WorldWideScience

Sample records for countries community-based approaches

  1. The JICA training course, community-based cancer prevention for the Asian Pacific countries, fiscal years 2004 and 2005 (epidemiological approach).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    Communicable diseases are still major causes of deaths in developing countries. Cancer incidence, however, increased 19% between 1990 and 2000, mainly in this same developing world (Stewart and Kleihaus, 2003), and malignant neoplasms are now the second leading cause of mortality in these countries (WHO, 2003). Limitations of medical facilities and equipment mean that prevention is indispensable for cancer control (Mikheev et al., 1994). However, human resources concerning cancer prevention are limited, and encouragement of their development should be taken as a first priority. To assist in this aim, the present training course was designed by the Division of Epidemiology and Prevention, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Japan, and has been annually conducted since 1999, supported by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) (Takezaki, 2001; 2002; 2003; Wakai, 2004). The course targets doctors and public health workers who are responsible for community-based cancer prevention in developing countries to promote the introduction of comprehensive procedures, focusing mainly on primary prevention but also including screening for secondary prevention of cancer.

  2. The JICA training course, community-based cancer prevention for the Asian and Pan-Pacific countries, fiscal year 2006 (epidemiological approach).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, Kenji; Matsuo, Keitaro

    2007-01-01

    Communicable diseases are still major causes of deaths in developing countries. Cancer incidence, however, increased 19% between 1990 and 2000, mainly in this same developing world (Stewart and Kleihaus, 2003), and malignant neoplasms are now the second leading cause of mortality in these countries (WHO, 2003). Limitations of medical facilities and equipment mean that prevention is indispensable for cancer control (Mikheev et al., 1994). However, human resources concerning cancer prevention are also limited, and encouragement of their development should be taken as a first priority. To assist in this aim, the present training course was designed by the Division of Epidemiology and Prevention, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Japan, and has been annually conducted since 1999, supported by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) (Takezaki, 2001; 2002; 2003; Wakai, 2004; 2006). The course targets doctors and public health workers who are responsible for community-based cancer prevention in developing countries to promote the introduction of comprehensive procedures, focusing mainly on primary prevention but also including screening for secondary prevention of cancer.

  3. Lessons Learned From Community-Based Approaches to Sodium Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Heather; Strazza, Karen; Losby PhD, Jan L.; Lane, Rashon; Mugavero, Kristy; Anater, Andrea S.; Frost, Corey; Margolis, Marjorie; Hersey, James

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This article describes lessons from a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiative encompassing sodium reduction interventions in six communities. Design A multiple case study design was used. Setting This evaluation examined data from programs implemented in six communities located in New York (Broome County, Schenectady County, and New York City); California (Los Angeles County and Shasta County); and Kansas (Shawnee County). Subjects Participants (n = 80) included program staff, program directors, state-level staff, and partners. Measures Measures for this evaluation included challenges, facilitators, and lessons learned from implementing sodium reduction strategies. Analysis The project team conducted a document review of program materials and semi structured interviews 12 to 14 months after implementation. The team coded and analyzed data deductively and inductively. Results Five lessons for implementing community-based sodium reduction approaches emerged: (1) build relationships with partners to understand their concerns, (2) involve individuals knowledgeable about specific venues early, (3) incorporate sodium reduction efforts and messaging into broader nutrition efforts, (4) design the program to reduce sodium gradually to take into account consumer preferences and taste transitions, and (5) identify ways to address the cost of lower-sodium products. Conclusion The experiences of the six communities may assist practitioners in planning community-based sodium reduction interventions. Addressing sodium reduction using a community-based approach can foster meaningful change in dietary sodium consumption. PMID:24575726

  4. Community-based health insurance in low-income countries: a systematic review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Björn

    2004-09-01

    Health policy makers are faced with competing alternatives, and for systems of health care financing. The choice of financing method should mobilize resources for health care and provide financial protection. This review systematically assesses the evidence of the extent to which community-based health insurance is a viable option for low-income countries in mobilizing resources and providing financial protection. The review contributes to the literature on health financing by extending and qualifying existing knowledge. Overall, the evidence base is limited in scope and questionable in quality. There is strong evidence that community-based health insurance provides some financial protection by reducing out-of-pocket spending. There is evidence of moderate strength that such schemes improve cost-recovery. There is weak or no evidence that schemes have an effect on the quality of care or the efficiency with which care is produced. In absolute terms, the effects are small and schemes serve only a limited section of the population. The main policy implication of the review is that these types of community financing arrangements are, at best, complementary to other more effective systems of health financing. To improve reliability and validity of the evidence base, analysts should agree on a more coherent set of outcome indicators and a more consistent assessment of these indicators. Policy makers need to be better informed as to both the costs and the benefits of implementing various financing options. The current evidence base on community-based health insurance is mute on this point.

  5. Community-based approaches to controlling childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Noreen M

    2012-04-01

    The prevalence and burden of childhood asthma remain high and are increasing. Asthma hot spot neighborhoods around the country face particular challenges in controlling the effects of the condition. Increasing attention is being paid to developing interventions that recognize the child and family as the primary managers of disease and to introducing assistance that reaches beyond the clinical care setting into the places where families live and work. A range of types of community-focused interventions has been assessed in the past decade in schools, homes, and community health clinics, and programs using electronic media and phone links have been evaluated. Stronger evidence for all these approaches is needed. However, school-based programs and community coalitions designed to bring about policy and systems changes show particular promise for achieving sustainable improvements in asthma control. Research is needed that emphasizes comparisons among proven asthma control interventions, translation of effective approaches to new settings and communities, and institutionalization of effective strategies.

  6. A Community-Based Approach to Identifying Influential Spreaders

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    Zhiying Zhao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Identifying influential spreaders in complex networks has a significant impact on understanding and control of spreading process in networks. In this paper, we introduce a new centrality index to identify influential spreaders in a network based on the community structure of the network. The community-based centrality (CbC considers both the number and sizes of communities that are directly linked by a node. We discuss correlations between CbC and other classical centrality indices. Based on simulations of the single source of infection with the Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR model, we find that CbC can help to identify some critical influential nodes that other indices cannot find. We also investigate the stability of CbC.

  7. Ethical Considerations of Community-based Participatory Research: Contextual Underpinnings for Developing Countries

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    Ensiyeh Jamshidi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Community-based participatory research ethical challenges are of the same kind in most parts of the world. However, some discrepancies exist that calls for local scrutiny. Future use and critic of current explored ethical issues and principles are highly encouraged.

  8. IMPACT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL CHARACTERISTICS ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COMMUNITY-BASED APPROACH TO LOCAL DEVELOPMENT

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    N. Grazhevska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the impact of social capital characteristics of local communities on the effectiveness of the community-based approach to economic development. The conclusion that such social capital characteristics as (antipaternalism, solidarity and cooperation have the greatest importance for the economic development is made based on the analysis of UNDP and the European Union project “Community-based approach to local development”. It was hypothesized that the creation of community organizations could be an effective mechanism to actualize the existing social capital of rural communities in Ukraine.

  9. Community-Based Participatory Research in Indian Country: Improving Health through Water Quality Research and Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Cummins, C; Doyle, J; Kindness, L.; Lefthand, M.J.; Bear Don't Walk, U.J.; Bends, A.; Broadaway, S C; Camper, A K; Fitch, R; Ford, T.E.; Hamner, S.; Morrison, A.R.; Richards, C L; Young, S.L.; Eggers, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Water has always been held in high respect by the Apsaálooke (Crow) people of Montana. Tribal members questioned the health of the rivers and well water due to visible water quality deterioration and potential connections to illnesses in the community. Community members initiated collaboration among local organizations, the Tribe and academic partners, resulting in genuine community based participatory research. The article shares what we have learned as tribal members and researchers about w...

  10. Melding Infant Mental Health and Multisystemic Therapy Approaches to Community-Based Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Jay C.; Carubia, Beau A.; Murgolo, Marisa A.; Carter, Debbie R.; Frankel, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    A recent partnership between the Irving Harris Program in Child Development and Infant Mental Health and the Community Based Psychiatry Program at University of Colorado Hospital joined two different approaches to child mental health treatment: infant mental health and multisystemic therapy (MST). This article illustrates the compatibility of…

  11. Community-Based Adaptation: A vital approach to the threat climate change poses to the poor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huq, Saleemul; Reid, Hannah

    2007-05-15

    Helping the millions of poor people at greatest risk from climate change to adapt to its impacts is a daunting task. One new approach that deserves greater support is community-based adaptation (CBA). This briefing paper outlines the concepts behind CBA, shares some early lessons learned, and calls for greater networking, information sharing and support for CBA activities.

  12. Community-based participatory research in Indian country: improving health through water quality research and awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Crescentia; Doyle, John; Kindness, Larry; Lefthand, Myra J; Bear Dont Walk, Urban J; Bends, Ada L; Broadaway, Susan C; Camper, Anne K; Fitch, Roberta; Ford, Tim E; Hamner, Steve; Morrison, Athalia R; Richards, Crystal L; Young, Sara L; Eggers, Margaret J

    2010-01-01

    Water has always been held in high respect by the Apsaálooke (Crow) people of Montana. Tribal members questioned the health of the rivers and well water because of visible water quality deterioration and potential connections to illnesses in the community. Community members initiated collaboration among local organizations, the tribe, and academic partners, resulting in genuine community-based participatory research. The article shares what we have learned as tribal members and researchers about working together to examine surface and groundwater contaminants, assess routes of exposure, and use our data to bring about improved health of our people and our waters.

  13. A community-based approach to trials of aerobic exercise in aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidoni, Eric D; Van Sciver, Angela; Johnson, David K; He, Jinghua; Honea, Robyn; Haines, Brian; Goodwin, Jami; Laubinger, M Pat; Anderson, Heather S; Kluding, Patricia M; Donnelly, Joseph E; Billinger, Sandra A; Burns, Jeffrey M

    2012-11-01

    The benefits of exercise for aging have received considerable attention in both the popular and academic press. The putative benefits of exercise for maximizing cognitive function and supporting brain health have great potential for combating Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aerobic exercise offers a low-cost, low-risk intervention that is widely available and may have disease modifying effects. Demonstrating that aerobic exercise alters the AD process would have enormous public health implications. The purpose of this paper is to report the protocol of a current, community-based pilot study of aerobic exercise for AD to guide future investigation. This manuscript provides 1) an overview of possible benefits of exercise in those with dementia, 2) a rationale and recommendations for implementation of a community-based approach, 3) recommendation for implementation of similar study protocols, and 4) unique challenges in conducting an exercise trial in AD.

  14. Towards universal voluntary HIV testing and counselling: a systematic review and meta-analysis of community-based approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitabh B Suthar

    2013-08-01

    was as follows: index testing, 88% of 12,052 participants; self-testing, 87% of 1,839 participants; mobile testing, 87% of 79,475 participants; door-to-door testing, 80% of 555,267 participants; workplace testing, 67% of 62,406 participants; and school-based testing, 62% of 2,593 participants. Mobile HTC uptake among key populations (men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs, female sex workers, and adolescents ranged from 9% to 100% (among 41,110 participants across studies, with heterogeneity related to how testing was offered. Community-based approaches increased HTC uptake (relative risk [RR] 10.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.27-18.08, the proportion of first-time testers (RR 1.23, 95% CI 1.06-1.42, and the proportion of participants with CD4 counts above 350 cells/µl (RR 1.42, 95% CI 1.16-1.74, and obtained a lower positivity rate (RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.37-0.96, relative to facility-based approaches. 80% (95% CI 75%-85% of 5,832 community-based HTC participants obtained a CD4 measurement following HIV diagnosis, and 73% (95% CI 61%-85% of 527 community-based HTC participants initiated antiretroviral therapy following a CD4 measurement indicating eligibility. The data on linking participants without HIV to prevention services were limited. In low- and middle-income countries, the cost per person tested ranged from US$2-US$126. At the population level, community-based HTC increased HTC coverage (RR 7.07, 95% CI 3.52-14.22 and reduced HIV incidence (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.73-1.02, although the incidence reduction lacked statistical significance. No studies reported any harm arising as a result of having been tested. CONCLUSIONS: Community-based HTC achieved high rates of HTC uptake, reached people with high CD4 counts, and linked people to care. It also obtained a lower HIV positivity rate relative to facility-based approaches. Further research is needed to further improve acceptability of community-based HTC for key populations. HIV programmes should offer

  15. Assessing the efficacy of a modified assertive community-based treatment programme in a developing country

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    Botha Ulla A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of recently published randomized controlled trials conducted in developed countries have reported no advantage for assertive interventions over standard care models. One possible explanation could be that so-called "standard care" has become more comprehensive in recent years, incorporating some of the salient aspects of assertive models in its modus operandi. Our study represents the first randomised controlled trial assessing the effect of a modified assertive treatment service on readmission rates and other measures of outcome in a developing country. Methods High frequency service users were randomized into an intervention (n = 34 and a control (n = 26 group. The control group received standard community care and the active group an assertive intervention based on a modified version of the international model of assertive community treatment. Study visits were conducted at baseline and 12 months with demographic and illness information collected at visit 1 and readmission rates documented at study end. Symptomatology and functioning were measured at both visits using the PANSS, CDSS, ESRS, WHO-QOL and SOFAS. Results At 12 month follow-up subjects receiving the assertive intervention had significantly lower total PANSS (p = 0.02 as well as positive (p Conclusions Our results indicate that assertive interventions in a developing setting where standard community mental services are often under resourced can produce significant outcomes. Furthermore, these interventions need not be as expensive and comprehensive as international, first-world models in order to reduce inpatient days, improve psychopathology and overall levels of functioning in patients with severe mental illness.

  16. Provision of hearing aids to children in Bangladesh: costs and cost-effectiveness of a community-based and a centre-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Björn; Borg, Johan

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study is to provide evidence on the costs and health effects of two alternative hearing aid delivery models, a community-based and a centre-based approach. The study is set in Bangladesh and the study population is children between 12 and 18 years old. Data on resource use by participants and their caregivers were collected by a household survey. Follow-up data were collected after two months. Data on the costs to providers of the two approaches were collected by means of key informant interviews. The total cost per participant in the community-based model was BDT 6,333 (USD 79) compared with BDT 13,718 (USD 172) for the centre-based model. Both delivery models are found to be cost-effective with an estimated cost per DALY averted of BDT 17,611 (USD 220) for the community-based model and BDT 36,775 (USD 460) for the centre-based model. Using a community-based approach to deliver hearing aids to children in a resource constrained environment is a cost-effective alternative to the traditional centre-based approach. Further evidence is needed to draw conclusions for scale-up of approaches; rigorous analysis is possible using well-prepared data collection tools and working closely with sector professionals. Implications for Rehabilitation Delivery models vary by resources needed for their implementation. Community-based deliver models of hearing aids to children in low-income countries are a cost-effective alternative. The assessment of costs and effects of hearing aids delivery models in low-income countries is possible through planned collaboration between researchers and sector professionals.

  17. An integrated approach to preventing cardiovascular disease: community-based approaches, health system initiatives, and public health policy

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    Tina Karwalajtys

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Tina Karwalajtys1, Janusz Kaczorowski2,31Department of Family Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 2Primary Care & Community Research, Child & Family Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3Department of Family Practice, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, CanadaAbstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is largely the product of interactions among modifiable risk factors that are common in developed nations and increasingly of concern in developing countries. Hypertension is an important precursor to the development of CVD, and although detection and treatment rates have improved in recent years in some jurisdictions, effective strategies and policies supporting a shift in distribution of risk factors at the population level remain paramount. Challenges in managing cardiovascular health more effectively include factors at the patient, provider, and system level. Strategies to reduce hypertension and CVD should be population based, incorporate multilevel, multicomponent, and socioenvironmental approaches, and integrate community resources with public health and clinical care. There is an urgent need to improve monitoring and management of risk factors through community-wide, primary care-linked initiatives, increase the evidence base for community-based prevention strategies, further develop and evaluate promising program components, and develop new approaches to support healthy lifestyle behaviors in diverse age, socioeconomic, and ethnocultural groups. Policy and system changes are critical to reduce risk in populations, including legislation and public education to reduce dietary sodium and trans-fatty acids, food pricing policies, and changes to health care delivery systems to explicitly support prevention and management of CVD.Keywords: risk factors, blood pressure determination, community health services, community health planning, public health practice

  18. A community-based approach for integrating geriatrics and gerontology into undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Iveris L; Mora, Jorge Camilo

    2012-01-01

    Medical school accreditation requirements require educational opportunities in geriatrics. Twenty-six minimum graduating competencies in geriatrics have recently been identified for medical students. The authors describe how these competencies are being integrated into a new medical curriculum through coursework and community-based experiences. This approach is intended to expose students to older adults from diverse communities and adequately prepare students to address the complex and individual needs of these patients. Initial results indicate proficiency in the minimum geriatric competencies covered. The growth and diversity of the older adult population makes it important to integrate and evaluate geriatrics education in undergraduate medical education.

  19. Reforms from the Ground Up: A Review of Community-Based Forest Management in Tropical Developing Countries

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    Tole, Lise

    2010-06-01

    After an initial burst of enthusiasm in the 1990s, community-based forest management (CBFM) is increasingly being viewed with a critical eye. Evidence suggests that many programs have failed to promote their stated objectives of sustainability, efficiency, equity, democratic participation and poverty reduction. A large volume of academic literature now exists on CBFM, examining both the success and failure of such initiatives in a wide variety of countries. Through analysis of key themes, concepts and issues in CBFM, this article provides a review of CBFM initiatives in tropical developing countries for policymakers, practitioners and planners wishing to gain an understanding of this wide-ranging, interdisciplinary academic literature. The article identifies key institutions and incentives that appear to significantly affect the success or failure of CBFM initiatives. In particular, it reports that consideration of institutional and socioeconomic factors along with personal characteristics of key stakeholders such as beliefs, attitudes, financial resources and skills are important determinants of CBFM outcomes. However, local incentive structures also appear to be important. There is increasing recognition in the literature of the need to consider the conditions under which local politicians entrusted with carrying out CBFM initiatives will deem it worthwhile to invest their scarce time and resources on environmental governance.

  20. Community-based approaches for prevention of mother to child transmission in resource-poor settings: a social ecological review

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    Leila Katirayi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Numerous barriers to optimal uptake of prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT services occur at community level (i.e., outside the healthcare setting. To achieve elimination of paediatric HIV, therefore, interventions must also work within communities to address these barriers and increase service use and need to be informed by evidence. This paper reviews community-based approaches that have been used in resource-limited settings to increase rates of PMTCT enrolment, retention in care and successful treatment outcomes. It aims to identify which interventions work, why they may do so and what knowledge gaps remain. Methods: First, we identified barriers to PMTCT that originate outside the health system. These were used to construct a social ecological framework categorizing barriers to PMTCT into the following levels of influence: individual, peer and family, community and sociocultural. We then used this conceptual framework to guide a review of the literature on community-based approaches, defined as interventions delivered outside of formal health settings, with the goal of increasing uptake, retention, adherence and positive psychosocial outcomes in PMTCT programmes in resource-poor countries. Results: Our review found evidence of effectiveness of strategies targeting individuals and peer/family levels (e.g., providing household HIV testing and training peer counsellors to support exclusive breastfeeding and at community level (e.g., participatory women's groups and home-based care to support adherence and retention. Evidence is more limited for complex interventions combining multiple strategies across different ecological levels. There is often little information describing implementation; and approaches such as “community mobilization” remain poorly defined. Conclusions: Evidence from existing community approaches can be adapted for use in planning PMTCT. However, for successful replication of evidence

  1. Establishment and Implementation of the Balingasay Marine Protected Area: A Community-Based Approach

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    Severino Salmo III

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A community-based approach in the establishment and implementation of a marine protected area (MPA in Balingasay, Bolinao, Pangasinan is presented. The factors necessary to facilitate the successful establishment and implementation of a community-managed MPA include heightening of environmental awareness, community mobilization, and legal/institutional and financial assistance. A heightened environmental awareness encouraged the community to undertake resource management action. The formation of a people’s organization, SAMMABAL (Samahan ng mga Mangingisda at Mamamayan ng Balingasay, was crucial in assessing environmental problems (e.g., overfishing and identifying the establishment of an MPA as a management tool to address the problem. SAMMABAL was also instrumental in eliciting community support for the issuance of a municipal ordinance in the establishment of the MPA. Subsequently, the organization initiated the patrolling of the MPA. Institutions involved in the community-based management of the MPA also included the multi-sectoral council (BRMC – Balingasay Resource Management Council and representatives from the barangay council and the municipal government. This institutional arrangement has proven to be very resilient, indicating a high probability of sustaining its successes despite some obstacles and shortcomings. Clear delineation of the role and functions of the institutions and the stakeholders was essential in advancing the initiative. This case study will draw on the lessons from the experience of a four-year community-managed MPA.

  2. What factors affect voluntary uptake of community-based health insurance schemes in low- and middle-income countries? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.M. Dror (David); Shahed Hossain, S.A.; M. Majumdar (Manabi); Koehlmoos, T.L.P. (Tracey Lynn Pérez); John, D. (Denny); P. Panda (Pradeep)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: This research article reports on factors influencing initial voluntary uptake of community-based health insurance (CBHI) schemes in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), and renewal decisions. Methods: Following PRISMA protocol, we conducted a comprehensive search of aca

  3. What factors affect voluntary uptake of community-based health insurance schemes in low- and middle-income countries? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.M. Dror (David); Shahed Hossain, S.A.; M. Majumdar (Manabi); Koehlmoos, T.L.P. (Tracey Lynn Pérez); John, D. (Denny); P. Panda (Pradeep)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: This research article reports on factors influencing initial voluntary uptake of community-based health insurance (CBHI) schemes in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), and renewal decisions. Methods: Following PRISMA protocol, we conducted a comprehensive search of

  4. Multi-Level, Multi-Component Approaches to Community Based Interventions for Healthy Living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Novotny, Rachel; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing interest in integrated and coordinated programs that intervene in multiple community settings/institutions at the same time and involve policy and system changes. The purpose of the paper is to analyse three comparable cases of Multi Level, Multi Component intervention programs...... the potential of ML-MC community-based public health nutrition interventions to create sustainable change. The paper proposes methodology, guidelines and directions for future research through analysis and examination strengths and weaknesses in the programs. Similarities are that they engage and commit local...... stakeholders in a structured approach to integrate intervention components in order to create dose and intensity. In that way, they all make provisions for post intervention impact sustainability. All programs target the child and family members' knowledge, attitudes, behavior, the policy level...

  5. Neighborhoods on the move: a community-based participatory research approach to promoting physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suminski, Richard R; Petosa, Rick L; Jones, Larry; Hall, Lisa; Poston, Carlos W

    2009-01-01

    There is a scientific and practical need for high-quality effectiveness studies of physical activity interventions in "real-world" settings. To use a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to develop, implement, operate, and evaluate an intervention for promoting physical activity called Neighborhoods on the Move. Two communities with similar physical and social characteristics participated in this study. One community was involved in Neighborhoods on the Move; the other (comparison community) participated only in the assessments. Academic personnel and residents/organizations in the Neighborhoods on the Move community worked together to create a community environment that was more conducive for physical activity. Pre- and posttest data on new initiatives promoting physical activity, existing physical activity initiatives, and business policies supporting physical activity were collected simultaneously in both communities. The success of the CBPR approach was evidenced by several developments, including substantial resident involvement and the formation of a leadership committee, marketing campaign, and numerous community partnerships. The number of businesses with policies promoting physical activity and breadth of existing physical activity initiatives (participants, activities, hours) increased substantially more in the Neighborhoods on the Move community than in the comparison community. A total of sixty new initiatives promoting physical activity were implemented in the Neighborhoods on the Move community during the intervention. The CBPR approach is an effective strategy for inducing environmental changes that promote physical activity. Additional research is needed to assess the portability and sustainability of Neighborhoods on the Move.

  6. A community based participatory approach to improving health in a Hispanic population

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    Urquieta de Hernandez Brisa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Charlotte-Mecklenburg region has one of the fastest growing Hispanic communities in the country. This population has experienced disparities in health outcomes and diminished ability to access healthcare services. This city is home to an established practice-based research network (PBRN that includes community representatives, health services researchers, and primary care providers. The aims of this project are: to use key principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR within a practice-based research network (PBRN to identify a single disease or condition that negatively affects the Charlotte Hispanic community; to develop a community-based intervention that positively impacts the chosen condition and improves overall community health; and to disseminate findings to all stakeholders. Methods/design This project is designed as CBPR. The CBPR process creates new social networks and connections between participants that can potentially alter patterns of healthcare utilization and other health-related behaviors. The first step is the development of equitable partnerships between community representatives, providers, and researchers. This process is central to the CBPR process and will occur at three levels -- community members trained as researchers and outreach workers, a community advisory board (CAB, and a community forum. Qualitative data on health issues facing the community -- and possible solutions -- will be collected at all three levels through focus groups, key informant interviews and surveys. The CAB will meet monthly to guide the project and oversee data collection, data analysis, participant recruitment, implementation of the community forum, and intervention deployment. The selection of the health condition and framework for the intervention will occur at the level of a community-wide forum. Outcomes of the study will be measured using indicators developed by the participants as well as geospatial

  7. Can scenario-planning support community-based natural resource management? Experiences from three countries in Latin America

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    Kerry A. Waylen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM is a concept critical to managing social-ecological systems but whose implementation needs strengthening. Scenario planning is one approach that may offer benefits relevant to CBNRM but whose potential is not yet well understood. Therefore, we designed, trialed, and evaluated a scenario-planning method intended to support CBNRM in three cases, located in Colombia, Mexico, and Argentina. Implementing scenario planning was judged as worthwhile in all three cases, although aspects of it were challenging to facilitate. The benefits generated were relevant to strengthening CBNRM: encouraging the participation of local people and using their knowledge, enhanced consideration of and adaptation to future change, and supporting the development of systems thinking. Tracing exactly when and how these benefits arose was challenging, but two elements of the method seemed particularly useful. First, using a systematic approach to discuss how drivers of change may affect local social-ecological systems helped to foster systems thinking and identify connections between issues. Second, explicitly focusing on how to use and respond to scenarios helped identify specific practical activities, or "response options," that would support CBNRM despite the pressures of future change. Discussions about response options also highlighted the need for support by other actors, e.g., policy groups: this raised the question of when and how other actors and other sources of knowledge should be involved in scenario planning, so as to encourage their buy-in to actions identified by the process. We suggest that other CBNRM initiatives may benefit from adapting and applying scenario planning. However, these initiatives should be carefully monitored because further research is required to understand how and when scenario-planning methods may produce benefits, as well as their strengths and weaknesses versus other methods.

  8. Community-based infant hearing screening in a developing country: parental uptake of follow-up services

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    Olusanya Bolajoko O

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Universal newborn hearing screening is now considered an essential public health care for the early detection of disabling life-long childhood hearing impairment globally. However, like any health interventions in early childhood, parental support and participation is essential for achieving satisfactory uptake of services. This study set out to determine maternal/infant socio-demographic factors associated with follow-up compliance in community-based infant hearing screening programmes in a developing country. Methods After health educational/counselling sessions, infants attending routine childhood immunisation clinics at four primary care centres were enrolled into a two-stage infant hearing screening programme consisting of a first-stage screening with transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions and second-stage screening with automated auditory brainstem response. Infants referred after the second-stage screening were scheduled for diagnostic evaluation within three months. Maternal and infant factors associated with completion of the hearing screening protocol were determined with multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results No mother declined participation during the study period. A total of 285 out of 2,003 eligible infants were referred after the first-stage screening out of which 148 (51.9% did not return for the second-stage, while 32 (39.0% of the 82 infants scheduled for diagnostic evaluation defaulted. Mothers who delivered outside hospitals were significantly more likely to return for follow-up screening than those who delivered in hospitals (Odds ratio: 1.62; 95% confidence intervals: 0.98 – 2.70; p = 0.062. No other factors correlated with follow-up compliance for screening and diagnostic services. Conclusion Place of delivery was the only factor that correlated albeit marginally with infant hearing screening compliance in this population. The likely influence of issues such as the number of return visits

  9. Tailoring science outreach through E-matching using a community-based participatory approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernice B Rumala

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to increase science exposure for pre-college (K-12 students and as part of the science education reform agenda, many biomedical research institutions have established university-community partnerships. Typically, these science outreach programs consist of pre-structured, generic exposure for students, with little community engagement. However, the use of a medium that is accessible to both teachers and scientists, electronic web-based matchmaking (E-matching provides an opportunity for tailored outreach utilizing a community-based participatory approach (CBPA, which involves all stakeholders in the planning and implementation of the science outreach based on the interests of teachers/students and scientists. E-matching is a timely and urgent endeavor that provides a rapid connection for science engagement between teachers/students and experts in an effort to fill the science outreach gap. National Lab Network (formerly National Lab Day, an ongoing initiative to increase science equity and literacy, provides a model for engaging the public in science via an E-matching and hands-on learning approach. We argue that science outreach should be a dynamic endeavor that changes according to the needs of a target school. We will describe a case study of a tailored science outreach activity in which a public school that serves mostly under-represented minority students from disadvantaged backgrounds were E-matched with a university, and subsequently became equal partners in the development of the science outreach plan. In addition, we will show how global science outreach endeavors may utilize a CBPA, like E-matching, to support a pipeline to science among under-represented minority students and students from disadvantaged backgrounds. By merging the CBPA concept with a practical case example, we hope to inform science outreach practices via the lens of a tailored E-matching approach.

  10. Promoting community based approaches to social infrastructure provision in urban areas in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uduku, N O

    1994-10-01

    Inadequate social infrastructure provision--in terms of education, health care facilities, and water and sanitation--has become a critical issue in Nigeria's urban areas. The decline of the Nigerian economy and the introduction of economic structural adjustment have curtailed drastically government spending on these services. Recommended is a return to the regional community-based approaches that prevailed in earlier periods. In precolonial Nigeria, the community help ethic ensured that all societies had adequate social infrastructure. With colonization and the emergence of an urban cash economy, the government took control of service provision in urban areas; in rural areas, neglected by government, self-help efforts continued to flourish. The trend in recent decades has been toward the privatization of urban services, deregulation, and growing inequities between affluent urban dwellers and the urban and rural poor. The recommended localization strategy would involve the creation of regional bodies to provide public utilities and regulate social infrastructure provision. Responsibility for the organization and provision of these services would rest with democratically elected community associations in rural areas and municipal councils in urban areas. The needs of poor communities could be funded by cross-subsidizing utility costs among affluent communities. Such a strategy, although unlikely to be supported by government and urban elites, would revitalize the community responsibility ethos that was lost in the urbanization process.

  11. A Decrease in Suicide Rates in Japanese Rural Towns after Community-Based Intervention by the Health Promotion Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Yutaka; Kaneko, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Hisanaga

    2007-01-01

    A community-based intervention study for suicide prevention was conducted in six towns (total population 43,964) in Akita Prefecture of Japan according to a quasi-experimental design to reduce suicide rates in rural towns. Public awareness raising activities using a health promotion approach emphasizing the empowerment of residents and civic…

  12. A conceptual approach to a citizens' observatory--supporting community-based environmental governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Ying; Kobernus, Mike; Broday, David; Bartonova, Alena

    2014-12-12

    programme as a system that supports and promotes community-based environmental governance. Next, we discuss some of the challenges involved in developing this approach. This work seeks to initiate a debate and help defining what is the Citizens' Observatory, its potential role in environmental governance, and its validity as a tool for environmental research.

  13. A Community-Based Approach to Leading the Nation in Smart Energy Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-12-31

    Project Objectives The AEP Ohio gridSMART® Demonstration Project (Project) achieved the following objectives: • Built a secure, interoperable, and integrated smart grid infrastructure in northeast central Ohio that demonstrated the ability to maximize distribution system efficiency and reliability and consumer use of demand response programs that reduced energy consumption, peak demand, and fossil fuel emissions. • Actively attracted, educated, enlisted, and retained consumers in innovative business models that provided tools and information reducing consumption and peak demand. • Provided the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) information to evaluate technologies and preferred smart grid business models to be extended nationally. Project Description Ohio Power Company (the surviving company of a merger with Columbus Southern Power Company), doing business as AEP Ohio (AEP Ohio), took a community-based approach and incorporated a full suite of advanced smart grid technologies for 110,000 consumers in an area selected for its concentration and diversity of distribution infrastructure and consumers. It was organized and aligned around: • Technology, implementation, and operations • Consumer and stakeholder acceptance • Data management and benefit assessment Combined, these functional areas served as the foundation of the Project to integrate commercially available products, innovative technologies, and new consumer products and services within a secure two-way communication network between the utility and consumers. The Project included Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), Distribution Management System (DMS), Distribution Automation Circuit Reconfiguration (DACR), Volt VAR Optimization (VVO), and Consumer Programs (CP). These technologies were combined with two-way consumer communication and information sharing, demand response, dynamic pricing, and consumer products, such as plug-in electric vehicles and smart appliances. In addition, the Project

  14. Popular Research and Social Transformation: A Community-Based Approach to Critical Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Klaudia M.

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on the application of critical pedagogy at El Barrio Popular Education Program, a community-based adult-education program in New York City. Committed to the development of bilingualism and biliteracy, the program integrated Spanish-language literacy and basic education with English as a Second Language, computer and video technology, and…

  15. A Community-Based Approach for Integrating Geriatrics and Gerontology into Undergraduate Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Iveris L.; Mora, Jorge Camilo

    2012-01-01

    Medical school accreditation requirements require educational opportunities in geriatrics. Twenty-six minimum graduating competencies in geriatrics have recently been identified for medical students. The authors describe how these competencies are being integrated into a new medical curriculum through coursework and community-based experiences.…

  16. A Community-Based Approach for Integrating Geriatrics and Gerontology into Undergraduate Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Iveris L.; Mora, Jorge Camilo

    2012-01-01

    Medical school accreditation requirements require educational opportunities in geriatrics. Twenty-six minimum graduating competencies in geriatrics have recently been identified for medical students. The authors describe how these competencies are being integrated into a new medical curriculum through coursework and community-based experiences.…

  17. Developing community-based intervention strategies to save newborn lives: lessons learned from formative research in five countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    the basic quality of institutional deliveries and newborn care, and to change staff attitudes and practices. Post-natal visits should include observation of the baby, referral and counselling of the mother concerning danger signs in addition to promoting optimal care practices. The lessons learned should guide the development of interventions in other contexts, and ensure that key essential elements are not overlooked. They do not, however, mean that formative research will not be needed in other contexts, although the list of questions to address should be considerably reduced; successful intervention strategies require adaptation to make them local, context-specific if they are to be effective, and ongoing process monitoring to ensure the quality of intervention delivery, to check that it is having its intended effect, and to respond to any concerns from its implementers, recipients or the community. Finally, major gaps in evidence are highlighted. These include: establishing levels of recognition of asphyxiated babies and effectiveness of local solutions for resuscitation; clarifying the extent of the overlap between community perceptions of 'at risk' babies and low birthweight babies; developing and evaluating effective interventions to enable ANC services to deliver effective behaviour change counselling for pregnant and newborn health; evaluating effectiveness of delivering community-based newborn interventions at scale through routine services.

  18. INCLUSION OF CHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL AND MULTIPLE DISABILITIES: A COMMUNITY-BASED REHABILITATION APPROACH, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram LAKHAN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inclusion of children with intellectual disabilities (ID and multiple disabilities (MD in regular schools in India is extremely poor. One of the key objectives of community-based rehabilitation (CBR is to include ID & MD children in regular schools. This study attempted to find out association with age, ID severity, poverty, gender, parent education, population, and multiple disabilities comprising one or more disorders cerebral palsy, epilepsy and psychiatric disorders with inclusion among 259 children in Barwani Block of Barwani District in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India.Aim: Inclusion of children with intellectual and multiple disabilities in regular schools through CBR approach in India.Method: Chi square test was conducted to investigate association between inclusion and predictor variables ID categories, age, gender, poverty level, parent education, population type and multiple disabilities. Result: Inclusion was possible for borderline 2(66.4%, mild 54(68.3%, moderate 18(18.2%, and age range from 5 to 12 years 63 (43%. Children living in poor families 63 (30.6%, not poor 11(18.9%, parental edu­ca­ti­on none 52 (26%, primary level 11 (65%, midd­le school 10 (48% high school 0 (0% and bachelor degree 1(7%, female 34 (27.9%, male 40 (29.2%, tribal 40 (28.7%, non-tribal 34(28.3% and multiple disabled with cerebral palsy 1(1.2%, epilepsy 3 (4.8% and psychiatry disorders 12 (22.6% were able to receive inclusive education. Sig­ni­ficant difference in inclusion among ID ca­te­gories (c2=99.8, p < 0.001, poverty (c2=3.37, p 0.044, parental education (c2=23.7, p < 0.001, MD CP (c2=43.9, p < 0.001 and epilepsy (c2=22.4, p < 0.001 were seen.Conclusion: Inclusion through CBR is feasible and acceptable in poor rural settings in India. CBR can facilitate inclusion of children with borderline, mild and moderate categories by involving their parents, teachers and community members.

  19. An Integrated Approach to “Sustainable Community-Based Tourism”

    OpenAIRE

    Tek B. Dangi; Tazim Jamal

    2016-01-01

    Two rich knowledge domains have been evolving along parallel pathways in tourism studies: sustainable tourism (ST) and community-based tourism (CBT). Within both lie diverse definitions, principles, criteria, critical success factors and benefits sought or outcomes desired, advocated by different stakeholders ranging from quasi-governmental and non-profit organizations to public-private sector and academic interests. This poses significant challenges to those interested in theory building, re...

  20. Innovative community-based ecosystem management for dengue and Chagas disease prevention in low and middle income countries in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, Jacobo

    2015-02-01

    In 2009, the WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) and the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) launched a call for innovative community-based ecosystem management research projects for dengue and Chagas disease prevention in low and middle income countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Eight research institutions were selected. The outputs of these projects led to a better understanding of the interaction between ecological, biological, social and economic (eco-bio-social) determinants of dengue and Chagas disease in Latin America and the Caribbean. Both diseases are considered highly relevant in the regional health agendas.

  1. An Integrated Approach to “Sustainable Community-Based Tourism”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tek B. Dangi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Two rich knowledge domains have been evolving along parallel pathways in tourism studies: sustainable tourism (ST and community-based tourism (CBT. Within both lie diverse definitions, principles, criteria, critical success factors and benefits sought or outcomes desired, advocated by different stakeholders ranging from quasi-governmental and non-profit organizations to public-private sector and academic interests. This poses significant challenges to those interested in theory building, research and practice in the sustainable development and management of tourism. The paper builds on a previous article published in Sustainability by presenting an integrated framework based on a comprehensive, in-depth review and analysis of the tourism-related literature. The study reveals not just common ground and differences that might be anticipated, but also important sustainability dimensions that are lagging or require much greater attention, such as equity, justice, ethical and governance issues. A preliminary framework of “sustainable community-based tourism” (SCBT is forwarded that attempts to bridge the disparate literature on ST and CBT. Critical directions forward are offered to progress research and sustainability-oriented practices towards more effective development and management of tourism in the 21st century.

  2. Evaluating a community based participatory approach to research with disadvantaged women in the southern suburbs of Beirut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobeissi, Loulou; Nakkash, Rima; Ghantous, Zeina; Saad, Maya Abou; Yassin, Nasser

    2011-10-01

    This manuscript presents the evaluation of a 3 year community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach involving the testing of a psychosocial intervention to improve reproductive and mental health of married women in a disadvantaged community in Beirut, Lebanon. The community-based participatory approach involved a community advisory committee (CAC), a local women committee (LWC), and university researchers. The evaluation of the CBPR approach followed qualitative assessment which included: analysis of compiled field notes and minutes of meetings of CAC and LWC throughout the 3 years of the intervention, and focus group discussions and individual interviews conducted with the CAC and the LWC members following completion of the trial. The CBPR approach confirmed feasibility, cultural adequacy, as well as representation of community needs. Five main emerging themes came out of the FGD and interviews with CAC and LWC. The community and women involved viewed that the CBPR approach allowed for a good understanding of the community, they felt ownership of the study, acknowledged that participation gave the women voices, and established trust, and acknowledged the challenges faced. This manuscript describes how the community was involved, reports on their evaluation of the CBPR process, and discusses challenges to CBPR in this particular context.

  3. Financing Infrastructure: A Spectrum of Country Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Sophia Chong; Emily Poole

    2013-01-01

    Over recent decades, there has been a shift away from public infrastructure financing towards private infrastructure financing, particularly in advanced economies. In this article, infrastructure financing in four countries – China, India, Australia and the United Kingdom – is examined to illustrate the different approaches taken by governments to finance infrastructure and encourage private financing. In all four countries, public financing of infrastructure remains significant, ranging from...

  4. Seeing beyond fertiliser trees : a case study of a community based participatory approach to agroforestry research and development in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiptot, E.

    2007-01-01

    Key words: village committee approach, agroforestry, improved tree fallows, biomass transfer, realist evaluation, soil fertility, adoption, dissemination.   The thesis explores and describes various processes that take place in the implementation of a community based participatory initiative known a

  5. Social marketing: approach to cultural and contextual relevance in a community-based physical activity intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Colleen; Vega-López, Sonia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean

    2014-03-01

    We report the social marketing strategies used for the design, recruitment and retention of participants in a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health). The study example used to illustrate the use of social marketing is a 48-week prescribed walking program, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health), which tests a social support intervention to explore the effectiveness of a culturally specific program using 'bouts' of PA to effect the changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary Hispanic women. Using the guidelines from the National Benchmark Criteria, we developed intervention, recruitment and retention strategies that reflect efforts to draw on community values, traditions and customs in intervention design, through partnership with community members. Most of the women enrolled in Madres para la Salud were born in Mexico, largely never or unemployed and resided among the highest crime neighborhoods with poor access to resources. We developed recruitment and retention strategies that characterized social marketing strategies that employed a culturally relevant, consumer driven and problem-specific design. Cost and benefit of program participation, consumer-derived motivation and segmentation strategies considered the development transition of the young Latinas as well as cultural and neighborhood barriers that impacted retention are described.

  6. Social marketing: approach to cultural and contextual relevance in a community-based physical activity intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Colleen; Vega-López, Sonia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean

    2014-01-01

    We report the social marketing strategies used for the design, recruitment and retention of participants in a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health). The study example used to illustrate the use of social marketing is a 48-week prescribed walking program, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health), which tests a social support intervention to explore the effectiveness of a culturally specific program using ‘bouts’ of PA to effect the changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary Hispanic women. Using the guidelines from the National Benchmark Criteria, we developed intervention, recruitment and retention strategies that reflect efforts to draw on community values, traditions and customs in intervention design, through partnership with community members. Most of the women enrolled in Madres para la Salud were born in Mexico, largely never or unemployed and resided among the highest crime neighborhoods with poor access to resources. We developed recruitment and retention strategies that characterized social marketing strategies that employed a culturally relevant, consumer driven and problem-specific design. Cost and benefit of program participation, consumer-derived motivation and segmentation strategies considered the development transition of the young Latinas as well as cultural and neighborhood barriers that impacted retention are described. PMID:23002252

  7. Community-based participatory research for the study of air pollution: a review of motivations, approaches, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commodore, Adwoa; Wilson, Sacoby; Muhammad, Omar; Svendsen, Erik; Pearce, John

    2017-08-01

    Neighborhood level air pollution represents a long-standing issue for many communities that, until recently, has been difficult to address due to the cost of equipment and lack of related expertise. Changes in available technology and subsequent increases in community-based participatory research (CBPR) have drastically improved the ability to address this issue. However, much still needs to be learned as these types of studies are expected to increase in the future. To assist, we review the literature in an effort to improve understanding of the motivations, approaches, and outcomes of air monitoring studies that incorporate CBPR and citizen science (CS) principles. We found that the primary motivations for conducting community-based air monitoring were concerns for air pollution health risks, residing near potential pollution sources, urban sprawl, living in "unmonitored" areas, and a general quest for improved air quality knowledge. Studies were mainly conducted using community led partnerships. Fixed site monitoring was primarily used, while mobile, personal, school-based, and occupational sampling approaches were less frequent. Low-cost sensors can enable thorough neighborhood level characterization; however, keeping the community involved at every step, understanding the limitations and benefits of this type of monitoring, recognizing potential areas of debate, and addressing study challenges are vital for achieving harmony between expected and observed study outcomes. Future directions include assessing currently unregulated pollutants, establishing long-term neighborhood monitoring sites, performing saturation studies, evaluating interventions, and creating CS databases.

  8. Community-Based Recreational Football: A Novel Approach to Promote Physical Activity and Quality of Life in Prostate Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ditte Marie Bruun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As the number of cancer survivors continues to increase, there is an increasing focus on management of the long-term consequences of cancer including health promotion and prevention of co-morbidity. Prostate cancer is the most frequent type of cancer type in men and causes increased risk of heart disease, diabetes and osteoporosis. Epidemiological evidence points to a positive effect of regular physical activity on all-cause and prostate cancer mortality and current clinical evidence supports the use of exercise in cancer rehabilitation. However, the external validity of existing exercise studies is limited and the majority of prostate cancer survivors remain sedentary. Hence, novel approaches to evaluate and promote physical activity are warranted. This paper presents the rationale behind the delivery and evaluation of community-based recreational football offered in existing football clubs under the Danish Football Association to promote quality of life and physical activity adherence in prostate cancer survivors. The RE-AIM framework will be applied to evaluate the impact of the intervention including outcomes both at the individual and organizational level. By introducing community-based sport environments, the study offers a novel approach in the strive towards sustained physical activity adherence and accessibility in prostate cancer survivors.

  9. Community-Based Recreational Football: A Novel Approach to Promote Physical Activity and Quality of Life in Prostate Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruun, Ditte Marie; Bjerre, Eik; Krustrup, Peter; Brasso, Klaus; Johansen, Christoffer; Rørth, Mikael; Midtgaard, Julie

    2014-01-01

    As the number of cancer survivors continues to increase, there is an increasing focus on management of the long-term consequences of cancer including health promotion and prevention of co-morbidity. Prostate cancer is the most frequent type of cancer type in men and causes increased risk of heart disease, diabetes and osteoporosis. Epidemiological evidence points to a positive effect of regular physical activity on all-cause and prostate cancer mortality and current clinical evidence supports the use of exercise in cancer rehabilitation. However, the external validity of existing exercise studies is limited and the majority of prostate cancer survivors remain sedentary. Hence, novel approaches to evaluate and promote physical activity are warranted. This paper presents the rationale behind the delivery and evaluation of community-based recreational football offered in existing football clubs under the Danish Football Association to promote quality of life and physical activity adherence in prostate cancer survivors. The RE-AIM framework will be applied to evaluate the impact of the intervention including outcomes both at the individual and organizational level. By introducing community-based sport environments, the study offers a novel approach in the strive towards sustained physical activity adherence and accessibility in prostate cancer survivors. PMID:24865394

  10. Present situation of community-based hypertension management in our country%我国高血压病的社区管理现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静

    2012-01-01

    高血压病是目前我国社区卫生服务重点管理的慢性疾病.社区管理被证明是有效控制高血压的最重要的途径.本文综述我国高血压病的流行状况、特点和危险因素,阐明高血压病社区管理的重要性与必要性;重点总结目前我国高血压病社区管理的主要方法.高血压病社区综合防治主要有三种管理模式,即协议管理、自我管理和家庭管理.高血压病的防治从现代预防医学的角度看就是三级预防,在社区管理中健康教育意义更突出.以社区全科医学团队合作开展的高血压规范化管理已显成效,是高血压社区管理的主要发展方向.本文也指出了我国高血压社区管理存在的问题与改进办法.%Hypertension is a common and frequently-occurring disease in our country and even in the world. It is a focus of the management of chronic diseases in China's community health service station, and community-based management of hypertension has been proven to be the most important and effective way. This paper reviews the prevalence, characteristics and risk factors of the hypertension, points out the importance and necessity of community-based management of hypertension, and sums up main methods of the community-based management of hypertension in our country. In hypertension community comprehensive prevention and control, there are three management modes: contractual management, self-management and household management. From the point of view of modem preventive medicine, the prevention and control of hypertension is the three-grade prevention. In the community management of hypertension, health education has more significance than other methods. Standardized management of hypertension carried out by general medical team has already produced results and is the main direction of community management of hypertension. Also, this paper points out the problems existing in the community management of hypertension and puts

  11. Integrating an ecological approach into an Aboriginal community-based chronic disease prevention program: a longitudinal process evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maypilama Elaine

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health promotes an ecological approach to chronic disease prevention, however, little research has been conducted to assess the integration of an ecological approach in community-based prevention programs. This study sought to contribute to the evidence base by assessing the extent to which an ecological approach was integrated into an Aboriginal community-based cardiovascular disease (CVD and type 2 diabetes prevention program, across three-intervention years. Methods Activity implementation forms were completed by interview with implementers and participant observation across three intervention years. A standardised ecological coding procedure was applied to assess participant recruitment settings, intervention targets, intervention strategy types, extent of ecologicalness and organisational partnering. Inter-rater reliability for two coders was assessed at Kappa = 0.76 (p Results 215 activities were implemented across three intervention years by the health program (HP with some activities implemented in multiple years. Participants were recruited most frequently through organisational settings in years 1 and 2, and organisational and community settings in year 3. The most commonly utilised intervention targets were the individual (IND as a direct target, and interpersonal (INT and organisational (ORG environments as indirect targets; policy (POL, and community (COM were targeted least. Direct (HP→ IND and indirect intervention strategies (i.e., HP→ INT→ IND, HP→ POL → IND were used most often; networking strategies, which link at least two targets (i.e., HP→[ORG-ORG]→IND, were used the least. The program did not become more ecological over time. Conclusions The quantity of activities with IND, INT and ORG targets and the proportion of participants recruited through informal cultural networking demonstrate community commitment to prevention. Integration of an ecological approach would have been

  12. A Community-Based Multilevel Approach to Drug Treatment and Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell Orto, Arthur E.

    The failure of incarcerative approaches in the alleviation of drug abuse combined with the advent of more liberal public opinion toward drugs has resulted in the development of various rehabilitation treatment methods. The complexity and heterogeneity of the problem, however, indicate the desirability of a multidimensional approach which…

  13. Needs assessment for adapting TB directly observed treatment intervention programme in Limpopo Province, South Africa: A community-based participatory research approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabu T. Mabunda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Limpopo Province is one of the hardest hit by tuberculosis and human immune virus infections in the country. The province has been implementing directly observed treatment strategy since 1996. However, the cure rate was 64% in 2015 and remains far from the set target by the World Health Organization of 85%. Poor health-care seeking and adherence behaviours were identified as major risk behaviours.Aim: To apply a community-based participatory research approach in identifying barriers and facilitators to health-care seeking and adherence to treatment, and to determine strategies and messages in order to inform the design of an adapted intervention programme.Setting: This study was conducted in three districts in the Limpopo Province, Capricorn, Mopani and Sekhukhune districts.Methods: Community participatory research approach was applied. Purposive sampling was used to sample participants. Focus group discussions were used to collect data. Participatory analysis was used comparing findings within and across all the participants.Results: A total of 161 participated in the study. Participants included coordinators, professional nurses, supporters and patients. Major modifiable behavioural-related barriers were lack of knowledge about tuberculosis, misinformation and misperceptions cultural beliefs, stigma and refusal of treatment support. Environment-related barriers were attitudes of health workers, lack of support by family and community, lack of food and use of alcohol and drugs. Strategies and messages included persuasive and motivational messages to promote healthy behaviour.Conclusion: Joint programmatic collaboration between the community and academic researchers is really needed for interventions to address the needs of the community.Keywords: Health seeking, Adherence, Community based participatory research, Tuberculosis

  14. Needs assessment for adapting TB directly observed treatment intervention programme in Limpopo Province, South Africa: A community-based participatory research approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabu T. Mabunda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Limpopo Province is one of the hardest hit by tuberculosis and human immune virus infections in the country. The province has been implementing directly observed treatment strategy since 1996. However, the cure rate was 64% in 2015 and remains far from the set target by the World Health Organization of 85%. Poor health-care seeking and adherence behaviours were identified as major risk behaviours.Aim: To apply a community-based participatory research approach in identifying barriers and facilitators to health-care seeking and adherence to treatment, and to determine strategies and messages in order to inform the design of an adapted intervention programme.Setting: This study was conducted in three districts in the Limpopo Province, Capricorn, Mopani and Sekhukhune districts.Methods: Community participatory research approach was applied. Purposive sampling was used to sample participants. Focus group discussions were used to collect data. Participatory analysis was used comparing findings within and across all the participants.Results: A total of 161 participated in the study. Participants included coordinators, professional nurses, supporters and patients. Major modifiable behavioural-related barriers were lack of knowledge about tuberculosis, misinformation and misperceptions cultural beliefs, stigma and refusal of treatment support. Environment-related barriers were attitudes of health workers, lack of support by family and community, lack of food and use of alcohol and drugs. Strategies and messages included persuasive and motivational messages to promote healthy behaviour.Conclusion: Joint programmatic collaboration between the community and academic researchers is really needed for interventions to address the needs of the community.Keywords: Health seeking, Adherence, Community based participatory research, Tuberculosis

  15. Four Ways of Knowing: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Teaching Community-based Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Harrison

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Design education, especially in an undergraduate course of study, seeks to prepare students for professions and for citizenship in a world they hardly know. The studio typically provides only a surrogate experience in addressing formal and spatial problems, and is limited by time, by its geographic space, and by a dialogue that is more often than not, self-referential. It very rarely engages systemic questions of public policy, or the specific challenges of implementing at full scale ideas that are conceived through representational means. The constrained intellectual context is most poignantly seen in the urban design studios where problems are situated in the real world, and where issues outside the purview of design are found embedded in a place. Form-focused studio exercises that are necessarily a part of beginning architecture education are inadequate for exploring the indeterminacy of urban space and the complexity of human environments. When students enter an urban design studio, especially when they undertake community-based projects, they must take up the mantle of citizenship and engage in an enterprise that is fundamentally relational and grounded in experience. They need more information and more ways of knowing the world than traditionally the design disciplines can offer. This paper presents the outcomes of an experimental neighborhood-based teaching project undertaken as a collaboration among classes in architecture, landscape architecture, urban geography and the fine arts at Temple University. Although initiated through the architecture faculty’s desire to enrich its own undergraduate urban design studio, all the collaborators shared our concern about the narrowing effects of disciplinary bracketing on student learning, especially when the goal was to address real world situations. Each discipline brought to the project its particular disciplinary culture -- its language, methodology and areas of concern -- and a shared

  16. Digital animation as a method to disseminate research findings to the community using a community-based participatory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Nicole A; Jacoby, Sara F; Williams, Thalia; Guerra, Terry; Thomas, Nicole A; Richmond, Therese S

    2013-03-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has garnered increasing interest over the previous two decades as researchers have tackled increasingly complex health problems. In academia, professional presentations and articles are major ways that research is disseminated. However, dissemination of research findings to the people and communities who participated in the research is many times forgotten. In addition, little scholarly literature is focused on creative dissemination of research findings to the community using CBPR methods. We seek to fill this gap in the literature by providing an exemplar of research dissemination and partnership strategies that were used to complete this project. In this paper, we present a novel approach to the dissemination of research findings to our targeted communities through digital animation. We also provide the foundational thinking and specific steps that were taken to select this specific dissemination product development and distribution strategy.

  17. [A new community-based education approach aiming at the return to work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieker-Agranier, Annick; Golay, Alain

    2008-04-02

    Musculoskeletal disorders are the most frequent health problem (24%) linked to work in Europe and in Switzerland. PMSE, a health prevention service dealing with health at work, has developed a new patient education approach. The objectives of this approach are to anticipate chronic disorders, prevent musculoskeletal disorders, and make workers aware of risk factors. The goals and strategies of this intervention as well as both individual and group workshops are described in this article. The results are convincing since, over a period of 3 years, a 58% decrease of absenteeism due to musculoskeletal disorders as well as a 93% reduction of disability have been observed. In conclusion, these very positive results emanate from this patient education approach, a close collaboration with employees and direction and, also, from the quality of the whole health network.

  18. A Critical Approach to Social Emotional Learning Instruction through Community-Based Service Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay-Jackson, Cassandra

    2014-01-01

    The traditional teaching of reading, writing, and arithmetic alone will not fully prepare students to lead with integrity, govern fairly, analyze problems, and work collectively with people different from themselves. Social emotional learning (SEL) has been described as one of the missing links in academic education, but a restrictive approach to…

  19. The GeoCitizen-approach: community-based spatial planning - an Ecuadorian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzmanstorfer, Karl; Resl, Richard; Eitzinger, Anton; Izurieta, Xiomara

    2014-05-27

    Over the last years, geospatial web platforms, social media, and volunteered geographic information (VGI) have opened a window of opportunity for traditional Public Participatory GIS (PPGIS) to usher in a new era. Taking advantage of these technological achievements, this paper presents a new approach for a citizen-orientated framework of spatial planning that aims at integrating participatory community work into existing decision-making structures. One major cornerstone of the presented approach is the application of a social geoweb platform (the GeoCitizen platform) that combines geo-web technologies and social media in one single tool allowing citizens to collaboratively report observations, discuss ideas, solve, and monitor problems in their living environment at a local level. This paper gives an account of an ongoing participatory land-zoning process in the Capital District of Quito, Ecuador, where the GeoCitizen platform is applied in a long-term study.

  20. Innovation in Developing Countries - a New Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Bubel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently the enterprises’ development and competitive positions are determined by innovation. The importance of innovation in corporate management is a result of changes in corporate environment, as well as of preferences and changing needs of customers. These changes are accompanied by a new approach to innovation: they are no longer limited to developed countries, but also emerge in developing countries. Moreover, a reverse in the direction of innovations occurs, which means that developing countries are often not only the recipients of innovative products, but also creators and „exporters”. Given the current trends, the paper begins with the concept of innovation and deals with the subject of innovation in developing countries. The conclusion of the paper presents examples of innovative solutions originated from Poland. Although Poland ranks rather „tail end” in innovation rankings, but also deliver products that have a good chance to conquer the global market. By highlighting the importance of this reverse innovative trend, this article provides the conceptual grounds for further systematic research.

  1. A systematic approach towards the development of a set of quality indicators for public reporting in community-based maternity care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voerman, G.E.; Calsbeek, H.; Maassen, I.T.H.M.; Wiegers, T.A.; Braspenning, J.C.C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to demonstrate the process and outcome of a systematic approach towards the development of a set of quality indicators for public reporting on quality of community-based maternity care. DESIGN AND SETTING: a four-stepped approach was adopted. Firstly, we defined key elements of

  2. Impact of a community-based lifestyle intervention program on blood pressure and salt intake of normotensive adult population in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Khosravi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on the effect of lifestyle intervention programs on salt intake and blood pressure in developing countries are scarce. This study aimed to assess the impact of a healthy lifestyle community-based trial on salt intake and blood pressure among a representative sample of normotensive Iranian adults. Materials and Methods: We compared the data for salt intake, urinary sodium levels and blood pressure from three cross-sectional surveys in time points of 1999, 2001-2002 (beginning of the community interventions, and 2007 (after the community trial for normotensive adult population of Isfahan, Iran in the framework of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. Using multi-stage cluster sampling method, one of the family members at each household was randomly selected with Iranian adult population as a target. Dietary salt intake was estimated based on 24 hour urinary sodium levels. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured according to standard methods. Results: Dietary sodium intake and urinary sodium levels as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly decreased during the 9-year study period. Unlike systolic and diastolic blood pressures that had a consistent decrement between 1999 and 2007, dietary sodium intake and urinary sodium levels were slightly raised from 1999 to 2000-2001 and then reduced between 2001-2 and 2007 evaluations. The same findings were reached when data were analyzed separately by gender or weight status. Conclusions: A lifestyle community trial was effective in controlling the escalating trend of blood pressure and salt intake in Iranian population. It can be considered as a model to be adopted in other developing countries.

  3. Impact of a community-based lifestyle intervention program on blood pressure and salt intake of normotensive adult population in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Alireza; Kelishadi, Roya; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Boshtam, Maryam; Nouri, Fatemeh; Zarfeshani, Sonia; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2012-03-01

    Data on the effect of lifestyle intervention programs on salt intake and blood pressure in developing countries are scarce. This study aimed to assess the impact of a healthy lifestyle community-based trial on salt intake and blood pressure among a representative sample of normotensive Iranian adults. We compared the data for salt intake, urinary sodium levels and blood pressure from three cross-sectional surveys in time points of 1999, 2001-2002 (beginning of the community interventions), and 2007 (after the community trial) for normotensive adult population of Isfahan, Iran in the framework of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. Using multi-stage cluster sampling method, one of the family members at each household was randomly selected with Iranian adult population as a target. Dietary salt intake was estimated based on 24 hour urinary sodium levels. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured according to standard methods. Dietary sodium intake and urinary sodium levels as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly decreased during the 9-year study period. Unlike systolic and diastolic blood pressures that had a consistent decrement between 1999 and 2007, dietary sodium intake and urinary sodium levels were slightly raised from 1999 to 2000-2001 and then reduced between 2001-2 and 2007 evaluations. The same findings were reached when data were analyzed separately by gender or weight status. A lifestyle community trial was effective in controlling the escalating trend of blood pressure and salt intake in Iranian population. It can be considered as a model to be adopted in other developing countries.

  4. Effects of a Community-Based Healthy Lifestyle Intervention Program (Co-HELP) among Adults with Prediabetes in a Developing Country: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming Moy, Foong; Awalludin, Intan Attikah Nur; Mohd Ali, Zainudin

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes among Malaysian adults has increased by more than two folds over the past two decades. Strategies to collaborate with the existing community partners may become a promising channel for wide-scale dissemination of diabetes prevention in the country. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of community-based lifestyle interventions delivered to adults with prediabetes and their health-related quality of life as compared to the usual care group. Methods This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in two sub-urban communities in Seremban, Malaysia. A total of 268 participants with prediabetes aged between 18 to 65 years old were assigned to either the community-based lifestyle intervention (Co-HELP) (n = 122) or the usual care (n = 146) groups. The Co-HELP program was delivered in partnership with the existing community volunteers to incorporate diet, physical activity, and behaviour modification strategies. Participants in the Co-HELP group received twelve group-based sessions and two individual counselling to reinforce behavioural change. Participants in the usual care group received standard health education from primary health providers in the clinic setting. Primary outcomes were fasting blood glucose, 2-hour plasma glucose, and HbA1C. Secondary outcomes included weight, BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, physical activity, diet, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Results An intention-to-treat analysis of between-groups at 12-month (mean difference, 95% CI) revealed that the Co-HELP participants’ mean fasting plasma glucose reduced by -0.40 mmol/l (-0.51 to -0.28, pHRQOL for both physical component (PCS) by 6.51 points (5.21 to 7.80, p600 METS/min/wk (60.7% vs 32.2%, pHRQOL. Collaboration with existing community partners demonstrated a promising channel for the wide-scale dissemination of

  5. A Stepwise, Participatory Approach to Design and Implement Community Based Adaptation to Drought in the Peruvian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Lasage

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The livelihoods of people in the Andes are expected to be affected by climate change due to their dependence on glacier water. The observed decrease in glacier volume over the last few decades is likely to accelerate during the current century, which will affect water availability in the region. This paper presents an approach for participatory development of community-based adaptation measures to cope with the projected impacts of climate change. It combines in an innovative manner participatory design with physical measurements, modeling and a vulnerability analysis. Vulnerability to drought is made operational for households in a catchment of the Ocoña River basin in Peru. On the basis of a household survey (n = 94 we explore how a vulnerability index (risk divided by response efficacy can be used to assess the distribution of vulnerability over households, and how socio-economic factors determine this vulnerability. Water entitlement, area of irrigated land, income and education are all significantly correlated with vulnerability to drought. The research showed that the main source of spring water is local rainwater, and that water use efficiency is low. The selected adaptation measures aimed to increase water availability close to farmland, and increase water use efficiency of farmers and households.

  6. Eco-bio-social research on community-based approaches for Chagas disease vector control in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürtler, Ricardo E; Yadon, Zaida E

    2015-02-01

    This article provides an overview of three research projects which designed and implemented innovative interventions for Chagas disease vector control in Bolivia, Guatemala and Mexico. The research initiative was based on sound principles of community-based ecosystem management (ecohealth), integrated vector management, and interdisciplinary analysis. The initial situational analysis achieved a better understanding of ecological, biological and social determinants of domestic infestation. The key factors identified included: housing quality; type of peridomestic habitats; presence and abundance of domestic dogs, chickens and synanthropic rodents; proximity to public lights; location in the periphery of the village. In Bolivia, plastering of mud walls with appropriate local materials and regular cleaning of beds and of clothes next to the walls, substantially decreased domestic infestation and abundance of the insect vector Triatoma infestans. The Guatemalan project revealed close links between house infestation by rodents and Triatoma dimidiata, and vector infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. A novel community-operated rodent control program significantly reduced rodent infestation and bug infection. In Mexico, large-scale implementation of window screens translated into promising reductions in domestic infestation. A multi-pronged approach including community mobilisation and empowerment, intersectoral cooperation and adhesion to integrated vector management principles may be the key to sustainable vector and disease control in the affected regions.

  7. A systems approach to modeling Community-Based Environmental Monitoring: a case of participatory water quality monitoring in rural Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Ana; Páez, Rosaura; Carmona, Estela; Rivas, Hilda

    2013-12-01

    Community-Based Environmental Monitoring (CBM) is a social practice that makes a valuable contribution to environmental management and construction of active societies for sustainable future. However, its documentation and analysis show deficiencies that hinder contrast and comparison of processes and effects. Based on systems approach, this article presents a model of CBM to orient assessment of programs, with heuristic or practical goals. In a focal level, the model comprises three components, the social subject, the object of monitoring, and the means of action, and five processes, data management, social learning, assimilation/decision making, direct action, and linking. Emergent properties were also identified in the focal and suprafocal levels considering community self-organization, response capacity, and autonomy for environmental management. The model was applied to the assessment of a CBM program of water quality implemented in rural areas in Mexico. Attributes and variables (indicators) for components, processes, and emergent properties were selected to measure changes that emerged since the program implementation. The assessment of the first 3 years (2010-2012) detected changes that indicated movement towards the expected results, but it revealed also the need to adjust the intervention strategy and procedures. Components and processes of the model reflected relevant aspects of the CBM in real world. The component called means of action as a key element to transit "from the data to the action." The CBM model offered a conceptual framework with advantages to understand CBM as a socioecological event and to strengthen its implementation under different conditions and contexts.

  8. Eco-bio-social research on community-based approaches for Chagas disease vector control in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürtler, Ricardo E.; Yadon, Zaida E.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of three research projects which designed and implemented innovative interventions for Chagas disease vector control in Bolivia, Guatemala and Mexico. The research initiative was based on sound principles of community-based ecosystem management (ecohealth), integrated vector management, and interdisciplinary analysis. The initial situational analysis achieved a better understanding of ecological, biological and social determinants of domestic infestation. The key factors identified included: housing quality; type of peridomestic habitats; presence and abundance of domestic dogs, chickens and synanthropic rodents; proximity to public lights; location in the periphery of the village. In Bolivia, plastering of mud walls with appropriate local materials and regular cleaning of beds and of clothes next to the walls, substantially decreased domestic infestation and abundance of the insect vector Triatoma infestans. The Guatemalan project revealed close links between house infestation by rodents and Triatoma dimidiata, and vector infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. A novel community-operated rodent control program significantly reduced rodent infestation and bug infection. In Mexico, large-scale implementation of window screens translated into promising reductions in domestic infestation. A multi-pronged approach including community mobilisation and empowerment, intersectoral cooperation and adhesion to integrated vector management principles may be the key to sustainable vector and disease control in the affected regions. PMID:25604759

  9. Benevolent Paradox: Integrating Community-Based Empowerment and Transdisciplinary Research Approaches into Traditional Frameworks to Increase Funding and Long-Term Sustainability of Chicano-Community Research Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, Adela

    2014-01-01

    Niños Sanos, Familia Sana (NSFS) is a 5-year multi-intervention study aimed at preventing childhood obesity among Mexican-origin children in rural California. Using a transdisciplinary approach and community-based participatory research (CBPR) methodology, NSFS's development included a diversely trained team working in collaboration with community…

  10. Benevolent Paradox: Integrating Community-Based Empowerment and Transdisciplinary Research Approaches into Traditional Frameworks to Increase Funding and Long-Term Sustainability of Chicano-Community Research Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, Adela

    2014-01-01

    Niños Sanos, Familia Sana (NSFS) is a 5-year multi-intervention study aimed at preventing childhood obesity among Mexican-origin children in rural California. Using a transdisciplinary approach and community-based participatory research (CBPR) methodology, NSFS's development included a diversely trained team working in collaboration with community…

  11. Promoting Community-based Extension Agents as an Alternative Approach to Formal Agricultural Extension Service Delivery in Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Z. Bonye

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The CBEA concept is an alternative to community-based extension intervention aimed at addressing the inadequacy of formal extension services provision to rural poor farmers of the Northern Regions of Ghana. The study sought to find out the extent to which the Community-Based Extension Agent has improved access to extension services to rural farmers. The study used qualitative and quantitative methods such as, Focus Group Discussions, Key Informants, In-depth interviews, Household and Institutional Questionnaires to collect and analyses data. The findings are that: there are vibrant Community Based Extension Agents established providing extension services in crop, livestock and environmental issues in the study District; farmers groups are linked to external agents and other stakeholders for access to credit facilities; the CBEAs were found to be the main link between the community and external agents; the most dominant extension services delivery carried out by the CBEAs in the entire study district were in crop production, livestock production and bushfire management; there are well established criteria for selecting Community Based Extension Agents, and community Based Extension Agents were least motivated. The study recommends among others that: motivation packages such as bicycles would facilitate the movement CBEAs to reach out to majority of the farmers. There is also the need to link CBEAs to relevant institutions/organizations for support and establishment of mechanisms to generate funds to support activities. Finally, stakeholders and organization need to intensify community sensitization and awareness creation on activities of CBEAs.

  12. Promoting Community-Based Extension Agents as an Alternative Approach to Formal Agricultural Extension Service Delivery in Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Z. Bonye

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The CBEA concept is an alternative to community-based extension intervention aimed at addressing the inadequacy of formal extension services provision to rural poor farmers of the Northern Regions of Ghana. The study sought to find out the extent to which the Community-Based Extension Agent has improved access to extension services to rural farmers. The study used qualitative and quantitative methods such as, Focus Group Discussions, Key Informants, In-depth interviews, Household and Institutional Questionnaires to collect and analyses data. The findings are that: there are vibrant Community Based Extension Agents established providing extension services in crop, livestock and environmental issues in the study District; farmers groups are linked to external agents and other stakeholders for access to credit facilities; the CBEAs were found to be the main link between the community and external agents; the most dominant extension services delivery carried out by the CBEAs in the entire study district were in crop production, livestock production and bushfire management; there are well established criteria for selecting Community Based Extension Agents, and community Based Extension Agents were least motivated. The study recommends among others that: motivation packages such as bicycles would facilitate the movement CBEAs to reach out to majority of the farmers. There is also the need to link CBEAs to relevant institutions/organizations for support and establishment of mechanisms to generate funds to support activities. Finally, stakeholders and organization need to intensify community sensitization and awareness creation on activities of CBEAs.

  13. Factors that affect the uptake of community-based health insurance in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Esther F; Ataguba, John E; Uthman, Olalekan A; Okwundu, Charles I; Lamont, Kim T; Wiysonge, Charles S

    2014-02-14

    Many people residing in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) are regularly exposed to catastrophic healthcare expenditure. It is therefore pertinent that LMICs should finance their health systems in ways that ensure that their citizens can use needed healthcare services and are protected from potential impoverishment arising from having to pay for services. Ways of financing health systems include government funding, health insurance schemes and out-of-pocket payment. A health insurance scheme refers to pooling of prepaid funds in a way that allows for risks to be shared. The health insurance scheme particularly suitable for the rural poor and the informal sector in LMICs is community-based health insurance (CBHI), that is, insurance schemes operated by organisations other than governments or private for-profit companies. We plan to search for and summarise currently available evidence on factors associated with the uptake of CBHI, as we are not aware of previous systematic reviews that have looked at this important topic. This is a protocol for a systematic review of the literature. We will include both quantitative and qualitative studies in this review. Eligible quantitative studies include intervention and observational studies. Qualitative studies to be included are focus group discussions, direct observations, interviews, case studies and ethnography. We will search EMBASE, PubMed, Scopus, ERIC, PsycInfo, Africa-Wide Information, Academic Search Premier, Business Source Premier, WHOLIS, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library for eligible studies available by 31 October 2013, regardless of publication status or language of publication. We will also check reference lists of included studies and proceedings of relevant conferences and contact researchers for eligible studies. Two authors will independently screen the search output, select studies and extract data, resolving discrepancies by consensus and discussion. Qualitative data will be extracted using

  14. Evaluation of Community Health Education Workshops among Chinese Older Adults in Chicago: A Community-Based Participatory Research Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xinqi; Li, Yawen; Chen, Ruijia; Chang, E-Shien; Simon, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Health education is one of the proven ways to improve knowledge and change health attitudes and behaviors. This study is intended to assess the effectiveness of five health workshops in a Chinese community, focusing on depression, elder abuse, nutrition, breast cancer and stroke. Methods: A community-based participatory research…

  15. Radioactive waste management approaches for developed countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; Anthony Hechanova; Catherine Riddle

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear power has demonstrated over the last 30 years its capacity to produce base-load electricity at a low, predictable and stable cost due to the very low economic dependence on the price of uranium. However the management of used nuclear fuel remains the “Achilles’ Heel” of this energy source since the storage of used nuclear fuel is increasing as evidenced by the following number with 2,000 tons of UNF produced each year by the 104 US nuclear reactor units which equates to a total of 62,000 spent fuel assemblies stored in dry cask and 88,000 stored in pools. Two options adopted by several countries will be presented. The first one adopted by Europe, Japan and Russia consists of recycling the used nuclear fuel after irradiation in a nuclear reactor. Ninety six percent of uranium and plutonium contained in the spent fuel could be reused to produce electricity and are worth recycling. The separation of uranium and plutonium from the wastes is realized through the industrial PUREX process so that they can be recycled for re-use in a nuclear reactor as a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. The second option undertaken by Finland, Sweden and the United States implies the direct disposal of used nuclear fuel into a geologic formation. One has to remind that only 30% of the worldwide used nuclear fuel are currently recycled, the larger part being stored (70% in pool) waiting for scientific or political decisions. A third option is emerging with a closed fuel cycle which will improve the global sustainability of nuclear energy. This option will not only decrease the volume amount of nuclear waste but also the long-term radiotoxicity of the final waste, as well as improving the long-term safety and the heat-loading of the final repository. At the present time, numerous countries are focusing on the R&D recycling activities of the ultimate waste composed of fission products and minor actinides (americium and curium). Several new chemical extraction processes, such as TRUSPEAK

  16. Radioactive waste management approaches for developed countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; Anthony Hechanova; Catherine Riddle

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear power has demonstrated over the last 30 years its capacity to produce base-load electricity at a low, predictable and stable cost due to the very low economic dependence on the price of uranium. However the management of used nuclear fuel remains the “Achilles’ Heel” of this energy source since the storage of used nuclear fuel is increasing as evidenced by the following number with 2,000 tons of UNF produced each year by the 104 US nuclear reactor units which equates to a total of 62,000 spent fuel assemblies stored in dry cask and 88,000 stored in pools. Two options adopted by several countries will be presented. The first one adopted by Europe, Japan and Russia consists of recycling the used nuclear fuel after irradiation in a nuclear reactor. Ninety six percent of uranium and plutonium contained in the spent fuel could be reused to produce electricity and are worth recycling. The separation of uranium and plutonium from the wastes is realized through the industrial PUREX process so that they can be recycled for re-use in a nuclear reactor as a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. The second option undertaken by Finland, Sweden and the United States implies the direct disposal of used nuclear fuel into a geologic formation. One has to remind that only 30% of the worldwide used nuclear fuel are currently recycled, the larger part being stored (70% in pool) waiting for scientific or political decisions. A third option is emerging with a closed fuel cycle which will improve the global sustainability of nuclear energy. This option will not only decrease the volume amount of nuclear waste but also the long-term radiotoxicity of the final waste, as well as improving the long-term safety and the heat-loading of the final repository. At the present time, numerous countries are focusing on the R&D recycling activities of the ultimate waste composed of fission products and minor actinides (americium and curium). Several new chemical extraction processes, such as TRUSPEAK

  17. Developing measures of community-relevant outcomes for violence prevention programs: a community-based participatory research approach to measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausman, Alice J; Baker, Courtney N; Komaroff, Eugene; Thomas, Nicole; Guerra, Terry; Hohl, Bernadette C; Leff, Stephen S

    2013-12-01

    Community-Based Participatory Research is a research paradigm that encourages community participation in designing and implementing evaluation research, though the actual outcome measures usually reflect the "external" academic researchers' view of program effect and the policy-makers' needs for decision-making. This paper describes a replicable process by which existing standardized psychometric scales commonly used in youth-related intervention programs were modified to measure indicators of program success defined by community partners. This study utilizes a secondary analysis of data gathered in the context of a community-based youth violence prevention program. Data were retooled into new measures developed using items from the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire, the Hare Area Specific Self-Esteem Scale, and the Youth Asset Survey. These measures evaluated two community-defined outcome indicators, "More Parental Involvement" and "Showing Kids Love." Results showed that existing scale items can be re-organized to create measures of community-defined outcomes that are psychometrically reliable and valid. Results also show that the community definitions of parent or parenting caregivers exemplified by the two indicators are similar to how these constructs have been defined in previous research, but they are not synonymous. There are nuanced differences that are important and worthy of better understanding, in part through better measurement.

  18. A community-based approach to non-communicable chronic disease management within a context of advancing universal health coverage in China: progress and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Nanzi; Long, Qian; Tang, Xiaojun; Tang, Shenglan

    2014-01-01

    Paralleled with the rapid socio-economic development and demographic transition, an epidemic of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs) has emerged in China over the past three decades, resulting in increased disease and economic burdens. Over the past decade, with a political commitment of implementing universal health coverage, China has strengthened its primary healthcare system and increased investment in public health interventions. A community-based approach to address NCDs has been acknowledged and recognized as one of the most cost-effective solutions. Community-based strategies include: financial and health administrative support; social mobilization; community health education and promotion; and the use of community health centers in NCD detection, diagnosis, treatment, and patient management. Although China has made good progress in developing and implementing these strategies and policies for NCD prevention and control, many challenges remain. There are a lack of appropriately qualified health professionals at grass-roots health facilities; it is difficult to retain professionals at that level; there is insufficient public funding for NCD care and management; and NCD patients are economically burdened due to limited benefit packages covering NCD treatment offered by health insurance schemes. To tackle these challenges we propose developing appropriate human resource policies to attract greater numbers of qualified health professionals at the primary healthcare level; adjusting the service benefit packages to encourage the use of community-based health services; and increase government investment in public health interventions, as well as investing more on health insurance schemes.

  19. An empirical approach to selecting community-based alcohol interventions: combining research evidence, rural community views and professional opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeshaft Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given limited research evidence for community-based alcohol interventions, this study examines the intervention preferences of rural communities and alcohol professionals, and factors that influence their choices. Method Community preferences were identified by a survey of randomly selected individuals across 20 regional Australian communities. The preferences of alcohol professionals were identified by a survey of randomly selected members of the Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and Other Drugs. To identify preferred interventions and the extent of support for them, a budget allocation exercise was embedded in both surveys, asking respondents to allocate a given budget to different interventions. Tobit regression models were estimated to identify the characteristics that explain differences in intervention preferences. Results Community respondents selected school programs most often (88.0% and allocated it the largest proportion of funds, followed by promotion of safer drinking (71.3%, community programs (61.4% and police enforcement of alcohol laws (60.4%. Professionals selected GP training most often (61.0% and allocated it the largest proportion of funds, followed by school programs (36.6%, community programs (33.8% and promotion of safer drinking (31.7%. Community views were susceptible to response bias. There were no significant predictors of professionals' preferences. Conclusions In the absence of sufficient research evidence for effective community-based alcohol interventions, rural communities and professionals both strongly support school programs, promotion of safer drinking and community programs. Rural communities also supported police enforcement of alcohol laws and professionals supported GP training. The impact of a combination of these strategies needs to be rigorously evaluated.

  20. An Individual, Community-Based Treatment for Obese Children and Their Families: The Solution-Focused Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Kreier

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study evaluates an individual, community-based treatment for obese children and their families. In this program, a treatment team applied solution-focused techniques to develop a custom-made treatment plan in collaboration with the participants. The treatment plan consisted of community-based lifestyle activities. Methods: 559 obese children with an average BMI z-score of 2.76 ± 0.54 took part in the 12-month study, and 372 children with an average BMI z-score of 2.75 ± 0.52 took part in the 24-month study. At the start of the study, ethnicity and special school needs were recorded. Before, after 12 months, and after 24 months of the treatment, body weight and height were measured. The effect of the treatment on body weight was evaluated using BMI z-scores. Results: 291 children (52% completed 12 months of treatment, whereas 22 children (4% were dismissed earlier due to a good response. After 12 months, the children showed a significant decrease in BMI z-score by 0.16 (95% confidence interval (CI 0.11-0.20; p Conclusions: Children showed a significant decrease in BMI z-score after the treatment. We found a negative correlation of age and weight loss. Special attention to patients with a high risk of drop-out might further improve these results. We advise a referral to obesity treatment as early as possible since a ‘wait and see' policy might have adverse results in obese children.

  1. Systems approaches to integrated solid waste management in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Rachael E., E-mail: rmarsh01@uoguelph.ca [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Albert A. Thornbrough Building, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Farahbakhsh, Khosrow, E-mail: khosrowf@uoguelph.ca [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Albert A. Thornbrough Building, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Five drivers led developed countries to current solid waste management paradigm. ► Many unique factors challenge developing country solid waste management. ► Limited transferability of developed country approaches to developing countries. ► High uncertainties and decision stakes call for post-normal approaches. ► Systems thinking needed for multi-scale, self-organizing eco-social waste systems. - Abstract: Solid waste management (SWM) has become an issue of increasing global concern as urban populations continue to rise and consumption patterns change. The health and environmental implications associated with SWM are mounting in urgency, particularly in the context of developing countries. While systems analyses largely targeting well-defined, engineered systems have been used to help SWM agencies in industrialized countries since the 1960s, collection and removal dominate the SWM sector in developing countries. This review contrasts the history and current paradigms of SWM practices and policies in industrialized countries with the current challenges and complexities faced in developing country SWM. In industrialized countries, public health, environment, resource scarcity, climate change, and public awareness and participation have acted as SWM drivers towards the current paradigm of integrated SWM. However, urbanization, inequality, and economic growth; cultural and socio-economic aspects; policy, governance, and institutional issues; and international influences have complicated SWM in developing countries. This has limited the applicability of approaches that were successful along the SWM development trajectories of industrialized countries. This review demonstrates the importance of founding new SWM approaches for developing country contexts in post-normal science and complex, adaptive systems thinking.

  2. Culturally sensitive assessments as a strength-based approach to wellness in Native communities: A community-based participatory research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verney, Steven P; Avila, Magdalena; Espinosa, Patricia Rodríguez; Cholka, Cecilia Brooke; Benson, Jennifer G; Baloo, Aihsa; Pozernick, Caitlin Devin

    2016-01-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) have a unique, traumatic, and alienating history of education in the U.S., which may be directly related to overall health and well-being. Community engagement is critical in well-being research with Native communities, especially when investigating culturally sensitive topics, such as early education experiences. This study investigates the value of a community-based participatory research approach in gaining valuable culturally sensitive information from Native people in a respectful manner. Assessment participation and feedback are analyzed and presented as indicators of Native participant engagement success in a potentially sensitive research project exploring early education experiences.

  3. Causes of puerperal and neonatal sepsis in resource-constrained settings and advocacy for an integrated community-based postnatal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Anne E; Morgan, Christopher; Vyankandondera, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Puerperal sepsis and neonatal sepsis are important causes of mortality and morbidity in low-income countries. To help improve global guidelines on postpartum care by reviewing existing data on microbiologic causes of sepsis among mothers, newborns, and mother-newborn pairs. An extensive literature review of peer-reviewed publications from resource-constrained settings was conducted using PubMed. Primary research studies containing microbiologic data on puerperal sepsis or combined maternal and neonatal sepsis published since 1980. Study characteristics and results were analyzed. Data regarding causative microorganisms were tabulated and discussed in the main text. Diagnostic evaluation of microorganisms causing puerperal sepsis was difficult, with few studies linking microorganisms causing infection in individual mother-newborn pairs. The most frequent microorganisms associated with puerperal sepsis were Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. The most frequent microorganisms associated with neonatal sepsis were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella species. Management tools for community-based care of mothers with puerperal sepsis-including early detection, initiation of broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment, and timely referral-should be added to those currently in use for neonatal sepsis. Further research is required to address acceptability, feasibility, and impact of community-based presumptive treatment. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Considerations for conducting Web-based survey research with people living with human immunodeficiency virus using a community-based participatory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kelly K; Solomon, Patricia; Worthington, Catherine; Ibáñez-Carrasco, Francisco; Baxter, Larry; Nixon, Stephanie A; Baltzer-Turje, Rosalind; Robinson, Greg; Zack, Elisse

    2014-03-13

    Web or Internet-based surveys are increasingly popular in health survey research. However, the strengths and challenges of Web-based surveys with people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are unclear. The aim of this article is to describe our experience piloting a cross-sectional, Web-based, self-administered survey with adults living with HIV using a community-based participatory research approach. We piloted a Web-based survey that investigated disability and rehabilitation services use with a sample of adults living with HIV in Canada. Community organizations in five provinces emailed invitations to clients, followed by a thank you/reminder one week later. We obtained survey feedback in a structured phone interview with respondents. Participant responses were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using directed content analysis. Of 30 people living with HIV who accessed the survey link, 24/30 (80%) initiated and 16/30 (53%) completed the survey instrument. A total of 17 respondents participated in post-survey interviews. Participants described the survey instrument as comprehensive, suggesting content validity. The majority (13/17, 76%) felt instruction and item wording were clear and easy to understand, and found the software easy to navigate. Participants felt having a pop-up reminder directing them to missed items would be useful. Strengths of implementing the Web-based survey included: our community-based participatory approach, ease of software use, ability for respondents to complete the questionnaire on one's own time at one's own pace, opportunity to obtain geographic variation, and potential for respondent anonymity. Considerations for future survey implementation included: respondent burden and fatigue, the potentially sensitive nature of HIV Web-based research, data management and storage, challenges verifying informed consent, varying computer skills among respondents, and the burden on community organizations. Overall, results provide

  5. Community-based recreational football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ditte Marie; Bjerre, Eik; Krustrup, Peter

    2014-01-01

    is limited and the majority of prostate cancer survivors remain sedentary. Hence, novel approaches to evaluate and promote physical activity are warranted. This paper presents the rationale behind the delivery and evaluation of community-based recreational football offered in existing football clubs under...... the Danish Football Association to promote quality of life and physical activity adherence in prostate cancer survivors. The RE-AIM framework will be applied to evaluate the impact of the intervention including outcomes both at the individual and organizational level. By introducing community-based sport...

  6. Serum Albumin and Cerebro-cardiovascular Mortality During a 15-year Study in a Community-based Cohort in Tanushimaru, a Cohort of the Seven Countries Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeki, Yoko; Adachi, Hisashi; Enomoto, Mika; Fukami, Ako; Nakamura, Sachiko; Nohara, Yume; Nakao, Erika; Sakaue, Akiko; Tsuru, Tomoko; Morikawa, Nagisa; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro

    Objective There is little long-term data on the association between the serum albumin levels and mortality in community-based populations. We aimed to determine whether the serum albumin level is an independent risk factor for all-cause and cause-specific death in a community-based cohort study in Japan. Methods In 1999, we performed a periodic epidemiological survey over a 15-year period in a population of 1,905 healthy subjects (783 males, 1,122 females) who were older than 40 years of age and who resided in Tanushimaru, a rural community, in Japan. Over the course of the study, we periodically examined the blood chemistry of the study subjects, including their serum albumin levels. Their baseline serum albumin levels were categorized into quartiles. Results The baseline albumin levels were significantly associated with age (inversely), body mass index (BMI), diastolic blood pressure, lipid profiles [high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) and triglycerides] and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). After adjusting for confounders, a Cox proportional hazards regression analysis demonstrated that a low serum albumin level was an independent predictor of all-cause death [hazard ratio (HR): 0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.24-0.65], cancer death (HR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.18-0.99), death from infection (HR: 0.21, 95% CI: 0.06-0.73) and cerebro-cardiovascular death (HR: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.06-0.63). The HRs for all-cause and cerebro-cardiovascular death in the highest quartile vs. the lowest quartile of albumin after adjusting for confounders were 0.59 (95%CI:0.39-0.88) and 0.15 (95%CI: 0.03-0.66), respectively. Conclusion The serum albumin level was thus found to be a predictor of all-cause and cerebro-cardiovascular death in a general population.

  7. Systems approaches to integrated solid waste management in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Rachael E; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow

    2013-04-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) has become an issue of increasing global concern as urban populations continue to rise and consumption patterns change. The health and environmental implications associated with SWM are mounting in urgency, particularly in the context of developing countries. While systems analyses largely targeting well-defined, engineered systems have been used to help SWM agencies in industrialized countries since the 1960s, collection and removal dominate the SWM sector in developing countries. This review contrasts the history and current paradigms of SWM practices and policies in industrialized countries with the current challenges and complexities faced in developing country SWM. In industrialized countries, public health, environment, resource scarcity, climate change, and public awareness and participation have acted as SWM drivers towards the current paradigm of integrated SWM. However, urbanization, inequality, and economic growth; cultural and socio-economic aspects; policy, governance, and institutional issues; and international influences have complicated SWM in developing countries. This has limited the applicability of approaches that were successful along the SWM development trajectories of industrialized countries. This review demonstrates the importance of founding new SWM approaches for developing country contexts in post-normal science and complex, adaptive systems thinking.

  8. a System Dynamics Approach for Looking at the Human and Environmental Interactions of Community-Based Irrigation Systems in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, C. G.; Tidwell, V. C.

    2012-12-01

    In the arid southwestern United States community water management systems have adapted to cope with climate variability and with socio-cultural and economic changes that have occurred since the establishment of these systems more than 300 years ago. In New Mexico, the community-based irrigation systems were established by Spanish settlers and have endured climate variability in the form of low levels of precipitation and have prevailed over important socio-political changes including the transfer of territory between Spain and Mexico, and between Mexico and the United States. Because of their inherent nature of integrating land and water use with society involvement these community-based systems have multiple and complex economic, ecological, and cultural interactions. Current urban population growth and more variable climate conditions are adding pressure to the survival of these systems. We are conducting a multi-disciplinary research project that focuses on characterizing these intrinsically complex human and natural interactions in three community-based irrigation systems in northern New Mexico. We are using a system dynamics approach to integrate different hydrological, ecological, socio-cultural and economic aspects of these three irrigation systems. Coupled with intensive field data collection, we are building a system dynamics model that will enable us to simulate important linkages and interactions between environmental and human elements occurring in each of these water management systems. We will test different climate variability and population growth scenarios and the expectation is that we will be able to identify critical tipping points of these systems. Results from this model can be used to inform policy recommendations relevant to the environment and to urban and agricultural land use planning in the arid southwestern United States.

  9. The greater Denver Latino Cancer Prevention/Control Network. Prevention and research through a community-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Estevan; Espinoza, Paula; Jacobellis, Jillian; Bakemeier, Richard; Press, Norma

    2006-10-15

    The Latino/a Research & Policy Center (LRPC), at the University of Colorado (UC) at Denver and Health Sciences Center built the Greater Denver Latino Cancer Prevention Network, a successful cancer prevention network, in 6 Denver metro area counties. The Network consisted of 23 Latino community-based organizations, health clinics, social service agencies, faith-based groups, and employee-based organizations; 2 migrant health clinics; and 14 scientific partners including the UC Comprehensive Cancer Center, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, and the American Cancer Society. The Network focused on 5 significant cancers: breast, cervical, lung, colorectal, and prostate cancer. The Steering Committee initiated a review process for junior researchers that resulted in 5 NCI-funded pilot projects. Pilot projects were conducted with various Latino populations. The Network developed community education and health promotion projects including the bilingual outreach play The Cancer Monologues. The Network's partnership also started and held 2 annual health fairs, Dia de la Mujer Latina/Day of the Latina Woman, and annual health prevention summits. The Special Population Network (SPN) adapted and revised a clinical trials education outreach module that reached Network community partners. SPN partners recruited Latino/a students to cancer research through a6-week NCI training program held yearly at the UCHSC campus. The Network methodology of bringing together the Latino community with the scientific community increased the level of awareness of cancer in the Latino community and increased cancer research and the level of engagement of the scientific partners with the Latino community. Cancer 2006. (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.

  10. Community-Based Equity Audits: A Practical Approach for Educational Leaders to Support Equitable Community-School Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Terrance L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To equitably transform urban schools of color and the neighborhoods where they are nested requires approaches that promote community equity and foster solidarity among a range of stakeholders. However, most school-community approaches solely focus on improving school-based outcomes and leave educational leaders with little guidance for…

  11. Community-Based After-School Inclusive Programs for Low-Income Minority Youth and Their Families: the Disability Specialist Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald G. Unger

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Intervention for helping community based after-school programs become more responsive to youth with disabilities and their families is presented in this manuscript. The Disability Specialist intervention utilized a variety of approaches, including: a increasing awareness of disabilities and services by providing learning opportunity sessions for families and staff, and outreach activities to youth through interactive theater; b developing in house “disability specialists” to offer ongoing leadership and technical expertise for after-school programs and their community centers; c developing a network of technical consultants in order to connect families and after-school programs to specialized community resources; d providing financial assistance to enable community center staff to allocate time to outreach activities; and e providing families with support in educational advocacy efforts by partnering with a local parent mentoring program. The success of the project depended upon building partnerships with families, community centers, human service agencies, schools, and local funding sources.

  12. Community Based Distribution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community Based Distribution (CBD) is a relatively new concept. It is a service that reaches ... neration; Resupply systems; Pricing of contraceptives; Mix of services ... tion on how best to design and implement the project and the community in ...

  13. Community based distribution agents’ approach to provision of family planning information and services in five Nigerian States: A mirage or a reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojisola Fayemi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reducing maternal mortality in Nigeria has received continuous attention both nationally and internationally. Objectives: This article highlights the outcome of an intervention which sought to address maternal mortality reduction through increasing contraceptive uptake in 10 rural local government areas (LGAsin five Nigerian states.Method: The community based distribution (CBD approach was used in the implementation of a three year intervention that targeted 10 LGAs. Two hundred and fifty community members were trained as community based distribution agents (CBDA to provide information on reproductive health, provide non-prescriptive family planning (FP commodities, treat minor aliment and make referrals to primary health centres within the communities.Results: Final evaluation revealed an increase in the proportion of community members who had utilised FP commodities at all, from 28% at baseline to 49%, and an increase in the proportion of current contraceptive users from 16% at baseline to 37%. An average of 50% increase in clientele patronage was also observed in the 10 LGAs’ primary health care centres. Most (96% of the interviewed CBDA agents reported that a drug-revolving system was in place to ensure that drugs and commodities were available. On-the-spot assessment of the service forms revealed that 86% of them had their activities regularly recorded in their worksheets. Some of the challenges faced by CBDA were discrimination and misconception of community members about family planning (38%, inadequate financial support (14%,and transportation problems (8%.Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that the CBD approach played a critical role in enhancing access to Reproductive Health and Family Planning information and services in the project communities.

  14. Community based distribution agents’ approach to provision of family planning information and services in five Nigerian States: A mirage or a reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojisola Fayemi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reducing maternal mortality in Nigeria has received continuous attention both nationally and internationally. Objectives: This article highlights the outcome of an intervention which sought to address maternal mortality reduction through increasing contraceptive uptake in 10 rural local government areas (LGAsin five Nigerian states.Method: The community based distribution (CBD approach was used in the implementation of a three year intervention that targeted 10 LGAs. Two hundred and fifty community members were trained as community based distribution agents (CBDA to provide information on reproductive health, provide non-prescriptive family planning (FP commodities, treat minor aliment and make referrals to primary health centres within the communities.Results: Final evaluation revealed an increase in the proportion of community members who had utilised FP commodities at all, from 28% at baseline to 49%, and an increase in the proportion of current contraceptive users from 16% at baseline to 37%. An average of 50% increase in clientele patronage was also observed in the 10 LGAs’ primary health care centres. Most (96% of the interviewed CBDA agents reported that a drug-revolving system was in place to ensure that drugs and commodities were available. On-the-spot assessment of the service forms revealed that 86% of them had their activities regularly recorded in their worksheets. Some of the challenges faced by CBDA were discrimination and misconception of community members about family planning (38%, inadequate financial support (14%,and transportation problems (8%.Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that the CBD approach played a critical role in enhancing access to Reproductive Health and Family Planning information and services in the project communities.

  15. Zipf rank approach and cross-country convergence of incomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jia; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Urošević, Branko; Stanley, H. Eugene; Podobnik, Boris

    2011-05-01

    We employ a concept popular in physics —the Zipf rank approach— in order to estimate the number of years that EU members would need in order to achieve "convergence" of their per capita incomes. Assuming that trends in the past twenty years continue to hold in the future, we find that after t≈30 years both developing and developed EU countries indexed by i will have comparable values of their per capita gross domestic product {\\cal G}_{i,t} . Besides the traditional Zipf rank approach we also propose a weighted Zipf rank method. In contrast to the EU block, on the world level the Zipf rank approach shows that, between 1960 and 2009, cross-country income differences increased over time. For a brief period during the 2007-2008 global economic crisis, at world level the {\\cal G}_{i,t} of richer countries declined more rapidly than the {\\cal G}_{i,t} of poorer countries, in contrast to EU where the {\\cal G}_{i,t} of developing EU countries declined faster than the {\\cal G}_{i,t} of developed EU countries, indicating that the recession interrupted the convergence between EU members. We propose a simple model of GDP evolution that accounts for the scaling we observe in the data.

  16. The Incidence of Dislocation Utilizing a Neck Sparing Stem in Primary THA in Community Based Practices with the Posterior Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPherson E

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study retrospectively reviews the clinical results of a novel proximal neck-sparing cementless prosthesis for primary Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA. This neck-sparing prosthesis preserves the entire circumference of the femoral neck. The porous coated surface is located only within the femoral neck region. This study group included 338 primary THA’s from three institutions. All approaches and techniques were similar, using a postero-lateral approach in all cases. Average follow-up was 38 months (range 12-56 months. There were five stem revisions (1.5% in this group. Two stems were revised for aseptic loosening, two were revised for recurrent dislocation, and one was revised for a chronic periprosthetic infection employing a two-stage protocol. We had 3 dislocations (0.88% and all three had re-operations. The neck sparing prosthesis is alluring as it saves almost the entire femoral neck and requires minimal deep posterior soft tissue releases. Our dislocation rate in this series was low. Insertion of a neck sparing prosthesis requires fastidious preparation and gentle insertion, but we find this design to provide reliable clinical function at short-term follow-up.

  17. Community-Based Integrated Watershed Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qianxiang; Kennedy N.logbokwe; Li Jiayong

    2005-01-01

    Community-based watershed management is different from the traditional natural resources management. Traditional natural resources management is a way from up to bottom, but the community-based watershed management is from bottom to up. This approach focused on the joining of different stakeholders in integrated watershed management, especially the participation of the community who has been ignored in the past. The purpose of this paper is to outline some of the important basic definitions, concepts and operational framework for initiating community-based watershed management projects and programs as well as some successes and practical challenges associated with the approach.

  18. Improving Culturally Appropriate Care Using a Community-Based Participatory Research Approach: Evaluation of a Multicomponent Cultural Competency Training Program, Arkansas, 2015–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Christopher R.; Rowland, Brett; Moore, Sarah; Wilmoth, Ralph; Ayers, Britni

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The United States continues to become more racially and ethnically diverse, and racial/ethnic minority communities encounter sociocultural barriers to quality health care, including implicit racial/ethnic bias among health care providers. In response, health care organizations are developing and implementing cultural competency curricula. Using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, we developed and evaluated a cultural competency training program to improve the delivery of culturally appropriate care in Marshallese and Hispanic communities. Methods We used a mixed-methods evaluation approach based on the Kirkpatrick model of training evaluation. We collected quantitative evaluation data immediately after each training session (March 19, 2015–November 30, 2016) and qualitative data about implementation at 2 points: immediately after each session and 6 months after training. Individuals and organizational units provided qualitative data. Results We delivered 1,250 units of in-person training at 25 organizations. Participants reported high levels of changes in knowledge (91.2%), competence (86.6%), and performance (87.2%) as a result of the cultural competency training. Organizations reported making policy and environmental changes. Conclusion Initial outcomes demonstrate the value of developing and implementing cultural competency training programs using a CBPR approach. Additional research is needed to determine the effect on long-term patient outcomes. PMID:28771402

  19. Implementing Child-focused Activity Meter Utilization into the Elementary School Classroom Setting Using a Collaborative Community-based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, B A; Jones, A; Biggs, B K; Kaufman, T; Cristiani, V; Kumar, S; Quigg, S; Maxson, J; Swenson, L; Jacobson, N

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of pediatric obesity has increased over the past 3 decades and is a pressing public health program. New technology advancements that can encourage more physical in children are needed. The Zamzee program is an activity meter linked to a motivational website designed for children 8-14 years of age. The objective of the study was to use a collaborative approach between a medical center, the private sector and local school staff to assess the feasibility of using the Zamzee Program in the school-based setting to improve physical activity levels in children. This was a pilot 8-week observational study offered to all children in one fifth grade classroom. Body mass index (BMI), the amount of physical activity by 3-day recall survey, and satisfaction with usability of the Zamzee Program were measured pre- and post-study. Out of 11 children who enrolled in the study, 7 completed all study activities. In those who completed the study, the median (interquartile range) total activity time by survey increased by 17 (1042) minutes and the BMI percentile change was 0 (8). Both children and their caregivers found the Zamzee Activity Meter (6/7) and website (6/7) "very easy" or "easy" to use. The Zamzee Program was found to be usable but did not significantly improve physical activity levels or BMI. Collaborative obesity intervention projects involving medical centers, the private sector and local schools are feasible but the effectiveness needs to be evaluated in larger-scale studies.

  20. Ti Foyer (Hearth) community-based nutrition activities informed by the positive deviance approach in Leogane, Haiti: a programmatic description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolles, Kathryn; Speraw, Catherine; Berggren, Gretchen; Lafontant, Jack Guy

    2002-12-01

    This paper details the steps to design and implement a positive deviance-informed, "Hearth" approach for the nutritional rehabilitation of malnourished children in the district of Leogane, Haiti. Groups of four to five children met daily for two weeks at the home of a local volunteer mother for nutritional and health messages and a well-balanced meal. Health messages and meal components were determined using information gathered from interviews with the mothers of positive deviant children in the community who are well nourished despite their family's limited economic resources. Hearth participants were then followed for six months in their own home by the program "monitrices," women hired from each village and intensively trained to supervise the Hearth program, periodically weigh the children to evaluate their progress, and liaise between the hospital and the community. Monitoring from the first cycle indicated that 100% of children in eight villages and 66% of children in the remaining five villages continued to gain weight as fast or faster than the international standard median six months after participating in a Hearth program. At the conclusion of this cycle, programmers interviewed participant and non-participant families and made six modifications to the model, including the addition of a microcredit option for participating mothers.

  1. Community-Based Interventions to Improve and Sustain Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence, Retention in HIV Care and Clinical Outcomes in Low- and Middle-Income Countries for Achieving the UNAIDS 90-90-90 Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetokunboh, Olatunji; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Knowlton, Amy W.; Altice, Frederick L.; Schechter, Mauro; Galárraga, Omar; Geng, Elvin; Peltzer, Karl; Chang, Larry W.; Van Cutsem, Gilles; Jaffar, Shabbar S.; Ford, Nathan; Mellins, Claude A.; Remien, Robert H.; Mills, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of community versus health facility-based interventions to improve and sustain antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, virologic suppression, and retention in care among HIV-infected individuals in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). We systematically searched four electronic databases for all available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and comparative cohort studies in LMICs comparing community versus health facility-based interventions. Relative risks (RRs) for pre-defined adherence, treatment engagement (linkage and retention in care), and relevant clinical outcomes were pooled using random effect models. Eleven cohort studies and eleven RCTs (N = 97,657) were included. Meta-analysis of the included RCTs comparing community- versus health facility-based interventions found comparable outcomes in terms of ART adherence (RR = 1.02, 95 % CI 0.99 to 1.04), virologic suppression (RR = 1.00, 95 % CI 0.98 to 1.03), and all-cause mortality (RR = 0.93, 95 % CI 0.73 to 1.18). The result of pooled analysis from the RCTs (RR = 1.03, 95 % CI 1.01 to 1.06) and cohort studies (RR = 1.09, 95 % CI 1.03 to 1.15) found that participants assigned to community-based interventions had statistically significantly higher rates of treatment engagement. Two studies found community-based ART delivery model either cost-saving or cost-effective. Community- versus facility-based models of ART delivery resulted in at least comparable outcomes for clinically stable HIV-infected patients on treatment in LMICs and are likely to be cost-effective. PMID:27475643

  2. Ecosystem Services and Community-Based Approaches to Wastewater and Saline Soils Reclamation in the Drylands of Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toderich, Kristina; Khujanazarov, Timur; Aralova, Dildora; Shuyskaya, Elena; Gismatulina, Liliya; Boboev, Hasan

    2017-04-01

    The working hypothesis of this article support an indication of declining water quality, increasing soils salinity and higher production costs in the Bukhara oasis- a borderline lands between the sandy Kyzylkum Desert and irrigated zone in the lower stream of Zarafshan River Basin. The pollution of waters and soils with toxic metals is the major environmental problem in these agro-ecological zones. Conventional remediation approaches usually do not ensure adequate results. The mobility of toxic pollutants can be highly facilitated by the chemical properties of soils and the aridity of the climate. The impact of these factors of land degradation induces reduction in biodiversity and yields losses of agricultural crops and wild desert plant communities. A recent survey showed that the chemical composition of the drainage effluents is sulfate-chloride-hydrocarbonate - magnesium-sodium-calcium with high level of mineralization 4200 - 18800 ppm. Concentration of chloride and sulfate, detected both in drainage effluents and ground water, is 10 times higher than maximum allowable concentration (MAC); and traces of heavy metals, such as strontium, selenium, arsenic, lead, zinc, uranium are 2 times higher than MAC. Distribution of boron showed a strong correlation with those of arsenic and antimony. Aluminum has a significant correlation with arsenic and lead distribution. Antimony correlates significantly with zinc and arsenic, while copper and iron (Fe57) also well correlate with each other. Because these metals rarely exist in natural environment, it is presumed that they are caused both by the usage of some chemicals at the agricultural field in harvest season and by the discharge of some technogenic chemicals from industry. The desalinated/treated wastewater were used to irrigate high value crops and the waste brine is transformed into a resource that was used to grow aquatic species (fish, algae) and irrigate halophytic species with benefits for livestock, farmers and

  3. Essays on evaluating a community based health insurance scheme in rural Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D. Mebratie (Anagaw)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Since the late 1990s, in a move away from user fees for health care and with the aim of creating universal access, several low and middle income countries have set up community-based health insurance (CBHI) schemes. Following this approach, in June 2011, with the aim of

  4. Incorporating Climate Change Effects into Next-Generation Coastal Inundation Decision Support Systems: An Integrated and Community-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Y.; Davis, J. R.; Paramygin, V. A.; LaRow, T.; Chassignet, E.; Stefanova, L. B.; Lu, J.; Xie, L.; Montalvo, S.; Liu, J.; Liu, B.

    2012-12-01

    75% of the world population lives within 100 km from the coastline. Coastal communities are subject to increasing coastal inundation risk due to the combined effects of hurricane-induced storm surge, tsunami, climate change, and sea level rise. This study is developing the next generation decision support systems (DSS) for storm surge and coastal inundation by incorporating the climate change impacts on hurricanes and sea level rise (SLR) along the Florida and North Carolina coast. Using a new methodology (instead of the "bath tub" approach) enhanced by the Institute for Sustainable Coastal Environment and Infrastructure (InSCEI) at University of Florida (UF), highly accurate and efficient coastal inundation maps (Base Flood Elevations and Surge Atlas) are being produced for current climate conditions. Atmospheric and climate scientists at Florida State University (FSU) and North Carolina State University (NCSU) are using global (FSU/COAPS) and regional (WRF) atmospheric models to estimate the range in hurricane activities during 2020-2040 and 2080-2100, using projected SSTs from the IPCC CMIP5 climate scenarios as lower boundary conditions. SLR experts at NCSU and FSU are analyzing historical sea level data and conducting numerical modeling to estimate the SLR at the coastal boundaries for the same IPCC scenarios. UF and NCSU are using the hurricane ensembles and the SLR scenarios provided by FSU and NCSU as input to storm surge and inundation models (CH3D-SSMS and CMAEPS, respectively) to produce high resolution inundation maps which include climate change effects. These future-climate coastal inundation maps will be much more accurate than the current ones and greatly improve the stakeholders' ability to mitigate coastal inundation risk throughout the U.S. and the world. These inundation maps for current and future climates will be communicated to a wide spectrum of stakeholders for feedback and further improvement. A national workshop will be held in January

  5. Emerging issues on the sustainability of the community based rural water resources management approach in Zimbabwe: A case study of Gwanda District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulani Dube

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although there is considerable on-going debate about the suitability and sustainability of community based water resources management (CBWRM in Africa as a water provision strategy, evidence shows that this approach has gone a long way in promoting access to clean water amongst rural African communities. CBWRM provides an alternative approach to water provision for rural communities. This paper examines how the strategy has been operationalised in Gwanda District in Zimbabwe. The paper examines the experiences of rural communities in using CBWRM. Data was collected using focus group discussions, key informant in-depth interviews and a survey of 685 households in Gwanda district across five wards. The findings of this study are that 67% of the surveyed rural communities in Gwanda depended on community managed water resources mostly in the form of boreholes and protected wells. High rates of nun-functional sources were reported at 60-70% in most wards. Several system weaknesses were noted in the current CBWRM set-up including a depletion of committee memberships, inadequate community resources, limited agency and government support. This paper makes several recommendations on strengthening the capacity of CBWRM in Zimbabwe and Africa.

  6. Approaches to giftedness and creativity in Slavic countries

    OpenAIRE

    Šefer Jasmina P.

    2006-01-01

    The paper deals with various conceptions of giftedness and creativity developed in psycho-pedagogical theoretical and research framework of Slavic countries, mainly Russia. Specific characteristics of such theories are discussed, testifying to a particular thinking paradigm - holistic, systemic contextual/cultural approach to understanding the formation and development of personality and its potential - giftedness and creativity. Special emphasis on unstructured situations, the role of emotio...

  7. Different challenges, different approaches and related expenditures of community-based tuberculosis activities by international non-governmental organizations in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wai Wai; Saw, Saw; Isaakidis, Petros; Khogali, Mohammed; Reid, Anthony; Hoa, Nguyen; Zaw, Ko Ko; Aung, Si Thu

    2017-03-24

    International non-governmental organizations (INGOs) have been implementing community-based tuberculosis (TB) care (CBTBC) in Myanmar since 2011. Although the National TB Programme (NTP) ultimately plans to take over CBTBC, there have been no evaluations of the models of care or of the costs of providing CBTBC in Myanmar by INGOs. This was a descriptive study using routinely-collected programmatic and financial data from four INGOs during 2013 and 2014, adjusted for inflation. Data analysis was performed from the provider perspective. Costs for sputum examination were not included as it was provided free of charge by NTP. We calculated the average cost per year of each programme and cost per patient completing treatment. Four INGOs assisted the NTP by providing CBTBC in areas where access to TB services was challenging. Each INGO faced different issues in their contexts and responded with a diversity of strategies. The total costs ranged from US$ 140 754 to US$ 550 221 during the study period. The cost per patient completing treatment ranged from US$ 215 to US$ 1 076 for new cases and US$ 354 to US$ 1 215 for retreatment cases, depending on the targeted area and the package of services offered. One INGO appeared less costly, more sustainable and patient oriented than others. This study revealed a wide variety of models of care and associated costs for implementing CBTBC in diverse and challenging populations and contexts in Myanmar. Consequently, we recommend a more comprehensive evaluation, including development of a cost model, to estimate the costs of scaling up CBTBC country-wide, and cost-effectiveness studies, to best inform the NTP as it prepares to takeover CBTBC activities from INGOs. While awaiting evidence from these studies, model of CBTBC that have higher sustainability potential and allocate more resources to patient-centered care should be given priority support.

  8. A MOOC approach for training researchers in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Murugesan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on an online course in research writing offered in a massive open online course (MOOC format for developing country researchers. The concepts of cognitive presence, teacher presence, and social presence informed the design of the course, with a philosophy of strong social interaction supported by guest facilitators. The course was developed with low-bandwidth elements and hosted on a Moodle site. It was offered twice as a MOOC and 2830 learners from more than 90 countries, mainly in the developing world, took part. The average completion rate was 53%. Female learners and learners who were active in the forums were more likely to complete the course. Our MOOC approach may be a useful model for continuing professional development training in the developing world.

  9. Improving of Type 2 Diabetic Patients’ Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Towards Diabetes Self-care by Implementing Community-Based Interactive Approach-Diabetes Mellitus Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartayu Titien

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community Based Interactive Approach-diabetes mellitus (CBIA-DM is an active self-learning method. This study is aimed at improving type 2 diabetic patients' knowledge, attitude and practice on diabetes self-care by implementing the CBIA-DM strategy. Time series, pre and post quasi-experimental design, Intervention group underwent CBIA-DM, DM-club and Normal-care group acted as control. Data were collected in pre-intervention, immediately, one, three and six months post intervention. Ranging scores for pre and post test questionnaires were: knowledge (0–18 and attitude (9–45; categorizing as rational scales of the scores in good, fair and poor. Practicing in diabetes self-care was assessed using 12 questionnaires, and categorized as adhere and not adhere to DM self-care. Effectiveness of CBIA-DM was evaluated based on the increasing number of participants in good knowledge and attitude levels, and adherence in practicing diabetes self-care. Results CBIA-DM group shows increasing number of participants in good level of knowledge from 40 % (n = 30 up to 80 % at M + 3 with scores significantly improved from 13.1 ± 2.4 up to 15.4 ± 2.0 (Wilcoxon test, p  Conclusions CBIA-DM strategy is effective to improve diabetic patients’ knowledge, attitude and practice on diabetes self-care. Repeating and improving the strategy program is needed to sustain the impact.

  10. Effects of a community-based approach of food and psychosocial stimulation on growth and development of severely malnourished children in Bangladesh: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, B; Hossain, M I; Hamadani, J D; Ahmed, T; Huda, S N; Grantham-McGregor, S M; Persson, L A

    2012-06-01

    Psychosocial stimulation (PS) and food supplementation (FS) improve development of malnourished children. This study evaluates the effects of a community-based approach of PS and FS on growth and development of severely malnourished children. Severely underweight hospitalised children aged 6-24 months (n = 507) were randomly allocated on discharge to five groups: (i) PS, (ii) FS, (iii) PS+FS, (iv) clinic-control and (v) hospital-control. PS included play sessions and parental counselling on child development. This was done at each fortnightly follow-up visit, that is, every second week, for 6 months at community clinics. FS included distribution of cereal-based food packets (150-300 kcal/day) for 3 months. All groups received medical care, micronutrient supplementation, health-education and growth monitoring. Children's development was assessed using revised version of Bayley Scales of Infant Development at baseline and after 3 and 6 months of intervention. Anthropometry was measured using standard procedure. Comparing groups with any stimulation with those with no stimulation there was a significant effect of stimulation on children's mental development index (group*session interaction P = 0.037, effect size = 0.37 s.d.) and weight-for-age Z-score (group*session interaction P = 0.02, effect size=0.26 s.d.). Poor levels of development and nutritional status were sustained, however, due to their initial very severe malnutrition. There was no effect on motor development and linear growth. Children receiving any stimulation showed a significant benefit to mental development and growth in weight. More intensive intervention with longer duration is needed to correct their poor developmental levels and nutritional status.

  11. Approaches to giftedness and creativity in Slavic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šefer Jasmina P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with various conceptions of giftedness and creativity developed in psycho-pedagogical theoretical and research framework of Slavic countries, mainly Russia. Specific characteristics of such theories are discussed, testifying to a particular thinking paradigm - holistic, systemic contextual/cultural approach to understanding the formation and development of personality and its potential - giftedness and creativity. Special emphasis on unstructured situations, the role of emotions and intuition together with considerable contribution of capability, knowledge and meta-cognitive processes, reveals Slavic orientation towards an irrational component in understanding the essence of a creative act. Emphasis on the cultural-historic developmental context, manifested in an aptitude development through the interaction of bio-psychological resources and a social environment, represents an expression of a collectivistic-oriented human studies and contextual approach, even in the field of psycho-physiological research. The domination of qualitative methodology oriented towards understanding and encouraging giftedness and creativity through experimentation in natural sciences (as opposed to the identification of individual differences through quantitative, statistic-based testing methodology applied in the West, indicates a tendency towards theory and systemic analyses of elements’ interaction processes. Cultural and spiritual foundations of the scientific paradigm in Slavic countries will be discussed in this journal one some other occasion.

  12. Race/Ethnicity and Adoption of a Population Health Management Approach to Colorectal Cancer Screening in a Community-Based Healthcare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Shivan J; Jensen, Christopher D; Quinn, Virginia P; Schottinger, Joanne E; Zauber, Ann G; Meester, Reinier; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O; Fedewa, Stacey; Goodman, Michael; Fletcher, Robert H; Levin, Theodore R; Corley, Douglas A; Doubeni, Chyke A

    2016-11-01

    Screening outreach programs using population health management principles offer services uniformly to all eligible persons, but racial/ethnic colorectal cancer (CRC) screening patterns in such programs are not well known. To examine the association between race/ethnicity and the receipt of CRC screening and timely follow-up of positive results before and after implementation of a screening program. Retrospective cohort study of screen-eligible individuals at the Kaiser Permanente Northern California community-based integrated healthcare delivery system (2004-2013). A total of 868,934 screen-eligible individuals 51-74 years of age at cohort entry, which included 662,872 persons in the period before program implementation (2004-2006), 654,633 during the first 3 years after implementation (2007-2009), and 665,268 in the period from 4 to 7 years (2010-2013) after program implementation. A comprehensive system-wide long-term effort to increase CRC that included leadership alignment, goal-setting, and quality assurance through a PHM approach, using mailed fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) along with offering screening at office visits. Differences over time and by race/ethnicity in up-to-date CRC screening (overall and by test type) and timely follow-up of a positive screen. Race/ethnicity categories included non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic/Latino, Asian/Pacific Islander, Native American, and multiple races. From 2004 to 2013, age/sex-adjusted CRC screening rates increased in all groups, including 35.2 to 81.1 % among whites and 35.6 to 78.0 % among blacks. Screening rates among Hispanics (33.1 to 78.3 %) and Native Americans (29.4 to 74.5 %) remained lower than those for whites both before and after program implementation. Blacks, who had slightly higher rates before program implementation (adjusted rate ratio [RR] = 1.04, 99 % CI: 1.02-1.05), had lower rates after program implementation (RR for period from 4 to 7 years = 0.97, 99 % CI: 0

  13. Community-based knowledge translation: unexplored opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstrong Rebecca

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge translation is an interactive process of knowledge exchange between health researchers and knowledge users. Given that the health system is broad in scope, it is important to reflect on how definitions and applications of knowledge translation might differ by setting and focus. Community-based organizations and their practitioners share common characteristics related to their setting, the evidence used in this setting, and anticipated outcomes that are not, in our experience, satisfactorily reflected in current knowledge translation approaches, frameworks, or tools. Discussion Community-based organizations face a distinctive set of challenges and concerns related to engaging in the knowledge translation process, suggesting a unique perspective on knowledge translation in these settings. Specifically, community-based organizations tend to value the process of working in collaboration with multi-sector stakeholders in order to achieve an outcome. A feature of such community-based collaborations is the way in which 'evidence' is conceptualized or defined by these partners, which may in turn influence the degree to which generalizable research evidence in particular is relevant and useful when balanced against more contextually-informed knowledge, such as tacit knowledge. Related to the issues of evidence and context is the desire for local information. For knowledge translation researchers, developing processes to assist community-based organizations to adapt research findings to local circumstances may be the most helpful way to advance decision making in this area. A final characteristic shared by community-based organizations is involvement in advocacy activities, a function that has been virtually ignored in traditional knowledge translation approaches. Summary This commentary is intended to stimulate further discussion in the area of community-based knowledge translation. Knowledge translation, and exchange

  14. IS THERE CONVERGENCE ACROSS COUNTRIES? A SPATIAL APPROACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Heather; Guillen, Mauro F.; Hendi, Arun S.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze convergence across countries over the last half century as a result of globalizing forces. Drawing on theories of modernization, dependency, the world-system, political trade blocs, and the world-society, we consider economic, demographic, knowledge, financial, and political dimensions of convergence. Using a new methodology, we calculate the minimum volume ellipsoid encompassing different groupings of countries, finding that during the 1960–2009 period, countries have not evolved significantly closer or similar to one another, although groups of countries based on their core-periphery status or membership in trade blocs exhibit increasing internal convergence and divergence between one another. PMID:25580035

  15. An assessment of attitudes toward gender inequitable sexual and reproductive health norms in South Sudan: a community-based participatory research approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scott, Jennifer; Averbach, Sarah; Modest, Anna Merport; Hacker, Michele; Cornish, Sarah; Spencer, Danielle; Murphy, Maureen; Parmar, Parveen

    2013-01-01

    .... This study, conducted prior to the country's 2011 independence, aimed to assess attitudes toward gender inequitable norms related to sexual relationships and reproductive health and the effects...

  16. A new approach to nationwide sanitation planning for developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, S.M.; Spiller, M.; Leusbrock, I.; Zeeman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Many developing countries struggle to provide wastewater and solid waste services. The backlog in access has been partly attributed to the absence of a functional sanitation planning framework. Various planning tools are available; however a comprehensive framework that directly links a governmen

  17. Measuring economic growth in OPEC countries : A panel data approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Taiwo Olajide

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the developing and under-developed countries have been facing a lot of challenges on the issue of economic growth, despite the fact that they are endowed with both natural and human resources. This study examines the determinants of real per Capita GDP growth in Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC using a panel of twelve countries for the period of 1986 and 2010.The pooled Ordinary Least Squares (OLS, Fixed Effect (FE and Random Effect (RE models were employed to assess the relationship between CGDP and other economic variables used. The result showed that price level of consumptions (pc and investment share (ci are the important factors of CGDP that contribute to the economic growth of OPEC countries. The result also established that exchange rate (Xrat, price of GDP (p, purchasing power parity (ppp and ci have a positive influence on CGDP. The test statistic revealed that Random Effects Model (REM estimator is more efficient than OLS and that there is no significance difference between Fixed Effects Model (FEM and REM estimators.

  18. A systematic community-based participatory approach to refining an evidence-based community-level intervention: the HOLA intervention for Latino men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Scott D; Daniel, Jason; Alonzo, Jorge; Duck, Stacy; García, Manuel; Downs, Mario; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Alegría-Ortega, José; Miller, Cindy; Boeving Allen, Alex; Gilbert, Paul A; Marsiglia, Flavio F

    2013-07-01

    Our community-based participatory research partnership engaged in a multistep process to refine a culturally congruent intervention that builds on existing community strengths to promote sexual health among immigrant Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). The steps were the following: (1) increase Latino MSM participation in the existing partnership, (2) establish an Intervention Team, (3) review the existing sexual health literature, (4) explore needs and priorities of Latino MSM, (5) narrow priorities based on what is important and changeable, (6) blend health behavior theory with Latino MSM's lived experiences, (7) design an intervention conceptual model, (8) develop training modules and (9) resource materials, and (10) pretest and (11) revise the intervention. The developed intervention contains four modules to train Latino MSM to serve as lay health advisors known as Navegantes. These modules synthesize locally collected data with other local and national data; blend health behavior theory, the lived experiences, and cultural values of immigrant Latino MSM; and harness the informal social support Latino MSM provide one another. This community-level intervention is designed to meet the expressed sexual health priorities of Latino MSM. It frames disease prevention within sexual health promotion.

  19. The Gravity Model on EU Countries – An Econometric Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megi Marku

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Foreign Direct Investment, play a huge role in the growth of the global businesses. They can provide to a firm, new markets where the firm can operate, new marketing channels,manufacturing facilities, access to technology and to the products, and they also provide techniques and funds previously unknown. For the host country, this source of technologies, capital, processes, techniques, and managerial skills can provide an important impetus to the economic development of the country. Through this study, it has been analyzed how FDI are affected by the distance and by the economic size of the country.Given that such a gravity model (size and distance on FDI already exists, this research has examined particularly the impact of these two factors on FDI of the EU member states.Through an econometric model it has been examined how economic size and distance affect foreign investment of EU leading countries in some of the world states and whichof two factors have had the greatest impact. The hypothesis raised in this paper is related to the fact that the gravity model with its factors is extremely important for the volume ofFDI, the size playing a more important role than the distance. By using statistical judgment and econometric analysis it has been explored if the hypothesis rose above, is statistically valid or not. From the model resulted that the impact of the size coefficient on FDI is 0.0042 million Euros, while the distance coefficient is – 0.36 millions. It shows that with the increase of GDP and the distance between countries, FDI increase and decreaserespectively with the above coefficients. According to statistical methods of control, economic size was a more determinant factor than the distance, giving us the idea that in recent years with the increased role of globalization the importance of distance hassignificantly decreased. In this paper it is recommended the gravity models should consider a lot other factors besides size and

  20. Community based rehabilitation: a strategy for peace-building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodgson Jennifer

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Certain features of peace-building distinguish it from peacekeeping, and make it an appropriate strategy in dealing with vertical conflict and low intensity conflict. However, some theorists suggest that attempts, through peace-building, to impose liberal values upon non-democratic cultures are misguided and lack an ethical basis. Discussion We have been investigating the peace-building properties of community based approaches to disability in a number of countries. This paper describes the practice and impact of peace-building through Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR strategies in the context of armed conflict. The ethical basis for peace-building through practical community initiatives is explored. A number of benefits and challenges to using CBR strategies for peace-building purposes are identified. Summary During post-conflict reconstruction, disability is a powerful emotive lever that can be used to mobilize cooperation between factions. We suggest that civil society, in contrast to state-level intervention, has a valuable role in reducing the risks of conflict through community initiatives.

  1. Building a community-based culture of evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Rich; Ochocka, Joanna; Turner, Leanne; Cook, Tabitha; Franklin, Michelle; Deichert, Debbie

    2017-12-01

    In this article we argue for a community-based approach as a means of promoting a culture of evaluation. We do this by linking two bodies of knowledge - the 70-year theoretical tradition of community-based research and the trans-discipline of program evaluation - that are seldom intersected within the evaluation capacity building literature. We use the three hallmarks of a community-based research approach (community-determined; equitable participation; action and change) as a conceptual lens to reflect on a case example of an evaluation capacity building program led by the Ontario Brian Institute. This program involved two community-based groups (Epilepsy Southwestern Ontarioand the South West Alzheimer Society Alliance) who were supported by evaluators from the Centre for Community Based Research to conduct their own internal evaluation. The article provides an overview of a community-based research approach and its link to evaluation. It then describes the featured evaluation capacity building initiative, including reflections by the participating organizations themselves. We end by discussing lessons learned and their implications for future evaluation capacity building. Our main argument is that organizations that strive towards a community-based approach to evaluation are well placed to build and sustain a culture of evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Reproductive rights approach to reproductive health in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research on reproductive health in developing countries focuses mostly on the role of economic development on various components of reproductive health. Cross-sectional and empirical research studies in particular on the effects of non-economic factors such as reproductive rights remain few and far between. Objective: This study investigates the influence of two components of an empowerment strategy, gender equality, and reproductive rights on women’s reproductive health in develo...

  3. Reproductive rights approach to reproductive health in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayan K. Pillai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on reproductive health in developing countries focuses mostly on the role of economic development on various components of reproductive health. Cross-sectional and empirical research studies in particular on the effects of non-economic factors such as reproductive rights remain few and far between.This study investigates the influence of two components of an empowerment strategy, gender equality, and reproductive rights on women's reproductive health in developing countries. The empowerment strategy for improving reproductive health is theoretically situated on a number of background factors such as economic and social development.Cross-national socioeconomic and demographic data from a number of international organizations on 142 developing countries are used to test a model of reproductive rights and reproductive health.The findings suggest that both economic and democratic development have significant positive effects on levels of gender equality. The level of social development plays a prominent role in promoting reproductive rights. It is found that reproductive rights channel the influences of social structural factors and gender equality on reproductive health.

  4. Comparing Health Education Approaches in Textbooks of Sixteen Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Graca S.; Dantas, Catarina; Rauma, Anna-Liisa; Luzi, Daniela; Ruggieri, Roberta; Bogner, Franz; Geier, Christine; Caussidier, Claude; Berger, Dominique; Clement, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Classically, health education has provided mainly factual knowledge about diseases and their prevention. This educational approach is within the so called Biomedical Model (BM). It is based on pathologic (Pa), curative (Cu) and preventive (Pr) conceptions of health. In contrast, the Health Promotion (HP) approach of health education intends to…

  5. Role of the State in Developing Countries: Public Choice versus Schumpeterian Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Demirbas,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available : It is obvious that even though modern public choice theories, which were first developed for Western pluralistic societies (society-centred, might have highlighted many hidden subjects in developing countries such as rent-seeking, corruption, strong state tradition, undemocratic decision mechanisms, etc, however, they still cannot hold and explain all the dynamics of these countries since they need to adopt a state-centre approach. In that sense, we propose that the Schumpeterian approach can help us in understanding the dynamics of developing countries even better. Therefore, our main objective in this paper is to provide a synthesis of public choice approach and the Schumpeterian approach to understand the role of the state in developing countries. We know the fact that this study still remains incomplete and not enough to cover all the needs of the subject, but at least it highlights some hidden issues for developing countries and starts a new discussion on this path.

  6. Assessment of Teacher Motivation Approaches in the Less Developed Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliya, Amos; Ifeoma, Loko Grace

    2015-01-01

    Motivation is an internal process that makes a person move toward a goal. Therefore, this paper examines both traditional and new approaches to teacher motivation, threats to teacher motivation and measures for shaping teacher motivation. The paper concludes that intrinsic rewards such as self-respect, responsibility, and a sense of accomplishment…

  7. “Don’t wait for them to come to you, you go to them”. A qualitative study of recruitment approaches in community based walking programmes in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthews Anne

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to examine the experiences of walking promotion professionals on the range and effectiveness of recruitment strategies used within community based walking programmes within the United Kingdom. Methods Two researchers recruited and conducted semi-structured interviews with managers and project co-ordinators of community based walking programmes, across the UK, using a purposive sampling frame. Twenty eight interviews were conducted, with community projects targeting participants by age, physical activity status, socio-demographic characteristics (i.e. ethnic group or by health status. Three case studies were also conducted with programmes aiming to recruit priority groups and also demonstrating innovative recruitment methods. Data analysis adopted an approach using analytic induction. Results Two types of programmes were identified: those with explicit health aims and those without. Programme aims which required targeting of specific groups adopted more specific recruitment methods. The selection of recruitment method was dependent on the respondent’s awareness of ‘what works’ and the resource capacity at their disposal. Word of mouth was perceived to be the most effective means of recruitment but using this approach took time and effort to build relationships with target groups, usually through a third party. Perceived effectiveness of recruitment was assessed by number of participants rather than numbers of the right participants. Some programmes, particularly those targeting younger adult participants, recruited using new social communication media. Where adopted, social marketing recruitment strategies tended to promote the ‘social’ rather than the ‘health’ benefits of walking. Conclusions Effective walking programme recruitment seems to require trained, strategic, labour intensive, word-of-mouth communication, often in partnerships, in order to understand needs and develop trust and

  8. The Native Telehealth Outreach and Technical Assistance Program: A Community-Based Approach to the Development of Multimedia-Focused Health Care Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Rhonda Wiegman; Manson, Spero M.; Hansen, Amy L.; Huggins, Annie; Trullinger, Lori

    2007-01-01

    The development and dissemination of culturally relevant health care information has traditionally taken a "top-down" approach. Governmental funding agencies and research institutions have too often dictated the importance and focus of health-related research and information dissemination. In addition, the digital divide has affected rural…

  9. Improving information for community-based adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huq, Saleemul

    2011-10-15

    Community-based adaptation aims to empower local people to cope with and plan for the impacts of climate change. In a world where knowledge equals power, you could be forgiven for thinking that enabling this type of adaptation boils down to providing local people with information. Conventional approaches to planning adaptation rely on 'expert' advice and credible 'science' from authoritative information providers such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. But to truly support the needs of local communities, this information needs to be more site-specific, more user-friendly and more inclusive of traditional knowledge and existing coping practices.

  10. Improving information for community-based adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huq, Saleemul

    2011-10-15

    Community-based adaptation aims to empower local people to cope with and plan for the impacts of climate change. In a world where knowledge equals power, you could be forgiven for thinking that enabling this type of adaptation boils down to providing local people with information. Conventional approaches to planning adaptation rely on 'expert' advice and credible 'science' from authoritative information providers such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. But to truly support the needs of local communities, this information needs to be more site-specific, more user-friendly and more inclusive of traditional knowledge and existing coping practices.

  11. A Community-Based Approach to Monitor Resource for Cloud Computing%基于社区模型的云资源监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁鑫; 李振

    2012-01-01

    云计算是一种新兴的商业计算模型,资源性能和负载监测是其重要的研究点.分析了传统的分布式计算资源监测策略,针对云计算环境,引入社区模型设计了层次式社区监测,提出了基于敏感因子的监测方法,以解决全局监控可能会带来的数据繁冗和无效问题.仿真实验表明,模型和策略在理论上是合理的,在效率上较传统监测系统有一定的提高.%Cloud computing is an emerging computing model, and the resource performance and load monitoring is an important research point. According to cloud computing environment, this paper analyzed the monitoring methods of traditional distributed system, designed a hierarchical model introducing community model, and proposed an approach based on sensitivity factors, to solve the problems of data redun-dancy and invalid in global monitoring. Simulation results show that the model and method is reasonable in theory, and the efficiency has been improved on some degree.

  12. Community-based early warning systems for flood risk mitigation in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul J.; Brown, Sarah; Dugar, Sumit

    2017-03-01

    This paper focuses on the use of community-based early warning systems for flood resilience in Nepal. The first part of the work outlines the evolution and current status of these community-based systems, highlighting the limited lead times currently available for early warning. The second part of the paper focuses on the development of a robust operational flood forecasting methodology for use by the Nepal Department of Hydrology and Meteorology (DHM) to enhance early warning lead times. The methodology uses data-based physically interpretable time series models and data assimilation to generate probabilistic forecasts, which are presented in a simple visual tool. The approach is designed to work in situations of limited data availability with an emphasis on sustainability and appropriate technology. The successful application of the forecast methodology to the flood-prone Karnali River basin in western Nepal is outlined, increasing lead times from 2-3 to 7-8 h. The challenges faced in communicating probabilistic forecasts to the last mile of the existing community-based early warning systems across Nepal is discussed. The paper concludes with an assessment of the applicability of this approach in basins and countries beyond Karnali and Nepal and an overview of key lessons learnt from this initiative.

  13. The Participatory Research Approach in Non-Western Countries: Practical Experiences from Central Asia and Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsui, Hisayo; Koistinen, Mari

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the application of the participatory research approach in non-Western contexts. The aim is to provide critical insights into the participatory research discourse through an examination of its theory and practice based on our own experiences of using this approach in our doctoral research in five Central Asian countries and…

  14. A multi-country approach for attributing human salmonellosis to animal reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Knegt, Leonardo

    useful for countries which cannot readily attain the level of detailing found in Denmark for monitoring and surveillance data, Denmark would benefit more from applying country-specific data than to adopt the results of the EU model. The last chapter presents an alternative approach to obtain results...... in the traditional microbial subtyping approach in the aforementioned Member States. This PhD project has provided results for a European “source of infection account” for Salmonella, and has at the same time been evaluating the approaches attempted, raising questions and proposing solutions on how to deal...

  15. A New Approach of Measuring Hospital Performance for Low- and Middle-income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Shiva Raj; Sapkota, Vishnu Prasad; Supakankunti, Siripen

    2015-11-01

    Efficiency of the hospitals affects the price of health services. Health care payments have equity implications. Evidence on hospital performance can support to design the policy; however, the recent literature on hospital efficiency produced conflicting results. Consequently, policy decisions are uncertain. Even the most of evidence were produced by using data from high income countries. Conflicting results were produced particularly due to differences in methods of measuring performance. Recently a management approach has been developed to measure the hospital performance. This approach to measure the hospital performance is very useful from policy perspective to improve health system from cost-effective way in low and middle income countries. Measuring hospital performance through management approach has some basic characteristics such as scoring management practices through double blind survey, measuring hospital outputs using various indicators, estimating the relationship between management practices and outputs of the hospitals. This approach has been successfully applied to developed countries; however, some revisions are required without violating the fundamental principle of this approach to replicate in low- and middle-income countries. The process has been clearly defined and applied to Nepal. As the results of this, the approach produced expected results. The paper contributes to improve the approach to measure hospital performance.

  16. Harnessing the power of the grassroots to conduct public health research in sub-Saharan Africa: a case study from western Kenya in the adaptation of community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamanda, Allan; Embleton, Lonnie; Ayuku, David; Atwoli, Lukoye; Gisore, Peter; Ayaya, Samuel; Vreeman, Rachel; Braitstein, Paula

    2013-01-31

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a collaborative approach to research that involves the equitable participation of those affected by an issue. As the field of global public health grows, the potential of CBPR to build capacity and to engage communities in identification of problems and development and implementation of solutions in sub-Saharan Africa has yet to be fully tapped. The Orphaned and Separated Children's Assessments Related to their Health and Well-Being (OSCAR) project is a longitudinal cohort of orphaned and non-orphaned children in Kenya. This paper will describe how CBPR approaches and principles can be incorporated and adapted into the study design and methods of a longitudinal epidemiological study in sub-Saharan Africa using this project as an example. The CBPR framework we used involves problem identification, feasibility and planning; implementation; and evaluation and dissemination. This case study will describe how we have engaged the community and adapted CBPR methods to OSCAR's Health and Well-being Project's corresponding to this framework in four phases: 1) community engagement, 2) sampling and recruitment, 3) retention, validation, and follow-up, and 4) analysis, interpretation and dissemination. To date the study has enrolled 3130 orphaned and separated children, including children living in institutional environments, those living in extended family or other households in the community, and street-involved children and youth. Community engagement and participation was integral in refining the study design and identifying research questions that were impacting the community. Through the participation of village Chiefs and elders we were able to successfully identify eligible households and randomize the selection of participants. The on-going contribution of the community in the research process has been vital to participant retention and data validation while ensuring cultural and community relevance and equity in the

  17. Harnessing the power of the grassroots to conduct public health research in sub-Saharan Africa: a case study from western Kenya in the adaptation of community-based participatory research (CBPR approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamanda Allan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR is a collaborative approach to research that involves the equitable participation of those affected by an issue. As the field of global public health grows, the potential of CBPR to build capacity and to engage communities in identification of problems and development and implementation of solutions in sub-Saharan Africa has yet to be fully tapped. The Orphaned and Separated Children’s Assessments Related to their Health and Well-Being (OSCAR project is a longitudinal cohort of orphaned and non-orphaned children in Kenya. This paper will describe how CBPR approaches and principles can be incorporated and adapted into the study design and methods of a longitudinal epidemiological study in sub-Saharan Africa using this project as an example. Methods The CBPR framework we used involves problem identification, feasibility and planning; implementation; and evaluation and dissemination. This case study will describe how we have engaged the community and adapted CBPR methods to OSCAR’s Health and Well-being Project’s corresponding to this framework in four phases: 1 community engagement, 2 sampling and recruitment, 3 retention, validation, and follow-up, and 4 analysis, interpretation and dissemination. Results To date the study has enrolled 3130 orphaned and separated children, including children living in institutional environments, those living in extended family or other households in the community, and street-involved children and youth. Community engagement and participation was integral in refining the study design and identifying research questions that were impacting the community. Through the participation of village Chiefs and elders we were able to successfully identify eligible households and randomize the selection of participants. The on-going contribution of the community in the research process has been vital to participant retention and data validation while

  18. Tourism and Economic Growth in Latin American Countries: A Panel Data Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Eugenio-Martín, Juan Luis; Morales, Noelia Martín; Scarpa, Riccardo

    2004-01-01

    We consider the relationship between tourism and economic growth for Latin American countries since 1985 until 1998. The analysis proposed is based on a panel data approach and the Arellano-Bond estimator for dynamic panels. We obtain estimates of the relationship between economic growth and growth in tourists per capita conditional on main macroeconomic variables. We show that the tourism sector is adequate for the economic growth of medium or low-income countries, though not necessarily for...

  19. Multivariate approach to determination of intermediate target of monetary policy strategy in CEE countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Pečarić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to investigate the characteristics of Central and East European (CEE countries considering their choice of an intermediate target of the monetary policy strategy. A theoretical choice of the intermediate target of the monetary policy strategy refers to inflation targeting, exchange rate targeting and monetary targeting, with the latter not being a practical choice in these countries. This research tends to find out whether this choice means different economic characteristics considering macroeconomic and financial variables, and whether the choice of an individual intermediate target implies better overall economic performance. Eleven characteristics are classified for 14 chosen CEE countries, using the multivariate and multicriteria approaches. The research was conducted in four years (2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011 in order to see whether performance and ranking of countries change when taking into account the financial crisis. The results show that, when considering all 11 indicators, countries cannot be classified into two equal clusters considering the choice of the intermediate target. However, when clustering is done using foreign currency denominated loans and three forms of central bank independence, results show that countries are clustered according to our expectations, i.e., foreign currency denominated loans and two forms of central bank independence contribute to a difference between countries. Furthermore, countries were ranked considering overall economic performance, but no significant difference considering the choice of the intermediate target was found.

  20. Eco-bio-social research on dengue in Asia: a multicountry study on ecosystem and community-based approaches for the control of dengue vectors in urban and peri-urban Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerfeld, Johannes; Kroeger, Axel

    2012-12-01

    This article provides an overview of methods and cross-site insights of a 5-year research and capacity building initiative conducted between 2006 and 2011 in six countries of South Asia (India, Sri Lanka) and South-East Asia (Indonesia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand).The initiative managed an interdisciplinary investigation of ecological, biological, and social (i.e., eco-bio-social) dimensions of dengue in urban and peri-urban areas, and developed community-based interventions aimed at reducing dengue vector breeding and viral transmission. The multicountry study comprised interdisciplinary research groups from six leading Asian research institutions. The groups conducted a detailed situation analysis to identify and characterize local eco-bio-social conditions, and formed a community-of-practice for EcoHealth research where group partners disseminated results and collaboratively developed site-specific intervention tools for vector-borne diseases. In sites where water containers produced more than 70% of Aedes pupae, interventions ranged from mechanical lid covers for containers to biological control. Where small discarded containers presented the main problem, groups experimented with solid waste management, composting and recycling schemes. Many intervention tools were locally produced and all tools were implemented through community partnership strategies. All sites developed socially and culturally appropriate health education materials. The study also mobilised and empowered women's, students' and community groups and at several sites organized new volunteer groups for environmental health. The initiative's programmes showed significant impact on vector densities in some sites. Other sites showed varying effect - partially attributable to the 'contamination' of control groups - yet led to significant outcomes at the community level where local groups united around broad interests in environmental hygiene and sanitation. The programme's findings are relevant

  1. 现代残疾康复理念、政策与社区康复体系研究%Current Conceptual Framework and Policies of Disability and Rehabilitation and Approach of Community-based Rehabilitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱卓英; 李多

    2011-01-01

    This paper explored the current conceptual framework of disability and rehabilitation, and constructed theorctical structure with three layers of international convention, resolutions and policies, and domestic laws and operational lools. The characteristics of community-based rehabilitation (CBR) had been discussed with inclusive development approach. Some recommendations had been proposed for the development of rehabilitation and work programs of rehabilitation for all in China.%本研究分析了当代残疾康复的理念和理论架构,构建了以国际公约、决议和政策、国内法律和政策以及操作性工具3个层次的康复理论体系;运用包容性发展,分析探讨了当代社区康复的体系和特点;就发展康复事业、为残疾人提供全面系统的康复服务提出相关的政策建议。

  2. The Attractiveness of CEE Countries For FDI. A Public Policy Approach Using the Topsis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea PAUL

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the location decision for foreign direct investments (FDI in Central and Eastern European (CEE countries based on the attractiveness of policies most influenced by public officials. Our assessment of the FDI inflows in a country is based on four pillars: infrastructure, quality of institutions, labor market and taxes. The attraction degree of the CEE countries in 2007 and 2010 is calculated using the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS method, a tool usually used for decision-making issues. The empirical result indicates that Estonia is the most attractive country for investments (as regards the public policy approach. Globally, the paper establishes the state’s role in attracting FDI and identifies whether there is room for further improvement on the public policy side.

  3. Innovative Approaches for Pharmaceutical Policy Research in Developing Countries: The View Through a Market Lens

    OpenAIRE

    Waning, B

    2011-01-01

    Despite one-third of the world lacking access to essential medicines, a dearth of pharmaceutical policy research in developing countries has resulted in policy decisions based upon opinion and conventional wisdom rather than evidence. While historical approaches to improve access to medicines focused on public sector interventions, organizations now recognize the role of the private sector, adopting market-based approaches to improve access to medicines. The main goal of this thesis is to fur...

  4. Innovative Approaches for Pharmaceutical Policy Research in Developing Countries: The View Through a Market Lens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waning, B.

    2011-01-01

    Despite one-third of the world lacking access to essential medicines, a dearth of pharmaceutical policy research in developing countries has resulted in policy decisions based upon opinion and conventional wisdom rather than evidence. While historical approaches to improve access to medicines focuse

  5. COMMUNITY BASED HOME ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Adnan Aziz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In a Smart Grid (SG scenario, domestic consumers can gain cost reduction benefit by scheduling their Appliance Activation Time (AAT towards the slots of low charge. Minimization in cost is essential in Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS to induce consumers acceptance for power scheduling to accommodate for a Demand Response (DR at peak hours. Despite the fact that many algorithms address the power scheduling for HEMS, community based optimization has not been the focus. This paper presents an algorithm that targets the minimization of energy costs of whole community while keeping a low Peak to Average Ratio (PAR and smooth Power Usage Pattern (PUP. Objective of cost reduction is accomplished by finding most favorable AAT by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO in conjunction with Inclined Block Rate (IBR approach and Circular Price Shift (CPS. Simulated numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of CPS to assist the merger of PSO & IBR to enhance the reduction/stability of PAR and cost reduction.

  6. Approaches for controlling illicit tobacco trade--nine countries and the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Hana; Husain, Muhammad Jami; Kostova, Deliana; Xu, Xin; Edwards, Sarah M; Chaloupka, Frank J; Ahluwalia, Indu B

    2015-05-29

    An estimated 11.6% of the world cigarette market is illicit, representing more than 650 billion cigarettes a year and $40.5 billion in lost revenue. Illicit tobacco trade refers to any practice related to distributing, selling, or buying tobacco products that is prohibited by law, including tax evasion (sale of tobacco products without payment of applicable taxes), counterfeiting, disguising the origin of products, and smuggling. Illicit trade undermines tobacco prevention and control initiatives by increasing the accessibility and affordability of tobacco products, and reduces government tax revenue streams. The World Health Organization (WHO) Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products, signed by 54 countries, provides tools for addressing illicit trade through a package of regulatory and governing principles. As of May 2015, only eight countries had ratified or acceded to the illicit trade protocol, with an additional 32 needed for it to become international law (i.e., legally binding). Data from multiple international sources were analyzed to evaluate the 10 most commonly used approaches for addressing illicit trade and to summarize differences in implementation across select countries and the European Union (EU). Although the WHO illicit trade protocol defines shared global standards for addressing illicit trade, countries are guided by their own legal and enforcement frameworks, leading to a diversity of approaches employed across countries. Continued adoption of the methods outlined in the WHO illicit trade protocol might improve the global capacity to reduce illicit trade in tobacco products.

  7. Community-based livestock breeding programmes: essentials and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, J P; Rischkowsky, B; Haile, A; Philipsson, J; Mwai, O; Besbes, B; Valle Zárate, A; Tibbo, M; Mirkena, T; Duguma, G; Sölkner, J; Wurzinger, M

    2015-04-01

    Breeding programmes described as community-based (CBBP) typically relate to low-input systems with farmers having a common interest to improve and share their genetic resources. CBBPs are more frequent with keepers of small ruminants, in particular smallholders of local breeds, than with cattle, pigs or chickens with which farmers may have easier access to alternative programmes. Constraints that limit the adoption of conventional breeding technologies in low-input systems cover a range of organizational and technical aspects. The analysis of 8 CBBPs located in countries of Latin-America, Africa and Asia highlights the importance of bottom-up approaches and involvement of local institutions in the planning and implementation stages. The analysis also reveals a high dependence of these programmes on organizational, technical and financial support. Completely self-sustained CBBPs seem to be difficult to realize. There is a need to implement and document formal socio-economic evaluations of CBBPs to provide governments and other development agencies with the information necessary for creating sustainable CBBPs at larger scales.

  8. Estimation and Comparison of Underground Economy in Croatia and European Union Countries: Fuzzy Logic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Marsic

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address this issue in three ways. First, we review existing estimates of the size of the underground economy. Second, we apply a novel calculation method for estimation: fuzzy logic. Third, we calculated and compared underground economy index for 25 European Union countries and compared it, with special focus on Croatian underground economy index. Results indicated that Croatia has the thirteenth largest underground economy among measured members of the European Union. This study is the first of its kind with recent data to measure the size of underground economy in European Union countries by employing fuzzy logic approach.

  9. Policy directions in urban health in developing countries--the slum improvement approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpham, T; Stephens, C

    1992-07-01

    The urban development, or housing, sector has a longer experience of addressing the problems of the urban poor in developing countries than the health sector. In recent years the policy of 'slum improvement', which involves both sectors, has attracted the support of international donors. This article documents the development of the slum improvement approach and addresses key issues of the approach which have implications for health planning: covering the poorest dwellers; relocation; land tenure; gentrification; debt burdens and the impact on women. Questions about the approach which still need answering are defined and a summary of the constraints in slum improvement and potential solutions is presented.

  10. Hepameta-- prevalence of hepatitis B/C and metabolic syndrome in population living in separated and segregated Roma settlements: a methodology for a cross-sectional population-based study using community-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gecková, Andrea Madarasová; Jarcuska, Peter; Mareková, Mária; Pella, Daniel; Siegfried, Leonard; Jarcuska, Pavol; Halánová, Monika

    2014-03-01

    Roma represent one of the largest and oldest minorities in Europe. Health of many of them, particularly those living in settlements, is heavily compromised by poor dwelling, low educational level, unemployment, and poverty rooted in generational poverty, segregation and discrimination. The cross-sectional population-based study using community based approach aimed to map the prevalence of viral hepatitis B/C and metabolic syndrome in the population living in separated and segregated Roma settlements and to compare it with the occurrence of the same health indicators in the majority population, considering selected risk and protective factors of these health indicators. The sample consisted of 452 Roma (mean age = 34.7; 35.2% men) and 403 non-Roma (mean age = 33.5; 45.9% men) respondents. Data were collected in 2011 via questionnaire, anthropometric measures and analysed blood and urine samples. A methodology used in the study as well as in the following scientific papers is described in the Methods section (i.e. study design, procedures, samples, methods including questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, physical measurements, blood and urine measurements). There are regions of declining prosperity due to high unemployment, long-term problems with poverty and depleted resources. Populations living in these areas, i.e. in Central and Eastern Europe in Roma settlements, are at risk of poverty, social exclusion and other factors affecting health. Therefore, we should look for successful long-term strategies and tools (e.g. Roma mediators, terrain work) in order to improve the future prospects of these minorities.

  11. Community-Based Social Marketing: Involvement in Health Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Frank L.; Clarke, Leslie L.; Flocks, Joan D.; Bryant, Carol A.; Romund, Camilla S.; Albrecht, Stan L.

    2002-01-01

    Two community-based projects employed social marketing to design and implement interventions to promote health. The Arkansas project involved key informant interviews, actuarial analysis, citizen and student surveys, and participant observation. The Florida approach included focus groups and provider, worker, and employer surveys. (Contains 25…

  12. The freedom to choose: integrating community- based reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    approach to community-based conservation and development that reflects the ... Indian Ocean e-Ink. Promoting African ... People living in isolated communities in rural Atsimo-Andrefana have to travel up to ... challenges of unmet reproductive health needs, food insecurity, .... Frequent radio broadcasts featuring songs and ...

  13. Community based clinical program: the Medunsa physiotherapy students` experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Taukobong

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Backgound: The aim of community based clinical training is tproduce graduates who are responsive to the health needs of their communit It is envisaged that upon completion of training graduates would go back an serve their respective communities following exposure to community need Program evaluation should therefore allow students to express the inadequacie and strengths of the program.Aim: To evaluate the community-based clinical program through student's experiences.Methodology: A qualitative research design was used. End of block students reports for both third (8 and fourth (15 year physiotherapy students (n = 23 were used to collect the data. Responses in the reports were grouped into the following categories for purpose of data analysis: feeling about the block, suggestion/s and supervision.Results: The students described the community based clinical program as an unique learning experience which equipped them with the understanding of life within communities. Sixty five percent (65% expressed satisfaction with the supervision given. The main complaints were amounts of paper work involved and clinical workload.Conclusion: The student's experiences indicated that the community-based clinical program within the MEDUNSA physiotherapy department realizes the goal of community-based clinical training as determined by WHO, except for inclusion of some multi-professional approaches and adaptation of the supervision provided.

  14. Immigrants' health in Europe: A cross-classified multilevel approach to examine origin country, destination country, and community effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijts, T.H.M.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined origin, destination, and community effects on first- and second-generation immigrants health in Europe. We used information from the European Social Surveys (20022008) on 19,210 immigrants from 123 countries of origin, living in 31 European countries. Cross-classified mult

  15. Estimating the Relationship between Economic Growth and Health Expenditures in ECO Countries Using Panel Cointegration Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Hatam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing knowledge of people about health leads to raising the share of health expenditures in government budget continuously; although governors do not like this rise because of budget limitations. This study aimed to find the association between health expenditures and economic growth in ECO countries. We added health capital in Solow model and used the panel cointegration approach to show the importance of health expenditures in economic growth. For estimating the model, first we used Pesaran cross-sectional dependency test, after that we used Pesaran CADF unit root test, and then we used Westerlund panel cointegration test to show if there is a long-term association between variables or not. After that, we used chaw test, Breusch-Pagan test and Hausman test to find the form of the model. Finally, we used OLS estimator for panel data. Findings showed that there is a positive, strong association between health expenditures and economic growth in ECO countries. If governments increase investing in health, the total production of the country will be increased, so health expenditures are considered as an investing good. The effects of health expenditures in developing countries must be higher than those in developed countries. Such studies can help policy makers to make long-term decisions.

  16. Nurses' experiences of recruitment and migration from developing countries: a phenomenological approach.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Troy, Paul H

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is growing concern globally at the current flows of nurse migration, particularly from low-income to middle and high-income countries. Recruitment practices of many countries such as Ireland are thought to be fuelling this rate of migration. This paper aims to establish the perceptions and opinions of those involved in the recruitment process on their role in recruitment and the effects recruitment has on both source and destination countries. METHODS: A purposive sample of 12 directors of nursing, from major academic teaching hospitals in Dublin and hospitals in South Africa and the Philippines were recruited. Ten overseas nurses were also recruited. A phenomenological approach was used with semi-structured interviews as the data collection method. RESULTS: There were pronounced differences in opinions between the Irish and the overseas directors on recruitment and its effects on the health systems of the source countries. Difficulties in the retention of staff were highlighted by both groups of directors. Other findings included the language and cultural differences experienced by the overseas nurses. CONCLUSION: Recruitment of overseas nurses should not be left to the individual employer even in the presence of government guidelines. An international effort from all the involved parties is required to formulate a solution to this complex issue in order to protect both the health systems of individual countries and the nurse\\'s right to migrate.

  17. Estimating the Relationship between Economic Growth and Health Expenditures in ECO Countries Using Panel Cointegration Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatam, Nahid; Tourani, Sogand; Homaie Rad, Enayatollah; Bastani, Peivand

    2016-02-01

    Increasing knowledge of people about health leads to raising the share of health expenditures in government budget continuously; although governors do not like this rise because of budget limitations. This study aimed to find the association between health expenditures and economic growth in ECO countries. We added health capital in Solow model and used the panel cointegration approach to show the importance of health expenditures in economic growth. For estimating the model, first we used Pesaran cross-sectional dependency test, after that we used Pesaran CADF unit root test, and then we used Westerlund panel cointegration test to show if there is a long-term association between variables or not. After that, we used chaw test, Breusch-Pagan test and Hausman test to find the form of the model. Finally, we used OLS estimator for panel data. Findings showed that there is a positive, strong association between health expenditures and economic growth in ECO countries. If governments increase investing in health, the total production of the country will be increased, so health expenditures are considered as an investing good. The effects of health expenditures in developing countries must be higher than those in developed countries. Such studies can help policy makers to make long-term decisions.

  18. Cultural Approach to HIV/AIDS Harm Reduction in Muslim Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasnain Memoona

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Muslim countries, previously considered protected from HIV/AIDS due to religious and cultural norms, are facing a rapidly rising threat. Despite the evidence of an advancing epidemic, the usual response from the policy makers in Muslim countries, for protection against HIV infection, is a major focus on propagating abstention from illicit drug and sexual practices. Sexuality, considered a private matter, is a taboo topic for discussion. Harm reduction, a pragmatic approach for HIV prevention, is underutilized. The social stigma attached to HIV/AIDS, that exists in all societies is much more pronounced in Muslim cultures. This stigma prevents those at risk from coming forward for appropriate counseling, testing, and treatment, as it involves disclosure of risky practices. The purpose of this paper is to define the extent of the HIV/AIDS problem in Muslim countries, outline the major challenges to HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment, and discuss the concept of harm reduction, with a cultural approach, as a strategy to prevent further spread of the disease. Recommendations include integrating HIV prevention and treatment strategies within existing social, cultural and religious frameworks, working with religious leaders as key collaborators, and provision of appropriate healthcare resources and infrastructure for successful HIV prevention and treatment programs in Muslim countries.

  19. Corruption costs lives: a cross-country study using an IV approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lio, Mon-Chi; Lee, Ming-Hsuan

    2016-04-01

    This study quantitatively estimates the effects of corruption on five major health indicators by using recent cross-country panel data covering 119 countries for the period of 2005-2011. The corruption indicators provided by the World Bank and Transparency International are used, and both the two-way fixed effect and the two-stage least squares approaches are employed for our estimation. The estimation results show that, in general, corruption is negatively associated with a country's health outcomes. A lower level of corruption or a better control of corruption in a country can lead to longer life expectancy, a lower infant mortality rate and a lower under-five mortality rate for citizens. However, our estimation finds no significant association between corruption and individual diseases including human immunodeficiency virus prevalence and tuberculosis incidence. The findings suggest that corruption reduction itself is an effective method to promote health. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Mechanisms of Power within a Community-Based Food Security Planning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullum, Christine; Pelletier, David; Barr, Donald; Wilkins, Jennifer; Habicht, Jean-Pierre

    2004-01-01

    A community food security movement has begun to address problems of hunger and food insecurity by utilizing a community-based approach. Although various models have been implemented, little empirical research has assessed how power operates within community-based food security initiatives. The purpose of this research was to determine how power…

  1. Exploring Partnership Functioning within a Community-Based Participatory Intervention to Improve Disaster Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Elizabeth; O'Sullivan, Tracey; Lane, Daniel E.; Paré, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Disasters happen worldwide, and it is necessary to engage emergency management agencies, health and social services, and community-based organizations in collaborative management activities to enhance community resilience. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been widely accepted in public health research as an approach to develop…

  2. Community-Based Research: From Practice to Theory and Back Again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoecker, Randy

    2003-01-01

    Explores the theoretical strands being combined in community-based research--charity service learning, social justice service learning, action research, and participatory research. Shows how different models of community-based research, based in different theories of society and different approaches to community work, may combine or conflict. (EV)

  3. AN EFFECTIVE MULTIPLE CRITERIA APPROACH TO INFRASTRUCTURE RECONSTRUCTION IN DEVASTATED COUNTRIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.A.NIGIM; K.W.HIPEL; G.B.SMITH

    2006-01-01

    Infrastructure facilities in many countries have been repeatedly subjected to natural or human-induced disasters. International aid institutions, such as the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), United States Aid International Development (USAID), Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and the World Bank International Aid Development (IDA), are endeavoring to assist in the reconstruction of devastated countries. Development institutions normally face the problem of selecting and implementing relevant priority infrastructure projects that are needed in various sectors. Usually there are also several key local players in the decision making process. In many cases, these main decision makers have contradictory objectives that lead to conflict and thereby hamper the reconstruction process. In response to this kind of problem, an effective approach has been developed within the field of Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), that can assist decision makers in prioritizing projects to meet specified goals and objectives. Using the AHP approach, the problem of selecting infrastructure projects is dealt with systematically when applying this flexible MCDA technique. This approach takes into account possible uncertainties and social discrepancies, and can use the judgments of the decision makers themselves when there is a lack of technical or historical data. Decision makers from international financial aid institutions, donor agencies, governmental and the local community can utilize this proposed approach.

  4. Oil price and exchange rate co-movements in Asian countries: Detrended cross-correlation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Muntazir; Zebende, Gilney Figueira; Bashir, Usman; Donghong, Ding

    2017-01-01

    Most empirical literature investigates the relation between oil prices and exchange rate through different models. These models measure this relationship on two time scales (long and short terms), and often fail to observe the co-movement of these variables at different time scales. We apply a detrended cross-correlation approach (DCCA) to investigate the co-movements of the oil price and exchange rate in 12 Asian countries. This model determines the co-movements of oil price and exchange rate at different time scale. The exchange rate and oil price time series indicate unit root problem. Their correlation and cross-correlation are very difficult to measure. The result becomes spurious when periodic trend or unit root problem occurs in these time series. This approach measures the possible cross-correlation at different time scale and controlling the unit root problem. Our empirical results support the co-movements of oil prices and exchange rate. Our results support a weak negative cross-correlation between oil price and exchange rate for most Asian countries included in our sample. The results have important monetary, fiscal, inflationary, and trade policy implications for these countries.

  5. Evaluation of the integrated community based home care model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LR Uys

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1999-2000 the Integrated Community-Based Home Care model for the care of people with AIDS in communities were implemented in seven sites across the country. The post-implementation evaluation showed that most respondents felt that the model could be replicated if a functioning and informed network including all partners, and a strong management team were in place. The effects of the project were mainly positive for all stakeholders (hospice, clinic, hospital, PWA and their carers, professionals and other community members. Hospitals and community- based services became more aware of and involved in the needs of PWA and felt that the model enabled them to address these needs. PWA and their carers felt supported and respected.

  6. The Peru Cervical Cancer Prevention Study (PERCAPS): Community Based Participatory Research in Manchay, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Kimberly L.; Abuelo, Carolina; Chyung, Eunice; Salmeron, Jorge; Belinson, Suzanne E; Sologuren, Carlos Vallejos; Ortiz, Carlos Santos; Vallejos, Maria Jose; Belinson, Jerome L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cervical cancer is a preventable disease which causes significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. While technology for early detection continues to improve, prevention programs suffer from significant barriers. Community Based Participatory Research is an approach to research which focuses on collaboration with the community to surmount these barriers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of Community Based Participatory Research techniques in a mother-child screen/treat and vaccinate program for cervical cancer prevention in Manchay, Peru. Methods/materials HPV self-sampling and cryotherapy were utilized for the screen/treat intervention, and the Gardasil vaccine was utilized for the vaccine intervention. Community health workers from Manchay participated in a 3-day educational course, designed by the research team. The community health workers then decided how to implement the interventions in their community. The success of the program was measured by: 1) the ability of the community health workers to determine an implementation plan, 2) the successful use of research forms provided, 3) participation and retention rates, and 4) satisfaction of the participants. Results 1) The community health workers used a door-to-door approach through which participants were successfully registered and both interventions were successfully carried out; 2) registration forms, consent forms, and result forms were utilized correctly with minimal error; 3) screen/treat intervention: 97% of registered participants gave an HPV sample, 94% of HPV positive women were treated, and 90% returned for 6-month follow-up; vaccine intervention: 95% of registered girls received the 1st vaccine, 97% of those received the 2nd vaccine, and 93% the 3rd; 4) 96% of participants in the screen/treat intervention reported high satisfaction. Conclusion Community Based Participatory Research techniques successfully helped to implement a screen

  7. Assessing Community Based Improved Maternal Neonatal Child Survival (IMNCS) Program in Rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mahfuzar; Jhohura, Fatema Tuz; Mistry, Sabuj Kanti; Chowdhury, Tridib Roy; Ishaque, Tanveen; Shah, Rasheduzzaman; Afsana, Kaosar

    2015-01-01

    A community based approach before, during and after child birth has been proven effective address the burden of maternal, neonatal and child morbidity and mortality in the low and middle income countries. We aimed to examine the overall change in maternal and newborn health outcomes due the "Improved Maternal Newborn and Child Survival" (IMNCS) project, which was implemented by BRAC in rural communities of Bangladesh. The intervention was implemented in four districts for duration of 5-years, while two districts served as comparison areas. The intervention was delivered by community health workers who were trained on essential maternal, neonatal and child health care services. A baseline survey was conducted in 2008 among 7, 200 women with pregnancy outcome in last year or having a currently alive child of 12-59 months. A follow-up survey was administered in 2012-13 among 4, 800 women of similar characteristics in the same villages. We observed significant improvements in maternal and essential newborn care in intervention areas over time, especially in health care seeking behaviors. The proportion of births taking place at home declined in the intervention districts from 84.3% at baseline to 71.2% at end line (Pmortality in intervention districts compared to that of comparison districts. This study demonstrates that community-based efforts offer encouraging evidence and value for combining maternal, neonatal and child health care package. This approach might be considered at larger scale in similar settings with limited resources.

  8. [Community-based distribution of injectable contraceptives in an African setting: community trial in Madagascar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunie, Aurélie; Hoke, Theresa Hatzell; Razafindravony, Bakolisoa

    2011-01-01

    . Encouraged by the findings from the pilot project, the Malagasy government has proceeded to expand the program. As of March 2010, a total of 1,109 agents had been trained. At the international level, this study further contributes to the growing body of evidence that well-trained community-based health workers can safely provide injectable contraceptives, potentially helping to increase contraceptive coverage in rural areas with a nationally scaled-up program. While community-based family planning services in Latin America and Asia have included injectables since the 1970s, experiences in sub-Saharan Africa have been very limited. Madagascar was one of the first countries, and several others (Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria, Malawi, Rwanda, Uganda, and Zambia) are beginning to include injectables in community-based family planning programs. Furthermore, a recent technical consultation convened by the World Health Organization concluded that global evidence supports the introduction, continuation, and scale-up of community-based provision of injectable contraceptives. Despite this momentum, further efforts are required to expand this approach and increase the choice of contraceptive methods available to underserved populations.

  9. [Modern approaches to the formation of antidote stocks at medical institutions in Russia and foreign countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonenko, V E; Sarmanaev, S Kh; Kovalev, E V; Sarmanaeva, R R; Kukhanov, A V

    2014-11-01

    This article analyses the approaches to the formation of specific treatment of acute poisoning in the various countries. The authors present a systematic review of scientific publications about the formation of reserves of antidote agents at medical institutions of the Russian Federation, the US, Canada, France, Spain, Greece, Norway, Czech Republic, Taiwan and Poland. A search for a variety of databases, as well as by reviewing reference lists of publications on the subject of "stockpiling antidote means". It is concluded that the antidote provision at health care institutions in different countries is insufficient. State of affairs with the formation of antidote stocks is better at hospitals of Czech Republic, France and Spain. To determine the range and volume of the stock of fixed assets necessary antidote coordination and approval of the list and the number of mandatory for every medical institution antidotes.

  10. Macrologistic approach to analysis of the interregional goods trading streams in the country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentyn Smyrychynskyi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available National economy system of Ukraine is an open system which interacts with the world economic system providing equivalent, equal in rights and mutually profitable relations between the national market participants in the external turnover through the set of state regulations. Objective conditions of transformational processes in the development of Ukraine predetermine its goal to dynamically join the world economy system. This process will definitely encourage the increase of goods trading operations between Ukraine and other countries of the European Union. That is why the article gives the macrologistic analysis of the interregional goods trading streams in the country. It has been suggested to develop and implement logistic approaches to direction management of resources streams between regions and branches of the national economy. The concept of interregional market, which can be defined according to the structure of competition as monopolistic or oligopolic, has been suggested.

  11. Evaluating a community-based program to improve healthcare quality: research design for the Aligning Forces for Quality initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Dennis P; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Beich, Jeff; Christianson, Jon B; Hasnain-Wynia, Romana; McHugh, Megan C; Mittler, Jessica N; Shi, Yunfeng; Bodenschatz, Laura J

    2012-09-01

    The Aligning Forces for Quality (AF4Q) initiative is the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's (RWJF's) signature effort to increase the overall quality of healthcare in targeted communities throughout the country. In addition to sponsoring this 16-site, complex program, the RWJF funds an independent scientific evaluation to support objective research on the initiative's effectiveness and contributions to basic knowledge in 5 core programmatic areas. The research design, data, and challenges faced in the evaluation of this 10-year initiative are discussed. A descriptive overview of the evaluation research design for a multi-site, community based, healthcare quality improvement initiative is provided. The multiphase research design employed by the evaluation team is discussed. Evaluation provides formative feedback to the RWJF, participants, and other interested audiences in real time; develops approaches to assess innovative and under-studied interventions; furthers the analysis and understanding of effective community-based collaborative work in healthcare; and helps to differentiate the various facilitators, barriers, and contextual dimensions that affect the implementation and outcomes of community-based health interventions. The AF4Q initiative is arguably the largest community-level healthcare improvement demonstration in the United States to date; it is being implemented at a time of rapid change in national healthcare policy. The implementation of large-scale, multi-site initiatives is becoming an increasingly common approach for addressing problems in healthcare. The evaluation research design for the AF4Q initiative, and the lessons learned from its approach, may be valuable to others tasked with evaluating similar community-based initiatives.

  12. Diverging Policy Approaches to Diversity in a Bi-National Country: The Case of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Armony

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with Canada’s policy approach to immigration- and minority-related diversity in light of its federal structure and the contrast between the predominantly French-language province of Québec and the mainly English-speaking rest of the country, with a particular focus on the province of Ontario. While the two parts of the country share many common features, some contrasts are quite significant. Canada is bilingual at the federal level, but French is Québec’s only official language and the Charter of the French Language, which regulates the use of language in many areas of social life, has constitutional status in that province. A long-standing agreement lets Québec handle the selection of its own immigrants with a similar system than the one used by the federal government for Ontario and other provinces, but with different weighing assigned to language skills. Also, religious diversity is treated differently in the two Canadian provinces, on account of diverging views on secularism, even if both share a public commitment to the protection of minorities. Likewise, there is a difference in their policy approaches regarding the promotion of cultural expressions and the arts, partly because of the French-speaking people’s nationalist outlook. In sum, Canada’s case demonstrates that a country can embrace more than a single approach to diversity. Québec has taken a different path and, in a way, showcases a “third way” between North American multiculturalism and European-like integrationism.

  13. COMMUNITY BASED ECOTOURISM MANAGEMENT PRACTISE, A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    larry

    Development Indicators (SDI) selected to assess the impacts of Community Based Ecotourism. Management ... social capital and infrastructural facilities. Demographic ... Ecotourism is a responsible form of tourism ...... Lumpur, Malaysia. Jones ...

  14. Community-Based Social Marketing Training Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Community-Based Social Marketing (CBSM) Training Guide and recycling toolkit provides an overview of how to increase the adoption of sustainable behaviors and recycling practices with a community.

  15. Community Based Networks and 5G

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Idongesit

    2016-01-01

    The deployment of previous wireless standards has provided more benefits for urban dwellers than rural dwellers. 5G deployment may not be different. This paper identifies that Community Based Networks as carriers that deserve recognition as potential 5G providers may change this. The argument...... is hinged on a research aimed at understanding how and why Community Based Networks deploy telecom and Broadband infrastructure. The study was a qualitative study carried out inductively using Grounded Theory. Six cases were investigated.Two Community Based Network Mobilization models were identified....... The findings indicate that 5G connectivity can be extended to rural areas by these networks, via heterogenous networks. Hence the delivery of 5G data rates delivery via Wireless WAN in rural areas can be achieved by utilizing the causal factors of the identified models for Community Based Networks....

  16. Innovative approaches to reducing financial barriers to obstetric care in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Fabienne; Witter, Sophie; de Brouwere, Vincent

    2010-10-01

    Lack of access to quality care is the main obstacle to reducing maternal mortality in low-income countries. In many settings, women must pay out-of-pocket fees, resulting in delays, some of them fatal, and catastrophic expenditure that push households into poverty. Various innovative approaches have targeted the poor or exempted specific services, such as cesarean deliveries. We analyzed 8 case studies to better understand current experiments in reducing financial barriers to maternal care. Although service utilization increased in most of the settings, concerns remain about quality of care, equity between rich and poor patients and between urban and rural residents, and financial sustainability to support these new strategies.

  17. Approaches to monitoring biological outcomes for HPV vaccination: challenges of early adopter countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Charlene A; Saraiya, Mona; Hariri, Susan;

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we describe plans to monitor the impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine on biologic outcomes in selected international areas (Australia, Canada, Mexico, the Nordic countries, Scotland, and the United States) that have adopted this vaccine. This summary of monitoring plans...... provides a background for discussing the challenges of vaccine monitoring in settings where resources and capacity may vary. A variety of approaches that depend on existing infrastructure and resources are planned or underway for monitoring HPV vaccine impact. Monitoring HPV vaccine impact on biologic...

  18. Fostering sustainable behavior through community-based social marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie-Mohr, D

    2000-05-01

    Psychology has a central role to play in speeding the transition to a sustainable future, because a central aspect of sustainability is widespread behavior change. To date, however, most programs promoting sustainable behavior have featured information-intensive campaigns that make little use of psychological knowledge. Community-based social marketing is an attractive alternative approach in which promoters identify the activity to be promoted and the barriers to this activity and then design a strategy to overcome these barriers, using psychological knowledge regarding behavior change. The strategy is piloted to test its effectiveness and later evaluated when it is implemented on a broader scale. Unlike many information-intensive campaigns, community-based social marketing has been shown to have a much greater probability of promoting sustainable behavior. Two case studies are provided to illustrate the approach and its possible results.

  19. Approaches for integrated assessment of ecological and eutrophication status of surface waters in Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Aroviita, Jukka; Carstensen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    used, comparisons across both BQEs and water categories (river, lakes and coastal waters) can be difficult. Based on our analyses, we conclude that some principles and methods for integration can be critical and that a harmonised approach should be developed. Further, we conclude that the integration...... principles applied within BQEs are critical and in need of harmonisation if we want a better understanding of potential transition in ecological status between surface water types, e.g. when riverine water enters a downstream lake or coastal water body.......We review approaches and tools currently used in Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden) for integrated assessment of ‘ecological status’ sensu the EU Water Framework Directive as well as assessment of ‘eutrophication status’ in coastal and marine waters. Integration principles...

  20. Renewable energy consumption and economic growth in nine OECD countries: bounds test approach and causality analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung-Pin, Lin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the short-run and long-run causality between renewable energy (RE) consumption and economic growth (EG) in nine OECD countries from the period between 1982 and 2011. To examine the linkage, this paper uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration test and vector error-correction models to test the causal relationship between variables. The co-integration and causal relationships are found in five countries-United States of America (USA), Japan, Germany, Italy, and United Kingdom (UK). The overall results indicate that (1) a short-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in Italy and UK; (2) long-run unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany, Italy, and UK; (3) a long-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in USA, and Japan; (4) both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany and UK; and (5) Finally, both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from EG to RE in only USA. Further evidence reveals that policies for renewable energy conservation may have no impact on economic growth in France, Denmark, Portugal, and Spain.

  1. Lupus and community-based social work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schudrich, Wendy; Gross, Diane; Rowshandel, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease that disproportionately strikes women of color. SLE patients frequently experience physical, emotional, and social challenges that often result in unmet biopsychosocial needs. Because of the nature of the disease and the needs of patients, agencies serving SLE patients that engage in community-based social work can positively impact their clients' lives. The S.L.E. Lupus Foundation participates in a myriad of community-based social work practices to help address the needs of their clients. These services include helping economically disadvantaged patients access appropriate services within their communities, building awareness about SLE in society, connecting with government officials at all levels, and collaborating with health care organizations to serve those affected by SLE. Specific examples of community-based activities at the S.L.E. Lupus Foundation are described in detail.

  2. Electronic health records approaches and challenges: a comparison between Malaysia and four East Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Ghani, Mohd Khanapi; Bali, Rajeev K; Naguib, Raouf N G; Marshall, Ian M

    2008-01-01

    An integrated Lifetime Health Record (LHR) is fundamental for achieving seamless and continuous access to patient medical information and for the continuum of care. However, the aim has not yet been fully realised. The efforts are actively progressing around the globe. Every stage of the development of the LHR initiatives had presented peculiar challenges. The best lessons in life are those of someone else's experiences. This paper presents an overview of the development approaches undertaken by four East Asian countries in implementing a national Electronic Health Record (EHR) in the public health system. The major challenges elicited from the review including integration efforts, process reengineering, funding, people, and law and regulation will be presented, compared, discussed and used as lessons learned for the further development of the Malaysian integrated LHR.

  3. EMPIRICAL APPROACH UPON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CENTRAL BANK INDEPENDENCE AND INFLATION IN DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumiter Florin Cornel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Central bank independence has become over time one of the key concepts in modern theory and policy. Most economists agree that central bank independence is desirable because it helps achieving and maintaining the long – term goal of price stability. Although one might think about alternative mechanisms to reach lower inflation rates, central bank independence is clearly the most often recomended. The empirical trends upon a more independent central bank with a more transparent and accountable monetary policy regime has emerged in economic literature regarding central banking and monetary economics. In recent years, starting from the Maastricht Treaty central bank independence has become the panacea of the monetary economics and monetary policy approaches. Moreover it is important to analyze and assess the impact of this key issue in central banking upon the inflation performances of the central banks. In this article we provide a qualitative overview upon some recent trends in the central bank independence field: does it still matter? How can be it evaluate and stress it’s impact upon macroeconomic performances, especially upon inflation. As we can observe in the economic literature upon central bank independence there are several approaches to use several indices in order to measure this qualitative and quatitative institutional variables. The most important debate is to eliminate the gap between de jure and de facto independence in order to flatten the measuring of institutional aspects, the legal implication, the constitutional facts and the actual practices of the central banks. Finally, we suggest that according to the new index for measuring central bank independence and inflation targeting index we can evaluate more accurate the degree of the de jure and de facto independence and stress the impact on inflation performance with a case study for ten developed countries and ten developing countries.

  4. Community based curriculum in psychiatric nursing science

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Cur. The purpose of this study is to describe guidelines for a Community Based Curriculum in Psychiatric Nursing Science for a nursing college in KwaZulu Natal. The study consists of 4 phases. To reach the purpose of the study, a situational analysis was done in 3 phases to identify the principles for a Community Based Curriculum in Psychiatric Nursing Science. In Phase I - a document analysis of relevant government policies and legislation was conducted to obtain the principles of menta...

  5. Community Based Networks and 5G

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Idongesit

    2016-01-01

    The deployment of previous wireless standards has provided more benefits for urban dwellers than rural dwellers. 5G deployment may not be different. This paper identifies that Community Based Networks as carriers that deserve recognition as potential 5G providers may change this. The argument....... The findings indicate that 5G connectivity can be extended to rural areas by these networks, via heterogenous networks. Hence the delivery of 5G data rates delivery via Wireless WAN in rural areas can be achieved by utilizing the causal factors of the identified models for Community Based Networks....

  6. Using a human resource management approach to support community health workers: experiences from five African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Joanna; Akweongo, Patricia; Baba, Amuda; Baine, Sebastian Olikira; Sall, Mohamadou Guelaye; Buzuzi, Stephen; Martineau, Tim

    2015-09-01

    Like any other health worker, community health workers (CHWs) need to be supported to ensure that they are able to contribute effectively to health programmes. Management challenges, similar to those of managing any other health worker, relate to improving attraction, retention and performance. Exploratory case studies of CHW programmes in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Senegal, Uganda and Zimbabwe were conducted to provide an understanding of the practices for supporting and managing CHWs from a multi-actor perspective. Document reviews (n = 43), in-depth interviews with programme managers, supervisors and community members involved in managing CHWs (n = 31) and focus group discussions with CHWs (n = 13) were conducted across the five countries. Data were transcribed, translated and analysed using the framework approach. CHWs had many expectations of their role in healthcare, including serving the community, enhancing skills, receiving financial benefits and their role as a CHW fitting in with their other responsibilities. Many human resource management (HRM) practices are employed, but how well they are implemented, the degree to which they meet the expectations of the CHWs and their effects on human resource (HR) outcomes vary across contexts. Front-line supervisors, such as health centre nurses and senior CHWs, play a major role in the management of CHWs and are central to the implementation of HRM practices. On the other hand, community members and programme managers have little involvement with managing the CHWs. This study highlighted that CHW expectations are not always met through HRM practices. This paper calls for a coordinated HRM approach to support CHWs, whereby HRM practices are designed to not only address expectations but also ensure that the CHW programme meets its goals. There is a need to work with all three groups of management actors (front-line supervisors, programme managers and community members) to ensure the use of an effective

  7. A Simple Approach To Mass Movement Hazard Evaluation In Developing Countries: Example From NW Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallàs, R.; Vilaplana, J. M.; Guinau, M.; Falgàs, E.; Alemany, X.; Muñoz, A.

    Current trends in landslide hazard assessment involve a complex combination of methodologies. In spite of being the most vulnerable and in need of mitigation poli- cies, developing countries lack the general socioeconomic structures and technical facilities for such complex approaches to be implemented. The main difficulties com- monly encountered in those countries are the scarcity of previous topographic, geo- logical, geotechnical, historical and instrumental data, and the unavailability of aerial- photo coverages at suitable times and scales. In consequence, there is a strong need for developing simple methodologies of landslide hazard assessment and mitigation, which can be readily tested and implemented by developing countries themselves. To explore this line of research, we selected an area of about 20 square km severely hit by Hurricane Mitch, at the Departamento de Chinandega (NW Nicaragua). The abun- dant mass movements (mainly debris flows) produced during the Mitch rainfall event were investigated through aerial photographs at 1:60.000 scale (flight of December 1998), while much less conspicuous pre-Mich landslides were detected on 1:40.000 aerial photographs (1996 flight). We mapped over one hundred mass movements at 1:10.000 scale in the field, and recorded information concerning regolith composi- tion and thickness, mass movement dimensions and volumes, failure angle (around 22 degrees) and land use for each movement. We realised that, due to the extreme fragility of antropic structures found in the area, any mass movement is highly destructive whatever its magnitude. On the other hand, we found an almost complete lack of data concerning frequency of landsliding. Thus, the concepts of magnitude and frequency commonly used for hazard evaluation pur- poses were of little help in this case. With these considerations in mind, we found that hazard evaluation and zoning could be approached by combining two main concepts: (1) the observed degree of slope

  8. A Cost Comparison of Alternative Approaches to Distance Education in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventre, Gerard G.; Kalu, Alex

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a cost comparison of three approaches to two-way interactive distance learning systems for developing countries. Included are costs for distance learning hardware, terrestrial and satellite communication links, and designing instruction for two-way interactive courses. As part of this project, FSEC is developing a 30-hour course in photovoltaic system design that will be used in a variety of experiments using the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). A primary goal of the project is to develop an instructional design and delivery model that can be used for other education and training programs. Over two-thirds of the world photovoltaics market is in developing countries. One of the objectives of this NASA-sponsored project was to develop new and better energy education programs that take advantage of advances in telecommunications and computer technology. The combination of desktop video systems and the sharing of computer applications software is of special interest. Research is being performed to evaluate the effectiveness of some of these technologies as part of this project. The design of the distance learning origination and receive sites discussed in this paper were influenced by the educational community's growing interest in distance education. The following approach was used to develop comparative costs for delivering interactive distance education to developing countries: (1) Representative target locations for receive sites were chosen. The originating site was assumed to be Cocoa, Florida, where FSEC is located; (2) A range of course development costs were determined; (3) The cost of equipment for three alternative two-way interactive distance learning system configurations was determined or estimated. The types of system configurations ranged from a PC-based system that allows instructors to originate instruction from their office using desktop video and shared application software, to a high cost system that uses a

  9. A Cost Comparison of Alternative Approaches to Distance Education in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventre, Gerard G.; Kalu, Alex

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a cost comparison of three approaches to two-way interactive distance learning systems for developing countries. Included are costs for distance learning hardware, terrestrial and satellite communication links, and designing instruction for two-way interactive courses. As part of this project, FSEC is developing a 30-hour course in photovoltaic system design that will be used in a variety of experiments using the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). A primary goal of the project is to develop an instructional design and delivery model that can be used for other education and training programs. Over two-thirds of the world photovoltaics market is in developing countries. One of the objectives of this NASA-sponsored project was to develop new and better energy education programs that take advantage of advances in telecommunications and computer technology. The combination of desktop video systems and the sharing of computer applications software is of special interest. Research is being performed to evaluate the effectiveness of some of these technologies as part of this project. The design of the distance learning origination and receive sites discussed in this paper were influenced by the educational community's growing interest in distance education. The following approach was used to develop comparative costs for delivering interactive distance education to developing countries: (1) Representative target locations for receive sites were chosen. The originating site was assumed to be Cocoa, Florida, where FSEC is located; (2) A range of course development costs were determined; (3) The cost of equipment for three alternative two-way interactive distance learning system configurations was determined or estimated. The types of system configurations ranged from a PC-based system that allows instructors to originate instruction from their office using desktop video and shared application software, to a high cost system that uses a

  10. A data driven network approach to rank countries production diversity and food specialization

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, Chengyi; Suweis, Samir

    2016-01-01

    The easy access to large data sets has allowed for leveraging methodology in network physics and complexity science to disentangle patterns and processes directly from the data, leading to key insights in the behavior of systems. Here we use to country specific food production data to study binary and weighted topological properties of the bipartite country-food production matrix. This country-food production matrix can be: 1) transformed into overlap matrices which embed information regarding shared production of products among countries, and or shared countries for individual products, 2) identify subsets of countries which produce similar commodities or subsets of commodities shared by a given country allowing for visualization of correlations in large networks, and 3) used to rank country's fitness (the ability to produce a diverse array of products weighted on the type of food commodities) and food specialization (quantified on the number of countries producing that food product weighted on their fitness...

  11. Planning for Community Based Tourism in a Remote Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Harwood

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Remote areas are difficult to access, tend to lack critical infrastructure, are highly susceptible to shocks in the marketplace, and are perceived by industry to possess limited development opportunities. Accordingly a community orientated and territorial approach to development planning in a remote area will be more successful than a top down industry based approach [1]. Given the limitations of being remote, the case study community examined in this research manages and sustains a bird watching tourism product within a global market place. This paper examines how a remotely located community in the Arfak Mountains of West Papua overcomes these difficulties and plans for community based tourism (CBT in their locale.

  12. Payments for ecosystem services as a framework for community-based conservation in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Fred; Foley, Charles; Foley, Lara S; Leposo, Abraham; Loure, Edward; Peterson, David; Peterson, Mike; Peterson, Thad; Sachedina, Hassan; Williams, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    Payments for ecosystem services (PES) are an increasingly promoted approach to conservation. These approaches seek to develop financial mechanisms that create economic incentives for the maintenance of ecosystems and associated biodiversity by rewarding those who are responsible for provision of ecological services. There are, however, few cases in which such schemes have been used as a strategy for conserving wildlife in developing countries and very few operational examples of such schemes of any sort in sub-Saharan Africa. In savannah ecosystems, large mammal populations generally depend on seasonal use of extensive areas and are widely declining as a result of habitat loss, overexploitation, and policies that limit local benefits from wildlife. Community-based conservation strategies seek to create local incentives for conserving wildlife, but often have limited impact as a result of persistent institutional barriers that limit local rights and economic benefits. In northern Tanzania, a consortium of tourism operators is attempting to address these challenges through an agreement with a village that possesses part of a key wildlife dispersal area outside Tarangire National Park. The operators pay the community to enforce voluntary restrictions on agricultural cultivation and permanent settlement in a defined area of land. The initiative represents a potentially cost-effective framework for community-based conservation in an ecologically important area and is helping to reconcile historically conflicting local and national interests relative to land tenure, pastoralist livelihoods, and conservation. Wider adaptation of payments for ecosystem services approaches to settings where sustaining wildlife populations depends on local stewardship may help address current challenges facing conservation outside state-protected areas in savannah ecosystems in sub-Saharan Africa and other parts of the world.

  13. Competence, commitment and opportunity: an exploration of faculty views and perceptions on community- based education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladhani, Zahra; Stevens, Fred J; Scherpbier, Albert J

    2013-12-13

    Community-Based Education (CBE) is an instructional approach designed and carried out in a community context and environment in which not only students, but also faculty and Health Professionals' Education (HPE) institutions must be actively engaged throughout the educational experience. Despite the growing evidence of CBE being an effective approach for contemporary HPE, doubts about its successful implementation still exist. This study has explored HPE structure, policies and curriculum from the point of view of faculty members to gain understanding about the prevailing practices and to propose recommendations that nurtures and promotes CBE. A purposive sample was drawn from three major cities of Pakistan- Karachi, Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Out of twelve HPE institutions present in these cities we selected six, which provided a sound representation of medical and nursing colleges around the country. At each institution we had two Focus Group Discussions; in addition we interviewed registrars of medical and nursing councils and two CBE experts. The factors effecting implementation of CBE as perceived by study participants are categorized as: preparation of faculty members; institutional commitment and enthusiasm; curricular priorities and external milieu. Within each theme, participants recurrently described structural and curricular deficiencies, and lack of commitment and appreciation for community based teaching, service and research permeating at all levels: regulatory bodies, institutional heads and faculty members. The factors highlighted by our study and many others suggest that CBE could not perpetuate effectively within HPE. To enhance the effectiveness of CBE approach in a way that mutually benefits local communities as well as HPE institutions and health professionals, it is important that reforms in HPE must be strategized in a holistic fashion i.e. restructuring and aligning its polices, curriculum and research priorities.

  14. Rural water supply and related services in developing countries — Comparative analysis of several approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajard, Y.; Draper, M.; Viens, P.

    1981-05-01

    The proposed paper deals with a comparative analysis of several approaches possible and actually used for a joint action of local institutions and foreign aid in the field of water supply and related services such as sanitation to villages and small rural agglomerations (market towns, etc.) in developing countries. This comparative analysis is based on examples of actual programmes in this field. The authors have participated in most of the programmes selected as examples, at various levels and in various capacities, from conception to design, implementation and/or evaluation (i.e. rural development programmes in Ivory Coast, Ghana (upper region), Benin and Ethiopia. The authors were not involved in other examples such as water supply and/or sanitation to small urban centres in Benin, Ivory Coast, etc. They have, however, witnessed them directly and have obtained, therefore, first-hand information on their organization, execution and results. Several typical examples of actual projects are briefly defined and characterized. The paper undertakes, then, to compare, in a clinical fashion, the advantages and drawbacks of the approaches taken in the various examples presented. The paper finally proposes a recommendation for a realistic approach to joint action between local/domestic and foreign financing/assistance agencies and executing bodies (consultants, contractors) in the field of rural water supply, sanitation, and more generally, health improvement. The definition of this line of approach is made in terms of logical framework, i.e. goals, purposes, outputs and inputs at the various stages of the project, up to actual evaluation of execution and impact if possible; description of practical indicators of the two types of evaluation. A particular attention is given to the problems of technological choices, in view of the constraints imposed by the natural environment, by the human and social patterns; in view also of the institutions and the economy. Another point

  15. Is the environmental performance of industrialized countries converging? A 'SURE' approach to testing for convergence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camarero, Mariam [Departamento de Economia. Universidad Jaume I. Campus del Riu Sec. 12071 Castellon (Spain); Picazo-Tadeo, Andres J. [Departamento de Economia Aplicada II. Universidad de Valencia. Avda. dels Tarongers s/n. 46022 Valencia (Spain); Tamarit, Cecilio [Departamento de Economia Aplicada II. Universidad de Valencia. Avda dels Tarongers s/n. 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    In this paper, we test for convergence in the environmental performance of a sample of OECD countries, with data ranging from 1971 to 2002. First, we use Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to compute two environmental performance indicators (EPIs) in the production theory framework. Second, we propose the use of a sequential multivariate approach to test for convergence in environmental performance. These tests allow us to reconcile the time series literature with the cross-sectional dimension, which is basic when testing for convergence in regional blocs. The SURE technique is used, which allows for the existence of correlations across the series without imposing a common speed of mean reversion. The empirical results show that the group of countries as a whole, as well as the majority of countries considered on an individual basis (results for some countries vary between EPIs), are catching-up with Switzerland (the benchmark country). (author)

  16. ICT based Sustainable Rural Business Opportunities in Developing Countries: A Wireless-Networked RCP-RAP Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. A. Rahman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technology (ICT is gaining much research attention in present times especially for its ability towards poverty alleviation. In this study the prospect of rural business opportunities in developing countries more specifically in the target country, Bangladesh, has been investigated from the viewpoint of wirelessly networked Rural Communication Point (RCP approach. It is proposed that if only one RCP is set up in every village and there is one Regional Access Point (RAP responsible for several wirelessly networked RCPs, it is recommended that a significant development is possible in rural areas of the target country with the assistance from existing ICT infrastructure. In this study, the target country is chosen as Bangladesh in South Asia but the similar ICT model can be implemented with success in other countries in the developing world.

  17. Community-based organizations in the health sector: A scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Michael G

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Community-based organizations are important health system stakeholders as they provide numerous, often highly valued programs and services to the members of their community. However, community-based organizations are described using diverse terminology and concepts from across a range of disciplines. To better understand the literature related to community-based organizations in the health sector (i.e., those working in health systems or more broadly to address population or public health issues, we conducted a scoping review by using an iterative process to identify existing literature, conceptually map it, and identify gaps and areas for future inquiry. We searched 18 databases and conducted citation searches using 15 articles to identify relevant literature. All search results were reviewed in duplicate and were included if they addressed the key characteristics of community-based organizations or networks of community-based organizations. We then coded all included articles based on the country focus, type of literature, source of literature, academic discipline, disease sector, terminology used to describe organizations and topics discussed. We identified 186 articles addressing topics related to the key characteristics of community-based organizations and/or networks of community-based organizations. The literature is largely focused on high-income countries and on mental health and addictions, HIV/AIDS or general/unspecified populations. A large number of different terms have been used in the literature to describe community-based organizations and the literature addresses a range of topics about them (mandate, structure, revenue sources and type and skills or skill mix of staff, the involvement of community members in organizations, how organizations contribute to community organizing and development and how they function in networks with each other and with government (e.g., in policy networks. Given the range of terms used to

  18. Best approaches to drug-resistance surveillance at the country level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabibbe, A M; Cirillo, D M

    2016-12-01

    In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation to include the endorsed rapid molecular technologies (Xpert MTB/RIF, line probe assays) into surveillance systems and surveys allowed the testing of more tuberculosis (TB) patients for drug resistance at country level than ever before. The whole genome sequencing (WGS) approach is emerging as a more powerful tool for epidemiological and drug-resistant routine surveillances, promising a rapid and simultaneous screening of all the clinically-relevant mutations for the determination of resistance to the first-, second-line, and new anti-TB drugs. In addition, WGS can support the conventional contact tracing for epidemiological studies with high discriminatory power by tracking the circulating strains and their relatedness. These features make WGS, moreso than the conventional molecular tools, an ideal tool to monitor transmission and drug resistance trends in countries, providing deep and wide information in a standardized way. WGS technologies have already been adopted in many supranational and reference laboratories at the centralized level, and several research groups are working to reduce the complexity and costs of these platforms, from sample preparation to the downstream analysis and interpretation of sequencing reads, with the final aim to expand the use of WGS to all laboratory levels. The landscape of the platforms available for next-generation sequencing (NGS) is rapidly enriching. It includes high-throughput instruments that can be used for centralized surveillance studies on a large scale, and "benchtop" sequencers that conversely can reach more peripheral settings for rapid and non-extensive surveys. Traditionally, WGS is performed on genomic DNA samples extracted from clinical isolates to ensure the required high DNA quality and quantity for the following library preparation and sequencing reaction steps. Nevertheless, the researchers are trying to apply the WGS to early primary cultures and in

  19. Improving remote sensing research and education in developing countries: Approaches and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Barry; Ryerson, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Since the 1970s, a number of different models have been used to develop basic and applied science capacities of remote sensing in developing countries. Those efforts have had varied levels of success. One of the more effective capacity building efforts is extended training workshops held within the targeted developing country institution with existing resources. The extending training format requires participant teams to complete a remote sensing project for their country in their organization. The basic science activity of developing country scientists was documented by a review of six remote sensing journals which determined that a very small percentage of remote sensing manuscript authors are from developing countries. Many developing countries have established internal remote sensing capacities but many others have not. Given the potential importance of remote sensing for natural resource assessment and monitoring as well as economic decision making, more attention must be given to assisting those countries in hardware, software, internet capacity and technical assistance.

  20. Place-power-prognosis: Community-based conservation, partnerships, and ecotourism enterprises in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Frederick Hoole

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Namibia’s community-based natural resource management program (CBRNM and communal conservancies have gained international acclaim for rural poverty alleviation and wildlife conservation on the commons. Community-based ecotourism enterprise development has played a central role in the generation of community revenues, employment and additional benefits. The place of community-based ecotourism enterprises in the evolution of Namibia’s conservancies is examined. A participatory rural appraisal (PRA approach was conducted in Namibia as part of recent doctoral research in 2006 and 2007, featuring participant observation, semi-structured key informant interviews and structured communal villager interviews. Findings demonstrate some tangible successes of community-based ecotourism enterprise development, as well as emerging issues in related benefits distribution and power brokering. The case of the Torra Conservancy is profiled as a leading model for success in partnerships between conservancies, as community-based conservation institutions, and tourism enterprises. The experience of Ehi-rovipuka Conservancy is also detailed, to illuminate challenges and prospects for replicating the Torra model. Power relationships between and among private enterprise, community, and the state are elucidated. Ecotourism enterprise development can contribute successfully to community-based conservation. But, issues of power sharing, governance and competition necessitate the further evolution of commons institutions to capture future, sustainable benefits from community-based conservation premised on wildlife and related ecotourism development.

  1. Quality care for community-based FP / MCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The Regional Workshop on Quality Care for Community-based FP/MCH in Asia was organized by the Family Planning Association of Nepal (FPAN) in cooperation with JOICFP and held in Kathmandu, Nepal, December 4-9. Representatives of counterpart organizations in Bangladesh, Laos, Nepal, and the Philippines implementing the UNFPA-supported Sustainable Community-based FP/MCH Project with Special Focus on Women were included among the forty participants. Representatives of China and Vietnam as well as resource persons from Mexico and Japan also attended the event. The workshop was held with the goal of providing participants with effective strategies for promoting quality care for community-based FP/MCH activities based upon the Nepalese experience. The event also provided the opportunity for participants to share experiences, develop strategies for project sustainability, and identify strategies and action plans suitable for their particular country situations. In field trips to Panchkhal, Sunsari, and Morang where the project is being implemented in 26 villages, participants noted the strong community involvement and village leader support. They were also impressed by the communities' awareness of services provided under the project. FPAN has succeeded despite geographical and cultural difficulties in promoting fee-based services toward project sustainability. By paying nominal fees, villagers also enjoy access to drugs and services which may not have been available through the government free of charge. Participants at the end of the workshop recommended the identification of specific indicators and systems for monitoring services and activities, training and orientation at all levels to improve the skills and attitudes of health care workers, the development of potential income-generating activities, the provision of essential FP/MCH equipment, and the equal involvement of men and women at the policy and implementation levels.

  2. Assessing Community Based Improved Maternal Neonatal Child Survival (IMNCS Program in Rural Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfuzar Rahman

    Full Text Available A community based approach before, during and after child birth has been proven effective address the burden of maternal, neonatal and child morbidity and mortality in the low and middle income countries. We aimed to examine the overall change in maternal and newborn health outcomes due the "Improved Maternal Newborn and Child Survival" (IMNCS project, which was implemented by BRAC in rural communities of Bangladesh.The intervention was implemented in four districts for duration of 5-years, while two districts served as comparison areas. The intervention was delivered by community health workers who were trained on essential maternal, neonatal and child health care services. A baseline survey was conducted in 2008 among 7, 200 women with pregnancy outcome in last year or having a currently alive child of 12-59 months. A follow-up survey was administered in 2012-13 among 4, 800 women of similar characteristics in the same villages.We observed significant improvements in maternal and essential newborn care in intervention areas over time, especially in health care seeking behaviors. The proportion of births taking place at home declined in the intervention districts from 84.3% at baseline to 71.2% at end line (P<0.001. Proportion of deliveries with skilled attendant was higher in intervention districts (28% compared to comparison districts (27.4%. The number of deliveries was almost doubled at public sector facility comparing with baseline (P<0.001. Significant improvement was also observed in healthy cord care practice, delayed bathing of the new-born and reduction of infant mortality in intervention districts compared to that of comparison districts.This study demonstrates that community-based efforts offer encouraging evidence and value for combining maternal, neonatal and child health care package. This approach might be considered at larger scale in similar settings with limited resources.

  3. Renewable Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in Nine OECD Countries: Bounds Test Approach and Causality Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hung-Pin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the short-run and long-run causality between renewable energy (RE consumption and economic growth (EG in nine OECD countries from the period between 1982 and 2011. To examine the linkage, this paper uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL bounds testing approach of cointegration test and vector error-correction models to test the causal relationship between variables. The co-integration and causal relationships are found in five countries—United States of America (USA, Japan, Germany, Italy, and United Kingdom (UK. The overall results indicate that (1 a short-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in Italy and UK; (2 long-run unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany, Italy, and UK; (3 a long-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in USA, and Japan; (4 both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany and UK; and (5 Finally, both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from EG to RE in only USA. Further evidence reveals that policies for renewable energy conservation may have no impact on economic growth in France, Denmark, Portugal, and Spain.

  4. Linear Robot as The Approach towards Individual Abdominal Ultrasound Scanning in Developing Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Pahl

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve comfort in abdominal ultrasound scanning, reduce operator dependency and increase image resolution, a novel method for automatic ultrasound cervix scanning, especially for developing countries, has been developed. To determine the reference scanning point for customized diagnosis procedures, personalized scanning algorithms based on umbilicus detection are utilized. The setup consists of three linear motors controlled by an ATmega328 microcontroller and is based on real-time data of an IR sensor as feedback information. For testing purposes 10 subjects were scanned using a robotic platform. Robotically acquired data were compared with manually taken ultrasound images. Safety and image quality have been evaluated and approaches developed to counteract mentioned deficits. A correlation analysis as well as image quality classification between histograms and probe pressure image data was performed. Results show an automated method for personalized ultrasonography with a maximum accuracy of the defined scanning reference being 98.4 % for one dimension. It can be concluded that simple image processing techniques like 3D reconstruction and merging in combination with robotically guided ultrasound probe motion are highly efficient to counteract existing ultrasonography deficits. Future works consider the application of automated ultrasonography on related medical fields.

  5. DYNAMICS OF KNOWLEDGE ACCUMULATION IN TECHNOLOGY FOLLOWER COUNTRIES: A SYSTEM DYNAMICS APPROACH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ehsan SHAFIEI; Mohammad-Bagher GHOFRANI; Yadollah SABOOHI

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the process of knowledge accumulation for a particular technology is studied. Two countries, say the technology follower and the technology frontier, are considered. The frontier's knowledge growth is determined by its R&D efforts on the technology. The level of knowledge stock for the follower countryis augmented by its R&D activities for the technology and absorbing some of the external knowledge through spillover from the frontier. The extent to which the follower is able to exploit the external knowledge depends on technological gap, absorptive capacity, absorption time and degree of spillover. New concepts such as natural and enhanced degree of spillover, background and innovative knowledge and absorption speed are introduced in the present work to deeply explore the process of knowledge spillover. The factors influencing the knowledge development in the long term are simultaneously studied in an integrated structure provided by the System Dynamics approach. This framework shows the responses to the changes and provides the basis for examining the interactions among the variables over time.

  6. Linking community-based and national REDD+ monitoring: a review of the potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pratihast, A.K.; Herold, M.; Sy, de V.; Murdiyarso, D.; Skutsch, M.

    2013-01-01

    Countries participating in REDD+ schemes are required to establish a national monitoring system that keeps track of forest carbon changes over time. Community-based monitoring (CBM) can be useful for tracking locally driven forest change activities and their impacts. In this paper, we review some of

  7. Linking community-based and national REDD+ monitoring: a review of the potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pratihast, A.K.; Herold, M.; Sy, de V.; Murdiyarso, D.; Skutsch, M.

    2013-01-01

    Countries participating in REDD+ schemes are required to establish a national monitoring system that keeps track of forest carbon changes over time. Community-based monitoring (CBM) can be useful for tracking locally driven forest change activities and their impacts. In this paper, we review some of

  8. A Data Driven Network Approach to Rank Countries Production Diversity and Food Specialization

    OpenAIRE

    Tu, Chengyi; Carr, Joel; Suweis, Samir

    2016-01-01

    The easy access to large data sets has allowed for leveraging methodology in network physics and complexity science to disentangle patterns and processes directly from the data, leading to key insights in the behavior of systems. Here we use to country specific food production data to study binary and weighted topological properties of the bipartite country-food production matrix. This country-food production matrix can be: 1) transformed into overlap matrices which embed information regardin...

  9. Community-based natural resource management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treue, Thorsten; Nathan, Iben

    This technical note is the product of a long process of consultation with a wide range of resource persons who have over the years been involved in the Danish support to Community Based Natural Resource Management. It gives a brief introduction to community-based natural resource management (CBNRM......) and how this concept may be used as a development strategy. CBNRM has the triple objective of poverty reduction, natural resource conservation and good governance. The opportunity and challenge is to pursue these objectives simultaneously, as they are not, by default, mutually supportive. Lessons learnt......, resource conservation and good governance, and whether other resource management systems would be better will always be subject to context analysis and political debate. Accordingly, CBNRM is rather a development process and constant power struggle. Thus, even after years of implementation, donors...

  10. Vulnerability assessment to Drought in Various Provinces, approach towards risk management in the country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nasrnia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The water crisis is one of the main challenges of the current century. Drought is one of the most costly natural disasters in Iran. During the past 40 years, our country has experienced 27 droughts. It seems a necessary step to deal with the consequences of drought and reducing its effects, thorough understanding and knowledge of each region's vulnerability, which is neglected in our country, unfortunately. It is necessary to study the influencing factors in determining vulnerability and makes it visible. On the other hand, due to the continuing drought conditions intensified in recent years and its impact on different economic sectors, especially the agricultural sector in the country need to assess vulnerability to drought in the country will double. Materials and Methods: Fuzzy AHP method based on the concept of fuzzy sets introduced by LotfeiZadeh. There are several ways to use fuzzy theory and hierarchical structure proposed merger. Cheng in 1996 suggested a new approach to solve problems using Fuzzy AHP calibration values within the membership and (TFNs. Extent Analysis Method proposed by Chang is one of the common ways to solve problems. In this study, we developed a method based on fuzzy analytic hierarchy Chang that has been developed by Zhu et al. and Van Alhag. Results and Discussion: Vulnerability to drought conditions is determined by factors such as economic, social and physical sensitivity to the damaging effects of drought increases. This study is designed in the hierarchy. The purpose of this study is assessing the vulnerability of the country to drought. Vulnerability of this study includes economic vulnerability, social vulnerability and physical vulnerability. Economic vulnerability to drought indicates that the economy is vulnerable to external shocks due to drought and the inability of the economy to withstand the effects of the event and recover the situation. Social vulnerability determines the capacity to

  11. Occupational exposure to neurotoxic substances in Asian countries - Challenges and approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Baron, Monika; Kim, Eun A; Nuwayhid, Iman; Ichihara, Gaku; Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2012-01-01

    The fact that a conference on neurotoxicity was held in China triggered the idea to provide an insight into occupational diseases, their development and the approaches to investigate them in Asian countries. A historical review, a meta-analysis, and studies on humans and animals provide impressions on past and current problems. The Korean example showed that each newly introduced industry is accompanied by its own problems as regards occupational diseases. Mercury and carbon disulfide were of importance in the beginning, whereas solvents and manganese became important later. Outbreaks of diseases were important reasons to guide both the public and the governmental attention to prevention and allowed within a relatively short time considerable progress. As the example on the replacement of 2-bromopropane by 1-bromopropane showed, also the introduction of chemicals that are more beneficial for the environment may result in additional occupational risks. A lower mutagenicity of 1-bromopopane was shown to be associated with a greater neurotoxicity in Japanese studies. Although occupational health and diseases are commonly related to adults, child workers exposed to solvents were examined in a Lebanese study. The study started outlining the health hazards in young workers because they might be at a much greater risk due to the not yet completed maturation of their nervous system. That some occupational diseases are not yet a focus of prevention was shown by the study on pesticides. If at all, the serious health consequences resulting from excessive exposure were investigated. Research enabling precautionary actions was not available from the international literature. Despite globalization the knowledge on occupational diseases is not yet “globalized” and each country obviously undergoes its own development triggered by local experiences. Economic development that requires a healthy workforce, but also public interest that challenges governmental regulations further

  12. What Do We Tell People to Do during Earthquake Shaking in Emerging Countries? A Multidisciplinary Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, B. E.; Rodgers, J. E.; Tobin, L. T.; Cedillos, V.; Tshering, K. D.; Kumar, H.; Jomo, J.

    2015-12-01

    Providing advice on what to do during shaking in developing nations with high earthquake hazard and vulnerable buildings is a daunting task at the intersection of public policy and science. In areas where most buildings are masonry, earthen or concrete and are at high risk of collapse in strong shaking, advice may differ from the "Drop, Cover and Hold On" message given where residential construction is light timber (less lethal) and building codes are enforced. People in emerging countries are often unsure whether to evacuate or "run out" of the building, or to remain inside and protect oneself with Drop, Cover and Hold On, going to a marked "Safe Zone" or one of several other actions. GeoHazards International approached this problem by bringing together scientific research from multiple disciplines: seismology, epidemiology, structural engineering, risk communication, and sociology. We brought together researchers and practitioners, who applied scientific principles and professional judgment to the limited data on effectiveness of various protective actions in emerging countries. We developed guidance on what message creators and policymakers should consider; the process for developing message content and forms; and the people to involve. A responsible message must account for not only the local tectonic environment and site conditions, but also building vulnerability, the presence of safe open space, how people are killed and injured in earthquakes, population exposure, and the beliefs, customs and social context that affect how messages are received and acted upon. We found that local agencies should make a policy decision on the appropriate action, based on local scientific and technical information, because no one protective action will protect the majority in every context. The safest specific action varies according to where people are located, whether they will be safer where they are or by moving, and whether they can make it to the safer place before

  13. A Comparison of School-Based and Community-Based Adherence to Wraparound during Family Planning Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordness, Philip D.

    2005-01-01

    A number of recent studies have begun to examine how the wraparound approach is adhered to during family planning meetings in community-based settings. However, no studies have compared wraparound family planning meetings across community-based and school-based settings. The purpose of this study was to examine adherence to the wrap-around process…

  14. A map of community-based obesity prevention initiatives in Australia following obesity funding 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Jillian; Love, Penny; Romanus, Anne; Pettman, Tahna; Bolton, Kristy; Smith, Erin; Gill, Tim; Coveney, John; Waters, Elizabeth; Allender, Steve

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is the single biggest public health threat to developed and developing economies. In concert with healthy public policy, multi-strategy, multi-level community-based initiatives appear promising in preventing obesity, with several countries trialling this approach. In Australia, multiple levels of government have funded and facilitated a range of community-based obesity prevention initiatives (CBI), heterogeneous in their funding, timing, target audience and structure. This paper aims to present a central repository of CBI operating in Australia during 2013, to facilitate knowledge exchange and shared opportunities for learning, and to guide professional development towards best practice for CBI practitioners. A comprehensive search of government, non-government and community websites was undertaken to identify CBI in Australia in 2013. This was supplemented with data drawn from available reports, personal communication and key informant interviews. The data was translated into an interactive map for use by preventive health practitioners and other parties. We identified 259 CBI; with the majority (84%) having a dual focus on physical activity and healthy eating. Few initiatives, (n=37) adopted a four-pronged multi-strategy approach implementing policy, built environment, social marketing and/or partnership building. This comprehensive overview of Australian CBI has the potential to facilitate engagement and collaboration through knowledge exchange and information sharing amongst CBI practitioners, funders, communities and researchers. An enhanced understanding of current practice highlights areas of strengths and opportunities for improvement to maximise the impact of obesity prevention initiatives. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  15. Awareness in nine countries: a public health approach to suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Danuta; Wasserman, Camilla; Mandell, Donald J

    2009-04-01

    Suicide is an important public health problem, increasing worldwide, and on a yearly basis accounting for the death of more than one million people, with estimates as high as 10-20 times that many attempting to take their own life. Because successful suicide prevention depends upon recognition of symptoms of mental ill-health, awareness of these signs is a necessary precondition. The ability and responsibility for recognizing signs and symptoms of suicide, until most recently, however, was the exclusive purview of mental health professionals. Lately, there have been efforts to screen high risk populations and to train others to effectively respond to suicidal behavior, including classic first responders, primary care providers, hot line operators, teachers, etc. But what about everyone else who may have an opportunity to prevent a suicide simply by knowing when to ask questions, what to listen for, and understanding when additional assistance is warranted? What about the suicidal person who wants to tell someone about their distress but "knows" that such a conversation will not help nor be well-received? Where does a person living where mental health services are lacking or are beyond one's financial means turn to for relief and assistance? Does not Public Health have something to offer in response to these pressing questions? In 2002-2005, a study was carried out in nine countries, distributed over five continents, under the auspices and support of the Presidential Commission of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the International Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professions (IACAPAP), to test the feasibility and effectiveness of raising awareness and increasing knowledge about child mental health, including suicidality, among students, teachers and parents. Implications for this approach as a model for suicide prevention are presented.

  16. Country-wide assessment of estuary health: An approach for integrating pressures and ecosystem response in a data limited environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, L

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Estuarine, coastal and shelf science 130 (2013) 239e251 COUNTRY-WIDE ASSESSMENT OF ESTUARY HEALTH: AN APPROACH FOR INTEGRATING PRESSURES AND ECOSYSTEM RESPONSE IN A DATA LIMITED ENVIRONMENT L. Van Niekerk a,b,*, J.B. Adams b, G.C. Bate b, A...

  17. Penerapan Corporate Social Responsibility dengan Konsep Community Based Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Suriany

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Business is not only economic institution, but social institution too. As social institution, business has responsibility to help society in solving social problem. This responsibility called Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR. CSR pays attention about social problem and environment, so CSR support continuous development to help government role. Nowadays, our government has national development’s agenda. One of them is tourism sector (Visit Indonesia Year 2008 programmed. But tourism sector has challenge in human resources. In this case, business role in practice CSR is needed to help tourism sector. With CSR activities, the quality of local community will increase to participate in tourism activities. CSR activities include training that based on research. When the quality of local community increase, local community can practice the concept of community based tourism (CBT. In the future, Indonesia has a power to compete with other countries.

  18. COMMUNITY-BASED ECOTOURISM IN NATURE RESERVE OF CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUI Yan-li; FANG Yan-gang; LIU Ji-sheng

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a new concept of community-based ecotourism (CBET) that originated in foreign countries.Then it analyzes the significance ofCBET development in nature reserve (NR).The authors think that community participation is the evitable choice of nature reserve's conservation and development.CBET,as the self-improved model of ecotourism,can promote tourism community sustainable development.Based on the stakeholder analysis of CBET in NRs,this paper addresses the reality,especially the problem of CBET development in NRs of China.In order to develop CBET in NRs of China,this paper takes some suggestions to promote the community participation:1)gradual political empowerment,2) deep level economic incentive,3) widespread educational support,4) impartial distribution of community benefits,and 5) stakeholders cooperation.

  19. Coral Transplantation and Restocking to Accelerate the Recovery of Coral Reef Habitats and Fisheries Resources Within No-Take Marine Protected Areas: Hands-On Approaches to Support Community-Based Coral Reef Management

    OpenAIRE

    Bowden-Kerby, A.

    2003-01-01

    Of the planet’s 600,000 km2 of coral reefs (Jameson et al., 1995), roughly 70-80% are located in developing countries. Many of these reefs are owned or controlled by indigenous fishing communities rather than national or state governments. These rural fishing communities are a primary force of destruction to coral reefs on a global scale (Wilkinson, 1998), therefore their involvement in the management and conservation of coral reefs will be an essential part of reversing coral ...

  20. Use of preventive measures of childhood injuries at household level: Community-based findings from Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Pant, P. R.; Towner, E.; Ellis, M; Pilkington, P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Child injuries are a major public health problem in low- and middle- income countries but they are\\ud not recognised at policy or community level. Prevention of injuries is neglected due to lack of awareness. Only a\\ud few community-based studies have been conducted to explore this problem.\\ud Objectives: To explore the practice of safety measures applied by the household after childhood injury among the\\ud survey households of Makwanpur.\\ud Methods: A community-based household ...

  1. Information Processing and Retrieval in Arab Countries: Traditional Approaches and Modern Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, M. A. K.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses underlying assumptions and prerequisites for information development in Arab countries. Administrative and environmental impediments which hinder the optimum utilization of available resources and suggestions for improvements are outlined. A brief bibliography is provided. (Author/RAA)

  2. Random matrix approach to group correlations in development country financial market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qohar, Ulin Nuha Abdul; Lim, Kyuseong; Kim, Soo Yong; Liong, The Houw; Purqon, Acep

    2015-12-01

    Financial market is a borderless economic activity, everyone in this world has the right to participate in stock transactions. The movement of stocks is interesting to be discussed in various sciences, ranging from economists to mathe-maticians try to explain and predict the stock movement. Econophysics, as a discipline that studies the economic behavior using one of the methods in particle physics to explain stock movement. Stocks tend to be unpredictable probabilistic regarded as a probabilistic particle. Random Matrix Theory is one method used to analyze probabilistic particle is used to analyze the characteristics of the movement in the stock collection of developing country stock market shares of the correlation matrix. To obtain the characteristics of the developing country stock market and use characteristics of stock markets of developed countries as a parameter for comparison. The result shows market wide effect is not happened in Philipine market and weak in Indonesia market. Contrary, developed country (US) has strong market wide effect.

  3. Reflections on Ideological Consistency between Community-Based Research and Counselling Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Gregory E.

    2009-01-01

    Community-based research (CBR) and counselling practice share multiple skill sets and ideological tenets. In addition, CBR offers an approach to research that can be highly conducive to effective counselling-related research. Despite these consistencies and benefits, counsellors and counselling students have underutilized this approach to…

  4. Experience of Climate Change Adaptation; Emic Perception of Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction Programs in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathana peou van den Heuvel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Over 40 years (I/ NGOs together with the Government of Bangladesh (GoB have been working to build the capacity of population at risk to cope with natural disasters. From a response rationale to preparedness one, (I/NGOs together with the GoB struggled to integrate adaptation frame into Disaster Risk Reduction program. Those initial steps were mainly lead by a top down approach. Bangladesh usually pointed as the most vulnerable country in the world, has a long history of different frame of actions and practices toward building both community and individual resilience. Structural poverty and low good governance mechanisms are just some of the factors that jeopardize the gains of development project in general in Bangladesh. Donors and (I/NGO play major roles by shaping not only the national discourse but as well by leading the practices and the methodology that needs to be used at the field. Within couple of years, community based approach has been largely adopted by different institutions as being the right way to deliver intervention that aims at reducing the vulnerability and the enhancing the resilience. It is in this context that this paper offers an insight on how DRR and adaptation is translated at the field level. Through an emic perspective this research aims at confronting the realities of the practices of DRR/ Adaptation by (I/NGOs to the discourse that they communicate.

  5. Is health care a necessary or luxury product for Asian countries? An answer using panel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, S M; Siddiqua, Salina; Huque, Rumana

    2017-12-01

    A number of studies have estimated the income elasticity of health care expenditure to identify whether health care is a necessary or luxury product. However, the issue has received less attention in developing countries, especially in Asian economies. The current study for the first time has used the panel data covering 36 Asian countries for the period 1995-2013 for revealing the nature of health care as a product. Along with conventional econometric techniques we have addressed the issue of cross section dependence and used Westerlund (2007) panel cointegration test which is robust against cross section dependence and heterogeneity for detecting the presence of panel cointegration. By applying Fully Modified OLS (FMOLS) and Dynamic OLS (DOLS) it was found that the long run elasticity of Health Care Expenditure (HCE) with Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is less than unit implying that the health care can be regarded as necessary in nature for these countries.

  6. Country Risk: An Empirical Approach to Estirnate the Probability of Default in Emergent markets'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Camargo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have suggested a new methodology to estimate the probability of defaultof a country as a function of other macroeconomics variables. Such methodologyis based in the valuation of the prices in the secondary market of bonds issued by debtorcountries. We have chosen the Brady bonds because their institutional characteristicsdo not depend on the issuer country, which allows us to build a homogeneouspanel. The methodology proposed takes elements of traditional models such as thefunctional structure of the probability and elernents of term structure models. The paperdemonstrates a new way to extract sovereign nsk, implicit in trade bond prices.

  7. "Was it a mistake to tell others that you are infected with HIV?": factors associated with regret following HIV disclosure among people living with HIV in five countries (Mali, Morocco, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador and Romania). Results from a community-based research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Emilie; Bernier, Adeline; Lazar, Florin; Matamba, Gaspard; Loukid, Mohamed; Bonifaz, Cesar; Diop, Samba; Otis, Joanne; Préau, Marie

    2015-02-01

    This study examined regret following HIV serostatus disclosure and associated factors in under-investigated contexts (Mali, Morocco, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador and Romania). A community-based cross-sectional study was implemented by a mixed consortium [researchers/community-based organizations (CBO)]. Trained CBO members interviewed 1,500 PLHIV in contact with CBOs using a 125-item questionnaire. A weighted multivariate logistic regression was performed. Among the 1,212 participants included in the analysis, 290 (23.9 %) declared that disclosure was a mistake. Female gender, percentage of PLHIV's network knowing about one's seropositivity from a third party, having suffered rejection after disclosure, having suffered HIV-based discrimination at work, perceived seriousness of infection score, daily loneliness, property index and self-esteem score were independently associated with regret. Discrimination, as well as individual characteristics and skills may affect the disclosure experience. Interventions aiming at improving PLHIV skills and reducing their social isolation may facilitate the disclosure process and avoid negative consequences.

  8. Evaluating complex community-based health promotion: addressing the challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Gwyneth

    2014-08-01

    Community-based health promotion is poorly theorised and lacks an agreed evidence-base. This paper examines characteristics of community-based health promotion and the challenges they present to evaluation. A review of health promotion evaluation leads to an exploration of more recent approaches, drawing on ideas from complexity theory and developmental evaluation. A reflexive analysis of three program evaluations previously undertaken as an evaluation consultant is used to develop a conceptual model to help in the design and conduct of health promotion evaluation. The model is further explored by applying it retrospectively to one evaluation. Findings suggest that the context-contingent nature of health promotion programs; turbulence in the community context and players; multiple stakeholders, goals and strategies; and uncertainty of outcomes all contribute to the complexity of interventions. Bringing together insights from developmental evaluation and complexity theory can help to address some evaluation challenges. The proposed model emphasises recognising and responding to changing contexts and emerging outcomes, providing rapid feedback and facilitating reflexive practice. This will enable the evaluator to gain a better understanding of the influence of context and other implementation factors in a complex setting. Use of the model should contribute to building cumulative evidence and knowledge in order to identify the principles of health promotion effectiveness that may be transferable to new situations.

  9. The local community development and the community-based tourism : a comparative conceptual analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie PARENT

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the authors of this paper, mass tourism does not generate the development of local communities but rather their devitalization. This paper presents a cross-literature survey on community-based tourism and local community development. It proposes some links between these two approaches and asserts that community-based tourism can be a strategy to trigger local community development. It address the conditions under which the convergence of these two approaches may allow the launching of development initiatives liable to counter the devitalization and impoverishment process which characterizes certain mass tourism oriented places.

  10. A Hybrid Multidimensional Approach to Select a Country for Global Cement Plant Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khurram Ali

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The globalization and saturated domestic markets force international firms to gradually expand their businesses across the borders to capture potential emerging markets. The decision to select a country for a new cement plant location demands analysis of a large number of factors. It is a multifaceted problem which requires investigation and prioritization of factors in a hierarchical way.This paper uses an FAHP (Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process based procedure proposing a practical framework for solution of the GCPLP (Global Cement Plant Location Problem. It deals with real world ambiguities and handles a broader spectrum of influencing factors. The criteria for selection of a country for a new cement plant installation are prioritized from the FAHP based evaluation made by experts. Different global databases including the World Bank are used for the fuzzy ratings of the alternatives. It has been learnt in this particular problem that cement specific and cost related factors are the most sensitive while legal regulations and economic conditions are relatively less sensitive for the decision makers. Therefore, the countries having strong lime stone reserves, cheaper fuel costs and good internal marketing positions are higher in ranking. The paper concludes with different rankings of the four countries analyzed which assist the strategic managers in making decisions on the basis of mathematically computed results.

  11. Methodological Demonstration of a Text Analytics Approach to Country Logistics System Assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinra, Aseem; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2017-01-01

    machine learning techniques while controlling both for 4 different time periods in the world FDI trends, and the different geographic and economic country affiliations. We report illustrative findings followed by a presentation of the separation of concerns/division of labor between the domain expert...

  12. Do Country Stereotypes Exist in PISA? A Clustering Approach for Large, Sparse, and Weighted Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Mirka; Kärkkäinen, Tommi

    2015-01-01

    Certain stereotypes can be associated with people from different countries. For example, the Italians are expected to be emotional, the Germans functional, and the Chinese hard-working. In this study, we cluster all 15-year-old students representing the 68 different nations and territories that participated in the latest Programme for…

  13. A standardized approach to qualitative content analysis of focus group discussions from different countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moretti, F.; Vliet, L. van; Bensing, J.; Deledda, G.; Mazzi, M.; Rimondini, M.; Zimmermann, C.; Fletcher, I.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the methodological procedures of a multi-centre focus group research for obtaining content categories also suitable for categorical statistical analyses. METHODS: Inductive content analyses were performed on a subsample of 27 focus groups conducted in three different countries

  14. A standardized approach to qualitative content analysis of focus group discussions from different countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moretti, F.; Vliet, L. van; Bensing, J.; Deledda, G.; Mazzi, M.; Rimondini, M.; Zimmermann, C.; Fletcher, I.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the methodological procedures of a multi-centre focus group research for obtaining content categories also suitable for categorical statistical analyses. METHODS: Inductive content analyses were performed on a subsample of 27 focus groups conducted in three different countries

  15. Can an integrated approach reduce child vulnerability to anaemia? Evidence from three African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra Siekmans

    Full Text Available Addressing the complex, multi-factorial causes of childhood anaemia is best done through integrated packages of interventions. We hypothesized that due to reduced child vulnerability, a "buffering" of risk associated with known causes of anaemia would be observed among children living in areas benefiting from a community-based health and nutrition program intervention. Cross-sectional data on the nutrition and health status of children 24-59 mo (N=2405 were obtained in 2000 and 2004 from program evaluation surveys in Ghana, Malawi and Tanzania. Linear regression models estimated the association between haemoglobin and immediate, underlying and basic causes of child anaemia and variation in this association between years. Lower haemoglobin levels were observed in children assessed in 2000 compared to 2004 (difference -3.30 g/L, children from Tanzania (-9.15 g/L and Malawi (-2.96 g/L compared to Ghana, and the youngest (24-35 mo compared to oldest age group (48-59 mo; -5.43 g/L. Children who were stunted, malaria positive and recently ill also had lower haemoglobin, independent of age, sex and other underlying and basic causes of anaemia. Despite ongoing morbidity, risk of lower haemoglobin decreased for children with malaria and recent illness, suggesting decreased vulnerability to their anaemia-producing effects. Stunting remained an independent and unbuffered risk factor. Reducing chronic undernutrition is required in order to further reduce child vulnerability and ensure maximum impact of anaemia control programs. Buffering the impact of child morbidity on haemoglobin levels, including malaria, may be achieved in certain settings.

  16. Community-based shared values as a 'Heart-ware' driver for integrated watershed management: Japan-Malaysia policy learning perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Zeeda Fatimah; Nasaruddin, Affan; Abd Kadir, Siti Norasiah; Musa, Mohd Noor; Ong, Benjamin; Sakai, Nobumitsu

    2015-11-01

    This paper explores the case for using "community-based shared values" as a potential driver for the "Heartware" aspects of governance in Integrated Watershed Management (IWM) - from a Japan-Malaysia policy learning perspective. This policy approach was originally inspired by the Japanese experience, and the paper investigates whether a similar strategy can be adapted in the Malaysian context-based on a qualitative exploratory case study of a local downstream watershed community. The community-based shared values are categorized into six functional values that can be placed on a watershed: industry, ecosystem, lifestyle, landscape, water resource and spirituality. The study confirmed the availability of a range of community-based shared values in each category that are promising to drive the heartware for integrated watershed management in the local Malaysian context. However, most of these shared values are either declining in its appreciation or nostalgic in nature. The paper ends with findings on key differences and similarities between the Malaysian and Japanese contexts, and concludes with lessons for international transfer of IWM heartware policy strategies between the two countries.

  17. Community-Based Participatory Research Integrates Behavioral and Biological Research to Achieve Health Equity for Native Hawaiians

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Townsend, Claire K M; Dillard, Adrienne; Hosoda, Kelsea K; Maskarinec, Gregory G; Maunakea, Alika K; Yoshimura, Sheryl R; Hughes, Claire; Palakiko, Donna-Marie; Kehauoha, Bridget Puni; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku

    2016-01-01

    .... The purpose of this paper is to describe the community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and research process we employed to integrate behavior and biological sciences with community health priorities...

  18. A Life-cycle Approach to Improve the Sustainability of Rural Water Systems in Resource-Limited Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Stacey

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A WHO and UNICEF joint report states that in 2008, 884 million people lacked access to potable drinking water. A life-cycle approach to develop potable water systems may improve the sustainability for such systems, however, a review of the literature shows that such an approach has primarily been used for urban systems located in resourced countries. Although urbanization is increasing globally, over 40 percent of the world’s population is currently rural with many considered poor. In this paper, we present a first step towards using life-cycle assessment to develop sustainable rural water systems in resource-limited countries while pointing out the needs. For example, while there are few differences in costs and environmental impacts for many improved rural water system options, a system that uses groundwater with community standpipes is substantially lower in cost that other alternatives with a somewhat lower environmental inventory. However, a LCA approach shows that from institutional as well as community and managerial perspectives, sustainability includes many other factors besides cost and environment that are a function of the interdependent decision process used across the life cycle of a water system by aid organizations, water user committees, and household users. These factors often present the biggest challenge to designing sustainable rural water systems for resource-limited countries.

  19. Community-based natural resource management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treue, Thorsten; Nathan, Iben

    ) and how this concept may be used as a development strategy. CBNRM has the triple objective of poverty reduction, natural resource conservation and good governance. The opportunity and challenge is to pursue these objectives simultaneously, as they are not, by default, mutually supportive. Lessons learnt...... from CBNRM will be useful when designing community-based climate adaptation strategies. Thus, this note is a contribution to an ongoing debate as well as a product of the long-standing experiences of Danida's environmental portfolio. CBNRM is not a stand-alone solution to secure poverty reduction......, resource conservation and good governance, and whether other resource management systems would be better will always be subject to context analysis and political debate. Accordingly, CBNRM is rather a development process and constant power struggle. Thus, even after years of implementation, donors...

  20. A Country Specific Approach To IFRS Accounting Policy Choice In The European, Australian And Turkish Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalan Akdogan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available IAS 8 defines the concept of accounting policy as "the specific principles, bases, conventions, rules and practices applied by an entity in preparing and presenting financial statements". Within the framework of this concept, this research that is derived from International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS contributes to the accounting literature by focusing on the alternative accounting policies' debate related to presentation and recognition issues in the European, Australian and Turkish context and concludes that there is an influence of local accounting policies over IFRS practice in Turkey and this influence still exists in Europe and Australia. This shows that as long as diversity in accounting policies of IFRS is present, entities are expected to be inclined to select their local accounting policies by leading to comparability of financial statements within the country rather than between countries in the IFRS context.

  1. An approach to burnout and job characteristics of Spanish emigrants in European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Vallejo-Martín

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Job characteristics (both external and job content in Spanish migrant population in European countries (The United Kingdom and Germany and their connection with the three dimensions of burnout syndrome were analyzed in this study. It was also assessed whether these variables were predictors of life satisfaction. Using a sample made up of 679 people, results showed that the worse the job characteristics (external and job content characteristics, the higher the levels of emotional exhaustion and cynicism and the lower the professional efficacy (and vice versa. Likewise, among other findings, differences in burnout dimensions and job content characteristics according to the match between job and training level and time of residence in the country of destination were observed. Finally, job characteristics, cynicism, and professional efficacy were found to be predictors of life satisfaction, but not emotional exhaustion.

  2. FOOD SELF-SUFFICIENCY OF THE EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRIES – ENERGETIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Sadowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper covers the issues of a basic social need, namely alimentation. The aim of the research is to evaluate the energetic food self-sufficiency and its changes in the European Union countries. The research has been conducted using the author’s methodology basing on the amount of energy produced and consumed in 1990-2009. The analyses proved that within the considered period, the European Union became an importer of net energy comprised in agricultural products. The excess in produced energy was mainly observed by the countries of European lowland. Moreover in most of the countries, a decrease in the analyzed factor was observed when compared with the 1990-1999 period. On the other hand, in relation to the new member states the increase in food energetic self-sufficiency was observed. The conclusion has been drawn that, while the general food self-sufficiency is mainly determined by environmental factors, its dynamics is primarily influenced by the factors connected with agricultural policy.

  3. Economic growth-electricity consumption causality in 12 European countries. A dynamic panel data approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciarreta, A. [Department of Economic Analysis II, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Avda, Lehendakari Aguirre, 83, 48015 Bilbao (Spain); Zarraga, A. [Department of Applied Economics III, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Avda, Lehendakari Aguirre, 83, 48015 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    This paper applies recent panel methodology to investigate the long-run and causal relationship between electricity consumption and real GDP for a set of 12 European countries using annual data for the period 1970-2007. The sample countries have moved faster than other neighboring countries towards the creation of a single electricity market over the past 30 years. Energy prices are also included in the study due to their important role in affecting the above variables, thus avoiding the problem of omitted variable bias. Tests for panel unit roots, cointegration in heterogeneous panels and panel causality are employed in a trivariate VECM estimated by system GMM. The results show evidence of a long-run equilibrium relationship between the three series and a negative short-run and strong causality from electricity consumption to GDP. As expected, there is bidirectional causality between energy prices and GDP and weaker evidence between electricity consumption and energy prices. These results support the policies implemented towards the creation of a common European electricity market. (author)

  4. Economic growth-electricity consumption causality in 12 European countries: A dynamic panel data approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciarreta, A., E-mail: aitor.ciarreta@ehu.e [Department of Economic Analysis II, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Avda, Lehendakari Aguirre, 83, 48015 Bilbao (Spain); Zarraga, A., E-mail: ainhoa.zarraga@ehu.e [Department of Applied Economics III, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Avda, Lehendakari Aguirre, 83, 48015 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    This paper applies recent panel methodology to investigate the long-run and causal relationship between electricity consumption and real GDP for a set of 12 European countries using annual data for the period 1970-2007. The sample countries have moved faster than other neighboring countries towards the creation of a single electricity market over the past 30 years. Energy prices are also included in the study due to their important role in affecting the above variables, thus avoiding the problem of omitted variable bias. Tests for panel unit roots, cointegration in heterogeneous panels and panel causality are employed in a trivariate VECM estimated by system GMM. The results show evidence of a long-run equilibrium relationship between the three series and a negative short-run and strong causality from electricity consumption to GDP. As expected, there is bidirectional causality between energy prices and GDP and weaker evidence between electricity consumption and energy prices. These results support the policies implemented towards the creation of a common European electricity market.

  5. Challenges of Biopiracy: Implementing Community Based Ecotourism (CBET in the Sri Lankan context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.I.G.C. Kumara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractProtecting the right of the local community/country to use their own genetic resourcesavailable in a particular area is an important element of environmental and biodiversityconservation. However, one of the biggest biodiversity conservation challenges faced bysouthern peripheral countries is biopiracy and related issues. Community based ecotourism(CBET is a well-established concept and its implementation is an important component in manyregional development strategies. This research argues that though CBET which originated as awestern concept has been successfully applied in number of projects, it generates biopiracychallenges in its implementation when CBET operates within different geo-political, economicand cultural contexts. This research examines such challenges to CBET initiatives in theSinharaja world heritage site, Sri Lanka. A qualitative-inductive research methodology hasprincipally guided this research to examine the socio-cultural and socio-economic context ofbiopiracy issues. A total of 293 participants have informed this research including 193interviews. A critical discourse analysis (CDA method is used to examine both primaryqualitative data collected through participant and direct observation, interviews and secondarydata. One of the main findings is that despite plans being developed at a community level, inwider context, challenges of biopiracy related to superimposed capitalism contest CBETideologies. Superimposed capitalism results in individualistic and competitive behaviours thatundermine collaborative and responsible community approach. Presently, smuggling out ofWallapatta plant (Gyrinops walla and gathering of Spotted bowfinger gecko (Cyrtodactylustriedra which is an endemic nocturnal reptile species have become profitable in KudawaSinharajasite and a growing number of biopirates venture into here. Local community of this sitetakes risks in forest genetic resources smuggling because it provides them with the

  6. Integrated community-based dementia care: the Geriant model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludo Glimmerveen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an in-depth description of the service delivery model of Geriant, a Dutch organization providing community-based care services for people suffering from dementia. Core to its model is the provision of clinical case management, embedded in multidisciplinary dementia care teams. As Geriant's client group includes people from the first presumption of dementia until they can no longer live at home, its care model provides valuable lessons about how different mechanisms of integration are flexibly put to use if the complexity of clients” care needs increases. It showcases how the integration of services for a specific sub-population is combined with alignment of these services with generalist network partners. After a detailed description of the programme and its results, this article builds on the work of Walter Leutz for a conceptual discussion of Geriant's approach to care integration. 

  7. Exploring potential mortality reductions in 9 European countries by improving diet and lifestyle: A modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flaherty, M.; Bandosz, P.; Critchley, J.; Capewell, S.; Guzman-Castillo, M.; Aspelund, T.; Bennett, K.; Kabir, K.; Björck, L.; Bruthans, J.; Hotchkiss, J.W.; Hughes, J.; Laatikainen, T.; Palmieri, L.; Zdrojewski, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) death rates have fallen across most of Europe in recent decades. However, substantial risk factor reductions have not been achieved across all Europe. Our aim was to quantify the potential impact of future policy scenarios on diet and lifestyle on CHD mortality in 9 European countries. Methods We updated the previously validated IMPACT CHD models in 9 European countries and extended them to 2010–11 (the baseline year) to predict reductions in CHD mortality to 2020(ages 25–74 years). We compared three scenarios: conservative, intermediate and optimistic on smoking prevalence (absolute decreases of 5%, 10% and 15%); saturated fat intake (1%, 2% and 3% absolute decreases in % energy intake, replaced by unsaturated fats); salt (relative decreases of 10%, 20% and 30%), and physical inactivity (absolute decreases of 5%, 10% and 15%). Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. Results Under the conservative, intermediate and optimistic scenarios, we estimated 10.8% (95% CI: 7.3–14.0), 20.7% (95% CI: 15.6–25.2) and 29.1% (95% CI: 22.6–35.0) fewer CHD deaths in 2020. For the optimistic scenario, 15% absolute reductions in smoking could decrease CHD deaths by 8.9%–11.6%, Salt intake relative reductions of 30% by approximately 5.9–8.9%; 3% reductions in saturated fat intake by 6.3–7.5%, and 15% absolute increases in physical activity by 3.7–5.3%. Conclusions Modest and feasible policy-based reductions in cardiovascular risk factors (already been achieved in some other countries) could translate into substantial reductions in future CHD deaths across Europe. However, this would require the European Union to more effectively implement powerful evidence-based prevention policies. PMID:26812643

  8. Scaling up a community-based program for maternal and child nutrition in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winichagoon, Pattanee

    2014-06-01

    The first national nutrition survey of Thailand in 1960 revealed that malnutrition among children and women in this rice-exporting country was highly prevalent. Malnutrition received national-level attention in the 1970s, when a national multisectoral nutrition plan was included in the Fourth National Economic and Social Development Plan (NESDP) (1977-81), followed by effective implementation through Thailand's primary healthcare system and poverty alleviation plan in the 1982-87 NESDP. Nutrition was embedded into primary healthcare, and a community-based nutrition program was successfully implemented through community participation via manpower mobilization and capacity-building, financing, and organization. Growth-monitoring, promotion of infant and young child feeding, and joint financing (government and community) of a nutrition fund were implemented. The poverty alleviation plan made it possible to streamline resource allocations at the national level down to priority poverty areas, which also facilitated microlevel planning. Effective, integrated actions were undertaken using the basic minimum needs approach, wherein community people identified problems and participated in actions with inputs from government personnel. This effective process took about 5 years to put in place. In response, child undernutrition declined significantly. Severe malnutrition was practically eradicated, and it remains resilient despite social and economic challenges, such as the Asian economic crisis in 1977. Currently, stunting and subclinical micronutrient deficiencies remain, while overweight and obesity among children are rising rapidly. A different paradigm and strategy will be essential to address the nation's current nutrition challenges.

  9. Something New in the Air: Paying for Community-Based Environmental Approaches to Asthma Prevention and Control: Work Group Report of the Practice, Diagnostics and Therapeutics Committee of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschudy, Megan M; Sharfstein, Joshua; Matsui, Elizabeth; Barnes, Charles S; Chacker, Stacey; Codina, Rosa; Cohn, John R; Sandel, Megan; Wedner, H James

    2017-02-10

    Despite the recommendation in national asthma guidelines to target indoor environmental exposures, most insurers generally have not covered the outreach, education, environmental assessments, or durable goods integral to home environmental interventions. Emerging payment approaches, however, offer new potential for coverage of home-based environmental intervention costs. These opportunities are becoming available as public and private insurers shift reimbursement to reward better health outcomes and their key characteristic is a focus on the value rather than the volume of services. These new payment models for environmental interventions can be divided into two categories: enhanced fee-for-service reimbursement and set payments per patient that cover asthma-related costs. Several pilot programs across the United States are underway, and as they prove their value and as payment increasingly becomes aligned with better outcomes at lower cost, these efforts should have a bright future. Physicians should be aware that these new possibilities are emerging for payment of the goods and services needed for indoor environmental interventions for their patients with asthma.

  10. Framework for Analyzing Community-Based Enterprise (CBE): Literature review of organizational architecture and organizational performance

    OpenAIRE

    Soviana, Soviana

    2013-01-01

    Community-based enterprise (CBE) has increasingly been acknowledged as a potential solution for environmental-poverty problems in developing countries. However, the imprecision of how the CBE is defined and the lack of clarity regarding the organization of CBE have posed a challenge of identifying effective way to successfully implement the CBE model. These facts have become the motivation of conducting research in this topic. The aim of this working paper is to present a literature review re...

  11. Community-based capital cash transfer to support orphans in Western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovdal, Morten; Mwasiaji, W.; Morrison, J.

    2008-01-01

    Various types of 'cash transfer' are currently receiving much attention as a way of helping orphans and vulnerable children in Africa. Drawing on a qualitative study conducted in Western Kenya, this paper points to the strategy of community-based capital cash transfers (CCCT) as a particularly...... that the programme not only increased food availability, but also enhanced social capital. Further research is needed to explore the potential of CCCT in supporting orphans and vulnerable children in countries with high orphanhood rates....

  12. Approaches to the international standards application in healthcare and public health in different countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Sarancha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of consequent development, and guided by an increasing demand of different types of the organizations regarding structured management, the system of standardization has been established. The idea behind standardization is adjusting the characteristics of a product, process or a production cycle to make them consistent and in line with the rules regarding what is proper and acceptable. The “standard” is a document that specifies such established set of criteria covering a broad range of topics and applicable to commissioners of health, specialists in primary care, public health staff, and social care providers, as well as the local authorities and service users. Health products, ranging from medical devices and health informatics to traditional medicines and unconventional healing tools are all in the focus of standards’ application. Different countries have their own quality management traditions based on their history, mentality, socio-economic environment and the local regulations. Taking into consideration that community social system organization and the quality of social infrastructure are the main foundations of social relations and future prosperity, here we review the existing standardization environment in the health sector in different countries, both developed and those on a convergence path. We focused on standardization environment in the United States of America, Great Britain, Germany, Ukraine, Russian Federation, Croatia and Albania. In order to simplify comprehension, we also demonstrate the algorithm of standardization, as well as the opportunities for application of the international standards in healthcare and public health.

  13. Comparing internal migration across the countries of Latin America: A multidimensional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Aude; Rowe, Francisco; Bell, Martin; Ueffing, Philipp; Charles-Edwards, Elin

    2017-01-01

    While considerable progress has been made in understanding the way particular aspects of internal migration, such as its intensity, age profile and spatial impact, vary between countries around the world, little attention to date has been given to establishing how these dimensions of migration interact in different national settings. We use recently developed measures of internal migration that are scale-independent to compare the overall intensity, age composition, spatial impact, and distance profile of internal migration in 19 Latin American countries. Comparisons reveal substantial cross-national variation but cluster analysis suggests the different dimensions of migration evolve systematically to form a broad sequence characterised by low intensities, young ages at migration, unbalanced flows and high friction of distance at lower levels of development, trending to high intensities, an older age profile of migration, more closely balanced flows and lower friction of distance at later stages of development. However, the transition is not linear and local contingencies, such as international migration and political control, often distort the migration-development nexus, leading to unique migration patterns in individual national contexts.

  14. Community Hospitals in Selected High Income Countries: A Scoping Review of Approaches and Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor M Winpenny

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is no single definition of a community hospital in the UK, despite its long history. We sought to understand the nature and scope of service provision in community hospitals, within the UK and other high-income countries. Methods: We undertook a scoping review of literature on community hospitals published from 2005 to 2014. Data were extracted on features of the hospital model and the services provided, with results presented as a narrative synthesis. Results: 75 studies were included from ten countries. Community hospitals provide a wide range of services, with wide diversity of provision appearing to reflect local needs. Community hospitals are staffed by a mixture of general practitioners (GPs, nurses, allied health professionals and healthcare assistants. We found many examples of collaborative working arrangements between community hospitals and other health care organisations, including colocation of services, shared workforce with primary care and close collaboration with acute specialists. Conclusions: Community hospitals are able to provide a diverse range of services, responding to geographical and health system contexts. Their collaborative nature may be particularly important in the design of future models of care delivery, where emphasis is placed on integration of care with a key focus on patient-centred care.

  15. Determinants of Health Service Responsiveness in Community-Based Vector Surveillance for Chagas Disease in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Hashimoto

    Full Text Available Central American countries face a major challenge in the control of Triatoma dimidiata, a widespread vector of Chagas disease that cannot be eliminated. The key to maintaining the risk of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi at lowest levels is to sustain surveillance throughout endemic areas. Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras integrated community-based vector surveillance into local health systems. Community participation was effective in detection of the vector, but some health services had difficulty sustaining their response to reports of vectors from the population. To date, no research has investigated how best to maintain and reinforce health service responsiveness, especially in resource-limited settings.We reviewed surveillance and response records of 12 health centers in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras from 2008 to 2012 and analyzed the data in relation to the volume of reports of vector infestation, local geography, demography, human resources, managerial approach, and results of interviews with health workers. Health service responsiveness was defined as the percentage of households that reported vector infestation for which the local health service provided indoor residual spraying of insecticide or educational advice. Eight potential determinants of responsiveness were evaluated by linear and mixed-effects multi-linear regression. Health service responsiveness (overall 77.4% was significantly associated with quarterly monitoring by departmental health offices. Other potential determinants of responsiveness were not found to be significant, partly because of short- and long-term strategies, such as temporary adjustments in manpower and redistribution of tasks among local participants in the effort.Consistent monitoring within the local health system contributes to sustainability of health service responsiveness in community-based vector surveillance of Chagas disease. Even with limited resources, countries can improve health

  16. Determinants of Health Service Responsiveness in Community-Based Vector Surveillance for Chagas Disease in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ken; Zúniga, Concepción; Romero, Eduardo; Morales, Zoraida; Maguire, James H

    2015-01-01

    Central American countries face a major challenge in the control of Triatoma dimidiata, a widespread vector of Chagas disease that cannot be eliminated. The key to maintaining the risk of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi at lowest levels is to sustain surveillance throughout endemic areas. Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras integrated community-based vector surveillance into local health systems. Community participation was effective in detection of the vector, but some health services had difficulty sustaining their response to reports of vectors from the population. To date, no research has investigated how best to maintain and reinforce health service responsiveness, especially in resource-limited settings. We reviewed surveillance and response records of 12 health centers in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras from 2008 to 2012 and analyzed the data in relation to the volume of reports of vector infestation, local geography, demography, human resources, managerial approach, and results of interviews with health workers. Health service responsiveness was defined as the percentage of households that reported vector infestation for which the local health service provided indoor residual spraying of insecticide or educational advice. Eight potential determinants of responsiveness were evaluated by linear and mixed-effects multi-linear regression. Health service responsiveness (overall 77.4%) was significantly associated with quarterly monitoring by departmental health offices. Other potential determinants of responsiveness were not found to be significant, partly because of short- and long-term strategies, such as temporary adjustments in manpower and redistribution of tasks among local participants in the effort. Consistent monitoring within the local health system contributes to sustainability of health service responsiveness in community-based vector surveillance of Chagas disease. Even with limited resources, countries can improve health service

  17. Shifting Boundaries: The Challenge of Assessing MTech Community-Based-Visual Arts Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, K.

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to interrogate possible assessment problems arising from a community-based-research mode of research and consider some of the assessment approaches that generate scepticism among some examiners, and endorsement from others. The article explores specific challenges in supervising, accommodating and evaluating diverse candidates…

  18. A Cervical Cancer Community-Based Participatory Research Project in a Native American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun

    2008-01-01

    The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a…

  19. Predictors of quality of life of people receiving intensive community-based care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerink, P.M.J.; Roeg, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Intensive community-based care (ICBC) is a home-treatment approach aiming to support people ‘living in the community’ with severe psychiatric and addiction problems. Although subjective quality of life (SQOL) is an increasingly important outcome measure in health care, little is known on ICB

  20. A Cervical Cancer Community-Based Participatory Research Project in a Native American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun

    2008-01-01

    The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a…

  1. Identifying Effective Methods of Instruction for Adult Emergent Readers through Community-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmer, Rachel; Hayes-Harb, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    We present a community-based research project aimed at identifying effective methods and materials for teaching English literacy skills to adult English as a second language emergent readers. We conducted a quasi-experimental study whereby we evaluated the efficacy of two approaches, one based on current practices at the English Skills Learning…

  2. Identifying Effective Methods of Instruction for Adult Emergent Readers through Community-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmer, Rachel; Hayes-Harb, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    We present a community-based research project aimed at identifying effective methods and materials for teaching English literacy skills to adult English as a second language emergent readers. We conducted a quasi-experimental study whereby we evaluated the efficacy of two approaches, one based on current practices at the English Skills Learning…

  3. Community-Based School Finance and Accountability: A New Era for Local Control in Education Policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez Heilig, Julian; Ward, Derrick R.; Weisman, Eric; Cole, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Top-down accountability policies have arguably had very limited impact over the past 20 years. Education stakeholders are now contemplating new forms of bottom-up accountability. In 2013, policymakers in California enacted a community-based approach that creates the Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) process for school finance to increase…

  4. Community-Based Nursing versus Community Health Nursing: What Does It All Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotti, Marianne E.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Offers practice models for community-based nursing and community health nursing that demonstrate the different roles, philosophies, and activities of the two approaches. Points to curriculum changes that are needed to prepare students to practice in an increasingly community-oriented health care industry. (Author)

  5. Addressing Perinatal Disparities Using Community-Based Participatory Research: Data into Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masho, Saba; Keyser-Marcus, Lori; Varner, Sara; Singleton, Rose; Bradford, Judith; Chapman, Derek; Svikis, Dace

    2011-01-01

    Striking racial disparities in infant mortality exist in the United States, with rates of infant death among African Americans nearly twice the national average. Community-based participatory research approaches have been successful in fostering collaborative relationships between communities and researchers that are focused on developing…

  6. Factors Affecting Malnutrition in Developing Countries: A Linear Mixed Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohair F. Higazi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available  AbstractThe main objective of this study is to pinpoint the main factors that affect the percentage who suffers of malnutrition in developing countries. Three locations are randomly chosen: Asia, Africa, and Middle east and North Africa ( MENA; A total of 96 countries were chosen randomly from 137  developing countries of the three locations; and were cross classified by " Location" and  " Human Development Index (HDI as high, middle, and low (UNDP,  2005.  Data for the study was compiled from FAO (2005. The analysis started with seven explanatory variables and the dependent variable; however, stepwise regression reveals that the average Protein intake and Infant mortality rate were the only two significant variables. "Location and "HDI" are dummy coded and OLS regression is performed using the two significant variables, but the only significant variable was the "average protein intake". OLS multiple regression Model is re-applied to the data using dummy variables technique with interaction with the "average Protein intake", nine regression equations were reached.The Linear Mixed effect Models are also applied, using "location" as the random factor and "HDI" as the fixed factor. Five models were applied: (1 a null model (baseline modelwhere no predictors are introduced to the model; (2 the fixed model: where predictors used are the  covariate and the HDI; (3 the random model: where predictors used are  the covariate and Location ; (4 the mixed model: where predictors used are the covariate and the HDI I  ( fixed and the location( random; and (5 the random coefficient model: where predictors used are  the covariate ,  the HDI Index  and the location but produces different prediction equations that differ in slopes and intercepts. Models are compared based on information criterions. The random coefficient model produces the least criterion values and thus fits better than all previous ones. A comparison between the Random Coefficient

  7. Factors Affecting Malnutrition in Developing Countries: A Linear Mixed Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohair F. Higazi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available  AbstractThe main objective of this study is to pinpoint the main factors that affect the percentage who suffers of malnutrition in developing countries. Three locations are randomly chosen: Asia, Africa, and Middle east and North Africa ( MENA; A total of 96 countries were chosen randomly from 137  developing countries of the three locations; and were cross classified by " Location" and  " Human Development Index (HDI as high, middle, and low (UNDP,  2005.  Data for the study was compiled from FAO (2005. The analysis started with seven explanatory variables and the dependent variable; however, stepwise regression reveals that the average Protein intake and Infant mortality rate were the only two significant variables. "Location and "HDI" are dummy coded and OLS regression is performed using the two significant variables, but the only significant variable was the "average protein intake". OLS multiple regression Model is re-applied to the data using dummy variables technique with interaction with the "average Protein intake", nine regression equations were reached.The Linear Mixed effect Models are also applied, using "location" as the random factor and "HDI" as the fixed factor. Five models were applied: (1 a null model (baseline modelwhere no predictors are introduced to the model; (2 the fixed model: where predictors used are the  covariate and the HDI; (3 the random model: where predictors used are  the covariate and Location ; (4 the mixed model: where predictors used are the covariate and the HDI I  ( fixed and the location( random; and (5 the random coefficient model: where predictors used are  the covariate ,  the HDI Index  and the location but produces different prediction equations that differ in slopes and intercepts. Models are compared based on information criterions. The random coefficient model produces the least criterion values and thus fits better than all previous ones. A comparison between the Random Coefficient

  8. Implementing community-based education in basic nursing education programs in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Mtshali

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Education of health professionals using principles of community-based education is the recommended national policy in South Africa. A paradigm shift to community based education is reported in a number of nursing education institutions in South Africa. Reviewed literature however revealed that in some educational institutions planning, implementation and evaluation of Community-based Educational (CBE programmes tended to be haphazard, uncoordinated and ineffective, resulting in poor student motivation. Therefore the purpose of this study was to analyse the implementation of community-based education in basic nursing education programmes in South Africa. Strauss and Corbin’s (1990 grounded theory approach guided the research process. Data were collected by means of observation, interviews and document analysis. The findings revealed that collaborative decision-making involving all stakeholders was crucial especially during the curriculum planning phase. Furthermore, special criteria should be used when selecting community learning sites to ensure that the selected sites are able to facilitate the development of required graduate competencies. Collaborative effort, true partnership between academic institutions and communities, as well as government support and involvement emerged as necessary conditions for the successful implementation of community-based education programmes.

  9. Community-based knowledge transfer and exchange: Helping community-based organizations link research to action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavis John N

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based organizations (CBOs are important stakeholders in health systems and are increasingly called upon to use research evidence to inform their advocacy, program planning, and service delivery efforts. CBOs increasingly turn to community-based research (CBR given its participatory focus and emphasis on linking research to action. In order to further facilitate the use of research evidence by CBOs, we have developed a strategy for community-based knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE that helps CBOs more effectively link research evidence to action. We developed the strategy by: outlining the primary characteristics of CBOs and why they are important stakeholders in health systems; describing the concepts and methods for CBR and for KTE; comparing the efforts of CBR to link research evidence to action to those discussed in the KTE literature; and using the comparison to develop a framework for community-based KTE that builds on both the strengths of CBR and existing KTE frameworks. Discussion We find that CBR is particularly effective at fostering a climate for using research evidence and producing research evidence relevant to CBOs through community participation. However, CBOs are not always as engaged in activities to link research evidence to action on a larger scale or to evaluate these efforts. Therefore, our strategy for community-based KTE focuses on: an expanded model of 'linkage and exchange' (i.e., producers and users of researchers engaging in a process of asking and answering questions together; a greater emphasis on both producing and disseminating systematic reviews that address topics of interest to CBOs; developing a large-scale evidence service consisting of both 'push' efforts and efforts to facilitate 'pull' that highlight actionable messages from community relevant systematic reviews in a user-friendly way; and rigorous evaluations of efforts for linking research evidence to action. Summary

  10. A new approach for scientific data dissemination in developing countries: a case of Indonesia

    CERN Document Server

    Handoko, L T

    2007-01-01

    This short paper is intended as an additional progress report to share our experiences in Indonesia on collecting, integrating and disseminating both global and local scientific data across the country through the web technology. Our recent efforts are exerted on improving the local public access to the global scientific data, and on the other hand encouraging the local scientific data to be more accessible for the global communities. We have maintained well-connected infrastructure and some web-based information management systems to realize such objectives. This paper is especially focused on introducing the ARSIP for mirroring global as well as sharing local scientific data, and the newly developed Indonesian Scientific Index for integrating local scientific data through automated intelligent indexing system.

  11. Analysis of the Difficulties and Improvement Method on Introduction of PBL Approach in Developing Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Takasei; Sessa, Salvatore

    In the field of international cooperation, it is increasing to introduce Japanese engineering educational model in the developing country to improve the quality of education and research activity. A naive implementation of such model in different cultures and educational systems may lead to several problems. In this paper, we evaluated the Project Based Learning (PBL) class, developed at Waseda University in Japan, and employed to the Egyptian education context at the Egypt-Japan University of Science and Technology (E-JUST) . We found difficulties such as : non-homogeneous student’ s background, disconnection with the student’ s research, weak learning style adaptation, and irregular course conduction. To solve these difficulties at E-JUST, we proposed : the groupware introduction, project theme choice based on student’ s motivation, and curriculum modification.

  12. Measuring and decomposing output gap: A production function approach of the USA and EU-27 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domicián Máté

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The ICT-based techno-economic paradigm shift was sharpened by income inequalities in all over the world. The economic performance of USA and Europe were seemed to more different thanks to global economic events. The main purpose of this study is to estimate various macroeconomic variables such as GDP and labour for the period of 1993-2013. In order to indicate economic growth an alternative growth accounting method was used to decompose impacts of physical capital accumulation, technological changes and labour. Analysing the time series data of various OECD countries we could conclude that a large part of the variations in the output gap stem from the cyclical variations of total labour input and the total factor productivity (TFP. Hence, our results were reflected the relevance of technological progress.

  13. Mapping Heat-related Risks for Community-based Adaptation Planning under Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yingjiu; Kaneko, Ikuyo; Kobayashi, Hikaru; Kurihara, Kazuo; Sasaki, Hidetaka; Murata, Akihiko; Takayabu, Izuru

    2016-04-01

    ensemble of mean sea surface temperatures derived from the CMIP3 coupled GCMs. This contribution demonstrates how composite heat-related risk maps with a visualization of combined predicted population and the 5-km resolution climate projections, can be used in community-based adaptation planning in Japan. To test this approach, Tokyo (area 2190.9 km2; population 13.50 million as of 1 December 2015), a Japanese megacity, was chosen for a pilot study. Our challenges will be facilitated by the formation of research partnerships involving epidemiologists, climate scientists, and local stakeholders. Hopefully, the methodology could be transferred to developing countries to aid in planning heat adaptation.

  14. A new approach to nationwide sanitation planning for developing countries: Case study of Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstens, S M; Spiller, M; Leusbrock, I; Zeeman, G

    2016-04-15

    Many developing countries struggle to provide wastewater and solid waste services. The backlog in access has been partly attributed to the absence of a functional sanitation planning framework. Various planning tools are available; however a comprehensive framework that directly links a government policy to nationwide planning is missing. Therefore, we propose a framework to facilitate the nationwide planning process for the implementation of wastewater and solid waste services. The framework requires inputs from government planners and experts in the formulation of starting points and targets. Based on a limited number of indicators (population density, urban functions) three outputs are generated. The first output is a visualization of the spatial distribution of wastewater and solid waste systems to support regional priority setting in planning and create awareness. Secondly, the total number of people served, budget requirements and distribution of systems is determined. Thirdly, the required budget is allocated to the responsible institution to assure effective implementation. The determined budgets are specified by their beneficiaries, distinguishing urban, rural, poor and non-poor households. The framework was applied for Indonesia and outputs were adopted in the National Development Plan. The required budget to reach the Indonesian government's 2019 target was determined to be 25 billion US$ over 5years. The contribution from the national budget required a more than fivefold increase compared to the current budget allocation in Indonesia, corresponding to an increase from 0.5 to 2.7 billion US$ per year. The budget for campaigning, advocacy and institutional strengthening to enable implementation was determined to be 10% of the total budget. The proposed framework is not only suitable for Indonesia, but could also be applied to any developing country that aims to increase access to wastewater and solid waste facilities.

  15. Helicobacter pylori infection: approach of primary care physicians in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shah Hasnain

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and practices of primary care physicians in diagnosis and management of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection in developing country. Methods This convenient sample based, cross sectional study was conducted in primary care physicians of Karachi, Pakistan from March 2008 to August 2008 through a pretested self-designed questionnaire, which contained 11 items pertaining to H. pylori route of transmission, diagnosis, indication for testing, treatment options, follow up and source of information. Results Out of 509 primary care physicians, 451 consented to participate with the response rate of 88.6%. Responses of 426 primary care physicians were analyzed after excluding 19 physicians. 78% of the physicians thought that contaminated water was the source of spread of infection, dyspepsia was the most frequent indication for investigating H. pylori infection (67% of the physicians, while 43% physicians were of the view that serology was the most appropriate test to diagnose active H. pylori infection. 77% of physicians thought that gastric ulcer was the most compelling indication for treatment, 61% physicians preferred Clarithromycin based triple therapy for 7–14 days. 57% of the physicians would confirm H. pylori eradication after treatment in selected patients and 47% physicians preferred serological testing for follow-up. In case of treatment failure, only 36% of the physicians were in favor of gastroenterologist referral. Conclusion The primary care physicians in this study lacked in knowledge regarding management of H. pylori infection. Internationally published guidelines and World gastroenterology organization (WGO practice guideline on H. pylori for developing countries have little impact on current practices of primary care physicians. We recommend more teaching programs, continuous medical education activities regarding H. pylori infection.

  16. Optimising waste from electric and electronic equipment collection systems: a comparison of approaches in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning; Oberdörfer, Michael; Günther, Marko

    2015-03-01

    The first European waste from electric and electronic equipment directive obliged the Member States to collect 4 kg of used devices per inhabitant and year. The target of the amended directive focuses on the ratio between the amount of waste from electric and electronic equipment collected and the mass of electric and electronic devices put on the market in the three foregoing years. The minimum collection target is 45% starting in 2016, being increased to 65% in 2019 or alternatively 85% of waste from electric and electronic equipment generated. Being aware of the new target, the question arises how Member States with 'best practice' organise their collection systems and how they enforce the parties in this playing field. Therefore the waste from electric and electronic equipment schemes of Sweden, Denmark, Switzerland, Germany and the Flemish region of Belgium were investigated focusing on the categories IT and telecommunications equipment, consumer equipment like audio systems and discharge lamps containing hazardous substances, e.g. mercury. The systems for waste from electric and electronic equipment collection in these countries vary considerably. Recycling yards turned out to be the backbone of waste from electric and electronic equipment collection in most countries studied. For discharge lamps, take-back by retailers seems to be more important. Sampling points like special containers in shopping centres, lidded waste bins and complementary return of used devices in all retail shops for electric equipment may serve as supplements. High transparency of collection and recycling efforts can encourage ambition among the concerned parties. Though the results from the study cannot be transferred in a simplistic manner, they serve as an indication for best practice methods for waste from electric and electronic equipment collection.

  17. Developing community based rehabilitation for cancer survivors: Organizing for coordination and coherence in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Karen; Cutchin, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    Background. Increasing incidence of cancer combined with prolonged survival have raised the need for developing community based rehabilitation. The objectives of the analysis were to describe and interpret the key issues related to coordination and coherence of community-based cancer rehabilitation....... A Grounded Theory approach was used to analyze the data. Results. A lack of shared cultures among health care providers and systems of delivery was a primary barrier to collaboration which was essential for establishing coordination of care. Formal multidisciplinary steering committees, team......-based organization, and informal relationships were fundamental for developing coordination and coherence. Conclusions. Coordination and coherence in community-based rehabilitation relies on increased collaboration, which may best be optimized by use of shared frameworks within and across systems. Results highlight...

  18. Structured Mental Model Approach for Analyzing Perception of Risks to Rural Livelihood in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia R. Binder

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Structural Mental Model Approach aimed at understanding differences in perception between experts and farmers regarding the various livelihood risks farmers are confronted with. The SMMA combines the Sustainable Livelihood Framework with the Mental Model Approach and consists of three steps: (i definition and weighting of different livelihood capitals; (ii analysis of livelihood dynamics, and (iii definition of the social capital by means of agent networks. The results provide a sound basis for the design of sustainable policy interventions such as communication and educational programs which consider farmers’ priorities and viewpoints.

  19. [A country doctor: a proposal of an ethical approach in the 125th anniversary of Frank Kafka's birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Díaz, Jorge Alberto

    2008-01-01

    Within the framework of the 125 anniversary of the birth of Franz Kafka we discuss his work as a patient affected by tuberculosis. This essay outlines a review of Kafka as a writer and explains the meaning of the term "Kafkaesque". We put forward a commentary on the ethics expressed in a short story entitled A country doctor. An interpretation of Kafka must involve the notion of responsibility, a theological concept that is then followed by the legal context. Finally, Kafka embraces an ethical approach expressed in his work.

  20. Theorizing School-Based Language Activism in the Basque Country and Beyond: A Social Movement Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidemann, Kai; De Palma, Renee; Napier, Diane Brook; Dze-Ngwa, Willibrond

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter I draw on the insights of social movement theory in order to propose an analytical approach to the study of school-based minority language revitalization movements. In particular, I propose a framework that centers on neoinstitutionalist theory. Neoinstitutionalism posits that the

  1. Sustaining Energy Access: Lessons from Energy Plus Approach and Productive Use in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackom, Emmanuel; Larsen, Thomas Hebo; Mackenzie, Gordon A.

    This publication summarizes the report: ‘Energy Plus Approach: Case studies in developing countries’ by GNESD member Centres of Excellence. This summary for policymakers (SPM) and other reports can be freely obtained from the GNESD Secretariat and also from the website: www.gnesd.org...

  2. Daily reference evapotranspiration modeling by using genetic programming approach in the Basque Country (Northern Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shiri, J.; Kisi, O.; Landeras, G.; Lopez, J.J.; Nazemi, A.H.; Stuyt, L.C.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Evapotranspiration, as a major component of the hydrological cycle, is of importance for water resources management and development, as well as for estimating the water budget of irrigation schemes. This study presents a Gene Expression Programming (GEP) approach, for estimating daily reference evap

  3. The Development of the International Baccalaureate in Spanish Speaking Countries: A Global Comparative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, Julia

    2016-01-01

    This paper compares the development of International Baccalaureate (IB) schools in four different settings: Argentine, Chile, Spain and Ecuador. The global comparative approach used in this study, based on actor-network theory (ANT), allows us to analyse the connections and interactions between global actors and the plurality of national,…

  4. Daily reference evapotranspiration modeling by using genetic programming approach in the Basque Country (Northern Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shiri, J.; Kisi, O.; Landeras, G.; Lopez, J.J.; Nazemi, A.H.; Stuyt, L.C.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Evapotranspiration, as a major component of the hydrological cycle, is of importance for water resources management and development, as well as for estimating the water budget of irrigation schemes. This study presents a Gene Expression Programming (GEP) approach, for estimating daily reference

  5. Daily reference evapotranspiration modeling by using genetic programming approach in the Basque Country (Northern Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shiri, J.; Kisi, O.; Landeras, G.; Lopez, J.J.; Nazemi, A.H.; Stuyt, L.C.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Evapotranspiration, as a major component of the hydrological cycle, is of importance for water resources management and development, as well as for estimating the water budget of irrigation schemes. This study presents a Gene Expression Programming (GEP) approach, for estimating daily reference evap

  6. Evaluating community-based public health leadership training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceraso, Marion; Gruebling, Kirsten; Layde, Peter; Remington, Patrick; Hill, Barbara; Morzinski, Jeffrey; Ore, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    Addressing the nation's increasingly complex public health challenges will require more effective multisector collaboration and stronger public health leadership. In 2005, the Healthy Wisconsin Leadership Institute launched an annual, year-long intensive "community teams" program. The goal of this program is to develop collaborative leadership and public health skills among Wisconsin-based multisectoral teams mobilizing their communities to improve public health. To measure the scope of participation and program impacts on individual learning and practice, including application of new knowledge and collective achievements of teams on coalition and short-term community outcomes. End-of-year participant program evaluations and follow-up telephone interviews with participants 20 months after program completion. Community-based public health leadership training program. Sixty-eight participants in the Community Teams Program during the years 2006 to 2007 and 2007 to 2008. Professional diversity of program participants; individual learning and practice, including application of new knowledge; and collective achievements of teams, including coalition and short-term community outcomes. Participants in the Community Teams Program represent a diversity of sectors, including nonprofit, governmental, academic, business, and local public health. Participation increased knowledge across all public health and leadership competency areas covered in the program. Participating teams reported outcomes, including increased engagement of community leadership, expansion of preventive services, increased media coverage, strengthened community coalitions, and increased grant funding. Evaluation of this community-based approach to public health leadership training has shown it to be a promising model for building collaborative and public health leadership skills and initiating sustained community change for health improvement.

  7. Speech Correction for Children with Cleft Lip and Palate by Networking of Community-Based Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanchanlert, Yotsak; Pramakhatay, Worawat; Pradubwong, Suteera; Prathanee, Benjamas

    2015-08-01

    Prevalence of cleft lip and palate (CLP) is high in Northeast Thailand. Most children with CLP face many problems, particularly compensatory articulation disorders (CAD) beyond surgery while speech services and the number of speech and language pathologists (SLPs) are limited. To determine the effectiveness of networking of Khon Kaen University (KKU) Community-Based Speech Therapy Model: Kosumphisai Hospital, Kosumphisai District and Maha Sarakham Hospital, Mueang District, Maha Sarakham Province for reduction of the number of articulations errors for children with CLP. Eleven children with CLP were recruited in 3 1-year projects of KKU Community-Based Speech Therapy Model. Articulation tests were formally assessed by qualified language pathologists (SLPs) for baseline and post treatment outcomes. Teachings on services for speech assistants (SAs) were conducted by SLPs. Assigned speech correction (SC) was performed by SAs at home and at local hospitals. Caregivers also gave SC at home 3-4 days a week. Networking of Community-Based Speech Therapy Model signficantly reduced the number of articulation errors for children with CLP in both word and sentence levels (mean difference = 6.91, 95% confidence interval = 4.15-9.67; mean difference = 5.36, 95% confidence interval = 2.99-7.73, respectively). Networking by Kosumphisai and Maha Sarakham of KKU Community-Based Speech Therapy Model was a valid and efficient method for providing speech services for children with cleft palate and could be extended to any area in Thailand and other developing countries, where have similar contexts.

  8. The Household Economy Approach. Managing the impact of climate change on poverty and food security in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Seaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to have severe effects on the populations of developing countries because many of these depend heavily on agriculture for income, have large impoverished rural populations which rely on agriculture for subsistence, and are financially and technically least equipped to adapt to changing conditions. Planning to target measures to support adaptation to reduce the impact of climate change on poverty and food insecurity requires methods of identifying vulnerable households. This paper describes an established approach to vulnerability assessment, the ‘Household Economy Approach’ (HEA and its potential application to the management of climate change in developing countries. The HEA is widely used by Governments and others, chiefly in Africa, for the assessment of household vulnerability to poverty and food security. HEA uses a model based on Amartya Sen’s entitlement theory and detailed social and economic data to simulate the impact of weather related, price, policy and other shocks on household income and food access, to provide information for decision making. In developing countries climate change will be experienced in terms of increased climate variability and an increased frequency of extreme events. HEA provides a way of managing the effects of year to year shocks to prevent impoverishment and the erosion of household resilience. It also provides the information needed to develop scenarios to support the design of policies to support longer term adaptation. HEA data has already been collected for large areas of Africa.

  9. A new approach to nationwide sanitation planning for developing countries: Case study of Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerstens, S.M., E-mail: sjoerd.kerstens@rhdhv.com [Royal HaskoningDHV, P.O. Box 1132, 3800 BC, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Spiller, M., E-mail: marc.spiller@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Sub-department of Environmental Technology, P.O. Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen (Netherlands); Leusbrock, I., E-mail: ingo.leusbrock@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Sub-department of Environmental Technology, P.O. Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen (Netherlands); Zeeman, G., E-mail: grietje.zeeman@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Sub-department of Environmental Technology, P.O. Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2016-04-15

    Many developing countries struggle to provide wastewater and solid waste services. The backlog in access has been partly attributed to the absence of a functional sanitation planning framework. Various planning tools are available; however a comprehensive framework that directly links a government policy to nationwide planning is missing. Therefore, we propose a framework to facilitate the nationwide planning process for the implementation of wastewater and solid waste services. The framework requires inputs from government planners and experts in the formulation of starting points and targets. Based on a limited number of indicators (population density, urban functions) three outputs are generated. The first output is a visualization of the spatial distribution of wastewater and solid waste systems to support regional priority setting in planning and create awareness. Secondly, the total number of people served, budget requirements and distribution of systems is determined. Thirdly, the required budget is allocated to the responsible institution to assure effective implementation. The determined budgets are specified by their beneficiaries, distinguishing urban, rural, poor and non-poor households. The framework was applied for Indonesia and outputs were adopted in the National Development Plan. The required budget to reach the Indonesian government's 2019 target was determined to be 25 billion US$ over 5 years. The contribution from the national budget required a more than fivefold increase compared to the current budget allocation in Indonesia, corresponding to an increase from 0.5 to 2.7 billion US$ per year. The budget for campaigning, advocacy and institutional strengthening to enable implementation was determined to be 10% of the total budget. The proposed framework is not only suitable for Indonesia, but could also be applied to any developing country that aims to increase access to wastewater and solid waste facilities. - Highlights: • A nationwide

  10. SPATIAL AND ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN ASPECTS IN COMMUNITY BASED MOSQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luluk Maslucha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia as one of the biggest Muslim countries in the world are very rich in the quality and quantity ofmosques architecture. The largest number of mosques in Indonesia is designed, built, and developed by localcommunities. Unfortunately, the potention of these kind of mosques is often unconsciously forgotten in thefield of architectural studies. Therefore, this research is held to define these mosques’ spatial andarchitectural design aspects which were considered as appropriate for the needs of their local communities’.As a descriptive-qualitative architectural research, the methods employed in this research are (1 fieldsurveying, (2 architectural documenting, and (3 informal interview, which were held in three purposivesample of mosques: Masjid An-Nur Jagalan, Masjid Gading Pesantren, and Masjid Jami’ Kauman Malang. Thesethree mosques were chosen because of their close relations with their surrounding communities and their longtime developments by their local societies. The result of this study shows that some specific spatial andarchitectural elements which were found in these community based mosques are (1 the scale, size, and depthof space, (2 the classification and the placement of space, (3 the architectural expressions, (4 the openness,the boundaries, and the relationship between spaces, (5 the athmospherical qualities of space, (6 theclassification of the users in spaces, (7 the intensity of the users in spaces, and (8 the manner and theposition of the users in spaces.

  11. Potential for Integrating Community-Based Monitoring into REDD+

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    Arturo Balderas Torres

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Countries at the United Nations Framework on the Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC have decided to engage local communities and indigenous groups into the activities for the monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV of the program to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and increase carbon removals (REDD+. Previous research and projects have shown that communities can produce reliable data on forest area and carbon estimates through field measurements. The objective of this article is to describe the framework that is being created for REDD+ under the UNFCCC to identify the potential inclusion of local information produced through community-based monitoring (CBM into monitoring systems for REDD+. National systems could use different sources of information from CBM: first, local information can be produced as part of public programs by increasing sample size of national or regional inventories; second, government can collect information to produce carbon estimates from on-going management practices implemented at local level driven by access to local direct benefits (e.g., forest management plans, watershed conservation; third, national data systems could include information from projects participating in carbon markets and other certification schemes; and finally information will be produced as part of the activities associated to the implementation of social and environmental safeguards. Locally generated data on carbon and areas under different forms of management can be dovetailed into national systems and be used to describe management practices, complement existing information or replace Tier 1/2 values with more detailed local data produced by CBM.

  12. Unintended Pregnancy in Ethiopia: Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

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    Kidest Getu Melese

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Unintended pregnancy is defined as a pregnancy which is a sum of mistimed pregnancy (pregnancy wanted at a later time and unwanted pregnancy (pregnancy which is not wanted at all. Unintended pregnancy is a global public health problem and its sequels are major causes for maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality with its effect to maternal metal illness as well. Objective. To determine the prevalence and associated factors of unintended pregnancy in Debre Birhan town, northeast of Ethiopia, in 2014. Method. Community based cross-sectional study and questionnaire developed from Ethiopian demographic health survey 2011. Participants were 690 currently pregnant mothers. Association of unintended pregnancy with factors was measured with bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Result. In this study unintended pregnancy is found to be 23.5%. Being formerly married and never married, distance to the nearest health facility >80 minutes, gravidity >5, 1-2 parity, and partner disagreement on desired number of children are the variables significantly associated with unintended pregnancy. Conclusion. Significant proportion of unintended pregnancy is found in the study area. To minimize unintended pregnancy concerned bodies should work on the identified factors, so we can minimize maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality and keep the health of the family specifically and country in general.

  13. The determinants of dermal exposure ranking method (DERM): a pesticide exposure assessment approach for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Luis E; Aragón, Aurora; Lundberg, Ingvar; Wesseling, Catharina; Nise, Gun

    2008-08-01

    A new method for assessment of dermal exposure to pesticides in subsistence farmers by use of determinants of dermal exposure is described. The method, called the determinants of dermal exposure ranking method (DERM), is a combination of checklists and expert rating assessment. Thus, determinants are listed in a form, which is used to check their presence and to assess them using a simple algorithm based on two factors, the type of transport process (T value) and the area of body surface exposed (A value). In addition, the type of clothing worn during applications is included as a protection factor. We applied the DERM to real pesticide applications, characterizing dermal exposure and comparing DERM estimates with earlier developed semiquantitative visual scores based on fluorescent tracer, the total visual score (TVS) and contaminated body area (CBA). DERM showed a very good level of agreement with both the TVS (r = 0.69; P = 0.000) and the CBA (r = 0.67; P = 0.000). DERM allowed identification of the determinants that had the highest effect on exposure and the farmers with the highest exposure. In conclusion, DERM provided information on the determinants responsible for dermal exposure in a group of subsistence farmers. This can be useful to design monitoring and preventive programs, define priorities for intervention and prioritize and select most adequate measurement strategies. DERM promises to be a low-cost easy-to-use method to assess dermal exposure to pesticides in developing country conditions.

  14. A Methodological Approach to Evaluate Livestock Innovations on Small-Scale Farms in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antón García-Martínez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was deepening the knowledge of livestock innovations knowledge on small-scale farms in developing countries. First, we developed a methodology focused on identifying potential appropriate livestock innovations for smallholders and grouped them in innovation areas, defined as a set of well-organized practices with a business purpose. Finally, a process management program (PMP was evaluated according to the livestock innovation level and viability of the small-scale farms. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the impact of PMP on the economic viability of the farm. Information from 1650 small-scale livestock farms in Mexico was collected and the innovations were grouped in five innovation areas: A1. Management, A2. Feeding, A3. Genetic, A4. Reproduction and A5. Animal Health. The resulting innovation level in the system was low at 45.7% and heterogeneous among areas. This study shows the usefulness of the methodology described and confirms that implementing a PMP allows improving the viability an additional 21%, due to a better integration of processes, resulting in more efficient management.

  15. A regional approach for modeling cliff retreat rate: The Makhteshim Country, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finzi, Yaron; Harlev, Noam

    2016-10-01

    Cliff retreat rate significantly affect the evolution of landforms and cliff stability. Cliff retreat studies also provide intriguing clues regarding past geomorphic conditions and environmental changes. We hereby present a model to calculate cliff retreat rate based on spatial data of cliff structure and morphology. The model is applied to numerous cliffs in the arid Makhteshim Country, Israel, and results are calibrated using published rates of two local cliffs. The calculated retreat rates confirm previous assertions that the crater cliffs are receding very slowly, but reveal that the rates vary significantly along the cliffs (1-18 cm ky- 1). Results also provide first estimates of retreat rates of other major cliffs in the region including fast retreat rates at the Sede Zin cliff (300-600 cm ky- 1). The proposed model provides a robust analysis to account for local cliff-talus morphology and yields rate estimates representative of current conditions rather than a long-term (geologic) average rate. Results presented constitute important new insights into regional geomorphic processes and on the stability of specific cliff sections within the study area.

  16. Multi-benefits of national parks and protected areas: an integrative approach for developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiqul Haq Shah Md.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available National parks and protected areas can contribute significantly to the needs of poor people who live in and around them and depend heavily on forest resources for their subsistence. Especially for the rural poor who have limited economic options, use of national park resources are the main source for their survival, giving them direct benefits from food, medicine and forest products. National parks can contribute to maintaining the ecosystem and biodiversity conservation, along with the economic benefits to the local population. National parks and protected areas can play a significant role in climate change mitigation as well. Nevertheless, benefits from these areas are not well recognized in management especially in developing countries by incorporating them for climate change mitigation. Though usually more priority is given to conservation, improvement of livelihood and climate change mitigation can be achieved by integrating national parks into management and policy, and by consideration of the potential of human resources. Thus the integration can improve the poverty situation of local people and help them to adapt to climatic change mitigation strategies. Therefore, management of national parks and protected areas should ensure the participation of local communities and stakeholders.

  17. Taking Another Path: Community-Based Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Matthew J.; Davis, Darlene G.

    2011-01-01

    Given the current economic constraints facing the country, school districts in the U.S. have been pushed to develop annual budgets through a new lens and to accept the reality that budget adoption is a complex, political process. Whether a school district is rich or poor, growing or declining in enrollment, serving a specialized population or…

  18. Quantifying rural livelihood strategies in developing countries using an activity choice approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Øystein Juul; Rayamajhi, Santosh; Uberhuaga de Arratia, Patricia D C

    2013-01-01

    This article uses a quantitative activity choice approach, based on identification of activity variables and application of latent class cluster analysis, to identify five major rural livelihood strategies pursued by households (n= 576) in Bolivia, Nepal, and Mozambique. Income sources and welfare...... remunerative livelihood strategies is determined by land ownership, education, and ethnic affiliation. Finally, the article also highlights that additional work is required to determine the most suitable methods for livelihood strategy identification....

  19. Quantifying rural livelihood strategies in developing countries using an activity choice approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Øystein Juul; Rayamajhi, Santosh; Uberhuaga de Arratia, Patricia D C

    2013-01-01

    This article uses a quantitative activity choice approach, based on identification of activity variables and application of latent class cluster analysis, to identify five major rural livelihood strategies pursued by households (n= 576) in Bolivia, Nepal, and Mozambique. Income sources and welfare...... outcomes are compared across strategies and household differences in asset holdings are analyzed using multinomial logit regression. Findings reveal that income diversification is the norm, that a higher degree of specialization does not characterize more remunerative livelihood strategies, that nonfarm...

  20. Managing water supply systems using free-market economy approaches: A detailed review of the implications for developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikozho, C.; Kujinga, K.

    2017-08-01

    Decision makers in developing countries are often confronted by difficult choices regarding the selection and deployment of appropriate water supply governance regimes that sufficiently take into account national socio-economic and political realities. Indeed, scholars and practitioners alike continue to grapple with the need to create the optimum water supply and allocation decision-making space applicable to specific developing countries. In this paper, we review documented case studies from various parts of the world to explore the utility of free-market economics approaches in water supply governance. This is one of the major paradigms that have emerged in the face of enduring questions regarding how best to govern water supply systems in developing countries. In the paper, we postulate that increasing pressure on available natural resources may have already rendered obsolete some of the water supply governance regimes that have served human societies very well for many decades. Our main findings show that national and municipal water supply governance paradigms tend to change in tandem with emerging national development frameworks and priorities. While many developing countries have adopted water management and governance policy prescriptions from the international arena, national and local socio-economic and political realities ultimately determine what works and what does not work on the ground. We thus, conclude that the choice of what constitutes an appropriate water supply governance regime in context is never simple. Indeed, the majority of case studies reviewed in the paper tend to rely on a mix of market economics and developmental statism to make their water governance regimes more realistic and workable on the ground.

  1. Applying the system engineering approach to devise a master’s degree program in space technology in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazebizadeh, Hooman; Tabeshian, Maryam; Taheran Vernoosfaderani, Mahsa

    2010-11-01

    Although more than half a century is passed since space technology was first developed, developing countries are just beginning to enter the arena, focusing mainly on educating professionals. Space technology by itself is an interdisciplinary science, is costly, and developing at a fast pace. Moreover, a fruitful education system needs to remain dynamic if the quality of education is the main concern, making it a complicated system. This paper makes use of the System Engineering Approach and the experiences of developed countries in this area while incorporating the needs of the developing countries to devise a comprehensive program in space engineering at the Master's level. The needs of the developing countries as regards space technology education may broadly be put into two categories: to raise their knowledge of space technology which requires hard work and teamwork skills, and to transfer and domesticate space technology while minimizing the costs and maximizing its effectiveness. The requirements of such space education system, which include research facilities, courses, and student projects are then defined using a model drawn from the space education systems in universities in North America and Europe that has been modified to include the above-mentioned needs. Three design concepts have been considered and synthesized through functional analysis. The first one is Modular and Detail Study which helps students specialize in a particular area in space technology. Second is referred to as Integrated and Interdisciplinary Study which focuses on understanding and development of space systems. Finally, the third concept which has been chosen for the purpose of this study, is a combination of the other two, categorizing the required curriculum into seven modules, setting aside space applications. This helps students to not only specialize in one of these modules but also to get hands-on experience in a real space project through participation in summer group

  2. Serempathy: A New Approach To Innovation. An Application To Forty-Six Regions Of Atlantic Arc Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo COTO-­‐MILLÁN

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This research provides a new theoretical approach to innovation calledSerempathy: Serendipity(which is achieved by chance+ Empathy(puttingyour self in the other. Serempathy relies on collaborative relationships between: University, private companies and publicadministration. In this theoretical approach adds chance to scientificdiscovery and an environment of empathy.Ideas aren’t self-­‐containedthings; they’re more like ecosystems and networks. The work also provides data processed in recentyears (2004-­‐2006 for forty six Atlantic Arc Regions(the forty regions of countries: United Kindong,France, Portugal and Spain, overall and in different clusters, providing relevant empirical evidence on the relationship betweenHuman Capital,Technological Platform,Innovation,Serempathy and Output.In the econometric and statistical modeling is considered especially for forty regions of the Atlantic Arc.

  3. PREVALENCE OF ADVERSE PREGNANCY OUTCOMES: A COMMUNITY BASED LONGITUDINAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In most developed countries, pregnancies are planned, complications are few and outcomes are generally favorable for both mother and infant. But in developing countries, adverse pregnancy outcomes are far more frequent due to various reasons. T he most severe adverse outcome of pregnancy is the death of the mother or her offspring. Over the years maternal and child health programmes are striving to improve the health status of pregnant women and neonates. However, the adverse pregnancy outcomes ( M aternal and N eonatal still remain high. OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of adverse pregnancy in the study area. METHODOLOGY: A community based longitudinal study was carried out in the 36 villages of Kaiwara from January 2011 to December 2011. All the antenatal mothers were traced through Anganwadi records maintained at different villages. They were contacted at their residence and the questionnaire was administered in their local language. The questionnaire was administered during three different visi ts to collect information regarding socio - demographic details, pregnancy outcomes. The first visit was made before delivery and subsequently second and third visits were made within 7 days and 42 nd day after delivery respectively. Maternal and child protec tion cards were used to validate the collected information. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software version 18.0 RESULTS: The present study revealed that, the proportion of low birth weight in the study area was 31.9% (95% CI=25.74 - 38.06, p reterm birth 20.5% (95% CI=15.28 - 25.72, postnatal complications 5% (95% CI=14.819 - 9.181, abortion 2.1% (95% CI=0.25 - 3.95, maternal death 0.4% (95% CI=0.416 - 1.216 and neonatal death 0.4% (95% CI=0.416 - 1.216. CONCLUSION: The present study revealed that the proportion of adverse pregnancy outcomes was in par with the national average.

  4. Ethical and Professional Norms in Community-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campano, Gerald; Ghiso, María Paula; Welch, Bethany J.

    2015-01-01

    In this article Gerald Campano, María Paula Ghiso, and Bethany J. Welch explore the role of ethical and professional norms in community-based research, especially in fostering trust within contexts of cultural diversity, systemic inequity, and power asymmetry. The authors present and describe a set of guidelines for community-based research that…

  5. A community-based approach to new antibiotic discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Matthew A

    2015-09-01

    The Community for Open Antimicrobial Drug Discovery aims to tap into the potential of the millions of compounds distributed around laboratories globally to be a source of new antibiotic leads by offering free screening for antimicrobial properties, with no strings attached.

  6. The Past is a Foreign Country -- Understanding the British Approach to Counterinsurgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    British approach was made by Enoch Powell, when he spoke in the House of Commons on the alleged atrocities committed in the Hola Camp. “It has been said...commons/1959/jul/27/ hola -camp-kenya- report#S5CV0610P0_19590727_HOC_543; accessed April 21 2013. 96 An example of this tendency can be found in...Commons, 27 July 1959, http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1959/jul/27/ hola -camp-kenya- report#S5CV0610P0_19590727_HOC_543 accessed 28 April

  7. Marketing approaches at European level – The case of Southern-European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca TESCAŞIU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The specialization of Marketing refers not only on specific focus on some domains, but, also, to its adaptation on regional issues. During the globalization process, marketers adapted their activity to new trends, such as: standardization, integrated distribution, production transfer, comparative advantage, etc. The common aspects of some regional markets determined the marketers to approach differently some homogeneous regions in the World economy. In this sense, the article intends to establish the main differences and the common aspects of a very important area in the European economy – The South East of Europe.

  8. Cyclical convergence of Central and Eastern European countries to the Euro area core. New methodological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana ALEXE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current paper develops an analysis on the degree of business cycle convergence of the new member states of the EU towards the Euro area core (Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg during 1996 – 2010.Unlike the previous research, the study takes into consideration the similarity of cycles, and not their synchronization. Furthermore, from the methodological point of view, it explores the use of survey indicators in the analysis of the cycles, thus in addition to the traditional approach that employs the GDP. The results obtained through clusterization show that the degree of convergence towards Euro area core remains modest.

  9. An integral approach to corporate environmentalism and its application to a country in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prašnikar, J.; Ograjenšek, I.; Pahor, M.

    2012-01-01

    sample of Slovenian manufacturing companies. Maximum likelihood probit estimation, exploratory factor analysis, cluster analysis and binary logistic modeling are used in the empirical analysis. Our main conclusions are twofold: (1) The integral approach to corporate environmentalism works......: in the framework of a small open transitional economy, the model differentiates well among different groups of companies. (2) There are no radical innovators among Slovenian companies, and less than one third of the companies are actively thinking and acting in line of environment-friendly processes and products....... This finding can be partially explained by the fact that Slovenian economy still has some transitional characteristics....

  10. Planting Healthy Roots: Using Documentary Film to Evaluate and Disseminate Community-Based Participatory Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Heather M; Freedman, Darcy A; Friedman, Daniela B; Choi, Seul Ki; Seel, Jessica S; Guest, M Aaron; Khang, Leepao

    2016-01-01

    Documentary filmmaking approaches incorporating community engagement and awareness raising strategies may be a promising approach to evaluate community-based participatory research. The study purpose was 2-fold: (1) to evaluate a documentary film featuring the formation and implementation of a farmers' market and (2) to assess whether the film affected awareness regarding food access issues in a food-desert community with high rates of obesity. The coalition model of filmmaking, a model consistent with a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, and personal stories, community profiles, and expert interviews were used to develop a documentary film (Planting Healthy Roots). The evaluation demonstrated high levels of approval and satisfaction with the film and CBPR essence of the film. The documentary film aligned with a CBPR approach to document, evaluate, and disseminate research processes and outcomes.

  11. An integral approach to corporate environmentalism and its application to a country in transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domen Bajde

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose and implement an integral approach to corporate environmentalism. Our integral model accounts not only for corporate environmentalism motivation and conception but also for corporate environmentalism mode and speed of implementation. A broad range of identified corporate environmentalism dimensions helps characterize fi ve basic groups of companies we propose to name “non-compliers,” “legalistic incrementalists,” “greenwashers,” “incremental innovators,” and “radical innovators.” We then seek to empirically verify the soundness of the proposed integral typology by surveying a large sample of Slovenian manufacturing companies. Maximum likelihood probit estimation, exploratory factor analysis, cluster analysis andbinary logistic modeling are used in the empirical analysis. Our main conclusions are twofold: (1 The integral approach to corporate environmentalism works: in the framework of a small open transitional economy, the model differentiates wellamong different groups of companies. (2 There are no radical innovators among Slovenian companies, and less than one third of the companies are actively thinking and acting in line of environment-friendly processes and products. This fi nding can be partially explained by the fact that Slovenian economy still has some transitional characteristics.

  12. The WORD (Wholeness, Oneness, Righteousness, Deliverance): design of a randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of an evidence-based weight loss and maintenance intervention translated for a faith-based, rural, African American population using a community-based participatory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeary, Karen Hye-cheon Kim; Cornell, Carol E; Prewitt, Elaine; Bursac, Zoran; Tilford, J Mick; Turner, Jerome; Eddings, Kenya; Love, ShaRhonda; Whittington, Emily; Harris, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    The positive effects of weight loss on obesity-related risk factors diminish unless weight loss is maintained. Yet little work has focused on the translation of evidence-based weight loss interventions with the aim of sustaining weight loss in underserved populations. Using a community-based participatory approach (CBPR) that engages the strong faith-based social infrastructure characteristic of rural African American communities is a promising way to sustain weight loss in African Americans, who bear a disproportionate burden of the obesity epidemic. Led by a collaborative community-academic partnership, The WORD aims to change dietary and physical activity behaviors to produce and maintain weight loss in rural, African American adults of faith. The WORD is a randomized controlled trial with 450 participants nested within 30 churches. All churches will receive a 16-session core weight loss intervention. Half of the churches will be randomized to receive an additional 12-session maintenance component. The WORD is a cultural adaptation of the Diabetes Prevention Program, whereby small groups will be led by trained church members. Participants will be assessed at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months. A detailed cost-effectiveness and process evaluation will be included. The WORD aims to sustain weight loss in rural African Americans. The utilization of a CBPR approach and the engagement of the faith-based social infrastructure of African American communities will maximize the intervention's sustainability. Unique aspects of this trial include the focus on weight loss maintenance and the use of a faith-based CBPR approach in translating evidence-based obesity interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An integral approach to corporate environmentalism and its application to a country in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prašnikar, J.; Ograjenšek, I.; Pahor, M.

    2012-01-01

    : in the framework of a small open transitional economy, the model differentiates well among different groups of companies. (2) There are no radical innovators among Slovenian companies, and less than one third of the companies are actively thinking and acting in line of environment-friendly processes and products......In this paper we propose and implement an integral approach to corporate environmentalism. Our integral model accounts not only for corporate environmentalism motivation and conception but also for corporate environmentalism mode and speed of implementation. A broad range of identified corporate...... environmentalism dimensions helps characterize five basic groups of companies we propose to name "non-compliers," "legalistic incrementalists," "greenwashers," "incremental innovators," and "radical innovators." We then seek to empirically verify the soundness of the proposed integral typology by surveying a large...

  14. Community-based telemonitoring for hypertension management: practical challenges and potential solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovey, Lauren; Kaylor, Mary Beth; Alwan, Majd; Resnick, Helaine E

    2011-10-01

    Older adults residing in rural areas often lack convenient, patient-centered, community-based approaches to facilitate receipt of routine care to manage common chronic conditions. Without adequate access to appropriate disease management resources, the risk of seniors' experiencing acute events related to these common conditions increases substantially. Further, poorly managed chronic conditions are costly and place seniors at increased risk of institutionalization and permanent loss of independence. Novel, telehealth-based approaches to management of common chronic conditions like hypertension may not only improve the health of older adults, but may also lead to substantial cost savings associated with acute care episodes and institutionalization. The aim of this report is to summarize practical considerations related to operations and logistics of a unique community-based telemonitoring pilot study targeting rural seniors who utilize community-based senior centers. This article reviews the technological challenges encountered during the study and proposes solutions relevant to future research and implementation of telehealth in community-based, congregate settings.

  15. Stakeholder consultations on community-based rehabilitation guidelines in Ghana and Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Wickenden

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The focus of this paper is the new broadened conceptualisation of community-based rehabilitation (CBR, which promotes the empowerment and inclusion of people with disabilities (PWDs in diverse ways within their communities. New guidelines for CBR were launched in October 2010 by WHO/ILO/UNESCO/IDDC, and this paper describes part of the process by which these were produced using participatory approaches involving International Non-Government Organisations (INGOs and local partners. The paper reviews the evolution of CBR and describes how grassroots consultation by INGOs working with key stakeholders in the disability arena can influence policy on disability issues, and reciprocally how policy change can inform organisations’ practice and research activities. This ongoing bidirectional influence is illustrated with data from the participatory consultation process about the new CBR guidelines carried out by Sightsavers in Uganda and GhanaObjectives: To consult with key stakeholders in the disability arena in Uganda and Ghana, in order to gain their opinions and suggestions for improvements to the then draft CBR guidelines, as part of a wider global participatory process of consultation on the document.Methods: The INGO Sightsavers gathered qualitative data through focus group discussions and questionnaires in both countries.Results: The participants’ critiques of the draft guidelines carried out in multiagency participatory processes were analysed thematically and fed back to the CBR guidelines editorial team.Conclusion: The paper concludes that stakeholders in diverse communities can actively contribute to shaping policy and practice through participatory consultations. Local and national government and non-government organisations and other key informants can inform the development of national and international guidelines and policies. This participatory approach can be successfully facilitated by INGOs. In turn, these processes

  16. TURISMO COMUNITARIO Y GENERACIÓN DE RIQUEZA EN PAÍSES EN VÍAS DE DESARROLLO. UN ESTUDIO DE CASO EN EL SALVADOR/COMMUNITY-BASED TOURISM AND WEALTH GENERATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. A STUDY OF CASE IN EL SALVADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra María SÁNCHEZ CAÑIZARES

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available El turismo comunitario es una tipología de turismo que se está desarrollando en diferentes partes del Mundo como alternativa al turismo tradicional. Esta nueva forma de turismo favorece el contacto entre la comunidad local y los visitantes, los cuáles obtienen nuevas experiencias. En este artículo presentamos los resultados de un estudio realizado en El Salvador donde hemos analizado las percepciones que tienen los residentes respecto a la posibilidad de desarrollo, basado en la articulación de proyectos por parte de la propia comunidad local, como destino turístico de una determinada área geográfica, reforzando los aspectos ecológicos, culturales y de hospitalidad de los residentes. La metodología se ha basado en un estudio empírico realizado en el área objeto de investigación entre septiembre y noviembre de 2008. Entre los resultados obtenidos por esta investigación, destacamos que la comunidad local percibe que el desarrollo del turismo comunitario puede aportar riqueza y generar puestos de trabajo en el área, pero que es necesario contar con una formación previa que debe provenir tanto de la administración pública como de la privada, sobre todo de ONGs y universidades. Asimismo, también se destaca el importante papel que juega la mujer como elemento vertebrador de los diferentes proyectos turísticos./Community-based Tourism is gaining prestige all over the world as an alternative to traditional tourism. This new type of tourism favours a closer contact with the local community and the experimentation of new sensations. We present in this paper a study carried out in El Salvador about the perceptions that residents have in order to develop, within the own local community, a tourist destination based on the remarkable ecologic resources of the area, and on the hospitality of hosts. The methodology is based on an empirical study realized in the area from September to November 2008. Most outstanding result is the local

  17. Territorial development. A new approach to development processes for the economies of the developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Pecqueur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to show how the elements of a (flexible and adaptable model of territorial development, whose roots are anchored in the analysis of coordination among pre-capitalist actors, can take on a more concrete form in developing economies. Our hypothesis is that the application of this model functions as a resurgence of pre-capitalist production relations, revalidated by local practices and renewed by territorial dynamics. Is such a return to pre-capitalist ways possible and realistic despite the obstacles and, if so, under what conditions? These are the questions this paper seeks to address, by the way of a specifically economic analysis focused on the dynamics of productive systems. On the first part, we review the fundamental principles of a model of territorial development based on a local system of actors, which assumes that the territory is “constructed” and is founded, according to our approach, on the principle of specification. On the second part, we assess the feasibility of this model in developing economies, remembering that we are starting from practices that are already old; practices involving risks and that assume certain conditions of implementation.

  18. Innovative Approaches to Vocational Education Teachers′ Training Within the Educational Space of European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marynchenko Yevhenii

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the main approaches to content, forms and methods of training future teachers of vocational education in Europe. It has been found that the structure and content according to national traditions and European standards have led to success of European vocational education. It has been proved that training is practiceoriented, has a solid fundamental basis and is interdisciplinary, effectively contributes to the forming of a professional outlook. We have identified common trends in training teachers of vocational education: flexible training programs based on a broad concept of competence and establishment of closer links between education institutions and research laboratories; greater attention to quality control through a large diversity in the education content; increasing autonomy of education institutions that widens their perspectives, obligatory research and innovation projects within training of future vocational education teachers, diversity of forms and methods of professional training that develops creative innovative thinking, the importance of using ICTs in the training. All these aspects prove innovative nature of European education and great opportunities for training future vocational education teachers′ readiness for creative professional activity.

  19. National Nutritional Programs for the 2012 London Olympic Games: a systematic approach by three different countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Louise M; Meyer, Nanna L; Pearce, Jeni

    2013-01-01

    Preparing a national team for success at major sporting competitions such as the Olympic Games has become a systematic and multi-faceted activity. Sports nutrition contributes to this success via strategic nutritional interventions that optimize the outcomes from both the training process and the competitive event. This review summarizes the National Nutrition Programs involved with the 2012 London Olympic Games preparation of the Australian, British and American sports systems from the viewpoints of three key agencies: the Australian Institute of Sport, the English Institute of Sport and the United States Olympic Committee. Aspects include development of a nutrition network involving appropriately qualified sports dietitians/nutritionists within a multi-disciplinary team, recognition of continual updates in sports nutrition knowledge, and a systematic approach to service delivery, education and research within the athlete's daily training environment. Issues of clinical nutrition support must often be integrated into the performance nutrition matrix. Food service plays an important role in the achievement of nutrition goals during the Olympic Games, both through the efforts of the Athlete Dining Hall and catering activities of the host Olympic Games Organizing Committees as well as adjunct facilities often provided by National Olympic Committees for their own athletes.

  20. Geostatistical Approach to Find ‘Hotspots’ Where Biodiversity is at Risk in a Transition Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrişor Alexandru-Ionuţ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Global change‟ is a relatively recent concept, related to the energy - land use - climate change nexus, and designated to include all changes produced by the human species and the consequences of its activities over natural ecological complexes and biodiversity. The joint effects of these drivers of change are particularly relevant to understanding the changes of biodiversity. This study overlaps results of previous studies developed in Romania to find, explain and predict potential threats on biodiversity, including the effects of very high temperatures and low precipitations, urban sprawl and deforestation in order to identify „hotspots‟ of high risk for the loss of biodiversity using geostatistical tools. The results found two hotspots, one in the center and the other one in the south, and show that the area affected by three factors simultaneously represents 0.2% of the national territory, while paired effects cover 4% of it. The methodological advantage of this approach is its capacity to pinpoint hotspots with practical relevance. Nevertheless, its generalizing character impairs its use at the local scale..

  1. Community-based intervention for blood pressure reduction in Nepal (COBIN trial)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neupane, Dinesh; McLachlan, Craig S; Christensen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    proportion size, 929 individuals for the intervention group and 709 individuals for the control group will participate in the study. Due to the nature of the study, study participants are not compensated or insured. As part of the blood pressure intervention, trained female community health volunteers...... study is to determine the effect of family-based home health education and blood pressure monitoring by trained female community health volunteers. The primary outcome is change in mean systolic blood pressure. A community-based, open-masked, two-armed, cluster-randomized trial will be conducted...... will conduct home visits for health education and blood pressure measurement. The primary outcomes will be modeled by using multiple linear regression analysis. DISCUSSION: This project will be an investigation of a community-based intervention to control blood pressure in countries with limited resources...

  2. Unravelling country-of-origin : semiotics as a theoretical basis for a meaning-centred approach towards country-of-origin effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brijs, Kris

    2006-01-01

    Numerous academics and marketers are sceptical about the relevance of research on country-of-origin (coo) effects. This criticism is based on a series of studies suggesting that coo-cues are of no more than marginal importance as determinants of people's attitudes towards foreign-sourced products. M

  3. Prevalence and Current Approaches of Ebola Virus Disease in ASEAN Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajiah, Kingston; San, Kok Pui; Jiun, Ting Wei; May, Tam Ai; Neng, Yap Chan; Seng, Hee Kah; Soon, Lim Jing; Pazooki, Nazanin

    2015-09-01

    As indicated by the World Health Organization as of year 2014, around 10,000 people have been influenced with Ebola infection. The episode of Ebola in African locale is courged with a high death rate. Notwithstanding, in the United States, people influenced by Ebola have been given brilliant wellbeing offices, as the U.S. is one of the highest nations that have taken sterner wellbeing measures and principles against Ebola. Aside from the U.S., individuals in Asia, where billions live in indigence and general wellbeing frameworks are frequently extremely powerless, are under more serious danger of the Ebola infection. Despite the fact that nations like Singapore, Malaysia, South Korea and Japan can take stretched out measures to battle against the infection, nations like Philippines and Indonesia have unfathomable quantities of poor who may be incredibly influenced by a conceivable episode. At this moment, the chances that Asia will take a critical hit from the Ebola infection appear to be genuinely little. Yet, while it is far-fetched that Asia will encounter a real flare-up, genuine concerns stay about the infection coming to urban communities like Hong Kong, Beijing, Shanghai and Singapore through their worldwide airplane terminals. Wellbeing priests from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) reported key measures not long ago to keep the Ebola plague from coming to the locale and to backing influenced nations. This article accordingly will concentrate on the prevalence and current approaches of Ebola Virus Disease in ASEAN nations which is the need of the hour.

  4. Is foreign direct investment good for health in low and middle income countries? An instrumental variable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Darren K; Jones, Andrew P; Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Suhrcke, Marc

    2017-03-28

    There is a scarcity of quantitative research into the effect of FDI on population health in low and middle income countries (LMICs). This paper investigates the relationship using annual panel data from 85 LMICs between 1974 and 2012. When controlling for time trends, country fixed effects, correlation between repeated observations, relevant covariates, and endogeneity via a novel instrumental variable approach, we find FDI to have a beneficial effect on overall health, proxied by life expectancy. When investigating age-specific mortality rates, we find a stronger beneficial effect of FDI on adult mortality, yet no association with either infant or child mortality. Notably, FDI effects on health remain undetected in all models which do not control for endogeneity. Exploring the effect of sector-specific FDI on health in LMICs, we provide preliminary evidence of a weak inverse association between secondary (i.e. manufacturing) sector FDI and overall life expectancy. Our results thus suggest that FDI has provided an overall benefit to population health in LMICs, particularly in adults, yet investments into the secondary sector could be harmful to health.

  5. A community-based organization: the Las Mercedes Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John W

    2012-01-01

    Using the Las Mercedes Project as an example, the aim of this article is to discuss the philosophy and practice of community-based projects. At the core of such projects is a shift in understanding the nature of community. A community, in this case, represents a reality that persons construct that determines the character of rules, norms, and the focus and style of interventions. Additionally, community-based organizations, such as the Las Mercedes Project, are fully participatory, decentered, and carry the imprint of a community's members. Community-based projects, in this regard, improve the likelihood of creating successful interventions.

  6. When East meets the West: differences in approach and mentality between old and new EU member countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matenco, Liviu

    2017-04-01

    There are marked differences in the management and system of research across various EU member countries. While older member states have gradually learn their differences in research systems, approach and mentality, they generally know very little on marked differences with EU13 that have a very strong impact in the design, organisation, evaluation and implementation of collaborative or European programmes. Such differences result from the organisation of the national research system, funding agencies, supervision and methods of evaluation. In particular the latter impose a markedly different career management by the promotion of local or regional journals, institutes and faculty organisation, system of promotion and management of research. In this contribution, I share my experiences in crossing the east-west mentality border, in particular discussing pre-conceived mentalities, underlying differences and suggesting better ways of promoting integrated research across European systems.

  7. Unravelling country-of-origin: Semiotics as a theoretical basis for a meaning-centred approach towards country-of-origin effects

    OpenAIRE

    Brijs, Kris

    2006-01-01

    Numerous academics and marketers are sceptical about the relevance of research on country-of-origin (coo) effects. This criticism is based on a series of studies suggesting that coo-cues are of no more than marginal importance as determinants of people's attitudes towards foreign-sourced products. More specifically, this criticism is directed towards studies focussing on the relevance of a coo's more general environmental conditions (like for instance its cultural identity, political climate,...

  8. Blessings for All? Community-Based Ecotourism in Bali Between Global, National, and Local Interests – A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Byczek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As a major island destination in South-East Asia, Bali has won a global reputation as one of the last paradises on earth. As one of the largest industries in the world, global tourism is utilised by the governments of many developing countries as an agent for development and national integration. However, local communities level the criticism that mass tourism has not only brought economic growth but also caused ecological and social costs. In reaction to the excessive developments of the past decades, local Balinese have started to actively implement community-based tourism. The ecotourism village-network Jaringan Ekowisata Desa seeks a more sustainable approach to tourism through stronger ownership and the minimisation of negative ecological impacts. The case study presented is based on fieldwork which took place in 2010. It aims to find answers to the questions of whether and to what extent community-based ecotourism initiatives may constitute a sustainable alternative to the negative effects associated with mass tourism. --- Bali gilt innerhalb der Tourismusindustrie als Inbegriff von Exotik und als eines der letzen Paradiese auf Erden. Seit jeher werden die vielfältigen Auswirkungen des Tourismus auf der Insel kontrovers diskutiert. Während vornehmlich Eliten an der in nationalem Interesse forcierten Tourismusentwicklung der südostasiatischen Top-Destination profitieren, kritisiert die einheimische Bevölkerung unzureichende Mitspracherechte und die Vernachlässigung von Nachhaltigkeitskriterien. In Reakti- on wurden seitens der Balinesen Projekte des gemeindebasierten Tourismus ins Leben gerufen. Das Ökotourismus-Dorf-Netzwerk Jaringan Ekowisata Desa ist eine solche Initiative, die sich der lokalen Eigentümerschaft und der Minimierung negativer ökologischer Folgen verschreibt. Anhand der hier präsentierten Fallstudie zu dem zivilgesellschaftlichen Projekt soll beantwortet werden, inwiefern gemeindebasierter Ökotourismus eine

  9. Effectiveness and cost of recruitment strategies for a community-based randomised controlled trial among rainwater drinkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunliffe David

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based recruitment is challenging particularly if the sampling frame is not easily defined as in the case of people who drink rainwater. Strategies for contacting participants must be carefully considered to maximise generalisability and minimise bias of the results. This paper assesses the recruitment strategies for a 1-year double-blinded randomised trial on drinking untreated rainwater. The effectiveness of the recruitment strategies and associated costs are described. Methods Community recruitment of households from Adelaide, Australia occurred from February to July 2007 using four methods: electoral roll mail-out, approaches to schools and community groups, newspaper advertising, and other media involvement. Word of mouth communication was also assessed. Results A total of 810 callers were screened, with 53.5% eligible. Of those who were eligible and sent further information, 76.7% were willing to participate in the study and 75.1% were enrolled. The target for recruitment was 300 households, and this was achieved. The mail-out was the most effective method with respect to number of households randomised, while recruitment via schools had the highest yield (57.3% and was the most cost effective when considering cost per household randomised (AUD$147.20. Yield and cost effectiveness were lowest for media advertising. Conclusion The use of electoral roll mail-out and advertising via schools were effective in reaching households using untreated rainwater for drinking. Employing multiple strategies enabled success in achieving the recruitment target. In countries where electoral roll extracts are available to researchers, this method is likely to have a high yield for recruitment into community-based epidemiological studies.

  10. Effectiveness and cost of recruitment strategies for a community-based randomised controlled trial among rainwater drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Shelly; Sinclair, Martha; Cunliffe, David; Leder, Karin

    2009-07-16

    Community-based recruitment is challenging particularly if the sampling frame is not easily defined as in the case of people who drink rainwater. Strategies for contacting participants must be carefully considered to maximise generalisability and minimise bias of the results. This paper assesses the recruitment strategies for a 1-year double-blinded randomised trial on drinking untreated rainwater. The effectiveness of the recruitment strategies and associated costs are described. Community recruitment of households from Adelaide, Australia occurred from February to July 2007 using four methods: electoral roll mail-out, approaches to schools and community groups, newspaper advertising, and other media involvement. Word of mouth communication was also assessed. A total of 810 callers were screened, with 53.5% eligible. Of those who were eligible and sent further information, 76.7% were willing to participate in the study and 75.1% were enrolled. The target for recruitment was 300 households, and this was achieved. The mail-out was the most effective method with respect to number of households randomised, while recruitment via schools had the highest yield (57.3%) and was the most cost effective when considering cost per household randomised (AUD$147.20). Yield and cost effectiveness were lowest for media advertising. The use of electoral roll mail-out and advertising via schools were effective in reaching households using untreated rainwater for drinking. Employing multiple strategies enabled success in achieving the recruitment target. In countries where electoral roll extracts are available to researchers, this method is likely to have a high yield for recruitment into community-based epidemiological studies.

  11. Long-Term Impact of Community-Based Information, Education and Communication Activities on Food Hygiene and Food Safety Behaviors in Vietnam: A Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kumiko Takanashi; Dao To Quyen; Nguyen Thi Le Hoa; Nguyen Cong Khan; Junko Yasuoka; Masamine Jimba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ingestion of contaminated water or food is a major contributor to childhood diarrhea in developing countries. In Vietnam, the use of community-based information, education and communication (IEC) activities could be a sustainable strategy to improve food hygiene and food safety behaviors. This study thus examined the long-term impact of community-based IEC activities on food hygiene and food safety behaviors. METHODS: In this longitudinal study, we interviewed caregivers of childr...

  12. Designing a Community-Based Lay Health Advisor Training Curriculum to Address Cancer Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwede, Clement K.; Ashley, Atalie A.; McGinnis, Kara; Montiel-Ishino, F. Alejandro; Standifer, Maisha; Baldwin, Julie; Williams, Coni; Sneed, Kevin B.; Wathington, Deanna; Dash-Pitts, Lolita; Green, B. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Racial and ethnic minorities have disproportionately higher cancer incidence and mortality than their White counterparts. In response to this inequity in cancer prevention and care, community-based lay health advisors (LHAs) may be suited to deliver effective, culturally relevant, quality cancer education, prevention/screening, and early detection services for underserved populations. Approach and Strategies Consistent with key tenets of community-based participatory research (CBPR), this project engaged community partners to develop and implement a unique LHA training curriculum to address cancer health disparities among medically underserved communities in a tricounty area. Seven phases of curriculum development went into designing a final seven-module LHA curriculum. In keeping with principles of CBPR and community engagement, academic–community partners and LHAs themselves were involved at all phases to ensure the needs of academic and community partners were mutually addressed in development and implementation of the LHA program. Discussion and Conclusions Community-based LHA programs for outreach, education, and promotion of cancer screening and early detection, are ideal for addressing cancer health disparities in access and quality care. When community-based LHAs are appropriately recruited, trained, and located in communities, they provide unique opportunities to link, bridge, and facilitate quality cancer education, services, and research. PMID:22982709

  13. Volume of Home and Community Based Services and...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Volume of Home- and Community-Based Services and Time to Nursing-Home Placement The purpose of this study was to determine whether the volume of Home and Community...

  14. Tribal Community-Based Social Marketing Training Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Community-Based Social Marketing (CBSM) Training Guide and recycling toolkit provides an overview of how to increase the adoption of sustainable behaviors and recycling practices with a community.

  15. Calibration of Community-based Coral Reef Monitoring Protocols ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: coral reef monitoring, community-based, calibration. Abstract—Coral reef monitoring (CRM) has been recognised as an important management tool and has ..... Pollution Bulletin 40: 537-550. Wilkinson, C., Green, A., Almany, J. &.

  16. Assessment of socio-economic characteristics of community based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community Based Organizations (CBOs) are voluntary, non-profit, and highly ... The instrument of the study – structured questionnaire - is divided into two ... Keywords: Socio-cultural, Characteristics, Neighbours, Festivals, Community, Nigeria ...

  17. Local natural and cultural heritage assets and community based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local natural and cultural heritage assets and community based tourism: Challenges ... and cultural assets into tourism activities for the benefit of the community. ... all the functions of planning, development, marketing and management of the ...

  18. Community Based Forest Management as a Tool for Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community-Based Forest Management (CBFM) in Cross River State (CRS) was ... a mutually acceptable formula should be worked out among the stakeholders. ... creation of enabling environment; state economic and fiscal policies, policy to ...

  19. Cocoa farmers'perception of Community Based Nursery Scheme: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cocoa farmers'perception of Community Based Nursery Scheme: A case study ... Sustainable Tree Crop Programme (STCP)| -Nigeria established Community ... for self improvement of participating farmers (8.3%) and group efforts/ formation ...

  20. A Community Based Systems Diagram of Obesity Causes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Allender

    Full Text Available Application of system thinking to the development, implementation and evaluation of childhood obesity prevention efforts represents the cutting edge of community-based prevention. We report on an approach to developing a system oriented community perspective on the causes of obesity.Group model building sessions were conducted in a rural Australian community to address increasing childhood obesity. Stakeholders (n = 12 built a community model that progressed from connection circles to causal loop diagrams using scripts from the system dynamics literature. Participants began this work in identifying change over time in causes and effects of childhood obesity within their community. The initial causal loop diagram was then reviewed and elaborated by 50 community leaders over a full day session.The process created a causal loop diagram representing community perceptions of determinants and causes of obesity. The causal loop diagram can be broken down into four separate domains; social influences; fast food and junk food; participation in sport; and general physical activity.This causal loop diagram can provide the basis for community led planning of a prevention response that engages with multiple levels of existing settings and systems.

  1. A Community Based Systems Diagram of Obesity Causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allender, Steven; Owen, Brynle; Kuhlberg, Jill; Lowe, Janette; Nagorcka-Smith, Phoebe; Whelan, Jill; Bell, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Application of system thinking to the development, implementation and evaluation of childhood obesity prevention efforts represents the cutting edge of community-based prevention. We report on an approach to developing a system oriented community perspective on the causes of obesity. Group model building sessions were conducted in a rural Australian community to address increasing childhood obesity. Stakeholders (n = 12) built a community model that progressed from connection circles to causal loop diagrams using scripts from the system dynamics literature. Participants began this work in identifying change over time in causes and effects of childhood obesity within their community. The initial causal loop diagram was then reviewed and elaborated by 50 community leaders over a full day session. The process created a causal loop diagram representing community perceptions of determinants and causes of obesity. The causal loop diagram can be broken down into four separate domains; social influences; fast food and junk food; participation in sport; and general physical activity. This causal loop diagram can provide the basis for community led planning of a prevention response that engages with multiple levels of existing settings and systems.

  2. Enhancing Community-Based Participatory Research Partnerships Through Appreciative Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Ciara; Peters, Ruth; Parkhurst, Malia; Beck, Leah Leilani; Hui, Brian; May, Vanessa Tui; Tanjasiri, Sora Park

    2015-01-01

    Challenges in community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnerships often pertain to trust and power, dilemmas posed by funding sources, and equitable community participation. Although challenges in CBPR can be welcomed because they present opportunities for growth and development of partnerships, tools are needed to facilitate issue identification and resolution. Moreover, such tools need to align with CBPR principles involving equal feedback among partners to improve the partnership and its outcomes. To describe how appreciative inquiry (AI) was used as an evaluation tool to contribute to the strengthening of empowerment of ongoing and future community-university relationships in CBPR collaborations. AI was applied at the end of a community-university partnership to promote breast and cervical cancer screening among Tongan women in Southern California. Through individual interviews and group discussion, tensions were identified and discussed in light of partnership and community strengths. Through AI, program staff emphasized community and university strengths of shared key values related to the program and aspects of program management that enabled them to contribute to successful program outcomes. They also discussed the following challenges: 1) approach of partners, 2) role definition, and 3) and time span of program development and implementation. Based on these discussions, recommendations were made to overcome current challenges and improve ongoing and future CBPR collaborations. The AI process helped the partners recommit to collaborate with each other, renewed their excitement about working together, and assisted with reclarification of their roles to inform future collaborations.

  3. Data Publication: The Role of Community-Based, Disciplinary Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Kerstin; Hsu, Leslie

    2013-04-01

    continues to develop advanced tools for capture of data and metadata as part of the entire workflow form data acquisition to data reduction and data analysis. As a result of IEDA's community-based approach, IEDA has increased publication data that may otherwise have become dark data or not been sufficiently documented for reuse. Reference: Rees, Jonathan (2010): "Recommendations for independent scholarly publication of data sets." Creative Commons Working Paper

  4. Adaptive Management and Social Learning in Collaborative and Community-Based Monitoring: a Study of Five Community-Based Forestry Organizations in the western USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi L. Ballard

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative and community-based monitoring are becoming more frequent, yet few studies have examined the process and outcomes of these monitoring approaches. We studied 18 collaborative or community-based ecological assessment or monitoring projects undertaken by five community-based forestry organizations (CBFs, to investigate the objectives, process, and outcomes of collaborative ecological monitoring by CBF organizations. We found that collaborative monitoring can lead to shared ecological understanding among diverse participants, build trust internally and credibility externally, foster social learning and community-building, and advance adaptive management. The CBFs experienced challenges in recruiting and sustaining community participation in monitoring, building needed technical capacity for monitoring, and communicating monitoring results back to the broader community. Our results suggest that involving diverse and sometimes adversarial interests at key points in the monitoring process can help resolve conflicts and advance social learning, while also strengthening the link between social and ecological systems by improving the information base for management and increasing collective awareness of the interdependence of human and natural forest communities.

  5. Intersectoral policy for severe and persistent mental illness: review of approaches in a sample of high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diminic, S; Carstensen, G; Harris, M G; Reavley, N; Pirkis, J; Meurk, C; Wong, I; Bassilios, B; Whiteford, H A

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly recognised that intersectoral linkages between mental health and other health and support sectors are essential for providing effective care for individuals with severe and persistent mental illness. The extent to which intersectoral collaboration and approaches to achieve it are detailed in mental health policy has not yet been systematically examined. Thirty-eight mental health policy documents from 22 jurisdictions in Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Ireland and Canada were identified via a web search. Information was extracted and synthesised on: the extent to which intersectoral collaboration was an objective or guiding principle of policy; the sectors acknowledged as targets for collaboration; and the characteristics of detailed intersectoral collaboration efforts. Recurring themes in objectives/guiding principles included a whole of government approach, coordination and integration of services, and increased social and economic participation. All jurisdictions acknowledged the importance of intersectoral collaboration, particularly with employment, education, housing, community, criminal justice, drug and alcohol, physical health, Indigenous, disability, emergency and aged care services. However, the level of detail provided varied widely. Where detailed strategies were described, the most common linkage mechanisms were joint service planning through intersectoral coordinating committees or liaison workers, interagency agreements, staff training and joint service provision. Sectors and mechanisms identified for collaboration were largely consistent across jurisdictions. Little information was provided about strategies for accountability, resourcing, monitoring and evaluation of intersectoral collaboration initiatives, highlighting an area for further improvement. Examples of collaboration detailed in the policies provide a useful resource for other countries.

  6. Implementing a community-based social marketing project to improve agricultural worker health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flocks, J; Clarke, L; Albrecht, S; Bryant, C; Monaghan, P; Baker, H

    2001-06-01

    The Together for Agricultural Safety project is a community-based social marketing project working to reduce the adverse health effects of pesticide exposure among fernery and nursery workers in Florida. In 3 years, the collaboration between university and community researchers has embodied many of the principles of community-based research while completing multiple stages of formative data collection required for a social marketing project. This hybrid approach to developing a health intervention for a minority community has been successful in its early stages because the community partners are organized, empowered, and motivated to execute research activities with the assistance of academic partners. However, this work has also been labor intensive and costly. This article describes the lessons learned by project partners and considers the limitations of this approach for agricultural health research.

  7. Measuring teamwork and taskwork of community-based “teams” delivering life-saving health interventions in rural Zambia: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of teams is a well-known approach in a variety of settings, including health care, in both developed and developing countries. Team performance is comprised of teamwork and task work, and ascertaining whether a team is performing as expected to achieve the desired outcome has rarely been done in health care settings in resource-limited countries. Measuring teamwork requires identifying dimensions of teamwork or processes that comprise the teamwork construct, while taskwork requires identifying specific team functions. Since 2008 a community-based project in rural Zambia has teamed community health workers (CHWs) and traditional birth attendants (TBAs), supported by Neighborhood Health Committees (NHCs), to provide essential newborn and continuous curative care for children 0–59 months. This paper describes the process of developing a measure of teamwork and taskwork for community-based health teams in rural Zambia. Methods Six group discussions and pile-sorting sessions were conducted with three NHCs and three groups of CHW-TBA teams. Each session comprised six individuals. Results We selected 17 factors identified by participants as relevant for measuring teamwork in this rural setting. Participants endorsed seven functions as important to measure taskwork. To explain team performance, we assigned 20 factors into three sub-groups: personal, community-related and service-related. Conclusion Community and culturally relevant processes, functions and factors were used to develop a tool for measuring teamwork and taskwork in this rural community and the tool was quite unique from tools used in developed countries. PMID:23802766

  8. A robust University-NGO partnership: Analysing school efficiencies in Bolivia with community-based management techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Neiva de Figueiredo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Community-based management research is a collaborative effort between management, academics and communities in need with the specific goal of achieving social change to foster social justice. Because it is designed to promote and validate joint methods of discovery and community-based sources of knowledge, community-based management research has several unique characteristics, which may affect its execution. This article describes the process of a community-based management research project which is descriptive in nature and uses quantitative techniques to examine school efficiencies in low-income communities in a developing country – Bolivia. The article describes the partnership between a US-based university and a Bolivian not-for-profit organisation, the research context and the history of the research project, including its various phases. It focuses on the (yet unpublished process of the community-based research as opposed to its content (which has been published elsewhere. The article also makes the case that the robust partnership between the US-based university and the Bolivian NGO has been a determining factor in achieving positive results. Strengths and limitations are examined in the hope that the experience may be helpful to others conducting descriptive quantitative management research using community-engaged frameworks in cross-cultural settings. Keywords: international partnership, community-engaged scholarship, education efficiency, multicultural low-income education.

  9. Predictors of quality of life of people receiving intensive community-based care

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Intensive community-based care (ICBC) is a home-treatment approach aiming to support people ‘living in the community’ with severe psychiatric and addiction problems. Although subjective quality of life (SQOL) is an increasingly important outcome measure in health care, little is known on ICBC clients’ SQOL. Methods Clients of three ICBC teams (N = 523) participated in the study. Upon intake, clients filled out a SQOL measure and indicated whether they had a good friend, partner, and c...

  10. Smartphone hearing screening in mHealth assisted community-based primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf Hussein, Shouneez; Wet Swanepoel, De; Biagio de Jager, Leigh; Myburgh, Hermanus C; Eikelboom, Robert H; Hugo, Jannie

    2016-10-01

    Access to ear and hearing health is a challenge in developing countries, where the burden of disabling hearing loss is greatest. This study investigated community-based identification of hearing loss using smartphone hearing screening (hearScreen™) operated by community health workers (CHWs) in terms of clinical efficacy and the reported experiences of CHWs. The study comprised two phases. During phase one, 24 CHWs performed community-based hearing screening as part of their regular home visits over 12 weeks in an underserved community, using automated test protocols employed by the hearScreen™ smartphone application, operating on low-cost smartphones with calibrated headphones. During phase two, CHWs completed a questionnaire regarding their perceptions and experiences of the community-based screening programme. Data analysis was conducted on the results of 108 children (2-15 years) and 598 adults (16-85 years). Referral rates for children and adults were 12% and 6.5% respectively. Noise exceeding permissible levels had a significant effect on screen results at 25 dB at 1 kHz (pSmartphone-based hearing screening allows CHWs to bring hearing health care to underserved communities at a primary care level. Active noise monitoring and data management features allow for quality control and remote monitoring for surveillance and follow-up. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Rice Production Vulnerability to Climate Change in Indonesia: An Overview on Community-based Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaladara, A. A. S. P.; Budiasa, I. W.; Ambarawati, I. G. A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Rice remains to be a major crop and staple food in Indonesia. The task to ensure that rice production meets the demand of a growing population continues to engage the attention of national planners and policy makers. However, the adverse effects of climate change on agriculture production have presented Indonesia with yet another significant challenge. The exposure of rice crops to climate-related hazards such as temperature stress, floods, and drought, may lead to lower yield and self-sufficiency rate. This study explores the vulnerability of rice production to the effects of climate change in Indonesia. Considering the vast geographical span of the country and varying exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity to climate change at regional level, this study emphasize the importance of community-based adaptation. Results from a simulation based on production and climate data from 1984 to 2014 indicates that rice production is sensitive to variation in growing season temperature and precipitation. A projection of these climate factors in 2050 has a significant impact on the major rice crop. To manage the impact of climate change, this study turns to the potential roles of farmer organizations, such as Subak, in adaptation strategies. The Subak in Bali is recognized for its cultural and organizational framework that highlights the sharing of knowledge and local wisdom in rice production. This is demonstrated by its efficient community-based irrigation management system, leading to sustainable rice production. Keywords: rice production, climate change, community-based adaptation, Indonesia

  12. Studi evaluasi penerapan Community Based Tourism (CBT sebagai pendukung agrowisata berkelanjutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Endah Nurhidayati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of government in the development of Community Based Tourism (CBT is very important to strengthen communities around the tourism destination. Government has significant role to ensure that the community has accesses, opportunities and an important power in the development of tourism. The objectives of this research are: (1 describe the government's perception of the  Community Based Tourism (CBT development, (2 identifying government policies to support the Community Based Tourism (CBT implementation in Batu City, East Java, and (3 describe the constraints that occur in the implementation of Community based Tourism (CBT in Batu City, East Java. This study uses qualitative approach by analyzing critical reality, being constructed locally and specifically. The study was conducted in Batu City, East Java. Perceptions of government on the implementation of community-based tourism reflected the mindset of the individual. The community-based tourism development in Batu city is considered the same as rural tourism development. The Government supervise the development of tourism products, especially the tourist village. To support the existence of a tourist village Department of Tourism and Creative Economy   help develop and market promotion. Barriers to the implementation of community-based tourism development with regard to the internal aspects of the government: the quality of human resources decision makers in the Batu Government do not possess educational background of tourism, government people less creative design programs and somewhat forced, the lack of trust the government to local communities, government is not able to map the condition social community related to the system's internal decision-making in the community that are less able to intervene in all components of society, a narrow understanding of CBT, and yet solid government policy coordination between stakeholders. While the external barriers are lack of insight into the

  13. The Importance of Documenting and Including Traditional Wisdom in Community-Based Ecotourism Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Đukić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article accords to the theory of community-based tourism, which represents a concept that respects natural and cultural resources of a particular community and encourages participation of its members in the process of tourist product creation. The article operates in the planning phase and aims to give insights into the process of establishing the groundwork for community-based tourism. The key element is documenting and illustrating everything that could be a part of what is known as “traditional wisdom,” namely, the skills and knowledge of traditional life practices. The methods of case study, content analysis, and observation of the village of Omoljica, Serbia, were used. The positive aspect of this locality is reflected in the existing short-term initiatives of organizations and individuals engaging in preserving traditional practices, but without systematic, long-term planning and management of community-based tourism, these individual efforts to revalue traditional life practices would stay unrecognizable and invisible for visitors and stakeholders. Thus, the main goal of this article is to understand the relation between short-term bottom-up initiatives and long-term top-down strategic planning of specific ecotourism destinations, one that would embrace the traditional ways of rural community life. The contribution of this study, in addition to documenting and illustrating “traditional wisdom” of the specific rural community placed in the protected area which encompasses a particular local social system, will be reflected in the creation of a set of guidelines for sustainable, rural, community-based ecotourism as a soft-driver development of protected areas near big cities of the postsocialist countries.

  14. Community-Based Tourism - Option for Forest-Dependent Communities in 1A IUCN Protected Areas? Cameroon Case Study

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    Burgin Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, ‘exponential’ growth in IUCN protected lands has occurred in the last 25 years. Approximately 6% of protected areas are ‘Strict Nature Reserve[s]’ (1A with emphasis on conservation and strict restrictions on human access. Before Bakossi Forest Reserve (Cameroon had 1A protection, 95% of local families used the Reserve for their livelihood. They farmed cash crops, collected fire wood, timber, and food with incomes equivalent to US$35,000/annually/family. Post-protection, the Reserve’s local communities lacked support to develop alternative livelihoods, and 75% reported being intercepted illegally trespassing by Reserve guards. Without illegal activity economic impacts would have been substantially greater. Protection has also meant foregone national income from timber and coffee exports. We used Bakossi Forest Reserve as a case study to identify issues facing local communities excluded from the Reserve that traditionally provided their livelihood. We also investigated potential alternative family livelihoods based on critical evaluation of the literature. We identified ‘exceptional’ community-based tourism potential. We also found that Cameroon was the first African country to develop community-based forestry with the dual roles of conservation and poverty alleviation. Using this model, community-based tourism could be a cost-effectively initiative to deliver the same dual roles as community-based forestry.

  15. A Co-integration Analysis Approach to European Union Integration: The Case of Acceding and Candidate Countries

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    Ceylan Onay

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the long-term financial integration of second-round acceding and candidate countries’ with the European Union and the US stock markets during the Accession Process. The lowpair wise correlations between these markets imply portfolio diversification opportunities, yet correlation is a short-term measure. The long-term stock market interdependence is analyzed with Johansen (1991 cointegration approach, which indicates no long-term relationship between the second-round countries and the EU and US stock markets. Yet Engle-Granger (1987 causality test presents evidence of a casual flow from European and US equity markets to Croatian stock market and from Turkish Stock market to Bulgarian stock market suggesting a short-term lead-lag relationship amongst. The results indicate that the completion of accession negotiations with Bulgaria and Romania and ongoing negotiations with Croatia and Turkey have not yet resulted in the complete financial integration of these markets with the European Union. They still offer significant long-term diversification opportunities for the European as well as the US investors.

  16. Testing the relationships between energy consumption, CO2 emissions, and economic growth in 24 African countries: a panel ARDL approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asongu, Simplice; El Montasser, Ghassen; Toumi, Hassen

    2016-04-01

    This study complements existing literature by examining the nexus between energy consumption (EC), CO2 emissions (CE), and economic growth (GDP; gross domestic product) in 24 African countries using a panel autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach. The following findings are established. First, there is a long-run relationship between EC, CE, and GDP. Second, a long-term effect from CE to GDP and EC is apparent, with reciprocal paths. Third, the error correction mechanisms are consistently stable. However, in cases of disequilibrium, only EC can be significantly adjusted to its long-run relationship. Fourth, there is a long-run causality running from GDP and CE to EC. Fifth, we find causality running from either CE or both CE and EC to GDP, and inverse causal paths are observable. Causality from EC to GDP is not strong, which supports the conservative hypothesis. Sixth, the causal direction from EC to GDP remains unobservable in the short term. By contrast, the opposite path is observable. There are also no short-run causalities from GDP, or EC, or EC, and GDP to EC. Policy implications are discussed.

  17. Relationships between vocational training centres and industrial SMEs in the Basque Country: A Regional Innovation System approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneka Albizu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this document is to analyse the reach of the relation between vocational training (VT centres and industrial SMEs in the Basque Country (Spain, and its influence on innovation processes developed by companies.Design/methodology/approach: We employ the conceptual framework offered by the Regional Innovation System (RIS perspective and the information supplied, on the one hand, by relevant actors within the vocational training system, through in-depth interviews, and, on the other, by the response of industrial SMEs to a survey.Findings: The results obtained suggest that vocational training centres are an agent of significance within the RIS, contributing through its main lines of action (formal education, continuous training and company services to improving the competitiveness of companies and to stimulating their innovation processes.Research limitations: Although this paper has described the nature of the main mechanisms of relation between VT centres and industrial SMEs, there is a need for ongoing research to analyse the contribution of the educational system to innovation processes in industrial SMEs. For this purpose it would be interesting to measure how the skills of qualified workers and technicians coming from the VT system mesh with company innovation processes.Originality/value: The results of this study highlight a positive relationship between vocational training and innovation.

  18. Assessing the influence of manufacturing sectors on electricity demand. A cross-country input-output approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarancon, Miguel Angel; Callejas Albinana, Fernando [Faculty of Law and Social Sciences, Universidad de Castilla - La Mancha, Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Del Rio, Pablo [Institute for Public Policies and Goods (IPP), Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, CSIC, C/Albasanz 26-28, 28037 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    The production and consumption of electricity is a major source of CO{sub 2} emissions in Europe and elsewhere. In turn, the manufacturing sectors are significant end-users of electricity. In contrast to most papers in the literature, which focus on the supply-side, this study tackles the demand-side of electricity. An input-output approach combined with a sensitivity analysis has been developed to analyse the direct and indirect consumptions of electricity by eighteen manufacturing sectors in fifteen European countries, with indirect electricity demand related to the purchase of industrial products from other sectors which, in turn, require the consumption of electricity in their manufacturing processes. We identify the industrial transactions and sectors, which account for a greater share of electricity demand. In addition, the impact of an electricity price increase on the costs and prices of manufacturing products is simulated through a price model, allowing us to identify those sectors whose manufacturing costs are most sensitive to an increase in the electricity price. (author)

  19. A Summary of the United States Food and Drug Administrations' Food Safety Program for Imported Seafood; One Country's Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonse, Brett

    2016-04-29

    It is well known that the vast majority of seafood is captured or farmed in emerging countries and exported to developed countries. This has resulted in seafood being the number one traded food commodity in the world. Food safety is essential to this trade. Exporting countries should understand the regulatory food safety programs of the countries they ship to in order to comply with their applicable laws and regulations to avoid violations and disruptions in trade. The United States (U.S.) imports more seafood than any individual country in the world but the European Union (E.U.) countries, as a block, import significantly more. Each importing country has its own programs and systems in place to ensure the safety of imported seafood. However, most countries that export seafood have regulatory programs in place that comply with the import requirements of the E.U. The purpose of this paper is to describe the United States Food and Drug Administration's (USFDA) imported seafood safety program. The primary audience for the information is foreign government regulators, seafood exporters, and U.S. importers. It can also give consumers confidence that f U.S. seafood is safe no matter which country it originates from.

  20. Team sponsors in community-based health leadership programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Tracy Enright; Dinkin, Donna R; Champion, Heather

    2017-05-02

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to share the lessons learned about the role of team sponsors in action-learning teams as part of community-based health leadership development programs. Design/methodology/approach This case study uses program survey results from fellow participants, action learning coaches and team sponsors to understand the value of sponsors to the teams, the roles they most often filled and the challenges they faced as team sponsors. Findings The extent to which the sponsors were perceived as having contributed to the work of the action learning teams varied greatly from team to team. Most sponsors agreed that they were well informed about their role. The roles sponsors most frequently played were to provide the teams with input and support, serve as a liaison to the community and serve as a sounding board, motivator and cheerleader. The most common challenges or barriers team sponsors faced in this role were keeping engaged in the process, adjusting to the role and feeling disconnected from the program. Practical implications This work provides insights for program developers and community foundations who are interested in building the capacity for health leadership by linking community sponsors with emerging leaders engaged in an action learning experience. Originality/value This work begins to fill a gap in the literature. The role of team sponsors has been studied for single organization work teams but there is a void of understanding about the role of sponsors with multi-organizational teams working to improve health while also learning about leadership.

  1. A Model for Community-based Language Teaching to Young Learners: The Impact of University Outreach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Nyikos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A primary challenge given to university foreign language departments and Title VI National Resource Centers is to increase interest and participation in foreign language learning, with particular emphasis on less commonly taught languages (LCTLs. Given that many LCTLs in high demand by the US government, including Arabic, Chinese, Persian and Turkish, rarely find their way into the school curricula, this article offers a successful ongoing community-based model of how one university-town partnership addresses advocacy with programming for pre-K-grade 9. Non-native and heritage undergraduate language students who volunteered as community language teachers found the experience invaluable to their pedagogical development. Teacher education programs or language departments can employ this approach to community-based teaching, by providing free, sustained language teaching in existing community centers. This article offers guidance for how to start and expand such a program.

  2. Community-based research as a tool for empowerment: the Haida Gwaii Diabetes Project example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, C P

    1996-01-01

    The evolution of the Haida Gwaii Diabetes Project exemplifies how community-based family practice research can be a tool for empowerment for both the community of research participants and the community based members of the research team. The aims of the project are to develop a better understanding of Haida beliefs about diabetes; to develop culturally sensitive approaches to prevention and management; and to attempt to apply this understanding to the development of a model for preventive health for native people in the province of British Columbia. A participatory research paradigm, coupled with explicit working principles by which the research team agreed to operate, addressed the concerns that the Aboriginal community had about the risks of research. A true working partnership has developed among all members of the research team, and with the Haida community.

  3. The Ghana community-based health planning and services initiative for scaling up service delivery innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyonator, Frank K; Awoonor-Williams, J Koku; Phillips, James F; Jones, Tanya C; Miller, Robert A

    2005-01-01

    Research projects demonstrating ways to improve health services often fail to have an impact on what national health programmes actually do. An approach to evidence-based policy development has been launched in Ghana which bridges the gap between research and programme implementation. After nearly two decades of national debate and investigation into appropriate strategies for service delivery at the periphery, the Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) Initiative has employed strategies tested in the successful Navrongo experiment to guide national health reforms that mobilize volunteerism, resources and cultural institutions for supporting community-based primary health care. Over a 2-year period, 104 out of the 110 districts in Ghana started CHPS. This paper reviews the development of the CHPS initiative, describes the processes of implementation and relates the initiative to the principles of scaling up organizational change which it embraces. Evidence from the national monitoring and evaluation programme provides insights into CHPS' success and identifies constraints on future progress.

  4. Facilitators' perceptions of problem-based learning and community-based education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula P du Rand

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1997 the School for Nursing, University of the Orange Free State, changed from the traditional lecture method of teaching to problem-based learning and from a curative to a community-based approach. Lecturers from a traditional environment became facilitators and new skills such as listening, dialogue, negotiation, counselling and problemsolving were expected from them. Besides the role change, the environment changed from a structural classroom to an unstructured community. The aim of this research was to determine the perceptions and experiences of facilitators in problem-based learning and community-base education. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  5. The Role of Occupational Therapy in Community-Based Programming: Addressing Childhood Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Kugel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity and poor health habits impact youth’s health and occupational participation. Occupational therapy’s role in preventing and treating obesity continues to emerge in the research literature. This article explores the impact of a community-based program emphasizing health and wellness for female youth. Methods: Five girls 11 to 13 years of age participated in the healthy occupations program. Before and after the program, the participants engaged in an individual semi-structured interview and completed the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure and the CATCH Kids Club Questionnaire. The youth participated in a focus group midprogram. Results: The participants were receptive to information regarding healthy behaviors and initiated positive health behavior changes after implementation of a 7-week healthy lifestyle community- based program. Conclusion: Occupational therapy can collaborate with community partners to provide programming focused on health promotion and prevention as part of the interprofessional approach to preventing and treating childhood obesity and building healthier communities.

  6. Establishing the Canadian HIV Women’s Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS: Operationalizing Community-based Research in a Large National Quantitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Loutfy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based research has gained increasing recognition in health research over the last two decades. Such participatory research approaches are lauded for their ability to anchor research in lived experiences, ensuring cultural appropriateness, accessing local knowledge, reaching marginalized communities, building capacity, and facilitating research-to-action. While having these positive attributes, the community-based health research literature is predominantly composed of small projects, using qualitative methods, and set within geographically limited communities. Its use in larger health studies, including clinical trials and cohorts, is limited. We present the Canadian HIV Women’s Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS, a large-scale, multi-site, national, longitudinal quantitative study that has operationalized community-based research in all steps of the research process. Successes, challenges and further considerations are offered. Discussion Through the integration of community-based research principles, we have been successful in: facilitating a two-year long formative phase for this study; developing a novel survey instrument with national involvement; training 39 Peer Research Associates (PRAs; offering ongoing comprehensive support to PRAs; and engaging in an ongoing iterative community-based research process. Our community-based research approach within CHIWOS demanded that we be cognizant of challenges managing a large national team, inherent power imbalances and challenges with communication, compensation and volunteering considerations, and extensive delays in institutional processes. It is important to consider the iterative nature of community-based research and to work through tensions that emerge given the diverse perspectives of numerous team members. Conclusions Community-based research, as an approach to large-scale quantitative health research projects, is an increasingly viable

  7. A Networking of Community-Based Speech Therapy: Borabue District, Maha Sarakham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumnum, Tawitree; Kum-ud, Weawta; Prathanee, Benjamas

    2015-08-01

    Most children with cleft lip and palate have articulation problems because of compensatory articulation disorders from velopharyngeal insufficiency. Theoretically, children should receive speech therapy from a speech and language pathologist (SLP) 1-2 sessions per week. For developing countries, particularly Thailand, most of them cannot reach standard speech services because of limitation of speech services and SLP Networking of a Community-Based Speech Model might be an appropriate way to solve this problem. To study the effectiveness of a networking of Khon Kaen University (KKU) Community-Based Speech Model, Non Thong Tambon Health Promotion Hospital, Borabue, Maha Sarakham, in decreasing the number of articulation errors for children with CLP. Six children with cleft lip and palate (CLP) who lived in Borabue and the surrounding district, Maha Sarakham, and had medical records in Srinagarind Hospital. They were assessed for pre- and post-articulation errors and provided speech therapy by SLP via teaching on service for speech assistant (SA). Then, children with CLP received speech correction (SC) by SA based on assignment and caregivers practiced home program for a year. Networking of Non Thong Tambon Health Promotion Hospital, Borabue, Maha Sarakham significantly reduce the number of post-articulation errors for 3 children with CLP. There were factors affecting the results in treatment of other children as follows: delayed speech and language development, hypernaslaity, and consistency of SC at local hospital and home. A networking of KKU Community-Based Speech Model, Non Thong Tambon Health Promotion Hospital, Borabue, and Maha Sarakham was a good way to enhance speech therapy in Thailand or other developing countries, where have limitation of speech services or lack of professionals.

  8. Test Selection, Adaptation, and Evaluation: A Systematic Approach to Assess Nutritional Influences on Child Development in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Elizabeth L.; Hartini, Sri; Rahmawati, Atik; Ismayani, Elfa; Hidayati, Astri; Hikmah, Nurul; Muadz, Husni; Apriatni, Mandri S.; Ullman, Michael T.; Shankar, Anuraj H.; Alcock, Katherine J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Evaluating the impact of nutrition interventions on developmental outcomes in developing countries can be challenging since most assessment tests have been produced in and for developed country settings. Such tests may not be valid measures of children's abilities when used in a new context. Aims: We present several principles for the…

  9. Test Selection, Adaptation, and Evaluation: A Systematic Approach to Assess Nutritional Influences on Child Development in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Elizabeth L.; Hartini, Sri; Rahmawati, Atik; Ismayani, Elfa; Hidayati, Astri; Hikmah, Nurul; Muadz, Husni; Apriatni, Mandri S.; Ullman, Michael T.; Shankar, Anuraj H.; Alcock, Katherine J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Evaluating the impact of nutrition interventions on developmental outcomes in developing countries can be challenging since most assessment tests have been produced in and for developed country settings. Such tests may not be valid measures of children's abilities when used in a new context. Aims: We present several principles for the…

  10. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy: a community-based delivery system and its effect on parasitemia, anemia and low birth weight in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Bygbjerg, Ib; Magnussen, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The main objective of the study was to assess the impact of a community-based delivery system of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) for malaria in pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) on access, parasitemia, anemia and low birth weight as primary outcome measures. METHODS.......0001). At both health units and the community-based approaches, IPT increased mean hemoglobin by 6.7% (panemia from 5.7% to 3.1% (p.... This intervention was acceptable to 89.6% of the women at the community-based approaches intending to use IPT in the future, while 48.1% of them had recommended it to other women. CONCLUSIONS: The community-based approaches increased access and adherence to IPT with an effect on anemia, severe anemia, parasitemia...

  11. Community-based post-stroke service provision and challenges: a national survey of managers and inter-disciplinary healthcare staff in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hickey Anne

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The extent of stroke-related disability typically becomes most apparent after patient discharge to the community. As part of the Irish National Audit of Stroke Care (INASC, a national survey of community-based allied health professionals and public health nurses was conducted. The aim was to document the challenges to service availability for patients with stroke in the community and to identify priorities for service improvement. Methods The study was a cross-sectional tailored interview survey with key managerial and service delivery staff. As comprehensive listings of community-based health professionals involved in stroke care were not available, a cascade approach to information gathering was adopted. Representative regional managers for services incorporating stroke care (N = 7 and disciplinary allied health professional and public health nurse managers (N = 25 were interviewed (94% response rate. Results Results indicated a lack of formal, structured community-based services for stroke, with no designated clinical posts for stroke care across disciplines nationally. There was significant regional variation in availability of allied health professionals. Considerable inequity was identified in patient access to stroke services, with greater access, where available, for older patients (≥ 65 years. The absence of a stroke strategy and stroke prevalence statistics were identified as significant impediments to service planning, alongside organisational barriers limiting the recruitment of additional allied health professional staff, and lack of sharing of discipline-specific information on patients. Conclusions This study highlighted major gaps in the provision of inter-disciplinary team community-based services for people with stroke in one country. Where services existed, they were generic in nature, rarely inter-disciplinary in function and deficient in input from salient disciplines. Challenges to optimal care

  12. Generalizable Aspects of the Development of Expertise in Ballet across Countries and Cultures: A Perspective from the Expert-Performance Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Carla U.; Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie J.; Ericsson, K. Anders

    2013-01-01

    The expert-performance approach guided the collection of survey data on the developmental history of elite professional ballet dancers from three different countries/cultures (USA, Mexico, and Russia). The level of ballet expertise attained by age 18 was found to be uniquely predicted by only two factors, namely the total number of accumulated…

  13. Using community-based participatory research to address Chinese older women's health needs: Toward sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, E-Shien; Simon, Melissa A; Dong, XinQi

    2016-01-01

    Although community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been recognized as a useful approach for eliminating health disparities, less attention is given to how CBPR projects may address gender inequalities in health for immigrant older women. The goal of this article is to share culturally sensitive strategies and lessons learned from the PINE study-a population-based study of U.S. Chinese older adults that was strictly guided by the CBPR approach. Working with Chinese older women requires trust, respect, and understanding of their unique historical, social, and cultural positions. We also discuss implications for developing impact-driven research partnerships that meet the needs of this vulnerable population.

  14. A Community-Based Social Marketing Campaign at Pacific University Oregon: Recycling, Paper Reduction, and Environmentally Preferable Purchasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Elaine J.; Fieselman, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to design a community-based social marketing (CBSM) campaign to foster sustainable behavior change in paper reduction, commingled recycling, and purchasing environmentally preferred products (EPP) with faculty and staff at Pacific University Oregon. Design/methodology/approach: A CBSM campaign was developed…

  15. A Community-Based Social Marketing Campaign at Pacific University Oregon: Recycling, Paper Reduction, and Environmentally Preferable Purchasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Elaine J.; Fieselman, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to design a community-based social marketing (CBSM) campaign to foster sustainable behavior change in paper reduction, commingled recycling, and purchasing environmentally preferred products (EPP) with faculty and staff at Pacific University Oregon. Design/methodology/approach: A CBSM campaign was developed…

  16. Utility of the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure as an admission and outcome measure in interdisciplinary community-based geriatric rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anette Enemark; Carlsson, Gunilla

    2012-01-01

    In a community-based geriatric rehabilitation project, the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) was used to develop a coordinated, interdisciplinary, and client-centred approach focusing on occupational performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of the COPM...

  17. Developing a Deeper Understanding of Community-Based Pedagogies with Teachers: Learning with and from Teachers in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Judy; Clavijo Olarte, Amparo; Ramírez, Luz Maribel

    2016-01-01

    Here we share findings from a 9-month qualitative case study involving a school-university professional development inquiry into how teachers develop, implement, and interpret community-based pedagogies (CBPs), an asset-based approach to curriculum that acknowledges mandated standards but begins with recognizing and valuing local knowledge. After…

  18. Evaluation of a Community-Based Aging Intervention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Wang, Chun-Hou; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chang, Ming-Chen; Wang, Jean

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the outcome and process of a community-based aging intervention program for the elderly in Taiwan. The program included education on nutrition and dietary behavior and on physical activities. Outcome and process evaluations were conducted. The program may have had some effects on decreasing some dietary behavioral problems and…

  19. Three Initiatives for Community-Based Art Education Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Maria; Chang, EunJung; Song, Borim

    2013-01-01

    Art educators should be concerned with teaching their students to make critical connections between the classroom and the outside world. One effective way to make these critical connections is to provide students with the opportunity to engage in community-based art endeavors. In this article, three university art educators discuss engaging…

  20. Community-Based Learning: Practices, Challenges, and Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Mavis

    2009-01-01

    This paper will highlight an innovate practice in teaching and learning by reflecting on two fourth-year sociology seminar classes that participated in a community-based learning project at York University. Fifty students collaborated in three to six person teams to work on a problem/issue identified by one of five not-for-profit organizations who…

  1. Birthing Support and the Community-Based Doula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Rachel; Breedlove, Ginger K.; Isaacs, Beth

    2007-01-01

    This article is excerpted from the authors' "The Community-Based Doula: Supporting Families Before, During, and After Childbirth", published in 2006 by "ZERO TO THREE." In the U.S., many new parents are socially isolated and lack access to ongoing caring and support because of poverty, immigration, language barriers, or the growing mobility and…

  2. Beyond the Four Walls: Community-Based Learning and Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Anne

    2012-01-01

    At a time when languages in universities are under pressure, community-based learning language courses can have many positive benefits: they can increase interest in language learning, they can foster greater engagement with learning, and they can encourage active learning, creativity and teamwork. These courses, which link the classroom and the…

  3. The Importance of Infrastructure for Support for Community Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Helen; Karp, Debra

    2012-01-01

    The Community Based Learning (CBL) Certificate and the Civic Honors Program provide unique opportunities for students to receive college credit for their civic participation. The authors describe these programs and the historical and administrative changes at the University of Wisconsin-Parkside, which created an environment for their development…

  4. An Honors Interdisciplinary Community-Based Research Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, David; Terlecki, Melissa; Watterson, Nancy; Ratmansky, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This article describes how two faculty members at Cabrini College--one from biology and the other from psychology--incorporated interdisciplinary community-based research in an honors course on environmental watershed issues. The course, Environmental Psychology, was team-taught in partnership with a local watershed organization, the Valley Creek…

  5. Negotiation of values as driver in community-based PD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gronvall, Erik; Malmborg, Lone; Messeter, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    and design things; and different accounts of values in design. Inspired by the concept of design things, and as a consequence of the need for continuous negotiation of values observed in all three cases, we suggest the concept of thinging as fruitful for creating productive agonistic spaces with a stronger...... attention towards the process of negotiating values in community-based PD....

  6. Community-Based Solid Waste Management: A Training Facilitator's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    Urban environmental management and environmental health issues are of increasing concern worldwide. The need for urban environmental management work at the local level where the Peace Corps works most effectively is significant, but training materials dedicated specifically to community-based solid waste management work in urban areas are lacking.…

  7. A Two-Dimensional Approach to Evaluate the Scientific Production of Countries (Case Study: The Basic Sciences)

    CERN Document Server

    Nejati, Ammar; 10.1007/s11192-009-0103-1

    2013-01-01

    The quantity and quality of scientific output of the topmost 50 countries in the four basic sciences (agricultural and biological sciences, chemistry, mathematics, and physics and astronomy) are studied in the period of the recent 12 years (1996-2007). In order to rank the countries, a novel two-dimensional method is proposed, which is inspired by the H-index and other methods based on quality and quantity measures. The countries data are represented in a "quantity-quality diagram", and partitioned by a conventional statistical algorithm (k-means), into three clusters, members of which are rather the same in all of the basic sciences. The results offer a new perspective on the global positions of countries with regards to their scientific output.

  8. Psychosocial rehabilitation in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaswamy, Thara; Sujit, John

    2012-10-01

    Psychosocial rehabilitation (PSR) is an essential component in the management of schizophrenia. It is especially relevant in the improvement of functioning and the quality of life of these individuals. The scarcity of mental health personnel and lack of training in many low and middle income countries (LAMIC) has led to low priority being accorded to PSR. This paper describes some of the PSR initiatives in LAMIC, especially those undertaken after disasters, home-based interventions and community-based rehabilitation programmes.

  9. Implementing Community-Based Diabetes Programs: The Scripps Whittier Diabetes Institute Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Linda C.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes affects a large and growing segment of the US population. Ethnic and racial minorities are at disproportionate risk for diabetes, with Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks showing a near doubling of risk relative to non-Hispanic whites. There is an urgent need to identify low cost, effective, and easily implementable primary and secondary prevention approaches, as well as tertiary strategies that delay disease progression, complications, and associated deterioration in function in patients with diabetes. The Chronic Care Model provides a well-accepted framework for improving diabetes and chronic disease care in the community and primary care medical home. A number of community-based diabetes programs have incorporated this model into their infrastructure. Diabetes programs must offer accessible information and support throughout the community and must be delivered in a format that is understood, regardless of literacy and socioeconomic status. This article will discuss several successful, culturally competent community-based programs and the key elements needed to implement the programs at a community or health system level. Health systems together with local communities can integrate the elements of community-based programs that are effective across the continuum of the care to enhance patient-centered outcomes, enable patient acceptability and ultimately lead to improved patient engagement and satisfaction. PMID:24390404

  10. Community-based mental health support for orphans and vulnerable children in South Africa: A triangulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, Lochner; Sharp, Carla; Pappin, Michelle; Rani, Kholisa; Skinner, Donald; Lenka, Molefi; Cloete, Jan; Serekoane, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Community-based care is receiving increasing global attention as a way to support children who are orphaned or vulnerable due to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Using both qualitative and quantitative methodology, this study assesses community-based responses to the well-being of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) and compares these responses with the actual mental health of OVC in order to evaluate the South African government's approach of funding community-based organisations (CBOs) that support and care for OVC. The study results show that the activities of CBOs mainly extend government services and address poverty. Although this should not be seen as insignificant, the paper argues that CBOs give very little attention to the mental health of OVC.

  11. Establishing common ground in community-based arts in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mike

    2006-05-01

    This article originates in current research into community-based arts in health. Arts in health is now a diverse field of practice, and community-based arts in health interventions have extended the work beyond healthcare settings into public health. Examples of this work can now be found internationally in different health systems and cultural contexts. The paper argues that researchers need to understand the processes through which community-based arts in health projects evolve, and how they work holistically in their attempt to produce therapeutic and social benefits for both individuals and communities, and to connect with a cultural base in healthcare services themselves. A development model that might be adapted to assist in analysing this is the World Health Organisation Quality of Life Index (WHOQOL). Issues raised in the paper around community engagement, healthy choice and self-esteem are then illustrated in case examples of community-based arts in health practice in South Africa and England; namely the DramAide and Siyazama projects in KwaZulu-Natal, and Looking Well Healthy Living Centre in North Yorkshire. In South Africa there are arts and media projects attempting to raise awareness about HIV/AIDS through mass messaging, but they also recognize that they lack models of longer-term community engagement. Looking Well by contrast addresses health issues identified by the community itself in ways that are personal, empathic and domesticated. But there are also similarities among these projects in their aims to generate a range of social, educational and economic benefits within a community-health framework, and they are successfully regenerating traditional cultural forms to create public participation in health promotion. Process evaluation may provide a framework in which community-based arts in health projects, especially if they are networked together to share practice and thinking, can assess their ability to address health inequalities and focus

  12. A fuzzy set approach to economic crisis, austerity and public health. Part I. European countries' conformity to ideal types during the economic downturn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltkjel, Therese; Ingelsrud, Mari Holm; Dahl, Espen; Halvorsen, Knut

    2017-08-01

    This is the first part of a two-part paper that takes an explorative approach to assess crisis and austerity in European countries during the Great Recession. The ultimate aim of this two-part paper is to explore the "crisis-austerity" thesis by Stuckler and Basu and assess whether it is the interplay between austerity and crisis, rather than the current economic crisis per se, that can led to deterioration in population health. In Part I of this paper we offer one way of operationalizing crisis severity and austerity. We examine countries as specific configurations of crisis and policy responses and classify European countries into "ideal types." Cases included were 29 countries participating in the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) surveys. Based on fuzzy set methodology, we constructed two fuzzy sets, "austerity" and "severe crisis." Austerity was measured by changes in welfare generosity; severe crisis was measured by changes in gross domestic product (GDP) per capita growth. In the initial phase of the Great Recession, most countries faced severe crisis combined with no austerity. From 2010-2011 onward, there was a divide between countries. Some countries consistently showed signs of austerity policies (with or without severe crisis); others consistently did not. The fuzzy set ideal-type analysis shows that the European countries position themselves, by and large, in configurations of crisis and austerity in meaningful ways that allow us to explore the "crisis-austerity" thesis by Stuckler and Basu. This exploration is the undertaking of Part II of this paper.

  13. Modeling the principles of community-based participatory research in a community health assessment conducted by a health foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Karen Jaynes; Gail Bray, Patricia; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Reisz, Ilana; Peranteau, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss strategies used and lessons learned by a health foundation during development of a community health assessment model incorporating community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches. The assessment model comprises three models incorporating increasing amounts of CPBR principles. Model A combines local-area analysis of quantitative data, qualitative information (key informants, focus groups), and asset mapping. Model B, a community-based participatory model, emphasizes participatory rural appraisal approaches and quantitative assessment using rapid epidemiological assessment. Model C, a modified version of Model B, is financially more sustainable for our needs than Model B. The authors (a) describe origins of these models and illustrate practical applications and (b) explore the lessons learned in their transition from a traditional, nonparticipatory, quantitative approach to participatory approaches to community-health assessment. It is hoped that this article will contribute to the growing body of knowledge of practical aspects of incorporating CBPR approaches into community health assessments.

  14. Country focus -- Nepal. A race for survival: community-based transport for safe motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    In Nepal, a community came up with a unique way to transport a woman facing labor complications to the nearest district hospital (25 km away) that saved the woman's life. The 17-year-old woman lived in a mountain village with only steep and narrow paths leading up to and away from the village. She had been burned as a child, and the scar tissue at her perineum could not expand enough to deliver the baby. At 3:00 am, she asked to be taken to the hospital. The husband asked his neighbors to help him transport her to the hospital, but they suggested that they wait until the morning. At 8:00 am, 12 men took turns transporting her on doli, a reclining seat fixed to a pole and used to carry a bride to her wedding and to her husband's home. Two men at a time carried her while running. Via uneven mountain paths, they arrived at the hospital four hours after departing the village. A chest specialist with one year's experience in a maternity hospital performed an episiotomy allowing the woman to deliver vaginally. The physician had to repair her damaged genital tract. She delivered a stillborn. She was discharged a week later and walked back to her village. The physician recommended she go to the hospital before delivery for her next pregnancy. Lessons learned include: people will go to a hospital if they believe they can be helped, they will use any way possible to transport persons in need to the hospital, delay increases the probability of a poor outcome, access to prenatal care may have prevented this tragedy, and there is a need for obstetricians at district hospitals.

  15. Abuse of Older Men in Seven European Countries: A Multilevel Approach in the Framework of an Ecological Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriella Melchiorre

    Full Text Available Several studies on elder abuse indicate that a large number of victims are women, but others report that men in later life are also significantly abused, especially when they show symptoms of disability and poor health, and require help for their daily activities as a result. This study focused on the prevalence of different types of abuse experienced by men and on a comparison of male victims and non-victims concerning demographic/socio-economic characteristics, lifestyle/health variables, social support and quality of life. Additionally, the study identified factors associated with different types of abuse experienced by men and characteristics associated with the victims.The cross-sectional data concerning abuse in the past 12 months were collected by means of interviews and self-response during January-July 2009, from a sample of 4,467 not demented individuals aged between 60-84 years living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain and Sweden. We used a multilevel approach, within the framework of an Ecological Model, to explore the phenomenon of abuse against males as the complex result of factors from multiple levels: individual, relational, community and societal.Multivariate analyses showed that older men educated to higher levels, blue-collar workers and men living in a rented accommodation were more often victims than those educated to lower levels, low-rank white-collar workers and home owners, respectively. In addition, high scores for factors such as somatic and anxiety symptoms seemed linked with an increased probability of being abused. Conversely, factors such as increased age, worries about daily expenses (financial strain and greater social support seemed linked with a decreased probability of being abused.Male elder abuse is under-recognized, under-detected and under-reported, mainly due to the vulnerability of older men and to social/cultural norms supporting traditional male

  16. Results of a multi-country exploratory survey of approaches and methods for IMCI case management training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chopra Mickey

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness Strategy (IMCI is effective in improving management of sick children, and thus child survival. It is currently recommended that in-service IMCI case management training (ICMT occur over 11-days; that the participant: facilitator ratio should be ≤4:1 and that at least 30% of ICMT time be spent on clinical practice. In 2006–2007, approximately ten years after IMCI implementation, we conducted a multi-country exploratory questionnaire survey to document country experiences with ICMT, and to determine the acceptability of shortening duration of ICMT. Methods Questionnaires (QA were sent to national IMCI focal persons in 27 purposively-selected countries. To probe further, questionnaires (QB and QC respectively were also sent to course-directors or facilitators and IMCI trainees, selected using snowball sampling after applying pre-defined criteria, in these countries. Questionnaires gathered quantitative and qualitative data. Results Thirty-three QA, 163 QB, 272 QC and two summaries were returned from 24 countries. All countries continued to adapt course content to local disease burden. All countries offer shorter ICMT courses, ranging from 3–10 days (commonest being 5–8 days. The shorter ICMT courses offer fewer exercises, more homework, less individual feedback and reduced clinical practice ( Conclusion Whilst the 11-day ICMT course is still recommended, as efforts intensify to increase access to quality care and meet MDG4, standardized shorter ICMT courses, that include participatory methodologies and adequate clinical practice, could be acceptable globally.

  17. Impacts on travel and holiday accommodation online booking in selected South-East European countries: a multivariate analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Dumičić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impacts of economic indicators and the Internet penetration rate, as well as people’s ICT skills based on the Percentage of Individuals who booked travel and holiday accommodation over the Internet as the main variable under study. Recent data on member states in the European Union (EU28 are analyzed, including data on the three official EU candidate countries: Turkey, the FYR of Macedonia and Serbia. The research focuses on the position of the above mentioned EU candidates, considered part of South East Europe (SEE and the Western Balkans (WB. The main variable under study and four variables making a statistically significant impact on the main variable are explored. High positive correlations between pairs of the variables for 30 countries were found. Multiple linear regression modelling using the OLS estimators resulted in several acceptable models. Most hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering methods resulted in clear grouping of the SEE countries (Turkey, the FYR of Macedonia, Serbia, Bulgaria and Romania into the same clusters. Other more developed SEE countries in terms of the analyzed variables and utilizing specific clustering techniques joined other EU countries in different combination setups.

  18. An integrated approach to scale up the market penetration of low carbon technologies in developing countries and water scarce regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michelle Angela

    Water scarcity is a global challenge that stifles social and economic growth. There is a growing concern to examine the water-energy nexus to understand the importance of applying energy and water interactions to technology. In developing countries there are many communities that live off-grid in remote region with no access to electricity or clean water. Additionally, there are developed countries that are located in regions with electricity but no access to clean water. Recent developments in renewable energy technology and energy policies have greatly reduced the costs of renewable energy making them more attractive and affordable. The purpose of this dissertation is to evaluate the main barriers to deploying renewables to non-Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (non-OECD) countries and member countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). This dissertation examines the potential of renewable desalination technology systems across emerging countries. The findings of this research can serve as the basis for investors interested in entering this market. The combined chapters seek to address potential problems regarding the costs, methods, and tools required for the implementation of the appropriate water purification technologies for off-grid, community scale infrastructures.

  19. Variations in Ischemic Heart Disease Research by Country, Income, Development and Burden of Disease: A Scientometric Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Okhovati

    2015-12-01

    Results: IHD research publications were most likely produced by European and Western pacific countries. High-income countries produced the greatest share of about 81% of the global IHD research. However, no significant association observed between the countries’ GDP and number of research publications worldwide (OR=0.98, P=0.939. Global IHD research found to be strongly associated with the burden of disease (P<0.0001 and the countries’ HDI values worldwide (OR=16.8, P=0.016. Conclusion: Our study suggested that global research on IHD were geographically distributed and highly concentrated among the world’s richest countries. Estimated DALYs and HDI were found as important predictors of IHD research and the key drivers of health research disparities across the world.

  20. Community-based participatory research: its role in future cancer research and public health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, Vanessa W; Wallerstein, Nina; Duran, Bonnie; Villegas, Malia

    2013-05-16

    The call for community-based participatory research approaches to address cancer health disparities is increasing as concern grows for the limited effectiveness of existing public health practice and research in communities that experience a disparate burden of disease. A national study of participatory research projects, Research for Improved Health, funded by the National Institutes of Health (2009-2013), identified 64 of 333 projects focused on cancer and demonstrated the potential impact participatory approaches can have in reducing cancer disparities. Several projects highlight the success of participatory approaches to cancer prevention and intervention in addressing many of the challenges of traditional practice and research. Best practices include adapting interventions within local contexts, alleviating mistrust, supporting integration of local cultural knowledge, and training investigators from communities that experience cancer disparities. The national study has implications for expanding our understanding of the impact of participatory approaches on alleviating health disparities and aims to enhance our understanding of the barriers and facilitators to effective community-based participatory research.

  1. Evaluation of clinical teaching and professional development in a problem and community-based nursing module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C de Villiers

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa the main focus is on primary health care. This affects the education and training of nurses, and training schools must respond by developing appropriate teaching modules. A school of nursing developed, implemented and revised a problem- and community- based learning module over a period of three years (1996-1998. This student-centered module focuses on students’ needs, active participation, collaboration, accountability, self-assessment, self-study, life-long learning and appropriate skills. In the formal clinical teaching environment PBL was the main approach. However, this approach was also supported by a variety of strategies, for example group discussions and scenarios. The knowledge, attitudes and professional development skills acquired in the PBL approach were then applied informally in the community setting (CBE. The purpose of the study was to evaluate a first year clinical teaching module as part of an extensive programme. A quantitative research method, a descriptive design, and a variety of data collection techniques were used. Conclusions were that clinical teaching was effective within the problem- (PBL and community-based (CBE approaches; 78% of respondents were positive about the clinical learning environment; 61 % stated that expectations were met; 81% preferred group activities, and 67% indicated that they had developed professional skills. Facilitators agreed that clinical teaching met the requirements of PBL & CBE. The pass rate also improved.

  2. Contextualising case studies in entrepreneurship: A tandem approach to conducting a longitudinal cross-country case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chetty, S. K.; Partanen, J.; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager

    2014-01-01

    Using predictive and effectuation logics as a framework, this research note explains how case study research was conducted to demonstrate rigour and relevance. The study involves a longitudinal cross-country case study on small and medium-sized firm growth and networks undertaken by research teams...... in three countries (Finland, Denmark and New Zealand) involving 33 firms. This research note outlines the implications of this research and provides valuable guidance and reflections upon opportunities for future research regarding the conduct of contextual studies in entrepreneurship without compromising...

  3. Developing a community-based flood resilience measurement standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Adriana; Szoenyi, Michael; Chaplowe, Scott; McQuistan, Colin; Campbell, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Given the increased attention to resilience-strengthening in international humanitarian and development work, there has been concurrent interest in its measurement and the overall accountability of "resilience strengthening" initiatives. The literature is reaching beyond the polemic of defining resilience to its measurement. Similarly, donors are increasingly expecting organizations to go beyond claiming resilience programing to measuring and showing it. However, key questions must be asked, in particular "Resilience of whom and to what?". There is no one-size-fits-all solution. The approach to measuring resilience is dependent on the audience and the purpose of the measurement exercise. Deriving a resilience measurement system needs to be based on the question it seeks to answer and needs to be specific. This session highlights key lessons from the Zurich Flood Resilience Alliance approach to develop a flood resilience measurement standard to measure and assess the impact of community based flood resilience interventions, and to inform decision-making to enhance the effectiveness of these interventions. We draw on experience in methodology development to-date, together with lessons from application in two case study sites in Latin America. Attention will be given to the use of a consistent measurement methodology for community resilience to floods over time and place; challenges to measuring a complex and dynamic phenomenon such as community resilience; methodological implications of measuring community resilience versus impact on and contribution to this goal; and using measurement and tools such as cost-benefit analysis to prioritize and inform strategic decision making for resilience interventions. The measurement tool follows the five categories of the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework and the 4Rs of complex adaptive systems - robustness, rapidity, redundancy and resourcefulness -5C-4R. A recent white paper by the Zurich Flood Resilience Alliance traces the

  4. Financial impact of community-based dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailit, Howard L

    2010-10-01

    The financial impact of community-based dental education on dental school and community clinic budgets is a major issue. The evidence suggests that community experiences for dental students of fifty or more days, if effectively managed, can increase school net revenues due to the following factors: 1) the community rotations increase student productivity, approximating the loss of dental school clinical income; 2) the reallocation of unused clinical resources at the dental school reduces student clinic deficits; 3) schools and federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) that share surplus student patient revenues generate additional net income; and 4) enrollment of more students without additional new facilities and faculty increases total school tuition revenues. For FQHC dental clinics, student rotations increase the number of patients treated and may generate surplus revenues. Community-based dental education also provides schools and clinics important non-financial advantages.

  5. The Determinants of FDI Flows from the EU‐15 to the Visegrad Group Countries – A Panel Gravity Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwiusz Wojciechowski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to evaluate determinants of the general FDI flow to Visegrad countries and the effect of participation in EMU and EU. It was decided to investigate how augmented Gravity Model of trade allows identifying and evaluating the significance of pull and push factors of FDI. In an empirical analysis of panel data Hausman‐Taylor estimator was used because of the time‐invariant variables presence. While investment decisions regarding the choice of country are determined by the size of the target market, the distance is still a negative factor in creation of FDI volume. Additionally, it was proven that membership in EMU, differences in taxation, historical background, access to the sea and prices stability have significant impact of FDI stock formation in each country belonging to V4. Is was also noted that Poland became a leader of the V4 as well as EU‐12 FDI market sourcing from the old EU Member States. It is necessary to develop an “FDI attracting mechanism” using existing resources. Business regulations and taxation policy as well as main macroeconomic variables which are responsible for the economy standing are also examined as attracting the FDI flow. The originality of this work lies in studying some aspects of FDI inflow into the group of both similar and different countries in economic measures terms.

  6. Sizing the cannabis market: a demand-side and user-specific approach in seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Laar, Margriet; Frijns, Tom; Trautmann, Franz; Lombi, Linda

    2013-06-01

    Demand-based estimates of total cannabis consumption rarely consider differences among different user types and variation across countries. To describe cannabis consumption patterns and estimate annual consumption for different user types across EU Member States, a web survey in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden and United Kingdom (England & Wales) collected data on cannabis use patterns from 3,922 persons who had consumed cannabis at least once in the past year. They were classified into four groups based on their number of use days in the past 12 months: infrequent users or chippers (users (11-50 days), regular users (51-250 days) and intensive users (>250 days). User type specific data on typical amounts consumed were matched with data on numbers of users per user type estimated from existing population surveys, taking differences in mode of consumption, age and gender into account. Estimates were supplemented with data from populations of problem users to compensate for under coverage. Results showed remarkably consistent differences among user groups across countries. Both the average number of units consumed per typical use day and the average amount of cannabis consumed per unit increased across user types of increasing frequency of use. In all countries except Portugal, intensive users formed the smallest group of cannabis users but were responsible for the largest part of total annual cannabis consumption. Annual cannabis consumption varied across countries but confidence intervals were wide. Results are compared with previous estimates and discussed in the context of improving estimation methods.

  7. Public Debt, Economic Growth and the Real Interest Rate : A Panel VAR Approach to EU and OECD Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterken, Elmer; Ogawa, Kazuo; Tokutsu, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the causal relationship between the public debt to GDP ratio and economic growth for 31 EU and OECD countries from 1995 to 2013. A number of studies have tackled this problem, but very few make the transmission mechanism explicit in their analysis. We estimate a panel VAR model that

  8. Using community based participatory research as a method for investigating electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, Helen; Cummings, Elizabeth; Turner, Paul

    2015-01-01

    One information source for the Personally Controlled Electronic Health Record is the consumer repository. This paper reports on the use of community based participatory research, as a project method, derived from an initiative where people with complex chronic conditions and their carers attended a rural health promotion and lifestyle modification program. Through co-operative inquiry embedded in the research approach, health promotion workers and their clients were actively supported to adopt and use the PCEHR as an intervention. Simultaneously they were encouraged to reflect on its design, mechanisms for its implementation and their perceptions of its overall impact on consumer's ability to self-manage complex conditions.

  9. Community-Based Learning: The Core Competency of Residential, Research-Based Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Gerhard; Rohde, Markus; Wulf, Volker

    Traditionally, universities focus primarily on instructionist teaching. Such an understanding has been criticized from theoretical and practical points of view. We believe that sociocultural theories of learning and the concepts of social capital and social creativity hold considerable promise as a theoretical base for the repositioning of universities in the knowledge society. To illustrate our assumption, we provide case studies from the University of Colorado and the University of Siegen. These cases indicate how approaches to community-based learning can be integrated into a curriculum of applied computer science. We also discuss the role these didactical concepts can play within a practice-oriented strategy of regional innovation.

  10. Investigating health disparities through community-based participatory research: lessons learned from a process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Valerie; Brye, Willette; Hudson, Kenneth; Dubose, Leevones; Hansberry, Shantisha; Arrieta, Martha

    2014-01-01

    This article describes one university's efforts to partner with a local agency (the "Coalition") within a disadvantaged, predominantly African American neighborhood, to assist them with studying their community's health disparities and health care access. The final, mutually agreed-upon plan used a community-based participatory research approach, wherein university researchers prepared neighborhood volunteers and Coalition members to conduct face-to-face interviews with residents about their health and health care access. Subsequently, the Coalition surveyed 138 residents, and the agency now possesses extensive data about the nature and extent of health problems in their community. Lessons learned from these experiences are offered.

  11. Improving village poultry's survival rate through community-based poultry health management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Olorounto Delphin

    2012-01-01

    Community-based poultry health management (CBM) is a strategy for village poultry improvement based on the installment of “poultry interest groups” in experimental villages. These groups serve as a channel for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies. The use of CBM is due...... that governments and development agencies can improve village poultry survival rates by investing in the dissemination of information regarding best husbandry management practices through approaches that rely on the community such as CBM because CBM groups serve as channels for the dissemination of village poultry...

  12. Improving village poultry’s survival rate through community-based poultry health management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Olorounto D.

    Community-based poultry health management (CBM) is a strategy for village poultry improvement based on the installment of “poultry interest groups” in experimental villages. These groups serve as a channel for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies. The use of CBM is due...... that governments and development agencies can improve village poultry survival rates by investing in the dissemination of information regarding best husbandry management practices through approaches that rely on the community such as CBM because CBM groups serve as channels for the dissemination of village poultry...

  13. A collaborative model for supporting community-based interdisciplinary education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Patricia A; Schifferdecker, Karen E; Pipas, Catherine F; Fall, Leslie H; Poor, Daniel A; Peltier, Deborah A; Nierenberg, David W; Brooks, W Blair

    2002-07-01

    Development and support of community-based, interdisciplinary ambulatory medical education has achieved high priority due to on-site capacity and the unique educational experiences community sites contribute to the educational program. The authors describe the collaborative model their school developed and implemented in 2000 to integrate institution- and community-based interdisciplinary education through a centralized office, the strengths and challenges faced in applying it, the educational outcomes that are being tracked to evaluate its effectiveness, and estimates of funds needed to ensure its success. Core funding of $180,000 is available annually for a centralized office, the keystone of the model described here. With this funding, the office has (1) addressed recruitment, retention, and quality of educators for UME; (2) promoted innovation in education, evaluation, and research; (3) supported development of a comprehensive curriculum for medical school education; and (4) monitored the effectiveness of community-based education programs by tracking product yield and cost estimates needed to generate these programs. The model's Teaching and Learning Database contains information about more than 1,500 educational placements at 165 ambulatory teaching sites (80% in northern New England) involving 320 active preceptors. The centralized office facilitated 36 site visits, 22% of which were interdisciplinary, involving 122 preceptors. A total of 98 follow-up requests by community-based preceptors were fulfilled in 2000. The current submission-to-funding ratio for educational grants is 56%. Costs per educational activity have ranged from $811.50 to $1,938, with costs per preceptor ranging from $101.40 to $217.82. Cost per product (grants, manuscripts, presentations) in research and academic scholarship activities was $2,492. The model allows the medical school to balance institutional and departmental support for its educational programs, and to better position

  14. Community based prevention programs targeting all injuries for children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinks, A; Turner, C; McClure, R; Nixon, J

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Community based models for injury prevention have become an accepted part of the overall injury control strategy. This systematic review of the scientific literature examines the evidence for their effectiveness in reducing all-cause injury in children 0–14 years of age. Methods: A comprehensive search of the literature was performed using the following study selection criteria: community based intervention study; children under 14 years; outcome measure was injury rates; and either a community control or an historical control was used in the design. Quality assessment and data abstraction were guided by a standardized procedure and performed independently by two authors. Data synthesis was in tabular and text form with meta-analysis not being possible due to the discrepancy in methods and measures between the studies. Results: Thorough electronic and library search techniques yielded only nine formally evaluated community based all-cause child injury prevention programs that have reported actual injury outcomes. Of these nine studies, seven provided high level evidence where contemporary control communities were used for comparison; the remaining two used a pre and post-design or time trend analysis where historical data from the community were used as the comparison. Only three of the seven studies with contemporary control communities found significant effect of the intervention; the two studies without controls noted significant reductions in injury rates after the intervention period. Conclusion: There is a paucity of research from which evidence regarding the effectiveness of community based childhood injury prevention programs can be obtained and hence a clear need to increase the effort on developing this evidence base. PMID:15178676

  15. Lifestyle change in Kerala, India: needs assessment and planning for a community-based diabetes prevention trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daivadanam Meena

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM has become a major public health challenge in India. Factors relevant to the development and implementation of diabetes prevention programmes in resource-constrained countries, such as India, have been under-studied. The purpose of this study is to describe the findings from research aimed at informing the development and evaluation of a Diabetes Prevention Programme in Kerala, India (K-DPP. Methods Data were collected from three main sources: (1 a systematic review of key research literature; (2 a review of relevant policy documents; and (3 focus groups conducted among individuals with a high risk of progressing to diabetes. The key findings were then triangulated and synthesised. Results Prevalence of risk factors for diabetes is very high and increasing in Kerala. This situation is largely attributable to rapid changes in the lifestyle of people living in this state of India. The findings from the systematic review and focus groups identified many environmental and personal determinants of these unhealthy lifestyle changes, including: less than ideal accessibility to and availability of health services; cultural values and norms; optimistic bias and other misconceptions related to risk; and low expectations regarding one’s ability to make lifestyle changes in order to influence health and disease outcomes. On the other hand, there are existing intervention trials conducted in India which suggests that risk reduction is possible. These programmes utilize multi-level strategies including mass media, as well as strategies to enhance community and individual empowerment. India’s national programme for the prevention and control of major non-communicable diseases (NCD also provide a supportive environment for further community-based efforts to prevent diabetes. Conclusion These findings provide strong support for undertaking more research into the conduct of community-based diabetes prevention

  16. Lifestyle change in Kerala, India: needs assessment and planning for a community-based diabetes prevention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daivadanam, Meena; Absetz, Pilvikki; Sathish, Thirunavukkarasu; Thankappan, K R; Fisher, Edwin B; Philip, Neena Elezebeth; Mathews, Elezebeth; Oldenburg, Brian

    2013-02-01

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) has become a major public health challenge in India. Factors relevant to the development and implementation of diabetes prevention programmes in resource-constrained countries, such as India, have been under-studied. The purpose of this study is to describe the findings from research aimed at informing the development and evaluation of a Diabetes Prevention Programme in Kerala, India (K-DPP). Data were collected from three main sources: (1) a systematic review of key research literature; (2) a review of relevant policy documents; and (3) focus groups conducted among individuals with a high risk of progressing to diabetes. The key findings were then triangulated and synthesised. Prevalence of risk factors for diabetes is very high and increasing in Kerala. This situation is largely attributable to rapid changes in the lifestyle of people living in this state of India. The findings from the systematic review and focus groups identified many environmental and personal determinants of these unhealthy lifestyle changes, including: less than ideal accessibility to and availability of health services; cultural values and norms; optimistic bias and other misconceptions related to risk; and low expectations regarding one's ability to make lifestyle changes in order to influence health and disease outcomes. On the other hand, there are existing intervention trials conducted in India which suggests that risk reduction is possible. These programmes utilize multi-level strategies including mass media, as well as strategies to enhance community and individual empowerment. India's national programme for the prevention and control of major non-communicable diseases (NCD) also provide a supportive environment for further community-based efforts to prevent diabetes. These findings provide strong support for undertaking more research into the conduct of community-based diabetes prevention in the rural areas of Kerala. We aim to develop, implement and

  17. Community-based health insurance and communities’ scheme requirement compliance in Thehuldere district, northeast Ethiopia: cross-sectional community-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workneh, Samuel Getachew; Biks, Gashaw Andargie; Woreta, Solomon Assefa

    2017-01-01

    Background Community-based health insurance (CBHI) is becoming a prominent and promising concept in tackling financial health care issues confronting the poor rural communities in developing countries. Ethiopia endorsed and constituted CBHI schemes in 13 pilot “woredas” in 2010/11. This study aimed to assess the compliance of the community to CBHI scheme requirements in Thehuledere district, northeast Ethiopia. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 530 respondents between April and June 2015 in Thehuledere District, South Wollo Zone, northeast Ethiopia. A systematic random sampling technique was deployed to select the study participants. A self-administered, structured, pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect the data. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with CBHI compliance. Results A total of 511 study participants were included in the study. Approximately 77.9% of the study population complied with CBHI requirements: members’ age (AOR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.62–0.8), premium fee affordability (AOR: 2.66, 95% CI: [1.13–4.42]), members’ occupation (AOR = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.04–0.45), members’ attitude toward CBHI management (AOR = 2.11 [1.14–3.90]), and CBHI members’ knowledge (AOR = 0.24, 95% CI: [0.13–0.42]) were found to be major predictors of community compliance to CBHI requirements. Conclusion CBHI requirement compliance at the early stage was relatively high. We observed that members’ age, premium fee affordability, occupation, attitude, and knowledge were significant predictors. CBHI management’s involvement in awareness creation and training on requirements of the CBHI scheme would contribute to better outcomes and success. PMID:28652789

  18. Community-based health insurance and communities' scheme requirement compliance in Thehuldere district, northeast Ethiopia: cross-sectional community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workneh, Samuel Getachew; Biks, Gashaw Andargie; Woreta, Solomon Assefa

    2017-01-01

    Community-based health insurance (CBHI) is becoming a prominent and promising concept in tackling financial health care issues confronting the poor rural communities in developing countries. Ethiopia endorsed and constituted CBHI schemes in 13 pilot "woredas" in 2010/11. This study aimed to assess the compliance of the community to CBHI scheme requirements in Thehuledere district, northeast Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 530 respondents between April and June 2015 in Thehuledere District, South Wollo Zone, northeast Ethiopia. A systematic random sampling technique was deployed to select the study participants. A self-administered, structured, pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect the data. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with CBHI compliance. A total of 511 study participants were included in the study. Approximately 77.9% of the study population complied with CBHI requirements: members' age (AOR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.62-0.8), premium fee affordability (AOR: 2.66, 95% CI: [1.13-4.42]), members' occupation (AOR = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.04-0.45), members' attitude toward CBHI management (AOR = 2.11 [1.14-3.90]), and CBHI members' knowledge (AOR = 0.24, 95% CI: [0.13-0.42]) were found to be major predictors of community compliance to CBHI requirements. CBHI requirement compliance at the early stage was relatively high. We observed that members' age, premium fee affordability, occupation, attitude, and knowledge were significant predictors. CBHI management's involvement in awareness creation and training on requirements of the CBHI scheme would contribute to better outcomes and success.

  19. Social Networks and Community-Based Natural Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauber, T. Bruce; Decker, Daniel J.; Knuth, Barbara A.

    2008-10-01

    We conducted case studies of three successful examples of collaborative, community-based natural resource conservation and development. Our purpose was to: (1) identify the functions served by interactions within the social networks of involved stakeholders; (2) describe key structural properties of these social networks; and (3) determine how these structural properties varied when the networks were serving different functions. The case studies relied on semi-structured, in-depth interviews of 8 to 11 key stakeholders at each site who had played a significant role in the collaborative projects. Interview questions focused on the roles played by key stakeholders and the functions of interactions between them. Interactions allowed the exchange of ideas, provided access to funding, and enabled some stakeholders to influence others. The exchange of ideas involved the largest number of stakeholders, the highest percentage of local stakeholders, and the highest density of interactions. Our findings demonstrated the value of tailoring strategies for involving stakeholders to meet different needs during a collaborative, community-based natural resource management project. Widespread involvement of local stakeholders may be most appropriate when ideas for a project are being developed. During efforts to exert influence to secure project approvals or funding, however, involving specific individuals with political connections or influence on possible sources of funds may be critical. Our findings are consistent with past work that has postulated that social networks may require specific characteristics to meet different needs in community-based environmental management.

  20. Community-based management induces rapid recovery of a high-value tropical freshwater fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Silva, João Vitor; Peres, Carlos A.

    2016-10-01

    Tropical wetlands are highly threatened socio-ecological systems, where local communities rely heavily on aquatic animal protein, such as fish, to meet food security. Here, we quantify how a ‘win-win’ community-based resource management program induced stock recovery of the world’s largest scaled freshwater fish (Arapaima gigas), providing both food and income. We analyzed stock assessment data over eight years and examined the effects of protected areas, community-based management, and landscape and limnological variables across 83 oxbow lakes monitored along a ~500-km section of the Juruá River of Western Brazilian Amazonia. Patterns of community management explained 71.8% of the variation in arapaima population sizes. Annual population counts showed that protected lakes on average contained 304.8 (±332.5) arapaimas, compared to only 9.2 (±9.8) in open-access lakes. Protected lakes have become analogous to a high-interest savings account, ensuring an average annual revenue of US$10,601 per community and US$1046.6 per household, greatly improving socioeconomic welfare. Arapaima management is a superb window of opportunity in harmonizing the co-delivery of sustainable resource management and poverty alleviation. We show that arapaima management deserves greater attention from policy makers across Amazonian countries, and highlight the need to include local stakeholders in conservation planning of Amazonian floodplains.

  1. Empowering Promotores de Salud to engage in Community-Based Participatory Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupertino, A Paula; Suarez, Natalia; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Fernández, Cielo; Jaramillo, Mary Lou; Morgan, Aura; Garrett, Susan; Mendoza, Irazema; Ellerbeck, Edward F

    2013-01-01

    Latino immigrants are less likely to be involved in addressing health-related issues affecting their own community. Community health workers have played a significant role in addressing the health of underserved communities in several countries. The objective of this article is to describe the development, implementation and evaluation of a community-based training program that empowers promotores to identify the health needs of recent Latino immigrants. Promotores were able to develop interventions based on the needs of recent Latino immigrants. Latino community members participated in a 30-hour training program. Training was provided in 15 two-hour sessions over 3 months. Training included field work accompanied by skills development in leadership, organization, interpersonal communication, and survey implementation. Upon completion of the training, promotores conducted household surveys designed to identify community health needs. The evaluation employed quantitative measures to track promotores' canvassing activities and assessment of health behaviors. Out of the 22 promotores enrolled in the training program, 15 (68.18%) completed the training program. Within 3 months, promotores administered 105 household surveys and identified poor access to health care, lack of insurance (78.6%), low daily consumption of fruits (73%) and vegetables (37.5%) and frequent exposure to tobacco smoke (31.7%). Our study demonstrated the feasibility of recruiting and engaging promotores to identify health priorities within the Latino community. This initial step will inform the development of future community-based interventions.

  2. A Study on Integrated Community Based Flood Mitigation with Remote Sensing Technique in Kota Bharu, Kelantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Ainullotfi, A. A.; Ibrahim, A. L.; Masron, T.

    2014-02-01

    This study is conducted to establish a community based flood management system that is integrated with remote sensing technique. To understand local knowledge, the demographic of the local society is obtained by using the survey approach. The local authorities are approached first to obtain information regarding the society in the study areas such as the population, the gender and the tabulation of settlement. The information about age, religion, ethnic, occupation, years of experience facing flood in the area, are recorded to understand more on how the local knowledge emerges. Then geographic data is obtained such as rainfall data, land use, land elevation, river discharge data. This information is used to establish a hydrological model of flood in the study area. Analysis were made from the survey approach to understand the pattern of society and how they react to floods while the analysis of geographic data is used to analyse the water extent and damage done by the flood. The final result of this research is to produce a flood mitigation method with a community based framework in the state of Kelantan. With the flood mitigation that involves the community's understanding towards flood also the techniques to forecast heavy rainfall and flood occurrence using remote sensing, it is hope that it could reduce the casualties and damage that might cause to the society and infrastructures in the study area.

  3. The Human Resources Challenge to Community Based Rehabilitation: The Need for a Scientific, Systematic and Coordinated Global Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eilish McAuliffe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The World Report on Disability highlights some of the major challenges in the path to realisation of the rights of persons with disabilities as per the United Nations Convention. While the recently published guidelines on Community Based Rehabilitation show the way to address these challenges, effective implementation would require not only higher levels of investment in human resources, but also a significantly newer and different skill-set for the additional personnel.  The authors suggest that a scientifically sophisticated, systematic and coordinated research programme, with global reach and participation, is needed for the establishment of a useful and robust evidence-base for Community Based Rehabilitation interventions. It is also suggested that the development of a new cadre of rehabilitation workers could be a key component of the programme, and could help to alleviate the extant crisis in human resources for health in many low-income countries.

  4. Systematic review of school and community-based fruit and vegetable interventions for minority children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rush SE

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarah E Rush, Adam P Knowlden Department of Health Science, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa AL, USA Background: Schools and communities provide effective environments to change health behaviors in children and adolescents, particularly among minority populations. The purpose of this investigation was to systematically analyze community and school-based interventions aimed at increasing fruit and vegetable intake (FVI among minority children. Methods: In collecting materials for this review, a search of CINAHL, MEDLINE, ERIC, Academic Search Premier, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was conducted for articles spanning January 2003 to November 2013. The data extraction covered three phases, resulting in a total of eleven interventions that met the specified inclusion criteria. Results: Among the studies identified, ten interventions produced significant outcomes on observed variables. The majority of the programs incorporated multicomponent approaches aimed at increasing FVI and antecedents of FVI behavior. Eight of the interventions applied social cognitive theory, one reported use of other theories, and two did not apply theory. None of the interventions reviewed employed process evaluation. Conclusion: While both school and community-based interventions utilized over the past decade have separately shown significant impacts on changing dietary behaviors in children, community members and organizations can serve as supplementary approaches to partner with schools and design even more successful interventions based on these combined resources. School and community-based interventions have had a great deal of success in impacting self-efficacy levels as well as actual eating behaviors in children; however, the school and community-based interventions reviewed both noted lack of resources as a limitation. Therefore, combining these resources has the potential to help create more high-quality studies from which to draw

  5. Effects of Community Based Educational Prevention Program of Drug Abuse in Reduction of High Risk Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Aranpour

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Overcoming social problems requires a participatory approach. This study was performed in order to determine the effect of community based educational prevention program of drug abuse in reduction of high risk behavior. Methods: This study was a community based participatory research. According to planned approach to community health model, "the health companion group" was established with participation of public representatives of villages, researchers, and managers of health sectors. Need assessment and priority setting of health problems was done. Drug abuse was selected as the topmost priority of health problems. By interviewing 10 year olds and older members of households, the questionnaires were completed. By conducting workshops, distributing educational pamphlets and face to face training for six months, the educational program was carried out. After this period, the study population was interviewed again. Data was analyzed by SPSS software, X2, and T tests. Results: The mean score of drug abuse related high risk behavior was 26.8 +/- 2.05 before educational program and 25.2 ±2.3 after the program. The mean score of psychological health was 26.2±5.8 before educational program and 26.4±5.7 after the program. The rate of negative drug abusing related behavior decreased and positive behavior increased after the educational program. Conclusion: The community based participatory research with participation of the public can be a proper pattern to prevent drug abuse and related high risk behaviors and as a result reduce costs and complications of this problem.

  6. The burden of typhoid fever in low- and middle-income countries: A meta-regression approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antillón, Marina; Warren, Joshua L; Crawford, Forrest W; Weinberger, Daniel M; Kürüm, Esra; Pak, Gi Deok; Marks, Florian; Pitzer, Virginia E

    2017-02-01

    Upcoming vaccination efforts against typhoid fever require an assessment of the baseline burden of disease in countries at risk. There are no typhoid incidence data from most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), so model-based estimates offer insights for decision-makers in the absence of readily available data. We developed a mixed-effects model fit to data from 32 population-based studies of typhoid incidence in 22 locations in 14 countries. We tested the contribution of economic and environmental indices for predicting typhoid incidence using a stochastic search variable selection algorithm. We performed out-of-sample validation to assess the predictive performance of the model. We estimated that 17.8 million cases of typhoid fever occur each year in LMICs (95% credible interval: 6.9-48.4 million). Central Africa was predicted to experience the highest incidence of typhoid, followed by select countries in Central, South, and Southeast Asia. Incidence typically peaked in the 2-4 year old age group. Models incorporating widely available economic and environmental indicators were found to describe incidence better than null models. Recent estimates of typhoid burden may under-estimate the number of cases and magnitude of uncertainty in typhoid incidence. Our analysis permits prediction of overall as well as age-specific incidence of typhoid fever in LMICs, and incorporates uncertainty around the model structure and estimates of the predictors. Future studies are needed to further validate and refine model predictions and better understand year-to-year variation in cases.

  7. The burden of typhoid fever in low- and middle-income countries: A meta-regression approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Joshua L.; Crawford, Forrest W.; Weinberger, Daniel M.; Kürüm, Esra; Pak, Gi Deok; Marks, Florian; Pitzer, Virginia E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Upcoming vaccination efforts against typhoid fever require an assessment of the baseline burden of disease in countries at risk. There are no typhoid incidence data from most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), so model-based estimates offer insights for decision-makers in the absence of readily available data. Methods We developed a mixed-effects model fit to data from 32 population-based studies of typhoid incidence in 22 locations in 14 countries. We tested the contribution of economic and environmental indices for predicting typhoid incidence using a stochastic search variable selection algorithm. We performed out-of-sample validation to assess the predictive performance of the model. Results We estimated that 17.8 million cases of typhoid fever occur each year in LMICs (95% credible interval: 6.9–48.4 million). Central Africa was predicted to experience the highest incidence of typhoid, followed by select countries in Central, South, and Southeast Asia. Incidence typically peaked in the 2–4 year old age group. Models incorporating widely available economic and environmental indicators were found to describe incidence better than null models. Conclusions Recent estimates of typhoid burden may under-estimate the number of cases and magnitude of uncertainty in typhoid incidence. Our analysis permits prediction of overall as well as age-specific incidence of typhoid fever in LMICs, and incorporates uncertainty around the model structure and estimates of the predictors. Future studies are needed to further validate and refine model predictions and better understand year-to-year variation in cases. PMID:28241011

  8. Assessment of economic instruments for countries with low municipal waste management performance: An approach based on the analytic hierarchy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Maximilian; Seyring, Nicole; Tzanova, Polia

    2016-09-01

    Economic instruments provide significant potential for countries with low municipal waste management performance in decreasing landfill rates and increasing recycling rates for municipal waste. In this research, strengths and weaknesses of landfill tax, pay-as-you-throw charging systems, deposit-refund systems and extended producer responsibility schemes are compared, focusing on conditions in countries with low waste management performance. In order to prioritise instruments for implementation in these countries, the analytic hierarchy process is applied using results of a literature review as input for the comparison. The assessment reveals that pay-as-you-throw is the most preferable instrument when utility-related criteria are regarded (wb = 0.35; analytic hierarchy process distributive mode; absolute comparison) mainly owing to its waste prevention effect, closely followed by landfill tax (wb = 0.32). Deposit-refund systems (wb = 0.17) and extended producer responsibility (wb = 0.16) rank third and fourth, with marginal differences owing to their similar nature. When cost-related criteria are additionally included in the comparison, landfill tax seems to provide the highest utility-cost ratio. Data from literature concerning cost (contrary to utility-related criteria) is currently not sufficiently available for a robust ranking according to the utility-cost ratio. In general, the analytic hierarchy process is seen as a suitable method for assessing economic instruments in waste management. Independent from the chosen analytic hierarchy process mode, results provide valuable indications for policy-makers on the application of economic instruments, as well as on their specific strengths and weaknesses. Nevertheless, the instruments need to be put in the country-specific context along with the results of this analytic hierarchy process application before practical decisions are made. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Anthropometric surrogates for screening of low birth weight newborns: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Neeti; Prasuna, J G; Taneja, D K

    2012-03-01

    In developing countries, where about 75% of births occur at home or in the community, logistic problems prevent the weighing of every newborn child. This study compares various anthropometric surrogates for identification of low birth weight neonates. A longitudinal community based study was done in an urban resettlement colony and 283 singleton neonates within 7 days of birth were examined for the anthropometric measurements such as head, chest, mid upper arm circumference and foot length as a screening tool for low birth weight. Chest circumference measured within 7 days of birth appeared to be the most appropriate surrogate of low birth weight with highest sensitivity (75.4%), specificity (78.4%), and positive predictive value (48.9%) as compared with other anthropometric parameters. Low birth weight neonates in absence of weighing scales can be early identified by using simple anthropometric measurements for enhanced home-based care and timely referral.

  10. Multi scale Disaster Risk Reduction Systems Space and Community based Experiences over HKH Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, D. R.; Shrestha, M.; Shrestha, N.; Debnath, B.; Jishi, G.; Bajracharya, R.; Dhonju, H. K.; Pradhan, S.

    2014-11-01

    An increasing trend in the recurrence of natural disasters and associated impacts due to Floods, Glacier Lake out bursts, landslides and forest fire is reported over Hindu Kush Himalyan (HKH) region. Climate change and anthropogenic coupled factors are identified as primary factors for such increased vulnerability. The large degree of poverty, lack of infrastructure, poor accessibility and uncertainties involved in understanding high altitude land surface and climate dynamics poses serious challenges in reducing disaster vulnerability and mitigating disaster impacts. In this context effective development of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) protocols and mechanisms have been realized as an urgent need. The paper presents the adoption and experiences of multi scale DRR systems across different Himalayan member countries ranging from community based indigenous early warning to space based emergency response and decision support systems. The Establishment of a Regional Flood Information System (HKH-HYCOS) over Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) and Indus river basins promoted the timely exchange of flood data and information for the reduction of flood vulnerability within and among the participating countries. Satellite based forest fire alert systems evoked significant response among diverse stakeholders to optimize fire incidence and control. Satellite rainfall estimation products, satellite altimetry based flood early warning systems, flood inundation modelling and products, model derived hydrology flow products from different global data-sharing networks constitutes diverse information to support multi scale DRR systems. Community-based Flood Early Warning System (FEWS) enabled by wireless technology established over the Singara and Jiadhal rivers in Assam also stands as one of the promising examples of minimizing flood risk. Disaster database and information system and decision support tools in Nepal serves as potential tool to support diverse stakeholders.

  11. Crossing borders : review of concepts and approaches in research on greenspace, immigration and society in northwest European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloek, M.E.; Buijs, A.E.; Boersema, J.J.; Schouten, M.G.C.

    2013-01-01

    Relations between greenspace, immigration and society are emerging issues in policy and science. However, up to now research has been fragmented and no overview of approaches exists. This review describes concepts and approaches in Northwest European research on immigrants’ recreational use and perc

  12. A multi-faceted approach to promote knowledge translation platforms in eastern Mediterranean countries: climate for evidence-informed policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Jardali Fadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Limited work has been done to promote knowledge translation (KT in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR. The objectives of this study are to: 1.assess the climate for evidence use in policy; 2.explore views and practices about current processes and weaknesses of health policymaking; 3.identify priorities including short-term requirements for policy briefs; and 4.identify country-specific requirements for establishing KT platforms. Methods Senior policymakers, stakeholders and researchers from Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen participated in this study. Questionnaires were used to assess the climate for use of evidence and identify windows of opportunity and requirements for policy briefs and for establishing KT platforms. Current processes and weaknesses of policymaking were appraised using case study scenarios. Closed-ended questions were analyzed descriptively. Qualitative data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Results KT activities were not frequently undertaken by policymakers and researchers in EMR countries, research evidence about high priority policy issues was rarely made available, and interaction between policymakers and researchers was limited, and policymakers rarely identified or created places for utilizing research evidence in decision-making processes. Findings emphasized the complexity of policymaking. Donors, political regimes, economic goals and outdated laws were identified as key drivers. Lack of policymakers’ abilities to think strategically, constant need to make quick decisions, limited financial resources, and lack of competent and trained human resources were suggested as main weaknesses. Conclusion Despite the complexity of policymaking processes in countries from this region, the absence of a structured process for decision making, and the limited engagement of policymakers and researchers in KT activities, there are windows of

  13. A multi-faceted approach to promote knowledge translation platforms in eastern Mediterranean countries: climate for evidence-informed policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Ataya, Nour; Jamal, Diana; Jaafar, Maha

    2012-05-06

    Limited work has been done to promote knowledge translation (KT) in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). The objectives of this study are to: 1.assess the climate for evidence use in policy; 2.explore views and practices about current processes and weaknesses of health policymaking; 3.identify priorities including short-term requirements for policy briefs; and 4.identify country-specific requirements for establishing KT platforms. Senior policymakers, stakeholders and researchers from Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen participated in this study. Questionnaires were used to assess the climate for use of evidence and identify windows of opportunity and requirements for policy briefs and for establishing KT platforms. Current processes and weaknesses of policymaking were appraised using case study scenarios. Closed-ended questions were analyzed descriptively. Qualitative data was analyzed using thematic analysis. KT activities were not frequently undertaken by policymakers and researchers in EMR countries, research evidence about high priority policy issues was rarely made available, and interaction between policymakers and researchers was limited, and policymakers rarely identified or created places for utilizing research evidence in decision-making processes. Findings emphasized the complexity of policymaking. Donors, political regimes, economic goals and outdated laws were identified as key drivers. Lack of policymakers' abilities to think strategically, constant need to make quick decisions, limited financial resources, and lack of competent and trained human resources were suggested as main weaknesses. Despite the complexity of policymaking processes in countries from this region, the absence of a structured process for decision making, and the limited engagement of policymakers and researchers in KT activities, there are windows of opportunity for moving towards more evidence informed policymaking.

  14. Integrating community based disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation: examples from the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is acknowledged by academics and development practitioners alike that many common strategies addressing community based disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation duplicate each other. Thus, there is a strong push to integrate the two fields to enhance aid effectiveness and reduce confusion for communities. Examples of community based disaster risk reduction (DRR and climate change adaptation (CCA projects are presented to highlight some of the ways these issues are tackled in the Pacific. Various approaches are employed but all aim to reduce the vulnerability and enhance the resilience of local communities to the impacts of climate change and disasters. By focusing on three case studies, elements of best practice are drawn out to illustrate how DRR and CCA can be integrated for enhanced aid effectiveness, and also look at ways in which these two often overlapping fields can be better coordinated in ongoing and future projects. Projects that address vulnerability holistically, and target the overall needs and capacity of the community are found to be effective in enhancing the resilience of communities. By strategically developing a multi-stakeholder and multi-sector approach, community projects are likely to encapsulate a range of experience and skills that will benefit the community. Furthermore, by incorporating local knowledge, communities are far more likely to be engaged and actively participate in the project. From selected case studies, commonly occurring best practice methods to integrate DRR and CCA are identified and discussed and recommendations on how to overcome the common challenges also presented.

  15. Integrating community based disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation: examples from the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gero, A.; Méheux, K.; Dominey-Howes, D.

    2011-01-01

    It is acknowledged by academics and development practitioners alike that many common strategies addressing community based disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation duplicate each other. Thus, there is a strong push to integrate the two fields to enhance aid effectiveness and reduce confusion for communities. Examples of community based disaster risk reduction (DRR) and climate change adaptation (CCA) projects are presented to highlight some of the ways these issues are tackled in the Pacific. Various approaches are employed but all aim to reduce the vulnerability and enhance the resilience of local communities to the impacts of climate change and disasters. By focusing on three case studies, elements of best practice are drawn out to illustrate how DRR and CCA can be integrated for enhanced aid effectiveness, and also look at ways in which these two often overlapping fields can be better coordinated in ongoing and future projects. Projects that address vulnerability holistically, and target the overall needs and capacity of the community are found to be effective in enhancing the resilience of communities. By strategically developing a multi-stakeholder and multi-sector approach, community projects are likely to encapsulate a range of experience and skills that will benefit the community. Furthermore, by incorporating local knowledge, communities are far more likely to be engaged and actively participate in the project. From selected case studies, commonly occurring best practice methods to integrate DRR and CCA are identified and discussed and recommendations on how to overcome the common challenges also presented.

  16. Investigating community-based health and health promotion for homeless people: a mixed methods review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, E; Themessl-Huber, M; Freeman, R

    2012-08-01

    Homeless people are susceptible to a range of health problems, yet in terms of health promotion, tend to be a hard-to-reach, marginalized group. Robust evidence regarding the ability to engage with this population via effective health promotion programmes is essential if policy and practice are to be informed to improve the health of homeless people. A structured review was conducted with the aim of examining what is known about community-based health promotion for homeless people. Six databases were searched and 8435 records screened. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. A mixed-methods 'combined separate synthesis' approach was used to accommodate both quantitative and qualitative evidence within one review. Three themes emerged: (i) incorporating homelessness, (ii) health improving and (iii) health engaging. The review has implications for health promotion design, with evidence suggesting that as part of a tailored approach, homeless people must be actively involved in intervention development, ensuring that appropriate, acceptable and potentially effective individual elements are incorporated into community-based interventions.

  17. Country-wide assessment of estuary health: An approach for integrating pressures and ecosystem response in a data limited environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Niekerk, L.; Adams, J. B.; Bate, G. C.; Forbes, A. T.; Forbes, N. T.; Huizinga, P.; Lamberth, S. J.; MacKay, C. F.; Petersen, C.; Taljaard, S.; Weerts, S. P.; Whitfield, A. K.; Wooldridge, T. H.

    2013-09-01

    Population and development pressures increase the need for proactive strategic management on a regional or country-wide scale - reactively protecting ecosystems on an estuary-by-estuary basis against multiple pressures is 'resource hungry' and not feasible. Proactive management requires a strategic assessment of health so that the most suitable return on investment can be made. A country-wide assessment of the nearly 300 functional South African estuaries examined both key pressures (freshwater inflow modification, water quality, artificial breaching of temporarily open/closed systems, habitat modification and exploitation of living resources) and health state. The method used to assess the type and level of the different pressures, as well as the ecological health status of a large number of estuaries in a data limited environment is described in this paper. Key pressures and the ecological condition of estuaries on a national scale are summarised. The template may also be used to provide guidance to coastal researchers attempting to inform management in other developing countries. The assessment was primarily aimed at decision makers both inside and outside the biodiversity sector. A key starting point was to delineate spatially the estuary functional zone (area) for every system. In addition, available data on pressures impacting estuaries on a national scale were collated. A desktop national health assessment, based on an Estuarine Health Index developed for South African ecological water requirement studies, was then applied systematically. National experts, all familiar with the index evaluated the estuaries in their region. Individual estuarine health assessment scores were then translated into health categories that reflect the overall status of South Africa's estuaries. The results showed that estuaries in the warm-temperate biogeographical zone are healthier than those in the cool-temperate and subtropical zones, largely reflecting the country

  18. Approaches to formalization of the informal waste sector into municipal solid waste management systems in low- and middle-income countries: Review of barriers and success factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparcana, Sandra

    2017-03-01

    The Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) sector represents a major challenge for low-and middle-income countries due to significant environmental and socioeconomic issues involving rapid urbanization, their MSWM systems, and the existence of the informal waste sector. Recognizing its role, several countries have implemented various formalization measures, aiming to address the social problems linked to this sector. However, regardless of these initiatives, not all attempts at formalization have proved successful due to the existence of barriers preventing their implementation in the long term. Along with this, there is a frequent lack of knowledge or understanding regarding these barriers and the kind of measures that may enable formalization, thereby attaining a win-win situation for all the stakeholders involved. In this context, policy- and decision-makers in the public and private sectors are frequently confronted with the dilemma of finding workable approaches to formalization, adjusted to their particular MSWM contexts. Building on the review of frequently implemented approaches to formalization, including an analysis of the barriers to and enabling measures for formalization, this paper aims to address this gap by explaining to policy- and decision-makers, and to waste managers in the private sector, certain dynamics that can be observed and that should be taken into account when designing formalization strategies that are adapted to their particular socioeconomic and political-institutional context. This includes possible links between formalization approaches and barriers, the kinds of barriers that need to be removed, and enabling measures leading to successful formalization in the long term. This paper involved a literature review of common approaches to formalization, which were classified into three categories: (1) informal waste workers organized in associations or cooperatives; (2) organized in CBOs or MSEs; and (3) contracted as individual

  19. Local understandings of conservation in southeastern Mexico and their implications for community-based conservation as an alternative paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Garcia, Victoria; Ruiz-Mallen, Isabel; Porter-Bolland, Luciana; Garcia-Frapolli, Eduardo; Ellis, Edward A; Mendez, Maria-Elena; Pritchard, Diana J; Sanchez-Gonzalez, María-Consuelo

    2013-08-01

    Since the 1990s national and international programs have aimed to legitimize local conservation initiatives that might provide an alternative to the formal systems of state-managed or otherwise externally driven protected areas. We used discourse analysis (130 semistructured interviews with key informants) and descriptive statistics (679 surveys) to compare local perceptions of and experiences with state-driven versus community-driven conservation initiatives. We conducted our research in 6 communities in southeastern Mexico. Formalization of local conservation initiatives did not seem to be based on local knowledge and practices. Although interviewees thought community-based initiatives generated less conflict than state-managed conservation initiatives, the community-based initiatives conformed to the biodiversity conservation paradigm that emphasizes restricted use of and access to resources. This restrictive approach to community-based conservation in Mexico, promoted through state and international conservation organizations, increased the area of protected land and had local support but was not built on locally relevant and multifunctional landscapes, a model that community-based conservation is assumed to advance. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Recommendations for treating depression in community-based older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Lesley E; Frederick, John T; Prohaska, Thomas; Satariano, William A; Dornberg-Lee, Sharon; Fisher, Rita; Graub, Pearl Beth; Leith, Katherine; Presby, Kay; Sharkey, Joseph; Snyder, Susan; Turner, David; Wilson, Nancy; Yagoda, Lisa; Unutzer, Jurgen; Snowden, Mark

    2007-09-01

    To present recommendations for community-based treatment of late-life depression to public health and aging networks. An expert panel of mental health and public health researchers and community-based practitioners in aging was convened in April 2006 to form consensus-based recommendations. When making recommendations, panelists considered feasibility and appropriateness for community-based delivery, as well as strength of evidence on program effectiveness from a systematic literature review of articles published through 2005. The expert panel strongly recommended depression care management-modeled interventions delivered at home or at primary care clinics. The panel recommended individual cognitive behavioral therapy. Interventions not recommended as primary treatments for late-life depression included education and skills training, comprehensive geriatric health evaluation programs, exercise, and physical rehabilitation/occupational therapy. There was insufficient evidence for making recommendations for several intervention categories, including group psychotherapy and psychotherapies other than cognitive behavioral therapy. This interdisciplinary expert panel determined that recommended interventions should be disseminated throughout the public health and aging networks, while acknowledging the challenges and obstacles involved. Interventions that were not recommended or had insufficient evidence often did not treat depression primarily and/or did not include a clinically depressed sample while attempting to establish efficacy. These interventions may provide other benefits, but should not be presumed to effectively treat depression by themselves. Panelists also identified primary prevention of depression as a much under-studied area. These findings should aid individual clinicians as well as public health decision makers in the delivery of population-based mental health services in diverse community settings.

  1. Forum: challenges in STD/AIDS prevention in Portuguese-speaking African countries: contributions from social research and from a gender approach. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Simone

    2009-03-01

    This forum on the challenges of preventing STD/AIDS in Portuguese-speaking African countries contains three articles and a postscript. The first paper reviews academic production on the topic from the fields of the social sciences and of health, with special attention on how local cultural and socioeconomic factors impact the dynamics of the epidemic. Based on an ethnographic study of a region in southern Mozambique, the second paper analyzes the notion of 'tradition' within the context of Mozambique and how it affects perceptions of the local population's vulnerability to STD/AIDS. The third and final article discusses common ground and differences between government and civil society in gender approaches by community HIV/AIDS projects in Mozambique. Their observations suggest that important mistakes have been made in STD/AIDS prevention discourse and initiatives in African countries because the unique features of local development models and cultural systems have not been taken into account.

  2. Do Medicaid home and community based service waivers save money?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Charlene; Ng, Terence; Kitchener, Martin

    2011-10-01

    This article estimates the potential savings to the Medicaid program of using 1915c Home and Community Based Services (HCBS) waivers rather than institutional care. For Medicaid HCBS waiver expenditures of $25 billion in 2006, we estimate the national savings to be over $57 billion, or $57,338 per waiver participant in 2006 compared with the cost of Medicaid institutional care (for which all waiver participants are eligible). When taking into account a potential 50% "woodwork effect" (for people who might have refused institutional services), the saving would be $21 billion. This analysis demonstrates that HCBS waiver programs present significant direct financial savings to Medicaid long-term care (LTC) programs.

  3. Policy approaches to improve availability and affordability of medicines in Mexico - an example of a middle income country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moye-Holz, Daniela; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Hogerzeil, Hans V

    2017-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization recommends establishing and implementing a national pharmaceutical policy (NPP) to guarantee effective and equitable access to medicines. Mexico has implemented several policy approaches to regulate the pharmaceutical sector, but it has no formal NPP. This

  4. Community-Based Prescribing for Impetigo in Remote Australia: An Opportunity for Antimicrobial Stewardship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Jane Oliver

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTo support antibiotic prescribing for both hospital and community-based health professionals working in remote North Western Australia, a multidisciplinary Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS Committee was established in 2013. This Committee is usually focused on hospital-based prescribing. A troubling increase in sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim resistance in Staphylococcus aureus antibiograms from 9 to 18% over 1 year prompted a shift in gaze to community prescribing.What we didFinding a paucity of relevant research, we first investigated contextual factors influencing local prescribing. We also designed a systematic survey of experts with experience relevant to our setting using a structured response survey (12 questions to better understand specific AMS risks. Using these findings, recommendations were formulated for the AMS Committee.What we learnedPrescribing recommendations in a regional Skin Infections Protocol had previously been altered in December 2014. From 15 experts, we received 9 comprehensive responses (60% about AMS risks in community prescribing. If feasible, prescribing audits also would have been valuable. Ten recommendations regarding specific antibiotic recommendations were submitted to the AMS Committee.Strengthening AMS in remote settingsAs AMS Committees in Australia usually focus on hospital-based prescribing, novel methods such as external expert opinion could inform deliberations about community-based prescribing. Our approach meant that this AMS Committee was able to intervene in the 2017 organizational review of the regional Skin Infections Protocol used by prescribers likely unaware of AMS risks. This experience demonstrates the value of incorporating AMS principles in community-based prescribing in context of a remote setting.

  5. Community-Based Global Health Program for Maltreated Children and Adolescents in Brazil: The Equilibrium Program (TEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Horvath Marques

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The maltreatment of children and adolescents is a global public health problem that affects high and low-middle income countries (LMICs. In the United States, around 1.2 million children suffer from abuse, while in LMICs such as Brazil these rates are much higher (an estimated 28 million children. Exposition to early environmental stress has been associated with suboptimal physical and brain development, persistent cognitive impairment and behavioral problems. Studies have reported that children exposed to maltreatment are at high risk of behavioral problems, learning disabilities, communication and psychiatric disorders and general clinical conditions such as obesity and systemic inflammation later in life. The aim of this paper is to describe The Equilibrium Program (TEP, a community-based global health program implemented in São Paulo, Brazil to serve traumatized and neglected children and adolescents. We will describe and discuss TEP’s implementation, highlighting its innovation aspects, research projects developed within the program as well as its population profile. Finally, we will discuss TEP’s social impact, challenges and limitations. The program’s goal is to promote the social and family reintegration of maltreated children and adolescents through an interdisciplinary intervention program that provides multi-dimensional bio-psycho-social treatment integrated with the diverse services needed to meet the unique demands of this population. The program’s cost-effectiveness is being evaluated to support the development of more effective treatments and to expand similar programs in other areas of Brazil. Policy makers should encourage early evidence-based interventions for disadvantaged children to promote healthier psychosocial environments and provide them opportunities to become healthy and productive adults. This approach has already shown itself to be a cost-effective strategy to prevent disease and promote health.

  6. Improving quality management systems of laboratories in developing countries: an innovative training approach to accelerate laboratory accreditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Katy; McKinney, Barbara; Murphy, Anna; Rotz, Phil; Wafula, Winnie; Sendagire, Hakim; Okui, Scolastica; Nkengasong, John N

    2010-09-01

    The Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) program was developed to promote immediate, measurable improvement in laboratories of developing countries. The laboratory management framework, a tool that prescribes managerial job tasks, forms the basis of the hands-on, activity-based curriculum. SLMTA is implemented through multiple workshops with intervening site visits to support improvement projects. To evaluate the effectiveness of SLMTA, the laboratory accreditation checklist was developed and subsequently adopted by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa (WHO AFRO). The SLMTA program and the implementation model were validated through a pilot in Uganda. SLMTA yielded observable, measurable results in the laboratories and improved patient flow and turnaround time in a laboratory simulation. The laboratory staff members were empowered to improve their own laboratories by using existing resources, communicate with clinicians and hospital administrators, and advocate for system strengthening. The SLMTA program supports laboratories by improving management and building preparedness for accreditation.

  7. Effect of the Prevalence of HIV/AIDS and the Life Expectancy Rate on Economic Growth in SSA Countries: Difference GMM Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waziri, Salisu Ibrahim; Mohamed Nor, Norashidah; Raja Abdullah, Nik Mustapha; Adamu, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The productivity of countries around the globe is adversely affected by the health-related problems of their labour force. This study examined the effect of the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and life expectancy on the economic growth of 33 Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries over a period of 11 years (2002-2012). The study employed a dynamic panel approach as opposed to the static traditional approach utilised in the literature. The dynamic approach became eminent because of the fact that HIV/AIDS is a dynamic variable as its prevalence today depends on the previous years. The result revealed that HIV/AIDS is negatively correlated with economic growth in the region, with a coefficient of 0.014, and significant at the 1% level. That is, a 10% increase in HIV/AIDS prevalence leads to a 0.14% decrease in the GDP of the region. Tackling HIV/AIDS is therefore imperative to the developing Sub-Saharan African region and all hands must be on deck to end the menace globally.

  8. Rapid Fishery Assessment by Market Survey (RFAMS)--an improved rapid-assessment approach to characterising fish landings in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, William T; Last, Peter R; Dharmadi; Faizah, Ria; Chodrijah, Umi; Buckworth, Rik C; Dichmont, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    The complex multi-gear, multi-species tropical fisheries in developing countries are poorly understood and characterising the landings from these fisheries is often impossible using conventional approaches. A rapid assessment method for characterising landings at fish markets, using an index of abundance and estimated weight within taxonomic groups, is described. This approach was developed for contexts where there are no detailed data collection protocols, and where consistent data collection across a wide range of fisheries types and geographic areas is required, regardless of the size of the site and scale of the landings. This methodology, which was demonstrated at seven fish landing sites/fish markets in southern Indonesia between July 2008 and January 2011, provides a rapid assessment of the abundance and diversity in the wild catch over a wide variety of taxonomic groups. The approach has wider application for species-rich fisheries in developing countries where there is an urgent need for better data collection protocols, monitoring future changes in market demographics, and evaluating health of fisheries.

  9. The International Cancer Expert Corps: a unique approach for sustainable cancer care in low and lower-middle income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Norman eColeman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The growing burden of non-communicable diseases including cancer in low- and lower-middle income countries (LMICs and in geographic-access limited settings within resource-rich countries requires effective and sustainable solutions. The International Cancer Expert Corps is pioneering a novel global mentorship-partnership model to address workforce capability and capacity within cancer disparities regions built on the requirement for local investment in personnel and infrastructure. Radiation oncology will be a key component given its efficacy for cure even for the advanced stages of disease often encountered and for palliation. The goal for an ICEC Center within these health disparities settings is to develop and retain a high quality sustainable workforce who can provide the best possible cancer care, conduct research and become a regional center of excellence. The ICEC Center can also serve as a focal point for economic, social and healthcare system improvement. ICEC is establishing teams of Experts with expertise to mentor in the broad range of subjects required to establish and sustain cancer care programs. The Hubs are cancer centers or other groups and professional societies in resource-rich settings that will comprise the global infrastructure coordinated by ICEC Central. A transformational tenet of ICEC is that altruistic, human-service activity should be an integral part of a healthcare career. To achieve a critical mass of mentors ICEC is working with three groups: academia, private practice and senior mentors/retirees. While in-kind support will be important, ICEC seeks support for the career time dedicated to this activity through grants, government support, industry and philanthropy. Providing care for people with cancer in LMICs has been a recalcitrant problem. The alarming increase in the global burden of cancer in LMICs underscores the urgency and makes this an opportune time for novel and sustainable solutions to transform

  10. Community-based oil spill response in Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banta, J. [Prince William Sound Regional Citizen' s Advisory Council, Anchorage, AK (United States); Munger, M. [Cook Inlet Regional Citizen' s Advisory Council, Kenai, AK (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The Prince William Sound Regional Citizen's Advisory Council and the Cook Inlet Regional Citizen's Advisory Council are independent, non profit organizations formed in 1989 following the Exxon Valdez oil spill to promote the concept of community-based oil spill response (COSR) in their respective regions. COSR involves local citizens in responding to oil spilled in waters they rely upon for income, recreation and subsistence. The 2 advisory councils recently held a Community Oil Spill Response Forum to review the status of existing COSR teams and to share information about past and future COSR-related efforts. The meeting served as an information exchange process about regulatory programs, COSR variations in communities and harbors, training, and personnel issues. Key groups attending the forum were harbor masters, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, United States Coast Guard, existing COSR teams, oil response organizations, local community governments, and volunteers from the advisory councils. This paper was based on the notes taken from the forum. It was agreed that the current system is inadequate in its response to small spills that are frequently associated with non-tank vessels. It was suggested that improved capacity for community-based response could address the situation. It was also suggested that work groups should meet on an annual or biannual basis to continue to educate responders and communities about oil spill response. 7 refs.

  11. Community-based benchmarking of the CMIP DECK experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleckler, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    A diversity of community-based efforts are independently developing "diagnostic packages" with little or no coordination between them. A short list of examples include NCAR's Climate Variability Diagnostics Package (CVDP), ORNL's International Land Model Benchmarking (ILAMB), LBNL's Toolkit for Extreme Climate Analysis (TECA), PCMDI's Metrics Package (PMP), the EU EMBRACE ESMValTool, the WGNE MJO diagnostics package, and CFMIP diagnostics. The full value of these efforts cannot be realized without some coordination. As a first step, a WCRP effort has initiated a catalog to document candidate packages that could potentially be applied in a "repeat-use" fashion to all simulations contributed to the CMIP DECK (Diagnostic, Evaluation and Characterization of Klima) experiments. Some coordination of community-based diagnostics has the additional potential to improve how CMIP modeling groups analyze their simulations during model-development. The fact that most modeling groups now maintain a "CMIP compliant" data stream means that in principal without much effort they could readily adopt a set of well organized diagnostic capabilities specifically designed to operate on CMIP DECK experiments. Ultimately, a detailed listing of and access to analysis codes that are demonstrated to work "out of the box" with CMIP data could enable model developers (and others) to select those codes they wish to implement in-house, potentially enabling more systematic evaluation during the model development process.

  12. Innovations in community-based nursing education: transitioning faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Kimberly Ferren; Fournier, Maggie; Grover, Susan; Kiehl, Ermalynn M; Sims, Kathleen M

    2005-01-01

    The health-care climate is changing rapidly and in ways that challenge the abilities of professionals who provide health care. Nursing educators are preparing professional nurses who can think critically, use sound clinical judgment, and participate as full partners in shaping health-care delivery and policy. Therefore, many schools of nursing, including five schools of nursing whose experiences are synthesized in this article, are revising their curricula to a community-based nursing perspective. Strategies to assist faculty in the transition to a community-based nursing curriculum include using change theory, creating a supportive environment, reducing tension and isolation, and evaluating. Potential challenges during transition include addressing grief and loss, overcoming the tedium of curricular development, moving the revision along while allowing opportunities for faculty input and consensus building, exploring alternative pedagogies, managing faculty workload and qualification issues, and preparing for transition. Outcomes include a more complete understanding of the community client as a partner in the delivery of health care, increased visibility and role modeling to potential future candidates for health careers, cultural transformations within a university, and promotion of the overall health of a community.

  13. REAL CONVERGENCE IN ROMANIA - A COMPARATIVE APPROACH TO NON-ERM II COUNTRIES FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELA SOCOL

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to survey the issue of real convergence in Central and Eastern Europe, based our approach on the literature review in the field and intended to develop a comparative approach of the main criteria of real convergence. We comparatively study Romania’s situation face to European Union Member States that did not adhere until now to ERM Exchange Rate Mechanism II and that do not benefit of special opt-outs stipulations - Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Bulgaria. The challenges of the paper consisted in identification and choose of the criteria which properly characterize the real convergence issue of the national economies. This approach is imposed by the widespread concept of real convergence and its different meanings or measurement manners.

  14. Comprehensive review of the evidence regarding the effectiveness of community-based primary health care in improving maternal, neonatal and child health: 1. rationale, methods and database description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Henry B; Rassekh, Bahie M; Gupta, Sundeep; Wilhelm, Jess; Freeman, Paul A

    2017-06-01

    Community-based primary health care (CBPHC) is an approach used by health programs to extend preventive and curative health services beyond health facilities into communities and even down to households. Evidence of the effectiveness of CBPHC in improving maternal, neonatal and child health (MNCH) has been summarized by others, but our review gives particular attention to not only the effectiveness of specific interventions but also their delivery strategies at the community level along with their equity effects. This is the first article in a series that summarizes and analyzes the assessments of programs, projects, and research studies (referred to collectively as projects) that used CBPHC to improve MNCH in low- and middle-income countries. The review addresses the following questions: (1) What kinds of projects were implemented? (2) What were the outcomes of these projects? (3) What kinds of implementation strategies were used? (4) What are the implications of these findings? 12 166 reports were identified through a search of articles in the National Library of Medicine database (PubMed). In addition, reports in the gray literature (available online but not published in a peer-reviewed journal) were also reviewed. Reports that describe the implementation of one or more community-based interventions or an integrated project in which an assessment of the effectiveness of the project was carried out qualified for inclusion in the review. Outcome measures that qualified for inclusion in the review were population-based indicators that defined some aspect of health status: changes in population coverage of evidence-based interventions or changes in serious morbidity, in nutritional status, or in mortality. 700 assessments qualified for inclusion in the review. Two independent reviewers completed a data extraction form for each assessment. A third reviewer compared the two data extraction forms and resolved any differences. The maternal interventions assessed

  15. Providing community-based health practitioners with timely and accurate discharge medicines information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Alice V

    2012-12-01

    catastrophic. 28 (35% patients had their HDS dispatched to their community-based practitioners within 48 hours post discharge compared to 80 (100% of MITFs. Conclusion The MITF is an effective approach for the timely delivery of accurate discharge medicines information to community-based practitioners responsible for the patient’s ongoing care.

  16. Yoga Helps Put the Pieces Back Together: A Qualitative Exploration of a Community-Based Yoga Program for Cancer Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Mackenzie, Michael J.; Wurz, Amanda J.; Yayoi Yamauchi; Lanie Ann Pires; S. Nicole Culos-Reed

    2016-01-01

    Objective. A qualitative research methods approach was used to explore the experiences of participants in an ongoing community-based yoga program developed for cancer survivors and their support persons. Methods. 25 participants took part in a series of semistructured focus groups following a seven-week yoga program and at three- and six-month follow-ups. Focus groups were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a process of inductive thematic analysis. Results. The group was comprised of 20 ...

  17. A community-based participatory planning process and multilevel intervention design: toward eliminating cardiovascular health inequities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Amy J; Israel, Barbara A; Coombe, Chris M; Gaines, Causandra; Reyes, Angela G; Rowe, Zachary; Sand, Sharon L; Strong, Larkin L; Weir, Sheryl

    2011-11-01

    The elimination of persistent health inequities requires the engagement of multiple perspectives, resources, and skills. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is one approach to developing action strategies that promote health equity by addressing contextual as well as individual-level factors, and that can contribute to addressing more fundamental factors linked to health inequity. Yet many questions remain about how to implement participatory processes that engage local insights and expertise, are informed by the existing public health knowledge base, and build support across multiple sectors to implement solutions. This article describes a CBPR approach used to conduct a community assessment and action planning process, culminating in development of a multilevel intervention to address inequalities in cardiovascular disease in Detroit, Michigan. The authors consider implications for future efforts to engage communities in developing strategies toward eliminating health inequities.

  18. Parents, Practitioners, and Researchers: Community-Based Participatory Research With Early Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Carol L.; Green, Beth L.; Terry, Martha Ann; Herman, Vivian; Mulvey, Laurie

    2003-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an approach to research and evaluation that is receiving increased attention in the field of public health. Our report discusses the application of this approach to research and evaluation with an Early Head Start (EHS) program in Pittsburgh, Pa. Our primary purpose is to illustrate the key elements that contributed to effective collaboration among researchers, EHS practitioners, and parents of EHS children in the conduct of the study. The focus is not on research findings but on research process. Our goal is to make the practices of CBPR visible and explicit so they can be analyzed, further developed, and effectively applied to a range of public health issues in a diversity of community contexts. PMID:14534219

  19. Integrated ergonomics approach toward designing night and shift work in developing countries based on experiences in Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuaba, A

    2001-12-01

    Recently, the effort in carrying out an integrated ergonomics approach known as "SHIP" (systemic, holistic, interdisciplinary and participatory) approach has been intensively undertaken in Bali with the aim of sustaining improvements being done. The People's Consultative Assembly of the Republic of Indonesia issued for the 1999-2004 period a "SHIP" Act on the Macro Guidelines of Tourism Development in which ergonomics and other factors must be considered comprehensively to attain sustainable development in tourism. Therefore the night and shift work that is recently increasingly applied in the tourism industry must also be designed and organized through this approach. In fact, however, economic factors have still been the predominant reason for workers to accept any type of night and shift work decided by the management, without taking into account possible impacts and consequences. For example, rapid forward rotation schemes seem more adapted to the hotel industry instead of traditional 6-6-6 rotation. Further, inter-city bus drivers are approved to work a 24-hour shift followed by one day off. These drivers often work an additional risky night shift after two consecutive night shifts so as to meet needed expenses for the family. Cultural or religious activities still presented constraints for workers as they carried out subsequently the night work. Therefore, proactive steps should be taken in a timely manner through the integrated SHIP approach in designing night and shift work so as to achieve work schedules compatible with both social life of shiftworkers and business concerns.

  20. A Scandinavian approach to designing with children in a developing country - Exploring the applicability of participatory methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakil, Nahid; Dalsgaard, P.

    2013-01-01

    Participatory Design (PD) offers a democratic approach to design by creating a platform for active end-user participation in the design process. Since its emergence, the field of PD has been shaped by the Scandinavian context, in which many early PD projects took place. In this paper we discuss t...

  1. Enhancing Community Based Early Warning Systems in Nepal with Flood Forecasting Using Local and Global Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugar, Sumit; Smith, Paul; Parajuli, Binod; Khanal, Sonu; Brown, Sarah; Gautam, Dilip; Bhandari, Dinanath; Gurung, Gehendra; Shakya, Puja; Kharbuja, RamGopal; Uprety, Madhab

    2017-04-01

    Operationalising effective Flood Early Warning Systems (EWS) in developing countries like Nepal poses numerous challenges, with complex topography and geology, sparse network of river and rainfall gauging stations and diverse socio-economic conditions. Despite these challenges, simple real-time monitoring based EWSs have been in place for the past decade. A key constraint of these simple systems is the very limited lead time for response - as little as 2-3 hours, especially for rivers originating from steep mountainous catchments. Efforts to increase lead time for early warning are focusing on imbedding forecasts into the existing early warning systems. In 2016, the Nepal Department of Hydrology and Meteorology (DHM) piloted an operational Probabilistic Flood Forecasting Model in major river basins across Nepal. This comprised a low data approach to forecast water levels, developed jointly through a research/practitioner partnership with Lancaster University and WaterNumbers (UK) and the International NGO Practical Action. Using Data-Based Mechanistic Modelling (DBM) techniques, the model assimilated rainfall and water levels to generate localised hourly flood predictions, which are presented as probabilistic forecasts, increasing lead times from 2-3 hours to 7-8 hours. The Nepal DHM has simultaneously started utilizing forecasts from the Global Flood Awareness System (GLoFAS) that provides streamflow predictions at the global scale based upon distributed hydrological simulations using numerical ensemble weather forecasts from the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). The aforementioned global and local models have already affected the approach to early warning in Nepal, being operational during the 2016 monsoon in the West Rapti basin in Western Nepal. On 24 July 2016, GLoFAS hydrological forecasts for the West Rapti indicated a sharp rise in river discharge above 1500 m3/sec (equivalent to the river warning level at 5 meters) with 53

  2. Perceptions of community-based field workers on the effect of a longitudinal biomedical research project on their sustainable livelihoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Christabelle S; Francis, Joseph; Bessong, Pascal O

    2017-03-17

    Researchers involved in biomedical community-based projects rarely seek the perspectives of community fieldworkers, who are the 'foot soldiers' in such projects. Understanding the effect of biomedical research on community-based field workers could identify benefits and shortfalls that may be crucial to the success of community-based studies. The present study explored the perceptions of community-based field workers on the effect of the Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development Project" (MAL-ED) South Africa on their tangible and intangible capital which together comprise sustainable livelihoods. The study was conducted in Dzimauli community in Limpopo Province of South Africa between January-February 2016. The sustainable livelihoods framework was used to query community-based field workers' perspectives of both tangible assets such as income and physical assets and intangible assets such as social capital, confidence, and skills. Data were collected through twenty one individual in-depth interviews and one focus group discussion. Data were analysed using the Thematic Content Analysis approach supported by ATLAS.ti, version 7.5.10 software. All the field workers indicated that they benefitted from the MAL-ED South Africa project. The benefits included intangible assets such as acquisition of knowledge and skills, stronger social capital and personal development. Additionally, all indicated that MAL-ED South Africa provided them with the tangible assets of increased income and physical assets. Observations obtained from the focus group discussion and the community-based leaders concurred with the findings from the in-depth interviews. Additionally, some field workers expressed the desire for training in public relations, communication, problem solving and confidence building. The MAL-ED South Africa, biomedical research project, had positive effects on tangible and

  3. Success indicators for integrating mental health interventions with community-based rehabilitation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Shoba; Boyce, William F; Ramani, Sudha; Underhill, Chris

    2008-12-01

    Community interventions for people with physical disabilities and for people with mental illness have evolved following similar trajectories, although at different periods of time. This study develops and tests indicators for successful integration of community-based rehabilitation (CBR)-mental health and development (MHD) services. An in-depth study was conducted of two organizations in Sri Lanka and India that successfully integrated CBR and MHD services as well as two organizations in Nepal and Bangladesh, which were planning integration. Interviews and focus groups were used to gather nonconfidential information. The study suggests many benefits of integration and several indicators of readiness: willingness to work with mentally ill people, a basic understanding of the mental health concept and mental illness problems, a match of context and strategy between current CBR activities and proposed MHD activities, stability of basic resources and infrastructure in the organization. A second set of indicators determined the long-term viability of an integrated CBR-MHD approach: ability to strategize and plan a mental health programme, ability to network with stakeholders effectively, ability to make use of resources efficiently. A major finding of the study was the need for training in the practical aspects of integration of mental health interventions with CBR. Tool sets are available that can be used by donors and by local organizations for assessing needs and readiness as well as developing viable strategies for the integration of community-based mental health interventions into existing CBR work.

  4. An Evaluation of Community-Based Action Research Program for Medical Undergraduates in Rural Pondicherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugan V

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To obtain the learners’ reaction to a community-based action research program in a rural setting of Pondicherry. Methods: Both quantitative (post-then-pre rating and qualitative (response to open ended questions feedback from 125 medical students exposed to this program was obtained. Mean values were calculated for pre and post self-rating on skills acquired by the students in retro-pre feedback. The content analysis of the qualitative data was undertaken. Results: There was significant improvement in their perceived abilities to follow basic steps in carrying out research such as – problem identification, literature search, drafting a proposal, preparation of questionnaire, data collection, analysis and its reporting. Our approach could contribute to development of cognitive, social-emotional and vocational domains of the students. Conclusions: Overall, our community-based action research program is taking a shape and getting mainstreamed in the exiting curriculum. It could sensitize students to basic steps in research and contributed to their cognitive, social-emotional and vocational development. Further work is needed to increase its scope and intensity to achieve the development of cultural, moral and ethical domains.

  5. Evangelical Protestants and the ACA: An Opening for Community-Based Primary Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Berkeley; Skinner, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Evangelical Protestants make up the largest religious subgroup in the United States, and previous research has shown that Evangelical churches are disproportionately active in community engagement and efforts toward social change. Although Evangelical Protestant perspectives have been considered with regard to persistent socioeconomic stratification and racial discrimination, less focus has been given to how churches interpret poor health outcomes within the United States. In particular, this research addresses how enduring health disparities are understood within the larger discussion of healthcare reform. Due to the similarity of approaches favored by participants in this study and community-based philosophy, a suggestion is made for future health policy dialogue. Although Evangelical Protestants have been most likely to reject all aspects of the Affordable Care Act, in many ways the findings of this study suggest the potential for successful future health policy collaboration. In particular, community-based primary care might appeal to Evangelicals and health professionals in the ongoing effort to improve population health and the quality of healthcare in the United States.

  6. Governing through community allegiance: a qualitative examination of peer research in community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guta, Adrian; Flicker, Sarah; Roche, Brenda

    2013-12-01

    The disappointing results of many public health interventions have been attributed in part to the lack of meaningful community engagement in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of these initiatives. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged as an alternative research paradigm that directly involves community members in all aspects of the research process. Their involvement is often said to be an empowering experience that builds capacity. In this paper, we interrogate these assumptions, drawing on interview data from a qualitative study investigating the experiences of 18 peer researchers (PRs) recruited from nine CBPR studies in Toronto, Canada. These individuals brought to their respective projects experience of homelessness, living with HIV, being an immigrant or refugee, identifying as transgender, and of having a mental illness. The reflections of PRs are compared to those of other research team members collected in separate focus groups. Findings from these interviews are discussed with an attention to Foucault's concept of 'governmentality', and compared against popular community-based research principles developed by Israel and colleagues. While PRs spoke about participating in CBPR initiatives to share their experience and improve conditions for their communities, these emancipatory goals were often subsumed within corporatist research environments that limited participation. Overall, this study offers a much-needed theoretical engagement with this popular research approach and raises critical questions about the limits of community engagement in collaborative public health research.

  7. The scenario approach for countries considering the addition of oral cholera vaccination in cholera preparedness and control plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Jacqueline; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Luquero, Francisco J; Troeger, Christopher; Reyburn, Rita; Lopez, Anna Lena; Debes, Amanda; Sack, David A

    2016-01-01

    Oral cholera vaccination could be deployed in a diverse range of situations from cholera-endemic areas and locations of humanitarian crises, but no clear consensus exists. The supply of licensed, WHO-prequalified cholera vaccines is not sufficient to meet endemic and epidemic needs worldwide and so prioritisation is needed. We have developed a scenario approach to systematically classify situations in which oral cholera vaccination might be useful. Our scenario approach distinguishes between five types of cholera epidemiology based on experiences from around the world and provides evidence that we hope will spur the development of detailed guidelines on how and where oral cholera vaccines could, and should, be most rationally deployed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluating HIV/STD interventions in developing countries: do current indicators do justice to advances in intervention approaches?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    MacPhail, C

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available and the spread of infection. Approaches to prevention have evolved from an early emphasis on information-based HIV-awareness campaigns and the aggressive detection and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (operating at the behavioural and biomedical levels... amongst impoverished commercial sex workers, in a context where clients refuse to use condoms, and where there is no consensus amongst women to enforce condom use (Campbell, 1999). In this context, a 'health-enabling community' would be one where sex...

  9. Approaches to promote handwashing and sanitation behaviour change in low- and middle income countries: a mixed method systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    De Buck, Emmy; Van Remoortel, Hans; Hannes, Karin; Govender, Tashlin; Naidoo, Selvan; Avau, Bert; Vande Veegaete, Axel; Musekiwa, Alfred; Lutje, Vittoria; Cargo, Margaret; Mosler, Hans-Joachim; Vandekerckhove, Philippe; Young, Taryn

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Water and sanitation are at the very core of sustainable development, critical to the survival of people and the planet. The Sustainable Development Goal 6 (i.e. ‘ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all’) addresses the issues relating to drinking water, sanitation and hygiene. It is unclear which Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) promotional approach is the most effective for sanitation and hygiene behaviour change, and other outcomes le...

  10. Plant clinics must take root in poor countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Solveig; Matsiko, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Food security, the production of safe food and the provision of quality products for domestic and export markets are all dependent on the ability to grow healthy plants. But pests and diseases destroy millions of tons of crops every year across the world, preventing families, communities...... and nations from fully exploiting their potential to produce food and create wealth. Timely access to information and advice about how to manage plant health problems can make the difference between success and failure. Since 2003, 12 countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America, have introduced community......-based plant health clinics as a way of providing this advice to small-scale farmers. Plant clinics have spread rapidly because they offer a cheap and practical alternative to more conventional approaches that can help only limited numbers of farmers. Effective plant healthcare requires a permanent...

  11. Cost and cost-effectiveness of community based and health facility based directly observed treatment of tuberculosis in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robberstad Bjarne

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying new approaches to tuberculosis treatment that are effective and put less demand to meagre health resources is important. One such approach is community based direct observed treatment (DOT. The purpose of the study was to determine the cost and cost effectiveness of health facility and community based directly observed treatment of tuberculosis in an urban setting in Tanzania. Methods Two alternative strategies were compared: health facility based directly observed treatment by health personnel and community based directly observed treatment by treatment supervisors. Costs were analysed from the perspective of health services, patients and community in the year 2002 in US $ using standard methods. Treatment outcomes were obtained from a randomised-controlled trial which was conducted alongside the cost study. Smear positive, smear negative and extra-pulmonary TB patients were included. Cost-effectiveness was calculated as the cost per patient successfully treated. Results The total cost of treating a patient with conventional health facility based DOT and community based DOT were $ 145 and $ 94 respectively. Community based DOT reduced cost by 35%. Cost fell by 27% for health services and 72% for patients. When smear positive and smear negative patients were considered separately, community DOT was associated with 45% and 19% reduction of the costs respectively. Patients used about $ 43 to follow their medication to health facility which is equivalent to their monthly income. Indirect costs were as important as direct costs, contributing to about 49% of the total patient's cost. The main reason for reduced cost was fewer number of visits to the TB clinic. Community based DOT was more cost-effective at $ 128 per patient successfully treated compared to $ 203 for a patient successfully treated with health facility based DOT. Conclusion Community based DOT presents an economically attractive option to complement

  12. Mobile devices for community-based REDD+ monitoring: a case study for Central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Herold, Martin; Avitabile, Valerio; de Bruin, Sytze; Bartholomeus, Harm; Souza, Carlos M; Ribbe, Lars

    2012-12-20

    Monitoring tropical deforestation and forest degradation is one of the central elements for the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD+) scheme. Current arrangements for monitoring are based on remote sensing and field measurements. Since monitoring is the periodic process of assessing forest stands properties with respect to reference data, adopting the current REDD+ requirements for implementing monitoring at national levels is a challenging task. Recently, the advancement in Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) and mobile devices has enabled local communities to monitor their forest in a basic resource setting such as no or slow internet connection link, limited power supply, etc. Despite the potential, the use of mobile device system for community based monitoring (CBM) is still exceptional and faces implementation challenges. This paper presents an integrated data collection system based on mobile devices that streamlines the community-based forest monitoring data collection, transmission and visualization process. This paper also assesses the accuracy and reliability of CBM data and proposes a way to fit them into national REDD+ Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) scheme. The system performance is evaluated at Tra Bui commune, Quang Nam province, Central Vietnam, where forest carbon and change activities were tracked. The results show that the local community is able to provide data with accuracy comparable to expert measurements (index of agreement greater than 0.88), but against lower costs. Furthermore, the results confirm that communities are more effective to monitor small scale forest degradation due to subsistence fuel wood collection and selective logging, than high resolution remote sensing SPOT imagery.

  13. School and community-based interventions for refugee and asylum seeking children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrer, Rebecca A; Fazel, Mina

    2014-01-01

    Research for effective psychological interventions for refugee and asylum-seeking children has intensified. The need for interventions in environments more easily accessed by children and families is especially relevant for newly arrived populations. This paper reviews the literature on school and community-based interventions aimed at reducing psychological disorders in refugee and asylum-seeking children. Comprehensive searches were conducted in seven databases and further information was obtained through searching reference lists, grey literature, and contacting experts in the field. Studies were included if they reported on the efficacy of a school or community-based mental health intervention for refugee or asylum-seeking children. Two independent reviewers made the final study selection, extracted data, and reached consensus on study quality. Results were summarized descriptively. The marked heterogeneity of studies excluded conducting a meta-analysis but study effect-sizes were calculated where possible. Twenty one studies met inclusion criteria for the review reporting on interventions for approximately 1800 refugee children. Fourteen studies were carried out in high-income countries in either a school (n = 11) or community (n = 3) setting and seven studies were carried out in refugee camps. Interventions were either primarily focused on the verbal processing of past experiences (n = 9), or on an array of creative art techniques (n = 7) and others used a combination of these interventions (n = 5). While both intervention types reported significant changes in symptomatology, effect sizes ranged from 0.31 to 0.93 and could mainly be calculated for interventions focusing on the verbal processing of past experiences. Only a small number of studies fulfilled inclusion criteria and the majority of these were in the school setting. The findings suggest that interventions delivered within the school setting can be successful in helping children

  14. School and community-based interventions for refugee and asylum seeking children: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A Tyrer

    Full Text Available Research for effective psychological interventions for refugee and asylum-seeking children has intensified. The need for interventions in environments more easily accessed by children and families is especially relevant for newly arrived populations. This paper reviews the literature on school and community-based interventions aimed at reducing psychological disorders in refugee and asylum-seeking children.Comprehensive searches were conducted in seven databases and further information was obtained through searching reference lists, grey literature, and contacting experts in the field. Studies were included if they reported on the efficacy of a school or community-based mental health intervention for refugee or asylum-seeking children. Two independent reviewers made the final study selection, extracted data, and reached consensus on study quality. Results were summarized descriptively. The marked heterogeneity of studies excluded conducting a meta-analysis but study effect-sizes were calculated where possible. Twenty one studies met inclusion criteria for the review reporting on interventions for approximately 1800 refugee children. Fourteen studies were carried out in high-income countries in either a school (n = 11 or community (n = 3 setting and seven studies were carried out in refugee camps. Interventions were either primarily focused on the verbal processing of past experiences (n = 9, or on an array of creative art techniques (n = 7 and others used a combination of these interventions (n = 5. While both intervention types reported significant changes in symptomatology, effect sizes ranged from 0.31 to 0.93 and could mainly be calculated for interventions focusing on the verbal processing of past experiences.Only a small number of studies fulfilled inclusion criteria and the majority of these were in the school setting. The findings suggest that interventions delivered within the school setting can be successful in

  15. Japan (country/area statements).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Japan, a country generally successful in solving population problems, now faces the problem of an aging population. It must provide welfare for its aged population and give them a role in society. Recognizing the vital importance to economic and social development of population problems in developing countries, Japan has cooperated through bilateral and multilateral channels in assisting various projects of developing countries concerned about population problems. As for bilateral aid, Japan extends technical cooperation to Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region countries by providing them with experts, by conducting surveys, by giving equipment, and by organizing training courses, particularly in the field of family planning. Japan also cooperates with some of the developing countries of the ESCAP region by providing them with financial assistance in the form of multilateral cooperation. Japan makes a cash contribution the the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) as the biggest donor country. In fiscal year 1984, the Japanese contribution to UNFPA totaled $US 40.1 million; the contribution will amount of $US 42.9 million in 1985. Aware of the importance of human resource development in the field of population, Japan has organized annual group training courses for the developing countries, namely: the Seminar on Family Planning Administration for Senior Officers; the Seminar on Community-Based Family Planning Strategy; and the Seminar on Health Aspects of Family Planning. Japan generally supports the work of ESCAP with regard to training in the field of population.

  16. A new method of social marketing: Community based social marketingYeni bir sosyal pazarlama yöntemi: “Toplumsal tabanlı sosyal pazarlama”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabahattin Çelik

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Especially in developed and developing countries, social marketing practises is used which is an innovative approach for the problems that require social change. Community based social marketing as a new method of social merketing, can be defined as making analysis and planning, implementing and the assessment of the programmes which are all designed to affect the behaviors of the target group to be made voluntarily in order to increase the welfare of the community of the individuals and the community that they exist in. “Community based social marketing” approach aims to create a positive behavior by starting up the behavioral change tools and eliminating the barriers in front of the target groups in order to have a positive attitude for a sustainable future. Community based social marketing tools and techniques provide provides a very important event that organize the behavior change, regardless of collecting knowledge in the area of conventional commercial marketing. The main purpose of the article within the framework of this information is to explain what ‘community based social marketing’ is and show how effective it is on the positive behavior change of the communities. For this purpose, a detailed literature review has been conducted and relevant concepts and examples have been examined.   Özet Özellikle gelişmiş ve gelişmekte olan ülkelerde sosyal değişim gerektiren problemler için yenilikçi bir yaklaşım olan sosyal pazarlama uygulamaları kullanılmaktadır. Yeni bir sosyal pazarlama yöntemi olan “Toplumsal Tabanlı Sosyal Pazarlama” ise bireylerin ve içinde bulundukları toplumun refahını arttırmak için, hedef kitlenin gönüllü olarak yapacakları davranışları etkilemek üzere tasarlanan programların analizi, planlanması, uygulanması ve değerlendirilmesi için pazarlama teknolojilerine başvurulması olarak tanımlanabilir. “Toplumsal Tabanlı Sosyal Pazarlama” (TTSP yaklaşımı, s

  17. A systematic review of community-based health insurance programs in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhageerathy, Reshmi; Nair, Sreekumaran; Bhaskaran, Unnikrishnan

    2017-04-01

    Community-based health insurance (CBHI) has been evolving as an effective means of healthcare financing in many countries of South Asia. A systematic review in this context would give a comprehensive report of the performance of these schemes in terms of improving the health-seeking behaviour of the beneficiaries enrolled for the schemes. Important databases like PubMed, Elsevier, SocINDEX (EBSCO), Cochrane Reviews, Medline and Scopus were reviewed along with relevant portals-Google Scholar, www.who.int/, www.worldbank.org and www.cochrane.org-and specific journals and discussion series with published literature in the areas of community health insurance and health microfinance. The review finally chronicles 20 CBHI schemes from published and unpublished literature from the countries comprising South Asia. These schemes have been reviewed in terms of their enrolment process, entry point and the extent to which they have contributed to the healthcare-seeking behaviour. The CBHI schemes can also serve as an alternative healthcare financing mechanism where fee-for-service and user fees have not made any impact. There have been very few studies that have tried to carry out an impact evaluation of the CBHI schemes on the target population, and more and more such studies can be a scope for further research. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Adaptation of the global frameworks for community based rehabilitation in southern Africa: a proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'kumbuzi, Vyvienne Rp; Myezwa, Hellen

    2017-01-01

    Community based rehabilitation (CBR) has evolved over the last 30 years and now focuses on empowering persons with disabilities to access and benefit from a wide range of services. The essence and ethos of CBR is captured in several global frameworks, such as the UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities (2006) and the CBR guidelines (2010). The latter contains the CBR matrix. All 15 countries in southern Africa are implementing CBR mostly in rural areas, but the policy framework to guide CBR in the region is unknown. The purpose of the study was to determine to what extent countries in southern Africa have adapted the global frameworks available for CBR. A CBR policy analysis using proof-of-concept methodology was undertaken. Policy documents on CBR were sought from relevant government departments or agencies. Multiple methods and media, including web searches, searches for grey literature, social media and contact through an elaborate network of colleagues working in the region, were employed to execute the search strategy. Data were organized using NVivo software, and three independent raters coded the emergent themes using the CBR matrix. Only Namibia, South Africa, Tanzania and Zimbabwe have specific policy content for CBR. These, however, lacked structure; the content was predominantly aligned to health. Inclusion of key international concepts such as mainstreaming and empowerment were superfluous when present. The CBR policy environment in southern Africa appears inadequate. Contingent factors that preclude adaptation of the global frameworks available for CBR appear to be at play. These warrant further investigation.

  19. Community-based Participatory Research: Necessary Next Steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubaida Faridi, MBBS, MPH

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Community-based participatory research (CBPR is gaining increasing credence among public health researchers and practitioners. However, there is no standardization in assessing the quality of research methods, the effectiveness of the interventions, and the reporting requirements in the literature. The absence of standardization precludes meaningful comparisons of CBPR studies. Several authors have proposed a broad set of competencies required for CBPR research for both individuals and organizations, but the discussion remains fragmented. The Prevention Research Centers (PRC Program recently began a qualitative assessment of its national efforts, including an evaluation of how PRCs implement CBPR studies. Topics of interest include types of community partnerships; community capacity for research, evaluation, and training; and factors that help and hinder partner relationships. The assessment will likely contribute to the development of a standard set of competencies and resources required for effective CBPR.

  20. Community-Based Rural Tourism: A Proposed Sustainability Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayat Kalsom

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many tourism projects run by community in the rural areas are labelled as Community-based Rural Tourism (CBRT, a type of a more ‘responsible’ tourism that contributes to sustainable development. However, a framework is needed to enable planners and managers to understand its criteria thus ensuring that the CBRTs fulfil the sustainability requirement. This paper presents findings from a literature review on previous writings in this topic. Findings from an analysis on the criteria of a sustainable CBRT product are discussed. It is found that in order for it to play a role in sustainable development, a CBRT product must focus on competitive management, resource conservation, and benefit creation to the community. The three elements need to be supported, in turn, by community involvement and commitment. As the proposed conceptual framework of sustainable CBRT product can be a basis for further research in CBRT, it offers producing theoretical and practical implications.

  1. Comparing student role perceptions: traditional to community-based curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Carolyn; Resick, Lenore K

    2010-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored role perceptions of senior baccalaureate nursing students in a traditional curriculum (TC) and a community-based curriculum (CBC) following one U.S. school's curriculum revision. Researchers inquired into that moment when students intervened like a nurse. Results were analyzed by groups and then compared. The assumptions and style of the Dutch school of phenomenology guided the collection and analysis of data. Among identified themes were traditional nursing role functions. Students from the CBC perceived a comparatively broader scope for nursing practice, broader definition of client, and a more nuanced description of the nurse's role. Seniors from the TC described a developmental trajectory which culminated in being able to intervene like a nurse. Responses from both participant groups confirm the importance of nurse-client and nurse-nurse proximities for the development of professional nursing in both structured and unstructured settings.

  2. Efficient community-based control strategies in adaptive networks

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Hui; Zhang, Hai-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Most researches on adaptive networks mainly concentrate on the properties of steady state, but neglect transient dynamics. In this study, we pay attention to the emergence of community structures in transient process and the effects of community-based control strategies on epidemic spreading. First, by normalizing modularity $Q$, we investigate the evolution of community structures during the transient process, and find that very strong community structures are induced by rewiring mechanism in the early stage of epidemic spreading, which remarkably delays the outbreaks of epidemic. Then we study the effects of control strategies started from different stages on the prevalence. Both immunization and quarantine strategies indicate that it is not "the earlier, the better" for the implementing of control measures. And the optimal control effect is obtained if control measures can be efficiently implemented in the period of strong community structure. For immunization strategy, immunizing the S nodes on SI links a...

  3. A community-based, interdisciplinary rehabilitation engineering course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy, Mary; Aceros, Juan

    2016-08-01

    A novel, community-based course was created through collaboration between the School of Engineering and the Physical Therapy program at the University of North Florida. This course offers a hands-on, interdisciplinary training experience for undergraduate engineering students through team-based design projects where engineering students are partnered with physical therapy students. Students learn the process of design, fabrication and testing of low-tech and high-tech rehabilitation technology for children with disabilities, and are exposed to a clinical experience under the guidance of licensed therapists. This course was taught in two consecutive years and pre-test/post-test data evaluating the impact of this interprofessional education experience on the students is presented using the Public Service Motivation Scale, Civic Actions Scale, Civic Attitudes Scale, and the Interprofessional Socialization and Valuing Scale.

  4. A community-based framework for aquatic ecosystem models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Didde; Hamilton, D. P.; Hipsey, M. R.;

    2012-01-01

    aim to (i) advance collaboration within the aquatic ecosystem modelling community, (ii) enable increased use of models for research, policy and ecosystem-based management, (iii) facilitate a collective framework using common (standardised) code to ensure that model development is incremental, (iv......Here, we communicate a point of departure in the development of aquatic ecosystem models, namely a new community-based framework, which supports an enhanced and transparent union between the collective expertise that exists in the communities of traditional ecologists and model developers. Through...... a literature survey, we document the growing importance of numerical aquatic ecosystem models while also noting the difficulties, up until now, of the aquatic scientific community to make significant advances in these models during the past two decades. Through a common forum for aquatic ecosystem modellers we...

  5. Community-based adaptation to climate change: an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayers, Jessica; Huq, Saleemul

    2009-06-15

    Over a billion people - the world's poorest and most bulnerable communities – will bear the brunt of climate change. For them, building local capacity to cope is a vital step towards resilience. Community-based adaptation (CBA) is emerging as a key response to this challenge. Tailored to local cultures and conditions, CBA supports and builds on autonomous adaptations to climate variability, such as the traditional baira or floating gardens of Bangladesh, which help small farmers' crops survive climate-driven floods. Above all, CBA is participatory – a process involving both local stakeholders, and development and disaster risk reduction practitioners. As such, it builds on existing cultural norms while addressing local development issues that contribute to climate vulnerability. CBA is now gaining ground in many regions, and is ripe for the reassessment offered here.

  6. Child fluorosis in Chhattisgarh, India: a community-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilasrao, Gitte Sunil; Kamble, K M; Sabat, Ramanath N

    2014-11-01

    To assess the prevalence and type of fluorosis among children from randomly selected villages of Chhattisgarh, and its relationship with fluoride levels in drinking water. A community based door-to-door survey was conducted in the sampled villages of seven districts of Chhattisgarh state during the year 2013-14. The field case definitions were used for labelling types of fluorosis. The fluoride concentration in drinking water was estimated by ion selective electrode method. The prevalence of fluorosis ranged between 12 to 44% in children of surveyed districts. The fluoride levels in drinking water of selected villages were in the range of 0.1-9.0 ppm. Dental and skeletal fluorosis is endemic among children in the surveyed districts of Chhattisgarh State, and is related to drinking water with fluoride content of =1.5 ppm.

  7. Variability in ADHD care in community-based pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jeffery N; Kelleher, Kelly J; Baum, Rebecca; Brinkman, William B; Peugh, James; Gardner, William; Lichtenstein, Phil; Langberg, Joshua

    2014-12-01

    Although many efforts have been made to improve the quality of care delivered to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in community-based pediatric settings, little is known about typical ADHD care in these settings other than rates garnered through pediatrician self-report. Rates of evidence-based ADHD care and sources of variability (practice-level, pediatrician-level, patient-level) were determined by chart reviews of a random sample of 1594 patient charts across 188 pediatricians at 50 different practices. In addition, the associations of Medicaid-status and practice setting (ie, urban, suburban, and rural) with the quality of ADHD care were examined. Parent- and teacher-rating scales were used during ADHD assessment with approximately half of patients. The use of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria was documented in 70.4% of patients. The vast majority (93.4%) of patients with ADHD were receiving medication and only 13.0% were receiving psychosocial treatment. Parent- and teacher-ratings were rarely collected to monitor treatment response or side effects. Further, fewer than half (47.4%) of children prescribed medication had contact with their pediatrician within the first month of prescribing. Most variability in pediatrician-delivered ADHD care was accounted for at the patient level; however, pediatricians and practices also accounted for significant variability on specific ADHD care behaviors. There is great need to improve the quality of ADHD care received by children in community-based pediatric settings. Improvements will likely require systematic interventions at the practice and policy levels to promote change. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Use of building typologies for energy performance assessment of national building stocks. Existent experiences in European Countries and common approach. First TABULA synthesis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loga, Tobias; Diefenbach, Nikolaus (eds.)

    2010-06-15

    The present study examines the experiences with building typologies in the European countries. The objective is to learn how to structure the variety of energy-related features of existing build-ings. As a result of the enquiry it can be stated that there are a lot of different activities which are based on typological criteria. Some of them are concentrating on providing information material and conducting energy advice. On the other hand, building types are used for a better understand-ing of the energy performance of building portfolios on different levels: from the strategic planning of housing companies up to the evaluation of national policies and measures in the building sector. On the basis of these experiences a common approach for building typologies has been devel-oped. The core elements of this harmonised approach are a classification systematic, a structure for building and supply system data and a coherent energy balance method. Furthermore a uni-form classification of statistical data enables a concerted approach for designing national building stock models. Finally, a concise itinerary is described which allows experts to develop step by step a national or regional building typology which are compatible with the common TABULA approach. (orig.)

  9. Getting Started: Initiating Critical Ethnography and Community-Based Action Research in a Program of Rural Health Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer B. Averill

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Rural populations experience higher rates of illness, less access to health care resources, and lower rates of health insurance coverage than do urban populations. A need exists to identify and address the health care needs of rural communities and other isolated populations and to contextualize the findings in the larger rural health environment. Critical ethnography combined with community-based action research is a constructive approach for improving the health status of rural elders as well as other members of isolated communities. Detailed guidelines on how to initiate an ethnographic community-based action study, as shown through a study that explores the definitions of health, health care perceptions, and health care issues for rural elders in the southwestern United States, highlight the value of this type of research for the study of the health care issues of rural populations.

  10. Telecentres and the provision of community based access to electronic information in everyday life in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Ellen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research undertaken for a PhD between 1997 and 2000 in the United Kingdom. The study explored three themes, the use of electronic information in everyday life, the use of telecentres by local communities in everyday life and community involvement strategies in the design, development and implementation of telecentres. Results led to development of a framework to inform future community based ICT initiatives. The findings and methods used to analyse the data are relevant to both future study of community based ICT initiatives and the broader areas of information seeking, information seeking behaviour and user needs. Consequently, it is hoped they will be used by other researchers wishing to take a qualitative approach when studying in these areas. This paper will report findings relating to the use of electronic information in everyday life, setting these findings within the context of the whole study. The full PhD thesis is available on-line.

  11. Local perceptions on social-ecological dynamics in Latin America in three community-based natural resource management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delgado-Serrano, Maria del Mar; Rozas, Elisa Oteros; Vanwildemeersch, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    by internal variables, particularly those linked to the governance system. The case study analysis revealed that the community-based natural resource management approach needs external support and recognition to work effectively. In the Argentine and Colombian cases, megaprojects were perceived as controllers...... with medium or strong influence but low dependence. The use of ancestral knowledge (Colombia), the history of land use (Mexico), and the history of the artisanal fishery (Argentina) were all perceived as common challenges to community-based natural resource management. In terms of social-ecological resilience......, framed within the three-dimensional model of the adaptive cycle, all three social-ecological systems were considered to be highly connected and resilient but with different degrees of capacity or cumulative potential....

  12. Community-based Forest Resources Management in Nigeria: Case study of Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve, Mambilla Plateau, Taraba State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I. Borokini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria, human communities are found within or beside forest ecosystems, depending onthese ecosystems for survival. Their forest exploitation is considered a threat to conservation efforts,leading to constant conflicts between Government, law enforcement agencies and the communities. Thebest solution is a win-win system of participatory community-based forest resources management, inwhich the communities are regarded as stakeholders rather than as threats. This paper explains theadoption of this approach in Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve, Mambilla Plateau, where the communities weretrained in establishment and management of forest plantations with readily available market for theirtimber; employment for some of the community youths as well as community development projects.This paper calls for the adoption of this system in other protected areas in Nigeria, while theGovernment should provide basic amenities for the communities as alternatives to those forest products.Keywords: Community-based forest management, Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve, Protected areas, Nigeria.

  13. Building climate change adaptation on community experiences: Lessons from community-based natural resource management in southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chishakwe, Nyasha; Murray, Laurel; Chambwera, Muyeye

    2012-05-15

    This publication, produced in collaboration with WWF Southern Africa, looks at how community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) can inform and contribute to climate change adaptation at the community level, specifically to community-based adaptation (CBA) to climate change. It provides a framework for analysing the two approaches at conceptual and practical levels. Using case studies from southern Africa, the publication demonstrates the synergies between CBA and CBNRM, most important of which are the adaptation co-benefits between the two. While local incentives have driven community action in CBNRM, it is the evolution of an enabling environment in the region, in the form of institutions, policies, capacity and collaboration which characterises the scaling up of CBNRM to national and regional levels.

  14. Community-based applied research with Latino immigrant families: informing practice and research according to ethical and social justice principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Ana; Domenech Rodríguez, Melanie; Parra-Cardona, José Rubén

    2011-06-01

    This manuscript describes the implementation of two community-based programs of research with Latino immigrant populations exposed to intense contextual challenges. We provide background on our program of research and specific implementation of an evidence-based parenting intervention. We also describe how our research efforts were seriously affected by immigration-related events such as the ICE raids in Utah and a history of discrimination and exclusion affecting Latino immigrants in Michigan. These external political and social challenges have affected the very core principles of our efforts to implement community-based approaches. The current manuscript describes key lessons that we have learned in this process. Finally, reflections for research, practice, and social policy are included.

  15. Analysis of Strategic Approaches and Problematic Issues in Organization of Forecasting the Socio-Economic Development in the EU Countries and Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroshenko Igor V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the work strategic approaches to the organization and functioning of the system for forecasting the socio-economic development in the EU countries, Ukraine and its regions have been considered, the existing problematic issues in Ukraine in this field analyzed, suggestions for their solving presented. Socio-economic development of the state and its regions is inextricably linked to providing the economic function of public safety. The mechanism for implementation of this task requires an objective and comprehensive analysis of the economy of Ukraine’s regions within the relevant indicators, which includes actual observation, monitoring, analysis and forecasting of key socio-economic indicators. The EU countries have a long experience of the functioning of an effective mechanism for territorial development management, the implementation of European economic policy is carried out in complex, involving all levels of the governmental authorities and civil society, which is reflected in the increase of their economies and approaching the goals of sustainable development. At the level of regions and individual territories in Ukraine the forecasting developments are non-systemic and isolated, there is no relationship with the national strategic documents of regional and sectoral development, practically no attention is paid to forecasting critical events and crises phenomena in individual regions of the country. Thus, for today the issue of creating and implementing an effective system for the strategic forecasting and planning of socio-economic development of the regions and individual territories remains relevant and appropriate. One of the components of such a system has to be a system for early detecting and preventing emergence of negative trends and factors, which implies a timely warning about the birth or beginning of crisis processes in every region, which, in turn, will be a signal to tighten anti-crisis measures and develop short

  16. HIV among immigrants living in high-income countries: a realist review of evidence to guide targeted approaches to behavioural HIV prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMahon Tadgh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immigrants from developing and middle-income countries are an emerging priority in HIV prevention in high-income countries. This may be explained in part by accelerating international migration and population mobility. However, it may also be due to the vulnerabilities of immigrants including social exclusion along with socioeconomic, cultural and language barriers to HIV prevention. Contemporary thinking on effective HIV prevention stresses the need for targeted approaches that adapt HIV prevention interventions according to the cultural context and population being addressed. This review of evidence sought to generate insights into targeted approaches in this emerging area of HIV prevention. Methods We undertook a realist review to answer the research question: ‘How are HIV prevention interventions in high-income countries adapted to suit immigrants’ needs?’ A key goal was to uncover underlying theories or mechanisms operating in behavioural HIV prevention interventions with immigrants, to uncover explanations as how and why they work (or not for particular groups in particular contexts, and thus to refine the underlying theories. The realist review mapped seven initial mechanisms underlying culturally appropriate HIV prevention with immigrants. Evidence from intervention studies and qualitative studies found in systematic searches was then used to test and refine these seven mechanisms. Results Thirty-four intervention studies and 40 qualitative studies contributed to the analysis and synthesis of evidence. The strongest evidence supported the role of ‘consonance’ mechanisms, indicating the pivotal need to incorporate cultural values into the intervention content. Moderate evidence was found to support the role of three other mechanisms – ‘understanding’, ‘specificity’ and ‘embeddedness’ – which indicated that using the language of immigrants, usually the ‘mother tongue’, targeting (in terms

  17. Routine Immunization Consultant Program in Nigeria: A Qualitative Review of a Country-Driven Management Approach for Health Systems Strengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Meghan; Wonodi, Chizoba

    2016-03-01

    allowed work to be tailored to the local context; consultants were often integrated into state RI teams but could also work independently when necessary; and recruitment of experienced consultants with strong professional networks, familiarity with the local context, and ability to speak the local language facilitated advocacy efforts. Key programmatic challenges were related to inadequate and inconsistent inputs (salaries, transportation means, and dedicated office space) and gaps in communication between consultants and national leadership and in management of consultants, including lack of performance feedback, lack of formal orientation at inception, and no clear job performance targets. While weaknesses in managerial and material inputs affect current performance of RI consultants in Nigeria, the design of the RI consultant program employs a unique problem-focused, locally led model of development assistance that could prove valuable in strengthening the capacity of the government to implement such technical assistance on its own. Despite the lack of uniform deployment and implementation of RI consultants across the country, some consultants appear to have contributed to improved RI services through supportive supervision, capacity building, and advocacy. © O’Connell and Wonodi.

  18. Moving alcohol prevention research forward-Part II: new directions grounded in community-based system dynamics modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Lemke, Michael K; Barry, Adam E; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller

    2017-07-25

    Given the complexity of factors contributing to alcohol misuse, appropriate epistemologies and methodologies are needed to understand and intervene meaningfully. We aimed to (1) provide an overview of computational modeling methodologies, with an emphasis on system dynamics modeling; (2) explain how community-based system dynamics modeling can forge new directions in alcohol prevention research; and (3) present a primer on how to build alcohol misuse simulation models using system dynamics modeling, with an emphasis on stakeholder involvement, data sources and model validation. Throughout, we use alcohol misuse among college students in the United States as a heuristic example for demonstrating these methodologies. System dynamics modeling employs a top-down aggregate approach to understanding dynamically complex problems. Its three foundational properties-stocks, flows and feedbacks-capture non-linearity, time-delayed effects and other system characteristics. As a methodological choice, system dynamics modeling is amenable to participatory approaches; in particular, community-based system dynamics modeling has been used to build impactful models for addressing dynamically complex problems. The process of community-based system dynamics modeling consists of numerous stages: (1) creating model boundary charts, behavior-over-time-graphs and preliminary system dynamics models using group model-building techniques; (2) model formulation; (3) model calibration; (4) model testing and validation; and (5) model simulation using learning-laboratory techniques. Community-based system dynamics modeling can provide powerful tools for policy and intervention decisions that can result ultimately in sustainable changes in research and action in alcohol misuse prevention. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. More than training: Community-based participatory research to reduce injuries among hispanic construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forst, Linda; Ahonen, Emily; Zanoni, Joseph; Holloway-Beth, Alfreda; Oschner, Michele; Kimmel, Louis; Martino, Carmen; Rodriguez, Eric; Kader, Adam; Ringholm, Elisa; Sokas, Rosemary

    2013-08-01

    Workplace mortality and severe injury are disproportionately distributed among foreign born and Hispanic construction workers. Worker Centers (WCs) provide services and advocacy for low-wage workers and a way for investigators to reach them. The goal of this project is to prevent occupational injuries by increasing awareness of hazards and self-efficacy among foreign born, Hispanic construction workers and by expanding the agenda of WCs to include occupational health and safety (H&S). Investigators partnered with eight WCs in seven cities to train worker leaders to deliver a modified OSHA 10-hr curriculum to their peers. Thirty-two worker leaders trained 446 workers over 3 years. There was a demonstrated improvement in knowledge, hazard identification, self-efficacy, and sustainable H&S activities. This study provides evidence for successful implementation of a training intervention for low wage, low literacy Hispanic construction workers using a community-based participatory research approach. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Community-based disaster preparedness and climate adaptation: local capacity-building in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Katrina M

    2006-03-01

    Community-based disaster preparedness (CBDP) approaches are increasingly important elements of vulnerability reduction and disaster management strategies. They are associated with a policy trend that values the knowledge and capacities of local people and builds on local resources, including social capital. CBDP may be instrumental not only in formulating local coping and adaptation strategies, but also in situating them within wider development planning and debates. In theory, local people can be mobilised to resist unsustainable (vulnerability increasing) forms of development or livelihood practices and to raise local concerns more effectively with political representatives. This paper focuses on the potential of CBDP initiatives to alleviate vulnerability in the context of climate change, and their limitations. It presents evidence from the Philippines that, in the limited forms in which they are currently employed, CBDP initiatives have the potential both to empower and disempower, and warns against treating CBDP as a panacea to disaster management problems.