to be generated by MCT, the economical viability and the environmental benefits of using MCT in Malaysia. This paper presents the findings on the studies, encompassing the technical, economical and environmental aspects of installing MCT in Malaysia. The results are critical to policy makers and the potential investors on tidal energy in Malaysia for decision making. It may also help the neighboring countries to realize the possible potential of their ocean energy for electricity generation. (author)

  14. Harnessing pluralism for better health in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Evans, Timothy G; Standing, Hilary; Mahmud, Simeen

    2013-11-23

    How do we explain the paradox that Bangladesh has made remarkable progress in health and human development, yet its achievements have taken place within a health system that is frequently characterised as weak, in terms of inadequate physical and human infrastructure and logistics, and low performing? We argue that the development of a highly pluralistic health system environment, defined by the participation of a multiplicity of different stakeholders and agents and by ad hoc, diffused forms of management has contributed to these outcomes by creating conditions for rapid change. We use a combination of data from official sources, research studies, case studies of specific innovations, and in-depth knowledge from our own long-term engagement with health sector issues in Bangladesh to lay out a conceptual framework for understanding pluralism and its outcomes. Although we argue that pluralism has had positive effects in terms of stimulating change and innovation, we also note its association with poor health systems governance and regulation, resulting in endemic problems such as overuse and misuse of drugs. Pluralism therefore requires active management that acknowledges and works with its polycentric nature. We identify four key areas where this management is needed: participatory governance, accountability and regulation, information systems, and capacity development. This approach challenges some mainstream frameworks for managing health systems, such as the building blocks approach of the WHO Health Systems Framework. However, as pluralism increasingly defines the nature and the challenge of 21st century health systems, the experience of Bangladesh is relevant to many countries across the world.

  15. From the tumor-inducing principle to plant biotechnology and its importance for society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angenon, Geert; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke; Van Montagu, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This dialogue was held between the Guest Editors of the Special Issue on "Plant Transgenesis" of the Int. J. Dev. Biol. and Marc Van Montagu. Research in the group of Marc Van Montagu and Jeff Schell in the 1970s was essential to reveal how the phytopathogenic bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens transfers DNA to host plants to cause crown gall disease. Knowledge of the molecular mechanism underlying gene transfer, subsequently led to the development of plant transgene technology, an indispensable tool in fundamental plant research and plant improvement. In the early 1980s, Marc Van Montagu founded a start-up company, Plant Genetic Systems, which successfully developed insect-resistant plants, herbicide-tolerant plants and a hybrid seed production system based on nuclear male sterility. Even before the first transgenic plant had been produced, Marc Van Montagu realized that the less developed countries might benefit most from plant biotechnology and throughout his subsequent career, this remained a focus of his efforts. After becoming emeritus professor, he founded the Institute of Plant Biotechnology Outreach (IPBO), which aims to raise awareness of the major role that plant biotechnology can play in sustainable agricultural systems, especially in less developed countries. Marc Van Montagu has been honored with many prizes and awards, the most recent being the prestigious World Food Prize 2013. In this paper, we look to the past and present of plant biotechnology and to the promises this technology holds for the future, on the basis of the personal perspective of Marc Van Montagu.

  16. Forest biotechnology advances to support global bioeconomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Harfouche

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The world is shifting to an innovation economy and forest biotechnology can play a major role in the bio-economy by providing farmers, producers, and consumers with tools that can better advance this transition. First-generation or conventional biofuels are primarily produced from food crops and are therefore limited in their ability to meet challenges for petroleum-product substitution and climate change mitigation, and to overcome the food-versus-fuel dilemma. In the longer term, forest lignocellulosic biomass will provide a unique renewable resource for large-scale production of bioenergy, biofuels and bio-products. These second-generation or advanced biofuels and bio-products have also the potential to avoid many of the issues facing the first-generation biofuels, particularly the competition concerning land and water used for food production. To expand the range of natural biological resources the rapidly evolving tools of biotechnology can ameliorate the conversion process, lower the conversion costs and also enhance target yield of forest biomass feedstock and the product of interest. Therefore, linking forest biotechnology with industrial biotechnology presents a promising approach to convert woody lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels and bio-products. Major advances and applications of forest biotechnology that are being achieved to competitively position forest biomass feedstocks with corn and other food crops are outlined. Finally, recommendations for future work are discussed.

  17. Proteomics: A Biotechnology Tool for Crop Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa eEldakak

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A sharp decline in the availability of arable land and sufficient supply of irrigation water along with a continuous steep increase in food demands have exerted a pressure on farmers to produce more with fewer resources. A viable solution to release this pressure is to speed up the plant breeding process by employing biotechnology in breeding programs. The majority of biotechnological applications rely on information generated from various -omic technologies. The latest outstanding improvements in proteomic platforms and many other but related advances in plant biotechnology techniques offer various new ways to encourage the usage of these technologies by plant scientists for crop improvement programs. A combinatorial approach of accelerated gene discovery through genomics, proteomics, and other associated -omic branches of biotechnology, as an applied approach, is proving to be an effective way to speed up the crop improvement programs worldwide. In the near future, swift improvements in -omic databases are becoming critical and demand immediate attention for the effective utilization of these techniques to produce next-generation crops for the progressive farmers. Here, we have reviewed the recent advances in proteomics, as tools of biotechnology, which are offering great promise and leading the path towards crop improvement for sustainable agriculture.

  18. The Biotechnology Facility for International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas; Lundquist, Charles; Hurlbert, Katy; Tuxhorn, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    The primary mission of the Cellular Biotechnology Program is to advance microgravity as a tool in basic and applied cell biology. The microgravity environment can be used to study fundamental principles of cell biology and to achieve specific applications such as tissue engineering. The Biotechnology Facility (BTF) will provide a state-of-the-art facility to perform cellular biotechnology research onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The BTF will support continuous operation, which will allow performance of long-duration experiments and will significantly increase the on-orbit science throughput. With the BTF, dedicated ground support, and a community of investigators, the goals of the Cellular Biotechnology Program at Johnson Space Center are to: Support approximately 400 typical investigator experiments during the nominal design life of BTF (10 years). Support a steady increase in investigations per year, starting with stationary bioreactor experiments and adding rotating bioreactor experiments at a later date. Support at least 80% of all new cellular biotechnology investigations selected through the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) process. Modular components - to allow sequential and continuous experiment operations without cross-contamination Increased cold storage capability (+4 C, -80 C, -180 C). Storage of frozen cell culture inoculum - to allow sequential investigations. Storage of post-experiment samples - for return of high quality samples. Increased number of cell cultures per investigation, with replicates - to provide sufficient number of samples for data analysis and publication of results in peer-reviewed scientific journals.

  19. Biotechnology Approaches to Life Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Andrew; McKay, David; Schweitzer, Mary

    2001-01-01

    The direct detection of organic biomarkers for living or fossil microbes on Mars by an in situ instrument is a worthy goal for future lander missions. Several new and innovative biotechnology approaches are being explored. Firstly we have proposed an instrument based on immunological reactions to specific antibodies to cause activation of fluorescent stains. Antibodies are raised or acquired to a variety of general and specific substances that might be in Mars soil. These antibodies are then combined with various fluorescent stains and applied to micron sized numbered spots on a small (2-3 cm) test plate where they become firmly attached after freeze drying. Using technology that has been developed for gene mining in DNA technology up to 10,000 tests per square inch can now be applied to a test plate. On Mars or the planet/moon of interest, a sample of soil from a trench or drill core is extracted with water and/or an organic solvent and ultrasonication and then applied to the test plate. Any substance, which has an antibody on the test plate, will react with its antibody and activate its fluorescent stain. At the moment a small UV light source will illuminate the test plate, which is observed with a small CCD camera, although other detection systems will be applied. The numbered spots that fluoresce indicate the presence of the tested-for substance, and the intensity indicates relative amounts. Furthermore with up to a thousand test plates available false positives and several variations of antibody can also be screened for. The entire instrument can be quite small and light, on the order of 10 cm in each dimension. A possible choice for light source may be small UV lasers at several wavelengths. Some of the wells or spots can contain simply standard fluorescent stains used to detect live cells, dead cells, DNA, etc. The stains in these spots may be directly activated, with no antibodies being necessary. The proposed system will look for three classes of

  20. Plant biotechnology: research behind fences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeis, Jörg; Meissle, Michael; Brunner, Susanne; Tschamper, Denise; Winzeler, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The government of Switzerland has responded to vandalism of field experiments with genetically modified (GM) crops by establishing a protected field site. This site will enable research groups to conduct experiments without having to install and pay for security measures. This could be a model for other European countries who wish to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of GM crops in an objective and scientific manner and without the interference of vandalism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Public Acceptance of Plant Biotechnology and GM Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucht, Jan M

    2015-07-30

    A wide gap exists between the rapid acceptance of genetically modified (GM) crops for cultivation by farmers in many countries and in the global markets for food and feed, and the often-limited acceptance by consumers. This review contrasts the advances of practical applications of agricultural biotechnology with the divergent paths-also affecting the development of virus resistant transgenic crops-of political and regulatory frameworks for GM crops and food in different parts of the world. These have also shaped the different opinions of consumers. Important factors influencing consumer's attitudes are the perception of risks and benefits, knowledge and trust, and personal values. Recent political and societal developments show a hardening of the negative environment for agricultural biotechnology in Europe, a growing discussion-including calls for labeling of GM food-in the USA, and a careful development in China towards a possible authorization of GM rice that takes the societal discussions into account. New breeding techniques address some consumers' concerns with transgenic crops, but it is not clear yet how consumers' attitudes towards them will develop. Discussions about agriculture would be more productive, if they would focus less on technologies, but on common aims and underlying values.

  2. Public Acceptance of Plant Biotechnology and GM Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan M. Lucht

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A wide gap exists between the rapid acceptance of genetically modified (GM crops for cultivation by farmers in many countries and in the global markets for food and feed, and the often-limited acceptance by consumers. This review contrasts the advances of practical applications of agricultural biotechnology with the divergent paths—also affecting the development of virus resistant transgenic crops—of political and regulatory frameworks for GM crops and food in different parts of the world. These have also shaped the different opinions of consumers. Important factors influencing consumer’s attitudes are the perception of risks and benefits, knowledge and trust, and personal values. Recent political and societal developments show a hardening of the negative environment for agricultural biotechnology in Europe, a growing discussion—including calls for labeling of GM food—in the USA, and a careful development in China towards a possible authorization of GM rice that takes the societal discussions into account. New breeding techniques address some consumers’ concerns with transgenic crops, but it is not clear yet how consumers’ attitudes towards them will develop. Discussions about agriculture would be more productive, if they would focus less on technologies, but on common aims and underlying values.

  3. Surgical safety checklists in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivekanantham, Sayinthen; Ravindran, Rahul Prashanth; Shanmugarajah, Kumaran; Maruthappu, Mahiben; Shalhoub, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization Surgical Safety Checklist (WHO SSC) has demonstrated efficacy in developed and developing countries alike. Recent increases in awareness of surgical morbidity in developing countries has placed greater emphasis on strategies to improve surgical safety in resource-limited settings. The implementation of surgical safety checklists in low-income countries has specific barriers related to resources and culture. Adapting and amending existing surgical safety checklists, as well as considering factors unique to developing countries, may allow the potential of this simple intervention to be fully harnessed in a wider setting. This review will address the benefits and challenges of implementation of surgical safety checklists in developing countries. Moreover, inspiration for the original checklist is revisited to identify areas that will be of particular benefit in a resource-poor setting. Potential future strategies to encourage the implementation of checklists in these countries are also discussed.

  4. Sverige har officielt erklæret NPM-æraen slut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortdal, Henrik; Hegnsvad, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    Sverige har nu officielt erkendt at NPM-æraen er slut. Topchefer, forskere og personaleorganisationer bakker op.......Sverige har nu officielt erkendt at NPM-æraen er slut. Topchefer, forskere og personaleorganisationer bakker op....

  5. The Biotechnological Potential of Mushroom Tyrosinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Otávio de Faria

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade there has been a significant interest in developing biotechnological applications of tyrosinases. These applications include the production of L-DOPA (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine from L-tyrosine, the production of cross-linked protein networks for use as novel food additives and the detection of phenolic compounds in wastewater or their removal from it. Much of the research into these applications has involved mushroom tyrosinases. We review the potential biotechnological applications of mushroom tyrosinases and evaluate the state of knowledge about their production, recovery and immobilization. We conclude that much more research is necessary in these areas if mushroom tyrosinases are to fulfill their biotechnological potential.

  6. Organisation of biotechnological information into knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boh, B

    1996-09-01

    The success of biotechnological research, development and marketing depends to a large extent on the international transfer of information and on the ability to organise biotechnology information into knowledge. To increase the efficiency of information-based approaches, an information strategy has been developed and consists of the following stages: definition of the problem, its structure and sub-problems; acquisition of data by targeted processing of computer-supported bibliographic, numeric, textual and graphic databases; analysis of data and building of specialized in-house information systems; information processing for structuring data into systems, recognition of trends and patterns of knowledge, particularly by information synthesis using the concept of information density; design of research hypotheses; testing hypotheses in the laboratory and/or pilot plant; repeated evaluation and optimization of hypotheses by information methods and testing them by further laboratory work. The information approaches are illustrated by examples from the university-industry joint projects in biotechnology, biochemistry and agriculture.

  7. Perspectives on biotechnological applications of archaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Schiraldi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Many archaea colonize extreme environments. They include hyperthermophiles, sulfur-metabolizing thermophiles, extreme halophiles and methanogens. Because extremophilic microorganisms have unusual properties, they are a potentially valuable resource in the development of novel biotechnological processes. Despite extensive research, however, there are few existing industrial applications of either archaeal biomass or archaeal enzymes. This review summarizes current knowledge about the biotechnological uses of archaea and archaeal enzymes with special attention to potential applications that are the subject of current experimental evaluation. Topics covered include cultivation methods, recent achievements in genomics, which are of key importance for the development of new biotechnological tools, and the application of wild-type biomasses, engineered microorganisms, enzymes and specific metabolites in particular bioprocesses of industrial interest.

  8. Plant biotechnology for food security and bioeconomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jihong Liu; Zhang, Peng

    2013-09-01

    This year is a special year for plant biotechnology. It was 30 years ago, on January 18 1983, one of the most important dates in the history of plant biotechnology, that three independent groups described Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation at the Miami Winter Symposium, leading to the production of normal, fertile transgenic plants (Bevan et al. in Nature 304:184-187, 1983; Fraley et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:4803-4807, 1983; Herrera-Estrella et al. in EMBO J 2:987-995, 1983; Vasil in Plant Cell Rep 27:1432-1440, 2008). Since then, plant biotechnology has rapidly advanced into a useful and valuable tool and has made a significant impact on crop production, development of a biotech industry and the bio-based economy worldwide.

  9. Applications of Protein Hydrolysates in Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasupuleti, Vijai K.; Holmes, Chris; Demain, Arnold L.

    By definition, protein hydrolysates are the products that are obtained after the hydrolysis of proteins and this can be achieved by enzymes, acid or alkali. This broad definition encompasses all the products of protein hydrolysis - peptides, amino acids and minerals present in the protein and acid/alkali used to adjust pH (Pasupuleti 2006). Protein hydrolysates contain variable side chains depending on the enzymes used. These side chains could be carboxyl, amino, imidazole, sulfhydryl, etc. and they may exert specific physiological roles in animal, microbial, insect and plant cells. This introductory chapter reviews the applications of protein hydrolysates in biotechnology. The word biotechnology is so broad and for the purpose of this book, we define it as a set of technologies such as cell culture technology, bioprocessing technology that includes fermentations, genetic engineering technology, microbiology, and so on. This chapter provides introduction and leads to other chapters on manufacturing and applications of protein hydrolysates in biotechnology.

  10. Biotechnological Aspects of Microbial Extracellular Electron Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Souichiro

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular electron transfer (EET) is a type of microbial respiration that enables electron transfer between microbial cells and extracellular solid materials, including naturally-occurring metal compounds and artificial electrodes. Microorganisms harboring EET abilities have received considerable attention for their various biotechnological applications, in addition to their contribution to global energy and material cycles. In this review, current knowledge on microbial EET and its application to diverse biotechnologies, including the bioremediation of toxic metals, recovery of useful metals, biocorrosion, and microbial electrochemical systems (microbial fuel cells and microbial electrosynthesis), were introduced. Two potential biotechnologies based on microbial EET, namely the electrochemical control of microbial metabolism and electrochemical stimulation of microbial symbiotic reactions (electric syntrophy), were also discussed. PMID:26004795

  11. Industrial biotechnology takes off in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lex, Maurice

    2008-01-01

    Biotechnologies have the potential to significantly impact the quality of life in a sustainable society through the understanding, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases, advances in agriculture and food production, and numerous industrial applications ranging from chemicals to materials including environmental protection and remediation. This article considers how the business sector will be modified by developments in the understanding of living organisms. Will the 21st century see the growth of a Bioeconomy based on applications of biotechnology as pervasive and as powerful as the information economy has been at the end of the 20th century?

  12. Energy biotechnology at the National Science Foundation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heineken, F.G. [National Science Foundation, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    A number of projects supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) have possible applications in the area of Energy Biotechnology. These range from studies on the metabolic pathways for solvent and fuel production using microorganisms, both aerobic and anaerobic, to the conversion of biomass for the production of fuels and other chemicals and materials. Other projects focus in on new purification and separation technologies as well as new process monitoring techniques that could have an impact on solvent and fuel production. A brief review of these activities will be presented as well as a discussion of future needs and opportunities for research in Energy Biotechnology at NSF.

  13. Needed: models of biotechnology intellectual property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, E Richard; Castle, David; Cloutier, L Martin; Daar, Abdallah S; Smith, Pamela J

    2002-08-01

    Although never uncontroversial, intellectual property rights in biotechnological innovation are once more the focus of intense debate. The debate has yet to reach any result, largely because of several important errors in the way that various disciplines approach it. These errors include making assumptions without empirical basis and conflating various intellectual property regimes. What is needed is a transdisciplinary integrated method to correct these errors. Such a method can be implemented through the construction of alternative models of intellectual property protection designed to balance the various social, ethical and economic constraints that affect biotechnology.

  14. Biotechnological applications of extremophiles, extremozymes and extremolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Raddadi, Noura

    2015-08-14

    In the last decade, attention to extreme environments has increased because of interests to isolate previously unknown extremophilic microorganisms in pure culture and to profile their metabolites. Microorganisms that live in extreme environments produce extremozymes and extremolytes that have the potential to be valuable resources for the development of a bio-based economy through their application to white, red, and grey biotechnologies. Here, we provide an overview of extremophile ecology, and we review the most recent applications of microbial extremophiles and the extremozymes and extremolytes they produce to biotechnology.

  15. Advances in optics for biotechnology, medicine and surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzmaurice, Maryann; Pogue, Brian W.; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Tunnell, James W.; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-01-01

    The editors introduce the Biomedical Optics Express feature issue, “Advances in Optics for Biotechnology, Medicine and Surgery,” which includes 12 contributions from attendees of the 2011 conference Advances in Optics for Biotechnology, Medicine and Surgery XII.

  16. Advances in optics for biotechnology, medicine and surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Elizabeth M C; Elson, Daniel S; Bigio, Irving J; Levenson, Richard M; So, Peter T C

    2012-03-01

    The editors introduce the Biomedical Optics Express feature issue, "Advances in Optics for Biotechnology, Medicine and Surgery," which includes 12 contributions from attendees of the 2011 conference Advances in Optics for Biotechnology, Medicine and Surgery XII.

  17. What Ideas Do Students Associate with "Biotechnology" and "Genetic Engineering"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ruaraidh; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

    2000-01-01

    Explores the ideas that students aged 16-19 associate with the terms 'biotechnology' and 'genetic engineering'. Indicates that some students see biotechnology as risky whereas genetic engineering was described as ethically wrong. (Author/ASK)

  18. Biotechnology Computing: Information Science for the Era of Molecular Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masys, Daniel R.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution from classical genetics to biotechnology, an area of research involving key macromolecules in living cells, is chronicled and the current state of biotechnology is described, noting related advances in computing and clinical medicine. (MSE)

  19. White House Announcement on the Regulation of Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The White House posted a blog unveiling documents as part of the Administration’s continuing effort to modernize the federal regulatory system for biotechnology products as well as clarify various roles of the EPA, FDA in evaluating new biotechnologies.

  20. Update to the Coordinated Framework for the Regulation of Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Update to the Coordinated Framework for the Regulation of Biotechnology updates earlier versions from 1986 and 1992 is intended to clarify the current roles and responsibilities of agencies involved in the regulation of biotechnology products.

  1. National Strategy for Modernizing the Regulatory System for Biotechnology Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This National Strategy for Modernizing the Regulatory System for Biotechnology Products sets forth a vision for ensuring that the federal regulatory system is prepared to efficiently assess the risks, if any, of the future products of biotechnology.

  2. Ethical perception of modern biotechnology | Amin | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the ethical perception of modern biotechnology ... instrument measuring the ethical perception of modern biotechnology. ... The research findings are useful for understanding the social construct of the ...

  3. Biotechnological applications for rosmarinic acid production in plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnological applications for rosmarinic acid production in plant. ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current ... plant families and in some fern and hornwort species. Rosmarinic acid has a ...

  4. Biotechnology for site restoration: scope of the problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitchaeva, O.

    1996-09-18

    The potential of modern biotechnology for solving problems related with the nuclear industry, especially site restoration, are investigated. The advantages of biotechnology, the current applications in Russia, main points of international collaboration, and political considerations are discussed.

  5. Can plant biotechnology help break the HIV-malaria link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamvaka, E; Twyman, R M; Christou, P; Capell, T

    2014-01-01

    The population of sub-Saharan Africa is at risk from multiple, poverty-related endemic diseases. HIV and malaria are the most prevalent, but they disproportionately affect different groups of people, i.e. HIV predominantly affects sexually-active adults whereas malaria has a greater impact on children and pregnant women. Nevertheless, there is a significant geographical and epidemiological overlap which results in bidirectional and synergistic interactions with important consequences for public health. The immunosuppressive effects of HIV increase the risk of infection when individuals are exposed to malaria parasites and also the severity of malaria symptoms. Similarly, acute malaria can induce a temporary increase in the HIV viral load. HIV is associated with a wide range of opportunistic infections that can be misdiagnosed as malaria, resulting in the wasteful misuse of antimalarial drugs and a failure to address the genuine cause of the disease. There is also a cumulative risk of toxicity when antiretroviral and antimalarial drugs are given to the same patients. Synergistic approaches involving the control of malaria as a strategy to fight HIV/AIDS and vice versa are therefore needed in co-endemic areas. Plant biotechnology has emerged as a promising approach to tackle poverty-related diseases because plant-derived drugs and vaccines can be produced inexpensively in developing countries and may be distributed using agricultural infrastructure without the need for a cold chain. Here we explore some of the potential contributions of plant biotechnology and its integration into broader multidisciplinary public health programs to combat the two diseases in developing countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Smart warping harnesses for active mirrors and stress polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemared, Sabri; Hugot, Emmanuel; Challita, Zalpha; Schnetler, Hermine; Kroes, Gabby; Marcos, Michel; Costille, Anne; Dohlen, Kjetil; Beuzit, Jean-Luc; Cuby, Jean-Gabriel

    2016-07-01

    We present two ways to generate or compensate for first order optical aberrations using smart warping harnesses. In these cases, we used the same methodology leading to replace a previous actuation system currently on-sky and to get a freeform mirror intended to a demonstrator. Starting from specifications, a warping harness is designed, followed by a meshing model in the finite elements software. For the two projects, two different ways of astigmatism generation are presented. The first one, on the VLT-SPHERE instrument, with a single actuator, is able to generate a nearly pure astigmatism via a rotating motorization. Two actuators are sufficient to produce the same aberration for the active freeform mirror, main part of the OPTICON-FAME project, in order to use stress-polishing method.

  7. [First South american network of biomedical research. Education and biotechnology for health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perone, Marcelo J; Velázquez, Graciela; Rojas de Arias, Antonieta; Chamorro, Gustavo; Coluchi, Norma; Pirmez, Claude; Savino, Wilson; Barbeito, Luis; Arzt, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    It is in our interest, in this brief manuscript, to report the creation of the first program of regional integration of a network of research institutes in Biomedicine belonging to members of the MERCOSUR countries. We discuss some of the foundations that gave sustenance to its creation and its objectives in the medium and long term. In addition, we consider the potential of the results of this program in the fields of applied medical research, education and biotechnology.

  8. Biotechnological Intervention for Biofortification in Crop Plants – A Brief Review

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Y J; R. S. Ingalhalli

    2013-01-01

    Over half of the global population is estimated to be suffering from various food deficiency diseases. A large portion of the population in the developing countries relies mainly on one or more staple food crops for their nutrition. In this context, it has become imperative to supplement the staple crops with important necessary nutritional factors. Biotechnological approaches have played an important role in crop improvement and can be a helping tool in developing staple food crops with s...

  9. Initiatives on a sustainable development strategy for Finnish biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Hermans, Raine; Kulvik, Martti

    2005-01-01

    The need for the strategic initiatives for biotechnology strategy emerged in interviews with 90 Finnish biotechnology leaders in the ETLA Biotechnology Survey, conducted at the end of 2004. This paper discusses on the policy implications for the project on “The biotechnology industry as a part of the Finnish National Innovation System” financed by Tekes, the National Technology Agency of Finland. Tekes has strongly encouraged the formation of policy implications and strategic initiatives for ...

  10. Harnessing the Social Network : The use of Facebook in marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Pudzemyte, Urte; Zaunders, Viktor; Kralev, Trajche

    2010-01-01

    ii Bachelor Thesis in Business Administration / Informatics Title: Harnessing the Social Network Authors: Utre Pudzemyte, Trajche Kralev, Viktor Zaunders Tutor: Börje Boers Date: 2010-12-08 Subject terms: Social Media, Social Networks, Online Marketing, Relationship Marketing, Online Retailers, Facebook, Swedish Retail Abstract In this study we investigate how online retailers can use Facebook in marketing to increase their sales. We look specifically at how corporate Facebook pages can be us...

  11. Selvfølgelig har mennesket et selv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jan Brødslev

    2006-01-01

    bl.a. på den baggrund lider eksistentiel nød og har behov for psykologer, terapeuter, præster og andre professionelle er et empirisk faktum. Disse mennesker og deres subjektive behov forsvinder ikke gennem et smart pennestrøg, der hævder, at vi lever i et subjektløst, ironisk samfund. Når nøden...

  12. "Har andre plejebørn det som mig?"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, H.

    Bogen handler om livet som plejebarn, som det opleves af børnene selv. Den formidler resultaterne fra forskningsprojektet: "Projekt Børnetinget - et talerør for plejebørn", hvor 15 børn i familiepleje er blevet interviewet og hvor 107 nuværende og tidligere plejebørn har skrevet på hjemmesiden ww...

  13. Harnessing the Power of Digital Data for Science and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    their full potential as catalysts for progress in our global information society . PAGE 2 — HARNESSING THE POWER OF DIGITAL DATA FOR SCIENCE AND...framework will serve as a driving force for American leadership in science and in a competitive, global information society . RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUPPORTING...aspects of human activity worldwide. To lead in the emerging global digital information society , the nation must fully embrace the digital dimension

  14. Hello World: Harnessing social media for the Rosetta mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, E.; Mignone, C.; O'Flaherty, K. S.; Homfeld, A.-M.; Bauer, M.; McCaughrean, M. J.

    2015-10-01

    The European Space Agency's (ESA) comet-chasing Rosetta mission was launched in 2004, before social media became a popular tool for mainstream communication. By harnessing a range of platforms for communicating the key messages of this unprecedented space adventure as the spacecraft reached its destination ten years later, a wide range of new audiences were reached and could follow this once-in-a-lifetime mission.

  15. [The new Colombian criminal code and biotechnology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González de Cancino, Emilssen

    2002-01-01

    The author describes the process by which new offenses concerning biotechnology have been included in Colombia's Penal Code and discusses some of the more controversial aspects involved. She examines the various stages of the passage of the Bill through Parliament and the modifications undergone. She also provides well-argued criticism of the text, with appropriate reference to Constitutional provisions regarding the rights concerned.

  16. Biotechnology System Facility: Risk Mitigation on Mir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Steve R., III; Galloway, Steve R.

    2003-01-01

    NASA is working with its international partners to develop space vehicles and facilities that will give researchers the opportunity to conduct scientific investigations in space. As part of this activity, NASA's Biotechnology Cell Science Program (BCSP) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is developing a world-class biotechnology laboratory facility for the International Space Station (ISS). This report describes the BCSP, including the role of the BTS. We identify the purpose and objectives of the BTS and a detailed description of BTS facility design and operational concept, BTS facility and experiment-specific hardware, and scientific investigations conducted in the facility. We identify the objectives, methods, and results of risk mitigation investigations of the effects of microgravity and cosmic radiation on the BTS data acquisition and control system. These results may apply to many other space experiments that use commercial, terrestrial-based data acquisition technology. Another focal point is a description of the end-to-end process of integrating and operating biotechnology experiments on a variety of space vehicles. The identification of lessons learned that can be applied to future biotechnology experiments is an overall theme of the report. We include a brief summary of the science results, but this is not the focus of the report. The report provides some discussion on the successful 130-day tissue engineering experiment performed in BTS on Mir and describes a seminal gene array investigation that identified a set of unique genes that are activated in space.

  17. Design for values in agricultural biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belt, van den Henk

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural biotechnology dates from the last two decades of the twentieth century. It involves the creation of plants and animals with new useful traits by inserting one or more genes taken from other species. New legal possibilities for patenting transgenic organisms and isolated genes have be

  18. Design for values in agricultural biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belt, van den Henk

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural biotechnology dates from the last two decades of the twentieth century. It involves the creation of plants and animals with new useful traits by inserting one or more genes taken from other species. New legal possibilities for patenting transgenic organisms and isolated genes have be

  19. Editorial: Biotechnology's impact on sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbauer, Alois; Lee, Sang Yup

    2012-11-01

    Biotechnology is increasingly recognized in society as a technology to improve the quality of life in a sustainable manner. It is clear that bioenergy and biofuel cannot solve a world energy crisis or reverse global warming, but from a local perspective it can contribute a lot.

  20. Opportunities for energy conservation through biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.K.; Griffin, E.A.; Russell, J.A.

    1984-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and quantify potential energy savings available through the development and application of biotechnologies. This information is required in support of ECUT research planning efforts as an aid in identifying promising areas needing further consideration and development. It is also intended as background information for a companion ECUT study being conducted by the National Academy of Science to evaluate the use of bioprocessing methods to conserve energy. Several studies have been conducted recently to assess the status and implications of the development of biotechnology. The Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) considered institutional, economic, and scientific problems and barriers. The National Science Foundation sponsored a study to examine regulatory needs for this new and expanding technology. Somewhat in contrast to these studies, this report covers principally the technical issues. It should be emphasized that the practicality of many developments in biotechnology is not evaluated solely on the basis of energy considerations. Bioprocesses must often compete with well-established coal, petroleum, and natural gas technologies. A complete evaluation of the technical, economical, and ecological impacts of the large-scale applications discussed in this report is not possible within the scope of this study. Instead, this report assesses the potential of biotechnology to save energy so that research into all aspects of implementation will be stimulated for those industries with significant energy savings potential. 92 references, 6 figures, 24 tables.

  1. Enhance beef cattle improvement by embryo biotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, B; Zan, L

    2012-10-01

    Embryo biotechnology has become one of the prominent high businesses worldwide. This technology has evolved through three major changes, that is, traditional embryo transfer (in vivo embryo production by donor superovulation), in vitro embryo production by ovum pick up with in vitro fertilization and notably current cloning technique by somatic cell nuclear transfer and transgenic animal production. Embryo biotechnology has widely been used in dairy and beef cattle industry and commercial bovine embryo transfer has become a large international business. Currently, many developed biotechnologies during the period from early oocyte stage to pre-implantation embryos can be used to create new animal breeds and accelerate genetic progression. Based on recent advances in embryo biotechnologies and authors current studies, this review will focus on a description of the application of this technology to beef cattle improvement and discuss how to use this technology to accelerate beef cattle breeding and production. The main topics of this presentation include the following: (i) how to increase calf production numbers from gametes including sperm and oocyte; (ii) multiple ovulation and embryo transfer breeding schemes; (iii) in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasm sperm injection in bovine; (iv) pronuclear development and transgenic animals; (v) sex selection from sperm and embryos; (vi) cloning and androgenesis; (vii) blastocyst development and embryonic stem cells; (viii) preservation of beef cattle genetic resources; and (ix) conclusions. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Personality and Impersonality in Biotechnology Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger

    2006-01-01

    With the emergence of biotechnology, the field account has been replaced by something that we may refer to as a laboratory account - a kind of narrative that constitutes the Materials and Methods section of the IMRD model (introduction, methods, results and discussion). Research focusing on field...

  3. Chemical hazards in the biotechnology industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducatman, A M; Coumbis, J J

    1991-01-01

    The modern biotechnology industry employs thousands of people and is growing rapidly. The numbers of toxic chemicals encountered are substantial and the applications are largely novel. Health care professionals face a formidable task in identifying occupational hazards and safeguarding the health of employees.

  4. Biotechnology and Consumer Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Joanna K

    Society is facing major challenges in climate change, health care and overall quality of life. Scientific advances to address these areas continue to grow, with overwhelming evidence that the application of highly tested forms of biotechnology is safe and effective. Despite scientific consensus in these areas, consumers appear reluctant to support their use. Research that helps to understand consumer decision-making and the public’s resistance to biotechnologies such as vaccines, fluoridated water programs and genetically engineered food, will provide great social value. This article is forward-thinking in that it suggests that important research in behavioral decision-making, specifically affect and ambiguity, can be used to help consumers make informed choices about major applications of biotechnology. This article highlights some of the most controversial examples: vaccinations, genetically engineered food, rbST treated dairy cows, fluoridated water, and embryonic stem cell research. In many of these areas, consumers perceive the risks as high, but the experts calculate the risks as low. Four major thematic approaches are proposed to create a roadmap for policymakers to consider for policy design and implementation in controversial areas of biotechnology. This article articulates future directions for studies that implement decision-making research to allow consumers to appropriately assign risk to their options and make informed decisions.

  5. Novel gene expression tools for rice biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotechnology is an effective and important method of improving both quality and agronomic traits in rice. We are developing novel molecular tools for genetic engineering, with a focus on developing novel transgene expression control elements (i.e. promoters) for rice. A suite of monocot grass promo...

  6. Personality and Impersonality in Biotechnology Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger

    2006-01-01

    With the emergence of biotechnology, the field account has been replaced by something that we may refer to as a laboratory account - a kind of narrative that constitutes the Materials and Methods section of the IMRD model (introduction, methods, results and discussion). Research focusing on field...

  7. Biotechnological potential of natural food grade biocolorants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... pigments are mostly water insoluble with exceptions of certain pigments of ... natural food colorants, carotenoids, anthocyanins, betalains, biotechnology. ... Use of natural colorant in food industry appears to .... category of FDA and EU for food use and are: annatto ...... mung bean waste flour as substrate.

  8. Public Germplasm Collections and Revolutions in Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public germplasm collections provided the biological material critical for launching the three most important revolutions in modern biotechnology: (i) An isolate of Penicillium chrysogenum, NRRL 1951, the basis for industrial production of penicillan, originated from the ARS Culture Collection in Pe...

  9. Energy Crop and Biotechnology for Biofuel Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangcai Peng; Neal Gutterson

    2011-01-01

    @@ Selection of energy crops is the first priority for large-scale biofuel production in China.As a major topic, it was extensively discussed in the Second International Symposium on Bioenergy and Biotechnology, held from October 16-19(th), 2010 in Huazhong Agricultural University(HZAU), Wuhan, China, with more than one hundred registered participants(Figure 1).

  10. Realizing the promises of marine biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, EEM; Akkerman, [No Value; Koulman, A; Kamermans, P; Reith, H; Barbosa, MJ; Sipkema, D; Wijffels, RH

    2003-01-01

    High-quality research in the field of marine biotechnology is one of the key-factors for successful innovation in exploiting the vast diversity of marine life. However, fascinating scientific research with promising results and claims on promising potential applications (e.g. for pharmaceuticals, nu

  11. india's biotechnology policies and biosafety regulations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnology is an already established phenomenon in India's research and technology implementation programmes. ... identify specific project proposals based on the priorities of .... animals. It was, therefore, felt necessary to formulate safety guidelines and ensure their effective .... growth and stability in small plots and.

  12. The Brave New World of Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Is it the science that will save the world from starvation, or will it mean the end of the world as it is known? While some people fear genetically altered "Frankenfoods" and DNA experiments with pathogenic microorganisms that could result in worldwide epidemics, others view biotechnology as using biological organisms to make products that benefit…

  13. Algorithm of automatic generation of technology process and process relations of automotive wiring harnesses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Benzhu; ZHU Jiman; LIU Xiaoping

    2012-01-01

    Identifying each process and their constraint relations from the complex wiring harness drawings quickly and accurately is the basis for formulating process routes. According to the knowledge of automotive wiring harness and the characteristics of wiring harness components, we established the model of wiring harness graph. Then we research the algorithm of identifying technology processes automatically, finally we describe the relationships between processes by introducing the constraint matrix, which is in or- der to lay a good foundation for harness process planning and production scheduling.

  14. Environmental Biotechnology Research and Development Program 1989-1992

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman J; Rulkens WH; Visscher K

    1989-01-01

    This report is an English translation of the Dutch Research and Development Program on environmental biotechnology 1989-1992. In this program an overview is given of the recent developments in environmental biotechnology. Based on this overview, the possibilities of biotechnology for management

  15. High School Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Biotechnology Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Murat; Erdogan, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate high school students' knowledge and attitudes regarding biotechnology and its various applications. In addition, whether students' knowledge and attitudes differed according to age and gender were also explored. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ) with 16 items and the Biotechnology Attitude…

  16. Fueling industrial biotechnology growth with bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, José Manuel; Panagiotou, Gianni; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2007-01-01

    Industrial biotechnology is the conversion of biomass via biocatalysis, microbial fermentation, or cell culture to produce chemicals, materials, and/or energy. Industrial biotechnology processes aim to be cost-competitive, environmentally favorable, and self-sustaining compared to their petrochemical equivalents. Common to all processes for the production of energy, commodity, added value, or fine chemicals is that raw materials comprise the most significant cost fraction, particularly as operating efficiencies increase through practice and improving technologies. Today, crude petroleum represents the dominant raw material for the energy and chemical sectors worldwide. Within the last 5 years petroleum prices, stability, and supply have increased, decreased, and been threatened, respectively, driving a renewed interest across academic, government, and corporate centers to utilize biomass as an alternative raw material. Specifically, bio-based ethanol as an alternative biofuel has emerged as the single largest biotechnology commodity, with close to 46 billion L produced worldwide in 2005. Bioethanol is a leading example of how systems biology tools have significantly enhanced metabolic engineering, inverse metabolic engineering, and protein and enzyme engineering strategies. This enhancement stems from method development for measurement, analysis, and data integration of functional genomics, including the transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, and fluxome. This review will show that future industrial biotechnology process development will benefit tremendously from the precedent set by bioethanol - that enabling technologies (e.g., systems biology tools) coupled with favorable economic and socio-political driving forces do yield profitable, sustainable, and environmentally responsible processes. Biofuel will continue to be the keystone of any industrial biotechnology-based economy whereby biorefineries leverage common raw materials and unit operations to integrate

  17. Ethical limitations in patenting biotechnological inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugagnani, V

    1999-01-01

    In order to connect ethical considerations with practical limits to patentability, the moral judgement should possibly move from the exploitation of the invention to the nature and/or objectives of Research and Development (R&D) projects which have produced it: in other words, it appears quite reasonable and logical that Society is not rewarding unethical R&D activities by granting intellectual property rights. As far as biotechnology R&D is concerned, ethical guidance can be derived from the 1996 Council of EuropeOs OConvention for the protection of human rights and dignity of the human being with regard to the application of biology and medicineO, whose Chapter V - Scientific research - provides guidelines on: i. protection of persons undergoing research (e.g. informed consent); ii. protection of persons not able to consent to research; iii. research on embryos in vitro. As far as the specific point of patenting biotechnology inventions is concerned, the four exclusions prescribed by Directive 98/44/EC (i.e. human cloning, human germ-line gene therapy, use of human embryos for commercial purposes, unjustified animal suffering for medical purposes) are all we have in Europe in terms of ethical guidance to patentability. In Italy, in particular, we certainly need far more comprehensive legislation, expressing SocietyOs demand to provide ethical control of modern biotechnology. However it is quite difficult to claim that ethical concerns are being raised by currently awarded biotechnology patents related to living organisms and material thereof; they largely deal with the results of genomic R&D, purposely and usefully oriented toward improving health-care and agri-food processes, products and services. ONo patents on lifeOO can be an appealing slogan of militants against modern biotechnology, but it is far too much of an over-simplified abstraction to become the Eleventh Commandment our Society.

  18. Flight performance energetics and water turnovers of Tippler Pigeons with a harness and doorsal load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessaman, James A.; Workman, Gar W.; Fuller, Mark R.

    1991-01-01

    We measured carbon dioxide production and water efflux of 12 tippler pigeons (Columba spp.) during seven experimental flights using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Prior to the experiment birds were randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group flew as controls (no load or harness) on all seven flights. The other group wore a harness on two flights, a dorsal load/harness package (weighing about 5% of a birda??s mass) on two flights, and they were without a load in three flights. Plight duration of pigeons with only a harness and with a dorsal load/harness package was 21 and 26% less, respectively, than the controls. Pigeons wearing a harness, or wearing a dorsal load/harness package lost water 50-90%, and 57-100% faster, respectively, than control pigeons. The mean CO, production of pigeons wearing a harness or a load/harness package was not significantly different than pigeons without a harness or load. The small sample sizes and large variability in DLW measurements precluded a good test of the energetic cost of flying with a harness and dorsal load.

  19. Flight performance, energetics and water turnover of tippler pigeons with a harness and dorsal load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessaman, J.A.; Workman, G.W.; Fuller, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    We measured carbon dioxide production and water efflux of 12 tippler pigeons (Columba spp.) during seven experimental flights using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Prior to the experiment birds were randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group flew as controls (no load or harness) on all seven flights. The other group wore a harness on two flights, a dorsal load/harness package (weighing about 5% of a bird's mass) on two flights, and they were without a load in three flights. Flight duration of pigeons with only a harness and with a dorsal load/harness package was 21 and 26% less, respectively, than the controls. Pigeons wearing a harness, or wearing a dorsal load/harness package lost water 50-90%, and 57-100% faster, respectively, than control pigeons. The mean CO2 production of pigeons wearing a harness or a load/harness package was not significantly different than pigeons without a harness or load. The small sample sizes and large variability in DLW measuremets precluded a good test of the energetic cost of flying with a harness and dorsal load.

  20. Shoot HAR1 mediates nitrate inhibition of nodulation in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Satoru; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate is a major environmental factor in the inhibition of nodulation. In a model legume Lotus japonicus, a CLV1-like receptor kinase, HAR1, mediates nitrate inhibition and autoregulation of nodulation. Autoregulation of nodulation involves root-to-shoot-to-root long-distance communication, and HAR1 functions in shoots. However, it remains elusive where HAR1 functions in the nitrate inhibition of nodulation. We performed grafting experiments with the har1 mutant under various nitrate conditions, and found that shoot HAR1 is critical for the inhibition of nodulation at 10 mM nitrate. Combined with our recent finding that the nitrate-induced CLE-RS2 glycopeptide binds directly to the HAR1 receptor, this result suggests that CLE-RS2/HAR1 long-distance signaling plays an important role in the both nitrate inhibition and the autoregulation of nodulation.

  1. Globalization, the rise of biotechnology and catching up in agricultural innovation: The case of Bt technology in India

    OpenAIRE

    Iizuka, M.; Thutupalli, A.

    2014-01-01

    The agricultural sector has played an important role in the provision of food, foreign exchange and sustainable energy to many developing countries. This sector, however, has not been considered as a driving force of innovation as compared to other productive sectors. However, recent economics and international business literature suggests that the agricultural sector (1) has become knowledge intensive with the rise of biotechnology (Bt); and (2) is a sector where firms in developing countrie...

  2. Editorial: from plant biotechnology to bio-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöger, Eva

    2013-10-01

    From plant biotechnology to bio-based products - this Special Issue of Biotechnology Journal is dedicated to plant biotechnology and is edited by Prof. Eva Stöger (University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria). The Special Issue covers a wide range of topics in plant biotechnology, including metabolic engineering of biosynthesis pathways in plants; taking advantage of the scalability of the plant system for the production of innovative materials; as well as the regulatory challenges and society acceptance of plant biotechnology.

  3. White biotechnology: ready to partner and invest in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircher, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    It needs three factors to build an industry: market demand, product vision and capital. White biotechnology already produces high volume products such as feed additive amino acids and specialty products like enzymes for enantioselective biocatalysis. It serves large and diverse markets in the nutrition, wellness, pharmaceutical, agricultural and chemical industry. The total volume adds up to $ 50 billion worldwide. In spite of its proven track record, white biotechnology so far did not attract as much capital as red and even green biotechnology. However, the latest finance indicators confirm the continuously growing attractiveness of investment opportunities in white biotechnology. This article discusses white biotechnology's position and potential in the finance market and success factors.

  4. Agricultural biotechnology: Status and prospective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drinić Goran

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the DNA recombinant technology has provided the transfer of a single or several genes within or among species whereby organisms with new traits were developed. Such organisms have been called genetically modified organisms. The first genetically modified varieties of cultivated plants entered the market in 1996 and since then areas sown with such crops has been increasing, amounting to 60 M ha in 2002. During the stated period, genetically modified varieties and hybrids of cultivated plants were developed with a gene introduced for tolerance to herbicides, resistance to insects, prolonged maturity period and improved quality. However, heavy disputes have arisen all over the world relating the possible gain and potential risks from the growth and utilization of modified crops. First of all, there are ethical issues related directly to gene transfer from a species to a species, then effects of the introduced gene on the environment and human health, economical justification of cultivating genetically modified crops, consumers confidence in the legislation, labeling the products encompassing a genetic modification, effects on the global market and ever increasing food requirements. The effect of products derived from genetically modified plants on human health depends on a specific content of a product itself and can potentially be useful if a product contains an increased content of vitamins, with an allergen removed, or potentially harmful, if a new allergen or a toxin were introduced by genetic modifications. Each genetically modified product is subjected to a rigorous testing of its safety prior to its introduction into a food chain. It encompasses molecular, biochemical, toxicological, nutritional and allergenic tests. Many countries apply legislation that stipulates labeling of genetically modified products, whereby the fact that the commodity encompasses products of genetic modification is clearly pointed out. .

  5. Gender differences in knowledge and attitude towards biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Richard M

    2010-11-01

    The relationship between gender, knowledge of biotechnology, attitudes toward biotechnology, and various socio-demographic variables was investigated using the Eurobarometer 52.1. It was found that neither socio-demographics, nor differing levels of scientific knowledge could explain females' greater probability of being pessimistic toward biotechnology. After running separate models for males and females, it was discovered that, for males, more knowledge of biotechnology decreased their probability of being pessimistic about science, but for females more knowledge of biotechnology actually lead to a greater probability of being pessimistic. Further, a gender-education interaction was discovered that revealed that, for males, education and knowledge of biotechnology have independent effects on attitudes, but for females education has no effect on attitudes towards biotechnology when knowledge is controlled. The results for females complicate the deficit model of social support for science, which posits that more knowledge of science always leads to more positive attitudes.

  6. Recent advances of metabolomics in plant biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Yozo; Saito, Kazuki

    2012-01-01

    Biotechnology, including genetic modification, is a very important approach to regulate the production of particular metabolites in plants to improve their adaptation to environmental stress, to improve food quality, and to increase crop yield. Unfortunately, these approaches do not necessarily lead to the expected results due to the highly complex mechanisms underlying metabolic regulation in plants. In this context, metabolomics plays a key role in plant molecular biotechnology, where plant cells are modified by the expression of engineered genes, because we can obtain information on the metabolic status of cells via a snapshot of their metabolome. Although metabolome analysis could be used to evaluate the effect of foreign genes and understand the metabolic state of cells, there is no single analytical method for metabolomics because of the wide range of chemicals synthesized in plants. Here, we describe the basic analytical advancements in plant metabolomics and bioinformatics and the application of metabolomics to the biological study of plants.

  7. Metagenomics: advances in ecology and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Helen L; Streit, Wolfgang R

    2005-06-15

    This review highlights the significant advances which have been made in prokaryotic ecology and biotechnology due to the application of metagenomic techniques. It is now possible to link processes to specific microorganisms in the environment, such as the detection of a new phototrophic process in marine bacteria, and to characterise the metabolic cooperation which takes place in mixed species biofilms. The range of prokaryote derived products available for biotechnology applications is increasing rapidly. The knowledge gained from analysis of biosynthetic pathways provides valuable information about enzymology and allows engineering of biocatalysts for specific processes. The expansion of metagenomic techniques to include alternative heterologous hosts for gene expression and the development of sophisticated assays which enable screening of thousands of clones offers the possibility to find out even more valuable information about the prokaryotic world.

  8. Biotechnology and DNA vaccines for aquatic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurath, G.

    2008-01-01

    Biotechnology has been used extensively in the development of vaccines for aquaculture. Modern molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning and microarray analysis have facilitated antigen discovery, construction of novel candidate vaccines, and assessments of vaccine efficacy, mode of action, and host response. This review focuses on DNA vaccines for finfish to illustrate biotechnology applications in this field. Although DNA vaccines for fish rhabdoviruses continue to show the highest efficacy, DNA vaccines for several other viral and bacterial fish pathogens have now been proven to provide significant protection against pathogen challenge. Studies of the fish rhabdovirus DNA vaccines have elucidated factors that affect DNA vaccine efficacy as well as the nature of the fish innate and adaptive immune responses to DNA vaccines. As tools for managing aquatic animal disease emergencies, DNA vaccines have advantages in speed, flexibility, and safety, and one fish DNA vaccine has been licensed.

  9. Protein engineering approaches to chemical biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Zeng, An-Ping

    2016-12-01

    Protein engineering for the improvement of properties of biocatalysts and for the generation of novel metabolic pathways plays more and more important roles in chemical biotechnology aiming at the production of chemicals from biomass. Although widely used in single-enzyme catalysis process, protein engineering is only being increasingly explored in recent years to achieve more complex in vitro and in vivo biocatalytic processes. This review focuses on major contributions of protein engineering to chemical biotechnology in the field of multi-enzymatic cascade catalysis and metabolic engineering. Especially, we discuss and highlight recent strategies for combining pathway design and protein engineering for the production of novel products. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Tapping RNA silencing pathways for plant biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frizzi, Alessandra; Huang, Shihshieh

    2010-08-01

    Plants have evolved a variety of gene silencing pathways mediated by small RNAs. Mostly 21 or 24 nt in size, these small RNAs repress the expression of sequence homologous genes at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional and translational levels. These pathways, also referred as RNA silencing pathways, play important roles in regulating growth and development as well as in response to both biotic and abiotic stress. Although the molecular basis of these complicated and interconnected pathways has become clear only in recent years, RNA silencing effects were observed and utilized in transgenic plants early in the plant biotechnology era, more than two decades ago. Today, with a better understanding of the pathways, various genetic engineering approaches have been developed to apply RNA silencing more effectively and broadly. In addition to summarizing the current models of RNA silencing, this review discusses examples of its potential uses and related issues concerning its application in plant biotechnology.

  11. Cyanobacterial genomics for ecology and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Wolfgang R

    2011-10-01

    Cyanobacteria are the only prokaryotes that directly convert solar energy and CO(2) into organic matter by oxygenic photosynthesis, explaining their relevance for primary production in many ecosystems and the increasing interest for biotechnology. At present, there are more than 60 cyanobacteria for which a total genome sequence is publicly available. These cyanobacteria belong to different lifestyles and origins, coming from marine and freshwater aquatic environments, as well as terrestrial and symbiotic habitats. Genome sizes vary by a factor of six, from 1.44 Mb to 9.05 Mb, with the number of reported genes ranging from 1241 to 8462. Several studies have demonstrated how these sequences could be used to successfully infer important ecological, physiological and biotechnologically relevant characteristics. However, sequences of cyanobacterial origin also comprise a significant portion of certain metagenomes. Moreover, genome analysis has been employed for culture-independent approaches and for resequencing mutant strains, a very recent tool in cyanobacterial research.

  12. Biotechnology/materials: The growing interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Raymond F.

    1986-01-01

    The biotechnology/materials interaction dates back 3.5 billion years, yet today offers novel challenges for human creativity. The materials cycle practiced by microorganisms is compared to that recently practiced by humans. The processes of the biotechnology materials cycle are biogenesis, bioleaching, biofouling, biocorrosion, biodeterioration, and bioaccumulation. Each process is examined for mechanisms, scale of effect, and opportunity for creative human intervention or utilization. More than 50 of our metallic elements are bio-processed in nature. A like number of biogenic materials have been identified, with some at production rates of trillions of kg per annum (p.a.). Microorganisms can substitute for energy, capital, and labor. Over the eons, microorganisms have gained special attributes that now offer creative humans a new era of partnership in materials processing.

  13. Biotechnology for Chemical Production: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Mark J; Van Dien, Stephen

    2016-03-01

    Biotechnology offers a new sustainable approach to manufacturing chemicals, enabling the replacement of petroleum-based raw materials with renewable biobased feedstocks, thereby reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, toxic byproducts, and the safety risks associated with traditional petrochemical processing. Development of such bioprocesses is enabled by recent advances in genomics, molecular biology, and systems biology, and will continue to accelerate as access to these tools becomes faster and cheaper.

  14. MIPs as Tools in Environmental Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiasson, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Molecular imprints are potentially fantastic constructions. They are selective, robust, and nonbiodegradable if produced from stable polymers. A range of different applications has been presented, everything from separation of enantiomers, via adsorbents for sample preparation before analysis to applications in wastewater treatment. This chapter deals with molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as tools in environmental biotechnology, a field that has the potential to become very important in the future.

  15. Biotechnology of humified materials obtained from vermicomposts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PERSON

    African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 12(7), pp. 625-634, 13 ... Andrés Calderín García1,2*, Fernando Guridi Izquierdo1, Orlando Lázaro Hernández. González1, Maria .... Biostimulants (Matéria Orgánica e Bioestimulantes. (MOBI) at the ..... de Master en Ciencias de la Química Agraria [Dissertation presented to earn the ...

  16. Microencapsulation in food science and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzaro, Filomena; Orlando, Pierangelo; Fratianni, Florinda; Coppola, Raffaele

    2012-04-01

    Microencapsulation can represent an excellent example of microtechnologies applied to food science and biotechnology. Microencapsulation can be successfully applied to entrap natural compounds, like essential oils or vegetal extracts containing polyphenols with well known antimicrobial properties to be used in food packaging. Microencapsulation preserves lactic acid bacteria, both starters and probiotics, in food and during the passage through the gastrointestinal tract, and may contribute to the development of new functional foods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ergonomics problems and solutions in biotechnology laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coward, T.W.; Stengel, J.W.; Fellingham-Gilbert, P.

    1995-03-01

    The multi-functional successful ergonomics program currently implemented at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will be presented with special emphasis on recent findings in the Biotechnology laboratory environment. In addition to a discussion of more traditional computer-related repetitive stress injuries and associated statistics, the presentation will cover identification of ergonomic problems in laboratory functions such as pipetting, radiation shielding, and microscope work. Techniques to alleviate symptoms and prevent future injuries will be presented.

  18. Application of biotechnology for reproductive manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    For the efficient increase in the number of farm animals and for the improvement of amounts and quality of animal products such as wool, meat and milk, biotechnological new techniques of animal production have been developed and practically applied specifically concerning on the following subjects : (1). Artificial insemination (AI) is not a new technique, but the technique itself has been dramatically improved year by year and an epoch-making technique, deep freezing of semen was devised dur...

  19. Applications of yeast flocculation in biotechnological processes

    OpenAIRE

    Domingues, Lucília; Vicente, A.A.; Lima, Nelson; Teixeira, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    A review on the main aspects associated with yeast flocculation and its application in biotechnological processes is presented. This subject is addressed following three main aspects – the basics of yeast flocculation, the development of “new” flocculating yeast strains and bioreactor development. In what concerns the basics of yeast flocculation, the state of the art on the most relevant aspects of mechanism, physiology and genetics of yeast flocculation is reported. The const...

  20. The Development of TALE Nucleases for Biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Ousterout, David G.; Gersbach, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    The development of a facile genome engineering technology based on transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) has led to significant advances in diverse areas of science and medicine. In this review, we provide a broad overview of the development of TALENs and the use of this technology in basic science, biotechnology, and biomedical applications. This includes the discovery of DNA recognition by TALEs, engineering new TALE proteins to diverse targets, general advances in nuclea...

  1. Biosurfactants: Promising Molecules for Petroleum Biotechnology Advances

    OpenAIRE

    Darne G. Almeida; Soares Da Silva, Rita de Cássia F.; Luna, Juliana M.; Raquel D. Rufino; Santos, Valdemir A.; Ibrahim M Banat; Sarubbo, Leonie A.

    2016-01-01

    The growing global demand for sustainable technologies that improves the efficiency of petrochemical processes in the oil industry has driven advances in petroleum biotechnology in recent years. Petroleum industry uses substantial amounts of petrochemical-based synthetic surfactants in its activities as mobilizing agents to increase the availability or recovery of hydrocarbons as well as many other applications related to extraction, treatment, cleaning, and transportation. However, biosurfac...

  2. Biosurfactants: Promising Molecules for Petroleum Biotechnology Advances

    OpenAIRE

    DARNE GERMANO DE ALMEIDA; Rita De Cássia Freire Soares da Silva; Juliana Moura Luna; Raquel Diniz Rufino; Valdemir Alexandre Santos; Ibrahim M Banat; Leonie Asfora Sarubbo

    2016-01-01

    The growing global demand for sustainable technologies that improves the efficiency of petrochemical processes in the oil industry has driven advances in petroleum biotechnology in recent years. Petroleum industry uses substantial amounts of petrochemical-based synthetic surfactants in its activities as mobilizing agents to increase the availability or recovery of hydrocarbons as well as many other applications related to extraction, treatment, cleaning and transportation. However, biosurfact...

  3. Use of statistics in plant biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    Statistics and experimental design are important tools for the plant biotechnologist and should be used when planning and conducting experiments as well as during the analysis and interpretation of results. This chapter provides some basic concepts important to the statistical analysis of data obtained from plant tissue culture or biotechnology experiments, and illustrates the application of common statistical procedures to analyze binomial, count, and continuous data for experiments with different treatment factors as well as identifying trends of dosage treatment factors.

  4. Intellectual property and biotechnology: the European debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Baruch

    2007-06-01

    The European patent system allows for the introduction of moral issues into decisions about the granting of patents. This feature has greatly impacted European debates about the patenting of biotechnology. This essay explores the European experience, in both the European Union and the European Patent Organization. It argues that there has been great confusion surrounding these issues primarily because the Europeans have not developed a general theory about when exclusion from patentability is the best social mechanism for dealing with morally offensive technologies.

  5. Moral and ethical issues in plant biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straughan, R

    2000-04-01

    Plant biotechnology has recently become the focus of heated controversy and media attention, particularly in the UK. The most obvious concerns have centred upon the possible effects of the technology on the environment and on human health, but a broader and more fundamental set of considerations has also been evident in much of the debate, these are usually referred to as 'moral' or 'ethical' concerns.

  6. Biotechnology for Sustainable Crop Production and Protection: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Manjunath

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, transgenic crops were grown on 134 million hectares in 25 countries, including India, in six continents by about 14million farmers, marking an 80-fold increase in the area since their first commercialization on 1.7 m ha in the USA and fiveother countries in 1996. The dominant transgenic traits were herbicide tolerance and insect resistance, deployed either alone orboth stacked in the same plant. A recent survey of the global impact of biotech crops estimated that in 2008 alone, the totalcrop production gain globally for the 4 principal biotech crops - maize, soybean, cotton and canola - was 29.6 million metrictons while the net economic benefit to the biotech farmers was US$ 9.2 billion. The cumulative benefits for the period 1996-2008 were yield gains of 167 million tons and economic returns of US$ 51.9 billion. In India, the area planted with Bt-cottonincreased significantly from year to year since its introduction in 2002 and reached 8.4 million hectares in 2009. The overallbenefits from Bt-cotton included an yield increase of up to 63% due to effective control of bollworms, pesticide reduction by50%, net profit to farmers up to Rs.10,000/hectare and turned India from an importer to a major exporter of cotton. Theseindicate that biotechnology has made significant contributions to higher productivity, lower costs of production and increasedeconomic benefits and that it has enormous potential for the future with new traits, events and crops. Over 60 countries,including India, are engaged in research on about 55 crop species to incorporate transgenes to bestow various traits such asresistance to pests, diseases or herbicides; tolerance to environmental stresses like drought, cold or salinity; enhanced cropyields, nutrition or shelf-life, etc. However, unreasonable opposition to biotechnology and undue delays in regulatoryapprovals are some of the major challenges that need to be addressed so as to make full use of this technology which

  7. Engineered, harnessed, and hijacked: synthetic uses for cytoskeletal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Brian S; Derr, Nathan D; Reck-Peterson, Samara L

    2012-12-01

    Synthetic biology re-imagines existing biological systems by designing and constructing new biological parts, devices, and systems. In the arena of cytoskeleton-based transport, synthetic approaches are currently used in two broad ways. First, molecular motors are harnessed for non-physiological functions in cells. Second, transport systems are engineered in vitro to determine the biophysical rules that govern motility. These rules are then applied to synthetic nanotechnological systems. We review recent advances in both of these areas and conclude by discussing future directions in engineering the cytoskeleton and its motors for transport.

  8. Harnessing natural product assembly lines: structure, promiscuity, and engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, Christopher C; Williams, Gavin J

    2016-03-01

    Many therapeutically relevant natural products are biosynthesized by the action of giant mega-enzyme assembly lines. By leveraging the specificity, promiscuity, and modularity of assembly lines, a variety of strategies has been developed that enables the biosynthesis of modified natural products. This review briefly summarizes recent structural advances related to natural product assembly lines, discusses chemical approaches to probing assembly line structures in the absence of traditional biophysical data, and surveys efforts that harness the inherent or engineered promiscuity of assembly lines for the synthesis of non-natural polyketides and non-ribosomal peptide analogues.

  9. Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process with Open Boundaries and Quadratic Harnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryc, Włodek; Wesołowski, Jacek

    2017-04-01

    We show that the joint probability generating function of the stationary measure of a finite state asymmetric exclusion process with open boundaries can be expressed in terms of joint moments of Markov processes called quadratic harnesses. We use our representation to prove the large deviations principle for the total number of particles in the system. We use the generator of the Markov process to show how explicit formulas for the average occupancy of a site arise for special choices of parameters. We also give similar representations for limits of stationary measures as the number of sites tends to infinity.

  10. Harnessing geothermal energy with heat pumps : a literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arisi, J.A. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Fossil fuel combustion emits large amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere. Renewable fuel sources that do not have a negative impact on the environment are needed to reduce the risk of climatic change. This abstract discussed recent research related to geothermal energy. Two types of geothermal energy were investigated: (1) deep underground heat using turbines to produce electricity; and (2) shallow depth heat using heat pumps to provide space heating. A review of recent research on shallow depth heat harnessing was presented. The costs and GHG emission reductions related to the installation of a geothermal heat pump system for space heating were also discussed.

  11. When sparks fly harnessing the power of group creativity

    CERN Document Server

    Leonard, Dorothy

    2005-01-01

    Creativity and innovation are evergreen topics. Particularly in today's tough marketplace, companies in every industry are looking for ways to harness creativity and innovation to spur growth and enhance competitiveness. This book differs from many books on creativity in that its focus is on how to manage a group, rather than individual creativity. It refutes much conventional wisdom about where creativity comes from, particularly that creativity does not stem from the random genius of individuals. The authors reveal specific group configurations and strategies that can unleash the collective creativity of any team or group.

  12. "Hello, World!" Harnessing Social Media for the Rosetta Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, E.; Mignone, C.; Scuka, D.; Homfeld, A. M.; Ranero, K.; Rolfe, E.; Bennett, M.; Schepers, A.; O'Flaherty, K. S.; Bauer, M.; McCaughrean, M.

    2016-03-01

    The European Space Agency's comet-chasing Rosetta mission was launched in 2004, before social media became a popular tool for mainstream communication. As it reached its destination ten years later, new audiences were reached and inspired by this once-in-a-lifetime event by harnessing a range of outlets for communicating the key messages. These included traditional online platforms, such as news websites, blogs, and Livestream, as well as Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, Flickr, YouTube, Google+ and SoundCloud. In this article, we outline the role social media channels played in making Rosetta one of the European Space Agency's biggest communication and public engagement successes.

  13. Methods in industrial biotechnology for chemical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Kandasamy, W B Vasantha

    2008-01-01

    In keeping with the definition that biotechnology is really no more than a name given to a set of techniques and processes, the authors apply some set of fuzzy techniques to chemical industry problems such as finding the proper proportion of raw mix to control pollution, to study flow rates, to find out the better quality of products. We use fuzzy control theory, fuzzy neural networks, fuzzy relational equations, genetic algorithms to these problems for solutions. When the solution to the problem can have certain concepts or attributes as indeterminate, the only model that can tackle such a situation is the neutrosophic model. The authors have also used these models in this book to study the use of biotechnology in chemical industries. This book has six chapters. First chapter gives a brief description of biotechnology. Second chapter deals will proper proportion of mix of raw materials in cement industries to minimize pollution using fuzzy control theory. Chapter three gives the method of determination of te...

  14. Independent Biotechnology: The Innovation-Regulation Dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althouse, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Prosnitz, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Velsko, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-11-03

    The Center for Global Security Research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory convened a workshop on August 19, 2016 to consider “Independent Biotechnology: The Innovation-­Regulation Dilemma”. The topic was motivated by the observation that non-­government funded biotechnology research and development activities have grown and diversified tremendously over the past decade. This sector encompasses a broad range of actors and activities: individuals with private laboratories, community “hackerspaces,” biotechnology incubators, and individual startups. Motivations and aspirations are diverse and include such things as personal curiosity, community education, the invention of new products or services, and even the realization of certain economic, political, or social goals. One driving force is the “democratization” of ever more powerful biological technologies, allowing individual citizens and groups access to capabilities that have traditionally only been available to researchers in universities, research institutes, national laboratories, and large commercial concerns. Another is the rise of alternative financing mechanisms such as “crowdsourcing,” which ostensibly provide greater freedom to innovate, and greater public visibility, but entail looser management oversight and transparency.

  15. New biotechnological procedures in swine reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrujkić Tihomir

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available New biotechnological procedures and the use of hormones in swine breeding are aimed at increasing the number of piglets in the litter. In small herds and groups, selected sows with 16 mammary complexes (tits can yield up to 32 piglets, or porkers, per year per sow. In order to achieve such reproduction results, special, individual stalls for sow deliveries are used, in addition to biotechnological methods, with a warm core and floor heating, phased diet and clean facilities. The ovulation value in swine is determined by their genetic and paragenetic effects, and it is often provoked and increased with injections and preparations for superovulation. However, the results vary, since any administration of hormone injecions can reduce the reproductive cycle, shorten the duration of estrus, or disrupt the work of ovaries and create cystic follicles. The use of follicle-stimulating hormones in quantities up to 1000 IU per animal for the induction and synchronization of estrus has become customary for sows and gilts, as well as the use of prostaglandins, the use of GnRH for increasing ovulation in swine and increasing the number of follicles >4 mm in diameter in the implementation of new biotechnologies in swine breeding, increases the number of ovulations and fertility in swine. In this way, reproduction is raised to the highest possible level, and artificial insemination of sows has 12 separate rules which enable better and more successful artificial insemination of sows.

  16. Biotechnology of temperate fruit trees and grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laimer, Margit; Mendonça, Duarte; Maghuly, Fatemeh; Marzban, Gorji; Leopold, Stephan; Khan, Mahmood; Balla, Ildiko; Katinger, Hermann

    2005-01-01

    Challenges concerning fruit trees and grapevines as long lived woody perennial crops require adapted biotechnological approaches, if solutions are to be found within a reasonable time frame. These challenges are represented by the need for correct identification of genetic resources, with the foreseen use either in conservation or in breeding programmes. Molecular markers provide most accurate information and will be the major solution for questions about plant breeders rights. Providing healthy planting material and rapid detection of newly introduced pathogens by reliable methods involving serological and molecular biological tools will be a future challenge of increases importance, given the fact that plant material travels freely in the entire European Union. But also new breeding goals and transgenic solutions are part of the biotechnological benefits, e.g. resistance against biotic and abiotic stress factors, modified growth habits, modified nutritional properties and altered processing and storage qualities. The successful characterization of transgenic grapevines and stone fruit trees carrying genes of viral origin in different vectors constructed under ecological consideration, will be presented. Beyond technical feasibility, efficiency of resistance, environmental safety and Intellectual Property Rights, also public acceptance needs consideration and has been addressed in a specific project. The molecular determination of internal quality parameters of food can also be addressed by the use of biotechnological tools. Patient independent detection tools for apple allergens have been developed and should allow to compare fruits from different production systems, sites, and genotypes for their content of health threatening compounds.

  17. Improved molecular tools for sugar cane biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, Jason; Delucca, Paulo; Palupe, Anthony; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; Brinin, Anthony; Williams, Brett; Sainz, Manuel; Dale, James L

    2014-03-01

    Sugar cane is a major source of food and fuel worldwide. Biotechnology has the potential to improve economically-important traits in sugar cane as well as diversify sugar cane beyond traditional applications such as sucrose production. High levels of transgene expression are key to the success of improving crops through biotechnology. Here we describe new molecular tools that both expand and improve gene expression capabilities in sugar cane. We have identified promoters that can be used to drive high levels of gene expression in the leaf and stem of transgenic sugar cane. One of these promoters, derived from the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus, drives levels of constitutive transgene expression that are significantly higher than those achieved by the historical benchmark maize polyubiquitin-1 (Zm-Ubi1) promoter. A second promoter, the maize phosphonenolpyruvate carboxylate promoter, was found to be a strong, leaf-preferred promoter that enables levels of expression comparable to Zm-Ubi1 in this organ. Transgene expression was increased approximately 50-fold by gene modification, which included optimising the codon usage of the coding sequence to better suit sugar cane. We also describe a novel dual transcriptional enhancer that increased gene expression from different promoters, boosting expression from Zm-Ubi1 over eightfold. These molecular tools will be extremely valuable for the improvement of sugar cane through biotechnology.

  18. Digital and analog gene circuits for biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roquet, Nathaniel; Lu, Timothy K

    2014-05-01

    Biotechnology offers the promise of valuable chemical production via microbial processing of renewable and inexpensive substrates. Thus far, static metabolic engineering strategies have enabled this field to advance industrial applications. However, the industrial scaling of statically engineered microbes inevitably creates inefficiencies due to variable conditions present in large-scale microbial cultures. Synthetic gene circuits that dynamically sense and regulate different molecules can resolve this issue by enabling cells to continuously adapt to variable conditions. These circuits also have the potential to enable next-generation production programs capable of autonomous transitioning between steps in a bioprocess. Here, we review the design and application of two main classes of dynamic gene circuits, digital and analog, for biotechnology. Within the context of these classes, we also discuss the potential benefits of digital-analog interconversion, memory, and multi-signal integration. Though synthetic gene circuits have largely been applied for cellular computation to date, we envision that utilizing them in biotechnology will enhance the efficiency and scope of biochemical production with living cells.

  19. International Marine Biotechnology Culture Collection (IMBCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaborsky, O.R.; Baker, K. [Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this project is to establish a premier culture collection of tropical marine microorganisms able to generate hydrogen from water or organic substances. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic microorganisms will serve as the biological reservoir or {open_quotes}library{close_quotes} for other DOE Hydrogen Program contractors, the biohydrogen research community and industry. This project consists of several tasks: (a) transfer of the Mitsui-Miami strains to Hawaii`s International Marine Biotechnology Culture Collection (IMBCC) housed at the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI); (b) maintain and distribute Mitsui-Miami strains; (c) characterize key strains by traditional and advanced biotechnological techniques; (d) expand Hawaii`s IMBCC; and (e) establish and operate an information resource (database). The project was initiated only late in the summer of 1995 but progress has been made on all tasks. Of the 161 cyanobacterial strains imported, 147 survived storage and importation and 145 are viable. with most exhibiting growth. Of the 406 strains of other photosynthetic bacteria imported, 392 survived storage and importation and 353 are viable, with many exhibiting growth. This project is linked to cooperative efforts being supported by the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) through its Marine Biotechnology Institute (MBI) and Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE).

  20. Thrombosis and bleeding disorders outside Western countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, P M

    2007-07-01

    The rapidly developing countries of Asia are witnessing substantial progress in the awareness of bleeding and thrombotic disorders as important health care problems. It has been thought for a long time that venous thromboembolism is very rare in Asia. Recent large studies that involved the majority of Asian countries demonstrated that this is not true, so that the practice of not using thromboprophylaxis in high-risk medical and surgical cases should be abandoned. The management of hemophilia and allied coagulation disorders has also dramatically improved in several Asian countries, due to the increased availability of blood products for replacement therapy coupled with the leadership role exerted by a few charismatic physicians, particularly in India and Thailand. As to the future, countries such as China and India have the capacity and expertise in biotechnology to consider the production of recombinant factors and gene transfer as the best strategies to tackle the management of persons with hemophilia in these densely populated and huge countries.

  1. National patent applications in biotechnology, subclass C12N, in Brazil from 1998 to 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Luiz Salgueiro Lage

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Only 11% of the activities of research and development in Brazil are carried out in private institutions. In the biotechnological field, an area of knowledge significantly closer to the basic sciences, there is a higher participation of public sectors, as might be expected. Among the public institutions, the universities were responsible for the highest number of applications in the evaluated time period, 56%. The national participation in the number of biotechnological patent applications in Brazil was 2.6% from 1998 to 2000. Among the countries with the highest number of biotechnological patent applications in Brazil, there is an obvious domination of the United States of America, representing 51.5% of all countries in 1999 and 42.3% of the 1057 C12N patent applications. Applications in the C12N 15 classification with 31.5% were the most frequent in comparison with the other C12N applications. This fact shows the fast increase of the number of applications in genetic engineering and fields of recombinant DNA technology. This result is a possible consequence of the genome race that is occurring at world level.

  2. Country News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Education Newsletter and Forum, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Reports on the progress of population education programs in various countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Describes current developments in Bangladesh, China, India, Malaysia, Maldives, and Viet Nam. (TW)

  3. New technologies in medicine: biotechnology and nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajtchuk, R

    1999-11-01

    In February 1997, researchers created Dolly, a lamb cloned from the DNA of an adult sheep. This was supposed to be impossible (or at least generations away), but suddenly it was here--a clone of a higher mammal. Whatever Dolly's ultimate significance, she conclusively demonstrated the growing power of biotechnology. Many have come to the conclusion that advances in biotechnology will fundamentally transform medicine during the coming decade. Society is in the midst of a technical revolution that will have the same relevance as the development of the printing press, the internal combustion engine, and the microprocessor. Computers have become the key tools in the accelerating progress that is occurring in the field of biotechnology. At the same time, genetic, evolutionary, and other biologic processes are providing new models for the development of computer hardware and software. Today represents the early stages of what has been called the "bionic convergence": the convergence of the biologic revolution with the information revolution, the joining of biology with electronics. Virtually everything that is important to health care practitioners and patients--diagnostic techniques, means of understanding disease causes, methods of treatment, approaches to prevention, health care facility design, medical education, and legal and ethical issues--will be changed by the revolutions currently underway in the fields of biotechnology and genetic medicine. The following monograph includes several forecasts about a range of possible opportunities that may have enormous effects on health care during the next century. These forecasts address the potential impacts of biotechnology on disease detection and diagnosis, treatment, prevention, nanotechnology, and other areas of medical significance. Every area of beneficiary care will be affected as the changes implied by these forecasts begin to develop. Beneficiary care will continue to see the emergence of a "forecast, prevent, and

  4. ISS Biotechnology Facility - Overview of Analytical Tools for Cellular Biotechnology Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, A. S.; Towe, B. C.; Anderson, M. M.; Gonda, S. R.; Pellis, N. R.

    2001-01-01

    The ISS Biotechnology Facility (BTF) platform provides scientists with a unique opportunity to carry out diverse experiments in a microgravity environment for an extended period of time. Although considerable progress has been made in preserving cells on the ISS for long periods of time for later return to Earth, future biotechnology experiments would desirably monitor, process, and analyze cells in a timely way on-orbit. One aspect of our work has been directed towards developing biochemical sensors for pH, glucose, oxygen, and carbon dioxide for perfused bioreactor system developed at Johnson Space Center. Another aspect is the examination and identification of new and advanced commercial biotechnologies that may have applications to on-orbit experiments.

  5. ISS Biotechnology Facility - Overview of Analytical Tools for Cellular Biotechnology Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, A. S.; Towe, B. C.; Anderson, M. M.; Gonda, S. R.; Pellis, N. R.

    2001-01-01

    The ISS Biotechnology Facility (BTF) platform provides scientists with a unique opportunity to carry out diverse experiments in a microgravity environment for an extended period of time. Although considerable progress has been made in preserving cells on the ISS for long periods of time for later return to Earth, future biotechnology experiments would desirably monitor, process, and analyze cells in a timely way on-orbit. One aspect of our work has been directed towards developing biochemical sensors for pH, glucose, oxygen, and carbon dioxide for perfused bioreactor system developed at Johnson Space Center. Another aspect is the examination and identification of new and advanced commercial biotechnologies that may have applications to on-orbit experiments.

  6. Research status and prospects of the radiation food science and biotechnology in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Jae Hun; Choi, Jong Il; Song, Byum Suk; Byun, Myung Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    Irradiation Food has been approved in 52 countries worldwide. In Korea, 26 food items have been approved since 1987. Recently, the irradiation technology with high dose was applied for the development of Korean space foods. Besides the sanitary purpose, the irradiation technology was used for elimination of undesired products such as food allergens, nitrite, biogenic amines, and so on. In this paper, the status of irradiation in the field of food and other biotechnology in Korea will be presented. Food irradiation is known to be the best method for controlling pathogenic microorganisms and one of the best alternatives to the chemical fumigants or preservatives usually used for a sanitation treatment for international trade. Also, there are larger industrial groups dedicated to radiation processing other than food irradiation industry. In this paper, the status of irradiation food science and biotechnology in Korea will be presented.

  7. [Social marketers' lack of success in using CSM discipline to harness commercial resources and increase contraceptive prevalence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J

    1984-01-01

    Social marketers have certainly shown that the CSM discipline can quickly and cost-effectively harness commercial resources to increase contraceptive prevalence. But why hasn't the social marketing idea caught on in more countries? According to Social Marketing Forum, only a tiny number of countries have active programs after more than a decade of effort. The most likely reason for this lack of success is doubt and fear on the part of both developing countries' officials and donor agencies about allowing marketing enthusiasts--with our very noticeable advertising methods--to join the family planning fight. And what has our answer been? Usually, a head-on retort such as, "But look at all the condoms we've sold]" And that gets us nowhere, because the successful peddling of 1 not-so-impressive method doesn't begin to balance the fears of a possible backlash that brash condom promotions could bring down on official heads. The lesson we should be learning is that social marketers possess to narrow an outlook and promote a small range of products that don't enthuse decisionmakers. Hence, we are often perceived as condom salesmen--and not much more. What should we be doing? We should be selling the idea of using private sector experience to assist national development. That means social development, particularly improved health, family planning and women's education. These 3 activities have proven effective in reducing fertility and would add up to a marketing opportunity--a longterm challenge that should enthuse dicisionmakers, private sector entrepreneurs and donor agencies alike. Further, our model--the commercial sector--is renowned for branching out and secceeding in a broad range of endeavors. As an example, Procter and Gamble uses separate divisions to market different products. Initiatives already exist in many countries to harness the private sector as a development tool. Social marketers should be leading the initiative--and benefitting from it, too. full text

  8. Measuring and Forecasting Volatility in Chinese Stock Market Using HAR-CJ-M Model

    OpenAIRE

    Chuangxia Huang; Xu Gong; Xiaohong Chen; Fenghua Wen

    2013-01-01

    Basing on the Heterogeneous Autoregressive with Continuous volatility and Jumps model (HAR-CJ), converting the realized Volatility (RV) into the adjusted realized volatility (ARV), and making use of the influence of momentum effect on the volatility, a new model called HAR-CJ-M is developed in this paper. At the same time, we also address, in great detail, another two models (HAR-ARV, HAR-CJ). The applications of these models to Chinese stock market show that each of the continuous sample pat...

  9. Synthesis of Fluorescent Carbon Dots by Gastrointestinal Fluid Treatment of Mongolia Har Gabur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tegexibaiyin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Har Gabur is the carbide obtained from pig manure by burning. The fluorescent carbon dots (CDs of Har Gabur were successfully synthesized through simulating the digestion process of human gastrointestinal tract. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM analysis showed that the average size of the prepared Har Gabur CDs was 4 nm, with good solubility in water and strong fluorescence under UV irradiation. The X-ray and Raman results showed that the Har Gabur CDs were mainly composed of oxygen “O” and carbon “C” elements, in the forms of “C=O” and “C-O.” The bond energy results showed that the nitrogen “N” atom presented as “C-N” form, which indicated that Har Gabur CDs also contain “N.” In photobleaching assay, Har Gabur CDs showed excellent light stability compared with ordinary organic dye, fluorescein, and Rhodamine B. The fluorescence intensity of Har Gabur CDs was fairly stable within a wide pH range of 3–10. When L-lysine and L-cysteine were applied for the passivation stage, the relative quantum yields were improved by 1.53 and 3.68 times, respectively. Finally, the fluorescence properties of Har Gabur CDs were tested in cells and zebrafish, illustrating that Har Gabur CD has potential in the application of biological labeling and imaging.

  10. The role of biotechnology in combating climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aerni, Philipp; Gagalac, Florabelle; Scholderer, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Biotechnology is a platform technology that may significantly contribute to climate change mitigation and adaptation. Yet, biotechnology is hardly ever referred to as “clean technology”. This paper investigates why biotechnology tends to be ignored in this context. A global stakeholder survey...... on biotechnology and climate change was conducted with 55 representatives of 44 institutions. The results of a perception pattern analysis show that the majority of stakeholder representatives had a neutral or positive attitude towards the use of biotechnology and regarded its potential to address climate change...... problems as significant. The survey results further reveal a significant relationship between a representative’s institutional and disciplinary background and his or her attitude. The respective background appears to determine to a considerable extent whether biotechnology is framed as a risk...

  11. The evolution of the biotechnology industry in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christian

    2002-07-01

    In the past five years, the climate for commercial biotechnology in Germany has improved significantly and has resulted in an increase in the number of biotechnology companies. On examination of the underlying factors of the evolution of the biotechnology industry in Germany, and against the background of the current situation, it is predicted that many German biotech companies will have to change their business models to focus on product development rather than on platform technologies.

  12. The potential of using biotechnology to improve cassava: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Chavarriaga-Aguirre, Paul; Brand, Alejandro; Medina, Adriana; Prías, Mónica; Escobar, Roosevelt; Martinez, Juan; Díaz, Paula; LÓPEZ, CAMILO; Roca, Willy M; Tohme, Joe

    2016-01-01

    The importance of cassava as the fourth largest source of calories in the world requires that contributions of biotechnology to improving this crop, advances and current challenges, be periodically reviewed. Plant biotechnology offers a wide range of opportunities that can help cassava become a better crop for a constantly changing world. We therefore review the state of knowledge on the current use of biotechnology applied to cassava cultivars and its implications for breeding the crop into ...

  13. PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY AND ACCEPTANCE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Ferdaus; Onyango, Benjamin M.; Schilling, Brian J.; Hallman, William K.

    2003-01-01

    Public debate on biotechnology is embroiled in controversy over the risks and benefits associated with this emerging technology. Using data from a national survey, this study analyzes public acceptance of biotechnology in food production. Empirical results suggest that while there is general optimism about biotechnology and support for its use in plants, public approval of its use in animals is perhaps more limited. Younger and more-educated individuals are generally more supportive of biotec...

  14. Alpha-L-Arabinofuranosidases: The potential applications in biotechnology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Numan, M.Th.; Bhosle, N.B.

    existing technologies and to develop new technologies. Production, mechanisms of action, classification, synergistic role, biochemical properties, substrate specificities, molecular biology and biotechnological applications of these enzymes have been...

  15. The biotechnology innovation machine: a source of intelligent biopharmaceuticals for the pharma industry--mapping biotechnology's success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evens, R P; Kaitin, K I

    2014-05-01

    The marriage of biotechnology and the pharmaceutical industry (pharma) is predicated on an evolution in technology and product innovation. It has come as a result of advances in both the science and the business practices of the biotechnology sector in the past 30 years. Biotechnology products can be thought of as "intelligent pharmaceuticals," in that they often provide novel mechanisms of action, new approaches to disease control, higher clinical success rates, improved patient care, extended patent protection, and a significant likelihood of reimbursement. Although the first biotechnology product, insulin, was approved just 32 years ago in 1982, today there are more than 200 biotechnology products commercially available. Research has expanded to include more than 900 biotechnology products in clinical trials. Pharma is substantially engaged in both the clinical development of these products and their commercialization.

  16. Public submissions on the Uganda national biotechnology and biosafety bill, 2012 reveal consensus for Uganda legislators to pass the bill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clet Wandui Masiga

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity is an internationally binding instrument addressing issues of biosafety. Biosafety refers to the need to protect human health and the environment from the possible adverse effects of the products of modern biotechnology. Accordingly all countries to the convention are required to put in place regulatory mechanisms to enhance the safety of biotechnology in the context of the Convention’s overall goal of reducing all potential threats to biological diversity, while taking into account the risks to human health. Therefore each country party to the convention has its own procedures to enact laws to guide the safe use of biotechnology. In Uganda the process involves the drafting of the bill by the first parliamentary counsel, approval by cabinet, first reading at the parliament, committal to the responsible parliamentary sessional committee, tabling of the bill for public hearing, consultations, and final approval. In Uganda, the Committee on Science and Technology is responsible for the Biosafety Bill. In March 2013, the Committee tabled the bill for public hearing and submissions from public institutions. There were comments supporting the passage of the Bill and comments in objection.The reasons for objection are mainly due to precaution, speculation, lack of knowledge about biotechnology and biosafety, and alleged influence from biosafety entrepreneurs. This article reviews these public views, revealing controversy and possible consensus to pass the bill.

  17. New challenges and opportunities for industrial biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2012-08-20

    Industrial biotechnology has not developed as fast as expected due to some challenges including the emergences of alternative energy sources, especially shale gas, natural gas hydrate (or gas hydrate) and sand oil et al. The weaknesses of microbial or enzymatic processes compared with the chemical processing also make industrial biotech products less competitive with the chemical ones. However, many opportunities are still there if industrial biotech processes can be as similar as the chemical ones. Taking advantages of the molecular biology and synthetic biology methods as well as changing process patterns, we can develop bioprocesses as competitive as chemical ones, these including the minimized cells, open and continuous fermentation processes et al.

  18. Biotechnology Protein Expression and Purification Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the Project Scientist Core Facility is to provide purified proteins, both recombinant and natural, to the Biotechnology Science Team Project Scientists and the NRA-Structural Biology Test Investigators. Having a core facility for this purpose obviates the need for each scientist to develop the necessary expertise and equipment for molecular biology, protein expression, and protein purification. Because of this, they are able to focus their energies as well as their funding on the crystallization and structure determination of their target proteins.

  19. COPASI and its applications in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Frank T; Hoops, Stefan; Klahn, Brian; Kummer, Ursula; Mendes, Pedro; Pahle, Jürgen; Sahle, Sven

    2017-06-24

    COPASI is software used for the creation, modification, simulation and computational analysis of kinetic models in various fields. It is open-source, available for all major platforms and provides a user-friendly graphical user interface, but is also controllable via the command line and scripting languages. These are likely reasons for its wide acceptance. We begin this review with a short introduction describing the general approaches and techniques used in computational modeling in the biosciences. Next we introduce the COPASI package, and its capabilities, before looking at typical applications of COPASI in biotechnology. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Importance of biotechnology for industrial chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnisch, H.; Woehner, G.

    1985-05-01

    In the next few decades, biotechnology will bring about fundamental innovations in the fields of health, nutrition and agriculture and in industrial production, such as of chemicals, which may compare with the present revolutionary technical progress in electronics. Pioneering scientific advances in the fields of molecular biology, biochemistry and microbiology justify these forecasts. Particular attention should be drawn to the potential of genetic engineering methods presently being developed. However, less spectacular techniques, such as cell fusion and the immobilization of enzymes or whole living cells on polymeric substrates to give biocatalysts with long lifetimes, will also contribute to this new technology. Some of these new developments are now gaining acceptance in industrial production.

  1. Are echinoderms of interest to biotechnology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzelt, C

    2005-01-01

    The huge potential of echinoderms as a so far fairly untapped source of bioactive molecules is described. Examples are presented that show the usefulness of echinoderm-derived molecules for therapeutic application in selected fields of cancer research, in the control of bacterial growth as substances with new antibiotic properties, and finally in the context of technical applications such as antifouling substances. The molecules described here are but the mere beginning of a commercial exploitation of echinoderms and may incite a deeper involvement of biotechnology-oriented research in this material.

  2. Chrysanthemum biotechnology: discoveries from the recent literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira da Silva Jaime A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro propagation of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum × grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam., one of the world’s most important ornamentals, is a very well-studied topic and shows numerous strides each year. This mini-review condenses the knowledge that has been published on chrysanthemum biotechnology, especially in vitro culture in the wider plant science literature. In 2013 and 2014, important strides were made in molecular breeding, particularly anti-viral strategies, including through transgenics, and our understanding of flower genetics and flowering regulation.

  3. Biotechnologies and biomimetics for civil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Labrincha, J; Diamanti, M; Yu, C-P; Lee, H

    2015-01-01

    Putting forward an innovative approach to solving current technological problems faced by human society, this book encompasses a holistic way of perceiving the potential of natural systems. Nature has developed several materials and processes which both maintain an optimal performance and are also totally biodegradable, properties which can be used in civil engineering. Delivering the latest research findings to building industry professionals and other practitioners, as well as containing information useful to the public, ‘Biotechnologies and Biomimetics for Civil Engineering’ serves as an important tool to tackle the challenges of a more sustainable construction industry and the future of buildings.

  4. Downstream processing in the biotechnology industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanpur, Manohar

    2002-09-01

    The biotechnology industry today employs recombinant bacteria, mammalian cells, and transgenic animals for the production of high-value therapeutic proteins. This article reviews the techniques employed in this industry for the recovery of these products. The methods reviewed extend from the centrifugation and membrane filtration for the initial clarification of crude culture media to the final purification of the products by a variety of membrane-based and chromatographic methods. The subject of process validation including validation of the removal of bacterial and viral contaminants from the final products is also discussed with special reference to the latest regulatory guidelines.

  5. New developments in Biotechnology-an overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    人类运用生物技术已经几千年了.直到上个世纪,发酵方法生产啤酒、白酒、面包、酱油以及其它食品都是在农产品领域的主要应用.自从50年前DNA和RNA结构和作用被揭示以来,一场生物技术的革命便产生了,并导致了两项关键技术的发展:1)通过基因技术进行遣传因素的修改;2)新型快速多样分析工具;最新的发展都基于遗传学.这篇文章我将探讨以下问题:遗传因子修改的进展和公众认可的争论;基因学技术在农产品领域的应用;我的TNO研究所与中国伙伴联合的生物技术项目的例子;谷物科技方面的生物技术.%Mankind applies biotechnology already for thousands of years. Until the last century, fermentation processes for producing beer, wine, bread, soy sauces and other food products were the main application in the agri- food area. The elucidation of the structure and role of DNA and RNA in living organisms since the past 50 years has created a revolution in biotechnology, resulting in two key technological developments: 1) Genetic modification by gene technology 2) New rapid and multiple analytical tools; the latest developments being based on genomics. In this presentation I will discuss: - progress in genetic modification and the issue of public acceptance - application of genomic based technologies in the agri- food field - examples of joint biotechnology projects of my TNO institute with partners in China - biotechnology in cereal science and technology

  6. Biotechnological aspects of plum pox virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Moya, J J; Fernández-Fernández, M R; Cambra, M; García, J A

    2000-01-21

    Plum pox potyvirus (PPV), the causal agent of a devastating disease that affects stone fruit trees, is becoming a target of intense studies intended both to fight against viral infection and to develop practical applications based on the current knowledge of potyvirus molecular biology. This review focuses on biotechnological aspects related to PPV, such as novel diagnostic techniques that facilitate detection and typing of virus isolates, strategies to implement pathogen-derived resistance through plant transformation, the potential use of genetic elements derived from the virus, and the recent development of PPV-based expression vectors.

  7. Energy-based models for environmental biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Jorge; Lema, Juan M; Kleerebezem, Robbert

    2008-07-01

    Environmental biotechnology is evolving. Current process objectives include the production of chemicals and/or energy carriers (biofuels) in addition to the traditional objective of removing pollutants from waste. To maximise product yields and minimise biomass production, future processes will rely on anaerobic microbial communities. Anaerobic processes are characterised by small Gibbs energy changes in the reactions catalysed, and this provides clear thermodynamic process boundaries. Here, a Gibbs-energy-based methodology is proposed for mathematical modelling of energy-limited anaerobic ecosystems. This methodology provides a basis for the description of microbial activities as a function of environmental factors, which will allow enhanced catalysis of specific reactions of interest for process development.

  8. Biotechnological Processes in Microbial Amylase Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subash C. B. Gopinath

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Amylase is an important and indispensable enzyme that plays a pivotal role in the field of biotechnology. It is produced mainly from microbial sources and is used in many industries. Industrial sectors with top-down and bottom-up approaches are currently focusing on improving microbial amylase production levels by implementing bioengineering technologies. The further support of energy consumption studies, such as those on thermodynamics, pinch technology, and environment-friendly technologies, has hastened the large-scale production of the enzyme. Herein, the importance of microbial (bacteria and fungi amylase is discussed along with its production methods from the laboratory to industrial scales.

  9. Biotechnology Education as Social and Cultural Production/Reproduction of the Biotechnology Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrée, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a commentary to a paper by Anne Solli, Frank Bach and Björn Åkerman on how students at a technical university learn to argue as biotechnologists. Solli and her colleagues report from an ethnographic study performed during the first semester of a 5-year program in biotechnology at a technical university in Sweden. Their study…

  10. Biotechnology education as social and cultural production/reproduction of the biotechnology community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrée, Maria

    2014-03-01

    This paper is a commentary to a paper by Anne Solli, Frank Bach and Björn Åkerman on how students at a technical university learn to argue as biotechnologists. Solli and her colleagues report from an ethnographic study performed during the first semester of a 5-year program in biotechnology at a technical university in Sweden. Their study demonstrates how students begin to acquire `the right way' of approaching the controversial issue of producing and consuming genetically modified organisms. In my response I discuss the ethnographic account of this particular educational practice in terms of social and cultural production/reproduction of a biotechnology community and how the participants (students and teaching professors) deal with the dialectic of individual and collective transformation. In the perspective of the biotechnology community, the work done by the teaching professor becomes a way of ensuring the future of the biotechnology community in terms of what values and objectives are held highly in the community of practice.

  11. Biotechnology Education as Social and Cultural Production/Reproduction of the Biotechnology Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrée, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a commentary to a paper by Anne Solli, Frank Bach and Björn Åkerman on how students at a technical university learn to argue as biotechnologists. Solli and her colleagues report from an ethnographic study performed during the first semester of a 5-year program in biotechnology at a technical university in Sweden. Their study…

  12. Peroxisystem: harnessing systems cell biology to study peroxisomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldiner, Maya; Zalckvar, Einat

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, high-throughput experimentation with quantitative analysis and modelling of cells, recently dubbed systems cell biology, has been harnessed to study the organisation and dynamics of simple biological systems. Here, we suggest that the peroxisome, a fascinating dynamic organelle, can be used as a good candidate for studying a complete biological system. We discuss several aspects of peroxisomes that can be studied using high-throughput systematic approaches and be integrated into a predictive model. Such approaches can be used in the future to study and understand how a more complex biological system, like a cell and maybe even ultimately a whole organism, works. © 2015 Société Française des Microscopies and Société de Biologie Cellulaire de France. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Spil har potentiale som motivation for læring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Lars Norup

    2016-01-01

    En designbaseret empirisk undersøgelse af almindeligt anvendte gamification elementer. Gamification har til formål at skabe fornøjelse, samt en følelse af leg, i ikke-spil miljøer. Grundet en øget brug af gamification på arbejdspladser og i læreprocesser ses området vigtigt at undersøge yderligere....... Projektet søger at belyse, hvordan gamification påvirker motivationen for læring, herunder hvordan almindeligt anvendte spil-elementer og -genrer kan indgå i planlægningen af læringsaktiviteter. Projektet tager omdrejningspunkt i de studerendes oplevede erfaringer, med den antagelse, at intervention i...

  14. Tjeklister har et potentiale i sundhedsvæsnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabøl, Louise Isager; Siemsen, Inger Margrethe; Trier, Hans;

    2011-01-01

    I de kommende år kan man forvente større kompleksitet i sundhedsvæsenet, bl.a. fordi patienterne i stigende grad lever med kroniske sygdomme, og nye behandlinger indføres. Samtidig øges erkendelsen af, at ikketekniske færdigheder som kommunikation og samarbejde spiller en stor rolle for kvaliteten...... af patientbehandlingen [1-3]. Luftfarten er en af de industrier, hvor man har størst erfaring med at sikre, at ny viden om processer når ud i organisationen, og at »den menneskelige faktor« – det, at mennesker uvægerligt begår fejl – ikke fører til svigt i sikkerheden. Et af de redskaber, man...

  15. Harnessing plant-microbe interactions for enhancing farm productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Catriona; Singh, Brajesh

    2014-01-01

    Declining soil fertility and farm productivity is a major global concern in order to achieve food security for a burgeoning world population. It is reported that improving soil health alone can increase productivity by 10-15% and in combination with efficient plant traits, farm productivity can be increased up to 50-60%. In this article we explore the emerging microbial and bioengineering technologies, which can be employed to achieve the transformational increase in farm productivity and can simultaneously enhance environmental outcomes i.e., low green house gas (GHG) emissions. We argue that metagenomics, meta-transcriptomics and metabolomics have potential to provide fundamental knowledge on plant-microbes interactions necessary for new innovations to increase farm productivity. Further, these approaches provide tools to identify and select novel microbial/gene resources which can be harnessed in transgenic and designer plant technologies for enhanced resource use efficiencies.

  16. Changing trends in biotechnology of secondary metabolism in medicinal and aromatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sumit G; Mahajan, Vidushi; Bedi, Yashbir S

    2015-02-01

    Medicinal and aromatic plants are known to produce secondary metabolites that find uses as flavoring agents, fragrances, insecticides, dyes and drugs. Biotechnology offers several choices through which secondary metabolism in medicinal plants can be altered in innovative ways, to overproduce phytochemicals of interest, to reduce the content of toxic compounds or even to produce novel chemicals. Detailed investigation of chromatin organization and microRNAs affecting biosynthesis of secondary metabolites as well as exploring cryptic biosynthetic clusters and synthetic biology options, may provide additional ways to harness this resource. Plant secondary metabolites are a fascinating class of phytochemicals exhibiting immense chemical diversity. Considerable enigma regarding their natural biological functions and the vast array of pharmacological activities, amongst other uses, make secondary metabolites interesting and important candidates for research. Here, we present an update on changing trends in the biotechnological approaches that are used to understand and exploit the secondary metabolism in medicinal and aromatic plants. Bioprocessing in the form of suspension culture, organ culture or transformed hairy roots has been successful in scaling up secondary metabolite production in many cases. Pathway elucidation and metabolic engineering have been useful to get enhanced yield of the metabolite of interest; or, for producing novel metabolites. Heterologous expression of putative plant secondary metabolite biosynthesis genes in a microbe is useful to validate their functions, and in some cases, also, to produce plant metabolites in microbes. Endophytes, the microbes that normally colonize plant tissues, may also produce the phytochemicals produced by the host plant. The review also provides perspectives on future research in the field.

  17. Hvor mange alkoholikere har vi? Alkoholproblemer i Oslos befolkning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Olav Fekjær

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGI de siste tiårene har bekymringen for alkoholproblemer vært knyttet til begreper som "alkoholiker" eller "de somhar alkoholproblemer". Begrepene impliserer at de fleste problemene er langvarige tilstander hos en avgrenset,behandlingstrengende gruppe. Den foreliggende undersøkelsen var lagt opp som en post-enquete. Skjemaene blesendt til et representativt utvalg Oslo-borgere i alderen 18-59 år. En mottok 2051 skjemaer og oppnådde en svarprosentpå 77. Respondentene ble spurt om de hadde opplevet 8 typer skadevirkninger knyttet til sin alkoholbruk.Avhengig av antall skadevirkninger ble personens alkoholproblemer definert som moderate, betydelige eller store.Hvis "alkoholisme" defineres som å ha opplevet et visst antall av de 8 problemene, varierer antall "alkoholikere"dramatisk avhengig av antall skadevirkninger som kreves: Hvis det kreves 7 problemer, er færre enn 1% av dennebefolkningen alkoholikere. Hvis det kreves 3 problemer er 21% alkoholikere. Hyppigheten av alkoholproblemerreduseres gradvis med økende alder, fra 29% mellom 18 og 25 års alder til 8% mellom 45 og 60 år. De aller flestealkoholproblemer er ikke knyttet til daglig drikking eller til et svært høyt forbruk pr. år. De fleste som noen ganghar opplevet betydelige eller store problemer synes å "modne ut" av problemdrikking uten å stoppe å drikke oguten noen form for behandling. De fleste som har betydelige eller store problemer har ikke ønsket å kutte sinalkoholbruk ut eller sterkt ned. Blant dem som har ønsket det, har over 90% klart det helt eller delvis. Undersøkelsenbekrefter tidligere befolkningsstudier som indikerer at de fleste alkoholproblemer er spredt blant en storandel av den yngre mannlige befolkningen som stort sett synes å ha kontroll over sin alkoholbruk, ikke kan kallesavhengige og ikke kommer til alkoholistbehandling. Artikkelen drøfter hvilke konsekvenser dette har forsamfunnets strev for å redusere problemene.Fekjær HO

  18. Halophiles, coming stars for industrial biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jin; Chen, Jin-Chun; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2015-11-15

    Industrial biotechnology aims to produce chemicals, materials and biofuels to ease the challenges of shortage on petroleum. However, due to the disadvantages of bioprocesses including energy consuming sterilization, high fresh water consumption, discontinuous fermentation to avoid microbial contamination, highly expensive stainless steel fermentation facilities and competing substrates for human consumption, industrial biotechnology is less competitive compared with chemical processes. Recently, halophiles have shown promises to overcome these shortcomings. Due to their unique halophilic properties, some halophiles are able to grow in high pH and high NaCl containing medium under higher temperature, allowing fermentation processes to run contamination free under unsterile conditions and continuous way. At the same time, genetic manipulation methods have been developed for halophiles. So far, halophiles have been used to produce bioplastics polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), ectoines, enzymes, and bio-surfactants. Increasing effects have been made to develop halophiles into a low cost platform for bioprocessing with advantages of low energy, less fresh water consumption, low fixed capital investment, and continuous production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The locks and keys to industrial biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgemuth, Roland

    2009-04-01

    The sustainable use of resources by Nature to synthesize the required products at the right place, when they are needed, continues to be the role model for total synthesis and production in general. The combination of molecular and engineering science and technology in the biotechnological approach needs no protecting groups at all and has therefore been established for numerous large-scale routes to both natural and synthetic products in industry. The use of biobased raw materials for chemical synthesis, and the economy of molecular transformations like atom economy and step economy are of growing importance. As safety, health and environmental issues are key drivers for process improvements in the chemical industry, the development of biocatalytic reactions or pathways replacing hazardous reagents is a major focus. The integration of the biocatalytic reaction and downstream processing with product isolation has led to a variety of in situ product recovery techniques and has found numerous successful applications. With the growing collection of biocatalytic reactions, the retrosynthetic thinking can be applied to biocatalysis as well. The introduction of biocatalytic reactions is uniquely suited to cost reductions and higher quality products, as well as to more sustainable processes. The transfer of Nature's simple and robust sensing and control principles as well as its reaction and separation organization into useful technical systems can be applied to different fermentations, biotransformations and downstream processes. Biocatalyst and pathway discovery and development is the key towards new synthetic transformations in industrial biotechnology.

  20. Microbial lipases: Production, properties and biotechnological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josana Maria Messias

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipases belong to the group of hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol lipids to free fatty acids and glycerol. They have significant potential biotechnological applications in catalyzing organic synthesis reactions in non-aqueous solvents using simplified procedures resulting in conversions of high yields. Lipase production has conventionally been performed by submerged fermentation; however, solid-state fermentation processes have been prominent when residues are used as substrates because they serve as low-cost nutrient sources. Microbial lipases can be used as additives in foods to modify and enhance organoleptic properties, as well as in detergents to hydrolyse fats in the treatment of oily effluents, and also have value for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, agrochemical, and oil chemical industries. More recently, they are used in transesterification reactions to convert plant seed oils into biodiesel. The objective of this work was to review the published literature on the production, properties and applications of microbial lipases, and its biotechnological role in producing biodiesel.

  1. Biotechnology Applications of Tethered Lipid Bilayer Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Jackman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of cell membranes in biological systems has prompted the development of model membrane platforms that recapitulate fundamental aspects of membrane biology, especially the lipid bilayer environment. Tethered lipid bilayers represent one of the most promising classes of model membranes and are based on the immobilization of a planar lipid bilayer on a solid support that enables characterization by a wide range of surface-sensitive analytical techniques. Moreover, as the result of molecular engineering inspired by biology, tethered bilayers are increasingly able to mimic fundamental properties of natural cell membranes, including fluidity, electrical sealing and hosting transmembrane proteins. At the same time, new methods have been employed to improve the durability of tethered bilayers, with shelf-lives now reaching the order of weeks and months. Taken together, the capabilities of tethered lipid bilayers have opened the door to biotechnology applications in healthcare, environmental monitoring and energy storage. In this review, several examples of such applications are presented. Beyond the particulars of each example, the focus of this review is on the emerging design and characterization strategies that made these applications possible. By drawing connections between these strategies and promising research results, future opportunities for tethered lipid bilayers within the biotechnology field are discussed.

  2. Mannan biotechnology: from biofuels to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamabhai, Montarop; Sak-Ubol, Suttipong; Srila, Witsanu; Haltrich, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Mannans of different structure and composition are renewable bioresources that can be widely found as components of lignocellulosic biomass in softwood and agricultural wastes, as non-starch reserve polysaccharides in endosperms and vacuoles of a wide variety of plants, as well as a major component of yeast cell walls. Enzymatic hydrolysis of mannans using mannanases is essential in the pre-treatment step during the production of second-generation biofuels and for the production of potentially health-promoting manno-oligosaccharides (MOS). In addition, mannan-degrading enzymes can be employed in various biotechnological applications, such as cleansing and food industries. In this review, fundamental knowledge of mannan structures, sources and functions will be summarized. An update on various aspects of mannan-degrading enzymes as well as the current status of their production, and a critical analysis of the potential application of MOS in food and feed industries will be given. Finally, emerging areas of research on mannan biotechnology will be highlighted.

  3. Potential applications of insect symbionts in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berasategui, Aileen; Shukla, Shantanu; Salem, Hassan; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Symbiotic interactions between insects and microorganisms are widespread in nature and are often the source of ecological innovations. In addition to supplementing their host with essential nutrients, microbial symbionts can produce enzymes that help degrade their food source as well as small molecules that defend against pathogens, parasites, and predators. As such, the study of insect ecology and symbiosis represents an important source of chemical compounds and enzymes with potential biotechnological value. In addition, the knowledge on insect symbiosis can provide novel avenues for the control of agricultural pest insects and vectors of human diseases, through targeted manipulation of the symbionts or the host-symbiont associations. Here, we discuss different insect-microbe interactions that can be exploited for insect pest and human disease control, as well as in human medicine and industrial processes. Our aim is to raise awareness that insect symbionts can be interesting sources of biotechnological applications and that knowledge on insect ecology can guide targeted efforts to discover microorganisms of applied value.

  4. Marine biotechnology for production of food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Rosalee S; Morrissey, Michael T

    2007-01-01

    The marine world represents a largely untapped reservoir of bioactive ingredients that can be applied to numerous aspects of food processing, storage, and fortification. Due to the wide range of environments they survive in, marine organisms have developed unique properties and bioactive compounds that, in some cases, are unparalleled by their terrestrial counterparts. Enzymes extracted from fish and marine microorganisms can provide numerous advantages over traditional enzymes used in food processing due to their ability to function at extremes of temperature and pH. Fish proteins such as collagens and their gelatin derivatives operate at relatively low temperatures and can be used in heat-sensitive processes such as gelling and clarifying. Polysaccharides derived from algae, including algins, carrageenans, and agar, are widely used for their ability to form gels and act as thickeners and stabilizers in a variety of foods. Besides applications in food processing, a number of marine-derived compounds, such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and photosynthetic pigments, are important to the nutraceutical industry. These bioactive ingredients provide a myriad of health benefits, including reduction of coronary heart disease, anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory activity. Despite the vast possibilities for the use of marine organisms in the food industry, tools of biotechnology are required for successful cultivation and isolation of these unique bioactive compounds. In this chapter, recent developments and upcoming areas of research that utilize advances in biotechnology in the production of food ingredients from marine sources are introduced and discussed.

  5. BIOTECHNOLOGIES AND BIOMATERIALS IN SPINE SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadala', G; Russo, F; Ambrosio, L; Di Martino, A; Papalia, R; Denaro, V

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, spine disorders have become a major health concern and the number of spinal surgical procedures has been rising significantly. Several biotechnologies and biomaterials are often used in spine surgery to increase the effectiveness of the treatment. In the degenerative spine, when conservative treatment is ineffective the most recommended surgical procedure is decompression followed by spinal fusion. Success rates of spine fusion extensively rely on bone grafts peculiar properties. Autograft has been considered the gold standard to achieve a solid fusion but current research is focused on the development of new biomaterials. Osteoporosis is the main cause of vertebral compression fractures that are significantly associated with pain and disability, especially in the aging population. Vertebral augmentation is a minimally invasive approach in which cement is injected into the vertebral body to stabilize the fracture. New cements are being developed in the clinical scenario with reabsorbable properties and biomechanical features more similar to the native bone. The development of disc regeneration strategies such as nucleus pulposus restoration and annulus fibrosus repair may represent a minimally invasive procedure towards regeneration rather than fusion. Therefore, biomaterials and tissue engineering are fields of growing interest among both surgeons and manufacturing companies, with a major involvement in spine surgery. This review discusses current and novel biotechnologies and biomaterial used in spine surgery employing fusion, augmentation and regeneration.

  6. Biotechnological production of vanillin using immobilized enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Toshiki; Kuroiwa, Mari; Kino, Kuniki

    2017-02-10

    Vanillin is an important and popular plant flavor, but the amount of this compound available from plant sources is very limited. Biotechnological methods have high potential for vanillin production as an alternative to extraction from plant sources. Here, we report a new approach using immobilized enzymes for the production of vanillin. The recently discovered oxygenase Cso2 has coenzyme-independent catalytic activity for the conversion of isoeugenol and 4-vinylguaiacol to vanillin. Immobilization of Cso2 on Sepabeads EC-EA anion-exchange carrier conferred enhanced operational stability enabling repetitive use. This immobilized Cso2 catalyst allowed 6.8mg yield of vanillin from isoeugenol through ten reaction cycles at a 1mL scale. The coenzyme-independent decarboxylase Fdc, which has catalytic activity for the conversion of ferulic acid to 4-vinylguaiacol, was also immobilized on Sepabeads EC-EA. We demonstrated that the immobilized Fdc and Cso2 enabled the cascade synthesis of vanillin from ferulic acid via 4-vinylguaiacol with repetitive use of the catalysts. This study is the first example of biotechnological production of vanillin using immobilized enzymes, a process that provides new possibilities for vanillin production.

  7. The application of biotechnology in animal nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šefer Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal food has to incorporate multiple objectives, ie. it should provide good animal health, good production and reproductive performance, reduce pollution of the environment as well as have the impact on food of animal origin, by supplying it, in addition to basic nutrients, with certain useful substances that can act preventively on the occurrence of various diseases in humans in modern living conditions. This complex task implies the application of scientific knowledge concerning biotechnology in the field of animal feed production, and also includes the use of specific nutrients that are the result of the latest developments in specific disciplines such as molecular biology and genetic engineering. As a result of researches in these areas there were created some varieties of cereals and legumes with improved nutritional properties. On the other hand, obtaining a safe food of animal origin product imposes the use of substances of natural origin (such as probiotics, prebiotics, phytobiotics, enzymes, chelating forms .., which provide better digestibility and more complete utilization of certain nutrients from the feedstuff. In this way, the quantity of undigested substances are significantly reduced as well as soil and the atmosphere pollution. The use of specific additives in animal nutrition resulting from biotechnological research is most frequent when a problem concerning certain level of production or animal health has to be overcome. This implies a group of non-nutritional ingredients which are aimed to regulate the digestive tract microflora, pH, weight gain, as well as to modify metabolic processes etc.

  8. Biosurfactants: Promising Molecules for Petroleum Biotechnology Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARNE GERMANO DE ALMEIDA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The growing global demand for sustainable technologies that improves the efficiency of petrochemical processes in the oil industry has driven advances in petroleum biotechnology in recent years. Petroleum industry uses substantial amounts of petrochemical-based synthetic surfactants in its activities as mobilizing agents to increase the availability or recovery of hydrocarbons as well as many other applications related to extraction, treatment, cleaning and transportation. However, biosurfactants have several potential applications for use across the oil processing chain and in the formulations of petrochemical products such as emulsifying/demulsifying agents, anticorrosive, biocides for sulphate-reducing bacteria, fuel formulation, extraction of bitumen from tar sands and many other innovative applications. Due to their versatility and proven efficiency, biosurfactants are often presented as valuable versatile tools that can transform and modernise petroleum biotechnology in an attempt to provide a true picture of state of the art and directions or use in the oil industry. We believe that biosurfactants are going to have a significant role in many future applications in the oil industries and in this review therefore, we highlight recent important relevant applications, patents disclosures and potential future applications for biosurfactants in petroleum and related industries.

  9. Biosurfactants: Promising Molecules for Petroleum Biotechnology Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Almeida, Darne G; Soares Da Silva, Rita de Cássia F; Luna, Juliana M; Rufino, Raquel D; Santos, Valdemir A; Banat, Ibrahim M; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2016-01-01

    The growing global demand for sustainable technologies that improves the efficiency of petrochemical processes in the oil industry has driven advances in petroleum biotechnology in recent years. Petroleum industry uses substantial amounts of petrochemical-based synthetic surfactants in its activities as mobilizing agents to increase the availability or recovery of hydrocarbons as well as many other applications related to extraction, treatment, cleaning, and transportation. However, biosurfactants have several potential applications for use across the oil processing chain and in the formulations of petrochemical products such as emulsifying/demulsifying agents, anticorrosive, biocides for sulfate-reducing bacteria, fuel formulation, extraction of bitumen from tar sands, and many other innovative applications. Due to their versatility and proven efficiency, biosurfactants are often presented as valuable versatile tools that can transform and modernize petroleum biotechnology in an attempt to provide a true picture of state of the art and directions or use in the oil industry. We believe that biosurfactants are going to have a significant role in many future applications in the oil industries and in this review therefore, we highlight recent important relevant applications, patents disclosures and potential future applications for biosurfactants in petroleum and related industries.

  10. Current ethical issues in animal biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Paul B

    2008-01-01

    The present paper reviews the current status of opinion and debate regarding ethical issues in three broad categories of relevance to animal biotechnology. The first is scientific integrity, where the focus has been on scientific fraud and the integrity of the research process. The second concerns possible harms or risks to parties affected either directly by research (including animals themselves) or through the eventual commercialisation or development of products from animal biotechnology. The final category concerns a responsibility to serve as a guardian of the public interest with respect to application and development of technologies derived from new genetic sciences. It is plausible to see the scientific community as a whole having such a fiduciary obligation to the broader public in virtue of the technical complexity of the issues and owing to the public funding and institutional support for scientific research. The overall conclusion is that in the latter two categories especially, there is an urgent need for new participation in deliberative consideration of ethical issues by working scientists.

  11. Harnessing the Power of Information Technology: Open Business Models in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Robert G.; Crawford, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Higher education is under enormous pressure to improve outcomes and reduce costs. Information technology can help achieve these goals, but only if it is properly harnessed. This article argues that one key to harnessing information technology is business model innovation that results in more "open" and "unbundled" operations in learning and…

  12. Genetic diversity in the Dutch harness horse population using pedigree analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, A.; Arts, D.J.G.; Ducro, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    The Royal Dutch Warmblood Studbook consists of several types with different population sizes. The harness horse population, one of the types, is for several reasons suspected of substantial inbreeding. Since 2005 the studbook started applying measures to reduce inbreeding in the harness horse popula

  13. Når sex er en ret, hvem har så pligt?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Eva

    2007-01-01

    Socialministeriet har fastslået i en vejledning, at samfundet har omsorgspligt for funktionshæmmedes borgeres  seksuelle udfoldelsesmulighder. Tre grupper er udpeget som dem der skal varetage denne omsorgspligt på samfundets vegne: ansatte hjælpepersoner, seksualvejledere og prostituerede. I modt...

  14. Harnessing Light: Capitalizing on Optical Science Trends and Challenges for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    in 1988 (Photonics: Maintaining Competitiveness in the Information Era )5 and then again in 1998 (Harnessing Light: Optical Science and Engineering...Maintaining Competitiveness in the Information Era , Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.  6 National Research Council (NRC). 1998. Harnessing Light

  15. Vi har brug for dystopierne - men de kan ikke stå alene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Filmatiseringen af Margaret Atwoods »The Handmaid’s Tale« har aktualiseret dystopiens potentiale som samfundskritisk betydningsbærer. I sagens natur er dystopiens evne til at formulere alternativer til den udvikling, den advarer imod, imidlertid begrænsede. Vi har brug for litteratur, der tager...

  16. Harnessing the Power of Information Technology: Open Business Models in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Robert G.; Crawford, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Higher education is under enormous pressure to improve outcomes and reduce costs. Information technology can help achieve these goals, but only if it is properly harnessed. This article argues that one key to harnessing information technology is business model innovation that results in more "open" and "unbundled" operations in learning and…

  17. Manganese Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sousa Galito

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cheickna Bounajim Cissé wrote an article in Mars 2013 in the Journal Les Afriques N. º 237, suggesting a new acronym, MANGANESE, for the nine African countries: Morocco, Angola, Namibia, Ghana, Algeria, Nigeria, Egypt, South Africa and Ethiopia. According to Cissé, this group of African nations will be the fastest growing states in the region over the next few years. The purpose of this article is to test the pertinence of the acronym, discuss the credibility and reliability of the future prospects of these countries by comparing selected socioeconomic and sociopolitical indicators based on the latest global rankings and trends. Likewise, the potential of Cissé's claim will be assessed, especially in relationship to drug trafficking and terrorism that may put their recent sustainability in danger now and in the future.

  18. Measuring and Forecasting Volatility in Chinese Stock Market Using HAR-CJ-M Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuangxia Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Basing on the Heterogeneous Autoregressive with Continuous volatility and Jumps model (HAR-CJ, converting the realized Volatility (RV into the adjusted realized volatility (ARV, and making use of the influence of momentum effect on the volatility, a new model called HAR-CJ-M is developed in this paper. At the same time, we also address, in great detail, another two models (HAR-ARV, HAR-CJ. The applications of these models to Chinese stock market show that each of the continuous sample path variation, momentum effect, and ARV has a good forecasting performance on the future ARV, while the discontinuous jump variation has a poor forecasting performance. Moreover, the HAR-CJ-M model shows obviously better forecasting performance than the other two models in forecasting the future volatility in Chinese stock market.

  19. Plant synthetic biology: a new platform for industrial biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesenko, Elena; Edwards, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Thirty years after the production of the first generation of genetically modified plants we are now set to move into a new era of recombinant crop technology through the application of synthetic biology to engineer new and complex input and output traits. The use of synthetic biology technologies will represent more than incremental additions of transgenes, but rather the directed design of completely new metabolic pathways, physiological traits, and developmental control strategies. The need to enhance our ability to improve crops through new engineering capability is now increasingly pressing as we turn to plants not just for food, but as a source of renewable feedstocks for industry. These accelerating and diversifying demands for new output traits coincide with a need to reduce inputs and improve agricultural sustainability. Faced with such challenges, existing technologies will need to be supplemented with new and far-more-directed approaches to turn valuable resources more efficiently into usable agricultural products. While these objectives are challenging enough, the use of synthetic biology in crop improvement will face public acceptance issues as a legacy of genetically modified technologies in many countries. Here we review some of the potential benefits of adopting synthetic biology approaches in improving plant input and output traits for their use as industrial chemical feedstocks, as linked to the rapidly developing biorefining industry. Several promising technologies and biotechnological targets are identified along with some of the key regulatory and societal challenges in the safe and acceptable introduction of such technology.

  20. 75 FR 61413 - Notice of Availability of Biotechnology Quality Management System Audit Standard and Evaluation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of Biotechnology Quality Management... has developed an audit standard for its biotechnology compliance assistance program. The audit... Assistance Branch, Biotechnology Regulatory Services, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 91, Riverdale, MD...