WorldWideScience

Sample records for countries field testing

  1. Comparison of heart rate deflection and ventilatory threshold during a field cross-country roller-skiing test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Nicolas; Passelergue, Philippe; Bouvard, Marc; Perrey, Stéphane

    2008-11-01

    This study was to assess whether the point of deflection from linearity of heart rate (HRd) could be an accurate predictor of ventilatory threshold (VT2) during a specific cross-country roller-skiing (RS) test. Ten well-trained cross-country skiers performed a maximal and incremental RS test in the field and a standardized maximal and incremental treadmill running (TR) test in the laboratory. Values of oxygen uptake (VO2) and heart rate (HR) were continuously recorded during all exercises by a portable breath-by-breath gas exchange measurement system and a wireless Polar monitoring system, respectively. The VT2 and HRd points were individually determined by visual analysis during RS. Maximal VO2 (VO2 max) and HR were higher (p cross-country coaches and skiers to evaluate and control specific aerobic training loads.

  2. Field Evaluation of a Coproantigen Detection Test for Fascioliasis Diagnosis and Surveillance in Human Hyperendemic Areas of Andean Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, María Adela; Periago, María Victoria; Pérez-Crespo, Ignacio; Angles, René; Villegas, Fidel; Aguirre, Carlos; Strauss, Wilma; Espinoza, José R.; Herrera, Patricia; Terashima, Angelica; Tamayo, Hugo; Engels, Dirk; Gabrielli, Albis Francesco; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    Background Emergence of human fascioliasis prompted a worldwide control initiative including a pilot study in a few countries. Two hyperendemic areas were chosen: Huacullani, Northern Altiplano, Bolivia, representing the Altiplanic transmission pattern with high prevalences and intensities; Cajamarca valley, Peru, representing the valley pattern with high prevalences but low intensities. Coprological sample collection, transport and study procedures were analyzed to improve individual diagnosis and subsequent treatments and surveillance activities. Therefore, a coproantigen-detection technique (MM3-COPRO ELISA) was evaluated, using classical techniques for egg detection for comparison. Methodology and Findings A total of 436 and 362 stool samples from schoolchildren of Huacullani and Cajamarca, respectively, were used. Positive samples from Huacullani were 24.77% using the MM3-COPRO technique, and 21.56% using Kato-Katz. Positive samples from Cajamarca were 11.05% using MM3-COPRO, and 5.24% using rapid sedimentation and Kato-Katz. In Huacullani, using Kato-Katz as gold standard, sensitivity and specificity were 94.68% and 98.48%, respectively, and using Kato-Katz and COPRO-ELISA test together, they were 95.68% and 100%. In Cajamarca, using rapid sedimentation and Kato-Katz together, results were 94.73% and 93.58%, and using rapid sedimentation, Kato-Katz and copro-ELISA together, they were 97.56% and 100%, respectively. There was no correlation between coproantigen detection by optical density (OD) and infection intensity by eggs per gram of feces (epg) in Cajamarca low burden cases (<400 epg), nor in Huacullani high burden cases (≥400 epg), although there was in Huacullani low burden cases (<400 epg). Six cases of egg emission appeared negative by MM3-COPRO, including one with a high egg count (1248 epg). Conclusions The coproantigen-detection test allows for high sensitivity and specificity, fast large mass screening capacity, detection in the chronic phase

  3. Field evaluation of a coproantigen detection test for fascioliasis diagnosis and surveillance in human hyperendemic areas of Andean countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Adela Valero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emergence of human fascioliasis prompted a worldwide control initiative including a pilot study in a few countries. Two hyperendemic areas were chosen: Huacullani, Northern Altiplano, Bolivia, representing the Altiplanic transmission pattern with high prevalences and intensities; Cajamarca valley, Peru, representing the valley pattern with high prevalences but low intensities. Coprological sample collection, transport and study procedures were analyzed to improve individual diagnosis and subsequent treatments and surveillance activities. Therefore, a coproantigen-detection technique (MM3-COPRO ELISA was evaluated, using classical techniques for egg detection for comparison. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: A total of 436 and 362 stool samples from schoolchildren of Huacullani and Cajamarca, respectively, were used. Positive samples from Huacullani were 24.77% using the MM3-COPRO technique, and 21.56% using Kato-Katz. Positive samples from Cajamarca were 11.05% using MM3-COPRO, and 5.24% using rapid sedimentation and Kato-Katz. In Huacullani, using Kato-Katz as gold standard, sensitivity and specificity were 94.68% and 98.48%, respectively, and using Kato-Katz and COPRO-ELISA test together, they were 95.68% and 100%. In Cajamarca, using rapid sedimentation and Kato-Katz together, results were 94.73% and 93.58%, and using rapid sedimentation, Kato-Katz and copro-ELISA together, they were 97.56% and 100%, respectively. There was no correlation between coproantigen detection by optical density (OD and infection intensity by eggs per gram of feces (epg in Cajamarca low burden cases (<400 epg, nor in Huacullani high burden cases (≥ 400 epg, although there was in Huacullani low burden cases (<400 epg. Six cases of egg emission appeared negative by MM3-COPRO, including one with a high egg count (1248 epg. CONCLUSIONS: The coproantigen-detection test allows for high sensitivity and specificity, fast large mass screening capacity, detection in the

  4. ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tools Retrospective Version (ICAST-R): Delphi Study and Field Testing in Seven Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Michael P.; Zolotor, Adam J.; Runyan, Desmond K.; Andreva-Miller, Inna; Choo, Wan Yuen; Dunne, Simon K.; Gerbaka, Bernard; Isaeva, Oksana; Jain, Dipty; Kasim, Mohd Sham; Macfarlane, Bonnie; Mamyrova, Nurgul; Ramirez, Clemencia; Volkova, Elena; Youssef, Randa

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To gain consensus among an ethnically and linguistically diverse group of international child protection experts on the structure and content of a new survey tool for retrospective measurement of child abuse, and to determine the performance of the instrument through an international field trial with young adults. Methods: The…

  5. ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tools Retrospective Version (ICAST-R): Delphi Study and Field Testing in Seven Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Michael P.; Zolotor, Adam J.; Runyan, Desmond K.; Andreva-Miller, Inna; Choo, Wan Yuen; Dunne, Simon K.; Gerbaka, Bernard; Isaeva, Oksana; Jain, Dipty; Kasim, Mohd Sham; Macfarlane, Bonnie; Mamyrova, Nurgul; Ramirez, Clemencia; Volkova, Elena; Youssef, Randa

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To gain consensus among an ethnically and linguistically diverse group of international child protection experts on the structure and content of a new survey tool for retrospective measurement of child abuse, and to determine the performance of the instrument through an international field trial with young adults. Methods: The…

  6. Validation of a standard field test method in four countries to assess the toxicity of residues in dung of cattle treated with veterinary medical products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Floate, Kevin D.; Düring, Rolf Alexander; Hanafi, Jamal; Jud, Priska; Lahr, Joost; Lumaret, Jean Pierre; Scheffczyk, Adam; Tixier, Thomas; Wohde, Manuel; Römbke, Jörg; Sautot, Lucille; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U.

    2016-01-01

    Registration of veterinary medical products includes the provision that field tests may be required to assess potential nontarget effects associated with the excretion of product residues in dung of treated livestock (phase II, tier B testing). However, regulatory agencies provide no guidance on

  7. Test development and use in five Iberian Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Solange M; Oakland, Thomas; León, Carmem; Vivas, Eleonora; de Almeida, Leandro; Franco, Amanda; Pérez-Solís, María; Contini, Norma

    2014-08-01

    The abundance of scholarship on test development and use generally is higher in English-speaking than in Iberian Latin American countries. The purpose of this article is to help overcome this imbalance by describing and identifying similarities and differences in test development and use in two Iberian (Portugal and Spain) and three of the largest Latin American (Argentina, Brazil, and Venezuela) countries. The stages of test development in each country, roles of professional associations, presence of standards for test use, professionals' educational training, commonly used tests, together with prominent challenges to continued progress are discussed. Test development and use in these five countries are transitioning from a dependence on the use of translated tests to greater reliance on adapted and finally nationally constructed tests. Continued growth requires adherence to international standards guiding test development and use. Stronger alliance among professional associations in the Iberian Latin American countries could serve as a catalyst to promote test development in these regions. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  8. Field Validation of the Host Country National Liaison Role

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Bakel, Marian; Andersen, Torben; Vance, Charles

    resource for guiding the selection, training, and management of HCNL performance to ultimately benefit the local subsidiary. However, although the development of this local HCNL role model was based both on theoretical constructs and the authors’ international experience, it remains to be validated...... by further field testing to assess its accuracy, comprehensiveness, and generalizability. This developmental research proposal examines our recent work in preparing to field test and validate the HCNL role model....

  9. Report of Field Test Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Regional Instructional Materials Center for Handicapped Children and Youth.

    Reported by the Great Lakes Region Special Education Instructional Materials Center are field test evaluation of 18 auditory instructional materials for use with handicapped children who learn best through the auditory modality. Among materials evaluated are a taped program on use of the abacus and a cassette audiotape on bird habits and sounds.…

  10. Remote field eddy current testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Y. M.; Jung, H. K.; Huh, H.; Lee, Y. S.; Shim, C. M

    2001-03-01

    The state-of-art technology of the remote field eddy current, which is actively developed as an electromagnetic non-destructive testing tool for ferromagnetic tubes, is described. The historical background and recent R and D activities of remote-field eddy current technology are explained including the theoretical development of remote field eddy current, such as analytical and numerical approach, and the results of finite element analysis. The influencing factors for actual applications, such as the effect of frequency, magnetic permeability, receiving sensitivity, and difficulties of detection and classification of defects are also described. Finally, two examples of actual application, 1) the gap measurement between pressure tubes and calandria tube in CANDU reactor and, 2) the detection of defects in the ferromagnetic heat exchanger tubes, are described. The future research efforts are also included.

  11. Standardised Testing and Assessment in Comprehensive School in Scandinavian Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Eva, Hjörne,

    Assessments can be considered to be an integrated part of formal educational settings, in different forms and used for different purposes. In this contribution we will discuss and analyse the use of assessments in comprehensive school in Scandinavian countries through time, as we will include...... different kinds of documentary and empirical studies in the argumentation. We will focus on which kinds of assessments has been used, for which purposes and the role of this in the perspective of society. More contemporary trends will be discussed, specially the use of standardised testing. Scandinavian...... countries differ at some points concerning the use of assessments of this character. Assessments points to and creates differences between pupils and play a key role in processes of socialisation, marginalisation and in- and exclusion in society, as discussed by theorists such as Bourdieu and Bernstein...

  12. Performance Test of CCTV in a Test Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Hyung Min [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    On April 12-13, 2010, US President Obama hosted a Nuclear Security Summit in Washington, DC, to enhance international cooperation to prevent nuclear terrorism, an issue which he has identified as the most immediate and extreme threat to global security. The Summit focused on the security of nuclear materials, nonproliferation, disarmament, and peaceful nuclear energy. At the summit, the Republic of Korea was chosen as the host of the next Summit in 2012. This series of events reflects the growing global interest on 'Nuclear Security' and as the host country of the next Nuclear Summit it is the time for Korea to strengthen the physical protection regime for nuclear facilities as a first step of securing its nuclear security capability. KINAC has been operating Test field as a mean of preparing solid backup data for reviewing and revising DBT (Design Basis Threat) and to test components of the conventional physical protection system. CCTV is a key component which is used worldwide for the assessment measure of alarms. In terms of performance test of CCTV, there are several elements such as image quality, coverage and mechanical features (speed of zoom-in-out, capture, angle shift etc.). Speaking of image quality acquired by the CCTV, the quality is subject to resolution, monitor specification, camera housing, camera mounting and lightening. Thus it is clear that performance tests on image quality should consider those factors and vary the factors respectively in order to verify the influence and the interaction among those. Nevertheless due to the restrictions of the current Test field, this paper focuses on the image quality through resolution test under the various lightening conditions

  13. Strawberry fields forever? Urban agriculture in developed countries: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Mok, Hoi-Fei; Williamson, Virginia; Grove, James; Burry, Kristal; Barker, S; Hamilton, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Food production in cities has long been a tradition in many countries around the world and a mainstream activity for many developed countries. While urban agriculture plays an important role in increasing food security and social well-being, it comes with significant costs and constraints. Here, we review the growth of urban agriculture throughout the developed world in order to clarify the different benefits, risks, and hindrances associated with the practice. Through...

  14. Prediction of performance in Vasaloppet through long lasting ski- ergometer and rollerski tests in cross-country skiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Erik; Wulff, Kristian; Jensen, Mads Rosenkilde;

    2015-01-01

    -ergometer and Rollerski field tests correlate strongly with performance in Vasaloppet and therefore might be useful test tools for recreational skiers who wish to participate in long lasting c-c competitions. Keywords: Cross-country ski training, Upper body, Exercise intensity, Field test, Body composition blood lactate......The main purpose was to investigate if long lasting cross-country (c-c) test procedures could predict performance time in ‘Vasaloppet’ and secondly the effect of a 16 weeks training period on a 90 min double poling performance test. 24 moderate trained c-c skiers participated in the study...... and completed Vasaloppet. All skiers carried out pre and post training tests in a 90 minutes ski-ergometer double poling test and a 120 minutes rollerski field test on a closed paved circuit. 19 skiers provided detailed training logs that could sufficiently establish their training preparation for Vasaloppet...

  15. Testing for purchasing power parity in 21 African countries using several unit root tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choji, Niri Martha; Sek, Siok Kun

    2017-04-01

    Purchasing power parity is used as a basis for international income and expenditure comparison through the exchange rate theory. However, empirical studies show disagreement on the validity of PPP. In this paper, we conduct the testing on the validity of PPP using panel data approach. We apply seven different panel unit root tests to test the validity of the purchasing power parity (PPP) hypothesis based on the quarterly data on real effective exchange rate for 21 African countries from the period 1971: Q1-2012: Q4. All the results of the seven tests rejected the hypothesis of stationarity meaning that absolute PPP does not hold in those African Countries. This result confirmed the claim from previous studies that standard panel unit tests fail to support the PPP hypothesis.

  16. CHARM Facility Test Area Radiation Field Description

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Specification document summarising the radiation field of the CHARM facility test area. This will act as a guide to any potential users of the facility as to what they can expect in terms of radiation, given in the form of radiation spectra information and fluence for each test position, along with general radiation maps for the test area and Montrac test location.

  17. Test fields cannot destroy extremal black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natário, José; Queimada, Leonel; Vicente, Rodrigo

    2016-09-01

    We prove that (possibly charged) test fields satisfying the null energy condition at the event horizon cannot overspin/overcharge extremal Kerr-Newman or Kerr-Newman-anti de Sitter black holes, that is, the weak cosmic censorship conjecture cannot be violated in the test field approximation. The argument relies on black hole thermodynamics (without assuming cosmic censorship), and does not depend on the precise nature of the fields. We also discuss generalizations of this result to other extremal black holes.

  18. Scientific Profile of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics Fields in Middle East Countries: Impacts of Iranian Scientists

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In the present investigation, a statistical analysis was conducted to evaluate the production of scientific papers in the fields of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical during a period of 1996-2007. The study identified the most active countries in the Middle East in comparison with some more developed countries, in which the most scientific impacts have been exerted. Our screenings through the most accessed data bases revealed that USA, Japan, UK and Germany are the leading countries ...

  19. Evaluation of a specific test in cross-country skiing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Erik; Larsson, Benny; Klausen, Tom

    1991-01-01

    Six Danish male cross-country skiers were studied during the end-of-summer and winter seasons. Their maximal oxygen uptake was measured while running on a treadmill and using a ski ergometer incorporating the double-poling technique. Maximal oxygen uptake during treadmill running and double...

  20. Visibility and Differentiation: Systemic Testing in a Developing Country Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Ursula; Muller, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Why has large-scale standardised testing attracted such a bad press? Why has pedagogic benefit to be derived from test results been downplayed? The paper investigates this question by first surveying the pros and cons of testing in the literature, and goes on to examine educators' responses to standardised, large-scale tests in a sample of low…

  1. Field Guide to Interferometric Optical Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Goodwin, Eric P

    2006-01-01

    A distillation of Dr. Wyant's course at the University of Arizona, this Field Guide covers the key fundamentals of interferometry, types of interferometers and interferograms, concepts of phase-shifting interferometry, long-wavelength interferometry, testing of aspheric surfaces, measurement of surface microstructure, flat and curved surface testing, and absolute measurements.

  2. Rapid Field Toxicity Test for Water Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-28

    of trichothecenes (2). The correlation of the novel method with the Mysid trichothecenes paper described a perfect qualitative shrimp test, using fresh...test designed for human or animal consumption. organisms in a standard time LED light emitting diode CONCLUSION ml milliliter ppm parts per million A...potassium. of Trichothecenes ," Naval Research Laboratory Memorwdm Report 5738 (March 1986) Logistics dictate a day or so to test field samples in the

  3. New multi-country evidence on purchasing power parity: multivariate unit root test results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.J. Groen (Jan)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper a likelihood-based multivariate unit root testing framework is utilized to test whether the real exchange rates of G10 countries are non-stationary. The framework uses a likelihood ratio statistic which combines the information across all involved countries while retaining

  4. Methodology for the development of normative data for ten Spanish-language neuropsychological tests in eleven Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guàrdia-Olmos, Joan; Peró-Cebollero, Maribel; Rivera, Diego; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Within the field of neuropsychology, there is a significant lack of normative data for individuals in Latin America. To describe the methodology utilized to obtain the data and create norms for 10 Spanish-language neuropsychological tests administered in 11 Latin-American countries in a sample of 3,977 healthy individuals between the ages 18 and 90. The same data manipulation process was applied to the data collected (regardless of the scale or country) using a regression-based procedure that takes into account sex, age, and educational influences on neuropsychological test scores. Following this procedure, we were able to generate age, education, and sex (if relevant) based norms for each test in each of the 11 countries studied. These norms are presented in the 10 articles that comprise this special issue.

  5. Background field coils for the High Field Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zbasnik, J.P.; Cornish, D.N.; Scanlan, R.M.; Jewell, A.M.; Leber, R.L.; Rosdahl, A.R.; Chaplin, M.R.

    1980-09-22

    The High Field Test Facility (HFTF), presently under construction at LLNL, is a set of superconducting coils that will be used to test 1-m-o.d. coils of prototype conductors for fusion magnets in fields up to 12 T. The facility consists of two concentric sets of coils; the outer set is a stack of Nb-Ti solenoids, and the inner set is a pair of solenoids made of cryogenically-stabilized, multifilamentary Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor, developed for use in mirror-fusion magnets. The HFTF system is designed to be parted along the midplane to allow high-field conductors, under development for Tokamak fusion machines, to be inserted and tested. The background field coils were wound pancake-fashion, with cold-welded joints at both the inner and outer diameters. Turn-to-turn insulation was fabricated at LLNL from epoxy-fiberglass strip. The coils were assembled and tested in our 2-m-diam cryostat to verify their operation.

  6. Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol Field Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Cautley, D. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Bohac, D. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Francisco, P. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Shen, L. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Gloss, S. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Combustions safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives. A survey of state weatherization agencies on combustion safety issues, details of a field data collection instrumentation package, summary of data collected over seven months, data analysis and results are included. The project team collected field data on 11 houses in 2015.

  7. Some Tests on Heather Field Moraine Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mogens B.; Jacobsen, Moust

    This report deals with oedometer tests on three samples of moraine clay from the Heather Field in the English part of the North Sea. The tests have been carried out in the very unelastic apparatus used in Denmark and with special test procedures differing from the ones used elsewhere. In Denmark...... the English North Sea moraine clays with the corresponding Danish Moraine Clays. The Danish test procedures are explained in details and some comments are given in the hope that they may not be banalities all of them....

  8. Numerical simulations of capillary barrier field tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, C.E. [Univ. of Wollongong (Australia); Stormont, J.C. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Numerical simulations of two capillary barrier systems tested in the field were conducted to determine if an unsaturated flow model could accurately represent the observed results. The field data was collected from two 7-m long, 1.2-m thick capillary barriers built on a 10% grade that were being tested to investigate their ability to laterally divert water downslope. One system had a homogeneous fine layer, while the fine soil of the second barrier was layered to increase its ability to laterally divert infiltrating moisture. The barriers were subjected first to constant infiltration while minimizing evaporative losses and then were exposed to ambient conditions. The continuous infiltration period of the field tests for the two barrier systems was modelled to determine the ability of an existing code to accurately represent capillary barrier behavior embodied in these two designs. Differences between the field test and the model data were found, but in general the simulations appeared to adequately reproduce the response of the test systems. Accounting for moisture retention hysteresis in the layered system will potentially lead to more accurate modelling results and is likely to be important when developing reasonable predictions of capillary barrier behavior.

  9. Field testing driver night vision devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, F.L.; Kolletzki, D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes the available methodologies to field test driver night vision devices ranging from vehicle mounted camera’s to head-mounted NVG’s. As in flight trials, a formidable challenge is to collect meaningful performance measures. Night vision systems for land and air systems show many

  10. Trip Report-Produced-Water Field Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Enid J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) conducted field testing of a produced-water pretreatment apparatus with assistance from faculty at the Texas A&M University (TAMU) protein separation sciences laboratory located on the TAMU main campus. The following report details all of the logistics surrounding the testing. The purpose of the test was to use a new, commercially-available filter media housing containing modified zeolite (surfactant-modified zeolite or SMZ) porous medium for use in pretreatment of oil and gas produced water (PW) and frac-flowback waters. The SMZ was tested previously in October, 2010 in a lab-constructed configuration ('old multicolumn system'), and performed well for removal of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) from PW. However, a less-expensive, modular configuration is needed for field use. A modular system will allow the field operator to add or subtract SMZ filters as needed to accommodate site specific conditions, and to swap out used filters easily in a multi-unit system. This test demonstrated the use of a commercial filter housing with a simple flow modification and packed with SMZ for removing BTEX from a PW source in College Station, Texas. The system will be tested in June 2012 at a field site in Pennsylvania for treating frac-flowback waters. The goals of this test are: (1) to determine sorption efficiency of BTEX in the new configuration; and (2) to observe the range of flow rates, backpressures, and total volume treated at a given flow rate.

  11. Development of a Pediatric Visual Field Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marco A; Henson, David B; Fenerty, Cecilia; Biswas, Susmito; Aslam, Tariq

    2016-12-01

    We describe a pediatric visual field (VF) test based on a computer game where software and hardware combine to provide an enjoyable test experience. The test software consists of a platform-based computer game presented to the central VF. A storyline was created around the game as was a structure surrounding the computer monitor to enhance patients' experience. The patient is asked to help the central character collect magic coins (stimuli). To collect these coins a series of obstacles need to be overcome. The test was presented on a Sony PVM-2541A monitor calibrated from a central midpoint with a Minolta CS-100 photometer placed at 50 cm. Measurements were performed at 15 locations on the screen and the contrast calculated. Retinal sensitivity was determined by modulating stimulus in size. To test the feasibility of the novel approach 20 patients (4-16 years old) with no history of VF defects were recruited. For the 14 subjects completing the study, 31 ± 15 data points were collected on 1 eye of each patient. Mean background luminance and stimulus contrast were 9.9 ± 0.3 cd/m(2) and 27.9 ± 0.1 dB, respectively. Sensitivity values obtained were similar to an adult population but variability was considerably higher - 8.3 ± 9.0 dB. Preliminary data show the feasibility of a game-based VF test for pediatric use. Although the test was well accepted by the target population, test variability remained very high. Traditional VF tests are not well tolerated by children. This study describes a child-friendly approach to test visual fields in the targeted population.

  12. Racing performance and incremental double poling test on treadmill in elite female cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Nicolas; Balestreri, Filippo; Leonardi, Allesandro; Schena, Fedrico

    2010-02-01

    The national Italian cross-country ski team has been evaluated on the basis of a new double poling cross-country roller skiing incremental test to exhaustion (DP) on a motorized driven treadmill. To verify the capacity of this specific test to predict performance, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), oxygen uptake at anaerobic threshold (VO2Th), peak treadmill speed, and treadmill speed at anaerobic threshold (Speak and STh, respectively) were measured during the test and correlated with the level of performance of 10 world class Italian female cross-country skiers. The physiological data obtained were also compared with results of an incremental and maximal test carried out by the same athletes but with the diagonal stride (DS) technique. Peak heart rate (HRpeak), HRTh, and VO2Th were significantly higher during DS than during DP (p cross-country skiers' performance.

  13. Deep Borehole Field Test Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-30

    This report documents conceptual design development for the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT), including test packages (simulated waste packages, not containing waste) and a system for demonstrating emplacement and retrieval of those packages in the planned Field Test Borehole (FTB). For the DBFT to have demonstration value, it must be based on conceptualization of a deep borehole disposal (DBD) system. This document therefore identifies key options for a DBD system, describes an updated reference DBD concept, and derives a recommended concept for the DBFT demonstration. The objective of the DBFT is to confirm the safety and feasibility of the DBD concept for long-term isolation of radioactive waste. The conceptual design described in this report will demonstrate equipment and operations for safe waste handling and downhole emplacement of test packages, while contributing to an evaluation of the overall safety and practicality of the DBD concept. The DBFT also includes drilling and downhole characterization investigations that are described elsewhere (see Section 1). Importantly, no radioactive waste will be used in the DBFT, nor will the DBFT site be used for disposal of any type of waste. The foremost performance objective for conduct of the DBFT is to demonstrate safe operations in all aspects of the test.

  14. Field Test Kit for Gun Residue Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WALKER, PAMELA K.; RODACY, PHILIP J.

    2002-01-01

    One of the major needs of the law enforcement field is a product that quickly, accurately, and inexpensively identifies whether a person has recently fired a gun--even if the suspect has attempted to wash the traces of gunpowder off. The Field Test Kit for Gunshot Residue Identification based on Sandia National Laboratories technology works with a wide variety of handguns and other weaponry using gunpowder. There are several organic chemicals in small arms propellants such as nitrocellulose, nitroglycerine, dinitrotoluene, and nitrites left behind after the firing of a gun that result from the incomplete combustion of the gunpowder. Sandia has developed a colorimetric shooter identification kit for in situ detection of gunshot residue (GSR) from a suspect. The test kit is the first of its kind and is small, inexpensive, and easily transported by individual law enforcement personnel requiring minimal training for effective use. It will provide immediate information identifying gunshot residue.

  15. Ice slurry cooling development and field testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasza, K.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hietala, J. [Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States); Wendland, R.D. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Collins, F. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-07-01

    A new advanced cooling technology collaborative program is underway involving Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Northern States Power (NSP) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The program will conduct field tests of an ice slurry distributed load network cooling concept at a Northern States Power utility service center to further develop and prove the technology and to facilitate technology transfer to the private sector. The program will further develop at Argonne National Laboratory through laboratory research key components of hardware needed in the field testing and develop an engineering data base needed to support the implementation of the technology. This program will sharply focus and culminate research and development funded by both the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute on advanced cooling and load management technology over the last several years.

  16. Ice slurry cooling development and field testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasza, K.E. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Hietala, J. (Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States)); Wendland, R.D. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)); Collins, F. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-01-01

    A new advanced cooling technology collaborative program is underway involving Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Northern States Power (NSP) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The program will conduct field tests of an ice slurry distributed load network cooling concept at a Northern States Power utility service center to further develop and prove the technology and to facilitate technology transfer to the private sector. The program will further develop at Argonne National Laboratory through laboratory research key components of hardware needed in the field testing and develop an engineering data base needed to support the implementation of the technology. This program will sharply focus and culminate research and development funded by both the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute on advanced cooling and load management technology over the last several years.

  17. Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol Field Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Cautley, D. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Bohac, D. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Francisco, P. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Shen, L. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Gloss, S. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2015-11-05

    "9Combustions safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives. A survey of state weatherization agencies on combustion safety issues, details of a field data collection instrumentation package, summary of data collected over seven months, data analysis and results are included. The project provides several key results. State weatherization agencies do not generally track combustion safety failures, the data from those that do suggest that there is little actual evidence that combustion safety failures due to spillage from non-dryer exhaust are common and that only a very small number of homes are subject to the failures. The project team collected field data on 11 houses in 2015. Of these homes, two houses that demonstrated prolonged and excessive spillage were also the only two with venting systems out of compliance with the National Fuel Gas Code. The remaining homes experienced spillage that only occasionally extended beyond the first minute of operation. Combustion zone depressurization, outdoor temperature, and operation of individual fans all provide statistically significant predictors of spillage.

  18. Deep Borehole Field Test Laboratory and Borehole Testing Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick V. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); MacKinnon, Robert J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heath, Jason E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Herrick, Courtney G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jensen, Richard P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gardner, W. Payton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jang, Je-Hun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Daley, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Freifeld, Barry M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spane, Frank A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-19

    Deep Borehole Disposal (DBD) of high-level radioactive wastes has been considered an option for geological isolation for many years (Hess et al. 1957). Recent advances in drilling technology have decreased costs and increased reliability for large-diameter (i.e., ≥50 cm [19.7”]) boreholes to depths of several kilometers (Beswick 2008; Beswick et al. 2014). These advances have therefore also increased the feasibility of the DBD concept (Brady et al. 2009; Cornwall 2015), and the current field test design will demonstrate the DBD concept and these advances. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste (DOE 2013) specifically recommended developing a research and development plan for DBD. DOE sought input or expression of interest from States, local communities, individuals, private groups, academia, or any other stakeholders willing to host a Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT). The DBFT includes drilling two boreholes nominally 200m [656’] apart to approximately 5 km [16,400’] total depth, in a region where crystalline basement is expected to begin at less than 2 km depth [6,560’]. The characterization borehole (CB) is the smaller-diameter borehole (i.e., 21.6 cm [8.5”] diameter at total depth), and will be drilled first. The geologic, hydrogeologic, geochemical, geomechanical and thermal testing will take place in the CB. The field test borehole (FTB) is the larger-diameter borehole (i.e., 43.2 cm [17”] diameter at total depth). Surface handling and borehole emplacement of test package will be demonstrated using the FTB to evaluate engineering feasibility and safety of disposal operations (SNL 2016).

  19. A new method of field MRTD test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhibin; Song, Yan; Liu, Xianhong; Xiao, Wenjian

    2014-09-01

    MRTD is an important indicator to measure the imaging performance of infrared camera. In the traditional laboratory test, blackbody is used as simulated heat source which is not only expensive and bulky but also difficult to meet field testing requirements of online automatic infrared camera MRTD. To solve this problem, this paper introduces a new detection device for MRTD, which uses LED as a simulation heat source and branded plated zinc sulfide glass carved four-bar target as a simulation target. By using high temperature adaptability cassegrain collimation system, the target is simulated to be distance-infinite so that it can be observed by the human eyes to complete the subjective test, or collected to complete objective measurement by image processing. This method will use LED to replace blackbody. The color temperature of LED is calibrated by thermal imager, thereby, the relation curve between the LED temperature controlling current and the blackbody simulation temperature difference is established, accurately achieved the temperature control of the infrared target. Experimental results show that the accuracy of the device in field testing of thermal imager MRTD can be limited within 0.1K, which greatly reduces the cost to meet the project requirements with a wide application value.

  20. Preliminary Results of Field Emission Cathode Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovey, James S.; Kovaleski, Scott D.

    2001-01-01

    Preliminary screening tests of field emission cathodes such as chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond, textured pyrolytic graphite, and textured copper were conducted at background pressures typical of electric thruster test facilities to assess cathode performance and stability. Very low power electric thrusters which provide tens to hundreds micronewtons of thrust may need field emission neutralizers that have a capability of tens to hundreds of microamperes. From current voltage characteristics, it was found that the CVD diamond and textured metals cathodes clearly satisfied the Fowler-Nordheim emission relation. The CVD diamond and a textured copper cathode had average current densities of 270 and 380 mA/sq cm, respectively, at the beginning-of-life. After a few hours of operation the cathode emission currents degraded by 40 to 75% at background pressures in the 10(exp -5) Pa to 10(exp -4) Pa range. The textured pyrolytic graphite had a modest current density at beginning-of-life of 84 mA/sq cm, but this cathode was the most stable of all. Extended testing of the most promising cathodes is warranted to determine if current degradation is a burn-in effect or whether it is a long-term degradation process. Preliminary experiments with ferroelectric emission cathodes, which are ceramics with spontaneous electric polarization, were conducted. Peak current densities of 30 to 120 mA/sq cm were obtained for pulse durations of about 500 ns in the 10(exp -4) Pa pressure range.

  1. In Situ Field Testing of Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Wang

    2001-12-14

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). This revision updates data and analyses presented in the initial issue of this AMR. This AMR was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' and ''Technical Work Plan for UZ Flow, Transport, and Coupled Processes Process Model Report. These activities were performed to investigate in situ flow and transport processes. The evaluations provide the necessary framework to: (1) refine and confirm the conceptual model of matrix and fracture processes in the unsaturated zone (UZ) and (2) analyze the impact of excavation (including use of construction water and effect of ventilation) on the UZ flow and transport processes. This AMR is intended to support revisions to ''Conceptual and Numerical Models for UZ Flow and Transport'' and ''Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Process Model Report''. In general, the results discussed in this AMR are from studies conducted using a combination or a subset of the following three approaches: (1) air-injection tests, (2) liquid-release tests, and (3) moisture monitoring using in-drift sensors or in-borehole sensors, to evaluate the impact of excavation, ventilation, and construction-water usage on the surrounding rocks. The liquid-release tests and air-injection tests provide an evaluation of in situ fracture flow and the competing processes of matrix imbibition. Only the findings from testing and data not covered in the ''Seepage Calibration Model and Seepage Testing Data'' are analyzed in detail in the AMR.

  2. 3X-100 blade field test.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayas, Jose R.; Johnson, Wesley D.

    2008-03-01

    In support of a Work-For-Other (WFO) agreement between the Wind Energy Technology Department at Sandia National Laboratories and 3TEX, one of the three Micon 65/13M wind turbines at the USDA Agriculture Research Service (ARS) center in Bushland, Texas, has been used to test a set of 9 meter wind turbine blades, manufactured by TPI composites using the 3TEX carbon material for the spar cap. Data collected from the test has been analyzed to evaluate both the aerodynamic performance and the structural response from the blades. The blades aerodynamic and structural performance, the meteorological inflow and the wind turbine structural response has been monitored with an array of 57 instruments: 15 to characterize the blades, 13 to characterize inflow, and 15 to characterize the time-varying state of the turbine. For the test, data was sampled at a rate of 40 Hz using the ATLAS II (Accurate GPS Time-Linked Data Acquisition System) data acquisition system. The system features a time-synchronized continuous data stream and telemetered data from the turbine rotor. This paper documents the instruments and infrastructure that have been developed to monitor these blades, turbines and inflow, as well as both modeling and field testing results.

  3. Testing of Natural Resources as Blessing or Curse to the Knowledge Economy in Arab Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Driouchi, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This paper focuses on testing if natural resources constituted a blessing or a curse to the progress of knowledge economy in Arab countries. Some of these economies are based on natural resources and mainly oil and gas that are major sources of economic rents. The attained results from all the sample of Arab countries, show how knowledge variables are negatively related to the rents from natural resources. Natural resources appear thus as a curse to the expansion of knowledge ec...

  4. IN SITU FIELD TESTING OF PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.S.Y. YANG

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report is to update and document the data and subsequent analyses from ambient field-testing activities performed in underground drifts and surface-based boreholes through unsaturated zone (UZ) tuff rock units. In situ testing, monitoring, and associated laboratory studies are conducted to directly assess and evaluate the waste emplacement environment and the natural barriers to radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain. This scientific analysis report supports and provides data to UZ flow and transport model reports, which in turn contribute to the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of Yucca Mountain, an important document for the license application (LA). The objectives of ambient field-testing activities are described in Section 1.1. This report is the third revision (REV 03), which supercedes REV 02. The scientific analysis of data for inputs to model calibration and validation as documented in REV 02 were developed in accordance with the Technical Work Plan (TWP) ''Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167969]). This revision was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 1.2.4) for better integrated, consistent, transparent, traceable, and more complete documentation in this scientific analysis report and associated UZ flow and transport model reports. No additional testing or analyses were performed as part of this revision. The list of relevant acceptance criteria is provided by ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654]), Table 3-1. Additional deviations from the TWP regarding the features, events, and processes (FEPs) list are discussed in Section 1.3. Documentation in this report includes descriptions of how, and under what

  5. Is it possible to develop a cross-country test of social interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Brett; Atler, Karen; Fisher, Anne G

    2017-11-01

    The Evaluation of Social Interaction (ESI) is used in Asia, Australia, North America and Europe. What is considered to be appropriate social interaction, however, differs amongst countries. If social interaction varies, the relative difficulty of the ESI items and types of social exchange also could vary, resulting in differential item functioning (DIF) and test bias in the form of differential test functioning (DTF). Yet, because the ESI scoring criteria are designed to account for culture, the ESI should be free of DIF and DTF. The purpose, therefore, was to determine whether the ESI demonstrates DIF or DTF related to country. A retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study of 9811 participants 2-102 years, 55% female, from 12 countries was conducted using many-facet Rasch analyses. DIF analyses compared paired item and social exchange type values by country against a critical effect size (±0.55 logit). DTF analyses compared paired ESI measures by country to 95% confidence intervals. All paired social exchange types and 98.3% of paired items differed by less than ±0.55 logit. All persons fell within 95% confidence intervals. Minimal DIF resulted in no test bias, supporting the cross-country validity of the ESI.

  6. Longitudinal Patent Analysis for Nanoscale Science and Engineering: Country, Institution and Technology Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zan; Chen, Hsinchun; Yip, Alan; Ng, Gavin; Guo, Fei; Chen, Zhi-Kai; Roco, Mihail C.

    2003-08-01

    Nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) and related areas have seen rapid growth in recent years. The speed and scope of development in the field have made it essential for researchers to be informed on the progress across different laboratories, companies, industries and countries. In this project, we experimented with several analysis and visualization techniques on NSE-related United States patent documents to support various knowledge tasks. This paper presents results on the basic analysis of nanotechnology patents between 1976 and 2002, content map analysis and citation network analysis. The data have been obtained on individual countries, institutions and technology fields. The top 10 countries with the largest number of nanotechnology patents are the United States, Japan, France, the United Kingdom, Taiwan, Korea, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Italy and Australia. The fastest growth in the last 5 years has been in chemical and pharmaceutical fields, followed by semiconductor devices. The results demonstrate potential of information-based discovery and visualization technologies to capture knowledge regarding nanotechnology performance, transfer of knowledge and trends of development through analyzing the patent documents.

  7. Transportability of confined field trial data from cultivation to import countries for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Shuichi; Hoshikawa, Kana; Shimono, Ayako; Ohsawa, Ryo

    2015-12-01

    Requirement of in-country confined field trials for genetically modified (GM) crops prior to unrestricted release is well-established among countries with domestic regulations for the cultivation approval of GM crops. However, the requirement of in-country confined field trials is not common in countries where the scope of the application does not include cultivation. Nonetheless, Japan and China request in-country confined field trials for GM crops which are intended only for use as food, feed and processing. This paper considers the transportability of confined field trial data from cultivation countries (e.g. United States, Canada, and South American countries) to import countries like Japan for the environmental risk assessment of GM crops by reviewing: (1) the purpose of confined field trial assessment, (2) weediness potential, defined as "an ability to establish and persist in an unmanaged area that is frequently disturbed by human activity", of host crops, and (3) reliability of the confined field trial data obtained from cultivation countries. To review the reliability of the confined field data obtained in the US, this paper describes actual examples of three confined field trials of approved GM corn events conducted both in the US and Japan. Based on the above considerations, this paper concludes that confined field data of GM corn and cotton is transportable from cultivation countries to importing countries (e.g. from the US to Japan), regardless of the characteristics of the inserted gene(s). In addition, this paper advocates harmonization of protocols for confined field trials to facilitate more efficient data transportability across different geographies.

  8. FIELD TEST OF THE FLAME QUALITY INDICATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, Andrew M; Butcher, Thomas; Troost, Henry

    2003-02-04

    The flame quality indicator concept was developed at BNL specifically to monitor the brightness of the flame in a small oil burner and to provide a ''call for service'' notification when the brightness has changed from its setpoint, either high or low. In prior development work BNL has explored the response of this system to operational upsets such as excess air changes, fouled atomizer nozzles, poor fuel quality, etc. Insight Technologies, Inc. and Honeywell, Inc. have licensed this technology from the U.S. Department of Energy and have been cooperating to develop product offerings which meet industry needs with an optimal combination of function and price. Honeywell has recently completed the development of the Flame Quality Monitor (FQM or Honeywell QS7100F). This is a small module which connects via a serial cable to the burners primary operating control. Primary advantages of this approach are simplicity, cost, and ease of installation. Call-for-service conditions are output in the form of front panel indicator lights and contact closure which can trigger a range of external communication options. Under this project a field test was conducted of the FQM in cooperation with service organizations in Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, and Connecticut. At total of 83 field sites were included. At each site the FQM was installed in parallel with another embodiment of this concept--the Insight AFQI. The AFQI incorporates a modem and provides the ability to provide detailed information on the trends in the flame quality over the course of the two year test period. The test site population was comprised of 79.5% boilers, 13.7% warm air furnaces, and 6.8% water heaters. Nearly all were of residential size--with firing rates ranging from 0.6 gallons of oil per hour to 1.25. During the course of the test program the monitoring equipment successfully identified problems including: plugged fuel lines, fouled nozzles, collapsed combustion

  9. Cooperative field test program for wind systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollmeier, W.S. II; Dodge, D.M.

    1992-03-01

    The objectives of the Federal Wind Energy Program, managed by the US Department of Energy (DOE), are (1) to assist industry and utilities in achieving a multi-regional US market penetration of wind systems, and (2) to establish the United States as the world leader in the development of advanced wind turbine technology. In 1984, the program conducted a series of planning workshops with representatives from the wind energy industry to obtain input on the Five-Year Research Plan then being prepared by DOE. One specific suggestion that came out of these meetings was that the federal program should conduct cooperative research tests with industry to enhance the technology transfer process. It was also felt that the active involvement of industry in DOE-funded research would improve the state of the art of wind turbine technology. DOE established the Cooperative Field Test Program (CFTP) in response to that suggestion. This program was one of the first in DOE to feature joint industry-government research test teams working toward common objectives.

  10. HIV testing and counselling for migrant populations living in high-income countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-del Arco, Debora; Monge, Susana; Azcoaga, Amaya; Rio, Isabel; Hernando, Victoria; Gonzalez, Cristina; Alejos, Belen; Caro, Ana Maria; Perez-Cachafeiro, Santiago; Ramirez-Rubio, Oriana; Bolumar, Francisco; Noori, Teymur; Del Amo, Julia

    2013-12-01

    The barriers to HIV testing and counselling that migrants encounter can jeopardize proactive HIV testing that relies on the fact that HIV testing must be linked to care. We analyse available evidence on HIV testing and counselling strategies targeting migrants and ethnic minorities in high-income countries. Systematic literature review of the five main databases of articles in English from Europe, North America and Australia between 2005 and 2009. Of 1034 abstracts, 37 articles were selected. Migrants, mainly from HIV-endemic countries, are at risk of HIV infection and its consequences. The HIV prevalence among migrants is higher than the general population's, and migrants have higher frequency of delayed HIV diagnosis. For migrants from countries with low HIV prevalence and for ethnic minorities, socio-economic vulnerability puts them at risk of acquiring HIV. Migrants have specific legal and administrative impediments to accessing HIV testing-in some countries, undocumented migrants are not entitled to health care-as well as cultural and linguistic barriers, racism and xenophobia. Migrants and ethnic minorities fear stigma from their communities, yet community acceptance is key for well-being. Migrants and ethnic minorities should be offered HIV testing, but the barriers highlighted in this review may deter programs from achieving the final goal, which is linking migrants and ethnic minorities to HIV clinical care under the public health perspective.

  11. Equity in HIV testing: evidence from a cross-sectional study in ten Southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Steven

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV testing with counseling is an integral component of most national HIV and AIDS prevention strategies in southern Africa. Equity in testing implies that people at higher risk for HIV such as women; those who do not use condoms consistently; those with multiple partners; those who have suffered gender based violence; and those who are unable to implement prevention choices (the choice-disabled are tested and can have access to treatment. Methods We conducted a household survey of 24,069 people in nationally stratified random samples of communities in Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. We asked about testing for HIV in the last 12 months, intention to test, and about HIV risk behaviour, socioeconomic indicators, access to information, and attitudes related to stigma. Results Across the ten countries, seven out of every ten people said they planned to have an HIV test but the actual proportion tested in the last 12 months varied from 24% in Mozambique to 64% in Botswana. Generally, people at higher risk of HIV were not more likely to have been tested in the last year than those at lower risk, although women were more likely than men to have been tested in six of the ten countries. In Swaziland, those who experienced partner violence were more likely to test, but in Botswana those who were choice-disabled for condom use were less likely to be tested. The two most consistent factors associated with HIV testing across the countries were having heard about HIV/AIDS from a clinic or health centre, and having talked to someone about HIV and AIDS. Conclusions HIV testing programmes need to encourage people at higher risk of HIV to get tested, particularly those who do not interact regularly with the health system. Service providers need to recognise that some people are not able to implement HIV preventive actions and may not feel empowered to get themselves

  12. The Situation of the Female Workforce in the Field of Scientific Research in European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA LEOVARIDIS

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at identifying if and to what extent we can speak of the existence of gender imbalances in the field of scientific research in the European Union as a whole, but also comparatively between different countries, including the situation in Romania. After a short overview of the context in which this preoccupation appeared in European gender studies and of the possible causes which can determine this imbalance, the paper continues with a presentation of the general situation of the female/male workforce in the member states, followed by a analysis of the educational levels of women compared with men, with respect to stages of education. The study also analyzes the data on the participation of women in the field of scientific research from the point of view of share of the total, broken down by sectors of activity and scientific fields. A related focus is the participation of women in the field of higher education, according to hierarchical levels, from the perspective of access to research financing, of expenses per researchers, etc., focusing on the gender imbalances pointed out earlier and on the specificity of former communist countries.

  13. Field operational tests of Smartway in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko Kanazawa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Efforts are underway in Japan to promote “Smartway” next-generation roadways, which provide a variety of services through the use of advanced ITS technologies. In recent years, the National Institute for Land and Infrastructure Management (NILIM, part of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT, has conducted public–private joint research on next-generation road services using ITS technologies. Field operational tests (FOTs of services including forward obstacle information provision and merging assistance using 5.8 GHz dedicated short range communication (DSRC were conducted on the Tokyo Metropolitan Expressway through FY2007. In FY2008–2009, FOTs were conducted in three major metropolitan areas—Tokyo, Nagoya, and Keihanshin (Kyoto, Osaka, and Kobe—to promote future deployment nationwide. These included tests of information provision services to alert drivers to forward obstacles hidden beyond the crest of an incline and prevent excessive speed on sharp curves. This paper presents an overview of these FOTs conducted by NILIM in recent years and their results.

  14. Progress testing in resource-poor countries: a case from Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, Rembrant; Steidel, Konrad; Manuel, Beatriz A F; Driessen, Erik W

    2010-01-01

    A wealth of evidence for the effectiveness of progress testing in problem-based learning curricula has been collected in the Western academic world, but whether the progress testing can be equally effective in problem-based medical schools in resource-poor countries is a question that remains to be answered. In order to provide an initial answer to this question, we describe our experiences with progress testing in a medical school in Mozambique since its establishment in 2001, specifically focusing on test acceptability, formative educational impact, test validity and test reliability. After 7 years of experience, we think that the conclusion is justified that the progress testing can be a feasible and effective assessment instrument even in a resource poor setting. Institutional collaboration is important to guarantee test quality and sustainability.

  15. Top Zika Vaccine Candidate Moves Closer to Field Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161274.html Top Zika Vaccine Candidate Moves Closer to Field Testing DNA- ... MONDAY, Oct. 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The leading Zika vaccine candidate should be ready for field testing ...

  16. Field Testing of Environmentally Friendly Drilling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Burnett

    2009-05-31

    The Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program addresses new low-impact technology that reduces the footprint of drilling activities, integrates light weight drilling rigs with reduced emission engine packages, addresses on-site waste management, optimizes the systems to fit the needs of a specific development sites and provides stewardship of the environment. In addition, the program includes industry, the public, environmental organizations, and elected officials in a collaboration that addresses concerns on development of unconventional natural gas resources in environmentally sensitive areas. The EFD program provides the fundamentals to result in greater access, reasonable regulatory controls, lower development cost and reduction of the environmental footprint associated with operations for unconventional natural gas. Industry Sponsors have supported the program with significant financial and technical support. This final report compendium is organized into segments corresponding directly with the DOE approved scope of work for the term 2005-2009 (10 Sections). Each specific project is defined by (a) its goals, (b) its deliverable, and (c) its future direction. A web site has been established that contains all of these detailed engineering reports produced with their efforts. The goals of the project are to (1) identify critical enabling technologies for a prototype low-impact drilling system, (2) test the prototype systems in field laboratories, and (3) demonstrate the advanced technology to show how these practices would benefit the environment.

  17. Results of the fourth Hanna field test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covell, J. R.; Wojdac, L. F.; Barbour, F. A.; Gardner, G. W.; Glass, R.; Hommert, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    The second phase (Hanna IVB) of a coal gasification experiment near Hanna, Wyoming, was completed in September 1979. The experiment attempted to link and gasify coal between process wells spaced 34.3 meters apart. Intermediate wells were positioned between the process wells so that the link could be relayed over shorter distances. Reverse combustion linking was attempted over a 22.9-meter and a 11.4-meter distance of the total well spacing. Thermal activity was generally noted in the upper 3 meters of the coal seam during the link. Two attempts to gasify over the 34.3-meter distance resulted in the propagation of the burn front at the coal overburden interface. Post-burn evaluation indicates fractures as major influencing factors of the combustion process. The Hanna IVB field test provided much insight into influence that geologic features have on in situ coal combustion. The influence of these faults, permeable zones, and cleats, on the air flow patterns can drastically change the overall results of a gasification experiment and should be studied further. The overall results of Hanna IVB were discouraging because of the rapid decline in the heating values for the production gas and the amount of coal gasified. With more complete geologic characerization prior to experimentation and proper well completions, it is believed that most of the subsurface operational problems encountered during Hanna IV could have been avoided.

  18. Field Test Results on Natural Field IP Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the authors propose the natural field induced polarization (IP) method and present the way to pick up IP effect. The relations between the object and anomaly are studied by taking field experiments as examples. The effectiveness and usability of the method are testified.

  19. Testing for an Environmental Kuznets Curve in Latin-American Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Bengochea-Morancho

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents empirical estimates of Environmental Kuznets Curves for a panel of Latin-American countries over the period 1975-1998. It uses a new econometric technique that allows for more flexible assumptions in a panel data framework with a large time dimension. Unlike most previous studies we test for slope heterogeneity of the income coefficient in the search of a common empirical relation between carbon dioxide emissions and income. Our results point to the existence of some heterogeneity among countries, but with specific patterns for those sharing certain characteristics.

  20. A Test for the Pollution Haven Effect in the Selected EU-Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Asghari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The pursuit of sustainable development requires balancing the objectives of FDI, Trade, economic growth and environmental protection. Achieving a balance between these often-conflicting priorities is difficult enough at the national level, where competing interests are at least grounded in a common environmental, social and economic context. At the international level, where different countries have vastly different circumstances and priorities, it is significantly harder. One of the many ways in which this challenge manifests itself in the real world is in the conflict between the desire to promote trade by reducing non-tariff barriers and the desire to protect the environment and health through the use of technical regulations and standards.As competition becomes more global, people are concerned that relatively lenient environmental regulation and lax enforcement in developing countries give them a comparative advantage in pollution intensive goods. Lowering trade barrier may encourage a relocation of polluting industries from countries with strict environmental policy to those with lenient policy. These shifts may increase global pollution, as countries become reluctant to tighten environmental regulations due of their concerns over comparative advantage in international trade. Therefore, trade and FDI may encourage a relocation of polluting industries from countries with strict environmental policy to those with less stringent policy. We call this a pollution haven effect. The pattern of trade depends on which of these effects is stronger. The aim of this paper is to test the validation of the hypothesis of the pollution haven effect on water created by the different industries in the selected countries of Europe and Asia.Overall, our results show that trade liberalization decreases the BOD emission crated by chemical, food, metal, paper and pulp, textile, wood and other industries but it increases this emission crated by clay and glass

  1. Mechanisation of large-scale agricultural fields in developing countries - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwude, Daniel I; Abdulstter, Rafia; Gomes, Chandima; Hashim, Norhashila

    2016-09-01

    Mechanisation of large-scale agricultural fields often requires the application of modern technologies such as mechanical power, automation, control and robotics. These technologies are generally associated with relatively well developed economies. The application of these technologies in some developing countries in Africa and Asia is limited by factors such as technology compatibility with the environment, availability of resources to facilitate the technology adoption, cost of technology purchase, government policies, adequacy of technology and appropriateness in addressing the needs of the population. As a result, many of the available resources have been used inadequately by farmers, who continue to rely mostly on conventional means of agricultural production, using traditional tools and equipment in most cases. This has led to low productivity and high cost of production among others. Therefore this paper attempts to evaluate the application of present day technology and its limitations to the advancement of large-scale mechanisation in developing countries of Africa and Asia. Particular emphasis is given to a general understanding of the various levels of mechanisation, present day technology, its management and application to large-scale agricultural fields. This review also focuses on/gives emphasis to future outlook that will enable a gradual, evolutionary and sustainable technological change. The study concludes that large-scale-agricultural farm mechanisation for sustainable food production in Africa and Asia must be anchored on a coherent strategy based on the actual needs and priorities of the large-scale farmers. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Interactive Diagnostic Testing: Field Trial Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, David L.; Cabello, Beverly

    A diagnostic testing system managed by microcomputer was evaluated in actual use at the upper elementary level. Two tests specifically designed to yield diagnostic indicators of erroneous performance were utilized, one a test of pronoun usage, the other a test of reading comprehension. The results are interpreted from the standpoint of the…

  3. Testing The Random Walk Hypothesis: An Application in the BRIC Countries and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halime Temel Nalın

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the weak form efficiency in the BRIC countries and Turkey with use of autocorrelation analysis, unit root tests, Johansen cointegration and Granger causality test. Monthly data covers the period from July 1997 to December 2013. Our findings indicate the efficiency among the stock markets in the weak form. The empirical findings indicate monthly closing prices of indices follow the random walk procedure. According to Granger causality and Johansen cointegration tests we found the long-run relationship between China and India, also China and Turkey.

  4. Cone Factors from Field Vane and Triaxial Tests in Danish Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luke, Kirsten

    1996-01-01

    Six Danish cohesive soils are investigated using Cone Penetration Test (CPT) to estimate the undrained shear strength, cu. Field vane tests and consolidated triaxial tests are used to estimate cu for the six soils. The tested soils all come up with cone factors very close to 10 when using cu from...... the triaxial tests whereas cone factors ranging from 7 to 11 are estimated by using measurements from field vane tests. A strong correlation between the cone factor, Nkt and the friction ratio, fR is obtained when the cone factor is estimated from vane tests. This relation, which is obtained using only the six...... thoroughly investigated soils, is tested on data from other Danish and international sites. Likewise the constant cone factor of Nkt = 10 obtained from the triaxial tests is evaluated and compared with cone factors obtained from triaxial tests in other countries....

  5. The four-meter confrontation visual field test.

    OpenAIRE

    Kodsi, S R; Younge, B. R.

    1992-01-01

    The 4-m confrontation visual field test has been successfully used at the Mayo Clinic for many years in addition to the standard 0.5-m confrontation visual field test. The 4-m confrontation visual field test is a test of macular function and can identify small central or paracentral scotomas that the examiner may not find when the patient is tested only at 0.5 m. Also, macular sparing in homonymous hemianopias and quadrantanopias may be identified with the 4-m confrontation visual field test....

  6. Test of Nonlocality with an Atom-Field Entangled State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shi-Biao

    2002-01-01

    We propose a scheme for the test of nonlocality with atom-field entanglement. An atom is sent through a cavity filled with a coherent field with a small amplitude. The dispersive interaction leads to atom-field entanglement.Then the field is driven by a classical current. The Bell inequality can be tested by the joint measurement of the parity of the field and the atomic state.

  7. Field Accuracy Test of Rpas Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, P.; Coakley, R.

    2013-08-01

    Baseline Surveys Ltd is a company which specialises in the supply of accurate geospatial data, such as cadastral, topographic and engineering survey data to commercial and government bodies. Baseline Surveys Ltd invested in aerial drone photogrammetric technology and had a requirement to establish the spatial accuracy of the geographic data derived from our unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry before marketing our new aerial mapping service. Having supplied the construction industry with survey data for over 20 years, we felt that is was crucial for our clients to clearly understand the accuracy of our photogrammetry so they can safely make informed spatial decisions, within the known accuracy limitations of our data. This information would also inform us on how and where UAV photogrammetry can be utilised. What we wanted to find out was the actual accuracy that can be reliably achieved using a UAV to collect data under field conditions throughout a 2 Ha site. We flew a UAV over the test area in a "lawnmower track" pattern with an 80% front and 80% side overlap; we placed 45 ground markers as check points and surveyed them in using network Real Time Kinematic Global Positioning System (RTK GPS). We specifically designed the ground markers to meet our accuracy needs. We established 10 separate ground markers as control points and inputted these into our photo modelling software, Agisoft PhotoScan. The remaining GPS coordinated check point data were added later in ArcMap to the completed orthomosaic and digital elevation model so we could accurately compare the UAV photogrammetry XYZ data with the RTK GPS XYZ data at highly reliable common points. The accuracy we achieved throughout the 45 check points was 95% reliably within 41 mm horizontally and 68 mm vertically and with an 11.7 mm ground sample distance taken from a flight altitude above ground level of 90 m.The area covered by one image was 70.2 m × 46.4 m, which equals 0.325 Ha. This finding has shown

  8. [Malaria serology test: what contribution does it make in an endemic country such as Ivory Coast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran-Kouacou, Amah Patricia Victorine; Dou, Gonat Serge; Zika, Kalou Dibert; Adou, Adjoumanvoulé Honoré; Yéboah, Oppong Richard; Aka, Rita Ahou; Hien, Sansan; Siransy, Kouabla Liliane; N'Guessan, Koffi; Djibangar, Tariam Agnès; Dassé, Séry Romuald; Adoubryn, Koffi Daho

    2017-01-01

    Malaria serology test seems to have attracted very little interest in endemic countries such as Ivory Coast. However, this examination has been regularly performed in the parasitology laboratory at the Training and Research Unit of Medical Sciences in Abidjan. Our study aimed to highlight the contribution of malaria serology test in our endemic country context. We conducted a retrospective study of malaria serology test using Falciparum-Spot IF (bioMerieux) kit for the detection of IgG antiplasmodial antibodies. It included all malaria serology tests performed from January 2007 to February 2011 and whose results were available in the registry. In total, 136 patients were selected. The average age of patients was 36,3 years, ranging from 1 to 81 years, and sex ratio was 0,97. Indications for malaria serology test were varied and dominated by splenomegaly (49.3%), cytopenias (14.7%), indeterminate fever (13.2%). Almost all of the patients (98.5%) had antiplasmodial antibodies with high medium titer of 1057,35IU/ml. There was no link between age and Ab titer, which was higher in cytopenias, prolonged fevers and the splenomegaly. Malaria serology test seems to have attracted very little interest in routine clinical practice provided in our endemic area because, whatever the reason of the prescription, titers were high.

  9. Who to test and how to test for chronic hepatitis C infection - 2016 WHO testing guidance for low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrook, Philippa J

    2016-10-01

    Testing and diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the gateway for access to both treatment and prevention services, and crucial for an effective hepatitis epidemic response. In contrast to HIV, a systematic approach to hepatitis C testing has been fragmented and limited to a few countries, and there remains a large burden of undiagnosed cases globally. Key challenges in the current hepatitis testing response, include lack of simple, reliable, and low cost diagnostic tests, laboratory capacity, and testing facilities; inadequate data to guide country-specific hepatitis testing approaches and who to test; stigmatization and social marginalization of some groups with or at risk of viral hepatitis; and lack of international or national guidelines on hepatitis testing for resource-limited settings. New tools to support the hepatitis global response include the 2016 Global Hepatitis Health Sector Strategy which include targets for testing and diagnosis, and World Health Organization (WHO) 2016 hepatitis testing guidelines for adults, adolescents, and children in low- and middle-income countries. The testing guidance complements recent published WHO guidance on the prevention, care and treatment of chronic hepatitis C and hepatitis B infection. These testing guidelines outline the public health approach to strengthening and expanding current testing practices for HCV and HBV and address what serological and virological assays to use, and who to test, as well as interventions to promote linkage to prevention and care after testing. They are intended for use across all age groups and populations. See boxes for key recommendations. Future directions and innovations in viral hepatitis testing include use of point-of-care assays for nucleic acid testing (NAT) and core antigen; validation of dried blood spots specimens with different commercial serological and NAT assays; multiplex and polyvalent platforms for integrated testing of HIV, HBV and HCV; and potential

  10. Magnetic Field Apparatus (MFA) Hardware Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ken; Boody, April; Reed, Dave; Wang, Chung; Stuckey, Bob; Cox, Dave

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of this study are threefold: (1) Provide insight into water delivery in microgravity and determine optimal germination paper wetting for subsequent seed germination in microgravity; (2) Observe the behavior of water exposed to a strong localized magnetic field in microgravity; and (3) Simulate the flow of fixative (using water) through the hardware. The Magnetic Field Apparatus (MFA) is a new piece of hardware slated to fly on the Space Shuttle in early 2001. MFA is designed to expose plant tissue to magnets in a microgravity environment, deliver water to the plant tissue, record photographic images of plant tissue, and deliver fixative to the plant tissue.

  11. Test Selection, Adaptation, and Evaluation: A Systematic Approach to Assess Nutritional Influences on Child Development in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Elizabeth L.; Hartini, Sri; Rahmawati, Atik; Ismayani, Elfa; Hidayati, Astri; Hikmah, Nurul; Muadz, Husni; Apriatni, Mandri S.; Ullman, Michael T.; Shankar, Anuraj H.; Alcock, Katherine J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Evaluating the impact of nutrition interventions on developmental outcomes in developing countries can be challenging since most assessment tests have been produced in and for developed country settings. Such tests may not be valid measures of children's abilities when used in a new context. Aims: We present several principles for the…

  12. Test Selection, Adaptation, and Evaluation: A Systematic Approach to Assess Nutritional Influences on Child Development in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Elizabeth L.; Hartini, Sri; Rahmawati, Atik; Ismayani, Elfa; Hidayati, Astri; Hikmah, Nurul; Muadz, Husni; Apriatni, Mandri S.; Ullman, Michael T.; Shankar, Anuraj H.; Alcock, Katherine J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Evaluating the impact of nutrition interventions on developmental outcomes in developing countries can be challenging since most assessment tests have been produced in and for developed country settings. Such tests may not be valid measures of children's abilities when used in a new context. Aims: We present several principles for the…

  13. HIV Risk Behaviors Among Latina Women Tested for HIV in Florida by Country of Birth, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveras, Janelle; Trepka, Mary Jo; Khan, Hafiz; Madhivanan, Purnima; Gollub, Erica L; Devieux, Jessy

    2016-10-01

    Latina women in the United States (US) are disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Data are limited on the risk differences in HIV among Latinas by country of birth. This paper describes the risk behaviors among Latina women tested for HIV at public sites in Florida. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the demographic characteristics associated with the report of specific risk behaviors. Results indicate that foreign-born Latina women were 54 % less likely to report partner risk [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.40, 0.54] than US-born Latina women. Reported risk behaviors varied by race/ethnicity, US-born versus foreign-born status, and by Latina country of origin. Knowledge of these differences can aid in targeting HIV prevention messaging, program decision-making, and allocation of resources, corresponding to the central approach of High Impact Prevention and the National HIV/AIDS Strategy.

  14. Field Cone Penetration Tests with Various Penetration Rates - Test Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Rikke; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    The test site is located at Nordre Ringgade near the town called Dronninglund in the northern Jutland in Denmark. The site area is relatively flat, and was chosen because it has a size of approximately 3 ha and contains a relatively thick deposit of silty soils. Furthermore the groundwater...... was encountered at approximately 0.2-0.6 m below the ground level. The soil stratigraphy of the test site was before test start identified by geotechnical borings results. The geotechnical borings indicated that the site contains of sandy silt with clay stripes from approx. 4.0 to 10 m. In the top the silty soil...... is very sandy with few clay stripes, and gradually the clay stripes increases wherefore the soil from approx. 10 m contains of clay with sandy silt stripes. Large soil sample was also collected from the test site in order to determine basic soil properties in the laboratory....

  15. Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test results in European countries: an ESCMID cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcini, Céline; Tebano, Gianpiero; Mutters, Nico T; Tacconelli, Evelina; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Jarlier, Vincent

    2017-02-01

    Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) results is one possible laboratory-based antibiotic stewardship intervention. The primary aim of this study was to identify where and how selective reporting of AST results is implemented in Europe both in inpatient and in outpatient settings. An ESCMID cross-sectional, self-administered, internet-based survey was conducted among all EUCIC (European Committee on Infection Control) or EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) national representatives in Europe and Israel. Of 38 countries, 36 chose to participate in the survey. Selective reporting of AST results was implemented in 11/36 countries (31%), was partially implemented in 4/36 (11%) and was limited to local initiatives or was not adopted in 21/36 (58%). It was endorsed as standard of care by health authorities in only three countries. The organisation of selective reporting was everywhere discretionally managed by each laboratory, with a pronounced intra- and inter-country variability. The most frequent application was in uncomplicated community-acquired infections, particularly urinary tract and skin and soft-tissue infections. The list of reported antibiotics ranged from a few first-line options, to longer reports where only last-resort antibiotics were hidden. Several barriers to implementation were reported, mainly lack of guidelines, poor system support, insufficient resources, and lack of professionals' capability. In conclusion, selective reporting of AST results is poorly implemented in Europe and is applied with a huge heterogeneity of practices. Development of an international framework, based on existing initiatives and identified barriers, could favour its dissemination as one important element of antibiotic stewardship programmes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  16. Applicability of slug interference tests under Hanford Site test conditions: Analytical assessment and field test evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spane, F.A. Jr.

    1992-04-01

    Slug interference testing may be a useful technique for characterizing the hydraulic properties of high conductivity formations where problems associated with disposal of contaminated ground water make pumping tests undesirable. The suitability of the slug interference method for characterizing the unconfined aquifer at the Hanford Site was evaluated in a two-phase investigation. The first phase consisted of an analytical assessment. Slug interference responses were predicted over the range of conditions expected for the aquifer. The effects of partial penetration, delayed-yield and aquifer anisotropy on expected test results were also evaluated and possible analytical corrections are presented. The field test evaluation was conducted at a site with two observation wells and a stress well. Results verified the analytical evaluation and gave reasonable values of hydraulic conductivity and storativity. Test design considerations that optimize the observed response are discussed.

  17. Renewable energy consumption and economic growth in nine OECD countries: bounds test approach and causality analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung-Pin, Lin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the short-run and long-run causality between renewable energy (RE) consumption and economic growth (EG) in nine OECD countries from the period between 1982 and 2011. To examine the linkage, this paper uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration test and vector error-correction models to test the causal relationship between variables. The co-integration and causal relationships are found in five countries-United States of America (USA), Japan, Germany, Italy, and United Kingdom (UK). The overall results indicate that (1) a short-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in Italy and UK; (2) long-run unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany, Italy, and UK; (3) a long-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in USA, and Japan; (4) both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany and UK; and (5) Finally, both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from EG to RE in only USA. Further evidence reveals that policies for renewable energy conservation may have no impact on economic growth in France, Denmark, Portugal, and Spain.

  18. Testing the relationship between personality characteristics, contextual factors and entrepreneurial intentions in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Saeid; Biemans, Harm J A; Naderi Mahdei, Karim; Lans, Thomas; Chizari, Mohammad; Mulder, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Drawing upon the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), we developed and tested a conceptual model which integrates both internal personality factors and external contextual factors to determine their associations with motivational factors and entrepreneurial intentions (EIs). We then investigated if the model of EI applies in a developing country, namely Iran. We also set out to identify the most relevant factors for EI within this developing country context. Do distal predictors of EI including personality factors (i.e. need for achievement, risk taking and locus of control) and contextual factors (i.e. perceived barriers and support) significantly relate to EI via proximal predictors including motivational factors (i.e. attitudes towards entrepreneurship and perceived behavioural control [PBC])? Data were collected on 331 students from 7 public universities. The findings support the TPB for EI in Iran. All three motivational factors related to EI, but PBC showed the strongest association, which is different than in developed country contexts. Possible explanations for these differences are discussed. All three personality characteristics indirectly related to EI via the proximal attitudes towards entrepreneurship and PBC. Perceived contextual support and barriers indirectly related to EI via proximal PBC while perceived barriers also directly related to EI. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  19. Is the environmental performance of industrialized countries converging? A 'SURE' approach to testing for convergence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camarero, Mariam [Departamento de Economia. Universidad Jaume I. Campus del Riu Sec. 12071 Castellon (Spain); Picazo-Tadeo, Andres J. [Departamento de Economia Aplicada II. Universidad de Valencia. Avda. dels Tarongers s/n. 46022 Valencia (Spain); Tamarit, Cecilio [Departamento de Economia Aplicada II. Universidad de Valencia. Avda dels Tarongers s/n. 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    In this paper, we test for convergence in the environmental performance of a sample of OECD countries, with data ranging from 1971 to 2002. First, we use Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to compute two environmental performance indicators (EPIs) in the production theory framework. Second, we propose the use of a sequential multivariate approach to test for convergence in environmental performance. These tests allow us to reconcile the time series literature with the cross-sectional dimension, which is basic when testing for convergence in regional blocs. The SURE technique is used, which allows for the existence of correlations across the series without imposing a common speed of mean reversion. The empirical results show that the group of countries as a whole, as well as the majority of countries considered on an individual basis (results for some countries vary between EPIs), are catching-up with Switzerland (the benchmark country). (author)

  20. Field tests of the mobile robot Sherpa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaucourt, P. de; Garrec, P.; Morganti, P. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. des Procedes et Systemes Avances; Trouville, B. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France); Lucibello, P.; Nobile, M. [ENEA, Rome (Italy). Direzione Studi

    1995-12-31

    This paper summarizes recent demonstrations of the transport capabilities, inside nuclear buildings, of the six egged robot SHERPA, developed by the CEA (Atomic Energy Commission) robotic team. Results of the tests carried out at Chooz-B and Trino Vercellesse Nuclear Power Plants, respectively in June 1993 and in January 1994, in the framework of the European Community TELEMAN Programme, are presented. (authors). 10 refs., 13 figs.

  1. Collective Protection (ColPro) Field Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing...data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this... meiosis level, as defined by the test item specification. The ppbRAE®-like instruments may have a detection range of 1 to 9,999 mg/m3, accurate within

  2. Hydro-Balanced Stuffing Box field test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giangiacomo, L.A.

    1999-05-28

    The Hydro-Balanced Stuffing Box is a seal assembly for polished rod pumping installations commonly used in oil and gas pumping well installations to contain produced well fluids. The improved stuffing box was developed and patented by Harold H. Palmour of The Palmour Group of Livingston, TX. The stuffing box is designed to reduce the incidence of seal leakage and to utilize an environmentally safe fluid, so that if there is any leakage, environmental damage is reduced or eliminated. The unit was tested on two wells at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center. During the test period, the performance of the stuffing box was measured by monitoring the pressure on the tubing and the inner chamber with a Barton Two-pen recorder. The amount of safe fluid consumed, fluid leakage at the top of the stuffing box, pressure supplied from the nitrogen bottle, ambient temperature, and polish rod temperature was recorded. The stuffing box is capable of providing a better seal between well fluids an d the environment than conventional stuffing boxes. It allows the polished rod to operate cooler and with lubrication, extending the life of the packing elements, and reducing the amount of attention required to prevent leakage.

  3. Performance analysis in Japanese field test program; Field test data kara no chiiki hatsuden kaiseki hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, H.; Kurokawa, K.; Uchida, D. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Otani, K.; Sakuta, K.; Tsuda, I. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan); Oshiro, T.; Sakamoto, K. [Japan Quality Assurance Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Power generation characteristics are investigated using data collected in photovoltaic power generation field tests being undertaken by NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization). The photovoltaic power generation system performance is evaluated by examining loss factors leading to degradation in system performance, with weather conditions such as variation in insolation and air temperature, inverter performance, and shadows cast by surrounding buildings taken into consideration. As the result, it is found that the important loss factors are degradation in module performance due to elevated temperature, drift in the maximum output control, degraded inverter performance due to input power variation, effect of shadows, etc. It is learned that system is greatly affected by degradation in module performance due to increased temperature in summer and by shadows in winter, the two being responsible for the output coefficient dropping to approximately 75% throughout the year. The output coefficient frequency distribution charts for the 75 test sites confirm that the rate is as low as 70-80% at many sites. As for the system operating time, it tends to be longer in West Japan where the annual insolation rate is higher. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  4. Brahms Mobile Agents: Architecture and Field Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, William J.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Kaskiris, Charis; vanHoof, Ron

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a model-based, distributed architecture that integrates diverse components in a system designed for lunar and planetary surface operations: an astronaut's space suit, cameras, rover/All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV), robotic assistant, other personnel in a local habitat, and a remote mission support team (with time delay). Software processes, called agents, implemented in the Brahms language, run on multiple, mobile platforms. These mobile agents interpret and transform available data to help people and robotic systems coordinate their actions to make operations more safe and efficient. The Brahms-based mobile agent architecture (MAA) uses a novel combination of agent types so the software agents may understand and facilitate communications between people and between system components. A state-of-the-art spoken dialogue interface is integrated with Brahms models, supporting a speech-driven field observation record and rover command system (e.g., return here later and bring this back to the habitat ). This combination of agents, rover, and model-based spoken dialogue interface constitutes a personal assistant. An important aspect of the methodology involves first simulating the entire system in Brahms, then configuring the agents into a run-time system.

  5. Test of QED at critical field strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bula, C. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In a new experiment at the Final Focus Test Beam at SLAC, a low-emittance 46.6 GeV electron beam is brought into collisions with terawatt pulses of 1054 nm or 527 nm wavelength from a Nd:glass laser. Peak laser intensities of 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} have been achieved corresponding to a value of 0.6 for the parameter {eta} = e{epsilon}/m{omega}{sub 0}c. In this case, an electron that crosses the center of the laser pulse has near-unit interaction probability. Results are presented for multiphoton Compton scattering in which an electron interacts with up to four laser photons, in agreement with theoretical calculations.

  6. Testing the Fetal Origins Hypothesis in a developing country: evidence from the 1918 Influenza Pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Richard E

    2010-10-01

    The 1918 Influenza Pandemic is used as a natural experiment to test the Fetal Origins Hypothesis. This hypothesis states that individual health as well as socioeconomic outcomes, such as educational attainment, employment status, and wages, are affected by the health of that individual while in utero. Repeated cross sections from the Pesquisa Mensal de Emprego (PME), a labor market survey from Brazil, are used to test this hypothesis. I find evidence to support the Fetal Origins Hypothesis. In particular, compared to individuals born in the few years surrounding the Influenza Pandemic, those who were in utero during the pandemic are less likely to be college educated, be employed, have formal employment, or know how to read and have fewer years of schooling and a lower hourly wage. These results underscore the importance of fetal health especially in developing countries.

  7. Role of energy systems in two intermittent field tests in women field hockey players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Visscher, Susan H.

    2006-01-01

    The energetics of 2 field tests that reflect physical performance in intermittent sports (i.e., the Interval Shuttle Sprint Test [ISST] and the Interval Shuttle Run Test [ISRT]) were examined in 21 women field hockey players. The ISST required the players to perform 10 shuttle sprints starting every

  8. Test-field method for mean-field coefficients with MHD background

    CERN Document Server

    Rheinhardt, M

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The test-field method for computing turbulent transport coefficients from simulations of hydromagnetic flows is extended to the regime with a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) background. Methods: A generalized set of test equations is derived using both the induction equation and a modified momentum equation. By employing an additional set of auxiliary equations, we derive linear equations describing the response of the system to a set of prescribed test fields. Purely magnetic and MHD backgrounds are emulated by applying an electromotive force in the induction equation analogously to the ponderomotive force in the momentum equation. Both forces are chosen to have Roberts flow-like geometry. Results: Examples with an MHD background are studied where the previously used quasi-kinematic test-field method breaks down. In cases with homogeneous mean fields it is shown that the generalized test-field method produces the same results as the imposed-field method, where the field-aligned component of the actual electr...

  9. Toward a model for field-testing patient decision-support technologies : a qualitative field-testing study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, R.; Elwyn, G.; Edwards, A.; Watson, E.; Austoker, J.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Field-testing is a quality assurance criterion in the development of patient decision-support technologies (PDSTs), as identified in the consensus statement of the International Patient Decision Aids Standards Collaboration. We incorporated field-testing into the development of a Web-bas

  10. Operational lessons learned in conducting a multi-country collaboration for vaccine safety signal verification and hypothesis testing: The global vaccine safety multi country collaboration initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillard-Maure, Christine; Elango, Varalakshmi; Black, Steven; Perez-Vilar, Silvia; Castro, Jose Luis; Bravo-Alcántara, Pamela; Molina-León, Helvert Felipe; Weibel, Daniel; Sturkenboom, Miriam; Zuber, Patrick L F

    2017-08-02

    Timely and effective evaluation of vaccine safety signals for newly developed vaccines introduced in low and middle- income countries (LMICs) is essential. The study tested the development of a global network of hospital-based sentinel sites for vaccine safety signal verification and hypothesis testing. Twenty-six sentinel sites in sixteen countries across all WHO regions participated, and 65% of the sites were from LMIC. We describe the process for the establishment and operationalization of such a network and the lessons learned in conducting a multi-country collaborative initiative. 24 out of the 26 sites successfully contributed data for the global analysis using standardised tools and procedures. Our study successfully confirmed the well-known risk estimates for the outcomes of interest. The main challenges faced by investigators were lack of adequate information in the medical records for case ascertainment and classification, and access to immunization data. The results suggest that sentinel hospitals intending to participate in vaccine safety studies strengthen their systems for discharge diagnosis coding, medical records and linkage to vaccination data. Our study confirms that a multi-country hospital-based network initiative for vaccine safety monitoring is feasible and demonstrates the validity and utility of large collaborative international studies to monitor the safety of new vaccines introduced in LMICs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. ROPS performance during field upset and static testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J R; McKenzie, E A; Etherton, J R; Cantis, D M; Ronaghi, M

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture remains one of the most hazardous occupations in the U.S. By conservative estimates, tractor overturns alone claim 120 lives annually. A rollover protective structure (ROPS) and a seatbelt are a highly effective engineering safety control that can prevent many of these fatalities and reduce the severity of injuries associated with tractor overturn. SAE J2194 is a consensus performance standard established for agricultural ROPS. According to this standard, satisfactory ROPS performance can be demonstrated through static testing, field upset testing, or impact testing. A previous modeling study suggested that static testing may underpredict the strain induced in a ROPS during afield upset. In the current study, field upset testing and laboratory static testing results were compared. Field upset testing included six rear and six side upset tests performed according to SAE J2194 guidelines. Additionally, static testing was performed on a ROPS of the same model. The results support findings from the modeling study. Near the lowest sections of the ROPS, the plastic strain resulting from rear upset testing exceeded the plastic strain from static testing for 18 of 24 data points. Conversely, the ROPS plastic strain from side upset testing was typically less than plastic strain from laboratory static testing. However, data indicate that the side upset test may not be very repeatable. This study suggests that the longitudinal loading energy criterion for static testing might not be a conservative predictor of rear upset ROPS response.

  12. Probe Station and Near-Field Scanner for Testing Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Afroz; Lee, Richard Q.; Darby, William G.; Barr, Philip J.; Miranda, Felix A.; Lambert, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    A facility that includes a probe station and a scanning open-ended waveguide probe for measuring near electromagnetic fields has been added to Glenn Research Center's suite of antenna-testing facilities, at a small fraction of the cost of the other facilities. This facility is designed specifically for nondestructive characterization of the radiation patterns of miniaturized microwave antennas fabricated on semiconductor and dielectric wafer substrates, including active antennas that are difficult to test in traditional antenna-testing ranges because of fragility, smallness, or severity of DC-bias or test-fixture requirements. By virtue of the simple fact that a greater fraction of radiated power can be captured in a near-field measurement than in a conventional far-field measurement, this near-field facility is convenient for testing miniaturized antennas with low gains.

  13. Cultural values and random breath tests as moderators of the social influence on drunk driving in 15 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestac, Julien; Kraïem, Sami; Assailly, Jean-Pascal

    2016-02-01

    The social influence on drunk driving has been previously observed in several countries. It is noteworthy, however, that the prevalence of alcohol in road fatalities is not the same in all countries. The present study aimed to explore whether cultural values and the number of roadside breath tests moderate the link between the perceived drunk driving of one's peers and self-reported behavior. Based on the European survey SARTRE 4, the responses of 10,023 car drivers from 15 countries were analyzed. Two cultural values, "tradition" and "conformism," were identified as possibly being linked to social influence. Country scores for these values were taken from the European Social Survey. The number of random roadside breath tests per inhabitant was used as an indicator of drunk-driving enforcement in each country. A hierarchical multilevel modeling analysis confirmed the link between friends' drunk driving and one's own drunk driving in all countries, but the strength of the link was much stronger in some countries (e.g., Italy, Cyprus, and Israel) than in others (e.g., Finland, Estonia, and Sweden). Both the measured value of "tradition" and the number of alcohol breath tests were found to moderate the link between friends' and one's own drunk driving. European stakeholders should take into account cultural specificities of target countries when designing campaigns against drunk driving. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Renewable Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in Nine OECD Countries: Bounds Test Approach and Causality Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hung-Pin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the short-run and long-run causality between renewable energy (RE consumption and economic growth (EG in nine OECD countries from the period between 1982 and 2011. To examine the linkage, this paper uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL bounds testing approach of cointegration test and vector error-correction models to test the causal relationship between variables. The co-integration and causal relationships are found in five countries—United States of America (USA, Japan, Germany, Italy, and United Kingdom (UK. The overall results indicate that (1 a short-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in Italy and UK; (2 long-run unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany, Italy, and UK; (3 a long-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in USA, and Japan; (4 both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany and UK; and (5 Finally, both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from EG to RE in only USA. Further evidence reveals that policies for renewable energy conservation may have no impact on economic growth in France, Denmark, Portugal, and Spain.

  15. [A literature analysis of power frequency electric field testing data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suli; Guo, Zehua; Yu, Xintian; Ding, Yan; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2015-06-01

    To analyze the literature on power frequency electric field testing data and to propose views and suggestions for current testing. The literature on power frequency electric field testing data published in the previous years was searched to identify 306 articles involving 193 valid testing data. Mann-Whitney test and Wilcoxon W test were used for analyzing the testing data. The classification of data was carried out according to one quarter of occupational exposure limit (1.25 kV/m), one half of the exposure limit (2.5 kV/m), and the exposure limit (5 kV/m). The structure of testing data showed a significant difference between the non-power facility group and the power facility group (Pelectric field is extensive. However, the power frequency electric field testing data in actual workplaces except high-voltage power facilities are far less than the occupational exposure limit with little harmfulness. There is a phenomenon of excessive testing at present.

  16. Field-based physiological testing of wheelchair athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L; Leicht, Christof A

    2013-02-01

    The volume of literature on field-based physiological testing of wheelchair sports, such as basketball, rugby and tennis, is considerably smaller when compared with that available for individuals and team athletes in able-bodied (AB) sports. In analogy to the AB literature, it is recognized that performance in wheelchair sports not only relies on fitness, but also sport-specific skills, experience and technical proficiency. However, in contrast to AB sports, two major components contribute towards 'wheeled sports' performance, which are the athlete and the wheelchair. It is the interaction of these two that enable wheelchair propulsion and the sporting movements required within a given sport. Like any other athlete, participants of wheelchair sports are looking for efficient ways to train and/or analyse their technique and fitness to improve their performance. Consequently, laboratory and/or field-based physiological monitoring tools used at regular intervals at key time points throughout the year must be considered to help with training evaluation. The present review examines methods available in the literature to assess wheelchair sports fitness in a field-based environment, with special attention on outcome variables, validity and reliability issues, and non-physiological influences on performance. It also lays out the context of field-based testing by providing details about the Paralympic court sports and the impacts of a disability on sporting performance. Due to the limited availability of specialized equipment for testing wheelchair-dependent participants in the laboratory, the adoption of field-based testing has become the preferred option by team coaches of wheelchair athletes. An obvious advantage of field-based testing is that large groups of athletes can be tested in less time. Furthermore, athletes are tested in their natural environment (using their normal sports wheelchair set-up and floor surface), potentially making the results of such testing

  17. Field Testing Research at the NWTC (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-02-01

    The National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Laboratory (NREL) has extensive field testing capabilities that have been used in collaboration with the wind industry to accelerate wind technology development and deployment for more than 30 years.

  18. Cooperation between developed countries and the Republic of Latvia in the field of energy: globalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oss, A. [State Power Company, Riga (Latvia); Zeltina, L. [Riga Technical University (Latvia); Zeltinsh, N. [Latvian Academy of Sciences, Riga (Latvia). Institute of Physical Energetics

    2003-07-01

    This article presents characteristics of Latvian economics. A detailed analysis is given for the cooperation of Latvia with developed and other countries. Our research is based on the methodology worked out and developed introduced into practice by Professor J. Michna, Chairman of the International Centre for Energy and Environmental Policy (ICEEP) for Central and Eastern Europe Countries, intended for the research 'Cooperation between developed and post-transformation countries (in the scope of energy consumption problems) in relation to research results in the years 1994-1997'. Capital investments in Latvian economics are discussed in a global aspect. (author)

  19. Field tests and commercialization of natural gas leak detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, D.S.; Jeon, J.S.; Kim, K.D.; Cho, Y.A. [R and D Center, Korea Gas Corporation, Ansan (Korea)

    1999-09-01

    Objectives - (1) fields test of industrial gas leak detection monitoring system. (2) commericialization of residential gas leak detector. Contents - (1) five sets of gas leak detection monitoring system were installed at natural gas transmition facilities and tested long term stability and their performance. (2) improved residential gas leak detector was commercialised. Expected benefits and application fields - (1) contribution to the improvement of domestic gas sensor technology. (2) localization of fabrication technology for gas leak detectors. 23 refs., 126 figs., 37 tabs.

  20. Laboratory and field testing for utilization of an excavated soil as landfill liner material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozbey, Ilknur; Guler, Erol

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of using a silty soil excavated in highway construction as landfill liner material. The tests were conducted both at laboratory and in situ scales, and the soil was tested in pure and lime treated forms. Different levels of compaction energy were used. For the field study, a test pad was constructed and in situ hydraulic conductivity experiments were conducted by sealed double ring infiltrometers (SDRI). Laboratory testing revealed that while lime treatment improved the shear strength, it resulted in higher hydraulic conductivity values compared to pure soil. It was observed that leachate permeation did not change the hydraulic conductivity of the pure and lime treated samples. Laboratory hydraulic conductivities were on the order of 10(-9) m/s and met the 1.0E-08 m/s criterion in the Turkish regulations, which is one order of magnitude higher than the value allowed in most developed countries. SDRI testing, which lasted for 6 mo, indicated that lime treatment increased the hydraulic conductivity of pure soil significantly in the field scale tests. In situ hydraulic conductivities were on the order of 1E-08 and 1E-07 m/s, and exceeded the allowable value in the Turkish regulations. Undisturbed samples collected from the test pad were not representative of field hydraulic conductivities. Contrary to laboratory findings, higher compaction efforts did not result in lower hydraulic conductivities in field scales. The study verified the importance of in situ hydraulic conductivity testing in compacted liners.

  1. Testing of a one dimensional model for Field II calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bæk, David; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Willatzen, Morten

    2008-01-01

    to the calibrated Field II program for 1, 4, and 10 cycle excitations. Two parameter sets were applied for modeling, one real valued Pz27 parameter set, manufacturer supplied, and one complex valued parameter set found in literature, Alguer´o et al. [11]. The latter implicitly accounts for attenuation. Results show......Field II is a program for simulating ultrasound transducer fields. It is capable of calculating the emitted and pulse-echoed fields for both pulsed and continuous wave transducers. To make it fully calibrated a model of the transducer’s electro-mechanical impulse response must be included. We...... examine an adapted one dimensional transducer model originally proposed by Willatzen [9] to calibrate Field II. This model is modified to calculate the required impulse responses needed by Field II for a calibrated field pressure and external circuit current calculation. The testing has been performed...

  2. Contrast sensivity in test field with bright surround.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1965-01-01

    A set of curves and two empirical formulas have been derived which represent the contrast sensivity of the human eye when both the test-object and the test-field luminance are considerable lower than the adaption level. Although derived to be used for the lighting of traffic tunnels, the data may be

  3. Field testing of high-efficiency supermarket refrigeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D. (Foster-Miller, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States))

    1992-12-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has undertaken a field test to quantify the performance of high-efficiency supermarket refrigeration. The initial work on this project was presented in EPRI report CU-6268 Supermarket Refrigeration Modeling and Field Demonstration.'' The information given here was generated through continued testing at the field test site. The field test was conducted at a supermarket owned by Safeway Stores, Inc., that was located in Menlo Park, CA. Testing was performed with the existing conventional refrigeration system and a high-efficiency multiplex refrigeration system that was installed for these tests. The results of the testing showed that the high-efficiency multiplex system reduced refrigeration energy consumption by 23.9% and peak electric demand for refrigeration by 30.0%. Analyses of these savings showed that the largest portion was due to the use of high-efficiency compressors (29.5% of total saving). Floating head pressure control, ambient and mechanical subcooling, compressor multiplexing and hot gas defrost accounted for 50% of total savings. The remainder of the savings (20.5%) were attributed to the use of an evaporative condenser. Tests were also conducted with several retrofit technologies. The most promising results were obtained with external liquid-suction heat exchangers installed at the outlets of the display cases. Favorable paybacks were calculated for these exchangers when they were used with very low and low temperature refrigeration.

  4. Differential Gender Performance on the Major Field Test-Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielinska-Kwapisz, Agnieszka; Brown, F. William

    2013-01-01

    The Major Field Test in Business (MFT-B), a standardized assessment test of business knowledge among undergraduate business seniors, is widely used to measure student achievement. Many previous studies analyzing scores on the MFT-B report gender differences on the exam even after controlling for student's aptitude, general intellectual ability,…

  5. HOW AUTOMATED TESTING TOOLS ARE SHOWING ITS IMPACT IN THE FIELD OF SOFTWARE TESTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Gaur

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available As, we know that Software testing is a very vast field inSoftware development life cycle. In this paper, we describethat how automated testing tools are very much convenientand easy to use which also makes testing faster and moreeffective in less time. Actually the world of technologyrevolves at fast pace today and among all Testing tools onlyautomated testing tools makes Software testing moresignificant and effective.

  6. Automated particulate sampler field test model operations guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowyer, S.M.; Miley, H.S.

    1996-10-01

    The Automated Particulate Sampler Field Test Model Operations Guide is a collection of documents which provides a complete picture of the Automated Particulate Sampler (APS) and the Field Test in which it was evaluated. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Automated Particulate Sampler was developed for the purpose of radionuclide particulate monitoring for use under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Its design was directed by anticipated requirements of small size, low power consumption, low noise level, fully automatic operation, and most predominantly the sensitivity requirements of the Conference on Disarmament Working Paper 224 (CDWP224). This guide is intended to serve as both a reference document for the APS and to provide detailed instructions on how to operate the sampler. This document provides a complete description of the APS Field Test Model and all the activity related to its evaluation and progression.

  7. Proficiency Testing of Feed Constituents: A Comparative Evaluation of European and Developing Country Laboratories and Its Implications for Animal Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, H P S; Strnad, I; Mittendorfer, J

    2016-10-06

    Proficiency tests, with two feed samples each year, for various constituents (proximate, macro- and microminerals, feed additives, and amino acids) were conducted in 2014 and 2015. A total of 40 and 50 European and 73 and 63 developing country feed analysis laboratories participated in the study in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The data obtained from these two sets of laboratories in each year enabled a comparison of the performance of the European and developing country laboratories. Higher standard deviation and several-fold higher coefficients of variation were obtained for the developing country laboratories. The coefficients of variation for chemical composition parameters, macrominerals, microminerals, and amino acids were higher by up to 9-fold, 14-fold, 10-fold, and 14-fold, respectively, for the developing country laboratories compared with the European laboratories in 2014, while the corresponding values for 2015 were 4.6-fold, 4.4-fold, 9-fold, and 14-fold higher for developing county laboratories. Also, higher numbers of outliers were observed for developing countries (2014, 7.6-8.7% vs 2.9-3.0%; 2015, 7.7-9.5% vs 4.2-7.0%). The results suggest higher need for developing country feed analysis laboratories to improve the quality of data being generated. The likely impact of higher variability of the data generated in developing countries toward safe and quality preparation of animal diets, their impact on animal productivity, and possible ways to improve the quality of data from developing countries are discussed.

  8. Election turnout statistics in many countries: similarities, differences, and a diffusive field model for decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghesi, Christian; Raynal, Jean-Claude; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe

    2012-01-01

    We study in details the turnout rate statistics for 77 elections in 11 different countries. We show that the empirical results established in a previous paper for French elections appear to hold much more generally. We find in particular that the spatial correlation of turnout rates decay logarithmically with distance in all cases. This result is quantitatively reproduced by a decision model that assumes that each voter makes his mind as a result of three influence terms: one totally idiosyncratic component, one city-specific term with short-ranged fluctuations in space, and one long-ranged correlated field which propagates diffusively in space. A detailed analysis reveals several interesting features: for example, different countries have different degrees of local heterogeneities and seem to be characterized by a different propensity for individuals to conform to the cultural norm. We furthermore find clear signs of herding (i.e., strongly correlated decisions at the individual level) in some countries, but not in others.

  9. Election turnout statistics in many countries: similarities, differences, and a diffusive field model for decision-making

    CERN Document Server

    Borghesi, Christian; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe

    2012-01-01

    We study in details the turnout rate statistics for 77 elections in 11 different countries. We show that the empirical results established in a previous paper for French elections appear to hold much more generally. We find in particular that the spatial correlation of turnout rates decay logarithmically with distance in all cases. This result is quantitatively reproduced by a decision model that assumes that each voter makes his mind as a result of three influence terms: one totally idiosyncratic component, one city-specific term with short-ranged fluctuations in space, and one long-ranged correlated field which propagates diffusively in space. A detailed analysis reveals several interesting features: for example, different countries have different degrees of local heterogeneities and seem to be characterized by a different propensity for individuals to conform to the cultural norm. We furthermore find clear signs of herding (i.e. strongly correlated decisions at the individual level) in some countries, but ...

  10. Electricity consumption-real GDP causality nexus: Evidence from a bootstrapped causality test for 30 OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayan, Paresh Kumar [Department of Accounting, Finance and Economics, Griffith University, Gold Coast (Australia); Prasad, Arti [School of Economics, University of the South Pacific, Suva (Fiji)

    2008-02-15

    The goal of this paper is to examine any causal effects between electricity consumption and real GDP for 30 OECD countries. We use a bootstrapped causality testing approach and unravel evidence in favour of electricity consumption causing real GDP in Australia, Iceland, Italy, the Slovak Republic, the Czech Republic, Korea, Portugal, and the UK. The implication is that electricity conservation policies will negatively impact real GDP in these countries. However, for the rest of the 22 countries our findings suggest that electricity conversation policies will not affect real GDP. (author)

  11. Demand patterns for HIV-tests in general practice: information collected by sentinel networks in 5 European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casteren, V. van; Leurquin, P.; Bartelds, A.; Gurtner, F.; Massari, V.; Maurice-Tison, S.; Vega, A.T.; Mak, R.

    1993-01-01

    This study describes a 1 year international data collection on the demand pattern for HIV-antibody tests in general practice recorded by 6 sentinel networks in 5 European countries. The purpose of the recording was to evaluate the use of HIV-antibody testing by general practitioners and the demand

  12. Rapid diagnostic tests for diagnosing uncomplicated non-falciparum or Plasmodium vivax malaria in endemic countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abba, Katharine; Kirkham, Amanda J; Olliaro, Piero L; Deeks, Jonathan J; Donegan, Sarah; Garner, Paul; Takwoingi, Yemisi

    2014-01-01

    specificities are presented alongside 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Main results We included 47 studies enrolling 22,862 participants. Patient characteristics, sampling methods and reference standard methods were poorly reported in most studies. RDTs detecting 'non-falciparum' parasitaemia Eleven studies evaluated Type 2 tests compared with microscopy, 25 evaluated Type 3 tests, and 11 evaluated Type 4 tests. In meta-analyses, average sensitivities and specificities were 78% (95% CI 73% to 82%) and 99% (95% CI 97% to 99%) for Type 2 tests, 78% (95% CI 69% to 84%) and 99% (95% CI 98% to 99%) for Type 3 tests, and 89% (95% CI 79% to 95%) and 98% (95% CI 97% to 99%) for Type 4 tests, respectively. Type 4 tests were more sensitive than both Type 2 (P = 0.01) and Type 3 tests (P = 0.03). Five studies compared Type 3 tests with PCR; in meta-analysis, the average sensitivity and specificity were 81% (95% CI 72% to 88%) and 99% (95% CI 97% to 99%) respectively. RDTs detecting P.vivax parasitaemia Eight studies compared pLDH tests to microscopy; the average sensitivity and specificity were 95% (95% CI 86% to 99%) and 99% (95% CI 99% to 100%), respectively. Authors' conclusions RDTs designed to detect P. vivax specifically, whether alone or as part of a mixed infection, appear to be more accurate than older tests designed to distinguish P. falciparum malaria from non-falciparum malaria. Compared to microscopy, these tests fail to detect around 5% ofP. vivax cases. This Cochrane Review, in combination with other published information about in vitro test performance and stability in the field, can assist policy-makers to choose between the available RDTs. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY Rapid tests for diagnosing malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax or other less common parasites This review summarises trials evaluating the accuracy of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for diagnosing malaria due to Plasmodium vivax or other non-falciparum species. After searching for relevant studies up to December

  13. Testing of Photomultiplier Tubes in a Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Zachary; A1 Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The A1 collaboration at MAMI in Mainz, Germany has designed a neutron detector that can be used in experiments to measure the electric form factor of the neutron. They will measure elastic scattering from the neutron, using the polarized electron beam from MAMI at A1's experimental hall. The detector will be composed of two walls of staggered scintillator bars which will be read out by photomultiplier tubes (PMT), connected to both ends of each scintillator via light guides. The experiment requires a magnetic field with strength of 1 Tesla, 2m away from the first scintillator wall. The resulting fringe field is sufficient to disrupt the PMTs, despite the addition of Mu Metal shielding. The effects of the fringe field on these PMTs was tested to optimize the amplification of the PMTs. A Helmholtz Coil was designed to generate a controlled magnetic field with equivalent strength to the field that the PMTs will encounter. The PMTs were read out using a multi-channel analyzer, were tested at various angles relative to the magnetic field in order to determine the optimal orientation to minimize signal disruption. Tests were also performed to determine: the neutron detector response to cosmic radiation; and the best method for measuring a magnetic field's strength in two dimensions. National Science Foundation Grant No. IIA-1358175.

  14. The present status of international training and education in nuclear field held in Japan for Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-01

    This report summarizes the training and educational courses for Asian countries carried out in Japan by the related institutions. The 2nd Workshop on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field was held on 27 and 28 of November 2000, based on FNCA (Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia) organized by the Nuclear Energy Commission, and then the following day ''The Present Status of the International Training and Education in Japan for Asian Countries'' was reported for Asian participants on 29, November. This report is the Japanese edition of the handout distributed at the meeting. I believe it can be helpful for the related institutions in Japan to support the human resources development in the nuclear field efficiently and effectively in future. (author)

  15. DOE Field Operations Program EV and HEV Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, James Edward; Slezak, L. A.

    2001-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s (DOE) Field Operations Program tests advanced technology vehicles (ATVs) and disseminates the testing results to provide fleet managers and other potential ATV users with accurate and unbiased information on vehicle performance. The ATVs (including electric, hybrid, and other alternative fuel vehicles) are tested using one or more methods - Baseline Performance Testing (EVAmerica and Pomona Loop), Accelerated Reliability Testing, and Fleet Testing. The Program (http://ev.inel.gov/sop) and its nine industry testing partners have tested over 30 full-size electric vehicle (EV) models and they have accumulated over 4 million miles of EV testing experience since 1994. In conjunction with several original equipment manufacturers, the Program has developed testing procedures for the new classes of hybrid, urban, and neighborhood EVs. The testing of these vehicles started during 2001. The EVS 18 presentation will include (1) EV and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) test results, (2) operating experience with and performance trends of various EV and HEV models, and (3) experience with operating hydrogen-fueled vehicles. Data presented for EVs will include vehicle efficiency (km/kWh), average distance driven per charge, and range testing results. The HEV data will include operating considerations, fuel use rates, and range testing results.

  16. Interim Report of Field Test of Expedient Pavement Repairs (Test Items 1-15).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    OF FIELD TEST OFEXPEDIENT PAVEMENT REPAIRS ( TEST ITEMS 1-15). RAYMONDS.4OLLINGS lWGINE E :AH1 DIVISION .I MARŜ 6 // il) JNTEIM REPUT TiJUL1077...Pavement Repairs ( Test Items 1-15) 6 PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(&) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(&) Raymond S. Rollings 9. PERFORMING...21 Item 14 Test Results .................... 33 22 Density Results, Item 15....................34 23 Summary of Test Items ......................37 24

  17. Field tests-low input, side-wall vented boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litzke, W.L.; Butcher, T.A.; Celebi, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The Fan Atomized Burner (FAB) was developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory as part of the Oil Heat Combustion Equipment Technology Program to provide a practical low-firing rate technology leading to new, high efficiency oil-fired appliances. The development of the burner design and results of application testing have been presented in prior oil heat conferences over the past several years. This information is also summarized in a more comprehensive BNL report. The first field trial of a prototype unit was initiated during the 1994-95 heating season. This paper presents the results of the second year of testing, during the 1995-96 heating season. The field tests enable the demonstration of the reliability and performance of the FAB under practical, typical operating conditions. Another important objective of the field test was to demonstrate that the low input is adequate to satisfy the heating and hot water demands of the household. During the first field trial it was shown that at a maximum input rate of 0.4 gph (55,000 Btu/hr) the burner was able to heat a home with over 2,000 square feet of conditioned living space and provide adequate supply of domestic hot water for a family of six. The test is located in Long Island, NY.

  18. A Comparison of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) in General Population Surveys in nine European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomfield, Kim; Knibbe, Ronald; Derickx, Mieke

    2006-01-01

    Aims: This study explored the suitability of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) for cross-national comparable estimates of problem drinking in general populations. On the item level the focus is on responsiveness to cross-national and gender differences. For the set of items...... the focus is on intercorrelations between items, indicating to what extent the AUDIT constitutes a scale. Methods: General population surveys from nine European countries were included. Cross-tabulations were used to analyse cross-national and gender differences in scores on the items. Reliability analysis......'. The reliability analysis shows that in eight of the nine countries frequency of drinking lowers the alpha. Injury and concern of others lead to a lower internal consistency in three countries. Conclusions: There was sufficient variation between countries in the pattern of responses and variation in gender...

  19. A Comparison of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) in General Population Surveys in nine European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomfield, Kim; Knibbe, Ronald; Derickx, Mieke

    2006-01-01

    Aims: This study explored the suitability of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) for cross-national comparable estimates of problem drinking in general populations. On the item level the focus is on responsiveness to cross-national and gender differences. For the set of items...... the focus is on intercorrelations between items, indicating to what extent the AUDIT constitutes a scale. Methods: General population surveys from nine European countries were included. Cross-tabulations were used to analyse cross-national and gender differences in scores on the items. Reliability analysis......'. The reliability analysis shows that in eight of the nine countries frequency of drinking lowers the alpha. Injury and concern of others lead to a lower internal consistency in three countries. Conclusions: There was sufficient variation between countries in the pattern of responses and variation in gender...

  20. Regulations in the German countries in the field of green public procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, Andreas; Acker, Hendrik [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    The task of the Oeko-Institut e.V. (Freiburg, Federal Republic of Germany) consisted in creating an overview of the regulations currently in force at country level concerning the promotion of green public procurement. The investigation focused on legally binding targets contributing to the green public procurement of goods and services. Of particular interest to the investigation was the question of whether the countries have in the intervening period heeded the call of the Federal government on the procurement of energy-intensive products and services or the joint instruction on the procurement of wood products. The aim of the investigation under consideration was to use the overview to make a contribution to the description of the status quo in green public procurement in Germany and, where applicate, to identify examples of best practice.

  1. U.S. field testing programs and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicks, G.G.

    2000-06-09

    The United States has been active in four major international in-situ or field testing programs over the past two decades, involving the burial of simulated high-level waste forms and package components. These programs are designed to supplement laboratory testing studies in order to obtain the most complete and realistic picture possible of waste glass behavior under realistic repository-relevant conditions.

  2. Sequential accelerated tests: Improving the correlation of accelerated tests to module performance in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Thomas; Gambogi, William; Stika, Katherine; Yu, Bao-Ling; Bradley, Alex; Hu, Hongjie; Garreau-Iles, Lucie; Trout, T. John

    2016-09-01

    DuPont has been working steadily to develop accelerated backsheet tests that correlate with solar panels observations in the field. This report updates efforts in sequential testing. Single exposure tests are more commonly used and can be completed more quickly, and certain tests provide helpful predictions of certain backsheet failure modes. DuPont recommendations for single exposure tests are based on 25-year exposure levels for UV and humidity/temperature, and form a good basis for sequential test development. We recommend a sequential exposure of damp heat followed by UV then repetitions of thermal cycling and UVA. This sequence preserves 25-year exposure levels for humidity/temperature and UV, and correlates well with a large body of field observations. Measurements can be taken at intervals in the test, although the full test runs 10 months. A second, shorter sequential test based on damp heat and thermal cycling tests mechanical durability and correlates with loss of mechanical properties seen in the field. Ongoing work is directed toward shorter sequential tests that preserve good correlation to field data.

  3. Yucca Mountain site characterization: The field testing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.R.; Matthusen, A.C.

    1994-12-31

    The Yucca Mountain area was first considered as a site for possible characterization as a high level waste repository in 1977. Since that time preliminary field testing and Congressional directive recommended continued testing and determined in 1987 that Yucca Mountain would be the only site characterized. Following environmental assessment, the development of a site characterization plan, and litigation with the State of Nevada testing from both surface-based perspective and underground in the Exploratory Studies Facility is underway. Data and analyses from the comprehensive testing program will be evaluated on a periodic basis of two year cycles to provide direction to the testing program. The entire testing program will culminate in a determination of site suitability near the end of the twentieth century.

  4. Test chambers for cell culture in static magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glinka, Marek, E-mail: mag@iq.pl [Research and Development Centre of Electrical Machines. 188 Rozdzienskiego Street, 40-203 Katowice (Poland); Gawron, Stanisław, E-mail: s.gawron@komel.katowice.pl [Research and Development Centre of Electrical Machines. 188 Rozdzienskiego Street, 40-203 Katowice (Poland); Sieroń, Aleksander, E-mail: sieron1@tlen.pl [Department of Internal Diseases, Angiology and Physical Medicine in Bytom. Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. 15 Batorego Street, 41-902 Bytom (Poland); Pawłowska–Góral, Katarzyna, E-mail: kgoral@sum.edu.pl [Department of Food and Nutrition in Sosnowiec. Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. 8 Jednosci Street, 41-200 Sosnowiec (Poland); Cieślar, Grzegorz, E-mail: cieslar1@tlen.pl [Department of Internal Diseases, Angiology and Physical Medicine in Bytom. Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. 15 Batorego Street, 41-902 Bytom (Poland); Sieroń–Stołtny, Karolina [Department of Internal Diseases, Angiology and Physical Medicine in Bytom. Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. 15 Batorego Street, 41-902 Bytom (Poland)

    2013-04-15

    Article presents a test chamber intended to be used for in vitro cell culture in homogenous constant magnetic field with parametrically variable magnitude. We constructed test chambers with constant parameters of control homeostasis of cell culture for the different parameters of static magnetic field. The next step was the computer calculation of 2D and 3D simulation of the static magnetic field distribution in the chamber. The analysis of 2D and 3D calculations of magnetic induction in the cells' exposition plane reveals, in comparison to the detection results, the greater accuracy of 2D calculations (Figs. 9 and 10). The divergence in 2D method was 2–4% and 8 to 10% in 3D method (reaching 10% only out of the cells′ cultures margins). -- Highlights: ► We present test chamber to be used for in vitro cell culture in static magnetic field. ► The technical data of the chamber construction was presented. ► 2D versus 3D simulation of static magnetic field distribution in chamber was reported. ► We report the accuracy of 2D calculation than 3D.

  5. INTERMITTENT VERSUS CONTINUOUS INCREMENTAL FIELD TESTS: ARE MAXIMAL VARIABLES INTERCHANGEABLE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorival J. Carminatti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare physiological responses derived from an incremental progressive field test with a constant speed test i.e. intermittent versus continuous protocol. Two progressive maximum tests (Carminatti`s test (T-CAR and the Vameval test (T-VAM, characterized by increasing speed were used. T-CAR is an intermittent incremental test, performed as shuttle runs; while T-VAM is a continuous incremental test performed on an athletic track. Eighteen physically active, healthy young subjects (21.9 ± 2.0 years; 76.5 ± 8.6 kg, 1.78 ± 0.08 m, 11.2 ± 5.4% body fat, volunteered for this study. Subjects performed four different maximum test sessions conducted in the field: two incremental tests and two time to exhaustion tests (TTE at peak test velocities (PV. No significant differences were found for PV (T-CAR = 15.6 ± 1.2; T-VAM = 15.5 ± 1.3 km·h-1 and maximal HR (T-CAR = 195 ± 11; T- VAM = 194 ± 14 bpm. During TTE, there were no significant differences for HR (TTET-CAR and TTET-VAM = 192 ± 12 bpm. However, there was a significant difference in TTE (p = 0.04 (TTET-CAR = 379 ± 84, TTET-VAM = 338 ± 58 s with a low correlation (r = 0.41. The blood lactate concentration measured at the end of the TTE tests, showed no significant difference (TTET-CAR = 13.2 ± 2.4 vs. TTET-VAM = 12.9 ± 2.4 mmol·l-1. Based on the present findings, it is suggested that the maximal variables derived from T-CAR and T-VAM can be interchangeable in the design of training programs.

  6. The virtual fields method applied to spalling tests on concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierron, F.; Forquin, P.

    2012-08-01

    For one decade spalling techniques based on the use of a metallic Hopkinson bar put in contact with a concrete sample have been widely employed to characterize the dynamic tensile strength of concrete at strain-rates ranging from a few tens to two hundreds of s-1. However, the processing method mainly based on the use of the velocity profile measured on the rear free surface of the sample (Novikov formula) remains quite basic and an identification of the whole softening behaviour of the concrete is out of reach. In the present paper a new processing method is proposed based on the use of the Virtual Fields Method (VFM). First, a digital high speed camera is used to record the pictures of a grid glued on the specimen. Next, full-field measurements are used to obtain the axial displacement field at the surface of the specimen. Finally, a specific virtual field has been defined in the VFM equation to use the acceleration map as an alternative `load cell'. This method applied to three spalling tests allowed to identify Young's modulus during the test. It was shown that this modulus is constant during the initial compressive part of the test and decreases in the tensile part when micro-damage exists. It was also shown that in such a simple inertial test, it was possible to reconstruct average axial stress profiles using only the acceleration data. Then, it was possible to construct local stress-strain curves and derive a tensile strength value.

  7. Global responsibility for our environment. Increased use of renewable energy sources instead of fossil fuels and field test of photovoltaic pump systems for drinking water supply started in 8 Third World countries. Globale Verantwortung fuer unsere Umwelt. Verstaerkter Einsatz erneuerbarer Energien statt fossiler Brennstoffe und Felderprobung photovoltaischer Pumpsysteme fuer die Trinkwasserversorgung in 8 Laendern der Dritten Welt gestartet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1990-05-01

    The increased use of renewable energy sources in place of fossil fuels is an important contribution to ecological energy supply. The energy research program of the federal government of the FRG which has been adopted a few weeks ago is sponsored with about 300 mio. DM annualy with a tendency to rise in the next four years and this emphasizes the importance the German government attaches to the research and development of this technology. This intense engagement - stronger developed as in all other European countries, comparable to the United States and Japan - is effected on the one hand in view of the use of these energy sources in the FRG, but on the other hand particularly with regard to the supply of the constantly increasing energy demand of the Third World and thus by taking the responsibility for the Third World. (orig.).

  8. Intermittent versus Continuous Incremental Field Tests: Are Maximal Variables Interchangeable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carminatti, Lorival J; Possamai, Carlos A P; de Moraes, Marcelo; da Silva, Juliano F; de Lucas, Ricardo D; Dittrich, Naiandra; Guglielmo, Luiz G A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare physiological responses derived from an incremental progressive field test with a constant speed test i.e. intermittent versus continuous protocol. Two progressive maximum tests (Carminatti`s test (T-CAR) and the Vameval test (T-VAM)), characterized by increasing speed were used. T-CAR is an intermittent incremental test, performed as shuttle runs; while T-VAM is a continuous incremental test performed on an athletic track. Eighteen physically active, healthy young subjects (21.9 ± 2.0 years; 76.5 ± 8.6 kg, 1.78 ± 0.08 m, 11.2 ± 5.4% body fat), volunteered for this study. Subjects performed four different maximum test sessions conducted in the field: two incremental tests and two time to exhaustion tests (TTE) at peak test velocities (PV). No significant differences were found for PV (T-CAR = 15.6 ± 1.2; T-VAM = 15.5 ± 1.3 km·h(-1)) and maximal HR (T-CAR = 195 ± 11; T- VAM = 194 ± 14 bpm). During TTE, there were no significant differences for HR (TTET-CAR and TTET-VAM = 192 ± 12 bpm). However, there was a significant difference in TTE (p = 0.04) (TTET-CAR = 379 ± 84, TTET-VAM = 338 ± 58 s) with a low correlation (r = 0.41). The blood lactate concentration measured at the end of the TTE tests, showed no significant difference (TTET-CAR = 13.2 ± 2.4 vs. TTET-VAM = 12.9 ± 2.4 mmol·l(-1)). Based on the present findings, it is suggested that the maximal variables derived from T-CAR and T-VAM can be interchangeable in the design of training programs. Key pointsT-CAR is an intermittent shuttle run test that predicts the maximal aerobic speed with accuracy, hence, test results could be interchangeable with continuous straight-line tests.T-CAR provides valid field data for evaluating aerobic fitness.In comparison with T-VAM, T-CAR may be a more favourable way to prescribe intermittent training using a shuttle-running protocol.

  9. Lorentz breaking Effective Field Theory and observational tests

    CERN Document Server

    Liberati, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Analogue models of gravity have provided an experimentally realizable test field for our ideas on quantum field theory in curved spacetimes but they have also inspired the investigation of possible departures from exact Lorentz invariance at microscopic scales. In this role they have joined, and sometime anticipated, several quantum gravity models characterized by Lorentz breaking phenomenology. A crucial difference between these speculations and other ones associated to quantum gravity scenarios, is the possibility to carry out observational and experimental tests which have nowadays led to a broad range of constraints on departures from Lorentz invariance. We shall review here the effective field theory approach to Lorentz breaking in the matter sector, present the constraints provided by the available observations and finally discuss the implications of the persisting uncertainty on the composition of the ultra high energy cosmic rays for the constraints on the higher order, analogue gravity inspired, Lore...

  10. Acceptance test report: Field test of mixer pump for 241-AN-107 caustic addition project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leshikar, G.A.

    1997-05-16

    The field acceptance test of a 75 HP mixer pump (Hazleton serial number N-20801) installed in Tank 241-AN-107 was conducted from October 1995 thru February 1996. The objectives defined in the acceptance test were successfully met, with two exceptions recorded. The acceptance test encompassed field verification of mixer pump turntable rotation set-up and operation, verification that the pump instrumentation functions within established limits, facilitation of baseline data collection from the mixer pump mounted ultrasonic instrumentation, verification of mixer pump water flush system operation and validation of a procedure for its operation, and several brief test runs (bump) of the mixer pump.

  11. Comparison of two field tests to estimate maximum aerobic speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoin, S; Gerbeaux, M; Turpin, E; Guerrin, F; Lensel-Corbeil, G; Vandendorpe, F

    1994-08-01

    The measurement of maximal aerobic speed (MAS) and the prediction of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) by means of field tests were carried out on 17 students studying physical education. The subjects underwent a continuous multi-stage track test (Léger and Boucher, 1980), shuttle test (Léger et al., 1984) and VO2 max measurement on a treadmill. The VO2 max values estimated using the track test (56.8 +/- 5.8 ml kg-1 min-1) were not significantly different from the values measured in the treadmill test (56.8 +/- 7.1 ml kg-1 min-1), but were higher than those estimated using the shuttle test (51.1 +/- 5.9 ml kg-1 min-1). The maximal nature of the tests was checked by measurement of heart rate and lactate concentration, taken within 2 min post-test. The means of the MAS observed in the track test (15.8 +/- 1.9 km h-1) and in the treadmill test (15.9 +/- 2.6 km h-1) were not significantly different (P > 0.10). The mean of the shuttle test MAS (13.1 +/- 1 km h-1) was significantly lower (P < 0.01) than those of the other tests. However, the MAS of the shuttle test and track test are linked. The equation for linear regression between MAS values in these two tests is MAStrack = 1.81 x MASshuttle -7.86 (r = 0.91), allowing estimation of one of these MAS values when the other is known. Thus these values may be used within diversified training.

  12. The Fourth Gravity Test and Quintessence Matter Field

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Molin; Yu, Fei; Gui, Yuanxing

    2010-01-01

    After the previous work on gravitational frequency shift, light deflection (arXiv:1003.5296) and perihelion advance (arXiv:0812.2332), we calculate carefully the fourth gravity test, i.e. radar echo delay in a central gravity field surrounded by static free quintessence matter, in this paper. Through the Lagrangian method, we find the influence of the quintessence matter on the time delay of null particle is presence by means of an additional integral term. When the quintessence field vanishes, it reduces to the usual Schwarzschild case naturally. Meanwhile, we also use the data of the Viking lander from the Mars and Cassini spacecraft to Saturn to constrain the quintessence field. For the Viking case, the field parameter $\\alpha$ is under the order of $10^{-9}$. However, $\\alpha$ is under $10^{-18}$ for the Cassini case.

  13. The fourth gravity test and quintessence matter field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Molin; Yu, Benhai [Xinyang Normal University, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Xinyang (China); Yu, Fei; Gui, Yuanxing [Dalian University of Technology, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian (China)

    2010-06-15

    After the previous work on gravitational frequency shift, light deflection (Eur. Phys. J. C 59: 107-116, 2009) and perihelion advance (Eur. Phys. J. C 60: 175-179, 2009), we calculate carefully the fourth gravity test, i.e. radar echo delay in a central gravity field surrounded by static free quintessence matter, in this paper. Through the Lagrangian method, we find the influence of the quintessence matter on the time delay of null particle is presence by means of an additional integral term. When the quintessence field vanishes, it reduces to the usual Schwarzschild case naturally. Meanwhile, we also use the data of the Viking lander from the Mars and Cassini spacecraft to Saturn to constrain the quintessence field. For the Viking case, the field parameter {alpha} is under the order of 10{sup -9}. However, {alpha} is under 10{sup -18} for the Cassini case. (orig.)

  14. Test field for airborne laser scanning in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahokas, E.; Kaartinen, H.; Kukko, A.; Litkey, P.

    2014-11-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) is a widely spread operational measurement tool for obtaining 3D coordinates of the ground surface. There is a need for calibrating the ALS system and a test field for ALS was established at the end of 2013. The test field is situated in the city of Lahti, about 100 km to the north of Helsinki. The size of the area is approximately 3.5 km × 3.2 km. Reference data was collected with a mobile laser scanning (MLS) system assembled on a car roof. Some streets were measured both ways and most of them in one driving direction only. The MLS system of the Finnish Geodetic Institute (FGI) consists of a navigation system (NovAtel SPAN GNSS-IMU) and a laser scanner (FARO Focus3D 120). In addition to the MLS measurements more than 800 reference points were measured using a Trimble R8 VRS-GNSS system. Reference points are along the streets, on parking lots, and white pedestrian crossing line corners which can be used as reference targets. The National Land Survey of Finland has already used this test field this spring for calibrating their Leica ALS-70 scanner. Especially it was easier to determine the encoder scale factor parameter using this test field. Accuracy analysis of the MLS points showed that the point height RMSE is 2.8 cm and standard deviation is 2.6 cm. Our purpose is to measure both more MLS data and more reference points in the test field area to get a better spatial coverage. Calibration flight heights are planned to be 1000 m and 2500 m above ground level. A cross pattern, southwest-northeast and northwest-southeast, will be flown both in opposite directions.

  15. Deep Borehole Field Test Research Activities at LBNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, Patrick [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tsang, Chin-Fu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kneafsey, Timothy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Borglin, Sharon [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Piceno, Yvette [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Andersen, Gary [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nakagawa, Seiji [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nihei, Kurt [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Doughty, Christine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Reagan, Matthew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-08-19

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy Used Fuel Disposition’s (UFD) Deep Borehole Field Test is to drill two 5 km large-diameter boreholes: a characterization borehole with a bottom-hole diameter of 8.5 inches and a field test borehole with a bottom-hole diameter of 17 inches. These boreholes will be used to demonstrate the ability to drill such holes in crystalline rocks, effectively characterize the bedrock repository system using geophysical, geochemical, and hydrological techniques, and emplace and retrieve test waste packages. These studies will be used to test the deep borehole disposal concept, which requires a hydrologically isolated environment characterized by low permeability, stable fluid density, reducing fluid chemistry conditions, and an effective borehole seal. During FY16, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientists conducted a number of research studies to support the UFD Deep Borehole Field Test effort. This work included providing supporting data for the Los Alamos National Laboratory geologic framework model for the proposed deep borehole site, conducting an analog study using an extensive suite of geoscience data and samples from a deep (2.5 km) research borehole in Sweden, conducting laboratory experiments and coupled process modeling related to borehole seals, and developing a suite of potential techniques that could be applied to the characterization and monitoring of the deep borehole environment. The results of these studies are presented in this report.

  16. Latex agglutination test for field diagnosis of haemorrhagic septicaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Natalia

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida is bacterial pathogens that cause haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS in cattle and buffaloes. Various tests have been used to differentiate types of P. multocida, as well as to diagnose this specific disease. A latex agglutination test has been developed for the detection of P. multocida B:2 which is the causal agent of HS. This test is a rapid and simple test suitable for local laboratorium to diagnose HS cases in the field. A heat stable antigen consisting of mainly lipopolysaccharide (LPS extract of formalin killed P. multocida 0019 was used to produce specific antibody against P. multocida B:2. The antiboy was then used to sensitise latex particles. Latex agglutination test have been used to screen some P. multocida field isolates and this test have been proven to be specific, simple and easy to be used in detecting P. multocida B:2. The specificity is due to antibodies recognising LPS or LPS protein complexes. Sensitised latex was stable at 4° C for at least12 months. This test should be used as an aid to diagnosis and employed principally to confirm and support clinical and post mortem findings of HS.

  17. Field Tests and Simulation of Lion-Head River Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Min Fang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lion-Head River Bridge is a twin bridge in parallel position. The east-bounded was designed and constructed as a traditional prestress concrete box girder bridge with pot bearings; and the west-bounded was installed with seismic isolation devices of lead rubber bearings. The behavior of the isolated bridge is compared with that of the traditional bridge through several field tests including the ambient vibration test, the force vibration test induced by shakers, the free vibration test induced by a push and fast release system, and the truck test. The bridges suffered from various extents of damage due to the Chi-Chi and the Chi-I earthquakes of great strength during the construction and had been retrofitted. The damage was reflected by the change of the bridges' natural frequencies obtained from the ambient vibration tests. The models of the two bridges are simulated by the finite element method based on the original design drawings. Soil-structure interaction was also scrutinized in this study. The simulation was then modified based on the results from the field tests. Dynamic parameters of bridges are identified and compared with those from theoretical simulation. The efficiency is also verified to be better for an isolated bridge.

  18. The effect of performance feedback on cardiorespiratory fitness field tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsios, G S; Flouris, A D; Koutedakis, Y; Theodorakis, Y

    2006-06-01

    We investigated the effects of performance feedback (PF) on predicting maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) using the 20 m Multistage Shuttle Run Test (MST) and 20 m Square Shuttle Test (SST). The agreement between these two field tests in relation to laboratory VO2 max was also examined. Forty healthy males (age: 21.5+/-2.3; BMI: 23.7+/-2.0) randomly performed four indirect VO2 max tests; that is the MST and SST, as well as a modified version of MST (MSTMD) and SST (SSTMD). During MST and SST subjects received PF with respect to both test stage and running pace. In contrast, MSTMD and SSTMD incorporated auditory feedback which solely emitted signals regulating the running pace. Participants also performed a laboratory VO2 max treadmill test (TT). ANOVA demonstrated significant mean predicted VO2 max decrements in both MSTMD (pmax, the '95% limits of agreement' analysis indicated errors equal to 3.6+/-9.6 and 1.4+/-10.3 ml kg-1 min-1 with coefficients of variation of +/-10.0% and +/-10.9%, for MST and MSTMD, respectively. The corresponding '95% limits of agreement' values for SST and SSTMD were 0.1+/-5.0 and -1.1+/-6.1 ml kg-1 min-1 with coefficients of variation of +/-5.4% and +/-6.7%, respectively. It is concluded that the application of PF leads to superior field testing performances.

  19. Field Testing of a Portable Radiation Detector and Mapping System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, K.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Hayes, D.W.; Eakle, R.F.

    1998-03-01

    Researchers at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have developed a man- portable radiation detector and mapping system (RADMAPS) which integrates the accumulation of radiation information with precise ground locations. RADMAPS provides field personnel with the ability to detect, locate, and characterize nuclear material at a site or facility by analyzing the gamma or neutron spectra and correlating them with position. the man-portable field unit records gamma or neutron count rate information and its location, along with date and time, using an embedded Global Positioning System (GPS). RADMAPS is an advancement in data fusion, integrating several off-the-shelf technologies with new computer software resulting in a system that is simple to deploy and provides information useful to field personnel in an easily understandable form. Decisions on subsequent actions can be made in the field to efficiently use available field resources. The technologies employed in this system include: recording GPS, radiation detection (typically scintillation detectors), pulse height analysis, analog-to-digital converters, removable solid-state (Flash or SRAM) memory cards, Geographic Information System (GIS) software and personal computers with CD-ROM supporting digital base maps. RADMAPS includes several field deployable data acquisition systems designed to simultaneously record radiation and geographic positions. This paper summarizes the capabilities of RADMAPS and some of the results of field tests performed with the system.

  20. Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Test (PEBSFT); Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, A.L. [ed.; Buscheck, T.; Carlson, R.; Daily, W.; Lee, K.; Lin, Wunan; Mao, Nai-hsien; Ueng, Tzou-Shin; Wang, H.; Watwood, D.

    1991-08-01

    This final report represents a summary of data and interpretations obtained from the Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Test (PEBSFT) performed in G-Tunnel within the Nevada Test Site. The PEBSFT was conducted to evaluate the applicability of measurement techniques, numerical models, and procedures developed for future field tests that will be conducted in the Exploratory Studies Facilities (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. The primary objective of the test was to provide a basis for determining whether tests planned for the ESF have the potential to be successful. Chapter 1 on high frequency electromagnetic tomography discusses the rock mass electromagnetic permittivity and attenuation rate changes that were measured to characterize the water distribution in the near field of a simulated waste container. The data are used to obtain quantitative estimates of how the moisture content in the rock mass changes during heating and to infer properties of the spatial variability of water distribution, leading to conclusions about the role of fractures in the system. Chapter 2 discusses the changes in rock moisture content detected by the neutron logging probe. Chapter 3 permeability tests discusses the characterization of the in-situ permeability of the fractured tuff around the borehole. The air permeability testing apparatus, the testing procedures, and the data analysis are presented. Chapter 4 describes the moisture collection system installed in the heater borehole to trap and measure the moisture volumes. Chapter 5 describes relative humidity measurements made with the thermocouple psychrometer and capacitance sensors. Chapter 6 discusses gas pressure measurements in the G-Tunnel, addressing the calibration and installation of piezoresistive-gaged transducers. Chapter 7 describes the calibration and installation of thermocouples for temperature measurements. Chapter 8 discusses the results of the PEBSFT.

  1. Comparison of two aerobic field tests in young tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargeas-Gluck, Marie-Agnès; Léger, Luc A

    2012-11-01

    This study compares the maximal responses of a new aerobic tennis field test, the NAVTEN to a known aerobic field test, often used with young tennis players, that is, the continuous multistage 20-m shuttle run test (20-m SRT). The NAVTEN is an intermittent (1-minute/1-minute) multistage test with side-to-side displacements and ball hitting. Ten young elite tennis players aged 12.9 ± 0.3 (mean ± SD) randomly performed both tests and were continuously monitored for heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2) using the Vmax ST (Sensormedics). The 20-m SRT and NAVTEN show similar HRpeak (202 ± 6.1 vs. 208 ± 9.5, respectively) and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak (54.2 ± 5.9 vs. 54.9 ± 6.0 ml·kg·min). Pearson correlations between both tests were 0.88 and 0.92 for V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak and maximal speed, respectively. The NAVTEN yielded V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak values that are typical for active subjects of that age and are similar to the 20-m SRT supporting its use to measure aerobic fitness of young tennis players in specific and entertaining field conditions. The fact that two-thirds of the tennis players achieved a different ranking (±1 rank) with the NAVTEN and the 20-m SRT suggests that the NAVTEN may be more specific than the 20-m SRT to assess aerobic fitness of tennis players. From a practical point of view, the NAVTEN test is more specific and pedagogical for young tennis players even though both tests yield similar maximal values.

  2. Countries population determination to test rice crisis indicator at national level using k-means cluster analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Y.; Purwandari, T.; Sukono; Ariska, Y. D.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to obtain information on the population of the countries which is have similarities with Indonesia based on three characteristics, that is the democratic atmosphere, rice consumption and purchasing power of rice. It is useful as a reference material for research which tested the strength and predictability of the rice crisis indicators Unprecedented Restlessness (UR). The similarities countries with Indonesia were conducted using multivariate analysis that is non-hierarchical cluster analysis k-Means with 38 countries as the data population. This analysis is done repeatedly until the obtainment number of clusters which is capable to show the differentiator power of the three characteristics and describe the high similarity within clusters. Based on the results, it turns out with 6 clusters can describe the differentiator power of characteristics of formed clusters. However, to answer the purpose of the study, only one cluster which will be taken accordance with the criteria of success for the population of countries that have similarities with Indonesia that cluster contain Indonesia therein, there are countries which is sustain crisis and non-crisis of rice in 2008, and cluster which is have the largest member among them. This criterion is met by cluster 2, which consists of 22 countries, namely Indonesia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Fiji, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, India, Jamaica, Japan, Korea South, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mali, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Suriname.

  3. Five years of gas flaring by country, oil field or flare observed by the Suomi NPP satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhizhin, M. N.; Elvidge, C.; Baugh, K.; Hsu, F. C.

    2016-12-01

    We will present a new methodology and the resulting interactive map and statistical estimates of flared gas volumes in 2012-2016 using multispectral infrared images from VIIRS radiometer at the Suomi NPP satellite. The high temperature gas flares are detected at the night side of the Earth with the Nightfire algorithm. Gas flares are distinct from biomass burning and industrial heat sources because they have higher temperatures. Sums of the radiative heat from the detected flares are calibrated with country-level flared volumes reported by CEDIGAZ. Statistical analysis of the database with accumulated 5 years of the Nightfire detections makes it possible to estimate instant flow rate for an individual flare, as well as integral flared volumes and long term trends for all the countries or oil and gas fields.

  4. Clean birth kits to improve birth practices: development and testing of a country level decision support tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hundley Vanora A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clean birth practices can prevent sepsis, one of the leading causes of both maternal and newborn mortality. Evidence suggests that clean birth kits (CBKs, as part of package that includes education, are associated with a reduction in newborn mortality, omphalitis, and puerperal sepsis. However, questions remain about how best to approach the introduction of CBKs in country. We set out to develop a practical decision support tool for programme managers of public health systems who are considering the potential role of CBKs in their strategy for care at birth. Methods Development and testing of the decision support tool was a three-stage process involving an international expert group and country level testing. Stage 1, the development of the tool was undertaken by the Birth Kit Working Group and involved a review of the evidence, a consensus meeting, drafting of the proposed tool and expert review. In Stage 2 the tool was tested with users through interviews (9 and a focus group, with federal and provincial level decision makers in Pakistan. In Stage 3 the findings from the country level testing were reviewed by the expert group. Results The decision support tool comprised three separate algorithms to guide the policy maker or programme manager through the specific steps required in making the country level decision about whether to use CBKs. The algorithms were supported by a series of questions (that could be administered by interview, focus group or questionnaire to help the decision maker identify the information needed. The country level testing revealed that the decision support tool was easy to follow and helpful in making decisions about the potential role of CBKs. Minor modifications were made and the final algorithms are presented. Conclusion Testing of the tool with users in Pakistan suggests that the tool facilitates discussion and aids decision making. However, testing in other countries is needed to determine

  5. A PILOT STUDY COMPARING TWO FIELD TESTS WITH THE TREADMILL RUN TEST IN SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid Aziz

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the performances obtained during soccer-specific field tests of the 20 m multistage shuttle run test (MST and the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test (YIET, with the measured maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max obtained in both field tests as well as that obtained in the traditional test of running to exhaustion on a treadmill (TRT, in young trained soccer players. Twenty-one National-level youth players performed, in random order, the MST and YIET to determine the relationship between the two field tests. From these, eight randomly chosen players performed their field tests as well as a TRT, equipped with an ambulatory gas exchange measurement device. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis showed that the players' performance (i.e. distance covered in the MST and YIET was correlated (r = 0.65, p 0.05. In contrast, significant correlations were observed between the players' performance in the MST with the measured VO2max obtained in the same MST and in the YIET (both p < 0.05; and attained almost statistical significance with the measured VO2max in the TRT (p = 0.06. The lack of association between distances covered in the YIET with all the measured VO2max values suggest that measured VO2max per se may not be suitable to characterize soccer players' intermittent endurance performance. In comparison with the MST, the YIET may be a more favourable field-based assessment of soccer player's endurance performance

  6. Validation of physiological tests in relation to competitive performances in elite male distance cross-country skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Magnus; Carlsson, Tomas; Hammarström, Daniel; Tiivel, Toomas; Malm, Christer; Tonkonogi, Michail

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to establish which physiological test parameters reflects the distance performances in the Swedish National Championships in cross-country skiing (SNC) and the International Ski Federation's ranking points for distance performances (FISdist). The present study also aimed to create multiple regression models to describe skiing performance for the SNC distance races and International Ski Federation's (FIS) ranking. Twelve male, Swedish, national elite, cross-country skiers (maximal oxygen consumption [·VO₂max] = 5.34 ± 0.34 L·min⁻¹) volunteered to participate in the study. Their results in the 2008 SNC (15 km race [SNC15] and 30 km race [SNC30]) and FISdist points were used as performance data. On the week preceding the Championship, subjects completed a test battery consisting of 7 physiological tests: isokinetic knee extension peak torque (PT), vertical jumps (VJ), lactate threshold (LT), ·VO₂max, and 3 double poling tests of different durations (DP20, DP60, and DP360). Correlations were established using Pearson's correlation analysis, and models to describe skiing performance were created using standard multiple linear regression analysis. Significant correlations were found between the performance parameters and test parameters derived from LT, ·VO₂max, and DP60 tests. No correlations with any performance parameter were found for PT, VJ, DP20, and DP360 tests. For FISdist and SNC15, the models explain 81% and 78% of the variance in performance, respectively. No statistically valid regression model was found for SNC30. The results of this study imply that the physiological demands in male elite distance cross-country skiing performances are different in different events. To adequately evaluate a skier's performance ability in distance cross-country skiing, it is necessary to use test parameters and regression models that reflect the specific performance.

  7. A possible field test for marine cloud brightening geoengineering. A possible field test for marine cloud brightening geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadian, A.; Wood, R.; Coe, H.; Latham, J.

    2011-12-01

    A possible field test for marine cloud brightening geoengineering. Abstract: The Marine Cloud Brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique (Latham et al 2008) hypothesizes that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre seawater particles can enhance the cloud droplet number concentration and increase cloud albedo. Here, we propose a set of field tests to critically assess the efficacy of the MCB geoengineering proposal over a limited area. The tests are de minimus with respect to their climate effects. The tests involve three phases, with increasing logistical complexity, each of which is designed to test one or more important components of the cloud brightening scheme. Each involves the introduction and monitoring of controlled aerosol perturbations from one or more ship-based seeding platforms up to a limited area of 100x100 km2. A suite of observational platforms of increasing number and complexity, including aircraft, ships and satellites, will observe the aerosol plume and in the later experiments the cloud and albedo responses to the aerosol perturbations. These responses must include the necessary cloud physical and chemical processes which determine the efficacy of the cloud brightening scheme. Since these processes are also central to the broader problem of aerosol-cloud-climate interactions, such field tests would have significant benefits for climate science in addition to providing a critical test of the MCB hypothesis. Such field experiments should be designed and conducted in an objective manner within the framework of emerging geoengineering research governance structures. Reference: Latham J. et al.. (2008) Global temperature stabilization via controlled albedo enhancement of low-level maritime clouds. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A doi:10.1098/rsta.2008.0137

  8. Large Field Photogrammetry Techniques in Aircraft and Spacecraft Impact Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Justin D.

    2010-01-01

    The Landing and Impact Research Facility (LandIR) at NASA Langley Research Center is a 240 ft. high A-frame structure which is used for full-scale crash testing of aircraft and rotorcraft vehicles. Because the LandIR provides a unique capability to introduce impact velocities in the forward and vertical directions, it is also serving as the facility for landing tests on full-scale and sub-scale Orion spacecraft mass simulators. Recently, a three-dimensional photogrammetry system was acquired to assist with the gathering of vehicle flight data before, throughout and after the impact. This data provides the basis for the post-test analysis and data reduction. Experimental setups for pendulum swing tests on vehicles having both forward and vertical velocities can extend to 50 x 50 x 50 foot cubes, while weather, vehicle geometry, and other constraints make each experimental setup unique to each test. This paper will discuss the specific calibration techniques for large fields of views, camera and lens selection, data processing, as well as best practice techniques learned from using the large field of view photogrammetry on a multitude of crash and landing test scenarios unique to the LandIR.

  9. The Fourth Gravity Test and Quintessence Matter Field

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Molin; Yu, Benhai; Yu, Fei; Gui, Yuanxing

    2010-01-01

    After the previous work on gravitational frequency shift, light deflection (arXiv:1003.5296) and perihelion advance (arXiv:0812.2332), we calculate carefully the fourth gravity test, i.e. radar echo delay in a central gravity field surrounded by static free quintessence matter, in this paper. Through the Lagrangian method, we find the influence of the quintessence matter on the time delay of null particle is presence by means of an additional integral term. When the quintessence field vanishe...

  10. Overspinning BTZ black holes with test particles and fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düztaş, Koray

    2016-12-01

    It has been claimed that in a test of an asymptotically anti-de Sitter version of weak cosmic censorship conjecture by attempting to overspin a Bañados, Teitelboim, and Zanelli (BTZ) black hole with test particles, one finds that it is not possible to spin up the black hole past its extremal limit. The result of this analysis is restricted to the case where the initial black hole is extremal. We extend this analysis to find that massive test particles can overspin the black hole, if we start with a nearly extremal black hole, instead. We also consider the interaction of the BTZ black hole with test fields. We show that overspinning of nearly extremal black holes is possible whether or not there is super-radiance for the field. If there is super-radiance, overspinning occurs in a narrow range of frequencies bounded below by the super-radiant limit. However, if there is no super-radiance for the field, overspinning becomes generic and also applies to extremal black holes. This is in analogy with the Kerr case.

  11. Convergence tests on tax burden and economic growth among China, Taiwan and the OECD countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, David Han-Min

    2007-07-01

    The unfolding globalization has profound impact on a wide range of nations’ policies including tax and economy policies. This study adopts the time series and cluster analyses to examine the convergence property of tax burden and per capita gross domestic product among Taiwan, China and the OECD countries. The empirical results show that there is no significant relationship between the integration process and fiscal convergence among countries. However, the cluster analyses identify that the group of China, Taiwan, and Korea was stably moving toward one model during the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. And, the convergence of tax burden is found in the group, but no pairwise convergence exists.

  12. Thermie - industrial cooperation with third countries in the energy technology field: operations in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, G. (Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate General for Energy, Energy Technology Unit)

    1993-07-01

    Both the Directorate-General XVII and the network of Organizations for the Promotion of Energy Technologies (OPETs) are pursuing the three main objectives as part of the Associated Measures provided for under the Thermie programme: analysis and assessment of European markets for energy technologies; dissemination of information and results from Thermie projects; and international cooperation with third countries in these areas. The article goes on to explain activities undertaken (1) in China, on coal combustion technologies for electricity generation, and their industrial application; (2) in South Korea, in supporting a seminar on European energy technologies and arranging ventures between European and Korean industrialists and (3) in Thailand in organizing an energy technology workshop for 1993 in Bangkok. It is hoped that Thermie can make European firms (especially small to medium-sized manufacturing and development firms on the energy supply side) more competitive by assisting them in opening up new markets outside the Community.

  13. A practical field guide to conducting nursing research in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBaron, Virginia T; Iribarren, Sarah J; Perri, Seneca; Beck, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to offer practical guidance to nurse investigators interested in international research in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Lessons learned and strategies for planning and implementing an international research project are addressed. Four nurse researchers who conducted studies in diverse international settings (Argentina, India, South Africa, and Tanzania) describe their collective experiences regarding study planning and implementation; data collection using a variety of methods; and cultural, contextual and ethical considerations. Nurses who undertake international health research projects, particularly in LMICs, can face unique challenges and opportunities. Recommendations for success include advance planning, remaining flexible, having a backup plan, cultivating an attitude of curiosity and cultural humility, establishing collaborative and respectful partnerships, and budgeting adequate time. Nurse scientists often receive little training and support to conduct international research. Guidance to undertake research projects in LMICs can build capacity for nurses to make significant contributions to global health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of field reports from anaesthesia volunteers in low- to middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieczynski, Lauren M; Laudanski, Krzysztof; Speck, Rebecca M; McCunn, Maureen

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify key experiences and common motifs of volunteer doctors who have participated in anaesthesia-related volunteer experiences abroad through the Health Volunteers Overseas (HVO) programme. An additional goal was to understand the effects of medical volunteerism in developing countries on the volunteers themselves. After a medical mission with HVO, anaesthesia volunteers submit a post-experience report. Twenty-five reports were randomly selected from the 58 available trip reports, including five from each of the five countries collaborating with HVO. Data in the reports were analysed using a modified grounded theory and constant comparative technique until thematic saturation was achieved. Three major discoveries emerged from the analysis of post-experience reports: (i) anaesthesia residents and attending physicians find their volunteer experiences in the developing world to be personally rewarding and positive; (ii) most participants feel their educational interventions have a positive impact on local students and anaesthesia providers, and (iii) global volunteerism poses challenges, primarily caused by lack of resource availability and communication issues. Our results give new insight into the experiences of and challenges faced by a cohort of HVO-sponsored anaesthesia volunteers while abroad and validates the positive effects these global health experiences have on the volunteers themselves. This group of anaesthesia volunteers was able to further their personal and professional growth, sharpen their physical diagnosis and clinical reasoning skills in resource-poor environments and, most importantly, provide education and promote an exchange of ideas and information. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. SMART wind turbine rotor. Design and field test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Jonathan Charles; Resor, Brian Ray; Paquette, Joshua A.; White, Jonathan Randall

    2014-01-01

    The Wind Energy Technologies department at Sandia National Laboratories has developed and field tested a wind turbine rotor with integrated trailing-edge flaps designed for active control of rotor aerodynamics. The SMART Rotor project was funded by the Wind and Water Power Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and was conducted to demonstrate active rotor control and evaluate simulation tools available for active control research. This report documents the design, fabrication, and testing of the SMART Rotor. This report begins with an overview of active control research at Sandia and the objectives of this project. The SMART blade, based on the DOE / SNL 9-meter CX-100 blade design, is then documented including all modifications necessary to integrate the trailing edge flaps, sensors incorporated into the system, and the fabrication processes that were utilized. Finally the test site and test campaign are described.

  16. Unmarried cohabitation and union stability: testing the role of diffusion using data from 16 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefbroer, A.C.; Dourleijn, E.

    2006-01-01

    Cohabitors and married people who cohabited before marriage have higher risks of union dissolution than people who married without prior cohabitation. However, these differences in union stability vary markedly between countries. We hypothesize that the impact of cohabitation on union stability depe

  17. Field Test of Wake Steering at an Offshore Wind Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Paul; Annoni, Jennifer; Shah, Jigar J.; Wang, Linpeng; Ananthan, Shreyas; Zhang, Zhijun; Hutchings, Kyle; Wang, Peng; Chen, Weiguo; Chen, Lin

    2017-02-06

    In this paper, a field test of wake steering control is presented. The field test is the result of a collaboration between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Envision Energy, a smart energy management company and turbine manufacturer. In the campaign, an array of turbines within an operating commercial offshore wind farm in China have the normal yaw controller modified to implement wake steering according to a yaw control strategy. The strategy was designed using NREL wind farm models, including a computational fluid dynamics model, SOWFA, for understanding wake dynamics and an engineering model, FLORIS, for yaw control optimization. Results indicate that, within the certainty afforded by the data, the wake-steering controller was successful in increasing power capture, by amounts similar to those predicted from the models.

  18. Ecological, psychological, and cognitive components of reading difficulties: testing the component model of reading in fourth graders across 38 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ming Ming; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lin, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The authors tested the component model of reading (CMR) among 186,725 fourth grade students from 38 countries (45 regions) on five continents by analyzing the 2006 Progress in International Reading Literacy Study data using measures of ecological (country, family, school, teacher), psychological, and cognitive components. More than 91% of the differences in student difficulty occurred at the country (61%) and classroom (30%) levels (ecological), with less than 9% at the student level (cognitive and psychological). All three components were negatively associated with reading difficulties: cognitive (student's early literacy skills), ecological (family characteristics [socioeconomic status, number of books at home, and attitudes about reading], school characteristics [school climate and resources]), and psychological (students' attitudes about reading, reading self-concept, and being a girl). These results extend the CMR by demonstrating the importance of multiple levels of factors for reading deficits across diverse cultures.

  19. The virtual fields method applied to spalling tests on concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forquin P.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available For one decade spalling techniques based on the use of a metallic Hopkinson bar put in contact with a concrete sample have been widely employed to characterize the dynamic tensile strength of concrete at strain-rates ranging from a few tens to two hundreds of s−1. However, the processing method mainly based on the use of the velocity profile measured on the rear free surface of the sample (Novikov formula remains quite basic and an identification of the whole softening behaviour of the concrete is out of reach. In the present paper a new processing method is proposed based on the use of the Virtual Fields Method (VFM. First, a digital high speed camera is used to record the pictures of a grid glued on the specimen. Next, full-field measurements are used to obtain the axial displacement field at the surface of the specimen. Finally, a specific virtual field has been defined in the VFM equation to use the acceleration map as an alternative ‘load cell’. This method applied to three spalling tests allowed to identify Young’s modulus during the test. It was shown that this modulus is constant during the initial compressive part of the test and decreases in the tensile part when micro-damage exists. It was also shown that in such a simple inertial test, it was possible to reconstruct average axial stress profiles using only the acceleration data. Then, it was possible to construct local stress-strain curves and derive a tensile strength value.

  20. Field-testing UV disinfection of drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadgil, A.; Drescher, A.; Greene, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Miller, P. [Natural Resources Defense Council (United States); Motau, C. [South African Center for Essential Community Services (South Africa); Stevens, F. [Durban Metro Water (South Africa)

    1997-09-01

    A recently invented device, ``UV Waterworks,`` uses ultraviolet (UV) light to disinfect drinking water. Its novel features are: low cost, robust design, rapid disinfection, low electricity use, low maintenance, high flow rate and ability to work with unpressurized water sources. The device could service a community of 1,000 persons, at an annual total cost of less than 10 US cents per person. UV Waterworks has been successfully tested in the laboratory. Limited field trials of an early version of the device were conducted in India in 1994--95. Insights from these trials led to the present design. Extended field trials of UV Waterworks, initiated in South Africa in February 1997, will be coordinated by the South African Center for Essential Community Services (SACECS), with technical and organizational support from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory(LBNL) and the Natural Resources Defense Council (both US). The first of the eight planned sites of the year long trial is an AIDS hospice near Durban. Durban metro Water and LBNL lab-tested a UV Waterworks unit prior to installing it at the hospice in August, 1997. The authors describe the field test plans and preliminary results from Durban.

  1. Election turnout statistics in many countries: similarities, differences, and a diffusive field model for decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Borghesi

    Full Text Available We study in details the turnout rate statistics for 77 elections in 11 different countries. We show that the empirical results established in a previous paper for French elections appear to hold much more generally. We find in particular that the spatial correlation of turnout rates decay logarithmically with distance in all cases. This result is quantitatively reproduced by a decision model that assumes that each voter makes his mind as a result of three influence terms: one totally idiosyncratic component, one city-specific term with short-ranged fluctuations in space, and one long-ranged correlated field which propagates diffusively in space. A detailed analysis reveals several interesting features: for example, different countries have different degrees of local heterogeneities and seem to be characterized by a different propensity for individuals to conform to the cultural norm. We furthermore find clear signs of herding (i.e., strongly correlated decisions at the individual level in some countries, but not in others.

  2. Nitrogen Exchanges: Testing the Hypothesis of a Country without Agricultural Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-F. Slak

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, finding data on agricultural nitrogen balances is quite easy. Calculations of such balances are carried out by most of the European countries as an indicator of environmental pollution attributable to the agricultural sector. In France, average values of agricultural nitrogen balances show an excess of 1.5 to 2 million tons of nitrogen. This excess is enormous. What would the balance of a country be if agricultural activity were stopped? In the following article, a country (France is used as an example without agriculture is studied in order to assess its nitrogen balance. Using a previously published model describing nitrogen input and output of a given country, nitrogen flows are identified. Inputs include deposition, fixation, and products not intended for agricultural use. Outputs are reduced to zero if agriculture disappears (in France, agriculture is the only sector exporting products containing nitrogen. All flows are calculated considering the hypothesis of disappearance of agriculture. Nitrogen requirements to feed people and pets in France are estimated based on medical and veterinary data (recommended daily amounts for proteins and/or usual average consumption. Indeed, most of the food that nourishes the French population is produced nationally. If agriculture stops, it will be necessary to import food from foreign countries. Results show an unexpectedly high excess (for a country without agriculture having a structure similar to France: number of human beings and pets of 1.5 million tons of nitrogen. An attempt to calculate an agricultural balance with the same data gives a result close to 3 million tons. Differences in French agricultural balances found in the literature can mainly be explained by values taken into account for deposition and fixation (values used here are at least 300,000 tons higher than values used by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. In conclusion, nitrogen excess in agriculture

  3. Deep Borehole Field Test Requirements and Controlled Assumptions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This document presents design requirements and controlled assumptions intended for use in the engineering development and testing of: 1) prototype packages for radioactive waste disposal in deep boreholes; 2) a waste package surface handling system; and 3) a subsurface system for emplacing and retrieving packages in deep boreholes. Engineering development and testing is being performed as part of the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT; SNL 2014a). This document presents parallel sets of requirements for a waste disposal system and for the DBFT, showing the close relationship. In addition to design, it will also inform planning for drilling, construction, and scientific characterization activities for the DBFT. The information presented here follows typical preparations for engineering design. It includes functional and operating requirements for handling and emplacement/retrieval equipment, waste package design and emplacement requirements, borehole construction requirements, sealing requirements, and performance criteria. Assumptions are included where they could impact engineering design. Design solutions are avoided in the requirements discussion. Deep Borehole Field Test Requirements and Controlled Assumptions July 21, 2015 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This set of requirements and assumptions has benefited greatly from reviews by Gordon Appel, Geoff Freeze, Kris Kuhlman, Bob MacKinnon, Steve Pye, David Sassani, Dave Sevougian, and Jiann Su.

  4. Estimation of Emissions from Sugarcane Field Burning in Thailand Using Bottom-Up Country-Specific Activity Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilaiwan Sornpoon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Open burning in sugarcane fields is recognized as a major source of air pollution. However, the assessment of its emission intensity in many regions of the world still lacks information, especially regarding country-specific activity data including biomass fuel load and combustion factor. A site survey was conducted covering 13 sugarcane plantations subject to different farm management practices and climatic conditions. The results showed that pre-harvest and post-harvest burnings are the two main practices followed in Thailand. In 2012, the total production of sugarcane biomass fuel, i.e., dead, dry and fresh leaves, amounted to 10.15 million tonnes, which is equivalent to a fuel density of 0.79 kg∙m−2. The average combustion factor for the pre-harvest and post-harvest burning systems was determined to be 0.64 and 0.83, respectively. Emissions from sugarcane field burning were estimated using the bottom-up country-specific values from the site survey of this study and the results compared with those obtained using default values from the 2006 IPCC Guidelines. The comparison showed that the use of default values lead to underestimating the overall emissions by up to 30% as emissions from post-harvest burning are not accounted for, but it is the second most common practice followed in Thailand.

  5. Simple and rapid field tests for brucellosis in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoel, Theresia; Dias, Isabel Travassos; Cardoso, Regina; Smits, Henk L

    2008-08-25

    Four simple and rapid field tests for the serodiagnosis of brucellosis in cattle, goat, sheep and swine were developed. The performance of the assays was investigated using serum samples collected in Portugal from animals originating from herds with a defined sanitary status with respect to the presence of brucellosis. The sensitivity calculated for the bovine, caprine, ovine and swine Brucella lateral flow assays based on results obtained for samples collected from animals with culture confirmed brucellosis was 90%, 100%, 90% and 73%, respectively. None of the samples from animals from herds free of brucellosis reacted in the flow assays indicating a high specificity. However, as expected, some degree of reactivity was observed when testing selected serum samples that reacted non-specific in reference tests for brucellosis.

  6. Field Testing of a 1/100th Scale Starshade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casement, L. S.; Glassman, T. M.; Lo, A.; Warwick, S.; Armagan, O.

    2013-01-01

    The external starshade is a prospective method for the direct detection and spectral characterization of terrestrial planets around other stars, a key goal identified in ASTRO2010. Validation of this approach has been challenging at ~1/1000th scale in the lab (Samuele et al., 2010). Recently we have successfully fabricated 60 cm 1/100th scale) starshades and have begun a series of ground test experiments with them. Our first experiment, limited by city lights and a short (300 m) baseline between the telescope and the starshade, showed excellent light suppression of >106. We enhanced our experimental setup to provide longer baselines and reduced aperture size to provide a closer match to the Fresnel number expected for the flight system. We took our test equipment into the field for a test in November 2012, the results of which are presented here.

  7. Testing strong-field CED and QED with intense laser fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piazza, Antonino di; Hatsagortsyan, Karen Z.; King, Ben; Keitel, Christoph H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Strong laser fields can be employed to test classical and quantum electrodynamics (CED and QED, respectively) under extreme conditions. A fundamental problem in electrodynamics is the ''radiation reaction'' problem: classically, an accelerated electron emits radiation and this emission alters the motion of the electron itself. The Landau-Lifshitz equation consistently describes the electron's motion in an external field by including radiation reaction. We explore a new scenario in which this equation can be in principle tested experimentally for the first time and with presently available laser technology. We will also briefly address quantum vacuum polarization effects. We demonstrate the possibility of observing electron-positron pair production in laser and nuclear fields, by controlling the tunneling barrier through the assistance of an additional high-energy photon. Finally, by exploiting the quantum interaction among real photon in vacuum, we propose a double-slit-like experiment devoid of any material parts.

  8. Field Test of Expedient Pavement Repairs (Test Items 16-35).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    7 AD-AlG 903 A IR FORCE ENGINEERING AND SERVICES CENTER TYNDALL AF--ETC FG 13/2 FIELD TEST OF EXPEDIENT PAVEMENT REPAIRS ( TEST ITEMS 16-35).(U...PAVEMENT REPAIRS ~( TEST ITEMS 16-35) MICHAEL T. McNERNEY ENGINEERING RESEARCH DIVISION NOVEMBER 1980 ’ FINAL REPORT JULY 1978 - SEPTEMBER 1979 APPROVED FOR...EXPEDIENT PAVEMENT REPAIRS Final Reportg- July 1978- ( TEST ITEMS 16-35), Segtr W79 7. "AUTHOR(s) 8 CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) Michael T./lcNernev, P

  9. Field assessments in conjunction with whole effluent toxicity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Point, T.W.; Waller, W.T.

    2000-01-01

    Whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests are widely used to assess potential effects of wastewater discharges on aquatic life. This paper represents a summary of chapters in a 1996 Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry-sponsored workshop and a literature review concerning linkages between WET testing and associated field biomonitoring. Most published studies thus far focus primarily on benthic macroinvertebrates and on effluent-dominated stream systems in which effluents demonstrate little or no significant acute toxicity. Fewer studies examine WET test predictability in other aquatic ecosystems (e.g., wetlands, estuaries, large rivers) or deal with instream biota such as fish and primary producers. Published results indicate that standards for the usual WET freshwater test species, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas, may not always protect most of the species inhabiting a receiving stream. Although WET tests are useful in predicting aquatic individual responses, they are not meant to directly measure natural population or community responses. Further, they do not address bioconcentration or bioaccumulation of hydrophobic compounds; do not assess eutrophication effects in receiving systems; and lastly, do not reflect genotoxic effects or function to test for endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Consequently, a more direct evaluation of ecosystem health, using bioassessment techniques, may be needed to properly evaluate aquatic systems affected by wastewater discharges.

  10. High temperature superconducting axial field magnetic coupler: realization and test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belguerras, L.; Mezani, S.; Lubin, T.; Lévêque, J.; Rezzoug, A.

    2015-09-01

    Contactless torque transmission through a large airgap is required in some industrial applications in which hermetic isolation is necessary. This torque transmission usually uses magnetic couplers, whose dimension strongly depends on the airgap flux density. The use of high temperature superconducting (HTS) coils to create a strong magnetic field may constitute a solution to reduce the size of the coupler. It is also possible to use this coupler to replace a torque tube in transmitting the torque produced by a HTS motor to its load. This paper presents the detailed construction and tests of an axial field HTS magnetic coupler. Pancake coils have been manufactured from BSCCO tape and used in one rotor of the coupler. The second rotor is mainly composed of NdFeB permanent magnets. Several tests have been carried out showing that the constructed coupler is working properly. A 3D finite element (FE) model of the studied coupler has been developed. Airgap magnetic field and torque measurements have been carried out and compared to the FE results. It has been shown that the measured and the computed quantities are in satisfactory agreement.

  11. Field Measurements and Pullout Tests of Reinforced Earth Retaining Wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈群; 何昌荣; 朱分清

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, field measurements and pullout tests of a new type of reinforced earth retaining wall, which is reinforced by trapezoid concrete blocks connected by steel bar, are described. Field measurements included settlements of the earth fill, tensile forces in the ties and earth pressures on the facing panels during the construction and at completion. Based on the measurements, the following statements can be made: ( 1 ) the tensile forces in the ties increased with the height of backfill above the tie and there is a tensile force crest in most ties; (2) at completion, the measured earth pressures along the wall face were between the values of the active earth pressures and the pressures at rest; (3) larger settlements occurred near the face of the wall where a zone of drainage sand and gravel was not compacted properly and smaller settlements occurred in the well-compacted backfill. The results of field pullout tests indicated that the magnitudes of pullout resistances as well as tensile forces induced in the ties were strongly influenced by the relative displacements between the ties and the backfill, and pullout resistances increased with the height of backfill above the ties and the length of ties.

  12. Prediction of performance in Vasaloppet through long lasting ski- ergometer and rollerski tests in cross-country skiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Erik; Wulff, Kristian; Jensen, Mads Rosenkilde;

    2015-01-01

    and completed Vasaloppet. All skiers carried out pre and post training tests in a 90 minutes ski-ergometer double poling test and a 120 minutes rollerski field test on a closed paved circuit. 19 skiers provided detailed training logs that could sufficiently establish their training preparation for Vasaloppet....... Racing time in Vasaloppet correlated negatively with average work output (W/kg) at the pre ski-ergometer test (Figure 3A) (n = 24; r = -0.79; P ski performance was positively associated with ergometer performance. Likewise, a similar correlation was obtained after the 16 week training...... period between average post-test work output in the ski-ergometer and performance in Vasaloppet (n = 24; r = -0.76; P ski-ergometer tests. Pre-field-test time performance on rollerskies as measured...

  13. Relation of field independence and test-item format to student performance on written piagetian tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ló; Pez-Rupérez, F.; Palacios, C.; Sanchez, J.

    In this study we have investigated the relationship between the field-dependence-independence (FDI) dimension as measured by the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) and subject performance on the Longeot test, a pencil-and-paper Piagetian test, through the open or closed format of its items. The sample consisted of 141 high school students. Correlation and variance analysis show that the FDI dimension and GEFT correlate significantly on only those items on the Longeot test that require formal reasoning. The effect of open- or closed-item format is found exclusively for formal items; only the open format discriminates significantly (at the 0.01 level) between the field-dependent and -independent subjects performing on this type of item. Some implications of these results for science education are discussed.

  14. Field tests of 2- and 40-tube condensers at the East Mesa Geothermal Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, R.W.; Domingo, N.

    1982-05-01

    Two water-cooled isobutane condensers, one with 2 tubes and one with 40 tubes, were subjected to field tests at the East Mesa Geothermal Test Site to assess relative heat transfer performance in both surface evaporator and direct-contact evaporator modes. The five groups of tests established that field performance was below earlier laboratory-determined levels and that direct-contact evaporator mode performance was poorer than that for the surface evaporator mode. In all test situations, fluted condenser tubes performed better than smooth condenser tubes. Cooling water quality had no significant effect on performance, but brine preflash in the direct-contact mode did promote some relative performance improvement. Important implications of these results for binary geothermal power plants are that (1) working-fluid-side impurities can significantly degrade heat transfer performance of the power plant condensers and (2) provisions for minimizing such impurities may be required.

  15. TEST OF AN ANIMAL DRAWN FIELD IMPLEMENT CART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Spugnoli

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The field performance of a horse-drawn hitch cart equipped with a PTO system powered by the two cart ground wheels have been investigated. For this purpose field tests on clay and turf soil, with varying ballast and PTO torque, have been carried out pulling the cart by a tractor. Preliminary tests were aimed at assessing the traction capability of horse breed. These tests showed that the mean draught force given by two of these horses was 173daN, average working speed was about 1m*s-1, resulting a mean draught power developed by each horse of about 0.86kW. The PTO cart system performance has shown that the torque has not exceeded 2.4daN*m, maximum draught or PTO power was 1.15kW, rotation speed just higher than 400min-1, with mean efficiency of about 50%. These values are consistent with horse performance and small haymaking, fertilizing, seeding and chemical application machine requirements.

  16. Validity of purchasing power parity for selected Latin American countries: Linear and non-linear unit root tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Roberto Fóffano Vasconcelos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine empirically the validity of PPP in the context of unit root tests based on linear and non-linear models of the real effective exchange rate of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. For this purpose, we apply the Harvey et al. (2008 linearity test and the non-linear unit root test (Kruse, 2011. The results show that the series with linear characteristics are Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Peru and those with non-linear characteristics are Mexico and Venezuela. The linear unit root tests indicate that the real effective exchange rate is stationary for Chile and Peru, and the non-linear unit root tests evidence that Mexico is stationary. In the period analyzed, the results show support for the validity of PPP in only three of the seven countries.

  17. Detailed field test of yaw-based wake steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, P.; Churchfield, M.; Scholbrock, A.; Clifton, A.; Schreck, S.; Johnson, K.; Wright, A.; Gebraad, P.; Annoni, J.; Naughton, B.; Berg, J.; Herges, T.; White, J.; Mikkelsen, T.; Sjöholm, M.; Angelou, N.

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes a detailed field-test campaign to investigate yaw-based wake steering. In yaw-based wake steering, an upstream turbine intentionally misaligns its yaw with respect to the inflow to deflect its wake away from a downstream turbine, with the goal of increasing total power production. In the first phase, a nacelle-mounted scanning lidar was used to verify wake deflection of a misaligned turbine and calibrate wake deflection models. In the second phase, these models were used within a yaw controller to achieve a desired wake deflection. This paper details the experimental design and setup. All data collected as part of this field experiment will be archived and made available to the public via the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmosphere to Electrons Data Archive and Portal.

  18. Fault detection by surface seismic scanning tunneling macroscope: Field test

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2014-08-05

    The seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) is proposed for detecting the presence of near-surface impedance anomalies and faults. Results with synthetic data are consistent with theory in that scatterers closer to the surface provide brighter SSTM profiles than those that are deeper. The SSTM profiles show superresolution detection if the scatterers are in the near-field region of the recording line. The field data tests near Gulf of Aqaba, Haql, KSA clearly show the presence of the observable fault scarp, and identify the subsurface presence of the hidden faults indicated in the tomograms. Superresolution detection of the fault is achieved, even when the 35 Hz data are lowpass filtered to the 5-10 Hz band.

  19. Field Test of the World Health Organization Multi-Professional Patient Safety Curriculum Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Donna; Zheng, Hao; Rousi, Eirini; Leotsakos, Agnès

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although the importance of training in patient safety has been acknowledged for over a decade, it remains under-utilized and under-valued in most countries. WHO developed the Multi-professional Patient Safety Curriculum Guide to provide schools with the requirements and tools for incorporating patient safety in education. It was field tested with 12 participating schools across the six WHO regions, to assess its effectiveness for teaching patient safety to undergraduate and graduate students in a global variety of settings. Methods The evaluation used a combined prospective/retrospective design to generate formative information on the experiences of working with the Guide and summative information on the impacts of the Guide. Using stakeholder interviews and student surveys, data were gathered from each participating school at three times: the start of the field test (baseline), soon after each school started teaching, and soon after each school finished teaching. Results Stakeholders interviewed were strongly positive about the Guide, noting that it emphasized universally important patient safety topics, was culturally appropriate for their countries, and gave credibility and created a focus on patient safety at their schools. Student perceptions and attitudes regarding patient safety improved substantially during the field test, and their knowledge of the topics they were taught doubled, from 10.7% to 20.8% of correct answers on the student survey. Discussion This evaluation documented the effectiveness of the Curriculum Guide, for both ease of use by schools and its impacts on improving the patient safety knowledge of healthcare students. WHO should be well positioned to refine the contents of the Guide and move forward in encouraging broader use of the Guide globally for teaching patient safety. PMID:26406893

  20. Field Test of the World Health Organization Multi-Professional Patient Safety Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Donna; Zheng, Hao; Rousi, Eirini; Leotsakos, Agnès

    2015-01-01

    Although the importance of training in patient safety has been acknowledged for over a decade, it remains under-utilized and under-valued in most countries. WHO developed the Multi-professional Patient Safety Curriculum Guide to provide schools with the requirements and tools for incorporating patient safety in education. It was field tested with 12 participating schools across the six WHO regions, to assess its effectiveness for teaching patient safety to undergraduate and graduate students in a global variety of settings. The evaluation used a combined prospective/retrospective design to generate formative information on the experiences of working with the Guide and summative information on the impacts of the Guide. Using stakeholder interviews and student surveys, data were gathered from each participating school at three times: the start of the field test (baseline), soon after each school started teaching, and soon after each school finished teaching. Stakeholders interviewed were strongly positive about the Guide, noting that it emphasized universally important patient safety topics, was culturally appropriate for their countries, and gave credibility and created a focus on patient safety at their schools. Student perceptions and attitudes regarding patient safety improved substantially during the field test, and their knowledge of the topics they were taught doubled, from 10.7% to 20.8% of correct answers on the student survey. This evaluation documented the effectiveness of the Curriculum Guide, for both ease of use by schools and its impacts on improving the patient safety knowledge of healthcare students. WHO should be well positioned to refine the contents of the Guide and move forward in encouraging broader use of the Guide globally for teaching patient safety.

  1. Test plan for FY-94 digface characterization field experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josten, N.E.; Roybal, L.G.

    1994-08-01

    The digface characterization concept has been under development at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) since fiscal year (FY) 1992 through the support of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program. A digface characterization system conducts continuous subsurface characterization simultaneously with retrieval of hazardous and radioactive waste from buried waste sites. The system deploys multiple sensors at the retrieval operation digface and collects data that provide a basis for detecting, locating, and classifying buried materials and hazardous conditions before they are disturbed by the retrieval equipment. This test plan describes ongoing efforts to test the digface characterization concept at the INEL`s Cold Test Pit using a simplified prototype deployment apparatus and off-the-shelf sensors. FY-94 field experiments will explore problems in object detection and classification. Detection and classification of objects are fundamental to three of the four primary functions of digface characterization during overburden removal. This test plan establishes procedures for collecting and validating the digface characterization data sets. Analysis of these data will focus on testing and further developing analysis methods for object detection and classification during overburden removal.

  2. Validity of Selected Lab and Field Tests of Physical Working Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Edmund J.

    The validity of selected lab and field tests of physical working capacity was investigated. Forty-four male college students were administered a series of lab and field tests of physical working capacity. Lab tests include a test of maximum oxygen uptake, the PWC 170 test, the Harvard Step Test, the Progressive Pulse Ratio Test, Margaria Test of…

  3. Sustainability of smallholder tea production in developing countries: Learning experiences from farmer field schools in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Onduru

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A study to determine the impacts of farmers field schools (FFS on smallholders’ adoption of good agricultural practices in tea and to assess sustainability of smallholder tea production was conducted in the highlands of Kenya. Input-output data on tea management and on sustainability indicators (score 0-10 were collected from a sample of 120 FFS participants at the beginning of the study and from 60 randomly selected FFS participants and a comparison group of 60 non-FFS participants at the end of the study, 18 months later. The study showed that the smallholder tea systems are moving towards social sustainability and economic returns were positive. Sustainability indicator scores, for FFS members, increased by 4% from the base period. The FFS participants also attained a significantly higher level of farm sustainability, knowledge gains on good agricultural practices (GAP and higher yields and farm and tea income than their non-FFS counterparts. These findings indicate that FFS methodology had a positive contribution to enhancing farmer learning and adoption of good agricultural practices in tea and improved farmers’ livelihoods.

  4. Preliminary operational results of the industrial process heat field tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.; Davenport, R.

    1980-04-01

    There are currently six DOE-funded solar industrial process heat (IPH) field tests which have been operational for one year or longer. These are all low temperature first generation projects which supply heat at temperatures below 100/sup 0/C - three hot water and three hot air. During the 1979 calendar year, personnel from the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) visited all of these sites; the performance and cost results obtained for each project and the operational problems encountered at each site are discussed.

  5. Pulsed mixed n, {gamma} radiation fields for electronic testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurdin, G.; Becret, C.; Jaureguy, J.C. [Etablissement Technique Central de l`Armement (ETCA), 94 - Arcueil (France); Vie, M.; Baboulet, J.P.; Lapeyre, P.; Ramisse, D. [D.G.A., 46 - Gramat (France)

    1994-12-31

    For combined n, {gamma} TREE testing we have modified the CALIBAN Fast Burst Reactor Field with CdO/Epoxy converters to cover the range [10{sup 11} -10{sup 12}] n.cm{sup -2} (1 MeV Si), [10{sup 7} - 10{sup 8}] cGy(Si).s{sup -1}. Activation and fission {sigma} {phi}vector, 1 MeV(Si) fluences, neutron spectra, total exposures and dose rates were predicted with good agreement by n, {gamma} photon transport codes. (author). 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Detailed field test of yaw-based wake steering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, P.; Churchfield, M.; Scholbrock, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a detailed field-test campaign to investigate yaw-based wake steering. In yaw-based wake steering, an upstream turbine intentionally misaligns its yaw with respect to the inflow to deflect its wake away from a downstream turbine, with the goal of increasing total power...... production. In the first phase, a nacelle-mounted scanning lidar was used to verify wake deflection of a misaligned turbine and calibrate wake deflection models. In the second phase, these models were used within a yaw controller to achieve a desired wake deflection. This paper details the experimental...

  7. University of Minnesota Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Field Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, M.; Hoyer, M. C.

    1982-12-01

    The University of Minnesota Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) Field Test Facility became operational. Experiments demonstrated that the Franconia-Ironton-Galesville aquifer will accept injection of 300 gpm (18.9 1 sec (-1)) at reasonable pressures with a heat buildup in the injection well of about 44 psi (31.6 m) over 8 days. Heating of the ground water caused precipitation of carbonate in the piping and injection well, but with proper water conditioning, the system will work satisfactorily at elevated temperatures.

  8. Field Test: Results from the One Year Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, M. F.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Kofman, I. S.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Rosenberg, M. J. F.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Stenger, M. B.; Lee, S. M. C.; Laurie, S. S.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Fomina, E. V.; Wood, S. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Feiveson, A. H.; Fisher, E. A.; Phillips, T.; Ribeiro, C.; Taylor, L. C.; Miller, C. A.; Gadd, N. E.; Peters, B. T.; Kitov, V. V.; Lysova, N. Yu; Holden, K. L.; De Dios, Y.

    2017-01-01

    The One Year Mission was designed to aid in determining the effect that extending the duration on orbit aboard the International Space Station (ISS) would have on a number of biological and physiological systems. Two crewmembers were selected to participate in this endeavor, one U.S. On-Orbit Segment (USOS) astronaut and one Russian cosmonaut. The Neuroscience and Cardiovascular and Vision Laboratories at the Johnson Space Center and the Sensory-Motor and Countermeasures Division within the Institute for Biomedical Problems were selected to investigate vestibular, sensorimotor and cardiovascular function with the two long-duration crewmembers using the established methodology developed for the Field Test (FT).

  9. Air Pollution and Economic Growth in MENA Countries: Testing EKC Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Al-Rawashdeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC hypothesis is one of the models describing the relationship between economic growth and environmental quality. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between economic growth and the two environmental indicators (SO2 emissions, SO2 emissions in 22 Middle East and North Africa (MENA countries. Based on a country level analysis and by using time series data, the study revealed that there is an evidence for SO2 - EKC for Algeria, Tunisia, Yemen, Morocco, Turkey and Libya. Our findings for CO2 emissions also support an inverted U-shape pattern associated with the EKC hypothesis for Tunisia, Morocco, Turkey and Jordan. The results also showed that MENA region as a whole did not show EKC for SO2 emissions and CO2 emissions. Stricter policy measures and higher demands for the adoption of best environmental practices are required in order to generate an inverted U shaped curve relationship between GDP per capita and environmental degradation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.70.4.7743

  10. Hypersensitivity test to electric magnetic fields; Test de hipersensibilidad a exposiciones residenciales a campos magneticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubeda Maeso, A.; Martinez Pascual, M. A.

    2004-07-01

    The so-called electromagnetic hypersensitivity (RH) syndrome includes a number of unspecific, medically unexplained symptoms attributed to exposure to electric and magnetic fields. As a whole, laboratory tests have provided inconclusive results, in part due to the fact that many individuals show nuclear, inconsistent responses to repeated experimental field-exposures. It has been proposed that such inconsistencies could be due in part to distress caused by the lab test itself. We have developed a test to be conducted at the patient's residence, allowing for long-term follow up of exposure-response assessment and avoiding the laboratory environment and the presence of the researcher as potential stressors and confounding factors. In a pilot test, EMDEX-II magnetometers were used to continuously recording power-frequency magnetic fields in the residence of a patient with perceived EH. The patient's symptoms included distress, headache and dizziness, among other ailments. Magnetographic data of a total of 123 recording days were plotted against the corresponding data on occurrence of the symptoms episodes. As a whole, the results did not show positive linear correlation between the daily occurrence of the episode and the exposures levels recorded during the day or during the day before. These preliminary results are little supportive of the hypothesis that the patient's ailments are caused or worsened by a putative hypersensitivity to residential exposure to power-frequency magnetic fields in the 0.02-4.00 {mu}T range. (Author) 29 refs.

  11. Field tests of a tissue-equivalent beta survey meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martz, D.E.; Johnson, L.O.; Rich, B.L.; Daniel, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    A tissue-equivalent survey meter for monitoring the (dD/dt)(0.07) and (dD/dt)(10) dose rates produced by betas and photons has been designed and tested. The very thin tissue-equivalent plastic scintillator closely simulates the critical skin tissue layer between 4 mg.cm/sup -2/ and 9 mg.cm/sup -2/. The meter is calibrated to read the (dD/dt)(0.07) dose rate directly, and the (dD/dt)(10) dose rate behind a filter. Laboratory measurements of calibrated sources and field tests have demonstrated tissue-equivalent response of the survey meter to betas between 70 keV and 2500 keV and to photons with energies greater than about 30 keV.

  12. Translation and Adaptation of Tests: Lessons Learned and Recommendations for Countries Participating in timss, pisa and other International Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Solano-Flores

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a conceptual model and methodology for the review of translated tests in the context of such international comparisons as the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA. We also present the results of an investigation into the quality of the Mexican translation of the TIMSS-1995 into the Spanish language. We identified translation errors in a significant percentage of the items, as well as relatively high correlations between the severity of translation errors and the items’ p-values. These findings indicate that our error-coding system is highly sensitive to test-translation error. The results underscore the need for improved translation and translation-review procedures in international comparisons. In our opinion, to implement the guidelines properly for test translation in international comparisons, each participating country needs to have internal procedures that would ensure a rigorous review of its own translations. The article concludes with four recommendations for countries participating in international comparisons. These recommendations relate to: (a the characteristics of the individuals in charge of translating instruments; (b the use of review, not simply at the end of the process, but during the process of test translation; (c the minimum time needed for various translation review iterations to take place; and (d the need for proper documentation of the entire process of test translation.

  13. Harmonization of antimicrobial susceptibility testing among veterinary diagnostic laboratories in the five Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hofshagen, Merete

    2003-01-01

    , whereas for Enterococcus spp., two laboratories had less than 90 % concordant results. Susceptibility testing of Salmonella to fluoroquinolones gave rise to almost 0.5% nonconcordant results and susceptibility testing of S. aureus to vancomycin resulted in that 1.8% of the strains were incorrectly...

  14. First field test of FiDeL The magnetic field description for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L; Catalan-Lasheras, N; Deniau, L; Di Castro, M; Fartoukh, S; Giovannozzi, M; Hagen, P; Koutchouk, Jean-Pierre; Lamont, M; Miles, J; Remondino, V; Sammut, N; Sanfilippo, S; Schmidt, F; Sernelius, D; Steinhagen, R; Strzelczyk, M; Tomás, R; Todesco, E; Venturini-Delsolaro, W; Walckiers, L; Wenninger, J; Wolf, R; Xydi, P

    2010-01-01

    The start-up of the LHC has provided the first field test for the concept, functionality and accuracy of FiDeL, the Field Description for the LHC. FiDeL provides a parametric model of the transfer function of the main field integrals generated by the series of magnets in the LHC powering circuits, comprising superconducting and normal-conducting main optical elements and high-order harmonic correctors. The same framework is used to predict harmonic errors of both static and dynamic nature, and forecast appropriate corrections. In this paper we make use of beam-based measurements taken on the first LHC beams to assess the first-shot accuracy in the prediction of the current setting for the main arc magnets.

  15. Modular Integrated Monitoring System (MIMS) field test installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, R.L.; Waymire, D.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fuess, D.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    The MIMS program is funded by the Department of Energy under the Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. The program objective is to develop cost effective, modular, multi-sensor monitoring systems. Both in-plant and ground based sensors are envisioned. It is also desirable to develop sensors/systems that can be fielded/deployed in a rapid fashion. A MIMS architecture was selected to allow modular integration of sensors and systems and is based on LonWorks technology, commercially developed by Echelon Corporation. The first MIMS fieldable hardware was demonstrated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The field test, known within the DOE as the Item Tracking and Transparency (IT&I) demonstration, involved the collaboration and cooperation of five DOE laboratories (Sandia (SNL), Lawrence Livermore (LLNL), Pacific Northwest (PNL), Los Alamos (LANL), and Oak Ridge (ORNL)). The IT&T demonstration involved the monitoring of special nuclear material as it was transported around the facility utilizing sensors from the participating labs. The scenario was programmed to ignore normal activity in the facility until entry into the room where the material was stored. A second demonstration, which involved three separate scenarios, was conducted at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The participants included representatives from SNL, LLNL, PNL, and INEL. DOE has selected INEL as the long term testbed for MIMS developed sensors, systems, and scenarios. This paper will describe the installation, intended purpose, and results of the field demonstrations at LLNL and INEL under the MIMS program.

  16. Field test of hydrogen in the natural gas grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iskov, H.

    2010-08-15

    In order to prepare for a future use of hydrogen as a fuel gas it became evident that very little information existed regarding the compatibility between long-term exposure and transportation of hydrogen in natural gas pipelines. A program was therefore set to study the transportation in a small-scale pilot grid at the research centre in Hoersholm, Denmark. The test program included steel pipes from the Danish gas transmission grid and polymer pipes from the Danish and Swedish gas distribution grid. The test of polymer pipes was devised so that samples of all test pipes were cut out of the grid each year and analysis performed on these pipe samples; in this way any form of influence on the integrity of the polyethylene pipe would be detected. The analytical program for polymer was devised in order to detect any influence on the additivation of the polyethylene as this has an influence on oxidative resistance, as well as checking already encountered possible degradation caused by extrusion of the material. Further tools as rheology and melt flow rate were used for detecting any structural changes on the material. On the mechanical property side the tensile strength and modulus were followed as well as the most important property for the pipe line, namely slow crack growth. The results of the polymer pipe tests show no degradations of any kind related to the continuous hydrogen exposure for more than 4 years. This is a strong indication of the compatibility to hydrogen of the tested polymer materials PE 80 and PE 100. The object of the steel pipe test was to see the effect on fatigue life of existing natural gas transmission lines with hydrogen replacing the natural gas. Full-scale dynamic tests were performed using randomly selected cut-out API 5L X70 pipe sections with a diameter of 20 inches and a wall thickness of 7 millimetres from the Danish natural gas transmission system. The pipe sections contained field girth weld made during the installation of the pipe

  17. Field Testing of Nano-PCM Enhanced Building Envelope Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL

    2013-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Building Technologies Program s goal of developing high-performance, energy efficient buildings will require more cost-effective, durable, energy efficient building envelopes. Forty-eight percent of the residential end-use energy consumption is spent on space heating and air conditioning. Reducing envelope-generated heating and cooling loads through application of phase change material (PCM)-enhanced envelope components can facilitate maximizing the energy efficiency of buildings. Field-testing of prototype envelope components is an important step in estimating their energy benefits. An innovative phase change material (nano-PCM) was developed with PCM encapsulated with expanded graphite (interconnected) nanosheets, which is highly conducive for enhanced thermal storage and energy distribution, and is shape-stable for convenient incorporation into lightweight building components. During 2012, two test walls with cellulose cavity insulation and prototype PCM-enhanced interior wallboards were installed in a natural exposure test (NET) facility at Charleston, SC. The first test wall was divided into four sections, which were separated by wood studs and thin layers of foam insulation. Two sections contained nano-PCM-enhanced wallboards: one was a three-layer structure, in which nano-PCM was sandwiched between two gypsum boards, and the other one had PCM dispersed homogeneously throughout graphite nanosheets-enhanced gypsum board. The second test wall also contained two sections with interior PCM wallboards; one contained nano-PCM dispersed homogeneously in gypsum and the other was gypsum board containing a commercial microencapsulated PCM (MEPCM) for comparison. Each test wall contained a section covered with gypsum board on the interior side, which served as control or a baseline for evaluation of the PCM wallboards. The walls were instrumented with arrays of thermocouples and heat flux transducers. Further, numerical modeling of

  18. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Pilot-Scale Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2006-03-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, ''Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive.'' The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additive, Degussa Corporation's TMT-15, to prevent the reemissions of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate that the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine TMT salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project will conduct pilot and full-scale tests of the TMT-15 additive in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosage requirements to prevent Hg{sup 0} reemissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Power River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, TXU Generation Company LP, Southern Company, and Degussa Corporation. TXU Generation has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests, Monticello Steam Electric Station Unit 3. Southern Company is providing the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems to be tested. A third utility, to be named later, will provide the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site. Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive and technical support to the test program. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2

  19. Testing the relationship between personality characteristics, contextual factors and entrepreneurial intentions in a developing country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karimi, S.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Naderi Mahdei, Karim; Lans, T.; Chizari, M.; Mulder, M.

    2017-01-01

    Drawing upon the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), we developed and tested a conceptual model which integrates both internal personality factors and external contextual factors to determine their associations with motivational factors and entrepreneurial intentions (EIs). We then investigated if

  20. 76 FR 3075 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing Feline Leukemia Vaccine, Live...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... Feline Leukemia Vaccine, Live Canarypox Vector AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA... testing, and then to field test, an unlicensed Feline Leukemia Vaccine, Live Canarypox Vector. The.... Product: Feline Leukemia Vaccine, Live Canarypox Vector. Field Test Locations: Alabama,...

  1. 77 FR 22283 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing Feline Interleukin-2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... Feline Interleukin-2 Immunomodulator, Live Canarypox Vector AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... of field testing, and then to field test, an unlicensed Feline Interleukin-2 ] Immunomodulator, Live... testing of the following unlicensed veterinary biological product: Requester: Merial, Inc. Product:...

  2. Implementation of basic quality control tests for malaria medicines in Amazon Basin countries: results for the 2005-2010 period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribluda, Victor S; Barojas, Adrian; Añez, Arletta; López, Cecilia G; Figueroa, Ruth; Herrera, Roxana; Nakao, Gladys; Nogueira, Fernando Ha; Pianetti, Gerson A; Povoa, Marinete M; Viana, Giselle Mr; Gomes, Margarete S Mendonça; Escobar, Jose P; Sierra, Olga L Muñoz; Norena, Susana P Rendon; Veloz, Raúl; Bravo, Marcy Silva; Aldás, Martha R; Hindssemple, Alison; Collins, Marilyn; Ceron, Nicolas; Krishnalall, Karanchand; Adhin, Malti; Bretas, Gustavo; Hernandez, Nelly; Mendoza, Marjorie; Smine, Abdelkrim; Chibwe, Kennedy; Lukulay, Patrick; Evans, Lawrence

    2012-06-15

    Ensuring the quality of malaria medicines is crucial in working toward malaria control and eventual elimination. Unlike other validated tests that can assess all critical quality attributes, which is the standard for determining the quality of medicines, basic tests are significantly less expensive, faster, and require less skilled labour; yet, these tests provide reproducible data and information on several critical quality attributes, such as identity, purity, content, and disintegration. Visual and physical inspection also provides valuable information about the manufacturing and the labelling of medicines, and in many cases this inspection is sufficient to detect counterfeit medicines. The Promoting the Quality of Medicines (PQM) programme has provided technical assistance to Amazon Malaria Initiative (AMI) countries to implement the use of basic tests as a key screening mechanism to assess the quality of malaria medicines available to patients in decentralized regions. Trained personnel from the National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCPs), often in collaboration with country's Official Medicine Control Laboratory (OMCL), developed country- specific protocols that encompassed sampling methods, sample analysis, and data reporting. Sampling sites were selected based on malaria burden, accessibility, and geographical location. Convenience sampling was performed and countries were recommended to store the sampled medicines under conditions that did not compromise their quality. Basic analytical tests, such as disintegration and thin layer chromatography (TLC), were performed utilizing a portable mini-laboratory. Results were originally presented at regional meetings in a non-standardized format that lacked relevant medicines information. However, since 2008 information has been submitted utilizing a template specifically developed by PQM for that purpose. From 2005 to 2010, the quality of 1,663 malaria medicines from seven AMI countries was evaluated, mostly

  3. Cooperative field test program for wind systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollmeier, W.S. II; Dodge, D.M.

    1992-03-01

    The objectives of the Federal Wind Energy Program, managed by the US Department of Energy (DOE), are (1) to assist industry and utilities in achieving a multi-regional US market penetration of wind systems, and (2) to establish the United States as the world leader in the development of advanced wind turbine technology. In 1984, the program conducted a series of planning workshops with representatives from the wind energy industry to obtain input on the Five-Year Research Plan then being prepared by DOE. One specific suggestion that came out of these meetings was that the federal program should conduct cooperative research tests with industry to enhance the technology transfer process. It was also felt that the active involvement of industry in DOE-funded research would improve the state of the art of wind turbine technology. DOE established the Cooperative Field Test Program (CFTP) in response to that suggestion. This program was one of the first in DOE to feature joint industry-government research test teams working toward common objectives.

  4. Design and Field Test of a Galvanometer Deflected Streak Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, C C; Goosman, D R; Wade, J T; Avara, R

    2002-11-08

    We have developed a compact fieldable optically-deflected streak camera first reported in the 20th HSPP Congress. Using a triggerable galvanometer that scans the optical signal, the imaging and streaking function is an all-optical process without incurring any photon-electron-photon conversion or photoelectronic deflection. As such, the achievable imaging quality is limited mainly only by optical design, rather than by multiple conversions of signal carrier and high voltage electron-optics effect. All core elements of the camera are packaged into a 12 inch x 24 inch footprint box, a size similar to that of a conventional electronic streak camera. At LLNL's Site-300 Test Site, we have conducted a Fabry-Perot interferometer measurement of fast object velocity using this all-optical camera side-by-side with an intensified electronic streak camera. These two cameras are configured as two independent instruments for recording synchronously each branch of the 50/50 splits from one incoming signal. Given the same signal characteristics, the test result has undisputedly demonstrated superior imaging performance for the all-optical streak camera. It produces higher signal sensitivity, wider linear dynamic range, better spatial contrast, finer temporal resolution, and larger data capacity as compared with that of the electronic counterpart. The camera had also demonstrated its structural robustness and functional consistence to be well compatible with field environment. This paper presents the camera design and the test results in both pictorial records and post-process graphic summaries.

  5. Family physicians understanding about Mantoux test: A survey from a high endemic TB country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Niloufer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis is a global health emergency and is a big challenge to diagnose and manage it. Family physicians being first contact health persons should be well competent to diagnose and manage the patients with tuberculosis. Aims This study was aimed to assess the level of understanding about Mantoux Test amongst Family Physicians in Karachi, Pakistan and to determine the difference of level of understanding by gender and number of tuberculosis patients seen in a month. Methods A cross sectional survey was conducted among 200 Family Physicians working in Karachi; the largest city and economic hub of Pakistan. Family Physicians who attended Continuous Medical Education sessions were approached after taking consent. Pre-tested, self administered questionnaire was filled consisting of: basic demographic characteristics, questions regarding knowledge about Mantoux Test, its application and interpretation. Data of 159 questionnaires was analyzed for percentages, as rest were incomplete. Chi square test was used to calculate the difference of understanding levels between various groups. Results Almost two thirds of respondents were males and above 35 years of age. Majority of Family Physicians were private practitioners and seeing more than five tuberculosis patients per month. Overall, a big gap was identified about the knowledge of Mantoux Test among study participants. Only 18.8% of Family Physicians secured Excellent (≥ 80% correct responses. This poor level of understanding was almost equally distributed in all comparative groups (Male = 20.8% versus Female = 15.9%; p - 0.69 and (Seen Conclusion Our study revealed an overall major deficit in understanding and interpretation of Mantoux Test amongst Family Physicians which needs to be addressed. Continues Medical Education sessions for Family Physicians should be organized in regular basis for upgrading their knowledge in this regards.

  6. Test particle transport in perturbed magnetic fields in tokamaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rover, M.; Schilham, A.M.R.; Montvai, A.; Cardozo, N. J. L.

    1999-01-01

    Numerical calculations of magnetic field line trajectories in a tokamak are used to investigate the common hypotheses that (i) field lines in a chaotic field make a Gaussian random walk and (ii) that the poloidal component of the magnetic field is uniform in regions with a chaotic magnetic field. Bo

  7. Results from laboratory and field testing of nitrate measuring spectrophotometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snazelle, Teri T.

    2015-01-01

    Five ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometer nitrate analyzers were evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility (HIF) during a two-phase evaluation. In Phase I, the TriOS ProPs (10-millimeter (mm) path length), Hach NITRATAX plus sc (5-mm path length), Satlantic Submersible UV Nitrate Analyzer (SUNA, 10-mm path length), and S::CAN Spectro::lyser (5-mm path length) were evaluated in the HIF Water-Quality Servicing Laboratory to determine the validity of the manufacturer's technical specifications for accuracy, limit of linearity (LOL), drift, and range of operating temperature. Accuracy specifications were met in the TriOS, Hach, and SUNA. The stock calibration of the S::CAN required two offset adjustments before the analyzer met the manufacturer's accuracy specification. Instrument drift was observed only in the S::CAN and was the result of leaching from the optical path insert seals. All tested models, except for the Hach, met their specified LOL in the laboratory testing. The Hach's range was found to be approximately 18 milligrams nitrogen per liter (mg-N/L) and not the manufacturer-specified 25 mg-N/L. Measurements by all of the tested analyzers showed signs of hysteresis in the operating temperature tests. Only the SUNA measurements demonstrated excessive noise and instability in temperatures above 20 degrees Celsius (°C). The SUNA analyzer was returned to the manufacturer at the completion of the Phase II field deployment evaluation for repair and recalibration, and the performance of the sensor improved significantly.

  8. Testing Einstein's Equivalence Principle with supercluster Laniakea's gravitational field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhi-Xing; Zhang, Bo; Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng

    2016-03-01

    Comparing the parameterized post-Newtonian parameter γ values for different types of particles, or the same type of particles with different energies is an important method to test the Einstein Equivalence Principle (EEP). Assuming that the observed time delays are dominated by the gravitational potential of the Laniakea supercluster of galaxies, better results of EEP constraints can be obtained. In this paper, we apply photons from three kinds of cosmic transients, including TeV blazars, gamma-ray bursts as well as fast radio bursts to constrain EEP. With a gravitational field far more stronger than a single galaxy, we obtain 4-5 orders of magnitude more stringent than the previous results.

  9. Testing Einstein's Equivalence Principle with Supercluster Laniakea's Gravitational Field

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Zhi-Xing; Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Comparing the parameterized post-Newtonian parameter $\\gamma$ values for different types of particles, or the same type of particles with different energies is an important method to test the Einstein Equivalence Principle (EEP). Assuming that the observed time delays are dominated by the gravitational potential of the Laniakea supercluster of galaxies, better results of EEP constraints can be obtained. In this paper, we apply photons from three kinds of cosmic transients, including TeV blazars, gamma-ray bursts as well as fast radio bursts to constrain EEP. With a gravitational field far more stronger than a single galaxy, we obtain 4--5 orders of magnitude more stringent than the pervious results.

  10. Numerical Tests of Fast Reconnection in Weakly Stochastic Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kowal, G; Vishniac, E T; Otmianowska-Mazur, K

    2009-01-01

    We study the effects of turbulence on magnetic reconnection using 3D numerical simulations. This is the first attempt to test a model of fast magnetic reconnection in the presence of weak turbulence proposed by Lazarian & Vishniac (1999). This model predicts that weak turbulence, generically present in most of astrophysical systems, enhances the rate of reconnection by reducing the transverse scale for reconnection events and by allowing many independent flux reconnection events to occur simultaneously. As a result the reconnection speed becomes independent of Ohmic resistivity and is determined by the magnetic field wandering induced by turbulence. To quantify the reconnection speed we use both an intuitive definition, i.e. the speed of the reconnected flux inflow, as well as a more sophisticated definition based on a formally derived analytical expression. Our results confirm the predictions of the Lazarian & Vishniac model. In particular, we find that Vrec Pinj^(1/2), as predicted by the model. The...

  11. A field test of a simple stochastic radiative transfer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, N. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The problem of determining the effect of clouds on the radiative energy balance of the globe is of well-recognized importance. One can in principle solve the problem for any given configuration of clouds using numerical techniques. This knowledge is not useful however, because of the amount of input data and computer resources required. Besides, we need only the average of the resulting solution over the grid scale of a general circulation model (GCM). Therefore, we are interested in estimating the average of the solutions of such fine-grained problems using only coarse grained data, a science or art called stochastic radiation transfer. Results of the described field test indicate that the stochastic description is a somewhat better fit to the data than is a fractional cloud cover model, but more data are needed. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  12. FUELS IN SOIL TEST KIT: FIELD USE OF DIESEL DOG SOIL TEST KITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan S. Sorini; John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani, Jr.

    2002-09-30

    Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed a new commercial product ready for technology transfer, the Diesel Dog{reg_sign} Portable Soil Test Kit, for performing analysis of fuel-contaminated soils in the field. The technology consists of a method developed by WRI (U.S. Patents 5,561,065 and 5,976,883) and hardware developed by WRI that allows the method to be performed in the field (patent pending). The method is very simple and does not require the use of highly toxic reagents. The aromatic components in a soil extract are measured by absorption at 254 nm with a field-portable photometer. WRI added significant value to the technology by taking the method through the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) approval and validation processes. The method is designated as ASTM Method D 5831-96, Standard Test Method for Screening Fuels in Soils. This ASTM designation allows the method to be used for federal compliance activities. In June 2001, the Diesel Dog technology won an American Chemical Society Regional Industrial Innovations Award. To gain field experience with the new technology, Diesel Dog kits have been used for a variety of site evaluation and cleanup activities. Information gained from these activities has led to improvements in hardware configurations and additional insight into correlating Diesel Dog results with results from laboratory methods. The Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) used Diesel Dog Soil Test Kits to guide cleanups at a variety of sites throughout the state. ENSR, of Acton, Massachusetts, used a Diesel Dog Portable Soil Test Kit to evaluate sites in the Virgin Islands and Georgia. ChemTrack and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers successfully used a test kit to guide excavation at an abandoned FAA fuel-contaminated site near Fairbanks, Alaska. Barenco, Inc. is using a Diesel Dog Portable Soil Test Kit for site evaluations in Canada. A small spill of diesel fuel was cleaned up in Laramie, Wyoming using a Diesel

  13. Testing the relationship between personality characteristics, contextual factors and entrepreneurial intentions in a developing country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karimi, S.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Naderi Mahdei, Karim; Lans, T.; Chizari, M.; Mulder, M.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing upon the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), we developed and tested a conceptual model which integrates both internal personality factors and external contextual factors to determine their associations with motivational factors and entrepreneurial intentions (EIs). We then investigated if th

  14. Field test on temperature field and thermal stress for prestressed concrete box-girder bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baoguo CHEN; Rui DING; Junjie ZHENG; Shibiao ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    A field test was conducted to investigate the distribution of temperature field and the variation of thermal stress for a prestressed concrete (PC) box-girder bridge. The change of hydration heat temperature consists of four periods: temperature rising period, constant temperature period, rapid temperature fall period and stow temperature fall period. The peak value of hydration heat temperature increases with the increasing casting temperature of concrete; the relation between them is approximately linear. According to field tests, the thermal stress incurred by hydration heat may induce temperature cracks on the PC box-girder. Furthermore, the nonlinear distribution of temperature gradient and the fluctuation of thermal stress induced by exposure to sunlight were also obtained based on continuous in-situ monitoring. Such results show that the prevailing Chinese Code (2004) is insufficient since it does not take into account the temperature gradient of the bottom slab. Finally, some preventive measures against temperature cracks were proposed based on related studies. The conclusions can provide valuable reference for the design and construction of PC box-girder bridges.

  15. Biomechanical validation of a specific upper body training and testing drill in cross-country skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas; Lindinger, Stefan; Müller, Erich

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a biomechanical validation of a double poling imitation drill on a rollerboard. Six elite cross-country skiers performed three imitation drill trials at maximal speed at 13 degrees inclination and in double poling on roller skis on a paved road of 3 degrees. Pole and strap forces, elbow and hip angles and EMG activity of eight upper body muscles were measured. Force curves showed similar characteristics, except for impact force occurring only at pole plant in double poling on roller skis. Double poling on a rollerboard includes an eccentric roll-down phase not appearing in double polling on roller skis. Forces on the rollerboard were similar to those on roller skis. Courses of the elbow angles indicated similar shapes, except for the angle at the start of the propulsion phase and, consequently, during flexion (p < 0.01). Propulsion time and cycle duration were longer and frequency lower on the rollerboard (all p < 0.001). Muscle activities were not significantly different, except for stronger biceps brachii (p < 0.01) and weaker erector spinae activation (p < 0.05) on the rollerboard. Muscle coordination patterns showed similar onset and offset points of each muscle and comparable activations in both activities, except for biceps brachii. Two movement strategies on the rollerboard were found, which led to small differences in measured variables. The biomechanical validity of double poling on a rollerboard can be judged as moderately high, being aware of the differences in some variables that might be considered in training sessions on the rollerboard, particularly when using intervals with high number of repetitions.

  16. Testing neoclassical competitive market theory in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, John A

    2002-11-26

    This study presents results from a pilot field experiment that tests predictions of competitive market theory. A major advantage of this particular field experimental design is that my laboratory is the marketplace: subjects are engaged in buying, selling, and trading activities whether I run an exchange experiment or am a passive observer. In this sense, I am gathering data in a natural environment while still maintaining the necessary control to execute a clean comparison between treatments. The main results of the study fall into two categories. First, the competitive model predicts reasonably well in some market treatments: the expected price and quantity levels are approximated in many market rounds. Second, the data suggest that market composition is important: buyer and seller experience levels impact not only the distribution of rents but also the overall level of rents captured. An unexpected result in this regard is that average market efficiency is lowest in markets that match experienced buyers and experienced sellers and highest when experienced buyers engage in bargaining with inexperienced sellers. Together, these results suggest that both market experience and market composition play an important role in the equilibrium discovery process.

  17. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Detailed Test Plan for Simulated Leak Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Anderson L.; Gee, Glendon W.

    2000-06-23

    This report describes controlled transport experiments at well-instrumented field tests to be conducted during FY 2000 in support of DOE?s Vadose Zone Transport Field Study (VZTFS). The VZTFS supports the Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Science and Technology Initiative. The field tests will improve understanding of field-scale transport and lead to the development or identification of efficient and cost-effective characterization methods. These methods will capture the extent of contaminant plumes using existing steel-cased boreholes. Specific objectives are to 1) identify mechanisms controlling transport processes in soils typical of the hydrogeologic conditions of Hanford?s waste disposal sites; 2) reduce uncertainty in conceptual models; 3) develop a detailed and accurate data base of hydraulic and transport parameters for validation of three-dimensional numerical models; and 4) identify and evaluate advanced, cost-effective characterization methods with the potential to assess changing conditions in the vadose zone, particularly as surrogates of currently undetectable high-risk contaminants. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) manages the VZTFS for DOE.

  18. Field-testing of the rapid assessment of disability questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marella, Manjula; Busija, Lucy; Islam, Fakir M Amirul; Devine, Alexandra; Fotis, Kathy; Baker, Sally M; Sprunt, Beth; Edmonds, Tanya J; Huq, Nafisa Lira; Cama, Anaseini; Keeffe, Jill E

    2014-09-01

    The Rapid Assessment of Disability (RAD) questionnaire measures the magnitude and impact of disability and aims to inform the design of disability inclusive development programs. This paper reports the psychometric evaluation of the RAD. The initial version of the RAD comprised five sections: 1) demographics, 2) functioning, 3) rights awareness, 4) well-being, and 5) access to the community. Item functioning and construct validity were assessed in a population-based study in Bangladesh. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics (sections 2 and 5) and Rasch modelling (sections 3 and 4). A subsequent case-control study in Fiji tested the refined questionnaire in a cross-cultural setting and assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the RAD section 2 to identify people with disability. 2,057 adults took part in the study (1,855 in Bangladesh and 202 in Fiji). The prevalence of disability estimated using RAD section 2 in Bangladesh was 10.5% (95% CI 8.8-12.2), with satisfactory sensitivity and specificity (62.4% and 81.2%, respectively). Section 3 exhibited multidimensionality and poor differentiation between levels of rights awareness in both Bangladesh (person separation index [PSI] = 0.71) and Fiji (PSI = 0.0), and was unable to distinguish between people with and without disability (Bangladesh p = 0.786, Fiji p = 0.43). This section was subsequently removed from the questionnaire pending re-development. Section 4 had good ability to differentiate between levels of well-being (PSI = 0.82). In both countries, people with disability had significantly worse well-being scores than people without disability (p RAD. Information from the questionnaire can be used to inform and evaluate disability inclusive development programs.

  19. Evaluation of the reliability of two field hockey specific sprint and dribble tests in young field hockey players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmink, K.A.; Elferink-Gemser, M.T.; Visscher, C.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the reliability of two field hockey specific tests: the shuttle sprint and dribble test (ShuttleSDT) and the slalom sprint and dribble test (SlalomSDT). METHODS: The shuttle sprint and dribble performances of 22 young male and 12 young female field hockey players were

  20. Evaluation of the reliability of two field hockey specific sprint and dribble tests in young field hockey players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmink, K.A.; Elferink-Gemser, M.T.; Visscher, C.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the reliability of two field hockey specific tests: the shuttle sprint and dribble test (ShuttleSDT) and the slalom sprint and dribble test (SlalomSDT). METHODS: The shuttle sprint and dribble performances of 22 young male and 12 young female field hockey players were assess

  1. Development of a specific anaerobic field test for aerobic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Christiano Robles Rodrigues; Borelli, Marcello Tadeu Caetano; Paineli, Vitor de Salles; Azevedo, Rafael de Almeida; Borelli, Claudia Cristine Gomes; Lancha Junior, Antônio Herbert; Gualano, Bruno; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini

    2015-01-01

    The current investigation aimed to develop a valid specific field test to evaluate anaerobic physical performance in Aerobic Gymnastics athletes. We first designed the Specific Aerobic Gymnast Anaerobic Test (SAGAT), which included gymnastics-specific elements performed in maximal repeated sprint fashion, with a total duration of 80-90 s. In order to validate the SAGAT, three independent sub-studies were performed to evaluate the concurrent validity (Study I, n=8), the reliability (Study II, n=10) and the sensitivity (Study III, n=30) of the test in elite female athletes. In Study I, a positive correlation was shown between lower-body Wingate test and SAGAT performance (Mean power: p = 0.03, r = -0.69, CI: -0.94 to 0.03 and Peak power: p = 0.02, r = -0.72, CI: -0.95 to -0.04) and between upper-body Wingate test and SAGAT performance (Mean power: p = 0.03, r = -0.67, CI: -0.94 to 0.02 and Peak power: p = 0.03, r = -0.69, CI: -0.94 to 0.03). Additionally, plasma lactate was similarly increased in response to SAGAT (p = 0.002), lower-body Wingate Test (p = 0.021) and a simulated competition (p = 0.007). In Study II, no differences were found between the time to complete the SAGAT in repeated trials (p = 0.84; Cohen's d effect size = 0.09; ICC = 0.97, CI: 0.89 to 0.99; MDC95 = 0.12 s). Finally, in Study III the time to complete the SAGAT was significantly lower during the competition cycle when compared to the period before the preparatory cycle (p Gymnastics training period. Taken together, these data have demonstrated that SAGAT is a specific, reliable and sensitive measurement of specific anaerobic performance in elite female Aerobic Gymnastics, presenting great potential to be largely applied in training settings.

  2. Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field-Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Landreth

    2007-12-31

    This report summarizes the work conducted from September 1, 2003 through December 31, 2007 on the project entitled Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field-Testing Program. The project covers the testing at the Detroit Edison St. Clair Plant and the Duke Power Cliffside and Buck Stations. The St. Clair Plant used a blend of subbituminous and bituminous coal and controlled the particulate emissions by means of a cold-side ESP. The Duke Power Stations used bituminous coals and controlled their particulate emissions by means of hot-side ESPs. The testing at the Detroit Edison St. Clair Plant demonstrated that mercury sorbents could be used to achieve high mercury removal rates with low injection rates at facilities that burn subbituminous coal. A mercury removal rate of 94% was achieved at an injection rate of 3 lb/MMacf over the thirty day long-term test. Prior to this test, it was believed that the mercury in flue gas of this type would be the most difficult to capture. This is not the case. The testing at the two Duke Power Stations proved that carbon- based mercury sorbents can be used to control the mercury emissions from boilers with hot-side ESPs. It was known that plain PACs did not have any mercury capacity at elevated temperatures but that brominated B-PAC did. The mercury removal rate varies with the operation but it appears that mercury removal rates equal to or greater than 50% are achievable in facilities equipped with hot-side ESPs. As part of the program, both sorbent injection equipment and sorbent production equipment was acquired and operated. This equipment performed very well during this program. In addition, mercury instruments were acquired for this program. These instruments worked well in the flue gas at the St. Clair Plant but not as well in the flue gas at the Duke Power Stations. It is believed that the difference in the amount of oxidized mercury, more at Duke Power, was the difference in instrument performance. Much of the equipment was

  3. Implementation of basic quality control tests for malaria medicines in Amazon Basin countries: results for the 2005–2010 period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pribluda Victor S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ensuring the quality of malaria medicines is crucial in working toward malaria control and eventual elimination. Unlike other validated tests that can assess all critical quality attributes, which is the standard for determining the quality of medicines, basic tests are significantly less expensive, faster, and require less skilled labour; yet, these tests provide reproducible data and information on several critical quality attributes, such as identity, purity, content, and disintegration. Visual and physical inspection also provides valuable information about the manufacturing and the labelling of medicines, and in many cases this inspection is sufficient to detect counterfeit medicines. The Promoting the Quality of Medicines (PQM programme has provided technical assistance to Amazon Malaria Initiative (AMI countries to implement the use of basic tests as a key screening mechanism to assess the quality of malaria medicines available to patients in decentralized regions. Methods Trained personnel from the National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCPs, often in collaboration with country’s Official Medicine Control Laboratory (OMCL, developed country- specific protocols that encompassed sampling methods, sample analysis, and data reporting. Sampling sites were selected based on malaria burden, accessibility, and geographical location. Convenience sampling was performed and countries were recommended to store the sampled medicines under conditions that did not compromise their quality. Basic analytical tests, such as disintegration and thin layer chromatography (TLC, were performed utilizing a portable mini-laboratory. Results Results were originally presented at regional meetings in a non-standardized format that lacked relevant medicines information. However, since 2008 information has been submitted utilizing a template specifically developed by PQM for that purpose. From 2005 to 2010, the quality of 1,663 malaria medicines

  4. Design and field testing of Savonius wind pump in East Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabah, K.V.O.; Osawa, B.M. [University of Nairobi (Kenya). Dept. of Physics

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes improvements in the wind-scoop geometry and efficiency of a double-stack Savonius rotor, developed through a series of wind tunnel and field tests in East Africa. On an aerodynamic performance basis, the Savonius rotor cannot generally compete with other types of wind turbines. Unlike its counter-parts that operate by rotating around a horizontal axis, it rotates around a vertical axis. This has the unfortunate effect of lowering its efficiency, but it has several compensating factors. Its main advantages are that it has better starting torque performance with operating characteristics independent of the wind direction. In addition, it is simple in structure and the fabrication technology required is less sophisticated when compared to similar types of windmills. This makes it a suitable system for small scale applications in wind energy conversion; especially in remote rural regions in developing countries. (author)

  5. Field-Based Video Pre-Test Counseling, Oral Testing, and Telephonic Post-Test Counseling: Implementation of an HIV Field Testing Package among High-Risk Indian Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Hannah; Yeldandi, Vijay V.; Kumar, G. Prem; Liao, Chuanhong; Lakshmi, Vemu; Gandham, Sabitha R.; Muppudi, Uma; Oruganti, Ganesh; Schneider, John A.

    2012-01-01

    In India, men who have sex with men (MSM) and truck drivers are high-risk groups that often do not access HIV testing due to stigma and high mobility. This study evaluated a field testing package (FTP) that identified HIV positive participants through video pre-test counseling, OraQuick oral fluid HIV testing, and telephonic post-test counseling…

  6. Advanced Rooftop Control (ARC) Retrofit: Field-Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Lutes, Robert G.

    2013-07-31

    The multi-year research study was initiated to find solutions to improve packaged equipment operating efficiency in the field. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) conducted this research, development and demonstration (RD&D) study. Packaged equipment with constant speed supply fans is designed to provide ventilation at the design rate at all times when the fan is operating as required by building code. Although there are a number of hours during the day when a building may not be fully occupied or the need for ventilation is lower than designed, the ventilation rate cannot be adjusted easily with a constant speed fan. Therefore, modulating the supply fan in conjunction with demand controlled ventilation (DCV) will not only reduce the coil energy but also reduce the fan energy. The objective of this multi-year research, development and demonstration project was to determine the magnitude of energy savings achievable by retrofitting existing packaged rooftop air conditioners with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for packaged units. First, through detailed simulation analysis, it was shown that significant energy (between 24% and 35%) and cost savings (38%) from fan, cooling and heating energy consumption could be realized when packaged air conditioning units with gas furnaces are retrofitted with advanced control packages (combining multi-speed fan control, integrated economizer controls and DCV). The simulation analysis also showed significant savings for heat pumps (between 20% and 60%). The simulation analysis was followed by an extensive field test of a retrofittable advanced rooftop unit (RTU) controller.

  7. First Field Test of FiDeL the Magnetic Field Description for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L; Catalan-Lasheras, N; Deniau, L; Di Castro, M; Giovannozzi, M; Hagen, P; Koutchouk, J; Lamont, M; Miles, J; Remondino, V; Sammut, N; Sanfilippo, S; Schmidt, F; Sernelius, D; Strzelczyk, M; Todesco, E; Venturini-Delsolaro, W; Walckiers, L; Wolf, R; Xydi, P

    2009-01-01

    The start-up of the LHC has provided the first field test for the concept, functionality and accuracy of FiDeL, the Field Description for the LHC. FiDeL is primarily a parametric model of the transfer function of the main field integrals generated by the series of magnets in the LHC powering circuits, from main optical elements to high-order harmonic correctors, both superconducting and normal-conducting magnets. In addition, the same framework is used to predict harmonic errors of both static and dynamic nature, and forecast appropriate corrections. In this paper we give a description of the level of detail achieved in the model and the rationale adopted for the LHC start-up. Beam-based measurements have been used for an assessment of the first-shot accuracy in the prediction of the current setting for the main arc magnets. We finally give a list of priority issues to be addressed, and sketch a plan for the preparation of the LHC restart.

  8. Progress in crosswell induction imaging for EOR: field system design and field testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkendall, B A; Lewis, J P; Hunter, S L; Harben, P E

    1999-03-04

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we are continuing our effort to develop improved crosswell low-frequency electromagnetic imaging techniques, which are used to map in situ steamflood and waterflood movement during enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations. Toward this effort, we procured two new borehole-logging field vehicles, and developed and integrated new crosswell electromagnetic transmitter and receiver data acquisition and control systems into these vehicles. We tested this new acquisition system by conducting a suite of background measurements and repeatability experiments at the Richmond Field Station in Richmond, California. Repeatability of a given scan in which the receiver was fixed and the transmitter position was varied over 60 m in 0.2-m increments resulted in amplitude differences of less than 0.6% and phase differences of less than 0.54 deg. Forward modeling produced a resistivity map fully consistent with well log data from the Richmond Field Station. In addition, modeling results suggest (1) that residual high-conductivity saltwater, injected in 1993 and pumped out in 1995, is present at the site and (2) that it has diffused outward from the original target strata. To develop crosswell electromagnetic imaging into a viable commercial product, our future research must be a two-fold approach: (1) improved quantification of system noise through experiments such as ferromagnetic core characterization as a function of temperature, and (2) development of procedures and codes to account for steel-cased hole scenarios.

  9. Testing probabilistic seismic hazard estimates against accelerometric data in two countries: France and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasan, Hilal; Beauval, Céline; Helmstetter, Agnès; Sandikkaya, Abdullah; Guéguen, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard models (PSHM) are used for quantifying the seismic hazard at a site or a grid of sites. In this study, a methodology is proposed to compare the distribution of the expected number of sites with exceedance with the observed number considering an acceleration threshold at a set of recording sites. The method is applied to France and Turkey. The French accelerometric database is checked to produce a reliable accelerometric data set. In addition, we also used a synthetic data set inferred from an instrumental catalogue combined with a ground-motion prediction equation. The results show that the MEDD2002 and AFPS2006 PSH models overestimate the number of sites with exceedance for low acceleration levels (below 40 cm s-2) or short return periods (smaller than 50 yr for AFPS2006 and 475 yr for MEDD2002). For larger acceleration levels, there are few observations and none of the models is rejected. In Turkey, the SHARE hazard estimates can be tested against ground-motion levels of interest in earthquake engineering. As the completeness issue is crucial, the recorded data at each station is analysed to detect potential gaps in the recording. As most accelerometric stations are located on soil, accelerations at rock are estimated using a site-amplification model. Different minimum intersite distances and station configurations are considered. The observed numbers of sites with exceedance are well within the bounds of the predicted distribution for accelerations between 103 and 397 cm s-2. For higher levels, both the observed number and the predicted percentile 2.5 are zero, and no conclusion can be drawn.

  10. Evolving test-fields in a black-hole geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, N

    1997-01-01

    We consider the initial value problem for a massless scalar field in the Schwarzschild geometry. When constructed using a complex-frequency approach the necessary Green's function splits into three components. We discuss all of these in some detail: 1) The contribution from the singularities (the quasinormal modes of the black hole) is approximated and the mode-sum is demonstrated to converge after a certain well defined time in the evolution. A dynamic description of the mode-excitation is introduced and tested. 2) It is shown how a straightforward low-frequency approximation to the integral along the branch cut in the black-hole Green's function leads to the anticipated power-law fall off at very late times. We also calculate higher order corrections to this tail and show that they provide an important complement to the leading order. 3) The high-frequency problem is also considered. We demonstrate that the combination of the obtained approximations for the quasinormal modes and the power-law tail provide a...

  11. Evolving test fields in a black-hole geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Nils

    1997-01-01

    We consider the initial value problem for a massless scalar field in the Schwarzschild geometry. When constructed using a complex-frequency approach the necessary Green's function splits into three components. We discuss all of these in some detail. (1) The contribution from the singularities (the quasinormal modes of the black hole) is approximated and the mode sum is demonstrated to converge after a certain well-defined time in the evolution. A dynamic description of the mode excitation is introduced and tested. (2) It is shown how a straightforward low-frequency approximation to the integral along the branch cut in the black-hole Green's function leads to the anticipated power-law falloff at very late times. We also calculate higher order corrections to this tail and show that they provide an important complement to the leading order. (3) The high-frequency problem is also considered. We demonstrate that the combination of the obtained approximations for the quasinormal modes and the power-law tail provide a complete description of the evolution at late times. Problems that arise (in the complex-frequency picture) for early times are also discussed, as is the fact that many of the presented results generalize to, for example, Kerr black holes.

  12. A Field Test of the New Portable Gamma Spectrometry System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jung-Ki; Park, Uk Ryang; Park, Seunghoon; Chung, Heejun; Kwak, Sung-Woo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yongkwn [NuCare Medical Systems, Inc., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In order to perform a field test of the system, the measurement of U-235 enrichment for nuclear fuel pellets was conducted along with the IAEA Physical Inventory Verification (PIV) inspection at the KEPCO Nuclear Fuel (KNF). The enrichment value of U-235 was calculated based on the total counts of the 185.7 keV photopeak and compared with the reference line, drawn by certified sources. The goal of this study is to experimentally evaluate the system performance of the developed system. In this study, the new portable gamma spectrometry system showed a good linearity (R{sup 2}=1) but overestimated the enrichment values than IAEA inspection device. It could be caused by the stability of the new system since it found, right after this measurement, that the accuracy of the system gradually increases and becomes stable over time. Further steps will optimize the design parameter based on these results and repeat measurement with the same samples under the same environment.

  13. Field test of a post-closure radiation monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, S.E. [Babcock & Wilcox, Alliance, OH (United States); Christy, C.E. [Department of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States); Heath, R.E. [FERMCO, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The DOE is conducting remedial actions at many sites contaminated with radioactive materials. After closure of these sites, long-term subsurface monitoring is typically required by law. This monitoring is generally labor intensive and expensive using conventional sampling and analysis techniques. The U.S. Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has contracted with Babcock and Wilcox to develop a Long-Term Post-Closure Radiation Monitoring System (LPRMS) to reduce these monitoring costs. The system designed in Phase I of this development program monitors gamma radiation using a subsurface cesium iodide scintillator coupled to above-ground detection electronics using optical waveguide. The radiation probe can be installed to depths up to 50 meters using cone penetrometer techniques, and requires no downhole electrical power. Multiplexing, data logging and analysis are performed at a central location. A prototype LPRMS probe was built, and B&W and FERMCO field tested this monitoring probe at the Fernald Environmental Management Project in the fall of 1994 with funding from the DOE`s Office of Technology Development (EM-50) through METC. The system was used measure soil and water with known uranium contamination levels, both in drums and in situ depths up to 3 meters. For comparison purposes measurements were also performed using a more conventional survey probe with a sodium iodide scintillator directly butt-coupled to detection electronics.

  14. Field test of thermoelectric generating system at Komatsu plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaibe, Hiromasa T.; Fujimoto, Sinichi; Mizukami, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Shigeo [Komatsu Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    2011-07-01

    At the end of October 2009, Komatsu Ltd. started a field test of the thermoelectric generation (TEG) system at a carburizing facility of Awazu plant. Residual carburizing gas based on such as CO, N and H{sub 2} is burned resulting that 20-30 kW range of flame constantly heats up the hot side of TEG. 16 of the Bi-Te thermo-modules, which were separated into 4 groups, were employed, each of which has a size of 50 by 50 by 4.2 mm{sup 3} and can generate better than 25 W under the circumstance of 280 C and 30 C of hot side and cold side temperature, respectively. Each module has a single booster-type DC/DC converter controlled by one chip computer and Maximum Power point Tracking (MPPT) was well facilitated to search for the maximum output power depending on the hot and cold side temperature. The electric output power from the four modules is summed up to charge a single lead storage battery (GS Yuasa Corp. 12V-65Ah) and then through a DC/AC inverter electricity goes to fluorescent light tubes inside the factory. Typically from 4 groups 200 W can be generated and 170 W is delivered to the batteries. (orig.)

  15. Rigorously testing multialternative decision field theory against random utility models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitsch, Nicolas A J; Scheibehenne, Benjamin; Rieskamp, Jörg

    2014-06-01

    Cognitive models of decision making aim to explain the process underlying observed choices. Here, we test a sequential sampling model of decision making, multialternative decision field theory (MDFT; Roe, Busemeyer, & Townsend, 2001), on empirical grounds and compare it against 2 established random utility models of choice: the probit and the logit model. Using a within-subject experimental design, participants in 2 studies repeatedly choose among sets of options (consumer products) described on several attributes. The results of Study 1 showed that all models predicted participants' choices equally well. In Study 2, in which the choice sets were explicitly designed to distinguish the models, MDFT had an advantage in predicting the observed choices. Study 2 further revealed the occurrence of multiple context effects within single participants, indicating an interdependent evaluation of choice options and correlations between different context effects. In sum, the results indicate that sequential sampling models can provide relevant insights into the cognitive process underlying preferential choices and thus can lead to better choice predictions.

  16. The Savannah River Technology Center environmental monitoring field test platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossabi, J.

    1993-03-05

    Nearly all industrial facilities have been responsible for introducing synthetic chemicals into the environment. The Savannah River Site is no exception. Several areas at the site have been contaminated by chlorinated volatile organic chemicals. Because of the persistence and refractory nature of these contaminants, a complete clean up of the site will take many years. A major focus of the mission of the Environmental Sciences Section of the Savannah River Technology Center is to develop better, faster, and less expensive methods for characterizing, monitoring, and remediating the subsurface. These new methods can then be applied directly at the Savannah River Site and at other contaminated areas in the United States and throughout the world. The Environmental Sciences Section has hosted field testing of many different monitoring technologies over the past two years primarily as a result of the Integrated Demonstration Program sponsored by the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development. This paper provides an overview of some of the technologies that have been demonstrated at the site and briefly discusses the applicability of these techniques.

  17. Retracted article: Flexible Fourier Stationary Test in GDP per capita for Central Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Nan Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Retraction (http://www.efri.uniri.hr/prikaz.asp?txt_id=7366 This is to notify our respectful reading public that the Editorial Board of the journal Zbornik radova Ekonomskog fakulteta u Rijeci, časopis za ekonomsku teoriju i praksu/ Proceedings of Rijeka Faculty of Economics, Journal of Economics and Business has retracted the following article from publication: “Flexible Fourier Stationary Test in GDP per capita for Central Eastern European Countries“, by Hsu-Ling Chang, Chi-Wei Su, Meng-Nan Zhu, published in our journal Zbornik radova Ekonomskog fakulteta u Rijeci, časopis za ekonomsku teoriju i praksu/ Proceedings of Rijeka Faculty of Economics, Journal of Economics and Business, 2011, vol. 29 (1, pp. 51-63 and almost concurrently published in the journal Eastern European Economics, 2011, vol. 49 (3, pp. 54-65. Being in contact with Josef C Brada, Professor Emeritus, Editor of the journal Eastern European Economics (EEE, we realized that the paper had been sent to both journals, although first published in the EEE and then in our Journal. According to professor Brada’s and our analysis, the paper published in these two journals is exactly the same, except for minor differences in wording, most likely due to editing the text before publication. The outstanding differences are in the title and the fact that the paper published in our Journal has three authors and in EEE journal has two. Whatsoever, owing to the fact that the article had been sent to both journals almost at the same time, it had been impossible to find out the case during the review procedure. Due to this unpleasant situation, our Editorial Board would like to inform our valuable readers that all the necessary measures to retract the paper from our publication have been undertaken and according to publishing ethical principles, cooperation with the authors of the retracted paper have been stopped. Although, in this case neither EEE nor our Journal had any

  18. Willingness to use couples voluntary counseling and testing services among men who have sex with men in seven countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Chard, Anna; Finneran, Catherine; Sullivan, Patrick

    2014-02-01

    The willingness of male-male dyads to use couples voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT) has not been previously investigated globally among men who have sex with men (MSM). Using online advertisements, data were collected from 3245 MSM in seven countries who were ≥ 18 years of age and had ≥1 male sex partner in the previous 12 months. The analysis examined associations between individual characteristics and willingness to utilize CVCT. The willingness to utilize CVCT was compellingly high, ranging from 79% in Australia and UK to 90% in Brazil. Older MSM and those who reported not knowing their sero-status reported lower odds of willingness to use CVCT. The relationship between being in a relationship and willingness to use CVCT varied across countries, perhaps reflecting varied local understandings of the nature and content of CVCT. Further work is required to examine willingness to use CVCT among a more heterogeneous population of MSM, and to examine how CVCT services are locally perceived in order to provide information vital for the development of locally appropriate messages to promote CVCT for MSM.

  19. Testing the Visual Soil Assessment tool on Estonian farm fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reintam, Endla; Are, Mihkel; Selge, Are

    2017-04-01

    Soil quality estimation plays important role in decision making on farm as well on policy level. Sustaining the production ability and good health of the soil the chemical, physical and biological indicators should be taken into account. The system to use soil chemical parameters is usually quite well established in most European counties, including Estonia. However, measuring soil physical properties, such bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, structural stability ect is time consuming, needs special tools and is highly weather dependent. In that reason these parameters are excluded from controllable quality parameters in policy in Estonia. Within the project "Interactive Soil Quality Assessment in Europe and China for Agricultural Productivity and Environmental Resilience" (iSQAPER) the visual soil assessment (VSA) tool was developed for easy detection of soil quality as well the different soil friendly agricultural management practices (AMP) were detected. The aim of current study was to test the VSA tool on Estonian farm fields under different management practices and compare the results with laboratory measurements. The main focus was set on soil physical parameters. Next to the VSA, the undisturbed soil samples were collected from the depth of 5-10 cm and 25-30 cm. The study revealed that results of a visually assessed soil physical parameters, such a soil structure, soil structural stability, soil porosity, presence of tillage pan, were confirmed by laboratory measurements in most cases. Soil water stable structure measurement on field (on 1 cm2 net in one 1 l box with 4-6 cm air dry clods for 5-10 min) underestimated very well structured soil on grassland and overestimated the structure aggregates stability of compacted soil. The slightly better soil quality was detected under no-tillage compared to ploughed soils. However, the ploughed soil got higher quality points compared with minimum tillage. The slurry application (organic manuring) had

  20. External quality assurance for HIV point-of-care testing in Africa: A collaborative country-partner approach to strengthen diagnostic services

    OpenAIRE

    Debrah I. Boeras; Peeling, Rosanna W

    2016-01-01

    It is important to consider the role of diagnostics and the critical need for quality diagnostics services in resource-limited settings. Accurate diagnostic tests play a key role in patient management and the prevention and control of most infectious diseases. As countries plan for implementation of HIV early infant diagnosis and viral load point-of-care testing, the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine has worked with countries and partners with an interest in external quali...

  1. Assessment of Heart Rate Variability Thresholds from Incremental Treadmill Tests in Five Cross-Country Skiing Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibai Mendia-Iztueta

    Full Text Available The assessment of heart rate variability (HRV thresholds (HRVTs as an alternative of Ventilatory thresholds (VTs is a relatively new approach with increasing popularity which has not been conducted in cross-country (XC skiing yet. The main purpose of the present study was to assess HRVTs in the five main XC skiing-related techniques, double poling (DP, diagonal striding (DS, Nordic walking (NW, V1 skating (V1, and V2 skating (V2.Ten competitive skiers completed these incremental treadmill tests until exhaustion with a minimum of one to two recovery days in between each test. Ventilatory gases, HRV and poling frequencies were measured. The first HRV threshold (HRVT1 was assessed using two time-domain analysis methods, and the second HRV threshold (HRVT2 was assessed using two non-time varying frequency-domain analysis methods. HRVT1 was assessed by plotting the mean successive difference (MSD and standard deviation (SD of normalized R-R intervals to workload. HRVT1 was assessed by plotting high frequency power (HFP and the HFP relative to respiratory sinus arrhythmia (HFPRSA with workload. HRVTs were named after their methods (HRVT1-SD; HRVT1-MSD; HRVT2-HFP; HRVT2-HFP-RSA. The results showed that the only cases where the proposed HRVTs were good assessors of VTs were the HRVT1-SD of the DS test, the HRVT1-MSD of the DS and V2 tests, and the HRVT2-HFP-RSA of the NW test. The lack of a wider success of the assessment of HRVTs was reasoned to be mostly due to the high entrainment between the breathing and poling frequencies. As secondary finding, a novel Cardiolocomotor coupling mode was observed in the NW test. This new Cardiolocoomtor coupling mode corresponded to the whole bilateral poling cycle instead of corresponding to each poling action as it was reported to the date by the existing literature.

  2. Assessment of Heart Rate Variability Thresholds from Incremental Treadmill Tests in Five Cross-Country Skiing Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendia-Iztueta, Ibai; Monahan, Kristen; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Hynynen, Esa

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of heart rate variability (HRV) thresholds (HRVTs) as an alternative of Ventilatory thresholds (VTs) is a relatively new approach with increasing popularity which has not been conducted in cross-country (XC) skiing yet. The main purpose of the present study was to assess HRVTs in the five main XC skiing-related techniques, double poling (DP), diagonal striding (DS), Nordic walking (NW), V1 skating (V1), and V2 skating (V2).Ten competitive skiers completed these incremental treadmill tests until exhaustion with a minimum of one to two recovery days in between each test. Ventilatory gases, HRV and poling frequencies were measured. The first HRV threshold (HRVT1) was assessed using two time-domain analysis methods, and the second HRV threshold (HRVT2) was assessed using two non-time varying frequency-domain analysis methods. HRVT1 was assessed by plotting the mean successive difference (MSD) and standard deviation (SD) of normalized R-R intervals to workload. HRVT1 was assessed by plotting high frequency power (HFP) and the HFP relative to respiratory sinus arrhythmia (HFPRSA) with workload. HRVTs were named after their methods (HRVT1-SD; HRVT1-MSD; HRVT2-HFP; HRVT2-HFP-RSA). The results showed that the only cases where the proposed HRVTs were good assessors of VTs were the HRVT1-SD of the DS test, the HRVT1-MSD of the DS and V2 tests, and the HRVT2-HFP-RSA of the NW test. The lack of a wider success of the assessment of HRVTs was reasoned to be mostly due to the high entrainment between the breathing and poling frequencies. As secondary finding, a novel Cardiolocomotor coupling mode was observed in the NW test. This new Cardiolocoomtor coupling mode corresponded to the whole bilateral poling cycle instead of corresponding to each poling action as it was reported to the date by the existing literature.

  3. Vadose zone transport field study: Detailed test plan for simulated leak tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AL Ward; GW Gee

    2000-06-23

    Hanford to: identify mechanisms controlling transport processes in soils typical of the hydrogeologic conditions of Hanford's waste disposal sites; reduce uncertainty in conceptual models; develop a detailed and accurate database of hydraulic and transport parameters for validation of three-dimensional numerical models; identify and evaluate advanced, cost-effective characterization methods with the potential to assess changing conditions in the vadose zone, particularly as surrogates of currently undetectable high-risk contaminants. This plan provides details for conducting field tests during FY 2000 to accomplish these objectives. Details of additional testing during FY 2001 and FY 2002 will be developed as part of the work planning process implemented by the Integration Project.

  4. THE NEXUS BETWEEN ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT WITH ASYMMETRIC CAUSALITY TEST: NEW EVIDENCE FROM NEWLY INDUSTRIALIZED COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyyaz Zeren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relationship between energy consumption and financial development is investigated via Hatemi-J asymmetric causality test (2012 which is able to separate positive and negative shocks in analysis. In order to determine different dimensions of financial system, deposit money bank assets to GDP (dbagdp, financial system deposits to GDP (fdgdp and private credit to GDP (pcrdbgdp were used as three different indicators. As a result of this study on Newly Industrialized 7 Countries spanning the period 1971 till 2010, both positive and negative shocks existed for Malaysia and Mexico, causality from energy consumption to financial developments emerged for Philippines in only negative shocks. While two-way causality occurred for India, Turkey and Thailand, there was not for South Africa.

  5. Smart Infrared Inspection System Field Operational Test Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL

    2011-06-01

    The Smart InfraRed Inspection System (SIRIS) is a tool designed to assist inspectors in determining which vehicles passing through the SIRIS system are in need of further inspection by measuring the thermal data from the wheel components. As a vehicle enters the system, infrared cameras on the road measure temperatures of the brakes, tires, and wheel bearings on both wheel ends of commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in motion. This thermal data is then presented to enforcement personal inside of the inspection station on a user friendly interface. Vehicles that are suspected to have a violation are automatically alerted to the enforcement staff. The main goal of the SIRIS field operational test (FOT) was to collect data to evaluate the performance of the prototype system and determine the viability of such a system being used for commercial motor vehicle enforcement. From March 2010 to September 2010, ORNL facilitated the SIRIS FOT at the Greene County Inspection Station (IS) in Greeneville, Tennessee. During the course of the FOT, 413 CMVs were given a North American Standard (NAS) Level-1 inspection. Of those 413 CMVs, 384 were subjected to a SIRIS screening. A total of 36 (9.38%) of the vehicles were flagged by SIRIS as having one or more thermal issues; with brakes issues making up 33 (91.67%) of those. Of the 36 vehicles flagged as having thermal issues, 31 (86.11%) were found to have a violation and 30 (83.33%) of those vehicles were placed out-of-service (OOS). Overall the enforcement personnel who have used SIRIS for screening purposes have had positive feedback on the potential of SIRIS. With improvements in detection algorithms and stability, the system will be beneficial to the CMV enforcement community and increase overall trooper productivity by accurately identifying a higher percentage of CMVs to be placed OOS with minimal error. No future evaluation of SIRIS has been deemed necessary and specifications for a production system will soon be drafted.

  6. Influence of the magnetic field profile on ITER conductor testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, A.; Ilyin, Y.; Kate, ten H.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    We performed simulations with the numerical CUDI-CICC code on a typical short ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) conductor test sample of dual leg configuration, as usually tested in the SULTAN test facility, and made a comparison with the new EFDA-Dipole test facility offering

  7. Table 1. Summary of Field Testing and Measurement Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Key performance parameters measured during the field demonstration such as lining thickness, compressive strength, Flexural Strength, Modulus of Elasticity, bond...

  8. Brick Paving Systems in Expeditionary Environments: Field Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) tests were conducted on each test item as an alternative strength measurement to the in situ CBR tests conducted on the...many passes of the C-17 load before failure. Between 20 and 40 passes, the majority of the bricks in the wheel path began to break or shatter . Figures...American Society for Testing and Materials. 2003. Standard test method for use of the dynamic cone penetrometer in shallow pavement applications

  9. Acute heat stress induces differential gene expressions in the testes of a broiler-type strain of Taiwan country chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Han Wang

    Full Text Available The expression of testicular genes following acute heat stress has been reported in layer-type roosters, but few similar studies have been conducted on broilers. This study investigated the effect of acute heat stress on the gene expression in the testes of a broiler-type strain of Taiwan country chickens. Roosters were subjected to acute heat stress (38°C for 4 h, and then exposed to 25°C, with testes collected 0, 2, and 6 h after the cessation of heat stress, using non-heat-stressed roosters as controls (n = 3 roosters per group. The body temperature and respiratory rate increased significantly (p<0.05 during the heat stress. The numbers of apoptotic cells increased 2 h after the acute heat stress (79 ± 7 vs. 322 ± 192, control vs. heat stress; p<0.05, which was earlier than the time of increase in layer-type roosters. Based on a chicken 44 K oligo microarray, 163 genes were found to be expressed significantly different in the testes of the heat-stressed chickens from those of the controls, including genes involved in the response to stimulus, protein metabolism, signal transduction, cell adhesion, transcription, and apoptosis. The mRNA expressions of upregulated genes, including HSP25, HSP90AA1, HSPA2, and LPAR2, and of downregulated genes, including CDH5, CTNNA3, EHF, CIRBP, SLA, and NTF3, were confirmed through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Moreover, numerous transcripts in the testes exhibited distinct expressions between the heat-stressed broiler-type and layer-type chickens. We concluded that the transcriptional responses of testes to acute heat stress may differ between the broiler-type and layer-type roosters. Whether the differential expression patterns associate with the heat-tolerance in the strains require a further exploration.

  10. Acute heat stress induces differential gene expressions in the testes of a broiler-type strain of Taiwan country chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-Han; Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Tang, Pin-Chi; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Lee, Yen-Pai; Huang, San-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The expression of testicular genes following acute heat stress has been reported in layer-type roosters, but few similar studies have been conducted on broilers. This study investigated the effect of acute heat stress on the gene expression in the testes of a broiler-type strain of Taiwan country chickens. Roosters were subjected to acute heat stress (38°C) for 4 h, and then exposed to 25°C, with testes collected 0, 2, and 6 h after the cessation of heat stress, using non-heat-stressed roosters as controls (n = 3 roosters per group). The body temperature and respiratory rate increased significantly (pheat stress. The numbers of apoptotic cells increased 2 h after the acute heat stress (79 ± 7 vs. 322 ± 192, control vs. heat stress; pchicken 44 K oligo microarray, 163 genes were found to be expressed significantly different in the testes of the heat-stressed chickens from those of the controls, including genes involved in the response to stimulus, protein metabolism, signal transduction, cell adhesion, transcription, and apoptosis. The mRNA expressions of upregulated genes, including HSP25, HSP90AA1, HSPA2, and LPAR2, and of downregulated genes, including CDH5, CTNNA3, EHF, CIRBP, SLA, and NTF3, were confirmed through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Moreover, numerous transcripts in the testes exhibited distinct expressions between the heat-stressed broiler-type and layer-type chickens. We concluded that the transcriptional responses of testes to acute heat stress may differ between the broiler-type and layer-type roosters. Whether the differential expression patterns associate with the heat-tolerance in the strains require a further exploration.

  11. Differential gene expressions in testes of L2 strain Taiwan country chicken in response to acute heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-Han; Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Tang, Pin-Chi; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Lee, Yen-Pai; Huang, San-Yuan

    2013-01-15

    Acute heat stress affects genes involved in spermatogenesis in mammals. However, there is apparently no elaborate research on the effects of acute heat stress on gene expression in avian testes. The purpose of this study was to investigate global gene expression in testes of the L2 strain of Taiwan country chicken after acute heat stress. Twelve roosters, 45 weeks old, were allocated into four groups, including control roosters kept at 25 °C, roosters subjected to 38 °C acute heat stress for 4 hours without recovery, with 2-hour recovery, and with 6-hour recovery, respectively. Testis samples were collected for RNA isolation and microarray analysis. Based on gene expression profiles, 169 genes were upregulated and 140 genes were downregulated after heat stress using a cutoff value of twofold or greater change. Based on gene ontology analysis, differentially expressed genes were mainly related to response to stress, transport, signal transduction, and metabolism. A functional network analysis displayed that heat shock protein genes and related chaperones were the major upregulated groups in chicken testes after acute heat stress. A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of mRNA expressions of HSP70, HSP90AA1, BAG3, SERPINB2, HSP25, DNAJA4, CYP3A80, CIRBP, and TAGLN confirmed the results of the microarray analysis. Because the HSP genes (HSP25, HSP70, and HSP90AA1) and the antiapoptotic BAG3 gene were dramatically altered in heat-stressed chicken testes, we concluded that these genes were important factors in the avian testes under acute heat stress. Whether these genes could be candidate genes for thermotolerance in roosters requires further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Detection of Inorganic Arsenic in Rice Using a Field Test Kit: A Screening Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bralatei, Edi; Lacan, Severine; Krupp, Eva M; Feldmann, Jörg

    2015-11-17

    Rice is a staple food eaten by more than 50% of the world's population and is a daily dietary constituent in most South East Asian countries where 70% of the rice export comes from and where there is a high level of arsenic contamination in groundwater used for irrigation. Research shows that rice can take up and store inorganic arsenic during cultivation, and rice is considered to be one of the major routes of exposure to inorganic arsenic, a class I carcinogen for humans. Here, we report the use of a screening method based on the Gutzeit methodology to detect inorganic arsenic (iAs) in rice within 1 h. After optimization, 30 rice commodities from the United Kingdom market were tested with the field method and were compared to the reference method (high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, HPLC-ICP-MS). In all but three rice samples, iAs compound can be determined. The results show no bias for iAs using the field method. Results obtained show quantification limits of about 50 μg kg(-1), a good reproducibility for a field method of ±12%, and only a few false positives and negatives (<10%) could only be recorded at the 2015 European Commission (EC) guideline for baby rice of 100 μg kg(-1), while none were recorded at the maximum level suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) and implemented by the EC for polished and white rice of 200 μg kg(-1). The method is reliable, fast, and inexpensive; hence, it is suggested to be used as a screening method in the field for preselection of rice which violates legislative guidelines.

  13. [Test Reviews in Child Psychology: Test Users Wish to Obtain Practical Information Relevant to their Respective Field of Work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Gerolf; Irblich, Dieter

    2016-11-01

    Test Reviews in Child Psychology: Test Users Wish to Obtain Practical Information Relevant to their Respective Field of Work This study investigated to what extent diagnosticians use reviews of psychometric tests for children and adolescents, how they evaluate their quality, and what they expect concerning content. Test users (n = 323) from different areas of work (notably social pediatrics, early intervention, special education, speech and language therapy) rated test reviews as one of the most important sources of information. Readers of test reviews value practically oriented descriptions and evaluations of tests that are relevant to their respective field of work. They expect independent reviews that critically discuss opportunities and limits of the tests under scrutiny. The results show that authors of test reviews should not only have a background in test theory but should also be familiar with the practical application of tests in various settings.

  14. An Innovative Field-Applicable Molecular Test to Diagnose Cutaneous Leishmania Viannia spp. Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldarriaga, Omar A.; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Porrozzi, Renato; Baldeviano, Gerald C.; Lescano, Andrés G.; de Los Santos, Maxy B.; Fernandez, Olga L.; Saravia, Nancy G.; Costa, Erika; Melby, Peter C.; Travi, Bruno L.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis is widely distributed in Central and South America. Leishmania of the Viannia subgenus are the most frequent species infecting humans. L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) panamensis are also responsible for metastatic mucosal leishmaniasis. Conventional or real time PCR is a more sensitive diagnostic test than microscopy, but the cost and requirement for infrastructure and trained personnel makes it impractical in most endemic regions. Primary health systems need a sensitive and specific point of care (POC) diagnostic tool. We developed a novel POC molecular diagnostic test for cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) spp. Parasite DNA was amplified using isothermal Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) with primers and probes that targeted the kinetoplast DNA. The amplification product was detected by naked eye with a lateral flow (LF) immunochromatographic strip. The RPA-LF had an analytical sensitivity equivalent to 0.1 parasites per reaction. The test amplified the principal L. Viannia species from multiple countries: L. (V.) braziliensis (n = 33), L. (V.) guyanensis (n = 17), L. (V.) panamensis (n = 9). The less common L. (V.) lainsoni, L. (V.) shawi, and L. (V.) naiffi were also amplified. No amplification was observed in parasites of the L. (Leishmania) subgenus. In a small number of clinical samples (n = 13) we found 100% agreement between PCR and RPA-LF. The high analytical sensitivity and clinical validation indicate the test could improve the efficiency of diagnosis, especially in chronic lesions with submicroscopic parasite burdens. Field implementation of the RPA-LF test could contribute to management and control of cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis. PMID:27115155

  15. An Innovative Field-Applicable Molecular Test to Diagnose Cutaneous Leishmania Viannia spp. Infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A Saldarriaga

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis is widely distributed in Central and South America. Leishmania of the Viannia subgenus are the most frequent species infecting humans. L. (V. braziliensis, L. (V. panamensis are also responsible for metastatic mucosal leishmaniasis. Conventional or real time PCR is a more sensitive diagnostic test than microscopy, but the cost and requirement for infrastructure and trained personnel makes it impractical in most endemic regions. Primary health systems need a sensitive and specific point of care (POC diagnostic tool. We developed a novel POC molecular diagnostic test for cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia spp. Parasite DNA was amplified using isothermal Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA with primers and probes that targeted the kinetoplast DNA. The amplification product was detected by naked eye with a lateral flow (LF immunochromatographic strip. The RPA-LF had an analytical sensitivity equivalent to 0.1 parasites per reaction. The test amplified the principal L. Viannia species from multiple countries: L. (V. braziliensis (n = 33, L. (V. guyanensis (n = 17, L. (V. panamensis (n = 9. The less common L. (V. lainsoni, L. (V. shawi, and L. (V. naiffi were also amplified. No amplification was observed in parasites of the L. (Leishmania subgenus. In a small number of clinical samples (n = 13 we found 100% agreement between PCR and RPA-LF. The high analytical sensitivity and clinical validation indicate the test could improve the efficiency of diagnosis, especially in chronic lesions with submicroscopic parasite burdens. Field implementation of the RPA-LF test could contribute to management and control of cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis.

  16. Field Application of the Micro Biological Survey Method for a Simple and Effective Assessment of the Microbiological Quality of Water Sources in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arienzo, Alyexandra; Sobze, Martin Sanou; Wadoum, Raoul Emeric Guetiya; Losito, Francesca; Colizzi, Vittorio; Antonini, Giovanni

    2015-08-25

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, "safe drinking-water must not represent any significant risk to health over a lifetime of consumption, including different sensitivities that may occur between life stages". Traditional methods of water analysis are usually complex, time consuming and require an appropriately equipped laboratory, specialized personnel and expensive instrumentation. The aim of this work was to apply an alternative method, the Micro Biological Survey (MBS), to analyse for contaminants in drinking water. Preliminary experiments were carried out to demonstrate the linearity and accuracy of the MBS method and to verify the possibility of using the evaluation of total coliforms in 1 mL of water as a sufficient parameter to roughly though accurately determine water microbiological quality. The MBS method was then tested "on field" to assess the microbiological quality of water sources in the city of Douala (Cameroon, Central Africa). Analyses were performed on both dug and drilled wells in different periods of the year. Results confirm that the MBS method appears to be a valid and accurate method to evaluate the microbiological quality of many water sources and it can be of valuable aid in developing countries.

  17. TESTING GALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELD MODELS USING NEAR-INFRARED POLARIMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavel, Michael D.; Clemens, D. P.; Pinnick, A. F., E-mail: pavelmi@bu.edu, E-mail: clemens@bu.edu, E-mail: apinnick@bu.edu [Institute for Astrophysical Research Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Ave, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2012-04-10

    This work combines new observations of NIR starlight linear polarimetry with previously simulated observations in order to constrain dynamo models of the Galactic magnetic field. Polarimetric observations were obtained with the Mimir instrument on the Perkins Telescope in Flagstaff, AZ, along a line of constant Galactic longitude (l = 150 Degree-Sign ) with 17 pointings of the 10' Multiplication-Sign 10' field of view between -75 Degree-Sign < b < 10 Degree-Sign , with more frequent pointings toward the Galactic midplane. A total of 10,962 stars were photometrically measured and 1116 had usable polarizations. The observed distribution of polarization position angles with Galactic latitude and the cumulative distribution function of the measured polarizations are compared to predicted values. While the predictions lack the effects of turbulence and are therefore idealized, this comparison allows significant rejection of A0-type magnetic field models. S0 and disk-even halo-odd magnetic field geometries are also rejected by the observations, but at lower significance. New predictions of spiral-type, axisymmetric magnetic fields, when combined with these new NIR observations, constrain the Galactic magnetic field spiral pitch angle to -6 Degree-Sign {+-} 2 Degree-Sign .

  18. Analysis of enterococci using portable testing equipment for developing countries--variance of Azide NutriDisk medium under variable time and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, S; Watkins, J; Toop, K; Francis, C

    2006-01-01

    This report compares the enterococci count on samples obtained with Azide NutriDisk (AND) (sterile, dehydrated culture medium) and Slanetz and Bartley (SB) medium when exposed to a variable in incubation time and temperature. Three experiments were performed to examine the recovery of enterococci on AND and SB media using membrane filtration with respect to: (a) incubation time; (b) incubation temperature; and (c) a combination of the two. Presumptive counts were observed at 37, 41, 46 and 47 degrees C and at 20, 24, 28 and 48 h. These were compared to AWWA standard method 9230 C (44 degrees C, 44 h). Samples were confirmed using Kanamycin Aesculin Azide (KAA) agar. Friedman's ANOVA and Students t-test analysis indicated higher enumeration of enterococci when grown on AND (p = 0.45) than SB (p = < 0.001) at all temperatures with a survival threshold at 47 degrees C. Significant results for AND medium were noted at 20 h (p = 0.021), 24 h (p = 0.278) and 28 h (p = 0.543). The study concluded that the accuracy of the AND medium at a greater time and temperature range provided flexibility in incubator technology making it an appropriate alternative to SB medium for monitoring drinking water using field testing kits in developing countries.

  19. 78 FR 29698 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing a Canine Lymphoma Vaccine, DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... Service has prepared an environmental assessment concerning authorization to ship for the purpose of field testing, and then to field test, an unlicensed Canine Lymphoma Vaccine, DNA. The environmental assessment... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field...

  20. Field Lysimeter Test Facility: Protective barrier test results (FY 1990, the third year)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, M.D.; Gee, G.W.

    1990-11-01

    The Field Lysimeter Test Facility (FLTF) was constructed to test protective barriers for isolating low-level radioactive and hazardous wastes from the biosphere. Protective barriers are specially configured earth materials placed over near-surface wastes to prevent intrusion of water, plants, and animals. Low-level radioactive waste is stored in near-surface repositories at the Hanford Site and can be transported into the biosphere by water, plants, and animals. The purpose of the FLTF is to measure water balance within barriers as precipitation is partitioned to evaporation (including transpiration), storage, and drainage. Runoff was prevented by raised edges on the lysimeters. Water balance in protective barriers depends on the water-holding capacity of the soil, the gradient of a potential, and the conductivity of the underlying capillary barrier. Current barrier design uses soil with a high water storage capacity and a capillary barrier underlying the soil to increase its water storage capacity. This increased storage capacity is to hold water, which would normally drain, near the the surface where evaporation can cycle it back to the atmosphere. 7 refs., 23 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. A high-resolution aeromagnetic field test in Friuli: towards developing remote location of buried ferro-metallic bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Armadillo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available High Resolution AeroMagnetic surveys (HRAM are a novel tool experimented in several countries for volcano and earthquake hazard re-assessment, ground water exploration and mitigation, hazardous waste site characterization and accurate location of buried ferrous objects (drums, UXO, pipelines. The improvements achieved by HRAM stem from lower terrain clearance coupled with accurately positioned, real-time differential navigation on closely spaced flight grids. In field cultural noise filtering, advanced data processing, imaging and improved interpretation techniques enhance data information content. Development of HRAM approaches might also contribute to mitigate environmental hazards present throughout the Italian territory. Hence an HRAM field test was performed in July 2000 in Friuli, North-Eastern Italy to assess the capabilities and limitations of HRAM over a buried pipeline and a domestic waste site. A Cesium magnetometer in towed bird configuration was used on two separate grids. Profile line spacing was 50-100 m and bird nominal ground clearance was set to 50 m. Microlevelled total field magnetic anomaly data forms the basis for subsequent advanced processing products including 3D analytic signal, maximum horizontal gradient of pseudo-gravity and 3D Euler Deconvolution. The magnetic signatures we detected and enhanced over the environmental test site area in Friuli are also compared with similar but more extensive HRAM signatures recently observed in other countries.

  2. Testing Chameleon Theories with Light Propagating through a Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Brax, P; Davis, A C; Mota, D F; Shaw, D J

    2007-01-01

    It was recently argued that the observed PVLAS anomaly can be explained by chameleon field theories in which large deviations from Newton's law can be avoided. Here we present the predictions for the dichroism and the birefringence induced in the vacuum by a magnetic field in these models. We show that chameleon particles behave very differently from standard axion-like particles (ALPs). We find that, unlike ALPs, the chameleon particles are confined within the experimental set-up. As a consequence, the birefringence is always bigger than the dichroism in PVLAS-type experiments.

  3. A semi-field approach to testing effects of fresh pesticide residues on bees in multiple-rate test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, F.; Calis, J.N.M.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a semi-field cage test specifically designed to test effects of delayed exposure to plant protection products. The trial involved the use of standardised mini-beehives. The principle of the trial was to prepare two groups of potted test plants per treatment. The first group of plants rem

  4. Laboratory and Field Tests of Ultrasonic Sensors for Precision Sprayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reliable function of sensors under rough field conditions is required for the development of variable-rate sprayers to deliver pest control agents to tree liners in ornamental nurseries. Two ultrasonic sensors were examined to identify how their durability and detection stability would be influenced...

  5. Translating laboratory compaction test results to field scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roholl, J.A.; Thienen-Visser, K. van; Breunese, J.N.

    2016-01-01

    In recent studies on the surface subsidence caused by hydrocarbon recovery of the Groningen gas field, the predicted subsidence is overestimated if results of compaction experiments are not corrected by an empirical `upscaling factor'. In order to find an explanation for this `upscaling factor', an

  6. Test of Scintillometer Saturation Correction Methods Using Field Experimental Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleissl, J.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Gomez, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    Saturation of large aperture scintillometer (LAS) signals can result in sensible heat flux measurements that are biased low. A field study with LASs of different aperture sizes and path lengths was performed to investigate the onset of, and corrections for, signal saturation. Saturation already occu

  7. Consensus on Intermediate Scale Salt Field Test Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L; Mills, Melissa Marie; Matteo, Edward N

    2017-03-01

    This report summarizes the first stage in a collaborative effort by Sandia, Los Alamos, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories to design a small-diameter borehole heater test in salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE). The intention is to complete test design during the remainder of fiscal year 2017 (FY17), and the implementation of the test will begin in FY18. This document is the result of regular meetings between the three national labs and the DOE-NE, and is intended to represent a consensus of these meetings and discussions.

  8. Bridging the gaps among research, policy and practice in ten low- and middle-income countries: Development and testing of questionnaire for health-care providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boupha Boungnong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reliability and validity of instruments used to survey health-care providers' views about and experiences with research evidence have seldom been examined. Methods Country teams from ten low- and middle-income countries (China, Ghana, India, Iran, Kazakhstan, Laos, Mexico, Pakistan, Senegal and Tanzania participated in the development, translation, pilot-testing and administration of a questionnaire designed to measure health-care providers' views and activities related to improving their clinical practice and their awareness of, access to and use of research evidence, as well as changes in their clinical practice that they attribute to particular sources of research evidence that they have used. We use internal consistency as a measure of the questionnaire's reliability and, whenever possible, we use explanatory factor analyses to assess the degree to which questions that pertain to a single domain actually address common themes. We assess the questionnaire's face validity and content validity and, to a lesser extent, we also explore its criterion validity. Results The questionnaire has high internal consistency, with Cronbach's alphas between 0.7 and 0.9 for 16 of 20 domains and sub-domains (identified by factor analyses. Cronbach's alphas are greater than 0.9 for two domains, suggesting some item redundancy. Pre- and post-field work assessments indicate the questionnaire has good face validity and content validity. Our limited assessment of criterion validity shows weak but statistically significant associations between the general influence of research evidence among providers and more specific measures of providers' change in approach to preventing or treating a clinical condition. Conclusion Our analysis points to a number of strengths of the questionnaire - high internal consistency (reliability and good face and content validity - but also to areas where it can be shortened without losing important conceptual

  9. Literacy and Access to the Written Culture by Youth and Adults Excluded from the School System . A cross-country field study in nine countries in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Rosa-Maria

    2008-11-01

    LITERACY AND ACCESS TO THE WRITTEN CULTURE BY YOUTH AND ADULTS EXCLUDED FROM THE SCHOOL SYSTEM - The title of this article refers to a field study carried out in 2006-2007 in nine countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. The article summarizes the basic concepts, aims, methodology and findings of the study. In conclusion, the author points out a number of important policy changes that are called for in this domain. While the study itself was carried out in a particular region, the findings have implications for a wider international audience.

  10. Standard Guide for Conducting Corrosion Tests in Field Applications

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers procedures for conducting corrosion tests in plant equipment or systems under operating conditions to evaluate the corrosion resistance of engineering materials. It does not cover electrochemical methods for determining corrosion rates. 1.1.1 While intended primarily for immersion tests, general guidelines provided can be applicable for exposure of test specimens in plant atmospheres, provided that placement and orientation of the test specimens is non-restrictive to air circulation. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. See also 10.4.2.

  11. SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Design and Field Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Jonathan C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Resor, Brian R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Paquette, Joshua A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); White, Jonathan R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-01-29

    This report documents the design, fabrication, and testing of the SMART Rotor. This work established hypothetical approaches for integrating active aerodynamic devices (AADs) into the wind turbine structure and controllers.

  12. Evaluation of changes in weed flora in arable fields of Nordic countries - based on danish long-term surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Christian; Streibig, Jens Carl

    2011-01-01

    During the last 50 years, agricultural productivity has increased tremendously, as have changes in the weed flora. In several European countries, weed surveys have been conducted regularly, of which the most frequent and consistent ones are Danish surveys conducted in 1911–1915, 1945, 1960–1970, ...... efficacy goals for farmers, but it has been partly counteracted by genetic improvement of crops and better management......During the last 50 years, agricultural productivity has increased tremendously, as have changes in the weed flora. In several European countries, weed surveys have been conducted regularly, of which the most frequent and consistent ones are Danish surveys conducted in 1911–1915, 1945, 1960...

  13. Initial field testing definition of subsurface sealing and backfilling tests in unsaturated tuff; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Case, J.B.; Tyburski, J.R. [I. T. Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-05-01

    This report contains an initial definition of the field tests proposed for the Yucca Mountain Project repository sealing program. The tests are intended to resolve various performance and emplacement concerns. Examples of concerns to be addressed include achieving selected hydrologic and structural requirements for seals, removing portions of the shaft liner, excavating keyways, emplacing cementitious and earthen seals, reducing the impact of fines on the hydraulic conductivity of fractures, efficient grouting of fracture zones, sealing of exploratory boreholes, and controlling the flow of water by using engineered designs. Ten discrete tests are proposed to address these and other concerns. These tests are divided into two groups: Seal component tests and performance confirmation tests. The seal component tests are thorough small-scale in situ tests, the intermediate-scale borehole seal tests, the fracture grouting tests, the surface backfill tests, and the grouted rock mass tests. The seal system tests are the seepage control tests, the backfill tests, the bulkhead test in the Calico Hills unit, the large-scale shaft seal and shaft fill tests, and the remote borehole sealing tests. The tests are proposed to be performed in six discrete areas, including welded and non-welded environments, primarily located outside the potential repository area. The final selection of sealing tests will depend on the nature of the geologic and hydrologic conditions encountered during the development of the Exploratory Studies Facility and detailed numerical analyses. Tests are likely to be performed both before and after License Application.

  14. Changes in protein expression in testes of L2 strain Taiwan country chickens in response to acute heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-Han; Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Chen, Chao-Jung; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Tang, Pin-Chi; Chen, Chih-Feng; Lee, Yen-Pai; Huang, San-Yuan

    2014-07-01

    Heat stress causes a decrease of fertility in roosters. Yet, the way acute heat stress affects protein expression remains poorly understood. This study investigated differential protein expression in testes of the L2 strain of Taiwan country chickens following acute heat stress. Twelve 45-week-old roosters were allocated into four groups, including control roosters kept at 25 °C, roosters subjected to 38 °C acute heat stress for 4 hours without recovery, with 2 hours of recovery, and with 6 hours of recovery. Testis samples were collected for morphologic assay and protein analysis. Some of the differentially expressed proteins were validated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Abnormal and apoptotic spermatogenic cells were observed at 2 hours of recovery after acute heat stress, especially among the spermatocytes. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis revealed that 119 protein spots were differentially expressed in chicken testes following heat stress, and peptide mass fingerprinting revealed that these spots contained 92 distinct proteins. In the heat-stressed samples, the heat shock proteins, chaperonin containing t-complex, and proteasome subunits were downregulated, and glutathione S-transferase, transgelin, and DJ-1 were upregulated. Our results demonstrate that acute heat stress impairs the processes of translation, protein folding, and protein degradation, and thus results in apoptosis and interferes with spermatogenesis. On the other hand, the increased expression of antioxidant enzymes, including glutathione S-transferase and DJ-1, may attenuate heat-induced damage. These findings may have implications for breeding chickens that can tolerate more extreme conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Field Jet Erosion Tests on the Mississippi River Collocated Demonstration Section, Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    ER D C/ G SL T R- 15 -1 3 Field Jet Erosion Tests on the Mississippi River Collocated Demonstration Section, Plaquemines Parish...default. ERDC/GSL TR-15-13 June 2015 Field Jet Erosion Tests on the Mississippi River Collocated Demonstration Section, Plaquemines Parish...Prepared for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000 ERDC/GSL TR-15-13 ii Abstract Field jet erosion tests (JETs) were

  16. Field testing the prototype BNL fan-atomized oil burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, R.; Celebi, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-04-01

    BNL has developed a new oil burner design referred to as the Fan Atomized burner System. The primary objective of the field study was to evaluate and demonstrate the reliable operation of the Fan Atomized Burner. The secondary objective was to establish and validate the ability of a low firing rate burner (0.3-0.4 gph) to fully satisfy the heating and domestic hot water load demands of an average household in a climate zone with over 5,000 heating-degree-days. The field activity was also used to evaluate the practicality of side-wall venting with the Fan Atomized Burner with a low stack temperature (300F) and illustrate the potential for very high efficiency with an integrated heating system approach based on the Fan Atomized Burner.

  17. Tests and Field Map of LHCb Dipole Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Losasso, Marcello; Flegel, Wilfried; Giudici, Pierre-Ange; Hernando, Jose Angel; Jamet, Olivier; Lindner, Rolf; Renaud, Jean; Teubert, Frederic

    2005-01-01

    The LHCb experiment at the LHC at CERN is aimed to study CP violation and to measure the rare decays of B-mesons with exceptionally high precision. A 4 Tm dipole magnet is required for particle separation and momentum measurements. The 1600 ton warm magnet with sloping poles was installed and fully commissioned by the end of 2004. It is the first detector magnet of the four LHC experiments to have been aligned and commissioned in its final position. In this paper the magnet installation in the underground cavern of Point 8 and its alignment on the beam line are shortly reviewed. Results of a first magnetic field mapping in the region of the magnet poles and the fringe field in the location of the RICH detectors are presented. The mechanical equipment used for the automatic displacement of the Hall probe array is described together with the precision of the measurements obtained which are compared with TOSCA finite element calculations.

  18. Sound field control for a low-frequency test facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Møller, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The two largest problems in controlling the reproduction of low-frequency sound for psychoacoustic experiments is the effect of the room due to standing waves and the relatively large sound pressure levels needed. Anechoic rooms are limited downward in frequency and distortion may be a problem even...... at moderate levels, while pressure-field playback can give higher sound pressures but is limited upwards in frequency. A new solution that addresses both problems has been implemented in the laboratory of Acoustics, Aalborg University. The solution uses one wall with 20 loudspeakers to generate a plane wave...... that is actively absorbed when it reaches the 20 loudspeakers on the opposing wall. This gives a homogeneous sound field in the majority of the room with a flat frequency response in the frequency range 2-300 Hz. The lowest frequencies are limited to sound pressure levels in the order of 95 dB. If larger levels...

  19. Design and Installation of a Disposal Cell Cover Field Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, C.H. [University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin; Waugh, W.J. [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Grand Junction, Colorado; Albright, W.H. [Desert Research Institute, Reno, Nevada; Smith, G.M. [Geo-Smith Engineering, Grand Junction, Colorado; Bush, R.P. [U.S. Department of Energy, Grand Junction, Colorado

    2011-02-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Legacy Management (LM) initiated a cover assessment project in September 2007 to evaluate an inexpensive approach to enhancing the hydrological performance of final covers for disposal cells. The objective is to accelerate and enhance natural processes that are transforming existing conventional covers, which rely on low-conductivity earthen barriers, into water balance covers, that store water in soil and release it as soil evaporation and plant transpiration. A low conductivity cover could be modified by deliberately blending the upper layers of the cover profile and planting native shrubs. A test facility was constructed at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Disposal Site to evaluate the proposed methodology. The test cover was constructed in two identical sections, each including a large drainage lysimeter. The test cover was constructed with the same design and using the same materials as the existing disposal cell in order to allow for a direct comparison of performance. One test section will be renovated using the proposed method; the other is a control. LM is using the lysimeters to evaluate the effectiveness of the renovation treatment by monitoring hydrologic conditions within the cover profile as well as all water entering and leaving the system. This paper describes the historical experience of final covers employing earthen barrier layers, the design and operation of the lysimeter test facility, testing conducted to characterize the as-built engineering and edaphic properties of the lysimeter soils, the calibration of instruments installed at the test facility, and monitoring data collected since the lysimeters were constructed.

  20. Biotechnology; Managing the Risks of Field Testing Genetically Engineered Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    goals are to minimize risk to public health and the environment while support - ing industrial productivity and competitiveness. In addressing the...jil. initegrat ing t ie( resiults at’ risk mssessitieut %Wit Iti (ugi- livering tia~ andu w~ithI social . (iconiri. and l i u atiii irit-ijis toa c...34authorization to ship [an experimental product] for field trials under controlled conditions... for the purpose of gathering additional information in support

  1. Field Testing of Compartmentalization Methods for Multifamily Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The 2012 IECC has an airtightness requirement of 3 air changes per hour at 50 Pascals test pressure for both single-family and multifamily construction in Climate Zones 3-8. Other programs (LEED, ASHRAE 189, ASHRAE 62.2) have similar or tighter compartmentalization requirements, driving the need for easier and more effective methods of compartmentalization in multifamily buildings. Builders and practitioners have found that fire-resistance rated wall assemblies are a major source of difficulty in air sealing/compartmentalization, particularly in townhouse construction. This problem is exacerbated when garages are “tucked in” to the units and living space is located over the garages. In this project, Building Science Corporation examined the taping of exterior sheathing details to improve air sealing results in townhouse and multifamily construction, when coupled with a better understanding of air leakage pathways. Current approaches are cumbersome, expensive, time consuming, and ineffective; these details were proposed as a more effective and efficient method. The effectiveness of these air sealing methods was tested with blower door testing, including “nulled” or “guarded” testing (adjacent units run at equal test pressure to null out inter-unit air leakage, or “pressure neutralization”). Pressure diagnostics were used to evaluate unit-to-unit connections and series leakage pathways (i.e., air leakage from exterior, into the fire-resistance rated wall assembly, and to the interior).

  2. A systematic review of online interventions for mental health in low and middle income countries : A neglected field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arjadi, R.; Nauta, M.H.; Chowdhary, N.; Bockting, C.L.H.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Low and middle income countries (LMICs) are facing an increase of the impact of mental health problems while confronted with limited resources and limited access to mental health care, known as the ‘mental health gap’. One strategy to reduce the mental health gap would be to utilize the

  3. Exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses under field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, Carolien C B M; van Iwaarden, Alexandra; van Weeren, René; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M

    2014-01-01

    Regular exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses may, as in racing, potentially help to characterise fitness indices in different disciplines and at various competition levels and assist in understanding when a horse is 'fit to compete'. In this review an overview is given of the current state of

  4. Preparing Undergraduate Students for the Major Field Test in Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisalski, Heather Cooper; Helms, Marilyn M.; Whitesell, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Many business programs address the learning of undergraduate students with an exit exam. A reference librarian and the business school faculty created an online test preparation study guide (or LibGuide) which included no-cost resources that were readily available yet academically authoritative to aid students in studying for the Educational…

  5. Data Modeling for Measurements in the Metrology and Testing Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Pavese, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Offers a comprehensive set of modeling methods for data and uncertainty analysis. This work develops methods and computational tools to address general models that arise in practice, allowing for a more valid treatment of calibration and test data and providing an understanding of complex situations in measurement science

  6. Preparing Undergraduate Students for the Major Field Test in Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisalski, Heather Cooper; Helms, Marilyn M.; Whitesell, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Many business programs address the learning of undergraduate students with an exit exam. A reference librarian and the business school faculty created an online test preparation study guide (or LibGuide) which included no-cost resources that were readily available yet academically authoritative to aid students in studying for the Educational…

  7. Exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses under field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, Carolien C B M; van Iwaarden, Alexandra; van Weeren, René|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074628550; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075234394

    2014-01-01

    Regular exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses may, as in racing, potentially help to characterise fitness indices in different disciplines and at various competition levels and assist in understanding when a horse is 'fit to compete'. In this review an overview is given of the current state of

  8. Pilot Implementation: Learning from Field Tests in IS Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzum, Morten; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2012-01-01

    A recurrent problem in information-systems development (ISD) is that many design shortcomings are not detected during development, but first after the system has been delivered and implemented in its intended environment. Pilot implementations appear to promise a way to extend prototyping from...... the laboratory to the field, thereby allowing users to experience a system design under realistic conditions and developers to get feedback from realistic use while the design is still malleable. We characterize pilot implementation, contrast it with prototyping, propose a fiveelement model of pilot...

  9. Solar photovoltaic field tests and applications project. Quarterly technical report, April 1-June 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1979-09-01

    Field tests for a variety of both large and small experimental photovoltaic systems are summarized. Support activities in the areas of power conditioning, control, and storage; materials, processes, and testing; and data acquisition are reviewed. (MHR)

  10. Cosmological tests of an axiverse-inspired quintessence field

    CERN Document Server

    Emami, Razieh; Pradler, Josef; Raccanelli, Alvise; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the string axiverse idea, it has been suggested that the recent transition from decelerated to accelerated cosmic expansion is driven by an axion-like quintessence field with a sub-Planckian decay constant. The scenario requires that the axion field be rather near the maximum of its potential, but is less finely tuned than other explanations of cosmic acceleration. The model is parametrized by an axion decay constant $f$, the axion mass $m$, and an initial misalignment angle $|\\theta_i|$ which is close to $\\pi$. In order to determine the $m$ and $\\theta_{i}$ values consistent with observations, these parameters are mapped onto observables: the Hubble parameter $H(z)$ at and angular diameter distance $d_{A}(z)$ to redshift $z= 0.57$, as well as the angular sound horizon of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Measurements of the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) scale at $z\\simeq 0.57$ by the BOSS survey and Planck measurements of CMB temperature anisotropies are then used to probe the $\\left\\{m,...

  11. Spinning test particles in a Kerr field - I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semerák, O.

    1999-09-01

    Mathisson-Papapetrou equations are solved numerically to obtain trajectories of spinning test particles in (the meridional section of) the Kerr space-time. The supplementary conditions p_σS^μσ=0 are used to close the system of equations. The results show that in principle a spin-curvature interaction may lead to considerable deviations from geodesic motion, although in astrophysical situations of interest probably no large spin effects can be expected for values of spin consistent with a pole-dipole test-particle approximation. However, a significant cumulative effect may occur, e.g. in the inspiral of a spinning particle on to a rotating compact body, that would modify gravitational waves generated by such a system. A thorough literature review is included in the paper.

  12. CX-100 and TX-100 blade field tests.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holman, Adam (USDA-Agriculture Research Service, Bushland, TX); Jones, Perry L.; Zayas, Jose R.

    2005-12-01

    In support of the DOE Low Wind Speed Turbine (LWST) program two of the three Micon 65/13M wind turbines at the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) center in Bushland, Texas will be used to test two sets of experimental blades, the CX-100 and TX-100. The blade aerodynamic and structural characterization, meteorological inflow and wind turbine structural response will be monitored with an array of 75 instruments: 33 to characterize the blades, 15 to characterize the inflow, and 27 to characterize the time-varying state of the turbine. For both tests, data will be sampled at a rate of 30 Hz using the ATLAS II (Accurate GPS Time-Linked Data Acquisition System) data acquisition system. The system features a time-synchronized continuous data stream and telemetered data from the turbine rotor. This paper documents the instruments and infrastructure that have been developed to monitor these blades, turbines and inflow.

  13. Testing Einstein's Equivalence Principle with Supercluster Laniakea's Gravitational Field

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Zhi-Xing; Zhang, Bo; Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Comparing the parameterized post-Newtonian parameter $\\gamma$ values for different types of particles, or the same type of particles with different energies is an important method to test the Einstein Equivalence Principle (EEP). Assuming that the observed time delays are dominated by the gravitational potential of the Laniakea supercluster of galaxies, better results of EEP constraints can be obtained. In this paper, we apply photons from three kinds of cosmic transients, including TeV blaza...

  14. External quality assurance for HIV point-of-care testing in Africa: A collaborative country-partner approach to strengthen diagnostic services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debrah I. Boeras

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It is important to consider the role of diagnostics and the critical need for quality diagnostics services in resource-limited settings. Accurate diagnostic tests play a key role in patient management and the prevention and control of most infectious diseases. As countries plan for implementation of HIV early infant diagnosis and viral load point-of-care testing, the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine has worked with countries and partners with an interest in external quality assurance to support quality point-of-care testing on the continent. Through a series of collaborative consultations and workshops, the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine has gathered lessons learned, tools, and resources and developed quality assurance models that will support point-of-care testing. The London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine is committed to the continued advancement of laboratory diagnostics in Africa and quality laboratory services and point-of-care testing.

  15. External quality assurance for HIV point-of-care testing in Africa: A collaborative country-partner approach to strengthen diagnostic services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeras, Debrah I; Peeling, Rosanna W

    2016-01-01

    It is important to consider the role of diagnostics and the critical need for quality diagnostics services in resource-limited settings. Accurate diagnostic tests play a key role in patient management and the prevention and control of most infectious diseases. As countries plan for implementation of HIV early infant diagnosis and viral load point-of-care testing, the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine has worked with countries and partners with an interest in external quality assurance to support quality point-of-care testing on the continent. Through a series of collaborative consultations and workshops, the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine has gathered lessons learned, tools, and resources and developed quality assurance models that will support point-of-care testing. The London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine is committed to the continued advancement of laboratory diagnostics in Africa and quality laboratory services and point-of-care testing.

  16. Manganese Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sousa Galito

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cheickna Bounajim Cissé wrote an article in Mars 2013 in the Journal Les Afriques N. º 237, suggesting a new acronym, MANGANESE, for the nine African countries: Morocco, Angola, Namibia, Ghana, Algeria, Nigeria, Egypt, South Africa and Ethiopia. According to Cissé, this group of African nations will be the fastest growing states in the region over the next few years. The purpose of this article is to test the pertinence of the acronym, discuss the credibility and reliability of the future prospects of these countries by comparing selected socioeconomic and sociopolitical indicators based on the latest global rankings and trends. Likewise, the potential of Cissé's claim will be assessed, especially in relationship to drug trafficking and terrorism that may put their recent sustainability in danger now and in the future.

  17. Laboratory and field tests of corrosion inhibitors for an offshore application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skjerve, Sofie; Fuhr, Geir Gundersen; Haldogaard, Geir

    2006-03-15

    Statoil started a R and D-project in 2002 where the goal was to implement environmental friendly corrosion control at a Statoil operated oil producing field. In this project the following tasks have been addressed: 1) Reduction of the chemical consumption. 2) Documentation of the discharge level of the corrosion inhibitor. 3) Documentation of the environmental impact. 4) Development of new environmentally friendly acceptable corrosion inhibitors. 5) Laboratory and field testing of new corrosion inhibitors. This paper describes laboratory and field tests of corrosion inhibitors for this project. The field tests were carried out on an offshore oil producing installation in the North Sea. Five corrosion inhibitor suppliers with totally eleven products were taking part in this test. All the products were tested in the laboratory. The four most promising products from the laboratory tests were tested in the field during a fourteen days offshore test. Only one of the tested products gave satisfactory results from the corrosion field test. Corrosion measurements were performed both with a Zero Resistance Ammetry (ZRA) probe installed directly into a flow line and with two side streams units. One side stream unit was connected upstream the test separator and the other unit was connected downstream the test separator. (author) (tk)

  18. Exploration 3-D Seismic Field Test/Native Tribes Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Herbert B.; Chen, K.C.; Guo, Genliang; Johnson, W.I.; Reeves,T.K.; Sharma,Bijon

    1999-04-27

    To determine current acquisition procedures and costs and to further the goals of the President's Initiative for Native Tribes, a seismic-survey project is to be conducted on Osage tribal lands. The goals of the program are to demonstrate the capabilities, costs, and effectiveness of 3-D seismic work in a small-operator setting and to determine the economics of such a survey. For these purposes, typical small-scale independent-operator practices are being followed and a shallow target chose in an area with a high concentration of independent operators. The results will be analyzed in detail to determine if there are improvements and/or innovations which can be easily introduced in field-acquisition procedures, in processing, or in data manipulation and interpretation to further reduce operating costs and to make the system still more active to the small-scale operator.

  19. Pilot Implementation: Learning from Field Tests in IS Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzum, Morten; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2012-01-01

    A recurrent problem in information-systems development (ISD) is that many design shortcomings are not detected during development, but first after the system has been delivered and implemented in its intended environment. Pilot implementations appear to promise a way to extend prototyping from...... the laboratory to the field, thereby allowing users to experience a system design under realistic conditions and developers to get feedback from realistic use while the design is still malleable. We characterize pilot implementation, contrast it with prototyping, propose a fiveelement model of pilot...... implementation and provide three empirical illustrations of our model. We conclude that pilot implementation has much merit as an ISD technique when system performance is contingent on context. But we also warn developers that, despite their seductive conceptual simplicity, pilot implementations can be difficult...

  20. Hanle Effect Diagnostics of the Coronal Magnetic Field - A Test Using Realistic Magnetic Field Configurations

    CERN Document Server

    Raouafi, N -E; Wiegelmann, T

    2008-01-01

    Our understanding of coronal phenomena, such as coronal plasma thermodynamics, faces a major handicap caused by missing coronal magnetic field measurements. Several lines in the UV wavelength range present suitable sensitivity to determine the coronal magnetic field via the Hanle effect. The latter is a largely unexplored diagnostic of coronal magnetic fields with a very high potential. Here we study the magnitude of the Hanle-effect signal to be expected outside the solar limb due to the Hanle effect in polarized radiation from the H {\\sc{i}} Ly$\\alpha$ and $\\beta$ lines, which are among the brightest lines in the off-limb coronal FUV spectrum. For this purpose we use a magnetic field structure obtained by extrapolating the magnetic field starting from photospheric magnetograms. The diagnostic potential of these lines for determining the coronal magnetic field, as well as their limitations are studied. We show that these lines, in particular H {\\sc{i}} Ly$\\beta$, are useful for such measurements.

  1. From emerging country to a leading role in the scientific and technological field? Analysis of the internationalization of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, C.; De Filippo, D.; Sanz-Casado, E

    2016-07-01

    Since 2002 the term BRIC was created to refer to a group of emerging countries with a growing economy, Brazil has been getting even more recognition in the international sphere. This date can be considered as a turning point for analyzing the process by which this country has passed (Bernal Meza, 2015). Overall it is possible to observe, first, an accelerated economic growth period followed very closely by a scientific and technological significant growth stage (Glanzel, Leta, Thijs, 2006). This second stage has been encouraged by numerous policies which main objectives were: promote the expansion of higher education, promote the internationalization of Research, Development and Innovation (R&D&I) and increase the quality and the visibility of Science and Technology (S&T). (Author)

  2. Field Testing of Compartmentalization Methods for Multifamily Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. W. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) has an airtightness requirement of 3 air changes per hour at 50 Pascals test pressure (3 ACH50) for single-family and multifamily construction (in climate zones 3–8). The Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design certification program and ASHRAE Standard 189 have comparable compartmentalization requirements. ASHRAE Standard 62.2 will soon be responsible for all multifamily ventilation requirements (low rise and high rise); it has an exceptionally stringent compartmentalization requirement. These code and program requirements are driving the need for easier and more effective methods of compartmentalization in multifamily buildings.

  3. Horizontal Drilling System (HDS) Field Test Report - FY 91

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    document hcV teen Qppo•ved "to, public Uelease and s•le- its A series of horizontal drilling tests were conducted by the Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory...MONDAY TUESDAY WEDNESDAY THURSDAY FRIDAY SATURDAY 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 BC MOBIUZE TO ROCKSTE B 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 MOB[UZE TO ROCKS [TE 0 16 17 18 19 20 121 22 Jw...drill pipe, a second failure occurred. The unit failed due to ingestion of debris (small rocks and foreign particles) causing the SDH internal motor to

  4. Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test: LDV Measured Flow Field Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podboy, Gary C.; Krupar, Martin J.; Hughes, Christopher E.; Woodward, Richard P.

    2003-01-01

    Results are presented of an experiment conducted to investigate potential sources of noise in the flow developed by two 22-in. diameter turbofan models. The R4 and M5 rotors that were tested were designed to operate at nominal take-off speeds of 12,657 and 14,064 RPMC, respectively. Both fans were tested with a common set of swept stators installed downstream of the rotors. Detailed measurements of the flows generated by the two were made using a laser Doppler velocimeter system. The wake flows generated by the two rotors are illustrated through a series of contour plots. These show that the two wake flows are quite different, especially in the tip region. These data are used to explain some of the differences in the rotor/stator interaction noise generated by the two fan stages. In addition to these wake data, measurements were also made in the R4 rotor blade passages. These results illustrate the tip flow development within the blade passages, its migration downstream, and (at high rotor speeds) its merging with the blade wake of the adjacent (following) blade. Data also depict the variation of this tip flow with tip clearance. Data obtained within the rotor blade passages at high rotational speeds illustrate the variation of the mean shock position across the different blade passages.

  5. Second Field Test of the AEL Measure of School Capacity for Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copley, Lisa D.; Meehan, Merrill L.; Howley, Caitlin W.; Hughes, Georgia K.

    2005-01-01

    The major purpose of the second field test of the AEL MSCI instrument was to assess the psychometric properties of the refined version with a larger, more diverse group of respondents. The first objective of this field test was to expand the four-point Likert-type response scale to six points in order to yield more variance in responses. The…

  6. Field Testing Pulsed Power Inverters in Welding Operations to Control Heavy Metal Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    FINAL REPORT Field Testing Pulsed Power Inverters in Welding Operations to Control Heavy Metal Emissions ESTCP Project WP-200212...PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER Field Testing Pulsed Power Inverters in Welding Operations to Control Heavy Metal Emissions 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  7. The Major Field Test in Business: A Solution to the Problem of Assurance of Learning Assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jeffrey J.; Stone, Courtenay Clifford; Zegeye, Abera

    2014-01-01

    Colleges and universities are being asked by numerous sources to provide assurance of learning assessments of their students and programs. Colleges of business have responded by using a plethora of assessment tools, including the Major Field Test in Business. In this article, the authors show that the use of the Major Field Test in Business for…

  8. Automated Critical Peak Pricing Field Tests: Program Descriptionand Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David; Motegi, Naoya; Kiliccote, Sila; Xu, Peng

    2006-04-06

    California utilities have been exploring the use of critical peak prices (CPP) to help reduce needle peaks in customer end-use loads. CPP is a form of price-responsive demand response (DR). Recent experience has shown that customers have limited knowledge of how to operate their facilities in order to reduce their electricity costs under CPP (Quantum 2004). While the lack of knowledge about how to develop and implement DR control strategies is a barrier to participation in DR programs like CPP, another barrier is the lack of automation of DR systems. During 2003 and 2004, the PIER Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) conducted a series of tests of fully automated electric demand response (Auto-DR) at 18 facilities. Overall, the average of the site-specific average coincident demand reductions was 8% from a variety of building types and facilities. Many electricity customers have suggested that automation will help them institutionalize their electric demand savings and improve their overall response and DR repeatability. This report focuses on and discusses the specific results of the Automated Critical Peak Pricing (Auto-CPP, a specific type of Auto-DR) tests that took place during 2005, which build on the automated demand response (Auto-DR) research conducted through PIER and the DRRC in 2003 and 2004. The long-term goal of this project is to understand the technical opportunities of automating demand response and to remove technical and market impediments to large-scale implementation of automated demand response (Auto-DR) in buildings and industry. A second goal of this research is to understand and identify best practices for DR strategies and opportunities. The specific objectives of the Automated Critical Peak Pricing test were as follows: (1) Demonstrate how an automated notification system for critical peak pricing can be used in large commercial facilities for demand response (DR). (2) Evaluate effectiveness of such a system. (3) Determine how customers

  9. Automated Critical Peak Pricing Field Tests: Program Descriptionand Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David; Motegi, Naoya; Kiliccote, Sila; Xu, Peng

    2006-04-06

    California utilities have been exploring the use of critical peak prices (CPP) to help reduce needle peaks in customer end-use loads. CPP is a form of price-responsive demand response (DR). Recent experience has shown that customers have limited knowledge of how to operate their facilities in order to reduce their electricity costs under CPP (Quantum 2004). While the lack of knowledge about how to develop and implement DR control strategies is a barrier to participation in DR programs like CPP, another barrier is the lack of automation of DR systems. During 2003 and 2004, the PIER Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) conducted a series of tests of fully automated electric demand response (Auto-DR) at 18 facilities. Overall, the average of the site-specific average coincident demand reductions was 8% from a variety of building types and facilities. Many electricity customers have suggested that automation will help them institutionalize their electric demand savings and improve their overall response and DR repeatability. This report focuses on and discusses the specific results of the Automated Critical Peak Pricing (Auto-CPP, a specific type of Auto-DR) tests that took place during 2005, which build on the automated demand response (Auto-DR) research conducted through PIER and the DRRC in 2003 and 2004. The long-term goal of this project is to understand the technical opportunities of automating demand response and to remove technical and market impediments to large-scale implementation of automated demand response (Auto-DR) in buildings and industry. A second goal of this research is to understand and identify best practices for DR strategies and opportunities. The specific objectives of the Automated Critical Peak Pricing test were as follows: (1) Demonstrate how an automated notification system for critical peak pricing can be used in large commercial facilities for demand response (DR). (2) Evaluate effectiveness of such a system. (3) Determine how customers

  10. Secular trends in the performance of children and adolescents (1980-2000): an analysis of 55 studies of the 20m shuttle run test in 11 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkinson, Grant R; Léger, Luc A; Olds, Tim S; Cazorla, Georges

    2003-01-01

    It is widely believed that the performance of children and adolescents on aerobic fitness tests is declining. To test this hypothesis, this meta-analysis compared the results of 55 reports of the performance of children and adolescents aged 6-19 years who have used the 20m shuttle run test (20mSRT). All data were collected in the period 1981-2000. Following corrections for methodological variation, the results of all studies were expressed using the common metric of running speed (km/h) at the last completed stage. Raw data were combined with pseudodata generated from reported means and standard deviations using Monte Carlo simulation. Where data were available on children and adolescents from the same country of the same age and sex, but tested at different times, linear regression was used to calculate rates of change. This was possible for 11 (mainly developed) countries, representing a total of 129,882 children and adolescents in 151 age x sex x country slices. There has been a significant decline in performance in the 11 countries where data were available, and in most age x sex groups, with a sample-weighted mean decline of 0.43% of mean values per year. The decline was most marked in older age groups and the rate of decline was similar for boys and girls. There has been a very rapid secular decline in the 20mSRT performance of children and adolescents over the last 20 years, at least in developed countries. The rate of decline is not related to the change in the country's relative wealth, as quantified by per capita gross domestic product (GDP).

  11. Brine treatment test for reinjection on Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado, R.; Mercado, S.; Gamino, H. (Departamento de Geotermia, Division de Fuentes de Energia, Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Justo Sierra y Herreros Sur 2098-Altos C.P. 21020, Mexicali, B.C. (MX))

    1989-01-01

    Reinjection of disposal brine from the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Power Plant System is attractive mainly because, on top of solving the brine disposal problem, it may significantly contribute to extend the reservoir useful lifetime, through thermal and hydraulic recharge. Because the high concentration of colloidal silica in the disposal brine, laboratory and pilot plant tests were conducted in order to develop the brine treatment process. Addition of 20-40 mg/1 lime to flashed and aged brine for 10-20 minutes yields a clarified brine relatively low in suspended solids (10-30 mg/1) when the over flow rate is 38.5 1/min-m/sup 2/. 1.1 mills/kWh was the estimated cost for treatment of 800 kg/s of separated brine from the Cerro Prieto I power station.

  12. Spinning test particles in a Kerr field - II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrian, K.; Semerák, O.

    2007-12-01

    The motion of small spinning free test bodies is usually treated within the `pole-dipole' approximation, which - in general relativity - leads to Mathisson-Papapetrou (MP) equations. These have to be supplemented by three side constraints in order to provide a unique solution. Several different `spin conditions' have been proposed and used in the literature, each leading to different worldlines. In a previous paper, we integrated the MP equations with the pσSμσ = 0 condition numerically in Kerr space-time and illustrated the effect of the spin-curvature interaction by comparing the trajectories obtained for various spin magnitudes. Here we also consider other spin conditions and clarify their interrelations analytically as well as numerically on particular trajectories. The notion of a `minimal worldtube' is introduced in order to judge the individual supplementary conditions and to expose the limitations of the pole-dipole approximation.

  13. Field Load Acquisition and variable amplitude fatigue testing on maxi-scooter motorcycles

    OpenAIRE

    Petrone, N.; M. Saraceni

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the present work was the instrumentation of a maxi scooter for the field collection of service loads acting on the scooter main components such as frame, fork, handlebar, rear frame and suspension. Service loads were collected on an instrumented Yamaha Tmax scooter equipped with 22 channels during a set of field tests that were representing a predefined road mix, covering a mileage of 270 km. Field load histories were used to develop an accelerated test procedure for the ac...

  14. Marital status, nation marital status composition, and self-assessed health: A multilevel test of four hypotheses in 29 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijts, T.H.M.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines to what extent the often found association between marital status and self-assessed health is influenced by the marital composition of the country people live in. Four hypotheses explaining why the national marital status composition may be influential are derived and tested. Whe

  15. Immigrant self-employment : testing hypotheses about the role of origin- and host country human capital and bonding and bridging social capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanas, A.M.; Tubergen, F.A. van; Lippe, T. van der

    2009-01-01

    Using large-scale data on immigrants in the Netherlands, the authors tested competing arguments about the role of origin- and host-country human capital and bonding and bridging social capital in immigrants’ self-employment. When taking job-skill level into account, immigrants with a higher level of

  16. Immigrant self-employment : testing hypotheses about the role of origin- and host country human capital and bonding and bridging social capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanas, A.M.; Tubergen, F.A. van; Lippe, T. van der

    2009-01-01

    Using large-scale data on immigrants in the Netherlands, the authors tested competing arguments about the role of origin- and host-country human capital and bonding and bridging social capital in immigrants’ self-employment. When taking job-skill level into account, immigrants with a higher level of

  17. Immigrant self-employment: Testing hypotheses about the role of origin- and host-country human capital and bonding and bridging social capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanas, A.M.; Tubergen, F.A. van; Lippe, A.G. van der

    2009-01-01

    Using large-scale data on immigrants in the Netherlands, the authors tested competing arguments about the role of origin- and host-country human capital and bonding and bridging social capital in immigrants' self-employment. When taking job-skill level into account, immigrants with a higher level of

  18. Field test of new poplar clone in Shangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Guang-hua; JIANG Yue-zhong; QIAO Yu-ling; B.Nottola

    2003-01-01

    Poplar is one of the dominant tree species for the establishment of fast growing plantations in Shandong Province. Eighteen poplar clones belonging to Populus aigeiros section were introduced from Italy, Turkey and domestic regions. Populus deltoides cv. 'Lux' I-69/55 (I-69), which was widely used in Shandong Province, China, was taken as control clone (I-69). Following a randomized complete block design, seedling test and controlled afforestation trials were carried out at Juxian County, Caoxian County and Laiyang City. The results showed that the poplar clone (Populus × euramericana cv. '102/74'), namely 102/74, performed well both in terms of adaptability and growth rate. The mean height of 13.9 m (H), diameter at breast height of 18.0 cm (DBH) and volume growth of 0.1445 m3 (V) were 2.2 %, 21.6% and 52.9 % higher than those of I-69 (CK), respectively, at the age of 5 years at three experimental sites. Moreover, the clone can be propagated easily and showed high resistance to poplar disease, pest as well as salinity and had longer growing period. Furthermore, wood basic density and fiber length of new poplar clone (102/74) were as same as I-69 (CK). It was concluded that the selected clone (102/74) was ideal for the establishment of fast-growing poplar plantations, especially for the pulpwood plantations in Shandong Province.

  19. A portable and affordable extensional rheometer for field testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmark, Bart; Bryan, Matthew; Bosson, Ed; Butler, Simon; Hoier, Tom; Magens, Ole; Pistre, Nicolas; Pratt, Lee; Ward, Betsy-Ann; Wibberley, Sam; Wilson, D. Ian

    2016-12-01

    Extensional shear testing is often needed to characterise the behaviour of complex fluids found in industry and nature. Traditional extensional rheometers are typically expensive, fragile and heavy and are only suited to making measurements in a laboratory environment. For some applications, it is necessary to make in situ rheological measurements where, for example, fluid properties change rapidly over time or where laboratory facilities are unavailable. This paper reports the development and validation of an inexpensive, lightweight and robust ‘open source’ extensional rheometer, Seymour II. Validation was carried out experimentally and computationally. Measurements on a Newtonian fluid (492 mPa s Brookfield silicone oil) yielded results of 510  ±  51 mPa s; these are comfortably within the range of  ±10% which other authors have quoted for extensional techniques using laboratory rheometers. Comparison of the observed filament thinning dynamics to those obtained using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) gave good qualitative agreement. Use of Seymour II at the University of Cambridge Botanic Gardens revealed that the mucilage of the ‘crane flower’, Strelitzia reginae, was a viscoelastic fluid whose extensional response could be described by a two-mode Giesekus equation. Engineering drawings and image analysis code for Seymour II are available for download at the project website, www.seymourII.org/.

  20. Approaches for scaling up human immunodeficiency virus testing and counseling in prevention of mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus transmission settings in resource-limited countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolu, Omotayo O; Allread, Virginia; Creek, Tracy; Stringer, Elizabeth; Forna, Fatu; Bulterys, Marc; Shaffer, Nathan

    2007-09-01

    Prevention of mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission (PMTCT) programs have nearly eliminated mother-to-child transmission of HIV in developed countries, but progress in resource-limited countries has been slow. A key factor limiting the scale-up of PMTCT programs is lack of knowledge of HIV serostatus. Increasing the availability and acceptability of HIV testing and counseling services will encourage more women to learn their status, providing a gateway to PMTCT interventions. Key factors contributing to the scale-up of testing and counseling include a policy of provider-initiated testing and counseling with right to refuse (opt-out); group pretest counseling; rapid HIV testing; innovative staffing strategies; and community and male involvement. Integration of testing and counseling within the community and all maternal and child health settings are critical for scaling-up and for linking women and their families to care and treatment services. This paper will review best practices needed for expansion of testing and counseling in PMTCT settings in resource-limited countries.

  1. Impact of Acoustic Standing Waves on Structural Responses: Reverberant Acoustic Testing (RAT) vs. Direct Field Acoustic Testing (DFAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolaini, Ali R.; Doty, Benjamin; Chang, Zensheu

    2012-01-01

    Loudspeakers have been used for acoustic qualification of spacecraft, reflectors, solar panels, and other acoustically responsive structures for more than a decade. Limited measurements from some of the recent speaker tests used to qualify flight hardware have indicated significant spatial variation of the acoustic field within the test volume. Also structural responses have been reported to differ when similar tests were performed using reverberant chambers. To address the impact of non-uniform acoustic field on structural responses, a series of acoustic tests were performed using a flat panel and a 3-ft cylinder exposed to the field controlled by speakers and repeated in a reverberant chamber. The speaker testing was performed using multi-input-single-output (MISO) and multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) control schemes with and without the test articles. In this paper the spatial variation of the acoustic field due to acoustic standing waves and their impacts on the structural responses in RAT and DFAT (both using MISO and MIMO controls for DFAT) are discussed in some detail.

  2. [Testing the comparability of free-field and HDA200 headphone measurements for the Freiburg speech test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, C; Wardenga, N; Lenarz, T; Büchner, A

    2014-02-01

    In clinical practice, the standardized Freiburg speech test is presented via headphones as well as via loudspeakers. To achieve comparable results with both presentation modes, the headphone measurements are equated to the free-field situation. The free-field correction is determined by subjective loudness balance measurements and realized by a free-field equalizer network and a broadband frequency correction value during headphone calibration. Using the Freiburg speech test, this study tested the comparability of free-field and HDA200 headphone measurements. In 15 normal hearing subjects, the Freiburg speech intelligibility test was performed using both loudspeakers and HDA200 headphones. The 50% speech reception threshold measured using HDA200 headphones was on average 5.1 dB lower than for loudspeakers and lay below the standardized reference values. The desired comparability to free-field measurements could not be shown for the HDA200 headphones. The improved intelligibility via HDA200 is probably caused by the fact that the calibration correction factor of 4 dB is too high. This should be checked by the PTB.

  3. Combined Experiment Phase 1. [Horizontal axis wind turbines: wind tunnel testing versus field testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butterfield, C.P.; Musial, W.P.; Simms, D.A.

    1992-10-01

    How does wind tunnel airfoil data differ from the airfoil performance on an operating horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) The National Renewable Energy laboratory has been conducting a comprehensive test program focused on answering this question and understanding the basic fluid mechanics of rotating HAWT stall aerodynamics. The basic approach was to instrument a wind rotor, using an airfoil that was well documented by wind tunnel tests, and measure operating pressure distributions on the rotating blade. Based an the integrated values of the pressure data, airfoil performance coefficients were obtained, and comparisons were made between the rotating data and the wind tunnel data. Care was taken to the aerodynamic and geometric differences between the rotating and the wind tunnel models. This is the first of two reports describing the Combined Experiment Program and its results. This Phase I report covers background information such as test setup and instrumentation. It also includes wind tunnel test results and roughness testing.

  4. The Workplace Experiences of Beginning Teachers in Three Countries: A Message for Initial Teacher Education from the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Anna Elizabeth; Sunde, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Previous research indicates that beginning teachers are not fully prepared for what awaits them in the workforce. This study highlights the value of partnerships among higher education providers, schools and employers and links the experiences of beginning teachers to initial teacher education (ITE). Real-life experiences from the field provide…

  5. Testing Pooled Sputum with Xpert MTB/RIF for Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis To Increase Affordability in Low-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurrahman, Saddiq T; Mbanaso, Omezikam; Lawson, Lovett; Oladimeji, Olanrewaju; Blakiston, Matthew; Obasanya, Joshua; Dacombe, Russell; Adams, Emily R; Emenyonu, Nnamdi; Sahu, Suvanand; Creswell, Jacob; Cuevas, Luis E

    2015-08-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a global public health problem, with the highest burden occurring in low-income countries. In these countries, the use of more sensitive diagnostics, such as Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert), is still limited by costs. A cost-saving strategy to diagnose other diseases is to pool samples from various individuals and test them with single tests. The samples in positive pool samples are then retested individually to identify the patients with the disease. We assessed a pooled testing strategy to optimize the affordability of Xpert for the diagnosis of TB. Adults with presumptive TB attending hospitals or identified by canvassing of households in Abuja, Nigeria, were asked to provide sputum for individual and pooled (4 per pool) testing. The agreement of the results of testing of individual and pooled samples and costs were assessed. A total of 738 individuals submitted samples, with 115 (16%) being Mycobacterium tuberculosis positive. Valid Xpert results for individual and pooled samples were available for 718 specimens. Of these, testing of pooled samples detected 109 (96%) of 114 individual M. tuberculosis-positive samples, with the overall agreement being 99%. Xpert semiquantitative M. tuberculosis levels had a positive correlation with the smear grades, and the individual sample-positive/pooled sample-negative results were likely due to the M. tuberculosis concentration being below the detection limit. The strategy reduced cartridge costs by 31%. Savings were higher with samples from individuals recruited in the community, where the proportion of positive specimens was low. The results of testing of pooled samples had a high level of agreement with the results of testing of individual samples, and use of the pooled testing strategy reduced costs and has the potential to increase the affordability of Xpert in countries with limited resources. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Molecular-based isothermal tests for field diagnosis of malaria and their potential contribution to malaria elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriero, Eniyou C; Jacobs, Jan; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Nwakanma, Davis; D'Alessandro, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    In countries where malaria transmission has decreased substantially, thanks to the scale-up of control interventions, malaria elimination may be feasible. Nevertheless, this goal requires new strategies such as the active detection and treatment of infected individuals. As the detection threshold for the currently used diagnostic methods is 100 parasites/μL, most low-density, asymptomatic infections able to maintain transmission cannot be detected. Identifying them by molecular methods such as PCR is a possible option but the field deployment of these tests is problematic. Isothermal amplification of nucleic acids (at a constant temperature) offers the opportunity of addressing some of the challenges related to the field deployment of molecular diagnostic methods. One of the novel isothermal amplification methods for which a substantial amount of work has been done is the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay. The present review describes LAMP and several other isothermal nucleic acid amplification methods, such as thermophilic helicase-dependent amplification, strand displacement amplification, recombinase polymerase amplification and nucleic acid sequence-based amplification, and explores their potential use as high-throughput, field-based molecular tests for malaria diagnosis.

  7. Consistency and inconsistency in testing biomarkers in breast cancer. A GRELL study in cut-off variability in the Romance language countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Caldarella, Adele; Ferretti, Stefano; Ardanaz, Eva; Arveux, Patrick; Bara, Simona; Barrios, Enrique; Bento, Maria J; Bordoni, Andrea; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Candela, Giuseppina; Colombani, Françoise; Delafosse, Patricia; Federico, Massimo; Francart, Julie; Giacomin, Adriano; Grosclaude, Pascale; Guizard, Anne V; Izarzugaza, Isabel; Konzelmann, Isabelle; La Rosa, Francesco; Lapotre, Benedicte; Leone, Nathalie; Ligier, Karine; Mangone, Lucia; Marcos-Gragera, R; Martinez, Ruth; Michelena, Maria J; Michiara, Maria; Miranda, Ana; Molinié, Florence; Mugarza-Gomez, Conception; Paci, Eugenio; Piffer, Silvano; Puig-Vives, Montserrat; Sacchettini, Claudio; Sánchez, Maria J; Traina, Adele; Tretarre, Brigitte; Tumino, Rosario; Van Vaerenbergh, Elke; Velten, Michel; Woronoff, Anne S

    2013-08-01

    Biological markers are crucial factors in order to differentiate female breast cancers and to determine the right therapy. This study aims at evaluating whether testing for biomarkers for female breast cancer has similar frequency and characteristics across and within countries. Population-based cancer registries of the Association for cancer registration and epidemiology in Romance language countries (GRELL) were asked to complete a questionnaire on biomarkers testing. The data collected referred to invasive female breast cancer cases diagnosed between 2004 and 2009. The investigation focused on 1) the overexpression and amplification of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 oncogene (HER2); 2) the expression of oestrogen (ER) and progesterone (PgR) receptors; and 3) the proliferation index (PI). Weighted percentages, the heterogeneity among and within countries, and the correlation between responses and calendar years were evaluated. The study was based on 19,644 breast cancers. Overall, 85.9% of the cases were tested for HER2, 91.8% for both ER and PgR, and 74.1% for proliferative markers. For HER2 and ER-PgR, the frequency of testing increased from 2004 to 2009. Testing varied among countries (HER2 from 82.0% to 95.9%, ER-PgR from 89.3% to 98.9%, PI from 10% to 92%) and also within the same country (e.g. HER2 in Italy from 51% to 99%) as well as within single cancer registries. The most relevant differences were in the scores for positive/negative/not clearly defined HER2 (e.g. HER2 was defined positive if IHC 3+ in 21/33 registries), and in the cut-off of positive cells for ER/PgR (from >0% to >30%) and PI positivity (from >0% to >20%). Biological markers are widely tested in the Romance language countries; however, the parameters defining their positivity may vary, raising concerns about homogeneity in breast cancer classification and treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Laboratory capacity building for the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005] in resource-poor countries: the experience of the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukanga David

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Laboratory is one of the core capacities that countries must develop for the implementation of the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005] since laboratory services play a major role in all the key processes of detection, assessment, response, notification, and monitoring of events. While developed countries easily adapt their well-organized routine laboratory services, resource-limited countries need considerable capacity building as many gaps still exist. In this paper, we discuss some of the efforts made by the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET in supporting laboratory capacity development in the Africa region. The efforts range from promoting graduate level training programs to building advanced technical, managerial and leadership skills to in-service short course training for peripheral laboratory staff. A number of specific projects focus on external quality assurance, basic laboratory information systems, strengthening laboratory management towards accreditation, equipment calibration, harmonization of training materials, networking and provision of pre-packaged laboratory kits to support outbreak investigation. Available evidence indicates a positive effect of these efforts on laboratory capacity in the region. However, many opportunities exist, especially to support the roll-out of these projects as well as attending to some additional critical areas such as biosafety and biosecuity. We conclude that AFENET’s approach of strengthening national and sub-national systems provide a model that could be adopted in resource-limited settings such as sub-Saharan Africa.

  9. Computer technology of quantitative interwell correlation of sediments on the oil and gas fields in the CIS countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barinova, O.I.; Kalinina, E.E.; Ovtchinnikova, M.I. (Oil and Gas Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation))

    1993-09-01

    In the course of studies of the oil and gas fields of the former USSR (including Romashkinskoye, Western Uzbekistan, Orenburg, Odoptu-more, and Karachaganak), methods have been developed to subdivide the rock sequences into sedimentation cycles and subcyles, and to identify washouts and breaks in the section. An IBM-PC program (MSLA) has been developed that enables subdivision and correlation of the well section to be made according to the multilevel hierarchy model of sequences devised by Guberman. With the help of the MSLA program, this model can be applied to well-correlation problems where there are no preliminary data available such as geological markers, cores, or ditch samples. The technique has been used in studies of the structure of oil and gas fields involving computer models and as an [open quotes]expert[close quotes] system.

  10. In-situ combustion test on outcrops in Kramai oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, S.

    1982-01-01

    An in-situ combustion test was performed in Kramai oil field, located in the northwestern border of the Zhungerer Basin, China. The main objectives of the test were to investigate directly the reservoir geology, the petrophysical properties of the reservoir rock, and the flow properties of oil, gas and water within the reservoir. The paper describes the test procedure, including the well pattern, the test pit, operation and inspection techniques, etc., and presents a general discussion of the results obtained.

  11. Systematic variation in reviewer practice according to country and gender in the field of ecology and evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olyana N Grod

    Full Text Available The characteristics of referees and the potential subsequent effects on the peer-review process are an important consideration for science since the integrity of the system depends on the appropriate evaluation of merit. In 2006, we conducted an online survey of 1334 ecologists and evolutionary biologists pertaining to the review process. Respondents were from Europe, North America and other regions of the world, with the majority from English first language countries. Women comprised a third of all respondents, consistent with their representation in the scientific academic community. Among respondents we found no correlation between the time typically taken over a review and the reported average rejection rate. On average, Europeans took longer over reviewing a manuscript than North Americans, and females took longer than males, but reviewed fewer manuscripts. Males recommended rejection of manuscripts more frequently than females, regardless of region. Hence, editors and potential authors should consider alternative sets of criteria, to what exists now, when selecting a panel of referees to potentially balance different tendencies by gender or region.

  12. Field test of the PNNL Automated Radioxenon Sampler/Analyzer (ARSA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagomarsino, R.J.; Ku, E.; Latner, N.; Sanderson, C.G.

    1998-07-01

    As part of the requirements of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), the Automated Radioxenon/Sampler Analyzer (ARSA) was designed and engineered by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The instrument is to provide near real-time detection and measurement of the radioxenons released into the atmosphere after a nuclear test. Forty-six field tests, designed to determine the performance of the ARSA prototype under simulated field conditions, were conducted at EML from March to December 1997. This final report contains detailed results of the tests with recommendations for improvements in instrument performance.

  13. Fostering transfer of websearchers’ evaluation skills: a field test of two transfer theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, Amber; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Boshuizen, Els

    2010-01-01

    Walraven, A., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2010). Fostering transfer of web searchers’ evaluation skills: A field test of two transfer theories. Computers in Human Behavior, 26, 716-728.

  14. Earth-based rover field testing for exploration mission on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunstel, Edward; Huntsberger, Terry; Baumgartner, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a high-level overview of the last major field operations test conducted in 2002 leading up to the MER mision. Objectives, approach, general results, and lessons learned are discussed.

  15. Drilling and Automation for Mars Exploration - 3rd Field Test on Devon Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacny, K.; Paulsen, G.; Davis, K.; Glass, B.

    2007-03-01

    The third Drilling Automation for Mars Exploration field test took place inside the Haughton Crater on Devon Island in the Canadian High Arctic in July 2006. This season's objective was to demonstrate autonomous drilling capabilities while drilling with a

  16. Cost-effective monitoring of land subsidence in developing countries using semipermanent GPS stations: a test study over Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donghwan; Lee, Hyongki; Okeowo, Modurodoluwa A.; Basnayake, Senaka; Jayasinghe, Susantha

    2017-04-01

    We present a cost-effective method for monitoring land subsidence in developing countries using measurements from semipermanent global positioning system (GPS) stations and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) observations. The cost of maintaining a network of permanent GPS stations to monitor subsidence in developing countries might be implausible due to the high cost of maintenance. Hence, semipermanent GPS stations could be an alternative method, which densifies a GPS network with relatively inexpensive costs. We used three statistical methods to estimate the subsidence. We investigated the optimum time intervals for semipermanent GPS measurements based on the similarities of subsidence magnitudes and curve patterns with the permanent GPS measurements. In addition, we assessed the open source GPS processing tools based on the data quality of different session durations. Among the three models, the smoothing spline model showed the best estimation of subsidence. Among the different time interval data, 10- or 30-day time interval data were optimum for semipermanent GPS stations. Finally, we compared the GPS results to the InSAR-derived subsidence result, and both methods show that the northwestern Houston area subsides by about 1.5 to 2.0 cm/year. We anticipate that our method can be applied to other cities experiencing subsidence in developing countries.

  17. SMART empirical approaches for predicting field performance of PV modules from results of reliability tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardikar, Kedar Y.; Liu, Bill J. J.; Bheemreddy, Venkata

    2016-09-01

    Gaining an understanding of degradation mechanisms and their characterization are critical in developing relevant accelerated tests to ensure PV module performance warranty over a typical lifetime of 25 years. As newer technologies are adapted for PV, including new PV cell technologies, new packaging materials, and newer product designs, the availability of field data over extended periods of time for product performance assessment cannot be expected within the typical timeframe for business decisions. In this work, to enable product design decisions and product performance assessment for PV modules utilizing newer technologies, Simulation and Mechanism based Accelerated Reliability Testing (SMART) methodology and empirical approaches to predict field performance from accelerated test results are presented. The method is demonstrated for field life assessment of flexible PV modules based on degradation mechanisms observed in two accelerated tests, namely, Damp Heat and Thermal Cycling. The method is based on design of accelerated testing scheme with the intent to develop relevant acceleration factor models. The acceleration factor model is validated by extensive reliability testing under different conditions going beyond the established certification standards. Once the acceleration factor model is validated for the test matrix a modeling scheme is developed to predict field performance from results of accelerated testing for particular failure modes of interest. Further refinement of the model can continue as more field data becomes available. While the demonstration of the method in this work is for thin film flexible PV modules, the framework and methodology can be adapted to other PV products.

  18. Finalize field testing of cold climate heat pump (CCHP) based on tandem vapor injection compressors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This report describes the system diagram and control algorithm of a prototype air-source cold climate heat pump (CCHP) using tandem vapor injection (VI) compressors. The prototype was installed in Fairbanks, Alaska and underwent field testing starting in 09/2016. The field testing results of the past six months, including compressor run time fractions, measured COPs and heating capacities, etc., are presented as a function of the ambient temperature. Two lessons learned are also reported.

  19. Child-Robot Interaction in the Wild : Field Testing Activities of the ALIZ-E Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greeff, J. de; Blanson Henkemans, O.A.; Fraaije, A.; Solms, L.; Wigdor, N.; Bierman, B.

    2014-01-01

    A field study was conducted in which CRI activities developed by the ALIZ-E project were tested with the project's primary user group: children with diabetes. This field study resulted in new insights in the modalities and roles a robot aimed at CRI in a healthcare setting might utilise, while in ad

  20. FY 1997 report on the field survey on country situations including efficient energy consumption. Vietnam; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (energy shohi koritsuka nado chiiki josei genchi chosa). Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Field survey was made on the current state of and issues on energy in Vietnam. In Vietnam, firewood is in wide use as non-commercial energy, and sums to a half of total energy consumption. Other energies such as hydroelectric power, petroleum, natural gas and coal are self-sustainable. Commercial energy consumption in 1995 is estimated at 10,070,000t in oil equivalent, which is broken down into 23% for coal, 42% in oil, 5% for natural gas and 30% for electricity. Abundant water resources will form the mainstay of future electric power supply. Commercial production of oil started in 1986 becoming an oil exporting country. Several promising natural gas fields were discovered as the result of the exploration by foreign capital. Coal deposits are estimated to be nearly 3.5 billion tons, and most of them are anthracite. Electric power demand is growing at a higher rate than the economic growth of Vietnam. The growth rate of electric power demand is set to be 1.3 times that of GDP. Since construction funds for new plants cannot be satisfied with the national budget and domestic investment alone, the country is expecting foreign capitals. 21 figs., 36 tabs.

  1. Normal Threshold Size of Stimuli in Children Using a Game-Based Visual Field Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanfang; Ali, Zaria; Subramani, Siddharth; Biswas, Susmito; Fenerty, Cecilia; Henson, David B; Aslam, Tariq

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate and explore the ability of novel game-based perimetry to establish normal visual field thresholds in children. One hundred and eighteen children (aged 8.0 ± 2.8 years old) with no history of visual field loss or significant medical history were recruited. Each child had one eye tested using a game-based visual field test 'Caspar's Castle' at four retinal locations 12.7° (N = 118) from fixation. Thresholds were established repeatedly using up/down staircase algorithms with stimuli of varying diameter (luminance 20 cd/m(2), duration 200 ms, background luminance 10 cd/m(2)). Relationships between threshold and age were determined along with measures of intra- and intersubject variability. The Game-based visual field test was able to establish threshold estimates in the full range of children tested. Threshold size reduced with increasing age in children. Intrasubject variability and intersubject variability were inversely related to age in children. Normal visual field thresholds were established for specific locations in children using a novel game-based visual field test. These could be used as a foundation for developing a game-based perimetry screening test for children.

  2. Evaluation of a 3% surf solution (surf field mastitis test) for the diagnosis of subclinical bovine and bubaline mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Ghulam; Naureen, Abeera; Asi, Muhammad Nadeem; Saqib, Muhammad; Fazal-ur-Rehman

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate a 3% solution of household detergent viz., Surf Excel (Surf field mastitis test, SFMT) vis-à-vis California mastitis test (CMT), Whiteside test (WST), somatic cell counts (SCC; cut off limit = 5 x 10(5) cells per millilitre) and bacteriological cultures for the detection of subclinical mastitis in quarter foremilk samples (n=800) of dairy cows and buffaloes. Culture and SCC were used as gold standards. All tests were evaluated parallel and serial patterns. The sensitivities of SFMT, SCC, culture, CMT and WST in parallel testing were 72.82, 81.55, 87.38, 75.73 and 54.37%, respectively in cows, while 66.22, 79.73, 82.43, 70.27 and 50.00, respectively in buffaloes. SFMT was significantly (pCMT in both species. In serial testing, percent specificity of SFMT (87.12 in cow; 85.16 in buffaloes) was significantly (PCMT (83.33 in cow; 80.64 in buffaloes). The negative predictive values of SFMT (93.50 in cow; 96.35 in buffaloes) differed non-significantly from that of CMT (94.02 in cow; 96.15 in buffaloes). The kappa index between the tests was moderate to perfect both in parallel (0.54 to >0.80) and serial (0.58 to >0.8) testing. On the basis of closely similar diagnostic efficiency of SFMT to CMT in terms of sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and kappa index together with inexpensive and ready availability of SFMT reagent, it tempting to suggest that SFMT can be use as a cheaper, user-friendly alternative animal-side subclinical mastitis diagnostic test in poor countries.

  3. Big-fish-little-pond effect on academic self-concept. A cross-cultural (26-country) test of the negative effects of academically selective schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W; Hau, Kit-Tai

    2003-05-01

    Academically selective schools are intended to affect academic self-concept positively, but theoretical and empirical research demonstrates that the effects are negative. The big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE), an application of social comparison theory to educational settings, posits that a student will have a lower academic self-concept in an academically selective school than in a nonselective school. This study, the largest cross-cultural study of the BFLPE ever undertaken, tested theoretical predictions for nationally representative samples of approximately 4,000 15-year-olds from each of 26 countries (N = 103,558) who completed the same self-concept instrument and achievement tests. Consistent with the BFLPE, the effects of school-average achievement were negative in all 26 countries (M beta = -.20, SD = .08), demonstrating the BFLPE's cross-cultural generalizability.

  4. RUSSIA›S COOPERATION WITH THE COUNTRIES OF POST-SOVIET EURASIA IN THE FIELD OF SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Valerievich Bespalov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The problem of collective security remains relevant for the majority of post-Soviet Eurasia since the Soviet collapse to date.. In the article on the basis of diachronic analysis of political processes (the study of the successive in real historical time steps analyzed the formation and development of the legal framework of collective security in the post-Soviet Eurasia in relation to the real political processes in the region, the creation and development of the Treaty on Collective Security Organization, and its prospects.As a result of the military-political cooperation within the CIS has not received a significant development, Russia and its allies were forced to make a bet on the development of relations within the Treaty on Collective Security Organization.There are four areas of the Eurasian security cooperation within the Treaty on Collective Security Organization:1. Creation of a common «military umbrella» protecting the Member States of the Organization of the intrusion, including as a result of support for other-strange powers of local radical opposition. The key role played by the army and the military-industrial complex of Russia as the most powerful country in the military unit.2. The fight against international terrorism within the framework of cooperation between national security services and the Ministry of Interior.3. Prevention of large-scale intrusion of extremists from the territory of the north of Afghanistan.4. The fight against drug trafficking.Work on improving the legal framework of the Treaty on Collective Security Organization should be continued. As one of the future goals of the Organization should highlight the creation of a unified arms market, the deepening of cooperation in the development and production of weapons and other military products.

  5. Rapid high temperature field test method for evaluation of geothermal calcite scale inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, R.G.

    1982-08-01

    A test method is described which allows the rapid field testing of calcite scale inhibitors in high- temperature geothermal brines. Five commercial formulations, chosen on the basis of laboratory screening tests, were tested in brines with low total dissolved solids at ca 500 F. Four were found to be effective; of these, 2 were found to be capable of removing recently deposited scale. One chemical was tested in the full-flow brine line for 6 wks. It was shown to stop a severe surface scaling problem at the well's control valve, thus proving the viability of the rapid test method. (12 refs.)

  6. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 3 Full-scale Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Blythe

    2007-05-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additive, Degussa Corporation's TMT-15, to prevent the reemission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate whether the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine TMT salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project is conducting pilot- and full-scale tests of the TMT-15 additive in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} reemissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Power River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, TXU Generation Company LP, Southern Company, and Degussa Corporation. TXU Generation has provided the Texas lignite/PRB cofired test site for pilot FGD tests, Monticello Steam Electric Station Unit 3. Southern Company is providing the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems to be tested. IPL, an AES company, provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive and technical support to the test program as cost sharing. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot

  7. Acceptance of non-invasive prenatal testing by cell free foetal DNA for foetal aneuploidy in a developing country: experience at a tertiary care centre in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Kashyap

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Newer genomic technology involving cell free maternal DNA is a new storm in prenatal diagnosis. Its application in clinical practice is the need of the hour, however, the lack of awareness, high cost and unavailability of the test in the country appears to be a major limiting factor for its poor acceptability. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(3.000: 705-710

  8. Factors prompting PSA-testing of asymptomatic men in a country with no guidelines: a national survey of general practitioners.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Drummond, Frances J

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased use of prostate specific antigen (PSA) has been associated with increased prostate cancer incidence. Ireland is estimated to have one of the highest prostate cancer incidences in Europe and has no national guidelines for prostate cancer screening. GPs have a pivotal role in influencing PSA testing, therefore, our aim was to describe GP testing practices and to identify factors influencing these. METHODS: A postal survey, including questions on clinical practice and experience, knowledge and demographics was distributed to all GPs (n = 3,683). The main outcomes were (i) PSA testing asymptomatic men and (ii) "inappropriate" PSA testing, defined as testing asymptomatic men aged < 50 or > 75 years. Factors associated with these outcomes were identified using logistic regression. RESULTS: 1,625 GPs responded (response rate corrected for eligibility = 53%). Most respondents (79%) would PSA test asymptomatic men. Of these, 34% and 51% would test asymptomatic men < 50 and > 75 years, respectively. In multivariate analyses, GPs were more likely to test asymptomatic men if they were >or= 50 years, in practice >or= 10 years, female or less knowledgeable about PSA efficacy. Male GPs who would have a PSA test themselves were > 8-times more likely to PSA test asymptomatic men than GPs who would not have a test. GPs who had an asymptomatic patient diagnosed with prostate cancer following PSA testing, were > 3-times more likely to test asymptomatic men. Practice-related factors positively associated with testing included: running \\'well man\\' clinics, performing occupational health checks and performing other tests routinely with PSA. Factors positively associated with \\'inappropriate\\' testing included; being male and willing to have a PSA test, having worked\\/trained in the UK and supporting annual PSA testing. 91% of respondents supported the development of national PSA testing guidelines. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that widespread PSA testing

  9. Sensitivity of field tests, serological and molecular techniques for Plum Pox Virus detection in various tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca VIRŠČEK MARN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity of field tests (AgriStrip  and Immunochromato, DAS-ELISA, two step RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR for Plum pox virus (PPV detection was tested in various tissues of apricot, peach, plum and damson plum trees infected with isolates belonging to PPV-D, PPV-M or PPV-Rec, the three strains present in Slovenia. Flowers of apricot and plum in full bloom proved to be a very good source for detection of PPV. PPV could be detected with all tested techniques in symptomatic parts of leaves in May and with one exception even in the beginning of August, but it was not detected in asymptomatic leaves using field tests, DAS-ELISA and partly also molecular techniques. PPV was detected only in some of the samples of asymptomatic parts of the leaves with symptoms and of stalks by field tests and DAS-ELISA. Infections were not detected in buds in August using field tests or DAS-ELISA. Field tests are useful for confirmation of the PPV infection in symptomatic leaves, but in tissues without symptoms DAS-ELISA should be combined or replaced by molecular techniques.

  10. Relationships Between Anaerobic Performance, Field Tests and Game Performance of Sitting Volleyball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marszalek Jolanta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate relationships between anaerobic performance, field tests, game performance and anthropometric variables of sitting volleyball players. Twenty elite Polish sitting volleyball players were tested using the 30 s Wingate Anaerobic Test for arm crank ergometer and participated in six physical field tests. Heights in position to block and to spike, as well as arm reach were measured. Players were observed during the game on the court in terms of effectiveness of the serve, block, attack, receive and defense. Pearson analysis and the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were used. The strongest correlations were found between the chest pass test and mean power and peak power (r=.846; p=.001 and r=.708; p=.0005, respectively, and also between the T-test and peak power (r= −.718; p=.001. Mean power correlated with the 3 m test (r= −.540; p=.014, the 5 m test (r= −.592; p=.006, and the T-test (r= −.582; p=.007. Peak power correlated with the 3 m test (r= −.632; p=.003, the 5 m test (r= −.613; p=.004, speed & agility (r= −.552; p=.012 and speed & endurance (r=−.546; p=.013. Significant correlations were observed between anthropometric parameters and anaerobic performance variables (p≤.001, and also between anthropometric parameters and field tests (p≤.05. Game performance and physical fitness of sitting volleyball players depended on their anthropometric variables: reach of arms, the position to block and to spike. The chest pass test could be used as a non-laboratory field test of anaerobic performance of sitting volleyball players.

  11. Field test of nuclide migration in bentonite-based materials at aerated zone. Cooperative research program on field migration test between CIRP and JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Zhiwen; Cui Anxi; Gu Cunli [China Inst. for Radiation Protection, Taiyuan, Shanxi (China)] [and others

    2002-03-01

    A field test was jointly conducted by China Institute for Radiation Protection (CIRP) and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) to explore moisture movement with Br{sup -} and migration of radioactive tracer {sup 237}Np, {sup 238}Pu and {sup 90}Sr in bentonite-based materials at aerated zone. The test ran under two rainfall conditions, the artificial rainfall with sprinkling density of 15 mm/d and 5 mm/hr, and the natural rainfall. Tracing test of Br{sup -} implies that there does have water going through the bentonite specimen. However, the curves are very complex and further work need be conducted to quantify this movement. {sup 238}Pu has no observable movement during the test period under either rainfall conditions, and {sup 237}Np has very short movement dominated by diffusion. Bentonite-based materials are effective to retard nuclide migration. (author)

  12. Field test results for steam oxidation of TP347H FG - growth of inner oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Jianmin, Jia; Larsen, OH;

    2005-01-01

    A series of field tests have been conducted with TP347H FG in test superheater loops in coal-fired and biomass fired boilers of steam pressure 256 and 91 bar respectively. The exposure times are from 3,500 to 30,000 hours and the temperature range is from 450-630¢XC. The morphology, composition...

  13. 40 CFR 1065.15 - Overview of procedures for laboratory and field testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overview of procedures for laboratory and field testing. 1065.15 Section 1065.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Applicability and General Provisions §...

  14. Field spectrometer (S191H) preprocessor tape quality test program design document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, H. M.

    1976-01-01

    Program QA191H performs quality assurance tests on field spectrometer data recorded on 9-track magnetic tape. The quality testing involves the comparison of key housekeeping and data parameters with historic and predetermined tolerance limits. Samples of key parameters are processed during the calibration period and wavelength cal period, and the results are printed out and recorded on an historical file tape.

  15. Cultural Transmission in Three Societies: Testing a Systems-Based Field Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbert, Marion Lundy; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reports on: (1) the formulation of a holistic, systems-based theory of cultural transmission; (2) a field guide developed for gathering the precise data needed to test the theory; and (3) a pilot study, involving the collection and analysis of data about six- to 12-year-old Americans, Israelis, and Mexicans, to test both guide and theory. (CMG)

  16. 40 CFR 53.58 - Operational field precision and blank test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... samplers are also subject to a test for possible deposition of particulate matter on inactive filters... is intended to determine the operational precision of the candidate sampler during a minimum of 10 days of field operation, using three collocated test samplers. Measurements of PM are made at a...

  17. 76 FR 81467 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing Swine Influenza Vaccine, RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... Swine Influenza Vaccine, RNA AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice... test, an unlicensed Swine Influenza Vaccine, RNA. The environmental assessment, which is based on a...: Requester: Harrisvaccines, Inc. Product: Swine Influenza Vaccine, RNA. Field Test Locations: North...

  18. Model to Test Electric Field Comparisons in a Composite Fairing Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, Dawn H.; Burford, Janessa

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating the impact of radio frequency transmission in vehicle fairings is important to sensitive spacecraft. This study shows cumulative distribution function (CDF) comparisons of composite a fairing electromagnetic field data obtained by computational electromagnetic 3D full wave modeling and laboratory testing. This work is an extension of the bare aluminum fairing perfect electric conductor (PEC) model. Test and model data correlation is shown.

  19. 40 CFR 1065.910 - PEMS auxiliary equipment for field testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... also recommend considering mounting hardware such as commercially available bicycle racks, trailer hitches, and luggage racks where applicable. (d) Field testing may require portable electrical power to run your test equipment. Power your equipment, as follows: (1) You may use electrical power from the...

  20. Country Update: Israel 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marar, Marianne Maurice

    2005-01-01

    Country Updates is a new section of "Intercultural Education." Starting in "Intercultural Education," Volume 16 No. 5, this column will focus on recent developments during the last two to three years in the field of intercultural education in one particular country. These updates can include recent policy decisions, the main…

  1. Visual Field Testing with Head-Mounted Perimeter ‘imo’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Chota; Yamao, Sayaka; Nomoto, Hiroki; Takada, Sonoko; Okuyama, Sachiko; Kimura, Shinji; Yamanaka, Kenzo; Aihara, Makoto; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We developed a new portable head-mounted perimeter, “imo”, which performs visual field (VF) testing under flexible conditions without a dark room. Besides the monocular eye test, imo can present a test target randomly to either eye without occlusion (a binocular random single eye test). The performance of imo was evaluated. Methods Using full HD transmissive LCD and high intensity LED backlights, imo can display a test target under the same test conditions as the Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA). The monocular and binocular random single eye tests by imo and the HFA test were performed on 40 eyes of 20 subjects with glaucoma. VF sensitivity results by the monocular and binocular random single eye tests were compared, and these test results were further compared to those by the HFA. The subjects were asked whether they noticed which eye was being tested during the test. Results The mean sensitivity (MS) obtained with the HFA highly correlated with the MS by the imo monocular test (R: r = 0.96, L: r = 0.94, P < 0.001) and the binocular random single eye test (R: r = 0.97, L: r = 0.98, P < 0.001). The MS values by the monocular and binocular random single eye tests also highly correlated (R: r = 0.96, L: r = 0.95, P < 0.001). No subject could detect which eye was being tested during the examination. Conclusions The perimeter imo can obtain VF sensitivity highly compatible to that by the standard automated perimeter. The binocular random single eye test provides a non-occlusion test condition without the examinee being aware of the tested eye. PMID:27564382

  2. Design of Magnetic Shielding and Field Coils for a TES X-Ray Microcalorimeter Test Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniussi, Antoine R.; Adams, Joseph S.; Bandler, Simon R.; Chervenak, James A.; Datesman, Aaron M.; Doriese, William B.; Eckart, Megan E.; Finkbeiner, Fred M.; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The performance of Transition-Edge Sensors (TES) and their SQUID multiplexed read-outs are very sensitive to the ambient magnetic field from Earth and fluctuations that can arise due to fluctuating magnetic fields outside of the focal plane assembly from the Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR).Thus, the experimental platform we are building to test the FPA of the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) of the Athena mission needs to include a series of shields and a coil in order to meet the following requirement of magnetic field density and uniformity.

  3. Rapid, high-temperature, field test method for evaluation of geothermal calcium carbonate scale inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, R.G.

    1986-09-01

    A new test method is described that allows the rapid field testing of calcium carbonate scale inhibitors at 500/sup 0/F (260/sup 0/C). The method evolved from use of a full-flow test loop on a well with a mass flow rate of about 1 x 10/sup 6/ lbm/hr (126 kg/s). It is a simple, effective way to evaluate the effectiveness of inhibitors under field conditions. Five commercial formulations were chosen for field evaluation on the basis of nonflowing, laboratory screening tests at 500/sup 0/F (260/sup 0/C). Four of these formulations from different suppliers controlled calcium carbonate scale deposition as measured by the test method. Two of these could dislodge recently deposited scale that had not age-hardened. Performance-profile diagrams, which were measured for these four effective inhibitors, show the concentration interrelationship between brine calcium and inhibitor concentrations at which the formulations will and will not stop scale formation in the test apparatus. With these diagrams, one formulation was chosen for testing on the full-flow brine line. The composition was tested for 6 weeks and showed a dramatic decrease in the scaling occurring at the flow-control valve. This scaling was about to force a shutdown of a major, long-term flow test being done for reservoir economic evaluations. The inhibitor stopped the scaling, and the test was performed without interruption.

  4. A new test statistic for climate models that includes field and spatial dependencies using Gaussian Markov random fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosedal-Sanchez, Alvaro; Jackson, Charles S.; Huerta, Gabriel

    2016-07-01

    A new test statistic for climate model evaluation has been developed that potentially mitigates some of the limitations that exist for observing and representing field and space dependencies of climate phenomena. Traditionally such dependencies have been ignored when climate models have been evaluated against observational data, which makes it difficult to assess whether any given model is simulating observed climate for the right reasons. The new statistic uses Gaussian Markov random fields for estimating field and space dependencies within a first-order grid point neighborhood structure. We illustrate the ability of Gaussian Markov random fields to represent empirical estimates of field and space covariances using "witch hat" graphs. We further use the new statistic to evaluate the tropical response of a climate model (CAM3.1) to changes in two parameters important to its representation of cloud and precipitation physics. Overall, the inclusion of dependency information did not alter significantly the recognition of those regions of parameter space that best approximated observations. However, there were some qualitative differences in the shape of the response surface that suggest how such a measure could affect estimates of model uncertainty.

  5. A Novel High Sensitivity Sensor for Remote Field Eddy Current Non-Destructive Testing Based on Orthogonal Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojie Xu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Remote field eddy current is an effective non-destructive testing method for ferromagnetic tubular structures. In view of conventional sensors’ disadvantages such as low signal-to-noise ratio and poor sensitivity to axial cracks, a novel high sensitivity sensor based on orthogonal magnetic field excitation is proposed. Firstly, through a three-dimensional finite element simulation, the remote field effect under orthogonal magnetic field excitation is determined, and an appropriate configuration which can generate an orthogonal magnetic field for a tubular structure is developed. Secondly, optimized selection of key parameters such as frequency, exciting currents and shielding modes is analyzed in detail, and different types of pick-up coils, including a new self-differential mode pick-up coil, are designed and analyzed. Lastly, the proposed sensor is verified experimentally by various types of defects manufactured on a section of a ferromagnetic tube. Experimental results show that the proposed novel sensor can largely improve the sensitivity of defect detection, especially for axial crack whose depth is less than 40% wall thickness, which are very difficult to detect and identify by conventional sensors. Another noteworthy advantage of the proposed sensor is that it has almost equal sensitivity to various types of defects, when a self-differential mode pick-up coil is adopted.

  6. Evaluating functional clothing in climatic chamber tests versus field tests: a comparison of quantitative and qualitative methods in product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, I C; Rosenblad, E F

    1998-10-01

    For the evaluation of clothing by human beings, two different approaches can be identified--laboratory tests (i.e. climatic chamber tests) or field trials/wear trials. It has been suggested that the performance of clothing can be adequately predicted on the basis of the data obtained from climatic chamber tests and that field trials may be expendable altogether. From a product development perspective, this paper discusses the information provided by standard data collection methods and tools for the assessment of thermal comfort used in laboratory settings and compares this information with that acquired in field trials. When assessing the information provided in the laboratory test against those questions posed in a development process, the results highlight the insufficiency of objectively measurable criteria. Therefore, objective measurements alone cannot verify the adequacy of stated requirements for thermal comfort. The use of appropriate and sensitive tools for collecting subjective votes should also be noted, since small differences in thermal sensation affected the individual's preference for clothing. Exposed differences between subjects, in terms of thermophysiological as well as subjective responses, illustrate the importance of studying individual values and deviations as opposed to strict mean values for large populations in order to satisfy a potential user group. It is argued that complementary interviews form a basis for further understanding of ratings and preferences and that they should also be included in the climatic chamber evaluation 'tool box'. User satisfaction is based on a simultaneous assessment of partly opposing properties into a satisfying use value. Although laboratory test procedures can be developed and improved in relation to design issues, field evaluations must be regarded as an integrated part of an iterative development process. Only the actual use situation can provide the total spectrum of conditions on which basis

  7. Relationships between field performance tests in high-level soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen; Brochmann, Marit; Castagna, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    after two and four minutes of the Yo-Yo IR tests by testing 57 high-level soccer players. All players played regularly in one of the three highest levels of Norwegian soccer and were tested during three sessions on three consecutive days. Large correlations were observed between Yo-Yo IR1 and IR2 test...... using only one of the Yo-Yo tests and a RSA test, in a general soccer-specific field test protocol. The sub-maximal heart rate measures during Yo-Yo tests are reproducible and may be utilized for frequent, time-efficient and non-exhaustive testing of intermittent exercise capacity of high-level soccer...

  8. LiDAR, geophysical and field surveys at Ancient Epomanduodurum site and its surrounding country (Doubs, Eastern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplaige, Clement; Bossuet, Gilles; Thivet, Matthieu

    2010-05-01

    Integrated geophysical studies were carried out over several years, at Mandeure-Mathay (Franche-Comté Region, Eastern France) for the archaeological evaluation of ancient Epomanduodurum. The site is of major scientific interest to understand the territorial structure of earlier agglomerations in Eastern Gaul at the end of the Iron Age and during the Roman period. As regards its size, urban equipment, monuments and function, the ancient town is considered rating second behind the civitas capital of Sequani, Besançon-Vesontio. It is located in the Doubs valley, where the plain of Alsace opens into the marches of Burgundy, in a traffic zone between the Vosges and the Jura. This location allows transit between the Rhône valley and the Rhein plain, through the Saône and Doubs valleys. This geographical situation was a significant factor in the creation of the late Iron Age settlement, later to turn into a major Gallo-roman town. The whole site of the Ancient town includes urban centre and two artisan suburbs. The buried ruins stretch on more than 500 hectares outside and inside a meander of the Doubs River. From the beginning of the survey, in 2001, high resolution and non invasive geophysical methods (magnetic mapping and Automatic Restivity Profiling (ARP) were performed on large scale, both on the terrace and in the floodplain). Excavations associated to geophysical prospection allow to produce a general plan of the Gallo roman structures and to reconstruct the settlement evolution. While human occupation on open land is certified by a lot of indications, on the contrary, the forest-covered zones on table-land appear as less documented areas. The explanation is that some of the classic methods (such as aerial reconnaissance and field walking) are less efficient in the archaeological prospection of table-lands and hills, naturally marked by omnipresent forest. In our new research program (LIEPPEC and PCR Mandeure, 2008-2010), it appears necessary to better

  9. Monte Carlo simulations of the complex field in the LHC radiation test facility at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Tsoulou, A; Rausch, R; Wijnands, Thijs

    2004-01-01

    The hard radiation environment of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) demands for a careful choice of COTS (Components Off The Shelf) that will be installed in the tunnel. All the electronic equipment should be tested in a mixed radiation field, similar to that of the LHC. To obtain optimum results it is essential to study thoroughly the complex radiation field in the test facility at CERN. For this purpose a detailed Monte Carlo simulation of the test area was carried out and the calculations were compared with the dosimetry measurements already available.

  10. Could you have said no? A mixed-methods investigation of consent to HIV tests in four African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Makhlouf Obermeyer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although most studies report high frequencies of consent to HIV tests, critics argue that clients are subject to pressure, that acceptors later indicate they could not have refused, and that provider-initiated HIV testing raises serious ethical issues. We examine the meaning of consent and why clients think they could not have refused. Methods: Clients in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi and Uganda were asked about consenting to HIV tests, whether they thought they could have refused and why. Textual responses were analyzed using qualitative and statistical methods. Results: Among 926 respondents, 77% reported they could not have said no, but in fact, 60% actively consented to test, 24% had no objection and only 7% tested without consent. There were few significant associations between categories of consent and their covariates. Conclusions: Retrospectively asking clients if they could have refused to test for HIV overestimates coercion. Triangulating qualitative and quantitative data suggests a considerable degree of agency.

  11. Fireside corrosion testing of candidate superheater tube alloys, coatings, and claddings -- Phase 2 field testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blough, J.L.; Seitz, W.W.; Girshik, A. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States)

    1998-06-01

    In Phase 1 of this project, laboratory experiments were performed on a variety of developmental and commercial tubing alloys and claddings by exposing them to fireside corrosion tests which simulated a superheater or reheater in a coal-fired boiler. Phase 2 (in situ testing) has exposed samples of 347, RA85H, HR3C, RA253MA, Fe{sub 3}Al + 5Cr, Ta-modified 310, NF 709, 690 clad, 671 clad, and 800HT for up to approximately 16,000 hours to the actual operating conditions of a 250-MW, coal-fired boiler. The samples were installed on air-cooled, retractable corrosion probes, installed in the reheater cavity, and controlled to the operating metal temperatures of an existing and advanced-cycle, coal-fired boiler. Samples of each alloy were exposed for 4,483, 11,348, and 15,883 hours of operation. The present results are for the metallurgical examination of the corrosion probe samples after the full 15,883 hours of exposure. A previous topical report has been issued for the 4,483 hours of exposure.

  12. A test for stationarity of spatio-temporal random fields on planar and spherical domains

    KAUST Repository

    Jun, Mikyoung

    2012-01-01

    A formal test for weak stationarity of spatial and spatio-temporal random fields is proposed. We consider the cases where the spatial domain is planar or spherical, and we do not require distributional assumptions for the random fields. The method can be applied to univariate or to multivariate random fields. Our test is based on the asymptotic normality of certain statistics that are functions of estimators of covariances at certain spatial and temporal lags under weak stationarity. Simulation results for spatial as well as spatio-temporal cases on the two types of spatial domains are reported. We describe the results of testing the stationarity of Pacific wind data, and of testing the axial symmetry of climate model errors for surface temperature using the NOAA GFDL model outputs and the observations from the Climate Research Unit in East Anglia and the Hadley Centre.

  13. NEPP Update of Independent Single Event Upset Field Programmable Gate Array Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; Label, Kenneth; Campola, Michael; Pellish, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    This presentation provides a NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program update of independent Single Event Upset (SEU) Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) testing including FPGA test guidelines, Microsemi RTG4 heavy-ion results, Xilinx Kintex-UltraScale heavy-ion results, Xilinx UltraScale+ single event effect (SEE) test plans, development of a new methodology for characterizing SEU system response, and NEPP involvement with FPGA security and trust.

  14. Field Testing of Low-Cost Bio-Based Phase Change Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL

    2013-03-01

    A test wall built with phase change material (PCM)-enhanced loose-fill cavity insulation was monitored for a period of about a year in the warm-humid climate of Charleston, South Carolina. The test wall was divided into various sections, one of which contained only loose-fill insulation and served as a control for comparing and evaluating the wall sections with the PCM-enhanced insulation. This report summarizes the findings of the field test.

  15. Estimation of the level of anxiety in rats: differences in results of open-field test, elevated plus-maze test, and Vogel's conflict test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudakov, S K; Nazarova, G A; Alekseeva, E V; Bashkatova, V G

    2013-07-01

    We compared individual anxiety assessed by three standard tests, open-field test, elevated plus-maze test, and Vogel conflict drinking test, in the same animals. No significant correlations between the main anxiety parameters were found in these three experimental models. Groups of animals with high and low anxiety rats were formed by a single parameter and subsequent selection of two extreme groups (10%). It was found that none of the tests could be used for reliable estimation of individual anxiety in rats. The individual anxiety level with high degree of confidence was determined in high-anxiety and low-anxiety rats demonstrating behavioral parameters above and below the mean values in all tests used. Therefore, several tests should be used for evaluation of the individual anxiety or sensitivity to emotional stress.

  16. Test of piezo-ceramic motor technology in ITER relevant high magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monti, Chiara, E-mail: chiara.monti@enea.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Besi Vetrella, Ugo; Mugnaini, Giampiero; Neri, Carlo; Rossi, Paolo; Viola, Rosario [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Dubus, Gregory; Damiani, Carlo [Fusion for Energy, c/ Josep Pla, 2 Torres Diagonal Litoral, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-10-15

    In the framework of a Fusion for Energy (F4E) grant, a test campaign started in 2012 in order to assess the performance of the in-vessel viewing system (IVVS) probe concept and to verify its compatibility when exposed to ITER typical working conditions. ENEA laboratories went through with several tests simulating high magnetic fields, high temperature, high vacuum, gamma radiation and neutron radiation. A customized motor has been adopted to study the performances of ultrasonic piezo motors technology in high magnetic field conditions. This paper reports on the testing activity performed on the motor in a multi Tesla magnetic field. The job was carried out in a test facility of ENEA laboratories able to achieve 14 T. A maximum field of 10 T, fully compliant with ITER requirements (8 T), was applied. A specific mechanical assembly has been designed and manufactured to hold the motor in the region with high homogeneity of the field. Results obtained so far indicate that the motor is compatible with high magnetic fields, and are presented in the paper.

  17. Tyrosine-derived 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate reacts with ketone test fields of 3 commercially available urine dipsticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, James; Green, Richard M

    2010-09-01

    The enzyme 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) is key in tyrosine catabolism. Inhibition of HPPD results in tyrosinemia and increased urinary excretion of 3 phenylketones: 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate (HPPA), 4-hydroxyphenyllactate (HPLA), and 4-hydroxyphenylacetate (HPAA). A previous study involving administration of a novel HPPD inhibitor to dogs resulted in detection of ketonuria in treated animals using urine dipsticks read by reflectance photometry. Dipstick-positive results were suspected to be false because high concentrations of urinary phenylketones have been reported to react with ketone test fields of urine dipsticks, but visual confirmation was not performed. The purpose of this study was to determine which of the 4- hydroxyphenolic acids produced by HPPD inhibition react with ketone test fields of 3 commercially available urine dipsticks. Canine urine samples were prepared with HPPA, HPLA, HPAA, and lithium acetoacetate (positive control) at 6 concentrations. Unmodified urine samples were used as negative controls. All samples were tested for ketones using Combur 10 Test M dipsticks read by a Miditron dipstick analyzer. Urinalysis was also performed by visually inspecting ketone test fields on the Combur 10 Test M, Multistix 10 SG, and Aution 10 EA dipsticks. Urine samples containing HPPA were positive for ketones with Combur 10 Test M dipsticks read by the Miditron analyzer and produced a red–brown color change in ketone test fields of all 3 dipsticks. Urine samples containing HPLA and HPAA were negative by all methods. The phenylketone HPPA reacts with ketone test fields of 3 commercially available urine dipsticks, producing a red–brown color change that may be misinterpreted as positive for ketones by reflectance photometry.

  18. Aquifer recharge with reclaimed water in the Llobregat Delta. Laboratory batch experiments and field test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobella, J.

    2010-05-01

    Summary Spain, as most other Mediterranean countries, faces near future water shortages, generalized pollution and loss of water dependent ecosystems. Aquifer recharge represents a promising option to become a source for indirect potable reuse purposes but presence of pathogens as well as organic and inorganic pollutants should be avoided. To this end, understanding the processes of biogeochemical degradation occurring within the aquifer during infiltration is capital. A set of laboratory batch experiments has been assembled in order to assess the behaviour of selected pesticides, drugs, estrogens, surfactant degradation products, biocides and phthalates under different redox conditions. Data collected during laboratory experiments and monitoring activities at the Sant Vicenç dels Horts test site will be used to build and calibrate a numerical model (i) of the physical-chemical-biochemical processes occurring in the batches and (ii) of multicomponent reactive transport in the unsaturated/saturated zone at the test site. Keywords Aquifer recharge, batch experiments, emerging micropollutants, infiltration, numerical model, reclaimed water, redox conditions, Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT). 1. Introduction In Spain, the Llobregat River and aquifers, which supply water to Barcelona, have been overexploited for years and therefore, suffer from serious damages: the river dries up on summer, riparian vegetation has disappeared and seawater has intruded the aquifer. In a global context, solutions to water stress problems are urgently needed yet must be sustainable, economical and safe. Recent developments of analytical techniques detect the presence of the so-called "emerging" organic micropollutants in water and soils. Such compounds may affect living organisms when occurring in the environment at very low concentrations (microg/l or ng/l). In wastewater and drinking water treatment plants, a remarkable removal of these chemicals from water can be obtained only using

  19. Cosmological constraints from the redshift dependence of the Alcock-Paczynski test: galaxy density gradient field

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiao-Dong; Forero-Romero, Jaime E; Kim, Juhan

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method based on the redshift dependence of the Alcock-Paczynski (AP) test to measure the expansion history of the Universe. It uses the isotropy of the galaxy density gradient field to constrain cosmological parameters. If the density parameter $\\Omega_m$ or the dark energy equation of state $w$ are incorrectly chosen, the gradient field appears to be anisotropic with the degree of anisotropy varying with redshift. We use this effect to constrain the cosmological parameters governing the expansion history of the Universe. Although redshift-space distortions (RSD) induced by galaxy peculiar velocities also produce anisotropies in the gradient field, these effects are close to uniform in magnitude over a large range of redshift. This makes the redshift variation of the gradient field anisotropy relatively insensitive to the RSD. By testing the method on mock surveys drawn from the Horizon Run 3 cosmological N-body simulations, we demonstrate that the cosmological parameters can be estimated without...

  20. Special ESP configurations designed to test and produce Yemen oil field. [Electric-Submersible Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkie, D.I. (Canadian Occidental Petroleum Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

    1993-09-27

    Innovative electric-submersible-pump (ESP) configurations were used in the exploration phase of a Yemen oil field discovered by Canadian Occidental Petroleum Ltd. Because of subnormal reservoir pressure, CanOxy developed the field with ESPs and had to install surface components that could operate at the high, 130 F., ambient temperatures common in Yemen. The field is in a remote area that has seen very little development. The reservoirs produce a medium-to-heavy crude with a low gas/oil ratio, typically less than 20 scf/bbl. Problems faced in evaluating the field included drilling through unconsolidated sands with high flow capacity and subnormal reservoir pressure. CanOxy had to develop the technology to test the wells during the exploration phase, and intends to use new, or at least uncommon technology, for producing the wells. The paper describes testing the wells, the electric generators and variable speed drives, and the use of these pumps on production wells.

  1. Pilot Field Test: Results of Tandem Walk Performance Following Long-Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerisano, J. M.; Reschke, M. F.; Kofman, I. S.; Fisher, E. A.; Gadd, N. E.; Phillips, T. R.; Lee, S. M. C.; Laurie, S. S.; Stenger, M. B.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A.; Kozlovskaya, I.; Tomilovskaya, E.

    2016-01-01

    Coordinated locomotion has proven to be challenging for many astronauts following long duration spaceflight. As NASA's vision for spaceflight points toward interplanetary travel and missions to distant objects, astronauts will not have assistance once they land. Thus, it is vital to develop a knowledge base from which operational guidelines can be written that define when astronauts can be expected to safely perform certain tasks. Data obtained during the Field Test experiment will add important insight to this knowledge base. Specifically, we aim to develop a recovery timeline of functional sensorimotor performance during the first 24 hours and several days after landing. A forerunner of the full Field Test study, the Pilot Field Test (PFT) comprised a subset of the tasks and measurements to be included in the ultimate set.

  2. A Novel Field-Deployable Point-of-Care Diagnostic Test for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    OEF/OIF veteran population. To date, there is no field-standardized molecular method based on sensitive DNA amplification coupled with Lateral Flow...OEF/OIF veteran population. To date, there is no field-standardized molecular method based on sensitive DNA amplification coupled with Lateral Flow...FIOCRUZ to carry out Leishmania identification using the RPA-LF test. Collaboration: FIOCRUZ staff (PhD student ) collaborated in the evaluation of

  3. Field and laboratory testing for amitraz-tolerant varroa populations. How comparable are their results?

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Sância; Pereira, Óscar; Murilhas, António

    2007-01-01

    Portuguese beekeepers have frequently used amitraz (Apivar, Acadrex) in an attempt to cope with Varroa. As a result of beekeepers’ claims of an alarming decrease in amitraz field treatment efficacy, a nation-wide screening project was launched to ascertain the merit of those claims and, eventually, introduce changes in the way state institutions were interacting with beekeeping associations and beekeepers. Approximately 4.000 colonies were field-tested (following a similar approach to the ...

  4. Testing nonlinear electrodynamics in waveguides: the effect of magnetostatic fields on the transmitted power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraro, Rafael, E-mail: ferraro@iafe.uba.a [Instituto de AstronomIa y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-05-14

    In Born-Infeld theory and other nonlinear electrodynamics, the presence of a magnetostatic field modifies the dispersion relation and the energy velocity of waves propagating in a hollow waveguide. As a consequence, the transmitted power along a waveguide suffers slight changes when a magnetostatic field is switched on and off. This tiny effect could be better tested by operating the waveguide at a frequency close to the cutoff frequency.

  5. Role of rapid urease test and histopathology in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Kashif

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine the effect of commonly self-prescribed proton pump inhibitors (PPI on the results of rapid urease test and histology for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. Methods One hundred-nine consecutive patients with dyspeptic symptoms attending the endoscopy suite were enrolled in this study. Antrum biopsy specimens were collected at endoscopy for the rapid urease test (Pronto Dry, Medical Instrument Corp, France and histopathology. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV and like-hood ratio of a positive and negative of Pronto Dry test were compared against histology. The gold standard test for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection was histopathology. Results Sixty-one percent (66/109 patients were males with mean age of 43 ± 14.1 years and age range 17–80 years. Fifty-two percent (57/109 were not on any medications while 48% (52/109 used PPI before presentation to the outpatients. Pronto Dry was positive in 40% (44/109 and negative in 60% (65/109. Histopathology was positive for H. pylori in 57% (62/109 and negative in 43% (47/109. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and like-hood ratio of a positive and negative Pronto Dry test with and without PPI were 43.3%, 86.4%, 81.3%, 3.18, 0.656 and 52.8% vs 71.9%, 80%, 82.1%, 69%, 3.59 and 0.35. Conclusion This study shows that the sensitivity, specificity, NPV and PPV of rapid urease test was reduced in patients who are on PPI. The exclusive use of the rapid urease test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori cannot be recommended in patients with prior PPI use.

  6. The development, testing, and preliminary feasibility of an adaptable pediatric oncology nutrition algorithm for low-middle income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAK Fleming

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Survivors of childhood cancer are at increased risk for several cardiometabolic complications. Obesity/overweight and metabolic syndrome have been widely reported in Western literature, but data from India are lacking. Aims: To perform an objective assessment of nutritional status in a cohort of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs and to find risk factors for extremes in nutritional status. Settings And Design: The study was a retrospective chart review of CCSs who attended the late effects clinic of a referral pediatric oncology center over the period of 1 year. Materials And Methods: An objective assessment of nutritional status was done, and results were analyzed in two groups: Adult survivors (present age 20 years or current age >30 years in adult survivors. Conclusions: The prevalence of obesity/overweight is lower in our cohort when compared to Western literature. It remains to be clarified whether this reflects the underlying undernutrition in our country, or whether our cohort of survivors is indeed distinct from their Western counterparts. Comparison with age/sex-matched normal controls and baseline parameters would yield more meaningful results.

  7. The development, testing, and preliminary feasibility of an adaptable pediatric oncology nutrition algorithm for low-middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, C A K; Viani, K; Murphy, A J; Mosby, T T; Arora, B; Schoeman, J; Ladas, E J

    2015-01-01

    Survivors of childhood cancer are at increased risk for several cardiometabolic complications. Obesity/overweight and metabolic syndrome have been widely reported in Western literature, but data from India are lacking. To perform an objective assessment of nutritional status in a cohort of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) and to find risk factors for extremes in nutritional status. The study was a retrospective chart review of CCSs who attended the late effects clinic of a referral pediatric oncology center over the period of 1 year. An objective assessment of nutritional status was done, and results were analyzed in two groups: Adult survivors (present age obesity, overweight, normal, and undernutrition was 2.6%, 10.8%, 62.7%, and 28.8% (CASs) and 0%, 8.5%, 62.7%, and 28.8% (adult survivors), respectively. Factors predictive of overweight/obesity were an initial diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, or brain tumor and follow-up duration of >20 years or current age >30 years in adult survivors. The prevalence of obesity/overweight is lower in our cohort when compared to Western literature. It remains to be clarified whether this reflects the underlying undernutrition in our country, or whether our cohort of survivors is indeed distinct from their Western counterparts. Comparison with age/sex-matched normal controls and baseline parameters would yield more meaningful results.

  8. Testing the relationships between energy consumption, CO2 emissions, and economic growth in 24 African countries: a panel ARDL approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asongu, Simplice; El Montasser, Ghassen; Toumi, Hassen

    2016-04-01

    This study complements existing literature by examining the nexus between energy consumption (EC), CO2 emissions (CE), and economic growth (GDP; gross domestic product) in 24 African countries using a panel autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach. The following findings are established. First, there is a long-run relationship between EC, CE, and GDP. Second, a long-term effect from CE to GDP and EC is apparent, with reciprocal paths. Third, the error correction mechanisms are consistently stable. However, in cases of disequilibrium, only EC can be significantly adjusted to its long-run relationship. Fourth, there is a long-run causality running from GDP and CE to EC. Fifth, we find causality running from either CE or both CE and EC to GDP, and inverse causal paths are observable. Causality from EC to GDP is not strong, which supports the conservative hypothesis. Sixth, the causal direction from EC to GDP remains unobservable in the short term. By contrast, the opposite path is observable. There are also no short-run causalities from GDP, or EC, or EC, and GDP to EC. Policy implications are discussed.

  9. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 5 Full-Scale Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

    2007-12-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additives, Evonik Degussa Corporation's TMT-15 and Nalco Company's Nalco 8034, to prevent the re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate whether the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project is conducting pilot- and full-scale tests of the additives in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} re-emissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Powder River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, Luminant Power (was TXU Generation Company LP), Southern Company, IPL (an AES company), Evonik Degussa Corporation and the Nalco Company. Luminant Power has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests and cost sharing. Southern Company has provided the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems tested. IPL provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Evonik Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive, and the Nalco Company is providing the Nalco 8034 additive. Both companies are also supplying technical support to the test program as in-kind cost sharing. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6

  10. Effects of an electric field on white sharks: in situ testing of an electric deterrent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlie Huveneers

    Full Text Available Elasmobranchs can detect minute electromagnetic fields, <1 nV cm(-1, using their ampullae of Lorenzini. Behavioural responses to electric fields have been investigated in various species, sometimes with the aim to develop shark deterrents to improve human safety. The present study tested the effects of the Shark Shield Freedom7™ electric deterrent on (1 the behaviour of 18 white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias near a static bait, and (2 the rates of attacks on a towed seal decoy. In the first experiment, 116 trials using a static bait were performed at the Neptune Islands, South Australia. The proportion of baits taken during static bait trials was not affected by the electric field. The electric field, however, increased the time it took them to consume the bait, the number of interactions per approach, and decreased the proportion of interactions within two metres of the field source. The effect of the electric field was not uniform across all sharks. In the second experiment, 189 tows using a seal decoy were conducted near Seal Island, South Africa. No breaches and only two surface interactions were observed during the tows when the electric field was activated, compared with 16 breaches and 27 surface interactions without the electric field. The present study suggests that the behavioural response of white sharks and the level of risk reduction resulting from the electric field is contextually specific, and depends on the motivational state of sharks.

  11. The Effect of Stress and Recovery on Field-test Performance in Floorball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Does, H T D; Brink, M S; Visscher, C; Huijgen, B C H; Frencken, W G P; Lemmink, K A P M

    2015-06-01

    Physical and psychosocial stress and recovery are important performance determinants. A holistic approach that monitors these performance determinants over a longer period of time is lacking. Therefore this study aims to investigate the effect of a player's physical and psychosocial stress and recovery on field-test performance. In a prospective non-experimental cohort design 10 female Dutch floorball players were monitored over 6 months. To monitor physical and psychosocial stress and recovery, daily training-logs and 3-weekly the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (RESTQ-Sport) were filled out respectively. To determine field-test performance 6 Heart rate Interval Monitoring System (HIMS) and 4 Repeated Modified Agility T-test (RMAT) measurements were performed. Multilevel prediction models were applied to account for within-players and between-players field-test performance changes. The results show that more psychosocial stress and less psychosocial recovery over 3-6 weeks before testing decrease HIMS performance (p≤0.05). More physical stress over 6 weeks before testing improves RMAT performance (p≤0.05). In conclusion, physical and psychosocial stress and recovery affect submaximal interval-based running performance and agility up to 6 weeks before testing. Therefore both physical and psychosocial stress and recovery should be monitored in daily routines to optimize performance.

  12. Field Load Acquisition and variable amplitude fatigue testing on maxi-scooter motorcycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Petrone

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present work was the instrumentation of a maxi scooter for the field collection of service loads acting on the scooter main components such as frame, fork, handlebar, rear frame and suspension. Service loads were collected on an instrumented Yamaha Tmax scooter equipped with 22 channels during a set of field tests that were representing a predefined road mix, covering a mileage of 270 km. Field load histories were used to develop an accelerated test procedure for the accelerated bench fatigue testing of a new model prototype whose mission was set to 50000 km. The acceleration procedure allowed a time reduction from 1600 hrs to 122 hrs bench equivalent testing. Both the benchmark scooter Tmax and a maxi-scooter prototype under development underwent the bench variable amplitude fatigue testing. The results of the fatigue tests on the prototype allowed to identify some critical bolted connections and to reduce some stress concentration features causing the appearance of small cracks that were found also after during 50000 km of driving tests.

  13. Equation of Motion of a Spinning Test Particle in Gravitational Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chang-Yong; WU Ning

    2008-01-01

    Based on the coupling between the spin of a particle and gravitoelectromagnetic field, the equation of motion of a spinning test particle in gravitational field is deduced. From this equation of motion, it is found that the motion of a spinning particle deviates from the geodesic trajectory, and this deviation originates from the coupling between the spin of the particle and gravitoelectromagnetie field, which is also the origin of Lense-Thirring effects. In post-Newtonian approximations, this equation gives the same results as those of Mathisson-Papapetrou equation. Effect of the deviation of geodesic trajectory is detectable.

  14. Measuring the Wigner Functions of Two-Mode Cavity Fields and Testing the Bell's Inequalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张智明

    2004-01-01

    We propose a scheme for measuring the Wigner function of a two-mode cavity field. The scheme bases on the interaction between the two-mode cavity field and three-level atoms. We find a simple relation between the Wigner function and the atomic population. One can obtain the Wigner function by measuring the atomic population with a micromaser-like experiment and doing a numerical integral. By using the two-mode Wigner function one can obtain the Clauser-Horne combination and test the Bell's inequalities. We test our equations with a two-mode entanglement state and the results are rather good.

  15. Comparison between field and laboratory steam oxidation testing on aluminide coatings on P92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agueero, A.; Gonzalez, V.; Gutierrez, M. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial, Ctra. Ajalvir Km 4, 28850 Torrejon de Ardoz (Spain); Knoedler, R.; Straub, S. [Alstom Power Systems GmbH, Boveristrasse 22, 68309 Mannheim (Germany); Muelas, R. [Ingenieria y Servicios Aeroespaciales, P Pintor Rosales 34, 28008 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-06-15

    Steam oxidation has become an important issue for steam power plants as operating temperatures increase from the current 550 to 600-650 C. For the last 10 years several groups have been carrying out steam oxidation testing of both uncoated substrates and coatings in the laboratory. On the other hand, field testing results are very scarce. In this paper, a comparison of laboratory steam oxidation testing with field test results carried out by Alstom at the Kraftwerk Westfalen power station located in Hamm, Germany will be presented. Both slurry deposited aluminide coatings and uncoated P92 steel have been included in the study. Under steam (atmospheric pressure) and isothermal conditions in the laboratory at 650 C, spallation of oxides formed on ferritic steels occurs after significantly longer time when compared to exposure to real operating conditions. Oxide spallation results in serious damage in steam power plants by obstructing heat exchanger tubes, erosion of valves and turbine blades, etc. Moreover, the thickness of the oxide scales formed under field testing conditions is significantly higher after similar exposure. On the other hand, aluminide coated P92, which exhibit thickness through cracks, have shown to be stable in the laboratory for up to 60 000 h at 650 C under steam, without evidence of crack propagation. However, field test results indicate that some degree of crack propagation occurs but without causing substrate attack up to 21 700 h of exposure. Moreover, the aluminium oxide observed in both laboratory and field tested specimens is different. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Validation of the Puumala virus rapid field test for bank voles in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reil, D; Imholt, C; Rosenfeld, U M; Drewes, S; Fischer, S; Heuser, E; Petraityte-Burneikiene, R; Ulrich, R G; Jacob, J

    2017-02-01

    Puumala virus (PUUV) causes many human infections in large parts of Europe and can lead to mild to moderate disease. The bank vole (Myodes glareolus) is the only reservoir of PUUV in Central Europe. A commercial PUUV rapid field test for rodents was validated for bank-vole blood samples collected in two PUUV-endemic regions in Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia and Baden-Württemberg). A comparison of the results of the rapid field test and standard ELISAs indicated a test efficacy of 93-95%, largely independent of the origin of the antigens used in the ELISA. In ELISAs, reactivity for the German PUUV strain was higher compared to the Swedish strain but not compared to the Finnish strain, which was used for the rapid field test. In conclusion, the use of the rapid field test can facilitate short-term estimation of PUUV seroprevalence in bank-vole populations in Germany and can aid in assessing human PUUV infection risk.

  17. Performance Testing Of Selected Types of Electronic Personal Dosimeters in X- and Gamma Radiation Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kržanović, Nikola; Živanović, Miloš; Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera; Lazarević, Đorđe; Ćeklić, Sandra; Stanković, Srboljub

    2017-10-01

    Electronic personal dosimeters (EPDs) are increasingly being used alongside conventional thermoluminescent dosimeters to measure the dose of legal record in terms of personal dose equivalent. Therefore, it is of great importance to execute performance tests of these dosimeters in photon fields of various energies and at various angles of incidence. This testing is done in order to simulate the behavior of these dosimeters in realistic multidirectional polyenergetic ionizing radiation fields. Tests of accuracy, linearity, energy response, and angular response have been performed on 10 EPDs from multiple manufacturers. Various radiation qualities have been used in the energy range from 33 keV to 1.33 MeV and for angles of incidence 0° to 80°. This research proves that many of the EPDs tested performed according to the manufacturer's specifications and the requirements of the international standards regarding personal dosimetry.

  18. A Test of HTS Power Cable in a Sweeping Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Piekarz, H; Blowers, J; Shiltsev, V

    2012-01-01

    Short sample HTS power cable composed of multiple 344C-2G strands and designed to energize a fast-cycling dipole magnet was exposed to a sweeping magnetic field in the (2-20) T/s rate. The B-field orientation toward the HTS strands wide surface was varied from 0 deg. to 10 deg., in steps of 1 deg.. The test arrangement allowed measurement of the combined hysteresis and eddy current power losses. For the validity of these measurements, the power losses of a short sample cable composed of multiple LTS wire strands were also performed to compare with the known data. The test arrangement of the power cable is described, and the test results are compared with the projections for the eddy and hysteresis power losses using the fine details of the test cable structures.

  19. THE GRANGER CAUSALITY TESTS FOR THE FIVE ASEAN COUNTRIES STOCK MARKETS AND MACROECONOMIC VARIABLES DURING AND POST THE 1997 ASIAN FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adwin Surja Atmadja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to examine the existence of Granger-causality among stock prices indices and macroeconomic variables in five ASEAN countries, Indonesia; Malaysia; the Philippines; Singapore; and Thailand with particular attention to the 1997 Asian financial crisis and period onwards. Using monthly time series data of the countries, a Granger-causality test based on the vector autoregressive (VAR analytical framework was employed to empirically reveal the causality among the variables. This research finds that there were few Granger causalities found between the country's wtock price index and macroeconomic variables. This indicates that the linkages between domestic stock price movements and macroeconomic factors were very. Due to that, the ASEAN stock markets were crelatively unable to efficiently capture changes in economic fundamentals during the observation period in most of the countries in accordance to the literature in emerging stock markets, and that the influence of specific macroeconomic factors on the domestic economies differ across countries. This also implies that the stock markets do not seem to have played a significant role in most countries' economies, and macroeconomic variables are unlikely to be appropriate indicators to predict not only the future behaviour of other macroeconomic variables, but also that of the stock market price indices. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Makalah ini mencoba untuk menganalisis keberadaan Granger-causality antara indeks harga saham dan variabel-variabel ekonomi makro di lima negara ASEAN, yaitu Indonesia; Malaysia; Filipina; Singapore; dan Thailand yang berfokus pada periode terjadinya krisis keuangan Asia pada tahun 1997 dan sesudahnya. Dengan mempergunakan data time series bulanan dari setiap negara tersebut, tes Granger-causality yang didasarkan pada kerangka analisa VAR (vector autoregressive diaplikasikan untuk mengungkap secara empiris hubungan kausal antar variabel. Dari hasil tes

  20. A field proof-of-concept of tomographic slug tests in an anisotropic littoral aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Daniel; Gloaguen, Erwan; Lefebvre, René; Giroux, Bernard

    2016-05-01

    Hydraulic tomography is increasingly recognized as a characterization approach that can image pathways or barriers to flow as well as their connectivity. In this study, we assess the performance of a transient analysis of tomographic slug test head data in estimating heterogeneity in horizontal hydraulic conductivity (Kh), hydraulic conductivity anisotropy (the ratio between vertical and horizontal hydraulic conductivity - Kv/Kh) and specific storage (Ss) under actual field conditions. The tomographic experiment was carried out between two wells in a moderately heterogeneous and highly anisotropic silt and sand littoral aquifer. In this field proof-of-concept, the inversion of the two-dimensional (2D) head dataset was computed with a 2D radial flow algorithm that considers Kh, Kv/Kh, Ss and wellbore storage effects. This study demonstrated that a transient analysis of tomographic slug tests is able to capture the key features of the littoral environment of the test: the vertical profiles of Kh and Kv are indeed in agreement with those from other field and laboratory tests, and Ss values exhibit physically plausible profiles. Furthermore, the simulation of independent inter-well hydraulic tests (slug and pumping tests screened over the entire aquifer) using resolved Kh, Kv/Kh and Ss tomograms produce responses very close to field observations. This study demonstrates that the effects of fine scale heterogeneity that induces K-anisotropy at larger scales can be captured through a transient analysis of tomographic slug tests, which are very difficult to quantify otherwise with conventional hydraulic tests, thus allowing a better representation of properties controlling flow and transport in aquifer systems.

  1. Testing of Visual Field with Virtual Reality Goggles in Manual and Visual Grasp Modes

    OpenAIRE

    Dariusz Wroblewski; Francis, Brian A; Alfredo Sadun; Ghazal Vakili; Vikas Chopra

    2014-01-01

    Automated perimetry is used for the assessment of visual function in a variety of ophthalmic and neurologic diseases. We report development and clinical testing of a compact, head-mounted, and eye-tracking perimeter (VirtualEye) that provides a more comfortable test environment than the standard instrumentation. VirtualEye performs the equivalent of a full threshold 24-2 visual field in two modes: (1) manual, with patient response registered with a mouse click, and (2) visual grasp, where the...

  2. Field tests of the first complete solar heating successfully finished; Feldtests erster Solarkomplettheizung erfolgreich abgeschlossen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kranich, Kerstin [Westfa, Hagen (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    Recently, the field tests of a new complete solar heating system could successfully be finished. The heating system obtains a primary energy saving of up to 60 % by means of a covering degree of 85 % by renewable energy sources. The effective combination of new hybrid solar heat collectors, a heat pump, a combination buffer memory and an ice latent heat storage finished the test phase and comes to the market in a few weeks.

  3. Transverse strength of railway tracks: part 3. Multiple scenarios test field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio De Iorio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the design and construction choices of a test field for the ballast lateral resistance measurement, in order to produce data useful for the development of a numerical model able to simulate the service critical conditions of a continuous welded rail track, are described. Some construction details described herein allow to better understand the methodological approach followed in the design of experiments, the tests management philosophy as well as of the accuracy achieved in their implementation.

  4. Atmospheric corrosion of coated steel; Relationship between laboratory and field testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambier, Severine Marie Noelle

    The lifetime prediction for corrosion-protective coatings on metals is a challenge that has been studied for several decades. Accelerated tests are used in the hope to reproduce in few days the damage that would develop during several years of field exposure. Field exposures are also used because accelerated tests are not always reliable. Several approaches have been taken to reduce the duration of field exposures. One of them is the use of sensitive techniques to assess the coating degradation before visual inspection indicates any damage. Cathodic delamination measured by the scanning Kelvin probe (CD-SKP) was introduced here as a sensitive technique to assess the degradation at the coating/metal interface after weathering exposure. This technique was shown to predict the failure of the coating/steel interface. Several climates were tested in the US continent and on the islands of Hawaii. PVB coated steel environmental degradation was characterized in the field and reproduced in the laboratory. A second approach to shorten coated metal field exposure is to accelerate the degradation using intentionally added through-film scribes. In service, most corrosion mechanism for painted metals, such as filiform corrosion and cathodic delamination, initiate from a mechanical defect. The iron oxides formed under PVB and Eponol were identified with Raman spectroscopy to determine the environment factors that participated in their formation. This investigation was complemented by laboratory exposure. An accelerated test for PVB coated steel was designed to reproduce the environmental degradation observed in the field. The CD-SKP technique to assess interface degradation after weathering exposure was also applied to other coating systems. E-coated, sprayed epoxy primers with a conversion coating or grit blasting treatment, and one full coating system were tested.

  5. Emotionality in growing pigs: is the open field a valid test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Ramona D; Healy, Susan D; Lawrence, Alistair B; Rutherford, Kenneth M D

    2011-10-24

    The ability to assess emotionality is important within animal welfare research. Yet, for farm animals, few tests of emotionality have been well validated. Here we investigated the construct validity of behavioural measures of pig emotionality in an open-field test by manipulating the experiences of pigs in three ways. In Experiment One (pharmacological manipulation), pigs pre-treated with Azaperone, a drug used to reduce stress in commercial pigs, were more active, spent more time exploring and vocalised less than control pigs. In Experiment Two (social manipulation), pigs that experienced the open-field arena with a familiar companion were also more exploratory, spent less time behaviourally idle, and were less vocal than controls although to a lesser degree than in Experiment One. In Experiment Three (novelty manipulation), pigs experiencing the open field for a second time were less active, explored less and vocalised less than they had done in the first exposure to the arena. A principal component analysis was conducted on data from all three trials. The first two components could be interpreted as relating to the form (cautious to exploratory) and magnitude (low to high arousal) of the emotional response to open-field testing. Based on these dimensions, in Experiment One, Azaperone pigs appeared to be less fearful than saline-treated controls. However, in Experiment Two, exposure to the arena with a conspecific did not affect the first two dimensions but did affect a third behavioural dimension, relating to oro-nasal exploration of the arena floor. In Experiment Three, repeat exposure altered the form but not the magnitude of emotional response: pigs were less exploratory in the second test. In conclusion, behavioural measures taken from pigs in an open-field test are sensitive to manipulations of their prior experience in a manner that suggests they reflect underlying emotionality. Behavioural measures taken during open-field exposure can be useful for making

  6. Field tests of a portable tissue equivalent survey meter for monitoring mixed beta/gamma radiation fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martz, D.E.; Rich, B.L.; Johnson, L.O.; Daniel, S.H. III

    1986-05-01

    A portable radiation survey meter that provides a tissue equivalent response to photons and beta particles has been designed and field tested. The detector is a very thin plastic scintillator that closely simulates the actual geometry and scattering properties of the relevant skin tissues. The meter reads out the D(0.07) dose rate directly, and indicates the tissue dose rates at other depths with the use of tissue equivalent filters of appropriate thicknesses. Data are presented which compare the D(0.07) and D(10) dose rates recorded by the Tissue Equivalent (TE) survey meter with dose rates recorded by two commercial ion chamber meters for a number of laboratory and field sources. Most commercial ion chamber meters fail to respond adequately to the extreme off-axis beta particles from extended beta sources, and hence require the application of large beta correction factors to change the instrument reading to the true D(0.07) dose rate. The tissue equivalent survey meter exhibits an angular response to beta particles that is very similar to the angular response of an extrapolation chamber. Consequently, there is close agreement between the TE meter and extrapolation chamber readings for a wide variety of beta and mixed beta-gamma rdiation fields. D(0.07), D(3), and D(10) dose rates, measured with the INEL TE meter at a number of typical work stations, are presented.

  7. Pilot Field Test: The Ability to Ambulate After Landing as Assessed with Seat Egress, Walk, and Obstacle Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, E. A.; Fomina, E. V.; Reschke, M. F.; Cerisano, J. M.; Kofman, I. S.; Gadd, N. E.; Phillips, T. R.; Lee, S. M. C.; Laurie, S. S.; Stenger, M. B.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts experience alterations in multiple physiological systems due to exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight. These changes lead to disruption in the ability to ambulate and perform functional tasks during the initial reintroduction to a gravitational environment. Figure 1 shows a schematic representation of the components involved in postflight ataxia. Full functional recovery has not been sufficiently investigated for long-duration crewmembers. The joint U.S./Russian Pilot Field Test (PFT) experiment (a pre-cursor to Field Test (FT)) was developed to address this gap in knowledge. The PFT was conducted on crewmembers traveling on Soyuz expeditions 34S - 41S and was comprised of several tasks designed to study the recovery of sensorimotor abilities of crewmembers during the first 24 hours after landing and for several days thereafter. Closing this gap will allow us to characterize the ability of crewmembers to perform critical mission tasks that they will be expected to perform after an unassisted landing following 6 to 12 months in microgravity. The Seat Egress, Walk and Obstacle (SEWO) Test will be discussed in this poster.

  8. Prevention and management of chronic disease: a litmus test for health-systems strengthening in low-income and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samb, Badara; Desai, Nina; Nishtar, Sania; Mendis, Shanti; Bekedam, Henk; Wright, Anna; Hsu, Justine; Martiniuk, Alexandra; Celletti, Francesca; Patel, Kiran; Adshead, Fiona; McKee, Martin; Evans, Tim; Alwan, Ala; Etienne, Carissa

    2010-11-20

    National health systems need strengthening if they are to meet the growing challenge of chronic diseases in low-income and middle-income countries. By application of an accepted health-systems framework to the evidence, we report that the factors that limit countries' capacity to implement proven strategies for chronic diseases relate to the way in which health systems are designed and function. Substantial constraints are apparent across each of the six key health-systems components of health financing, governance, health workforce, health information, medical products and technologies, and health-service delivery. These constraints have become more evident as development partners have accelerated efforts to respond to HIV, tuberculosis, malaria, and vaccine-preventable diseases. A new global agenda for health-systems strengthening is arising from the urgent need to scale up and sustain these priority interventions. Most chronic diseases are neglected in this dialogue about health systems, despite the fact that non-communicable diseases (most of which are chronic) will account for 69% of all global deaths by 2030 with 80% of these deaths in low-income and middle-income countries. At the same time, advocates for action against chronic diseases are not paying enough attention to health systems as part of an effective response. Efforts to scale up interventions for management of common chronic diseases in these countries tend to focus on one disease and its causes, and are often fragmented and vertical. Evidence is emerging that chronic disease interventions could contribute to strengthening the capacity of health systems to deliver a comprehensive range of services-provided that such investments are planned to include these broad objectives. Because effective chronic disease programmes are highly dependent on well-functioning national health systems, chronic diseases should be a litmus test for health-systems strengthening.

  9. Laboratory tests on sorption and transformation of the insecticide flubendiamide in Japanese tea field soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartung, Susen [Technische Universität Braunschweig, Institute of Environmental and Sustainable Chemistry, Hagenring 30, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Iwasaki, Masahide; Ogawa, Naoto [Shizuoka University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Kreuzig, Robert, E-mail: r.kreuzig@tu-bs.de [Technische Universität Braunschweig, Institute of Environmental and Sustainable Chemistry, Hagenring 30, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Flubendiamide belongs to the modern insecticides applied in Japanese tea cultivation to control smaller tea tortrix and tea leaf roller. Since fate and behavior in soil have been only monitored sparsely and fragmentarily until today, laboratory tests were performed on sorption, leaching, biotransformation and photo-induced biotransformation of flubendiamide in two different soils. In batch equilibrium tests, K{sub d} and K{sub OC} values were 15 and 298 L kg{sup −1} for the Japanese tea field soil as well as 16 and 1610 L kg{sup −1} for the German arable field soil classifying flubendiamide to be moderately mobile and slightly mobile, respectively. The affinity to the tea field soil was additionally confirmed by soil column tests where flubendiamide was predominantly retarded in the topsoil layers resulting in a percolate contamination of only 0.002 mg L{sup −1}. In the aerobic biotransformation tests, flubendiamide did not substantially disappear within the 122-d incubation period. Due to DT{sub 50} > 122 d, flubendiamide was assessed very persistent. Supplementary, photo-induced impacts on biotransformation were studied in a special laboratory irradiation system. Despite a 14-d irradiation period, photo-induced biotransformation in the tea field soil was not identifiable, neither by HPLC/DAD nor by LC/MS/MS. 3-d irradiation tests in photosensibilizing acetone, however, showed that the primary photo-transformation product desiodo-flubendiamide was formed. How far this photochemical reaction may also occur in soil of perennial tea plant stands, however, has to be checked in field studies. - Highlights: ► Laboratory tests on sorption, leaching, microbial and photo-induced microbial transformation were performed. ► Strong sorption was revealed by batch equilibrium and column tests. ► High persistence was found in aerobic biotransformation tests. ► An enhanced biotransformation by photo-induced impacts could not be confirmed. ► Field studies are

  10. Testing for heterogeneous business practices across firms in developing countries: The case of the Brazilian soft drink industry

    OpenAIRE

    Salvo, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    This paper estimates a structural model of the Brazilian carbonated soft drink industry to test the claim that the observed low prices of low-end entrants owe to marginal cost advantages over the large, established brands, allegedly stemming chiefly from tax evasion. Such entrants, numbering in the hundreds, are typically small-scale operations, with limited geographic reach and no advertising. In addition to the low-cost hypothesis, advocated by the incumbent duopolists, the model allows for...

  11. Effects of an electric field on white sharks: in situ testing of an electric deterrent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huveneers, Charlie; Rogers, Paul J; Semmens, Jayson M; Beckmann, Crystal; Kock, Alison A; Page, Brad; Goldsworthy, Simon D

    2013-01-01

    Elasmobranchs can detect minute electromagnetic fields, shark deterrents to improve human safety. The present study tested the effects of the Shark Shield Freedom7™ electric deterrent on (1) the behaviour of 18 white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) near a static bait, and (2) the rates of attacks on a towed seal decoy. In the first experiment, 116 trials using a static bait were performed at the Neptune Islands, South Australia. The proportion of baits taken during static bait trials was not affected by the electric field. The electric field, however, increased the time it took them to consume the bait, the number of interactions per approach, and decreased the proportion of interactions within two metres of the field source. The effect of the electric field was not uniform across all sharks. In the second experiment, 189 tows using a seal decoy were conducted near Seal Island, South Africa. No breaches and only two surface interactions were observed during the tows when the electric field was activated, compared with 16 breaches and 27 surface interactions without the electric field. The present study suggests that the behavioural response of white sharks and the level of risk reduction resulting from the electric field is contextually specific, and depends on the motivational state of sharks.

  12. TESTING MAGNETIC FIELD MODELS FOR THE CLASS 0 PROTOSTAR L1527

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, J. A. [University of Western Australia, School of Physics, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Li, Z.-Y. [Astronomy Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Hull, C. L. H.; Plambeck, R. L. [Astronomy Department and Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Kwon, W. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Landleven 12, 9747 AD, Groningen (Netherlands); Crutcher, R. M.; Looney, L. W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Novak, G.; Chapman, N. L. [Northwestern University, Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and the Department of Physics and Astronomy, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Matthews, B. C. [Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Stephens, I. W. [Boston University, Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Tobin, J. J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Jones, T. J., E-mail: jackie.davidson@uwa.edu.au [University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    For the Class 0 protostar L1527 we compare 131 polarization vectors from SCUPOL/JCMT, SHARP/CSO, and TADPOL/CARMA observations with the corresponding model polarization vectors of four ideal-MHD, nonturbulent, cloud core collapse models. These four models differ by their initial magnetic fields before collapse; two initially have aligned fields (strong and weak) and two initially have orthogonal fields (strong and weak) with respect to the rotation axis of the L1527 core. Only the initial weak orthogonal field model produces the observed circumstellar disk within L1527. This is a characteristic of nearly all ideal-MHD, nonturbulent, core collapse models. In this paper we test whether this weak orthogonal model also has the best agreement between its magnetic field structure and that inferred from the polarimetry observations of L1527. We found that this is not the case; based on the polarimetry observations, the most favored model of the four is the weak aligned model. However, this model does not produce a circumstellar disk, so our result implies that a nonturbulent, ideal-MHD global collapse model probably does not represent the core collapse that has occurred in L1527. Our study also illustrates the importance of using polarization vectors covering a large area of a cloud core to determine the initial magnetic field orientation before collapse; the inner core magnetic field structure can be highly altered by a collapse, and so measurements from this region alone can give unreliable estimates of the initial field configuration before collapse.

  13. Use of Geophysical and Remote Sensing Techniques During the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization's Integrated Field Exercise 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labak, Peter; Sussman, Aviva; Rowlands, Aled; Chiappini, Massimo; Malich, Gregor; MacLeod, Gordon; Sankey, Peter; Sweeney, Jerry; Tuckwell, George

    2016-04-01

    The Integrated Field Exercise of 2014 (IFE14) was a field event held in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (with concurrent activities in Austria) that tested the operational and technical capabilities of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty's (CTBT) on-site inspection (OSI). During an OSI, up to 40 inspectors search a 1000km2 inspection area for evidence of a nuclear explosion. Over 250 experts from ~50 countries were involved in IFE14 (the largest simulation of an OSI to date) and worked from a number of different directions, such as the Exercise Management and Control Teams to execute the scenario in which the exercise was played, to those participants performing as members of the Inspection Team (IT). One of the main objectives of IFE14 was to test Treaty allowed inspection techniques, including a number of geophysical and remote sensing methods. In order to develop a scenario in which the simulated exercise could be carried out, a number of physical features in the IFE14 inspection area were designed and engineered by the Scenario Task Force Group (STF) that the IT could detect by applying the geophysical and remote sensing inspection technologies, as well as other techniques allowed by the CTBT. For example, in preparation for IFE14, the STF modeled a seismic triggering event that was provided to the IT to prompt them to detect and localize aftershocks in the vicinity of a possible explosion. Similarly, the STF planted shallow targets such as borehole casings and pipes for detection by other geophysical methods. In addition, airborne technologies, which included multi-spectral imaging, were deployed such that the IT could identify freshly exposed surfaces, imported materials and other areas that had been subject to modification. This presentation will introduce the CTBT and OSI, explain the IFE14 in terms of goals specific to geophysical and remote sensing methods, and show how both the preparation for and execution of IFE14 meet those goals.

  14. A Test Platform for Planned Field Operations Using LEGO Mindstorms NXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Edwards

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Testing agricultural operations and management practices associated with different machinery, systems and planning approaches can be both costly and time-consuming. Computer simulations of such systems are used for development and testing; however, to gain the experience of real-world performance, an intermediate step between simulation and full-scale testing should be included. In this paper, a potential common framework using the LEGO Mindstorms NXT micro-tractor platform is described in terms of its hardware and software components. The performance of the platform is demonstrated and tested in terms of its capability of supporting decision making on infield operation planning. The proposed system represents the basic measures for developing a complete test platform for field operations, where route plans, mission plans, multiple-machinery cooperation strategies and machinery coordination can be executed and tested in the laboratory.

  15. Field Test Evaluation of Effect on Cone Resistance Caused by Change in Penetration Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Rikke; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2012-01-01

    in Dronninglund where the subsoil primary consists of sandy silt. A total of 15 cone penetration tests with penetration rates varying from 60 to 0.5 mm/s and two geotechnical borings were conducted at the test site. Large soil samples were also collected from the test site in order to determine soil properties......This paper presents how a change in cone penetration rate affects the measured cone resistance during cone penetration testing in silty soils. Regardless of soil, type the standard rate of penetration is 20 mm/s and it is generally accepted that undrained penetration occurs in clay while drained...... penetration occurs in sand. In intermediate soils such as silty soils, the standard cone penetration rate may result in drainage conditions varying from undrained to partially or fully drained conditions. Field cone penetrations tests have been conducted with different penetration rates on a test site...

  16. The Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test as a measure of field-dependence/independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, O N

    1984-12-01

    This paper describes the use of the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test as a valid and reliable measure to assess field-dependence/independence of 240 first- and 240 third-grade pupils. Scores on the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test were correlated .95 and .87 with scores on the Articulation of the Body-Concept Scale for the first-grade girls and boys and .94 and .97 for third-grade girls and boys. Scores were also correlated with those on the Children's Embedded Figures Test. Correlations between the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test and the Children's Embedded Figures Test were of similar magnitude to those between the Articulation of the Body-concept Scale and the Children's Embedded Figures Test.

  17. Peak oxygen uptake in a sprint interval testing protocol vs. maximal oxygen uptake in an incremental testing protocol and their relationship with cross-country mountain biking performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebisz, Rafał; Hebisz, Paulina; Zatoń, Marek; Michalik, Kamil

    2017-04-01

    In the literature, the exercise capacity of cyclists is typically assessed using incremental and endurance exercise tests. The aim of the present study was to confirm whether peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2peak) attained in a sprint interval testing protocol correlates with cycling performance, and whether it corresponds to maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) determined by an incremental testing protocol. A sample of 28 trained mountain bike cyclists executed 3 performance tests: (i) incremental testing protocol (ITP) in which the participant cycled to volitional exhaustion, (ii) sprint interval testing protocol (SITP) composed of four 30 s maximal intensity cycling bouts interspersed with 90 s recovery periods, (iii) competition in a simulated mountain biking race. Oxygen uptake, pulmonary ventilation, work, and power output were measured during the ITP and SITP with postexercise blood lactate and hydrogen ion concentrations collected. Race times were recorded. No significant inter-individual differences were observed in regards to any of the ITP-associated variables. However, 9 individuals presented significantly increased oxygen uptake, pulmonary ventilation, and work output in the SITP compared with the remaining cyclists. In addition, in this group of 9 cyclists, oxygen uptake in SITP was significantly higher than in ITP. After the simulated race, this group of 9 cyclists achieved significantly better competition times (99.5 ± 5.2 min) than the other cyclists (110.5 ± 6.7 min). We conclude that mountain bike cyclists who demonstrate higher peak oxygen uptake in a sprint interval testing protocol than maximal oxygen uptake attained in an incremental testing protocol demonstrate superior competitive performance.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW FIELD TEST TO ASSESSMENT OF ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE FOR TEAM SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is develop a new anaerobic field test (Modified Illinois Agility Test: Mod IAT for team sports and investigate to reliability and reliationship with running-based anaerobic sprint test (RAST and Wingate anaerobic power test (WAnT. Method: Fourtythree male athletes were participated (10 handball, 10 football and 9 basketball players; team sports group: TSG and middle-long distance runners; individual sports group:ISG. At first day, height and body composition was assessed and all participants went to WAnT and Mod IAT measurements. Second testing day, RAST and repeat of Mod IAT was performed. There was at least 24-hour between Mod IAT tests. Also all tests were executed in a week for one subject. Heart rate and blood lactate was measured after the test and 5th min of recovery. Rate of percieved exerciton (RPE is also asked and saved after all the performance tests. Results:Physiological responses of all anaerobic tests were similar between BSG and TSG. When compared in-group there was significant difference in physiological parameters. The main finding of the study was the differences of completing times of new repeated agility test between ISG and TSG. The Mod IAT has good reliability cause of there is no significant difference between test-retest results of peak time (PT, total time (TT and fatigue index (FI values for all groups except PT value for ISG. Bland-altman analysis showed that all parameters of Mod IAT were limits of agreement in TSG and ISG but PT were not just for ISG. Conclusion: A similar repeated agility test in the study conducted by Haj-Sassi et al., the T test was selected and modified. The Illinois Agility test is the most commonly used test which is accepted as the standard (Winter EM, 2007. When the two test are compared in terms of TT; it was observed that although the RMAT is repeated for 10 times, it lasts much less than Mod IAT (61.22 ± 3.02 s. The present study indicate that required

  19. Automated and semi-automated field testing of night vision goggles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scopatz, Stephen; Paszkeicz, Dominic; Langsdorf, Brent

    2016-05-01

    This paper will discuss the development and results of a new field portable test set for Gen 2 and Gen 3 night vision goggles that automates many of the tests supported by currently available NVG test products. The major innovation is the use of MTF testing with a knife edge target. MTF testing is established in the laboratory environment and well suited to replace the operator's interpretation of the USAF 1951 resolution chart. Results will be presented to show the more consistent performance of the MTF approach as compared to the known operator variations when humans determine resolution. Other standard tests are semi-automated and/or video-assisted, such as infinity focus, spot defects, and distortion. The presentation will show repeatability across test units and operators on the key tests. The presentation will include automatically generated examples of the report files for each test run on each goggle. All of these capabilities are provided in a package that matches the form factor of other products in use to test NVG's. A discussion of the user interface and the ease of use of the system will be included as well as the improvement in the test time for each goggle type.

  20. The ACE-DTU Planar Near-Field Ground Penetrating Radar Antenna Test Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenler-Eriksen, Hans-Rudolph; Meincke, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The ACE-DTU planar near-field ground penetrating radar (GPR) antenna test facility is used to measure the plane-wave transmitting spectrum of a GPR loop antenna close to the air-soil interface by means of a probe buried in soil. Probe correction is implemented using knowledge about the complex...

  1. 76 FR 12932 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing Fowl Laryngotracheitis-Marek's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... Assessment for Field Testing Fowl Laryngotracheitis-Marek's Disease Vaccine, Serotype 3, Live Marek's Disease... unlicensed Fowl Laryngotracheitis-Marek's Disease Vaccine, Serotype 3, Live Marek's Disease Vector. The... Company. Product: Fowl Laryngotracheitis-Marek's Disease Vaccine, Serotype 3, Live Marek's Disease Vector...

  2. 76 FR 66032 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing Avian Influenza-Marek's Disease...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Assessment for Field Testing Avian Influenza-Marek's Disease Vaccine, H5 Subtype, Serotype 3, Live Marek's... unlicensed Avian Influenza-Marek's Disease Vaccine, H5 Subtype, Serotype 3, Live Marek's Disease Vector. The... product: Requester: Biomune Company. Product: Avian Influenza-Marek's Disease Vaccine, H5 Subtype...

  3. Infrared Testing of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Telescope Grism Using Computer Generated Holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Margaret Z.; Content, David A.; Gong, Qian; Griesmann, Ulf; Hagopian, John G.; Marx, Catherine T; Whipple, Arthur L.

    2017-01-01

    Infrared Computer Generated Holograms (CGHs) were designed, manufactured and used to measure the performance of the grism (grating prism) prototype which includes testing Diffractive Optical Elements (DOE). The grism in the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) will allow the surveying of a large section of the sky to find bright galaxies.

  4. Study Abroad Field Trip Improves Test Performance through Engagement and New Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Chris; Brannstrom, Christian; Quiring, Steven M.; Lemmons, Kelly K.

    2011-01-01

    Although study abroad trips provide an opportunity for affective and cognitive learning, it is largely assumed that they improve learning outcomes. The purpose of this study is to determine whether a study abroad field trip improved cognitive learning by comparing test performance between the study abroad participants (n = 20) and their peers who…

  5. Cognitive Learning Strategy as a Partial Effect on Major Field Test in Business Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Kenneth David

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was developed to determine if cognitive learning strategies improved standardized university business exam results. Previous studies revealed that factors such as prior ability, age, gender, and culture predicted a student's Major Field Test in Business (MFTB) score better than course content. The experiment control consisted of…

  6. Field-testing of the ICHD-3 beta diagnostic criteria for classical trigeminal neuralgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarbjerg, Stine; Sørensen, Morten Togo; Gozalov, Aydin

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We aimed to field-test the beta version of the third edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3 beta) diagnostic criteria for classical trigeminal neuralgia (TN). The proposed beta draft of the 11th version of the International Classification of Diseases...

  7. The ACE-DTU Planar Near-Field Ground Penetrating Radar Antenna Test Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenler-Eriksen, Hans-Rudolph; Meincke, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The ACE-DTU planar near-field ground penetrating radar (GPR) antenna test facility is used to measure the plane-wave transmitting spectrum of a GPR loop antenna close to the air-soil interface by means of a probe buried in soil. Probe correction is implemented using knowledge about the complex...

  8. Does assessment of personal exposure matter during experimental neurocognitive testing in MRI-related magnetic fields?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nierop, Lotte E; Christopher-de Vries, Y.; Slottje, Pauline; Kromhout, Hans

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine whether the use of quantitative personal exposure measurements in experimental research would result in better estimates of the associations between static and time-varying magnetic field exposure and neurocognitive test performance than when exposure categories were based sole

  9. ITER test blanket module error field simulation experiments at DIII-D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaffer, M. J.; Snipes, J. A.; Gohil, P.; P. de Vries,; Evans, T. E.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Gao, X.; Garofalo, A. M.; Gates, D. A.; Greenfield, C.M.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Kramer, G. J.; La Haye, R. J.; Liu, S.; Loarte, A.; Nave, M. F. F.; Osborne, T. H.; Oyama, N.; Park, J. K.; Ramasubramanian, N.; Reimerdes, H.; Saibene, G.; Salmi, A.; Shinohara, K.; Spong, D. A.; Solomon, W. M.; Tala, T.; Zhu, Y. B.; Boedo, J. A.; Chuyanov, V.; Doyle, E. J.; Jakubowski, M.; Jhang, H.; Nazikian, R. M.; Pustovitov, V. D.; Schmitz, O.; Srinivasan, R.; Taylor, T. S.; Wade, M. R.; You, K. I.; Zeng, L.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments at DIII-D investigated the effects of magnetic error fields similar to those expected from proposed ITER test blanket modules (TBMs) containing ferromagnetic material. Studied were effects on: plasma rotation and locking, confinement, L-H transition, the H-mode pedestal, edge localized m

  10. Antioxidant effects of nerolidol in mice hippocampus after open field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira Neto, José Damasceno; de Almeida, Antonia Amanda Cardoso; da Silva Oliveira, Johanssy; Dos Santos, Pauline Sousa; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; de Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of nerolidol in mice hippocampus against oxidative stress in neuronal cells compared to ascorbic acid (positive control) as well as evaluated the nerolidol sedative effects by open field test compared to diazepam (positive control). Thirty minutes prior to behavioral observation on open field test, mice were intraperitoneally treated with vehicle, nerolidol (25, 50 and 75 mg/kg), diazepam (1 mg/kg) or ascorbic acid (250 mg/kg). To clarify the action mechanism of of nerolidol on oxidative stress in animals subjected to the open field test, Western blot analysis of Mn-superoxide dismutase and catalase in mice hippocampus were performed. In nerolidol group, there was a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels when compared to negative control (vehicle). However, a significant increase was observed in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in this group when compared to the other groups. Vehicle, diazepam, ascorbic acid and nerolidol groups did not affected Mn-superoxide dismutase, catalase mRNA or protein levels. Our findings strongly support the hypothesis that oxidative stress occurs in hippocampus. Nerolidol showed sedative effects in animals subjected to the open field test. Oxidative process plays a crucial role on neuronal pathological consequence, and implies that antioxidant effects could be achieved using this sesquiterpene.

  11. Laboratory and Modeling Evaluations in Support of Field Testing for Desiccation at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Freedman, Vicky L.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Tartakovsky, Guzel D.; Ward, Anderson L.

    2011-02-23

    The Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau includes testing of the desiccation technology as a potential technology to be used in conjunction with surface infiltration control to limit the flux of technetium and other contaminants in the vadose zone to the groundwater. Laboratory and modeling efforts were conducted to investigate technical uncertainties related to the desiccation process and its impact on contaminant transport. This information is intended to support planning, operation, and interpretation of a field test for desiccation in the Hanford Central Plateau.

  12. The Synthesis of Structural Responses Using Experimentally Measured Frequency Response Functions and Field Test Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAP,JEROME S.; NELSON,CURTIS F.

    2000-11-17

    This paper presents an analysis technique used to generate the structural response at locations not measured during the ejection of a captive-carried store. The ejection shock event is complicated by the fact that forces may be imparted to the store at eight distinct locations. The technique derives forcing functions by combining the initial field test data for a limited number of measurement locations with Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) measured using a traditional modal-type impact (tap) test at the same locations. The derived forcing functions were then used with tap test FRFs measured at additional locations of interest to produce the desired response data.

  13. The Role of Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GDH) Testing Assay in the Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile Infections: A High Sensitive Screening Test and an Essential Step in the Proposed Laboratory Diagnosis Workflow for Developing Countries like China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jing-Wei; Xiao, Meng; Kudinha, Timothy; Xu, Zhi-Peng; Sun, Lin-Ying; Hou, Xin; Zhang, Li; Fan, Xin; Kong, Fanrong; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in North America and Europe has increased significantly since the 2000s. However, CDI is not widely recognized in China and other developing countries due to limited laboratory diagnostic capacity and low awareness. Most published studies on laboratory workflows for CDI diagnosis are from developed countries, and thus may not be suitable for most developing countries. Therefore, an alternative strategy for developing countries is needed. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GDH) test and its associated workflow on 416 fecal specimens from suspected CDI cases. The assay exhibited excellent sensitivity (100.0%) and specificity (92.8%), compared to culture based method, and thus could be a good screening marker for C. difficile but not for indication of toxin production. The VIDAS CDAB assay, which can detect toxin A/B directly from fecal specimens, showed good specificity (99.7%) and positive predictive value (97.2%), but low sensitivity (45.0%) and negative predictive value (88.3%), compared with PCR-based toxin gene detection. Therefore, we propose a practical and efficient GDH test based workflow strategy for the laboratory diagnosis of CDI in developing countries like China. By applying this new workflow, the CDI laboratory diagnosis rate was notably improved in our center, yet the increasing cost was kept at a minimum level. Furthermore, to gain some insights into the genetic population structure of C. difficile isolates from our hospital, we performed MLST and PCR toxin gene typing.

  14. Pilot Field Test: The Ability to Ambulate Following Landing as Assessed with Seat Egress, Walk and Obstacle Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, E. A.; Fomina, E. V; Reschke, M. F.; Cerisano, J. M.; Kofman, I. S.; Gadd, N. E.; Phillips, T. R.; Lee, S. M. C.; Laurie, S. S.; Stenger, M. B.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.

    2016-01-01

    To date, changes in functional performance have been systematically studied after short-duration space flight. As important as the postflight functional changes have been, full functional recovery has never been investigated or established for long-duration flights. The Pilot Field Test (PFT) experiment, conducted with participation of ISS crewmembers traveling on Soyuz expeditions 34S - 41S, is comprised of several tasks designed to study the recovery of sensorimotor abilities of astronauts during the first 24 hours after landing and beyond. The objective of the Seat Egress - Walk and Obstacle Test, developed by NASA's Russian collaborators at the Institute for Biomedical Problems, is to address this gap in knowledge. This will allow us to characterize the ability of crewmembers to perform critical mission requirements that they will be expected to perform after an unassisted landing following 6 to 12 months in microgravity.

  15. On random field Completely Automated Public Turing Test to Tell Computers and Humans Apart generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouritzin, Michael A; Newton, Fraser; Wu, Biao

    2013-04-01

    Herein, we propose generating CAPTCHAs through random field simulation and give a novel, effective and efficient algorithm to do so. Indeed, we demonstrate that sufficient information about word tests for easy human recognition is contained in the site marginal probabilities and the site-to-nearby-site covariances and that these quantities can be embedded directly into certain conditional probabilities, designed for effective simulation. The CAPTCHAs are then partial random realizations of the random CAPTCHA word. We start with an initial random field (e.g., randomly scattered letter pieces) and use Gibbs resampling to re-simulate portions of the field repeatedly using these conditional probabilities until the word becomes human-readable. The residual randomness from the initial random field together with the random implementation of the CAPTCHA word provide significant resistance to attack. This results in a CAPTCHA, which is unrecognizable to modern optical character recognition but is recognized about 95% of the time in a human readability study.

  16. Testing Circuit Models for the Energies of Coronal Magnetic Field Configurations

    CERN Document Server

    Wheatland, M S

    2003-01-01

    Circuit models involving bulk currents and inductances are often used to estimate the energies of coronal magnetic field configurations, in particular configurations associated with solar flares. The accuracy of circuit models is tested by comparing calculated energies of linear force-free fields with specified boundary conditions with corresponding circuit estimates. The circuit models are found to provide reasonable (order of magnitude) estimates for the energies of the non-potential components of the fields, and to reproduce observed functional dependences of the energies. However, substantial departure from the circuit estimates is observed for large values of the force-free parameter, and this is attributed to the influence of the non-potential component of the field on the path taken by the current.

  17. Comparison between 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test and Multistage Field Test on physiological responses in wheelchair basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry eWeissland

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The intermittent nature of wheelchair court sports suggests using a similar protocol to assess repeated shuttles and recovery abilities. This study aimed to compare performances, physiological responses and perceived rating exertion obtained from the continuous multistage field test (MFT and the 30-15 intermittent field test (30-15IFT. Eighteen trained wheelchair basketball players (WBP (WBP: 32.0±5.7y, IWBF classification: 2.9±1.1points performed both incremental field tests in randomized order. Time to exhaustion, maximal rolling velocity (MRV, VO2peak and the peak values of minute ventilation (VEpeak, respiratory frequency (RF and heart rate (HRpeak were measured throughout both tests; peak and net blood lactate (Δ [Lact-] = peak–rest values and perceived rating exertion (RPE values at the end of each exercise. No significant difference in VO2peak, VEpeak and RF was found between both tests. 30-15IFT was shorter (12.4±2.4 vs. 14.9±5.1min, P<0.05 but induced higher values of MRV and Δ [Lact-] compared to MFT (14.2±1.8 vs. 11.1±1.9km•h-1 and 8.3±4.2 vs. 6.9±3.3mmol•L-1, P<0.05. However, HRpeak and RPE values were higher during MFT than 30-15IFT (172.8±14.0 vs. 166.8±13.8bpm and 15.3±3.8 vs.13.8±3.5, respectively, P<0.05. The intermittent shuttles intercepted with rest period occurred during the 30-15IFT could explain a greater anaerobic solicitation. The higher HR and overall RPE values measured at the end of MFT could be explained by its longer duration and a continuous load stress compared to 30-15IFT. In conclusion, 30-15IFT has some advantages over MFT for assess in addition physical fitness and technical performance in WBP.

  18. Laboratory shake flask batch tests can predict field biodegradation of aniline in the Rhine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toräng, Lars; Reuschenbach, Peter; Müller, Britta; Nyholm, Niels

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare degradation rates of aniline in laboratory shake flask simulation tests with field rates in the river Rhine. The combined events of a low flow situation in the Rhine and residual aniline concentrations in the effluent from the BASF treatment plant in Ludwigshafen temporarily higher than normal, made it possible to monitor aniline at trace concentrations in the river water downstream the wastewater outlet by means of a sensitive GC headspace analytical method. Aniline was analyzed along a downstream gradient and the dilution along the gradient was calculated from measurements of conductivity, sulfate and a non-readily biodegradable substance, 1,4-dioxane. Compensating dilution, field first-order degradation rate constants downstream the discharge of BASF were estimated at 1.8 day(-1) for two different dates with water temperatures of 21.9 and 14.7 degrees C, respectively. This field rate estimate was compared with results from 38 laboratory shake flask batch tests with Rhine water which averaged 1.5 day(-1) at 15 degrees C and 2.0 day(-1) at 20 degrees C. These results indicate that laboratory shake flask batch tests with low concentrations of test substance can be good predictors of degradation rates in natural water bodies--at least as ascertained here for short duration tests with readily degradable compounds among which aniline is a commonly used reference.

  19. Comparison of hydrogen trapping/tensile testing correlations with field service results for alloy K-500

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pound, B.G. [Exponent Failure Analysis Associates, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Failures of alloy K-500 (UNS N05500) components in seawater and sour gas applications have been attributed to hydrogen embrittlement (HE). Use of an appropriate heat treatment to decrease the hardness of alloy K-500 has been reported to reduce the likelihood of HE. In this paper, field service results given in the literature were compared with correlations between irreversible hydrogen trapping parameters and literature data from tensile tests for alloy K-500 with different heat treatments. The laboratory tests pointed to annealing, rather than hardness, as the critical factor in the irreversible trapping behavior and HE susceptibility of aged alloy K-500. The test data indicated that an increase in trapping capacity produced by annealing leads to an increase in HE susceptibility. The difference between the laboratory and field data was explained on the basis of a brittle outer layer known to be present in alloy K-500 at high concentrations of hydrogen.

  20. Chaotic Dynamics of Test Particle in the Gravitational Field with Magnetic Dipoles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ju-Hua; WANG Yong-Jiu

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of the test particle in the gravitational field with magnetic dipoles in thispaper. At first we study the gravitational potential by numerical simulations. We find, for appropriate parameters, thatthere are two different cases in the potential curve, one of which is the one-well case with a stable critical point, and theother is the three-well case with three stable critical points and two unstable ones. As a consequence, the chaotic motionwill rise. By performing the evolution of the orbits of the test particle in the phase space, we find that the orbits of thetest particle randomly oscillate without any periods, even sensitively depending on the initial conditions and parameters.chaotic motion of the test particle in the field with magnetic dipoles becomes even obvious as the value of the magneticdipoles increases.

  1. A test on reactive force fields for the study of silica dimerization reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moqadam, Mahmoud; Riccardi, Enrico; Trinh, Thuat T.; Åstrand, Per-Olof; Erp, Titus S. van, E-mail: titus.van.erp@ntnu.no [Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Høgskoleringen 5, Realfagbygget D3-117, 7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2015-11-14

    We studied silica dimerization reactions in the gas and aqueous phase by density functional theory (DFT) and reactive force fields based on two parameterizations of ReaxFF. For each method (both ReaxFF force fields and DFT), we performed constrained geometry optimizations, which were subsequently evaluated in single point energy calculations using the other two methods. Standard fitting procedures typically compare the force field energies and geometries with those from quantum mechanical data after a geometry optimization. The initial configurations for the force field optimization are usually the minimum energy structures of the ab initio database. Hence, the ab initio method dictates which structures are being examined and force field parameters are being adjusted in order to minimize the differences with the ab initio data. As a result, this approach will not exclude the possibility that the force field predicts stable geometries or low transition states which are realistically very high in energy and, therefore, never considered by the ab initio method. Our analysis reveals the existence of such unphysical geometries even at unreactive conditions where the distance between the reactants is large. To test the effect of these discrepancies, we launched molecular dynamics simulations using DFT and ReaxFF and observed spurious reactions for both ReaxFF force fields. Our results suggest that the standard procedures for parameter fitting need to be improved by a mutual comparative method.

  2. Analysis of performance in orienteering with treadmill tests and physiological field tests using a differential global positioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Peter; Burlin, Lennart; Jakobsson, Erkki; Henriksson-Larsén, Karin

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the physiological responses to orienteering by examining the interrelationships between the information provided by a differential global positioning system (dGPS) about an orienteer's route, speed and orienteering mistakes, portable metabolic gas analyser data during orienteering and data from incremental treadmill tests. Ten male orienteers completed a treadmill threshold test and a field test; the latter was performed on a 4.3 km course on mixed terrain with nine checkpoints. The anaerobic threshold, threshold of decompensated metabolic acidosis, respiratory exchange ratio, onset of blood lactate accumulation and peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) were determined from the treadmill test. Time to complete the course, total distance covered, mean speed, distance and timing of orienteering mistakes, mean oxygen uptake, mean relative heart rate, mean respiratory exchange ratio and mean running economy were computed from the dGPS data and metabolic gas analyser data. Correlation analyses showed a relationship between a high anaerobic threshold and few orienteering mistakes (r = - 0.64, P < 0.05). A high threshold of decompensated metabolic acidosis and VO2peak were related to a fast overall time (r = -0.70 to -0.72, P < 0.05) and high running speed (r = 0.64 to 0.79, P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively), and were thus the best predictors of performance.

  3. Field testing of a probe to measure fouling in an industrial flue gas stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohal, M.S.

    1990-11-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technology sponsors work in the area of measuring and mitigating fouling in heat exchangers. This report describes the design and fabrication of a gas-side fouling measuring device, and its testing in an industrial environment. The report gives details of the probe fabrication, material used, controllers, other instrumentation required for various measurements, and computer system needed for recording the data. The calibration constants for measuring the heat flux with the heat fluxmeter were determined. The report also describes the field test location, the tests performed, the data collected, and the data analysis. The conclusions of the tests performed were summarized. Although fouling deposits on the probe were minimal, the tests proved that the probe is capable of measuring the fouling in a harsh industrial environment. 17 refs., 19 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Field Test Evaluation of Conservation Retrofits of Low-Income, Single-Family Buildings in Wisconsin: Blower-Door-Directed Infiltration Reduction Procedure, Field Test Implementation and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gettings, M.B.

    2001-05-21

    A blower-door-directed infiltration retrofit procedure was field tested on 18 homes in south central Wisconsin. The procedure, developed by the Wisconsin Energy Conservation Corporation, includes recommended retrofit techniques as well as criteria for estimating the amount of cost-effective work to be performed on a house. A recommended expenditure level and target air leakage reduction, in air changes per hour at 50 Pascal (ACH50), are determined from the initial leakage rate measured. The procedure produced an average 16% reduction in air leakage rate. For the 7 houses recommended for retrofit, 89% of the targeted reductions were accomplished with 76% of the recommended expenditures. The average cost of retrofits per house was reduced by a factor of four compared with previous programs. The average payback period for recommended retrofits was 4.4 years, based on predicted energy savings computed from achieved air leakage reductions. Although exceptions occurred, the procedure's 8 ACH50 minimum initial leakage rate for advising retrofits to be performed appeared a good choice, based on cost-effective air leakage reduction. Houses with initial rates of 7 ACH50 or below consistently required substantially higher costs to achieve significant air leakage reductions. No statistically significant average annual energy savings was detected as a result of the infiltration retrofits. Average measured savings were -27 therm per year, indicating an increase in energy use, with a 90% confidence interval of 36 therm. Measured savings for individual houses varied widely in both positive and negative directions, indicating that factors not considered affected the results. Large individual confidence intervals indicate a need to increase the accuracy of such measurements as well as understand the factors which may cause such disparity. Recommendations for the procedure include more extensive training of retrofit crews, checks for minimum air exchange rates to insure air

  5. Testing Spirotetramat as an Alternative Solution to Abamectin for Cacopsylla pyri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) Control: Laboratory and Field Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civolani, Stefano; Boselli, Mauro; Butturini, Alda; Chicca, Milvia; Cassanelli, Stefano; Tommasini, Maria Grazia; Aschonitis, Vassilis; Fano, Elisa Anna

    2015-12-01

    Aim of the study was to investigate the performance of the new insecticide "spirotetramat" as an alternative solution of "abamectin" for the control of Cacopsylla pyri L. (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in the context of an IPM program in European pear, Pyrus communis L.. Laboratory bioassays for the estimation of LC50 and LC90 of both insecticides were performed using four populations collected in Emilia-Romagna (Italy) orchards where different pest management strategies were used (organic, integrated, and conventional). The same populations were also analyzed for the main insecticide detoxifying activities in nymphs by spectrofluorimetric in vitro assays. The performance of the two insecticides was also tested on field on one population under integrated pest management conditions. The laboratory experiments showed that the LC90 of spirotetramat were lower than the highest field concentration allowed in Europe (172.80 mg AI liter(-1)) giving reassurance about the efficacy of the product. Concerning the abamectin, the laboratory bioassays did not show strong indications of resistance development of C. pyri populations of Emilia-Romagna. A similarity in enzyme detoxifying activity was observed in both insecticides indicating a general absence of a significant insecticide resistance. The field trial showed a high efficacy (>90 %) of spirotetramat on C. pyri already after 15 d from application, and it was significantly higher from abamectin. Overall, spirotetramat is one more choice for C. pyri control, as well as abamectin in order to minimize the risks of occurrence of insecticide resistance.

  6. Detecting forest structure and biomass with C-band multipolarization radar - Physical model and field tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Walter E.; Paris, Jack F.

    1987-01-01

    The ability of C-band radar (4.75 GHz) to discriminate features of forest structure, including biomass, is tested using a truck-mounted scatterometer for field tests on a 1.5-3.0 m pygmy forest of cypress (Cupressus pygmaea) and pine (Pinus contorta ssp, Bolanderi) near Mendocino, CA. In all, 31 structural variables of the forest are quantified at seven sites. Also measured was the backscatter from a life-sized physical model of the pygmy forest, composed of nine wooden trees with 'leafy branches' of sponge-wrapped dowels. This model enabled independent testing of the effects of stem, branch, and leafy branch biomass, branch angle, and moisture content on radar backscatter. Field results suggested that surface area of leaves played a greater role in leaf scattering properties than leaf biomass per se. Tree leaf area index was strongly correlated with vertically polarized power backscatter (r = 0.94; P less than 0.01). Field results suggested that the scattering role of leaf water is enhanced as leaf surface area per unit leaf mass increases; i.e., as the moist scattering surfaces become more dispersed. Fog condensate caused a measurable rise in forest backscatter, both from surface and internal rises in water content. Tree branch mass per unit area was highly correlated with cross-polarized backscatter in the field (r = 0.93; P less than 0.01), a result also seen in the physical model.

  7. Heat tracer test in an alluvial aquifer: Field experiment and inverse modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepikova, Maria; Wildemeersch, Samuel; Hermans, Thomas; Jamin, Pierre; Orban, Philippe; Nguyen, Frédéric; Brouyère, Serge; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-09-01

    Using heat as an active tracer for aquifer characterization is a topic of increasing interest. In this study, we investigate the potential of using heat tracer tests for characterization of a shallow alluvial aquifer. A thermal tracer test was conducted in the alluvial aquifer of the Meuse River, Belgium. The tracing experiment consisted in simultaneously injecting heated water and a dye tracer in an injection well and monitoring the evolution of groundwater temperature and tracer concentration in the pumping well and in measurement intervals. To get insights in the 3D characteristics of the heat transport mechanisms, temperature data from a large number of observation wells closely spaced along three transects were used. Temperature breakthrough curves in observation wells are contrasted with what would be expected in an ideal layered aquifer. They reveal strongly unequal lateral and vertical components of the transport mechanisms. The observed complex behavior of the heat plume is explained by the groundwater flow gradient on the site and heterogeneities in the hydraulic conductivity field. Moreover, due to high injection temperatures during the field experiment a temperature-induced fluid density effect on heat transport occurred. By using a flow and heat transport numerical model with variable density coupled with a pilot point approach for inversion of the hydraulic conductivity field, the main preferential flow paths were delineated. The successful application of a field heat tracer test at this site suggests that heat tracer tests is a promising approach to image hydraulic conductivity field. This methodology could be applied in aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) projects for assessing future efficiency that is strongly linked to the hydraulic conductivity variability in the considered aquifer.

  8. Exploratory behaviour in the open field test adapted for larval zebrafish: impact of environmental complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Farooq; Richardson, Michael K

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and characterize a novel (standard) open field test adapted for larval zebrafish. We also developed and characterized a variant of the same assay consisting of a colour-enriched open field; this was used to assess the impact of environmental complexity on patterns of exploratory behaviours as well to determine natural colour preference/avoidance. We report the following main findings: (1) zebrafish larvae display characteristic patterns of exploratory behaviours in the standard open field, such as thigmotaxis/centre avoidance; (2) environmental complexity (i.e. presence of colours) differentially affects patterns of exploratory behaviours and greatly attenuates natural zone preference; (3) larvae displayed the ability to discriminate colours. As reported previously in adult zebrafish, larvae showed avoidance towards blue and black; however, in contrast to the reported adult behaviour, larvae displayed avoidance towards red. Avoidance towards yellow and preference for green and orange are shown for the first time, (4) compared to standard open field tests, exposure to the colour-enriched open field resulted in an enhanced expression of anxiety-like behaviours. To conclude, we not only developed and adapted a traditional rodent behavioural assay that serves as a gold standard in preclinical drug screening, but we also provide a version of the same test that affords the possibility to investigate the impact of environmental stress on behaviour in larval zebrafish while representing the first test for assessment of natural colour preference/avoidance in larval zebrafish. In the future, these assays will improve preclinical drug screening methodologies towards the goal to uncover novel drugs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title.

  9. Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 3. The Hanna II, Phase I field test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartke, T.C.; Fischer, D.D.; King, S.B.; Boyd, R.M.; Humphrey, A.E.

    1985-08-01

    This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project, and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation of all the data for the tests in Volumes 2 through 6. Hanna II, Phase I was conducted during the spring and summer of 1975, at a site about 700 feet up dip (to the southwest) of the Hanna I test. The test was conducted in two stages - Phase IA and IB. Phase IA consisted of linking and gasification operations between Wells 1 and 3 and Phase IB of linking from the 1-3 gasification zone to Well 2, followed by a short period of gasification from Well 2 to Well 3 over a broad range of air injection rates, in order to determine system turndown capabilities and response times. This report covers: (1) site selection and characteristics; (2) test objectives; (3) facilities description; (4) pre-operational testing; (5) test operations summary; and (6) post-test activity. 7 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Effects of Modified Multistage Field Test on Performance and Physiological Responses in Wheelchair Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Weissland

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A bioenergetical analysis of manoeuvrability and agility performance for wheelchair players is inexistent. It was aimed at comparing the physiological responses and performance obtained from the octagon multistage field test (MFT and the modified condition in “8 form” (MFT-8. Sixteen trained wheelchair basketball players performed both tests in randomized condition. The levels performed (end-test score, peak values of oxygen uptake (VO2peak, minute ventilation (VEpeak, heart rate (HRpeak, peak and relative blood lactate (Δ[Lact−] = peak – rest values, and the perceived rating exertion (RPE were measured. MFT-8 induced higher VO2peak and VEpeak values compared to MFT (VO2peak: 2.5 ± 0.6 versus 2.3 ± 0.6 L·min−1 and VEpeak: 96.3 ± 29.1 versus 86.6 ± 23.4 L·min−1; P<0.05 with no difference in other parameters. Significant relations between VEpeak and end-test score were correlated for both field tests (P<0.05. At exhaustion, MFT attained incompletely VO2peak and VEpeak. Among experienced wheelchair players, MFT-8 had no effect on test performance but generates higher physiological responses than MFT. It could be explained by demands of wheelchair skills occurring in 8 form during the modified condition.

  11. Estimating parameters of aquifer heterogeneity using pumping tests - implications for field applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, Alraune; Arnold, Sven; Schneider, Christoph; Attinger, Sabine

    2015-09-01

    The knowledge of subsurface heterogeneity is a prerequisite to describe flow and transport in porous media. Of particular interest are the variance and the correlation scale of hydraulic conductivity. In this study, we present how these aquifer parameters can be inferred using empirical steady state pumping test data. We refer to a previously developed analytical solution of "effective well flow" and examine its applicability to pumping test data as under field conditions. It is examined how the accuracy and confidence of parameter estimates of variance and correlation length depend on the number and location of head measurements. Simulations of steady state pumping tests in a confined virtual aquifer are used to systematically reduce sampling size while determining the rating of the estimates at each level of data density. The method was then applied to estimate the statistical parameters of a fluvial heterogeneous aquifer at the test site Horkheimer Insel, Germany. We conclude that the "effective well flow" solution is a simple alternative to laboratory investigations to estimate the statistical heterogeneity parameter using steady state pumping tests. However, the accuracy and uncertainty of the estimates depend on the design of the field study. In this regard, our results can help to improve the conceptual design of pumping tests with regard to the parameter of interest.

  12. Cardiorespiratory measurements during field tests in CF: use of an ambulatory monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Judy M; Kent, Lisa; O'Neill, Brenda; Nevill, Alan; Boyle, Lesley; Elborn, J Stuart

    2011-03-01

    Respiratory inductive plethysmography (e.g., LifeShirt) may offer in-depth study of the cardiorespiratory responses during field exercise tests. The aims of this study were to assess the reliability, discriminate validity, and responsiveness of cardiorespiratory measurements recorded by the LifeShirt during field exercise tests in adults with CF. To assess reliability and discriminate validity, participants with CF and stable lung disease and healthy participants performed the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) and Modified Shuttle Test (MST) on two occasions. To assess responsiveness, participants with CF experiencing an exacerbation performed the 6MWT at the start and end of an admission for intravenous antibiotics. The LifeShirt was worn during all exercise tests. Reliability and discriminate validity were assessed in 18 participants with CF (mean (SD) age: 26 (10) years; FEV1 %predicted: 69.2 (23)%) and 18 healthy participants (age: 24 (5) years, FEV1 % predicted: 92 (8)%). There was no difference in 6MWT and MST performance between days and reliability of cardiorespiratory measures was acceptable (bias: P > 0.05; CV  0.05; CV tests in adults with CF. Reliability and discriminate validity of key cardiorespiratory measurements recorded by the LifeShirt were demonstrated. Some information on responsiveness is reported.

  13. Retesting the validity of a specific field test for judo training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Luis; González, Vicente; Iscar, Marta; Brime, Juan I; Fernández-Río, Javier; Rodríguez, Blanca; Montoliu, M Ángeles

    2011-09-01

    The main goal of this research project was to retest the validity of a specifically designed judo field test (Santos Test) in a different group of judokas. Eight (n=8) national-level male judokas underwent laboratory and field testing. The mean data (mean +/- SD) obtained in the laboratory tests was: HRmax: 200 ± 4.0 beats × min(-1), VO2 max: 52.8 ± 7.9 ± ml × kg(-1) × min(-1), lactate max: 12 ± 2.5 mmol × l(-1), HR at the anaerobic threshold: 174.2 ± 9.4 beats × min(-1), percentage of maximum heart rate at which the anaerobic threshold appears: 87 ± 3.6 %, lactate threshold: 4.0 ± 0.2 mmol × l(-1), and RPE: 17.2 ± 1.0. The mean data obtained in the field test (Santos) was: HRmax: 201.3 ± 4.1 beats × min(-1), VO2 max: 55.6 ± 5.8 ml × kg(-1) × min(-1), lactate max: 15.6 ± 2.8 mmol × l(-1), HR at the anaerobic threshold: 173.2 ± 4.3 beats × min(-1), percentage of maximum heart rate at which the anaerobic threshold appears: 86 ± 2.5 %, lactate threshold: 4.0 ± 0.2 mmol × l(-1), and RPE: 16.7 ± 1.0. There were no significant differences between the data obtained on both tests in any of the parameters, except for maximum lactate concentration. Therefore, the Santos test can be considered a valid tool specific for judo training.

  14. A network of field test sites as a platform for research on engineering and management of the highway transportation infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktan, A. Emin; Frangopol, Dan M.; Ghasemi, Hamid; Shenton, Harry W.; Shinozuka, Masanobu; Madanat, Samar

    2004-07-01

    An effort is currently underway to create an Engineering Research Consortium Initiative (ERCI) focused on engineering and management of the highway transportation infrastructure. The goal of the ERCI will be to provide administrative and logistical support for a coordinated, problem-focused research program on the highway transportation infrastructure system. The cornerstone of the initiative will be field test-sites. Example sites might include major long span bridges, sample populations of operating bridges, decommissioned bridges, a regional network of highways and bridges, various types of pavement and geotechnical structures, or a major transportation hub serving a metropolitan area. Sites would be instrumented to collect a broad range of engineering (structural, geotechnical, hydraulic), human (traffic) and natural (climatological, seismological) response data. The field sites would be networked to provide real-time access to test facilities across the country; a secure central repository would be established for collecting data from the sites. The data and information gathered from these sites would be used by engineers and scientists to study the complex interactions and cause-and-effect relations of the various engineered, human and natural components of the highway hyper-system. A major research thrust of the ERCI will be security of the highway infrastructure system, with particular emphasis on bridges. The National Science Foundation and the Federal Highway Administration are expected to provide funding for the program through a joint agency initiative. Two workshops were recently held with experts from around the world to discuss the plans for the ERCI. The paper provides more details on the ERCI and the status of the effort to date.

  15. Evaluation of initial collector field performance at the Langley Solar Building Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, R. J.; Knoll, R. H.; Jensen, R. N.

    1977-01-01

    The thermal performance of the solar collector field for the NASA Langley Solar Building Test Facility is given for October 1976 through January 1977. An 1180 square meter solar collector field with seven collector designs helped to provide hot water for the building heating system and absorption air conditioner. The collectors were arranged in 12 rows with nominally 51 collectors per row. Heat transfer rates for each row are calculated and recorded along with sensor, insolation, and weather data every 5 minutes using a mini-computer. The agreement between the experimental and predicted collector efficiencies was generally within five percentage points.

  16. Country News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Education Newsletter and Forum, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Reports on the progress of population education programs in various countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Describes current developments in Bangladesh, China, India, Malaysia, Maldives, and Viet Nam. (TW)

  17. Testing of Visual Field with Virtual Reality Goggles in Manual and Visual Grasp Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Wroblewski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated perimetry is used for the assessment of visual function in a variety of ophthalmic and neurologic diseases. We report development and clinical testing of a compact, head-mounted, and eye-tracking perimeter (VirtualEye that provides a more comfortable test environment than the standard instrumentation. VirtualEye performs the equivalent of a full threshold 24-2 visual field in two modes: (1 manual, with patient response registered with a mouse click, and (2 visual grasp, where the eye tracker senses change in gaze direction as evidence of target acquisition. 59 patients successfully completed the test in manual mode and 40 in visual grasp mode, with 59 undergoing the standard Humphrey field analyzer (HFA testing. Large visual field defects were reliably detected by VirtualEye. Point-by-point comparison between the results obtained with the different modalities indicates: (1 minimal systematic differences between measurements taken in visual grasp and manual modes, (2 the average standard deviation of the difference distributions of about 5 dB, and (3 a systematic shift (of 4–6 dB to lower sensitivities for VirtualEye device, observed mostly in high dB range. The usability survey suggested patients’ acceptance of the head-mounted device. The study appears to validate the concepts of a head-mounted perimeter and the visual grasp mode.

  18. Testing of visual field with virtual reality goggles in manual and visual grasp modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewski, Dariusz; Francis, Brian A; Sadun, Alfredo; Vakili, Ghazal; Chopra, Vikas

    2014-01-01

    Automated perimetry is used for the assessment of visual function in a variety of ophthalmic and neurologic diseases. We report development and clinical testing of a compact, head-mounted, and eye-tracking perimeter (VirtualEye) that provides a more comfortable test environment than the standard instrumentation. VirtualEye performs the equivalent of a full threshold 24-2 visual field in two modes: (1) manual, with patient response registered with a mouse click, and (2) visual grasp, where the eye tracker senses change in gaze direction as evidence of target acquisition. 59 patients successfully completed the test in manual mode and 40 in visual grasp mode, with 59 undergoing the standard Humphrey field analyzer (HFA) testing. Large visual field defects were reliably detected by VirtualEye. Point-by-point comparison between the results obtained with the different modalities indicates: (1) minimal systematic differences between measurements taken in visual grasp and manual modes, (2) the average standard deviation of the difference distributions of about 5 dB, and (3) a systematic shift (of 4-6 dB) to lower sensitivities for VirtualEye device, observed mostly in high dB range. The usability survey suggested patients' acceptance of the head-mounted device. The study appears to validate the concepts of a head-mounted perimeter and the visual grasp mode.

  19. Predictive study of the poloidal field coil insert behaviour under pulsed current tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, B.; Ciazynski, D.; Duchateau, J. L.; Nicollet, S.; Pauty, N.

    2008-02-01

    Within the ITER Poloidal Field conductor design validation, the Poloidal Field Conductor Insert (PFCI) has been manufactured and will be tested in the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) facility at JAEA Naka (Japan). In this test facility, the PFCI can be tested under ITER-relevant operating conditions, the field produced by the CSMC being varied to simulate the real situation of the PF coils in ITER. Predictive analyses have been performed in order to study the electromagnetic and thermal-hydraulic behaviour of the PFCI, under two scenarios proposed for pulsed current tests. During these scenarios, simulations have been performed with the THEA code, in which classical formulas for the AC losses in a cable have been introduced. The study focuses on the lower part of the winding, which is a 44 m long conductor including a joint. It covers the sample thermal-hydraulic behaviour with particular emphasis on the losses. Due to the overcompaction in the joint area, the total energy dissipated during a scenario can be equivalent in the joint and in the conductor, in spite of the reduced length of the joint (0.45 m). This particular point is discussed and has led to the analysis of the temperature margin in the joint.

  20. Development and testing of a field diagnostic assay for peste des petits ruminants virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, J; Fishbourne, E; Couacy-Hyman, E; Abubakar, M; Jones, B A; Frost, L; Herbert, R; Chibssa, T R; Van't Klooster, G; Afzal, M; Ayebazibwe, C; Toye, P; Bashiruddin, J; Baron, M D

    2014-10-01

    We have developed an immunochromatographic test for the diagnosis of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) under field conditions. The diagnostic assay has been tested in the laboratory and also under field conditions in Ivory Coast, Pakistan, Ethiopia and Uganda. The test is carried out on a superficial swab sample (ocular or nasal) and showed a sensitivity of 84% relative to PCR. The specificity was 95% over all nasal and ocular samples. The test detected as little as 10(3) TCID50 (50% tissue culture infectious doses) of cell culture-grown virus, and detected virus isolates representing all four known genetic lineages of peste des petits ruminants virus. Virus could be detected in swabs from animals as early as 4 days post-infection, at a time when clinical signs were minimal. Feedback from field trials was uniformly positive, suggesting that this diagnostic tool may be useful for current efforts to control the spread of PPR. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Field Test and Evaluation of Engineered Biomineralization Technology for Sealing Existing Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Alfred [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2015-12-21

    This research project addresses one of the goals of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carbon Storage Program (CSP) aimed at developing Advanced Wellbore Integrity Technologies to Ensure Permanent Geologic Carbon Storage. The technology field-tested in this research project is referred to as microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP), which utilizes a biologically-based process to precipitate calcium carbonate. If properly controlled MICP can successfully seal fractures, high permeability zones, and compromised wellbore cement in the vicinity of wellbores and in nearby caprock, thereby improving the storage security of geologically-stored carbon dioxide. This report describes an MICP sealing field test performed on a 24.4 cm (9.625 inch) diameter well located on the Gorgas Steam Generation facility near Jasper, Alabama. The research was aimed at (1) developing methods for delivering MICP promoting fluids downhole using conventional oil field technologies and (2) assessing the ability of MICP to seal cement and formation fractures in the near wellbore region in a sandstone formation. Both objectives were accomplished successfully during a field test performed during the period April 1-11, 2014. The test resulted in complete biomineralization sealing of a horizontal fracture located 340.7 m (1118 feet) below ground surface. A total of 24 calcium injections and six microbial inoculation injections were required over a three day period in order to achieve complete sealing. The fractured region was considered completely sealed when it was no longer possible to inject fluids into the formation without exceeding the initial formation fracture pressure. The test was accomplished using conventional oil field technology including an 11.4 L (3.0 gallon) wireline dump bailer for injecting the biomineralization materials downhole. Metrics indicating successful MICP sealing included reduced injectivity during seal formation, reduction in pressure falloff, and

  2. First evaluation after implementation of a quality control system for the second line drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis joint efforts in low and high incidence countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Hillemann

    Full Text Available Three networks/projects involving 27 European countries were established to investigate the quality of second-line drug (SLD susceptibility testing with conventional and molecular methods. 1. The "Baltic-Nordic TB-Laboratory Network" comprised 11 reference laboratories in the Baltic-Nordic States. They performed SLD testing in the first phase with a panel of 20 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. After several laboratories made technical changes a second panel of 10 strains with a higher proportion of resistant strains were tested. Although the concordance for Ofloxacin, Kanamycin, and Capreomycin was consistently high, the largest improvements in performance were achieved for the analysis of Ofloxacin resistant (from 88.9 to 95.0%, and Capreomycin resistant (from 71.0 to 88.9% strains. 2. Within the FP7 TB PAN-NET project (EU Grant agreement 223681 a quality control panel to standardize the EQA (External Quality Assurance for first-line drugs (FLD and SLD testing for phenotypic and molecular methods was established. The strains were characterized by their robustness, unambiguous results when tested, and low proportion of secondary drug resistances. 3. The (European Reference Laboratory Network-TB ERLN-TB network analyzed four different panels for drug resistance testing using phenotypic and molecular methods; in two rounds in 2010 the 31 participating laboratories began with 5 strains, followed by 10 strains and 6 additional crude DNA extracts in 2011 and 2012 were examined by conventional DST and molecular methods. Overall, we demonstrated the importance of developing inter-laboratory networks to establish quality assurance and improvement of SLD testing of M. tuberculosis.

  3. Plasma grid design for optimized filter field configuration for the NBI test facility ELISE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nocentini, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85740 Garching (Germany)], E-mail: riccardo.nocentini@ipp.mpg.de; Gutser, R.; Heinemann, B.; Froeschle, M.; Riedl, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85740 Garching (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    Maintenance-free RF sources for negative hydrogen ions with moderate extraction areas (100-200 cm{sup 2}) have been successfully developed in the last years at IPP Garching in the test facilities BATMAN and MANITU. A facility with larger extraction area (1000 cm{sup 2}), ELISE, is being designed with a 'half-size' ITER-like extraction system, pulsed ion acceleration up to 60 kV for 10 s and plasma generation up to 1 h. Due to the large size of the source, the magnetic filter field (FF) cannot be produced solely by permanent magnets. Therefore, an additional magnetic field produced by current flowing through the plasma grid (PG current) is required. The filter field homogeneity and the interaction with the electron suppression magnetic field have been studied in detail by finite element method (FEM) during the ELISE design phase. Significant improvements regarding the field homogeneity have been introduced compared to the ITER reference design. Also, for the same PG current a 50% higher field in front of the grid has been achieved by optimizing the plasma grid geometry. Hollow spaces have been introduced in the plasma grid for a more homogeneous PG current distribution. The introduction of hollow spaces also allows the insertion of permanent magnets in the plasma grid.

  4. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale: Construction, Reliability, and Measurement Equivalence across 13 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savickas, Mark L.; Porfeli, Erik J.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers from 13 countries collaborated in constructing a psychometric scale to measure career adaptability. Based on four pilot tests, a research version of the proposed scale consisting of 55 items was field tested in 13 countries. The resulting Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS) consists of four scales, each with six items. The four scales…

  5. Field and laboratory comparative evaluation of rapid malaria diagnostic tests versus traditional and molecular techniques in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Praveen K

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria presents a diagnostic challenge in most tropical countries. Microscopy remains the gold standard for diagnosing malaria infections in clinical practice and research. However, microscopy is labour intensive, requires significant skills and time, which causes therapeutic delays. The objective of obtaining result quickly from the examination of blood samples from patients with suspected malaria is now made possible with the introduction of rapid malaria diagnostic tests (RDTs. Several RDTs are available, which are fast, reliable and simple to use and can detect Plasmodium falciparum and non-falciparum infections or both. A study was conducted in tribal areas of central India to measure the overall performance of several RDTs for diagnosis of P. falciparum and non-falciparum infections in comparison with traditional and molecular techniques. Such data will be used to guide procurement decisions of policy makers and programme managers. Methods Five commercially available RDTs were tested simultaneously in field in parallel with peripheral blood smears in outbreak-affected areas. The evaluation is designed to provide comparative data on the performance of each RDT. In addition, molecular method i.e. polymerase chain reaction (PCR was also carried out to compare all three methods. Results A total of 372 patients with a clinical suspicion of malaria from Bajag Primary Health Centre (PHC of district Dindori and Satanwada PHC of district Shivpuri attending the field clinics of Regional Medical Research Centre were included in the study. The analysis revealed that the First Response Malaria Antigen pLDH/HRP2 combo test was 94.7% sensitive (95% CI 89.5-97.7 and 69.9% specific (95% CI 63.6-75.6 for P. falciparum. However, for non-falciparum infections (Plasmodium vivax the test was 84.2% sensitive (95% CI 72.1-92.5 and 96.5% specific (95% CI 93.8-98.2. The Parascreen represented a good alternative. All other RDTs were relatively

  6. Lessons Learned from the Wide Field Camera 3 TV1 Test Campaign and Correlation Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peabody, Hume; Stavley, Richard; Bast, William

    2007-01-01

    In January 2004, shortly after the Columbia accident, future servicing missions to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) were cancelled. In response to this, further work on the Wide Field Camera 3 instrument was ceased. Given the maturity level of the design, a characterization thermal test (TV1) was completed in case the mission was re-instated or an alternate mission found on which to fly the instrument. This thermal test yielded some valuable lessons learned with respect to testing configurations and modeling/correlation practices, including: 1. Ensure that the thermal design can be tested 2. Ensure that the model has sufficient detail for accurate predictions 3. Ensure that the power associated with all active control devices is predicted 4. Avoid unit changes for existing models. This paper documents the difficulties presented when these recommendations were not followed.

  7. Field test of radioactive high efficiency filter and filter exchange techniques of fuel cycle examination facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong Hwa; Lee, Hyung Kwon; Chun, Young Bum; Park, Dae Gyu; Ahn, Sang Bok; Chu, Yong Sun; Kim, Eun Ka

    1997-12-01

    The development of high efficiency filter was started to protect human beings from the contamination of radioactive particles, toxic gases and bacillus, and its gradual performance increment led to the fabrication of Ultra Low Penetration Air Filter (ULPA) today. The application field of ULPA has been spread not only to the air conditioning of nuclear power facilities, semiconductor industries, life science, optics, medical care and general facilities but also to the core of ultra-precision facilities. Periodic performance test on the filters is essential to extend its life-time through effective maintenance. Especially, the bank test on HEPA filter of nuclear facilities handling radioactive materials is required for environmental safety. Nowadays, the bank test technology has been reached to the utilization of a minimized portable detecting instruments and the evaluation techniques can provide high confidence in the area of particle distribution and leakage test efficiency. (author). 16 refs., 13 tabs., 14 figs.

  8. RESUME95 Nordic field test of mobile equipment for nuclear fall-out monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, C.; Bresson, J.; Chiffot, T.; Guillot, L. [Centre d`Etudes de Valduc, Direction des Applications Militaires, Commissaiat a L`Energie Atomique, Tille (France)

    1997-12-31

    Nordic Safety Research (NKS) organised in August 1995 a field test of various techniques and instrumentation for monitoring radioactive fall-out. In an emergency situation, after a major release of radioactive material, many different measuring systems are going to be used, ranging from small hand hold intensitometer to complex spectrometer systems. In this test the following type of equipment were tested: Airborne spectrometers; Carborne spectrometers and dose rate meters; In situ spectrometers and intensitometers. Helinuc team was equipped of an airborne system and of a germanium device for in situ measurements. Different tasks were specified for each team: Mapping caesium fall-out and natural activity over two areas of 18 and 5 km{sup 2}; Research of hidden sources. For measurements and data processing the respect of time allowed was strictly controlled for testing the ability of each team. (au).

  9. Pilot Field Test: Use of a Compression Garment During a Stand Test After Long-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, S. S.; Stenger, M. B.; Phillips, T. R.; Lee, S. M. C.; Cerisano, J.; Kofman, I.; Reschke, M.

    2016-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance (OI) is a concern for astronauts returning from long-duration space flight. One countermeasure that has been used to protect against OI after short-duration bed rest and space flight is the use of lower body and abdominal compression garments. However, since the end of the Space Shuttle era we have not been able to test crewmembers during the first 24 hours after landing on Earth. NASA's Pilot Field Test provided us the opportunity to test cardiovascular responses of crewmembers wearing the Russian Kentavr compression garment during a stand test at multiple time points throughout the first 24 hours after landing. HYPOTHESIS We hypothesized that the Kentavr compression garment would prevent an increase in heart rate (HR) >15 bpm during a 3.5-min stand test. METHODS: The Pilot Field Test was conducted up to 3 times during the first 24 hours after crewmembers returned to Earth: (1) either in a tent adjacent to the Soyuz landing site in Kazakhstan (approx.1 hr) or after transportation to the Karaganda airport (approx. 4 hr); (2) during a refueling stop in Scotland (approx.12 hr); and (3) upon return to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) (approx.24 hr). We measured HR and arterial pressure (finger photoplethysmography) for 2 min while the crewmember was prone and throughout 3.5 min of quiet standing. Eleven crewmembers consented to participate; however, 2 felt too ill to start the test and 1 stopped 30 sec into the stand portion of the test. Of the remaining 8 crewmembers, 2 did not wear the Russian Kentavr compression garment. Because of inclement weather at the landing site, 5 crewmembers were flown by helicopter to the Karaganda airport before initial testing and received intravenous saline before completing the stand test. One of these crewmembers wore only the portion of the Russian Kentavr compression garment that covered the lower leg and thus lacked thigh and abdominal compression. All crewmembers continued wearing the Russian Kentavr

  10. Influence of movable test section elements configuration on its drag and flow field uniformity at transonic speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazkov, S. A.; Gorbushin, A. R.; Osipova, S. L.; Semenov, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    The report describes the results of flow field experimental research in TsAGI T-128 transonic wind tunnel. During the tests Mach number, stagnation pressure, test section wall perforation ratio, angles between the test section panels and mixing chamber flaps varied. Based on the test results one determined corrections to the free-stream Mach number related to the flow speed difference in the model location and in the zone of static pressure measurement on the test section walls, nonuniformity of the longitudinal velocity component in the model location, optimal position of the movable test section elements to provide flow field uniformity in the test section and minimize the test leg drag.

  11. Testing cost-effective methodologies for flood and seismic vulnerability assessment in communities of developing countries (Dajç, northern Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Pazzi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays many developing countries need effective measures to reduce the disaster related risks. Structural interventions are the most effective to achieve these aims. Nevertheless, in the absence of adequate financial resources different low-cost strategies can be used to minimize losses. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the disaster risk reduction can be gathered building a community coping capacity. In the case study, flood and seismic analyses have been carried out using relatively simple and low-cost technologies, fundamental for governments and research institutions of poorly developed countries. In fact, through the acquisition and dissemination of these basic information, a reduction of vulnerability and risk can be achieved. In detail, two methodologies for the evaluation of hydraulic and seismic vulnerability were tested in the Dajç municipality (Northern Albania, a high-seismicity region that is also severely affected by floods. Updated bathymetric, topographic and hydraulic data were processed with HEC-RAS software to identify sites potentially affected by dykes overflowing. Besides, the soil-structure interaction effects for three strategic buildings were studied using microtremors and the Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio method. This flood and seismic vulnerability analysis was then evaluated in terms of costs and ease of accessibility in order to suggest the best use both of the employed devices and the obtained information for designing good civil protection plans and to inform the population about the right behaviour in case of threat.

  12. Field Test Design Simulations of Pore-Water Extraction for the SX Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oostrom, Martinus [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    A proof of principle test of pore water extraction is being performed by Washington River Protection Solutions for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection. This test is being conducted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO) (Ecology et al. 1989) Milestone M 045-20, and is described in RPP-PLAN-53808, 200 West Area Tank Farms Interim Measures Investigation Work Plan. To support design of this test, numerical simulations were conducted to help define equipment and operational parameters. The modeling effort builds from information collected in laboratory studies and from field characterization information collected at the test site near the Hanford Site 241-SX Tank Farm. Numerical simulations were used to evaluate pore-water extraction performance as a function of the test site properties and for the type of extraction well configuration that can be constructed using the direct-push installation technique. Output of simulations included rates of water and soil-gas production as a function of operational conditions for use in supporting field equipment design. The simulations also investigated the impact of subsurface heterogeneities in sediment properties and moisture distribution on pore-water extraction performance. Phenomena near the extraction well were also investigated because of their importance for pore-water extraction performance.

  13. Low-cost, smartphone based frequency doubling technology visual field testing using virtual reality (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawa, Karam A.; Sayed, Mohamed; Arboleda, Alejandro; Durkee, Heather A.; Aguilar, Mariela C.; Lee, Richard K.

    2017-02-01

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Due to its wide prevalence, effective screening tools are necessary. The purpose of this project is to design and evaluate a system that enables portable, cost effective, smartphone based visual field screening based on frequency doubling technology. The system is comprised of an Android smartphone to display frequency doubling stimuli and handle processing, a Bluetooth remote for user input, and a virtual reality headset to simulate the exam. The LG Nexus 5 smartphone and BoboVR Z3 virtual reality headset were used for their screen size and lens configuration, respectively. The system is capable of running the C-20, N-30, 24-2, and 30-2 testing patterns. Unlike the existing system, the smartphone FDT tests both eyes concurrently by showing the same background to both eyes but only displaying the stimulus to one eye at a time. Both the Humphrey Zeiss FDT and the smartphone FDT were tested on five subjects without a history of ocular disease with the C-20 testing pattern. The smartphone FDT successfully produced frequency doubling stimuli at the correct spatial and temporal frequency. Subjects could not tell which eye was being tested. All five subjects preferred the smartphone FDT to the Humphrey Zeiss FDT due to comfort and ease of use. The smartphone FDT is a low-cost, portable visual field screening device that can be used as a screening tool for glaucoma.

  14. Test Results of the AC Field Measurements of Fermilab Booster Corrector Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiMarco, E.Joseph; Harding, D.J.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Lamm, M.J.; Makulski, A.; Nehring, R.; Orris, D.F.; Schlabach, P.; Sylvester, C.; Tartaglia, Michael Albert; /Fermilab

    2008-06-25

    Multi-element corrector magnets are being produced at Fermilab that enable correction of orbits and tunes through the entire cycle of the Booster, not just at injection. The corrector package includes six different corrector elements--normal and skew orientations of dipole, quadrupole, and sextupole--each independently powered. The magnets have been tested during typical AC ramping cycles at 15Hz using a fixed coil system to measure the dynamic field strength and field quality. The fixed coil is comprised of an array of inductive pick-up coils around the perimeter of a cylinder which are sampled simultaneously at 100 kHz with 24-bit ADC's. The performance of the measurement system and a summary of the field results are presented and discussed.

  15. Comparing Hamiltonians of a spinning test particle for different tetrad fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kunst, Daniela; Lukes-Gerakopoulos, Georgios; Seyrich, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This work is concerned with suitable choices of tetrad fields and coordinate systems for the Hamiltonian formalism of a spinning particle derived in [E. Barausse, E. Racine, and A. Buonanno, A., Phys. Rev. D 80, 104025 (2009)]. After demonstrating that with the originally proposed tetrad field the components of the total angular momentum are not preserved in the Schwarzschild limit, we analyze other hitherto proposed tetrad choices. Then, we introduce and thoroughly test two new tetrad fields in the horizon penetrating Kerr--Schild coordinates. Moreover, we show that for the Schwarzschild spacetime background the Hamiltonian linearized in spin corresponds to an integrable system, while for the Kerr spacetime we find chaos which suggests a nonintegrable system.

  16. In Situ Redox Manipulation Field Injection Test Report - Hanford 100-H Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruchter, J.S.; Amonette, J.E.; Cole, C.R. [and others

    1996-11-01

    This report presents results of an In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) Field Injection Withdrawal Test performed at the 100-H Area of the US. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site in Washington State in Fiscal Year 1996 by researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The test is part of the overall ISRM project, the purpose of which is to determine the potential for remediating contaminated groundwater with a technology based on in situ manipulation of subsurface reduction-oxidation (redox) conditions. The ISRM technology would be used to treat subsurface contaminants in groundwater zones at DOE sites.

  17. Radionuclide observables during the Integrated Field Exercise of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, Jonathan L.; Miley, Harry S.; Milbrath, Brian D.

    2016-03-01

    In 2014 the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) undertook the Integrated Field Exercise (IFE) in Jordan. The exercise consisted of a simulated 0.5 – 2 kT underground explosion triggering an On-site Inspection (OSI) to search for evidence of a Treaty violation. This research evaluates two of the OSI techniques, including laboratory-based gamma-spectrometry of soil samples and in situ gamma-spectrometry for 17 particulate radionuclides indicative of nuclear weapon tests. The detection sensitivity is evaluated using real IFE and model data. It indicates that higher sensitivity laboratory measurements are the optimum technique during the IFE and OSI timeframes.

  18. Integral test on activation cross section of tag gas nuclides using fast neutron spectrum fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, Takafumi; Suzuki, Soju [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1997-03-01

    Activation cross sections of tag gas nuclides, which will be used for the failed fuel detection and location in FBR plants, were evaluated by the irradiation tests in the fast neutron spectrum fields in JOYO and YAYOI. The comparison of their measured radioactivities and the calculated values using the JENDL-3.2 cross section set showed that the C/E values ranged from 0.8 to 2.8 for the calibration tests in YAYOI and that the present accuracies of these cross sections were confirmed. (author)

  19. Portable Upconversion Nanoparticles-Based Paper Device for Field Testing of Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mengyuan; Li, Zhen; Ge, Yiying; Liu, Zhihong

    2016-02-01

    We report the first portable upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs)-based paper device for road-side field testing of cocaine. Upon the recognition of cocaine by two pieces of rationally designed aptamer fragments, the luminescence of UCNPs immobilized on the paper is quenched by Au nanoparticles (AuNPs), which indicates the cocaine concentration. This device can give quantitative results in a short time with high sensitivity using only a smartphone as the apparatus. Moreover, this device is applicable in human saliva samples, and it also can be used to monitor the cocaine content change in blood samples. The results of this work demonstrate the prospect of developing UCNPs-based paper devices for field testing of drug abuse.

  20. Analysis, fabrication, and field test of an advanced embedded throwing electromechanical sensing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhen; Zhang, Dan [Beijing JiaoTong University, Beijing (China)

    2014-01-15

    Scientific measuring equipment is important in maintaining and further improving the daily training quality of professional athletes. In throwing sports, only kinematic information is usually recorded by several high-speed cameras, whereas the dynamic data are lacking. An advanced embedded throwing system is analyzed, fabricated, and field tested. This throwing system can be used to substitute the normal shot-put that obtains acceleration information from the upper limb when force is applied onto the device. This device has four main parts, namely, a mechanical shell, an embedded sensor, a signal processing circuit, and interface ports. The detailed design, simulation, and prototyping process are introduced in this work. The practical results obtained from the field test and feedback from users prove that the proposed throwing system is efficient for technical training and monitoring. This design provides a unique solution for the modeling and development of non-traditional, electro-mechanical sensing devices.

  1. Field Test Result of 10MVA/20MJ SMES for Load Fluctuation Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaya, Shigeo; Nagata, Tatsuya; Hirano, Naoki; Tamada, Tsutomu; Nijo, Yoshio; Katagiri, Toshio; Yamane, Minoru

    SMES of the10,000kW for the power control in power system has been manufactured, and connected to a real power grid. In addition, innovative basic researches, for example, low cost converter, maintenance-free cryo-coolers, inter-locks system and so on, have also been developed. The SMES was installed in the metal rolling factory with hydro power plant. Field test has been carried out for load fluctuation compensation. SMES was able to compensate for the active power according to the fluctuating load, and confirm the situation with a smooth load change of 11kV bus of hydro power stations. In this paper, field test results are presented.

  2. The design, build and test of a digital analyzer for mixed radiation fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce, M. J.; Aspinall, M. D.; Georgopoulos, K. [Department of Engineering, Lancaster University, Lancaster, Lancashire LA1 4YR (United Kingdom); Cave, F. D.; Jarrah, Z. [Hybrid Instruments Ltd., Priory Close, St. Mary' s Gate, Lancaster, Lancashire LA1 4WA (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    The design, build and test of a digital analyzer for mixed radiation fields is described. This instrument has been developed to provide portable, real-time discrimination of hard mixed fields comprising both neutrons and {gamma} rays with energies typically above 0.5 MeV. The instrument in its standard form comprises a sensor head and a system unit, and affords the flexibility to provide processed data in the form of the traditional scatter-plot representation separating neutron and {gamma}-ray components, or the full, sampled pulse data itself. The instrument has been tested with an americium-beryllium source in three different shielding arrangements to replicate the case in which there are only neutrons, only {gamma} rays and where both neutrons and {gamma}-rays are present. The instrument is observed to return consistent results. (authors)

  3. A field assessment of long-term laboratory sediment toxicity tests with the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Wang, Ning; Hayward, Jeannie M. R.; Jones, John R.; Jones, Susan B.; Ireland, D. Scott

    2005-01-01

    Response of the amphipod Hyalella azteca exposed to contaminated sediments for 10 to 42 d in laboratory toxicity tests was compared to responses observed in controlled three-month invertebrate colonization exposures conducted in a pond. Sediments evaluated included a sediment spiked with dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) or dilutions of a field sediment collected from the Grand Calumet River (GCR) in Indiana (USA) (contaminated with organic compounds and metals). Consistent effects were observed at the highest exposure concentrations (400 ??g DDD/goc [DDD concentrations normalized to grams of organic carbon (goc) in sedimentl or 4% GCR sediment) on survival, length, and reproduction of amphipods in the laboratory and on abundance of invertebrates colonizing sediments in the field. Effect concentrations for DDD observed for 10-d length and 42-d reproduction of amphipods (e.g., chronic value [ChV] of 66 ??g DDD/goc and 25% inhibition concentration [IC25] of 68 ??g DDD/goc for reproduction) were similar to the lowest effect concentrations for DDD measured on invertebrates colonizing sediment the field. Effect concentrations for GCR sediment on 28-d survival and length and 42-d reproduction and length of amphipods (i.e., ChVs of 0.20-0.66% GCR sediment) provided more conservative effect concentrations compared to 10-d survival or length of amphipods in the laboratory or the response of invertebrates colonizing sediment in the field (e.g., ChVs of 2.2% GCR sediment). Results of this study indicate that use of chronic laboratory toxicity tests with H. azteca and benthic colonization studies should be used to provide conservative estimates of impacts on benthic communities exposed to contaminated sediments. Bioaccumulation of DDD by oligochaetes colonizing the DDD-spiked sediment was similar to results of laboratory sediment tests previously conducted with the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegates, confirming that laboratory exposures can be used to estimate

  4. Fault Tree Based Diagnosis with Optimal Test Sequencing for Field Service Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, David L.; George, Laurence L.; Patterson-Hine, F. A.; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    When field service engineers go to customer sites to service equipment, they want to diagnose and repair failures quickly and cost effectively. Symptoms exhibited by failed equipment frequently suggest several possible causes which require different approaches to diagnosis. This can lead the engineer to follow several fruitless paths in the diagnostic process before they find the actual failure. To assist in this situation, we have developed the Fault Tree Diagnosis and Optimal Test Sequence (FTDOTS) software system that performs automated diagnosis and ranks diagnostic hypotheses based on failure probability and the time or cost required to isolate and repair each failure. FTDOTS first finds a set of possible failures that explain exhibited symptoms by using a fault tree reliability model as a diagnostic knowledge to rank the hypothesized failures based on how likely they are and how long it would take or how much it would cost to isolate and repair them. This ordering suggests an optimal sequence for the field service engineer to investigate the hypothesized failures in order to minimize the time or cost required to accomplish the repair task. Previously, field service personnel would arrive at the customer site and choose which components to investigate based on past experience and service manuals. Using FTDOTS running on a portable computer, they can now enter a set of symptoms and get a list of possible failures ordered in an optimal test sequence to help them in their decisions. If facilities are available, the field engineer can connect the portable computer to the malfunctioning device for automated data gathering. FTDOTS is currently being applied to field service of medical test equipment. The techniques are flexible enough to use for many different types of devices. If a fault tree model of the equipment and information about component failure probabilities and isolation times or costs are available, a diagnostic knowledge base for that device can be

  5. Field accuracy of fourth-generation rapid diagnostic tests for acute HIV-1: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fourth-generation HIV-1 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) detect HIV-1 p24 antigen to screen for acute HIV-1. However, diagnostic accuracy during clinical use may be suboptimal. Methods: Clinical sensitivity and specificity of fourth-generation RDTs for acute HIV-1 were collated from field evaluation studies in adults identified by a systematic literature search. Results: Four studies with 17 381 participants from Australia, Swaziland, the United Kingdom and Malawi were identified. ...

  6. Integrated Data Processing Method for GPS and INS Field Test over Rocky Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hang; YU Min; GAO Weiguang; LIU Jingnan

    2006-01-01

    The method of integrated data processing for GPS and INS(inertial navigation system) field test over the Rocky Mountains using the adaptive Kalman filtering technique is presented. On the basis of the known GPS outputs and the offset of GPS and INS, state equations and observations are designed to perform the calculation and improve the navigation accuracy. An example shows that with the method the reliable navigation parameters have been obtained.

  7. [Progress of the micronucleus test in the field of molecular cancer epidemiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huadong; Jia, Guang

    2015-01-01

    The micronucleus test (MNT) can be used to detect multiple genetic end points simultaneously, including chromosome aberration, mis-repaired DNA damage, apoptosis, parts of mutation and so on, which MNT has been an important part of the study of cancer epidemiology.Here, we reviewed the progress of MNT in the field of molecular cancer epidemiology in recent years, including early detection and diagnosis of cancer, evaluation of carcinogenic substances, genetic susceptibility biomarkers, micronutrient and cohort studies.

  8. An inexpensive field fluorometer for hydrogeological tracer tests with three tracers and turbidity measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Schnegg, Pierre-André

    2005-01-01

    The Geomagnetism Group of the University of Neuchâtel has recently designed a flow-through field fluorometer with added spectral capabilities for hydrological tracer tests. This instrument is equipped with four optical axes allowing water sample illumination with four independent light sources at different wavelenghs covering the full spectrum from UV to red. As many as three conveniently selected (dye) tracers can be simultaneously measured and separeted from a cocktail. Careful turbidity me...

  9. Experimental Test of Alternating-Current Zeeman Interference Effect in Ramsey Separated Oscillating Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun-Hai; WANG Feng-Zhi; YANG Dong-Hai

    2004-01-01

    An experimental test of ac Zeeman effect in an optically pumped caesium beam frequency standard is reported and analysed. An interference pattern of the atomic energy level shift as a function of the applied microwave field near the atomic transition frequency was observed. It was superimposed on the dispersion lineshape of a normal ac Zeeman effect. This effect was analysed with the atomic wavefunction phase analysing method.

  10. Smart Parking Linked to Transit: Lessons Learned from the San Francisco Bay Area Field Test

    OpenAIRE

    Shaheen, Susan; Kemmerer, Charlene

    2007-01-01

    Rising demand for parking at suburban transit stations, such as the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) District in California, necessitates strategies to manage traveler demand. To better manage parking supply, researchers implemented a smart parking field test at the Rockridge BART station from 2004 to 2006 to evaluate the effects of smart parking technologies (changeable message signs (CMSs), Internet reservations and billing, mobile phone and personal digital assistant communications, and a wir...

  11. ADX: a high field, high power density, Advanced Divertor test eXperiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, R.; Labombard, B.; Marmar, E.; Irby, J.; Shiraiwa, S.; Terry, J.; Wallace, G.; Whyte, D. G.; Wolfe, S.; Wukitch, S.; ADX Team

    2014-10-01

    The MIT PSFC and collaborators are proposing an advanced divertor experiment (ADX) - a tokamak specifically designed to address critical gaps in the world fusion research program on the pathway to FNSF/DEMO. This high field (6.5 tesla, 1.5 MA), high power density (P/S ~ 1.5 MW/m2) facility would utilize Alcator magnet technology to test innovative divertor concepts for next-step DT fusion devices (FNSF, DEMO) at reactor-level boundary plasma pressures and parallel heat flux densities while producing high performance core plasma conditions. The experimental platform would also test advanced lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) and ion-cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) actuators and wave physics at the plasma densities and magnetic field strengths of a DEMO, with the unique ability to deploy launcher structures both on the low-magnetic-field side and the high-field side - a location where energetic plasma-material interactions can be controlled and wave physics is most favorable for efficient current drive, heating and flow drive. This innovative experiment would perform plasma science and technology R&D necessary to inform the conceptual development and accelerate the readiness-for-deployment of FNSF/DEMO - in a timely manner, on a cost-effective research platform. Supported by DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  12. Applicability of the free field Sustained Auditory Attention Ability Test (SAAAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feniman, Mariza Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The attention is an underlying neuropsychology function to all the cognitive processes. The auditory deficiency compromises the normal development of the child, modifying diverse auditory abilities, including the attention. Objective: to compare the performance of children in the Test of the Ability of Auditory Attention Support, as for the different forms of application (auricular phones and free field, sort and, application order. Method: 40 children (7 years old voluntary with typical development had participated, divided in two groups: G1 and G2, composites of 20 children each. The application of the THAAS in the G1 if gave first with auricular phones and after that in free field and the G2 the process was inverse. The evaluation consisted in: specific questionnaire, auditory tests and application of the THAAS. Results: It did not have significant difference how much to the sort. For the THAAS with phones, the G1 presented greater amount of errors of carelessness and total punctuation. For the THAAS in field it had a significant difference of the G2 for the monitoring decrease. How much to the application form, the G1 demonstrated a bigger number of errors when it was used phones. The G2 did not demonstrate difference. Conclusion: It had viability in the application of the THAAS in Free Field, being able to be adopted the same used normative values for the conventional way of evaluation.

  13. Phase II: Field Detector Development For Undeclared/Declared Nuclear Testing For Treaty Verfiation Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriz, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hunter, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Riley, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-02

    Radioactive xenon isotopes are a critical part of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) for the detection or confirmation of nuclear weapons tests as well as on-site treaty verification monitoring. On-site monitoring is not currently conducted because there are no commercially available small/robust field detector devices to measure the radioactive xenon isotopes. Xenon is an ideal signature to detect clandestine nuclear events since they are difficult to contain and can diffuse and migrate through soils due to their inert nature. There are four key radioxenon isotopes used in monitoring: 135Xe (9 hour half-life), 133mXe (2 day half-life), 133Xe (5 day half-life) and 131mXe (12 day half-life) that decay through beta emission and gamma emission. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is a leader in the field of gas collections and has developed highly selective molecular sieves that allow for the collection of xenon gas directly from air. Phase I assessed the development of a small, robust beta-gamma coincidence counting system, that combines collection and in situ detection methodologies. Phase II of the project began development of the custom electronics enabling 2D beta-gamma coincidence analysis in a field portable system. This will be a significant advancement for field detection/quantification of short-lived xenon isotopes that would not survive transport time for laboratory analysis.

  14. Pilot Field Test: Performance of a Sit-to-Stand Test After Long-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofman, I. S.; Reschke, M. F.; Cerisano, J. M.; Fisher, E. A.; Phillips, T. R.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Kitov, V. V.; Lysova, N. Yu; Lee, S. M. C.; Stenger, M. B.; hide

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Astronauts returning from the International Space Station are met by a team of recovery personnel typically providing physical assistance and medical support immediately upon landing. That is because long-duration spaceflight impacts astronauts' functional abilities. Future expeditions to planets or asteroids beyond the low Earth orbit, however, may require crewmembers to egress the vehicle and perform other types of physical tasks unassisted. It is therefore important to characterize the extent and longevity of functional deficits experienced by astronauts in order to design safe exploration class missions. Pilot Field Test (PFT) experiment conducted with participation of ISS crewmembers traveling on Soyuz expeditions 34S - 41S comprised several tasks designed to study the recovery of sensorimotor abilities of astronauts during the first 24 hours after landing and beyond. METHODS: The first test in the PFT battery sequence, and also the least demanding one from the sensorimotor perspective, was a Sit-to-Stand test. Test subjects were seated in the chair and had to stand up on command and remain standing for ten seconds. The subjects were instructed to stand up unassisted as quickly as they were able to, while maintaining postural control. Synchronized wireless inertial sensors mounted on the head, chest, lower back, wrists, and ankles were used to continuously log body kinematics. Crewmembers' blood pressure and heart rate were monitored and recorded with the Portapres and Polar systems. Each session was recorded with a digital video camera. During data collections occurring within the 24-hour postflight period, crewmembers were also asked to (1) evaluate their perceived motion sickness symptoms on a 20-point scale before and after completion of the test and (2) estimate how heavy they felt compared to their normal (preflight) body weight. Consent to participate in PFT was obtained from 18 crewmembers (11 US Orbital Segment [USOS] astronauts and 7

  15. Pilot Field Test: Performance of a Sit-to-Stand Test After Long-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofman, I. S.; Reschke, M. F.; Cerisano, J. M.; Fisher, E. A.; May-Phillips, T. R.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Kitov, V. V.; Lysova, N. U.; Lee, S. M. C.; Stenger, M. B.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts returning from the International Space Station (ISS) are met by a team of recovery personnel who typically provide physical assistance and medical support immediately after landing. This assistance and support are provided because long-duration spaceflight greatly affects astronauts' functional abilities. Future expeditions to planets or asteroids beyond low Earth orbit, however, will require crewmembers to egress the vehicle and perform other types of physical tasks unassisted. It is therefore important to characterize the extent and longevity of functional deficits experienced by astronauts in order to design safe exploration-class missions. A joint US/Russian Pilot Field Test (PFT) study conducted with participation of crewmembers of ISS Expeditions 35-42 comprised several tasks designed to study the recovery of sensorimotor abilities of astronauts during the first 24 hours after landing and beyond. Sit-to-Stand (S2S) was the first task in the PFT battery.

  16. Field and storage testing Bt potatoes for resistance to potato tuberworm (Lepidoptera: Gelichiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douches, D S; Pett, W; Santos, F; Coombs, J; Grafius, E; Li, W; Metry, E A; el-Din, T Nasr; Madkour, M

    2004-08-01

    Potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), is the most serious insect pest of potatoes worldwide. The introduction of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin gene through genetic engineering offers host plant resistance for the management of potato tuberworm. We report on the field and storage studies to evaluate Bt-cry5 potato lines for resistance to potato tuberworm in Egypt under natural infestations and their agronomic performance in both Egypt and Michigan. From 1997 to 2001, field experiments were conducted at the International Potato Center (CIP) Research Station, Kafr El-Zyat, Egypt, and/or Agricultural Genetic Engineering Institute (AGERI), Giza, Egypt, to evaluate resistance to tuberworm. A total of 27 Bt-transgenic potato lines from six different Bt constructs were evaluated over a 5-yr period. After harvest and evaluation of the agronomic trials, storage evaluation of potato tuberworm damage was done at the CIP Research Station. The 1997 field trial was the first field test of genetically engineered crops in Egypt. Field tests to assess potato tuberworm resistance in Egypt were able to differentiate between the Bt-transgenic lines and the nontransgenic lines/cultivars in 1999, 2000, and 2001. The Bt-cry5-Spunta lines (Spunta-G2, Spunta-G3, and Spunta-6a3) were the most resistant lines in field with 99-100% of tubers free of damage. In the 2001 storage study, these lines were also over 90% free of tuberworm damage after 3 mo. NYL235-4.13, which combines glandular trichomes with the Bt-cry5/gus fusion construct, also had a high percentage of clean tubers in the field studies. In agronomic field trials in Michigan from 1997 to 2001, the Bt-transgenic lines in most instances performed similar to the nontransgenic line in the agronomic trials; however, in Egypt (1998-1999), the yields were less than one-half of those in Michigan. Expression of the Bt-cry5 gene in the potato tuber and foliage will provide the seed producer and grower a tool in which to

  17. Results of the long range position-determining system tests. [Field Army system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode, F. W.

    1973-01-01

    The long range position-determining system (LRPDS) has been developed by the Corps of Engineers to provide the Field Army with a rapid and accurate positioning capability. The LRPDS consists of an airborne reference position set (RPS), up to 30 ground based positioning sets (PS), and a position computing central (PCC). The PCC calculates the position of each PS based on the range change information provided by each Set. The positions can be relayed back to the PS again via RPS. Each PS unit contains a double oven precise crystal oscillator. The RPS contains a Hewlett-Packard cesium beam standard. Frequency drifts and off-sets of the crystal oscillators are taken in account in the data reduction process. A field test program was initiated in November 1972. A total of 54 flights were made which included six flights for equipment testing and 48 flights utilizing the field test data reduction program. The four general types of PS layouts used were: short range; medium range; long range; tactical configuration. The overall RMS radial error of the unknown positions varied from about 2.3 meters for the short range to about 15 meters for the long range. The corresponding elevation RMS errors vary from about 12 meters to 37 meters.

  18. Intervening to decrease the probability of alcohol-impaired driving: Impact of novel field sobriety tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan C; Robinson, Zechariah; Bazdar, Alexandra; Geller, E Scott

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of novel field sobriety tests to predict breath alcohol content (BAC) and perceptions of driving risk was evaluated. Participants (N = 210) were passersby at two downtown locations near local bars and one on-campus location near a late-night dining facility between the hours of 10:00 p.m. and 2:00 a.m. Participants gave ratings of their perceived risk to drive at their current level of intoxication, then completed three sobriety tests (a hand-pat, tracing test, and Romberg test), and finally provided new ratings of their perceived risk to drive. After completing the final set of questions, participants were administered a Lifeloc FC20 breath alcohol test (±.005 g/dL). Each of the sobriety tests performed better than chance at predicting participant intoxication, but the performance feedback did not enhance awareness of one's risk to drive at a given BAC. Actually, after the sobriety tests, Greek-life females perceived themselves to be less at-risk to drive.

  19. Validation of the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test in a low- and middle-income country cross-sectional emergency centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Westhuizen, Claire; Wyatt, Gail; Williams, John K; Stein, Dan J; Sorsdahl, Katherine

    2016-11-01

    Given the high prevalence and detrimental consequences of alcohol or other drug (AOD) use in low- and middle-income countries, a screening tool for early detection in health care, including emergency care, is critical. We set out to validate the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) for the South African context. We interviewed emergency centre patients (n = 200) in Cape Town for this cross-sectional study conducted from January to March 2013 utilising a questionnaire battery, including the ASSIST and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and screening properties of the ASSIST (receiver operating characteristic analysis) were examined utilising the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview AOD use modules as the gold standard. Cronbach's alpha for alcohol and illicit drugs ranged from 0.81 to 0.95 indicating good internal consistency. ASSIST cut-off scores show a good sensitivity and specificity for discrimination particularly when distinguishing between substance use and abuse, rather than dependence. For alcohol, the area under the curve was 0.94 for distinguishing between use and abuse, and this dropped to 0.68 for distinguishing between abuse and dependence, while the statistic remained high for both use/abuse and abuse/dependence for illicit drugs: 0.95 and 0.96. AOD abuse was associated with cut-off scores below the World Health Organization recommended levels, in keeping with various international studies suggesting that individuals with lower scores be offered interventions. The ASSIST was found to be useful for South African health care and holds promise for cost-effective task-shifting approaches in lower resourced settings. [van der Westhuizen C, Wyatt G, Williams JK, Stein DJ, Sorsdahl K. Validation of  the  Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test in a low- and middle-income country cross-sectional emergency centre study. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016

  20. Nondestructive testing and characterization of residual stress field using an ultrasonic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wentao; Xu, Chunguang; Pan, Qinxue; Song, Jianfeng

    2016-03-01

    To address the difficulty in testing and calibrating the stress gradient in the depth direction of mechanical components, a new technology of nondestructive testing and characterization of the residual stress gradient field by ultrasonic method is proposed based on acoustoelasticity theory. By carrying out theoretical analysis, the sensitivity coefficients of different types of ultrasonic are obtained by taking the low carbon steel(12%C) as a research object. By fixing the interval distance between sending and receiving transducers, the mathematical expressions of the change of stress and the variation of time are established. To design one sending-one receiving and oblique incidence ultrasonic detection probes, according to Snell law, the critically refracted longitudinal wave (LCR wave) is excited at a certain depth of the fixed distance of the tested components. Then, the relationship between the depth of LCR wave detection and the center frequency of the probe in Q235 steel is obtained through experimental study. To detect the stress gradient in the depth direction, a stress gradient LCR wave detection model is established, through which the stress gradient formula is derived by the relationship between center frequency and detecting depth. A C-shaped stress specimen of Q235 steel is designed to conduct stress loading tests, and the stress is measured with the five group probes at different center frequencies. The accuracy of ultrasonic testing is verified by X-ray stress analyzer. The stress value of each specific depth is calculated using the stress gradient formula. Accordingly, the ultrasonic characterization of residual stress field is realized. Characterization results show that the stress gradient distribution is consistent with the simulation in ANSYS. The new technology can be widely applied in the detection of the residual stress gradient field caused by mechanical processing, such as welding and shot peening.