WorldWideScience

Sample records for counting ratemeters

  1. Counting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许有国

    2005-01-01

    Most people began to count in tens because they had ten fingers on their hands. But in some countries, people counted on one hand and used the three parts of their four fingers. So they counted in twelves, not in tens.

  2. Counting carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet; Diabetes-counting carbohydrates ... Many foods contain carbohydrates (carbs), including: Fruit and fruit juice Cereal, bread, pasta, and rice Milk and milk products, soy milk Beans, legumes, ...

  3. Seal Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Database of seal counts from aerial photography. Counts by image, site, species, and date are stored in the database along with information on entanglements and...

  4. Platelet Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their spleen removed surgically Use of birth control pills (oral contraceptives) Some conditions may cause a temporary (transitory) increased ... increased platelet counts include estrogen and birth control pills (oral contraceptives). Mildly decreased platelet counts may be seen in ...

  5. Multiplicity Counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, William H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  6. Reticulocyte count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radiation therapy, or infection) Cirrhosis of the liver Anemia caused by low iron levels, or low levels of vitamin B12 or folate Chronic kidney disease Reticulocyte count may be higher during pregnancy.

  7. Understanding Blood Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lab and Imaging Tests Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts SHARE: Print Glossary Blood cell counts give ... your blood that's occupied by red cells. Normal Blood Counts Normal blood counts fall within a range ...

  8. White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Count; Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , ...

  9. Counting Penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

  10. Counting Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  11. Counting Possibilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Tomasetta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Timothy Williamson supports the thesis that every possible entity necessarily exists and so he needs to explain how a possible son of Wittgenstein’s, for example, exists in our world:he exists as a merely possible object (MPO, a pure locus of potential. Williamson presents a short argument for the existence of MPOs: how many knives can be made by fitting together two blades and two handles? Four: at the most two are concrete objects, the others being merely possible knives and merely possible objects. This paper defends the idea that one can avoid reference and ontological commitment to MPOs. My proposal is that MPOs can be dispensed with by using the notion of rules of knife-making. I first present a solution according to which we count lists of instructions - selected by the rules - describing physical combinations between components. This account, however, has its own difficulties and I eventually suggest that one can find a way out by admitting possible worlds, entities which are more commonly accepted - at least by philosophers - than MPOs. I maintain that, in answering Williamson’s questions, we count classes of physically possible worlds in which the same instance of a general rule is applied.

  12. The Big Pumpkin Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

    1981-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

  13. Health Physics counting room

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    The Health Physics counting room, where the quantity of induced radioactivity in materials is determined. This information is used to evaluate possible radiation hazards from the material investigated.

  14. Anarthria impairs subvocal counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubelli, R; Nichelli, P; Pentore, R

    1993-12-01

    We studied subvocal counting in two pure anarthric patients. Analysis showed that they performed definitively worse than normal subjects free to articulate subvocally and their scores were in the lower bounds of the performances of subjects suppressing articulation. These results suggest that subvocal counting is impaired after anarthria.

  15. EcoCount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip P. Allen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Techniques that analyze biological remains from sediment sequences for environmental reconstructions are well established and widely used. Yet, identifying, counting, and recording biological evidence such as pollen grains remain a highly skilled, demanding, and time-consuming task. Standard procedure requires the classification and recording of between 300 and 500 pollen grains from each representative sample. Recording the data from a pollen count requires significant effort and focused resources from the palynologist. However, when an adaptation to the recording procedure is utilized, efficiency and time economy improve. We describe EcoCount, which represents a development in environmental data recording procedure. EcoCount is a voice activated fully customizable digital count sheet that allows the investigator to continuously interact with a field of view during the data recording. Continuous viewing allows the palynologist the opportunity to remain engaged with the essential task, identification, for longer, making pollen counting more efficient and economical. EcoCount is a versatile software package that can be used to record a variety of environmental evidence and can be installed onto different computer platforms, making the adoption by users and laboratories simple and inexpensive. The user-friendly format of EcoCount allows any novice to be competent and functional in a very short time.

  16. Sublattice Counting and Orbifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Hanany, Amihay; Reffert, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    Abelian orbifolds of C^3 are known to be encoded by hexagonal brane tilings. To date it is not known how to count all such orbifolds. We fill this gap by employing number theoretic techniques from crystallography, and by making use of Polya's Enumeration Theorem. The results turn out to be beautifully encoded in terms of partition functions and Dirichlet Series. The same methods apply to counting orbifolds of any toric non-compact Calabi-Yau singularity. As additional examples, we count the orbifolds of the conifold, of the L^{aba} theories, and of C^4.

  17. 1996 : Track Count Protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge's Track Count Protocol is to provide an index to the population size of game animals inhabiting St. Vincent Island.

  18. Blood Count Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your blood contains red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in your blood. This helps doctors check on your overall health. ...

  19. Counting Belief Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, Kristian; Natarajan, Sriraam

    2012-01-01

    A major benefit of graphical models is that most knowledge is captured in the model structure. Many models, however, produce inference problems with a lot of symmetries not reflected in the graphical structure and hence not exploitable by efficient inference techniques such as belief propagation (BP). In this paper, we present a new and simple BP algorithm, called counting BP, that exploits such additional symmetries. Starting from a given factor graph, counting BP first constructs a compressed factor graph of clusternodes and clusterfactors, corresponding to sets of nodes and factors that are indistinguishable given the evidence. Then it runs a modified BP algorithm on the compressed graph that is equivalent to running BP on the original factor graph. Our experiments show that counting BP is applicable to a variety of important AI tasks such as (dynamic) relational models and boolean model counting, and that significant efficiency gains are obtainable, often by orders of magnitude.

  20. Analog multivariate counting analyzers

    CERN Document Server

    Nikitin, A V; Armstrong, T P

    2003-01-01

    Characterizing rates of occurrence of various features of a signal is of great importance in numerous types of physical measurements. Such signal features can be defined as certain discrete coincidence events, e.g. crossings of a signal with a given threshold, or occurrence of extrema of a certain amplitude. We describe measuring rates of such events by means of analog multivariate counting analyzers. Given a continuous scalar or multicomponent (vector) input signal, an analog counting analyzer outputs a continuous signal with the instantaneous magnitude equal to the rate of occurrence of certain coincidence events. The analog nature of the proposed analyzers allows us to reformulate many problems of the traditional counting measurements, and cast them in a form which is readily addressed by methods of differential calculus rather than by algebraic or logical means of digital signal processing. Analog counting analyzers can be easily implemented in discrete or integrated electronic circuits, do not suffer fro...

  1. Housing Inventory Count

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the data communities reported to HUD about the nature of their dedicated homeless inventory, referred to as their Housing Inventory Count (HIC)....

  2. Allegheny County Traffic Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Traffic sensors at over 1,200 locations in Allegheny County collect vehicle counts for the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. Data included in the Health...

  3. Liquid Scintillation Counting

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Sten

    1993-01-01

    In liquid scintillation counting (LSC) we use the process of luminescense to detect ionising radiation emit$ed from a radionuclide. Luminescense is emission of visible light of nonthermal origin. 1t was early found that certain organic molecules have luminescent properties and such molecules are used in LSC. Today LSC is the mostwidespread method to detect pure beta-ernitters like tritium and carbon-14. 1t has unique properties in its efficient counting geometry, deteetability and the lack of...

  4. Counting curves on surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider an elementary, and largely unexplored, combinatorial problem in low-dimensional topology. Consider a real 2-dimensional compact surface $S$, and fix a number of points $F$ on its boundary. We ask: how many configurations of disjoint arcs are there on $S$ whose boundary is $F$? We find that this enumerative problem, counting curves on surfaces, has a rich structure. For instance, we show that the curve counts obey an effective recursion, in the general framework of to...

  5. Counting RG flows

    OpenAIRE

    Gukov, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    Interpreting renormalization group flows as solitons interpolating between different fixed points, we ask various questions that are normally asked in soliton physics but not in renormalization theory. Can one count RG flows? Are there different "topological sectors" for RG flows? What is the moduli space of an RG flow, and how does it compare to familiar moduli spaces of (supersymmetric) dowain walls? Analyzing these questions in a wide variety of contexts --- from counting RG walls to AdS/C...

  6. Neutron counting with cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Esch, Patrick; Crisanti, Marta; Mutti, Paolo [Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble (France)

    2015-07-01

    A research project is presented in which we aim at counting individual neutrons with CCD-like cameras. We explore theoretically a technique that allows us to use imaging detectors as counting detectors at lower counting rates, and transits smoothly to continuous imaging at higher counting rates. As such, the hope is to combine the good background rejection properties of standard neutron counting detectors with the absence of dead time of integrating neutron imaging cameras as well as their very good spatial resolution. Compared to Xray detection, the essence of thermal neutron detection is the nuclear conversion reaction. The released energies involved are of the order of a few MeV, while X-ray detection releases energies of the order of the photon energy, which is in the 10 KeV range. Thanks to advances in camera technology which have resulted in increased quantum efficiency, lower noise, as well as increased frame rate up to 100 fps for CMOS-type cameras, this more than 100-fold higher available detection energy implies that the individual neutron detection light signal can be significantly above the noise level, as such allowing for discrimination and individual counting, which is hard to achieve with X-rays. The time scale of CMOS-type cameras doesn't allow one to consider time-of-flight measurements, but kinetic experiments in the 10 ms range are possible. The theory is next confronted to the first experimental results. (authors)

  7. [Blood Count Specimen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Takako

    2015-12-01

    The circulating blood volume accounts for 8% of the body weight, of which 45% comprises cellular components (blood cells) and 55% liquid components. We can measure the number and morphological features of blood cells (leukocytes, red blood cells, platelets), or count the amount of hemoglobin in a complete blood count: (CBC). Blood counts are often used to detect inflammatory diseases such as infection, anemia, a bleeding tendency, and abnormal cell screening of blood disease. This count is widely used as a basic data item of health examination. In recent years, clinical tests before consultation have become common among outpatient clinics, and the influence of laboratory values on consultation has grown. CBC, which is intended to count the number of raw cells and to check morphological features, is easily influenced by the environment, techniques, etc., during specimen collection procedures and transportation. Therefore, special attention is necessary to read laboratory data. Providing correct test values that accurately reflect a patient's condition from the laboratory to clinical side is crucial. Inappropriate medical treatment caused by erroneous values resulting from altered specimens should be avoided. In order to provide correct test values, the daily management of devices is a matter of course, and comprehending data variables and positively providing information to the clinical side are important. In this chapter, concerning sampling collection, blood collection tubes, dealing with specimens, transportation, and storage, I will discuss their effects on CBC, along with management or handling methods.

  8. Photon counting digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoli, Nazif; Skenderović, Hrvoje; Stipčević, Mario; Pavičić, Mladen

    2016-05-01

    Digital holography uses electronic sensors for hologram recording and numerical method for hologram reconstruction enabling thus the development of advanced holography applications. However, in some cases, the useful information is concealed in a very wide dynamic range of illumination intensities and successful recording requires an appropriate dynamic range of the sensor. An effective solution to this problem is the use of a photon-counting detector. Such detectors possess counting rates of the order of tens to hundreds of millions counts per second, but conditions of recording holograms have to be investigated in greater detail. Here, we summarize our main findings on this problem. First, conditions for optimum recording of digital holograms for detecting a signal significantly below detector's noise are analyzed in terms of the most important holographic measures. Second, for time-averaged digital holograms, optimum recordings were investigated for exposures shorter than the vibration cycle. In both cases, these conditions are studied by simulations and experiments.

  9. Rainflow counting revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeker, H. [Deutsches Windenergie-Institut (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    As state of the art method the rainflow counting technique is presently applied everywhere in fatigue analysis. However, the author feels that the potential of the technique is not fully recognized in wind energy industries as it is used, most of the times, as a mere data reduction technique disregarding some of the inherent information of the rainflow counting results. The ideas described in the following aim at exploitation of this information and making it available for use in the design and verification process. (au)

  10. What Counts as Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

  11. Reticulocyte Count Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be ordered when: CBC results show a decreased RBC count and/or a decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit A healthcare practitioner wants to ... and hematocrit, to help determine the degree and rate of overproduction of RBCs ... during pregnancy . Newborns have a higher percentage of reticulocytes, but ...

  12. What Counts as Prostitution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart P. Green

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available What counts, or should count, as prostitution? In the criminal law today, prostitution is understood to involve the provision of sexual services in exchange for money or other benefits. But what exactly is a ‘sexual service’? And what exactly is the nature of the required ‘exchange’? The key to answering these questions is to recognize that how we choose to define prostitution will inevitably depend on why we believe one or more aspects of prostitution are wrong or harmful, or should be criminalized or otherwise deterred, in the first place. These judgements, in turn, will often depend on an assessment of the contested empirical evidence on which they rest. This article describes a variety of real-world contexts in which the ‘what counts as prostitution’ question has arisen, surveys a range of leading rationales for deterring prostitution, and demonstrates how the answer to the definition question depends on the answer to the normative question. The article concludes with some preliminary thoughts on how analogous questions about what should count as sexual conduct arise in the context of consensual offences such as adultery and incest, as well as non-consensual offences such as sexual assault.

  13. The right to count does not always count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The best prescription against illness is learning to read and to count. People who are unable to count have a harder time learning to read. People who have difficulty counting make poorer decisions, are less able to combine information and are less likely to have a strategy for life...

  14. CalCOFI Egg Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...

  15. High Red Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms High red blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A high red blood cell count is an increase in oxygen-carrying cells in your bloodstream. Red blood cells transport oxygen from your lungs to tissues throughout ...

  16. Counting and Topological Order

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈阳军

    1997-01-01

    The counting method is a simple and efficient method for processing linear recursive datalog queries.Its time complexity is bounded by O(n,e)where n and e denote the numbers the numbers of nodes and edges,respectively,in the graph representing the input.relations.In this paper,the concepts of heritage appearance function and heritage selection function are introduced,and an evaluation algorithm based on the computation of such functions in topological order is developed .This new algorithm requires only linear time in the case of non-cyclic data.

  17. Counting coalescent histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Noah A

    2007-04-01

    Given a species tree and a gene tree, a valid coalescent history is a list of the branches of the species tree on which coalescences in the gene tree take place. I develop a recursion for the number of valid coalescent histories that exist for an arbitrary gene tree/species tree pair, when one gene lineage is studied per species. The result is obtained by defining a concept of m-extended coalescent histories, enumerating and counting these histories, and taking the special case of m = 1. As a sum over valid coalescent histories appears in a formula for the probability that a random gene tree evolving along the branches of a fixed species tree has a specified labeled topology, the enumeration of valid coalescent histories can considerably reduce the effort required for evaluating this formula.

  18. Oscillations in counting statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilk, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    The very large transverse momenta and large multiplicities available in present LHC experiments on pp collisions allow a much closer look at the corresponding distributions. Some time ago we discussed a possible physical meaning of apparent log-periodic oscillations showing up in p_T distributions (suggesting that the exponent of the observed power-like behavior is complex). In this talk we concentrate on another example of oscillations, this time connected with multiplicity distributions P(N). We argue that some combinations of the experimentally measured values of P(N) (satisfying the recurrence relations used in the description of cascade-stochastic processes in quantum optics) exhibit distinct oscillatory behavior, not observed in the usual Negative Binomial Distributions used to fit data. These oscillations provide yet another example of oscillations seen in counting statistics in many different, apparently very disparate branches of physics further demonstrating the universality of this phenomenon.

  19. Resolved SZE Cluster Count

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Yu Tang; Zu-Hui Fan

    2003-01-01

    We study the counts of resolved SZE (Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect) clus-ters expected from an interferometric survey in different cosmological models underdifferent conditions. The self-similar universal gas model and Press-Schechter massfunction are used. We take the observing frequency to be 90 GHz, and consider twodish diameters, 1.2 m and 2.5 m. We calculate the number density of the galaxyclusters dN/(dΩdz) at a high flux limit Slimv = 100mJy and at a relative lowSlimv = 10 mJy. The total numbers of SZE clusters N in two low-Ω0 models arecompared. The results show that the influence of the resolved effect depends notonly on D, but also on Slimv: at a given D, the effect is more significant for a highthan for a low Slim Also, the resolved effect for a flat universe is more impressivethan that for an open universe. For D = 1.2m and Slimv= 10mJy, the resolvedeffect is very weak. Considering the designed interferometers which will be used tosurvey SZE clusters, we find that the resolved effect is insignificant when estimatingthe expected yield of the SZE cluster surveys.

  20. Multivariate ultrametric root counting

    CERN Document Server

    Avendano, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Let $K$ be a field, complete with respect to a discrete non-archimedian valuation and let $k$ be the residue field. Consider a system $F$ of $n$ polynomial equations in $K\\vars$. Our first result is a reformulation of the classical Hensel's Lemma in the language of tropical geometry: we show sufficient conditions (semiregularity at $w$) that guarantee that the first digit map $\\delta:(K^\\ast)^n\\to(k^\\ast)^n$ is a one to one correspondence between the solutions of $F$ in $(K^\\ast)^n$ with valuation $w$ and the solutions in $(k^\\ast)^n$ of the initial form system ${\\rm in}_w(F)$. Using this result, we provide an explicit formula for the number of solutions in $(K^\\ast)^n$ of a certain class of systems of polynomial equations (called regular), characterized by having finite tropical prevariety, by having initial forms consisting only of binomials, and by being semiregular at any point in the tropical prevariety. Finally, as a consequence of the root counting formula, we obtain the expected number of roots in $(K...

  1. Making environmental DNA count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ryan P

    2016-01-01

    The arc of reception for a new technology or method--like the reception of new information itself--can pass through predictable stages, with audiences' responses evolving from 'I don't believe it', through 'well, maybe' to 'yes, everyone knows that' to, finally, 'old news'. The idea that one can sample a volume of water, sequence DNA out of it, and report what species are living nearby has experienced roughly this series of responses among biologists, beginning with the microbial biologists who developed genetic techniques to reveal the unseen microbiome. 'Macrobial' biologists and ecologists--those accustomed to dealing with species they can see and count--have been slower to adopt such molecular survey techniques, in part because of the uncertain relationship between the number of recovered DNA sequences and the abundance of whole organisms in the sampled environment. In this issue of Molecular Ecology Resources, Evans et al. (2015) quantify this relationship for a suite of nine vertebrate species consisting of eight fish and one amphibian. Having detected all of the species present with a molecular toolbox of six primer sets, they consistently find DNA abundances are associated with species' biomasses. The strength and slope of this association vary for each species and each primer set--further evidence that there is no universal parameter linking recovered DNA to species abundance--but Evans and colleagues take a significant step towards being able to answer the next question audiences tend to ask: 'Yes, but how many are there?'

  2. LAWRENCE RADIATION LABORATORY COUNTING HANDBOOK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Group, Nuclear Instrumentation

    1966-10-01

    The Counting Handbook is a compilation of operational techniques and performance specifications on counting equipment in use at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Berkeley. Counting notes have been written from the viewpoint of the user rather than that of the designer or maintenance man. The only maintenance instructions that have been included are those that can easily be performed by the experimenter to assure that the equipment is operating properly.

  3. Counting Frequencies from Zotero Items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Roberts

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In Counting Frequencies you learned how to count the frequency of specific words in a list using python. In this lesson, we will expand on that topic by showing you how to get information from Zotero HTML items, save the content from those items, and count the frequencies of words. It may be beneficial to look over the previous lesson before we begin.

  4. SUMS Counts-Related Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Staging Instance for all SUMs Counts related projects including: Redeterminations/Limited Issue, Continuing Disability Resolution, CDR Performance Measures, Initial...

  5. Reference counting for reversible languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Torben Ægidius

    2014-01-01

    deallocation. This requires the language to be linear: A pointer can not be copied and it can only be eliminated by deallocating the node to which it points. We overcome this limitation by adding reference counts to nodes: Copying a pointer to a node increases the reference count of the node and eliminating...

  6. Coinductive counting with weighted automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, J.J.M.M.

    2002-01-01

    A general methodology is developed to compute the solution of a wide variety of basic counting problems in a uniform way: (1) the objects to be counted are enumerated by means of an infinite weighted automaton; (2) the automaton is reduced by means of the quantitative notion of stream bisimulation;

  7. Low White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease in disease-fighting cells ( ... a decrease in a certain type of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell ...

  8. Hanford whole body counting manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, H.E.; Brim, C.P.; Rieksts, G.A.; Rhoads, M.C.

    1987-05-01

    This document, a reprint of the Whole Body Counting Manual, was compiled to train personnel, document operation procedures, and outline quality assurance procedures. The current manual contains information on: the location, availability, and scope of services of Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the administrative aspect of the whole body counting operation; Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the step-by-step procedure involved in the different types of in vivo measurements; the detectors, preamplifiers and amplifiers, and spectroscopy equipment; the quality assurance aspect of equipment calibration and recordkeeping; data processing, record storage, results verification, report preparation, count summaries, and unit cost accounting; and the topics of minimum detectable amount and measurement accuracy and precision. 12 refs., 13 tabs.

  9. The origins of counting algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantlon, Jessica F; Piantadosi, Steven T; Ferrigno, Stephen; Hughes, Kelly D; Barnard, Allison M

    2015-06-01

    Humans' ability to count by verbally labeling discrete quantities is unique in animal cognition. The evolutionary origins of counting algorithms are not understood. We report that nonhuman primates exhibit a cognitive ability that is algorithmically and logically similar to human counting. Monkeys were given the task of choosing between two food caches. First, they saw one cache baited with some number of food items, one item at a time. Then, a second cache was baited with food items, one at a time. At the point when the second set was approximately equal to the first set, the monkeys spontaneously moved to choose the second set even before that cache was completely baited. Using a novel Bayesian analysis, we show that the monkeys used an approximate counting algorithm for comparing quantities in sequence that is incremental, iterative, and condition controlled. This proto-counting algorithm is structurally similar to formal counting in humans and thus may have been an important evolutionary precursor to human counting. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. High Count Rate Single Photon Counting Detector Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An optical communications receiver requires efficient and high-rate photon-counting capability so that the information from every photon, received at the aperture,...

  11. Vote Counting as Mathematical Proof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Pattinson, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Trust in the correctness of an election outcome requires proof of the correctness of vote counting. By formalising particular voting protocols as rules, correctness of vote counting amounts to verifying that all rules have been applied correctly. A proof of the outcome of any particular election......-based formalisation of voting protocols inside a theorem prover, we synthesise vote counting programs that are not only provably correct, but also produce independently verifiable certificates. These programs are generated from a (formal) proof that every initial set of ballots allows to decide the election winner...

  12. White blood cell counting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

  13. Make My Trip Count 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Make My Trip Count (MMTC) commuter survey, conducted in September and October 2015 by GBA, the Pittsburgh 2030 District, and 10 other regional transportation...

  14. The Mayan Long Count Calendar

    OpenAIRE

    Chanier, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The Maya were known for their astronomical proficiency. This is demonstrated in the Mayan codices where ritual practices were related to astronomical events/predictions. Whereas Mayan mathematics were based on a vigesimal system, they used a different base when dealing with long periods of time, the Long Count Calendar (LCC), composed of different Long Count Periods: the Tun of 360 days, the Katun of 7200 days and the Baktun of 144000 days. There were two other calendars used in addition to t...

  15. Counting Word Frequencies with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Turkel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Your list is now clean enough that you can begin analyzing its contents in meaningful ways. Counting the frequency of specific words in the list can provide illustrative data. Python has an easy way to count frequencies, but it requires the use of a new type of variable: the dictionary. Before you begin working with a dictionary, consider the processes used to calculate frequencies in a list.

  16. Hanford whole body counting manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1990-06-01

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  17. VersaCount: customizable manual tally software for cell counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeRisi Joseph L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The manual counting of cells by microscopy is a commonly used technique across biological disciplines. Traditionally, hand tally counters have been used to track event counts. Although this method is adequate, there are a number of inefficiencies which arise when managing large numbers of samples or large sample sizes. Results We describe software that mimics a traditional multi-register tally counter. Full customizability allows operation on any computer with minimal hardware requirements. The efficiency of counting large numbers of samples and/or large sample sizes is improved through the use of a "multi-count" register that allows single keystrokes to correspond to multiple events. Automatically updated multi-parameter values are implemented as user-specified equations, reducing errors and time required for manual calculations. The user interface was optimized for use with a touch screen and numeric keypad, eliminating the need for a full keyboard and mouse. Conclusions Our software provides an inexpensive, flexible, and productivity-enhancing alternative to manual hand tally counters.

  18. The Origins of Counting Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Cantlon, Jessica F.; Piantadosi, Steven T.; Ferrigno, Stephen; Hughes, Kelly D.; Allison M Barnard

    2015-01-01

    Humans’ ability to ‘count’ by verbally labeling discrete quantities is unique in animal cognition. The evolutionary origins of counting algorithms are not understood. We report that non-human primates exhibit a cognitive ability that is algorithmically and logically similar to human counting. Monkeys were given the task of choosing between two food caches. Monkeys saw one cache baited with some number of food items, one item at a time. Then, a second cache was baited with food items, one at a...

  19. Tree modules and counting polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Kinser, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    We give a formula for counting tree modules for the quiver S_g with g loops and one vertex in terms of tree modules on its universal cover. This formula, along with work of Helleloid and Rodriguez-Villegas, is used to show that the number of d-dimensional tree modules for S_g is polynomial in g with the same degree and leading coefficient as the counting polynomial A_{S_g}(d, q) for absolutely indecomposables over F_q, evaluated at q=1.

  20. Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count

    OpenAIRE

    Koop, G.; Dik, N; Nielen, M; Lipman, L. J. A.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms, 3 bulk milk samples were collected at intervals of 2 wk. The samples were cultured for SPC, coliform count, and staphylococcal count and for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, SCC ...

  1. KIDS COUNT New Hampshire, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemitz, Elllen, Ed.

    This Kids Count report presents statewide trends in the well-being of New Hampshire's children. The statistical report is based on 22 indicators of child well-being in 5 interrelated areas: (1) children and families (including child population, births, children living with single parent, and children experiencing parental divorce); (2) economic…

  2. Counting a Culture of Mealworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Math is not the only topic that will be discussed when young children are asked to care for and count "mealworms," a type of insect larvae (just as caterpillars are the babies of butterflies, these larvae are babies of beetles). The following activity can take place over two months as the beetles undergo metamorphosis from larvae to adults. As the…

  3. Verbal Counting in Bilingual Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donevska-Todorova, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Informal experiences in mathematics often include playful competitions among young children in counting numbers in as many as possible different languages. Can these enjoyable experiences result with excellence in the formal processes of education? This article discusses connections between mathematical achievements and natural languages within…

  4. Shakespeare Live! and Character Counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    This paper discusses a live production of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" (in full costume but with no sets) for all public middle school and high school students in Harrisonburg and Rockingham, Virginia. The paper states that the "Character Counts" issues that are covered in the play are: decision making, responsibility and…

  5. On Counting the Rational Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almada, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…

  6. Counting problems for number rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakenhoff, Johannes Franciscus

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we look at three counting problems connected to orders in number fields. First we study the probability that for a random polynomial f in Z[X] the ring Z[X]/f is the maximal order in Q[X]/f. Connected to this is the probability that a random polynomial has a squarefree discriminant. T

  7. Counting a Culture of Mealworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Math is not the only topic that will be discussed when young children are asked to care for and count "mealworms," a type of insect larvae (just as caterpillars are the babies of butterflies, these larvae are babies of beetles). The following activity can take place over two months as the beetles undergo metamorphosis from larvae to adults. As the…

  8. Teaching Emotionally Disturbed Students to Count Feelings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Cynthia S.; Calkin, Abigail B.

    The paper describes a program to teach high school students with emotional and behavior problems to count their feelings, thereby improving their self concept. To aid in instruction, a hierarchy was developed which involved four phases: counting tasks completed and tasks not completed, counting independent actions in class, counting perceptions of…

  9. Predictive Model Assessment for Count Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-05

    critique count regression models for patent data, and assess the predictive performance of Bayesian age-period-cohort models for larynx cancer counts...the predictive performance of Bayesian age-period-cohort models for larynx cancer counts in Germany. We consider a recent suggestion by Baker and...Figure 5. Boxplots for various scores for patent data count regressions. 11 Table 1 Four predictive models for larynx cancer counts in Germany, 1998–2002

  10. The Mayan Long Count Calendar

    CERN Document Server

    Chanier, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The Maya had a very elaborate and accurate calendar. First, the Mayan Long Count Calendar (LCC) was used to point historical events from a selected "beginning of time". It is also characterized by the existence of a religious month Tzolk'in of 260 days and a civic year Haab' of 365 days. The LCC is supposed to begin on 11 August -3114 BC known as the Goodman-Martinez-Thompson (GMT) correlation to the Gregorian calendar based on historical facts and end on 21 December 2012 corresponding to a period of approximately 5125 years or 13 Baktun. We propose here to explain the origin the 13 Baktun cycle, the Long Count Periods and the religious month Tzolk'in.

  11. Counting Irreducible Double Occurrence Words

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    A double occurrence word $w$ over a finite alphabet $\\Sigma$ is a word in which each alphabet letter appears exactly twice. Such words arise naturally in the study of topology, graph theory, and combinatorics. Recently, double occurrence words have been used for studying DNA recombination events. We develop formulas for counting and enumerating several elementary classes of double occurrence words such as palindromic, irreducible, and strongly-irreducible words.

  12. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdős, Péter L; Kiss, Sándor Z; Miklós, István; Soukup, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007), for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011) and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erdős and Soukup, 2013). Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes), and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erdős and Soukup problem as special cases) the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS) for counting of all realizations.

  13. Approximate Counting of Graphical Realizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter L Erdős

    Full Text Available In 1999 Kannan, Tetali and Vempala proposed a MCMC method to uniformly sample all possible realizations of a given graphical degree sequence and conjectured its rapidly mixing nature. Recently their conjecture was proved affirmative for regular graphs (by Cooper, Dyer and Greenhill, 2007, for regular directed graphs (by Greenhill, 2011 and for half-regular bipartite graphs (by Miklós, Erdős and Soukup, 2013. Several heuristics on counting the number of possible realizations exist (via sampling processes, and while they work well in practice, so far no approximation guarantees exist for such an approach. This paper is the first to develop a method for counting realizations with provable approximation guarantee. In fact, we solve a slightly more general problem; besides the graphical degree sequence a small set of forbidden edges is also given. We show that for the general problem (which contains the Greenhill problem and the Miklós, Erdős and Soukup problem as special cases the derived MCMC process is rapidly mixing. Further, we show that this new problem is self-reducible therefore it provides a fully polynomial randomized approximation scheme (a.k.a. FPRAS for counting of all realizations.

  14. Monitoring Milk Somatic Cell Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Şteţca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of somatic cells in milk is a widely disputed issue in milk production sector. The somatic cell counts in raw milk are a marker for the specific cow diseases such as mastitis or swollen udder. The high level of somatic cells causes physical and chemical changes to milk composition and nutritional value, and as well to milk products. Also, the mastitic milk is not proper for human consumption due to its contribution to spreading of certain diseases and food poisoning. According to these effects, EU Regulations established the maximum threshold of admitted somatic cells in raw milk to 400000 cells / mL starting with 2014. The purpose of this study was carried out in order to examine the raw milk samples provided from small farms, industrial type farms and milk processing units. There are several ways to count somatic cells in milk but the reference accepted method is the microscopic method described by the SR EN ISO 13366-1/2008. Generally samples registered values in accordance with the admissible limit. By periodical monitoring of the somatic cell count, certain technological process issues are being avoided and consumer’s health ensured.

  15. Manual and automated reticulocyte counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simionatto, Mackelly; de Paula, Josiane Padilha; Chaves, Michele Ana Flores; Bortoloso, Márcia; Cicchetti, Domenic; Leonart, Maria Suely Soares; do Nascimento, Aguinaldo José

    2010-12-01

    Manual reticulocyte counts were examined under light microscopy, using the property whereby supravital stain precipitates residual ribosomal RNA versus the automated flow methods, with the suggestion that in the latter there is greater precision and an ability to determine both mature and immature reticulocyte fractions. Three hundred and forty-one venous blood samples of patients were analyzed of whom 224 newborn and the rest adults; 51 males and 66 females, with ages between 0 and 89 years, as part of the laboratory routine for hematological examinations at the Clinical Laboratory of the Hospital Universitário do Oeste do Paraná. This work aimed to compare manual and automated methodologies for reticulocyte countings and evaluate random and systematic errors. The results obtained showed that the difference between the two methods was very small, with an estimated 0·4% systematic error and 3·9% random error. Thus, it has been confirmed that both methods, when well conducted, can reflect precisely the reticulocyte counts for adequate clinical use.

  16. Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koop, G.; Dik, N.; Nielen, M.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms,

  17. Alaska Steller Sea Lion Pup Count Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains counts of Steller sea lion pups on rookeries in Alaska made between 1961 and 2015. Pup counts are conducted in late June-July. Pups are...

  18. CalCOFI Egg Counts Positive Tows

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...

  19. CalCOFI Larvae Counts Positive Tows

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  20. DC KIDS COUNT e-Databook Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    DC Action for Children, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report presents indicators that are included in DC Action for Children's 2012 KIDS COUNT e-databook, their definitions and sources and the rationale for their selection. The indicators for DC KIDS COUNT represent a mix of traditional KIDS COUNT indicators of child well-being, such as the number of children living in poverty, and indicators of…

  1. Monte Carlo Simulation of Counting Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Philip M.

    A computer program to perform a Monte Carlo simulation of counting experiments was written. The program was based on a mathematical derivation which started with counts in a time interval. The time interval was subdivided to form a binomial distribution with no two counts in the same subinterval. Then the number of subintervals was extended to…

  2. Digital coincidence counting - initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, K. S. A.; Watt, G. C.; Alexiev, D.; van der Gaast, H.; Davies, J.; Mo, Li; Wyllie, H. A.; Keightley, J. D.; Smith, D.; Woods, M. J.

    2000-08-01

    Digital Coincidence Counting (DCC) is a new technique in radiation metrology, based on the older method of analogue coincidence counting. It has been developed by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), in collaboration with the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) of the United Kingdom, as a faster more reliable means of determining the activity of ionising radiation samples. The technique employs a dual channel analogue-to-digital converter acquisition system for collecting pulse information from a 4π beta detector and an NaI(Tl) gamma detector. The digitised pulse information is stored on a high-speed hard disk and timing information for both channels is also stored. The data may subsequently be recalled and analysed using software-based algorithms. In this letter we describe some recent results obtained with the new acquistion hardware being tested at ANSTO. The system is fully operational and is now in routine use. Results for 60Co and 22Na radiation activity calibrations are presented, initial results with 153Sm are also briefly mentioned.

  3. How much do women count if they not counted?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Taddia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The condition of women throughout the world is marked by countless injustices and violations of the most fundamental rights established by the Universal Declaration of human rights and every culture is potentially prone to commit discrimination against women in various forms. Women are worse fed, more exposed to physical violence, more exposed to diseases and less educated; they have less access to, or are excluded from, vocational training paths; they are the most vulnerable among prisoners of conscience, refugees and immigrants and the least considered within ethnic minorities; from their very childhood, women are humiliated, undernourished, sold, raped and killed; their work is generally less paid compared to men’s work and in some countries they are victims of forced marriages. Such condition is the result of old traditions that implicit gender-differentiated education has long promoted through cultural models based on theories, practices and policies marked by discrimination and structured differentially for men and women. Within these cultural models, the basic educational institutions have played and still play a major role in perpetuating such traditions. Nevertheless, if we want to overcome inequalities and provide women with empowerment, we have to start right from the educational institutions and in particular from school, through the adoption of an intercultural approach to education: an approach based on active pedagogy and on methods of analysis, exchange and enhancement typical of socio-educational animation. The intercultural approach to education is attentive to promote the realisation of each individual and the dignity and right of everyone to express himself/herself in his/her own way. Such an approach will give women the opportunity to become actual agents of collective change and to get the strength and wellbeing necessary to count and be counted as human beings entitled to freedom and equality, and to have access to all

  4. Automatic cell counting with ImageJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishagin, Ivan V

    2015-03-15

    Cell counting is an important routine procedure. However, to date there is no comprehensive, easy to use, and inexpensive solution for routine cell counting, and this procedure usually needs to be performed manually. Here, we report a complete solution for automatic cell counting in which a conventional light microscope is equipped with a web camera to obtain images of a suspension of mammalian cells in a hemocytometer assembly. Based on the ImageJ toolbox, we devised two algorithms to automatically count these cells. This approach is approximately 10 times faster and yields more reliable and consistent results compared with manual counting.

  5. Discrete calculus methods for counting

    CERN Document Server

    Mariconda, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to combinatorics, finite calculus, formal series, recurrences, and approximations of sums. Readers will find not only coverage of the basic elements of the subjects but also deep insights into a range of less common topics rarely considered within a single book, such as counting with occupancy constraints, a clear distinction between algebraic and analytical properties of formal power series, an introduction to discrete dynamical systems with a thorough description of Sarkovskii’s theorem, symbolic calculus, and a complete description of the Euler-Maclaurin formulas and their applications. Although several books touch on one or more of these aspects, precious few cover all of them. The authors, both pure mathematicians, have attempted to develop methods that will allow the student to formulate a given problem in a precise mathematical framework. The aim is to equip readers with a sound strategy for classifying and solving problems by pursuing a mathematically rigorous yet ...

  6. Photon counting compressive depth mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Howland, Gregory A; Ware, Matthew R; Howell, John C

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a compressed sensing, photon counting lidar system based on the single-pixel camera. Our technique recovers both depth and intensity maps from a single under-sampled set of incoherent, linear projections of a scene of interest at ultra-low light levels around 0.5 picowatts. Only two-dimensional reconstructions are required to image a three-dimensional scene. We demonstrate intensity imaging and depth mapping at 256 x 256 pixel transverse resolution with acquisition times as short as 3 seconds. We also show novelty filtering, reconstructing only the difference between two instances of a scene. Finally, we acquire 32 x 32 pixel real-time video for three-dimensional object tracking at 14 frames-per-second.

  7. Generalized Entropy Concentration for Counts

    CERN Document Server

    Oikonomou, Kostas N

    2016-01-01

    We consider the phenomenon of entropy concentration under linear constraints in a discrete setting, using the "balls and bins" paradigm, but without the assumption that the number of balls allocated to the bins is known. Therefore instead of \\ frequency vectors and ordinary entropy, we have count vectors with unknown sum, and a certain generalized entropy. We show that if the constraints bound the allowable sums, this suffices for concentration to occur even in this setting. The concentration can be either in terms of deviation from the maximum generalized entropy value, or in terms of the norm of the difference from the maximum generalized entropy vector. Without any asymptotic considerations, we quantify the concentration in terms of various parameters, notably a tolerance on the constraints which ensures that they are always satisfied by an integral vector. Generalized entropy maximization is not only compatible with ordinary MaxEnt, but can also be considered an extension of it, as it allows us to address...

  8. Counting pairs of faint galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Woods, D; Richer, H B; Woods, David; Fahlman, Gregory G; Richer, Harvey B

    1995-01-01

    The number of close pairs of galaxies observed to faint magnitude limits, when compared to nearby samples, determines the interaction or merger rate as a function of redshift. The prevalence of mergers at intermediate redshifts is fundamental to understanding how galaxies evolve and the relative population of galaxy types. Mergers have been used to explain the excess of galaxies in faint blue counts above the numbers expected from no-evolution models. Using deep CFHT (I\\leq24) imaging of a ``blank'' field we find a pair fraction which is consistent with the galaxies in our sample being randomly distributed with no significant excess of ``physical'' close pairs. This is contrary to the pair fraction of 34\\%\\pm9\\% found by Burkey {\\it et al.} for similar magnitude limits and using an identical approach to the pair analysis. Various reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. Colors and morphologies of our close pairs are consistent with the bulk of them being random superpositions although, as indicators of int...

  9. Complete Blood Count and Retinal Vessel Calibers

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald Liew; Jie Jin Wang; Elena Rochtchina; Tien Yin Wong; Paul Mitchell

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The influence of hematological indices such as complete blood count on microcirculation is poorly understood. Retinal microvasculature can be directly visualized and vessel calibers are associated with a range of ocular and systemic diseases. We examined the association of complete blood count with retinal vessel calibers. METHODS: Cross-sectional population-based Blue Mountains Eye Study, n = 3009, aged 49+ years. Complete blood count was measured from fasting blood samples taken ...

  10. Improvement of Delayed Neutron Counting System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN; Guo-jun; XIAO; Cai-jin; YANG; Wei; ZHANG; Gui-ying; JIN; Xiang-chun; WANG; Ping-sheng; NI; Bang-fa

    2012-01-01

    <正>A new delayed neutron counting system, which is good at qualitative and quantitative analysis of fissionable nuclide mixture, will be established at China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR). We use 3 He proportional counters to count the delayed neutrons after the samples irradiated by reactor neutrons, including U3O8-stantard, uranium ore and enriched uranium. Then, the counting efficiency and limit of this system were calculated.

  11. Vector perturbations of galaxy number counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrer, Ruth; Tansella, Vittorio

    2016-07-01

    We derive the contribution to relativistic galaxy number count fluctuations from vector and tensor perturbations within linear perturbation theory. Our result is consistent with the the relativistic corrections to number counts due to scalar perturbation, where the Bardeen potentials are replaced with line-of-sight projection of vector and tensor quantities. Since vector and tensor perturbations do not lead to density fluctuations the standard density term in the number counts is absent. We apply our results to vector perturbations which are induced from scalar perturbations at second order and give numerical estimates of their contributions to the power spectrum of relativistic galaxy number counts.

  12. Vector perturbations of galaxy number counts

    CERN Document Server

    Durrer, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    We derive the contribution to relativistic galaxy number count fluctuations from vector and tensor perturbations within linear perturbation theory. Our result is consistent with the the relativistic corrections to number counts due to scalar perturbation, where the Bardeen potentials are replaced with line-of-sight projection of vector and tensor quantities. Since vector and tensor perturbations do not lead to density fluctuations the standard density term in the number counts is absent. We apply our results to vector perturbations which are induced from scalar perturbations at second order and give numerical estimates of their contributions to the power spectrum of relativistic galaxy number counts.

  13. Counting losses due to saturation effects of scintillation counters at high count rates

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimoto, K

    1999-01-01

    The counting statistics of a scintillation counter, with a preamplifier saturated by an overloading input, are investigated. First, the formulae for the variance and the mean number of counts, accumulated within a given gating time, are derived by considering counting-loss effects originating from the saturation and a finite resolving time of the electronic circuit. Numerical examples based on the formulae indicate that the saturation makes a positive contribution to the variance-to-mean ratio and that the contribution increases with count rate. Next the ratios are measured under high count rates when the preamplifier saturation can be observed. By fitting the present formula to the measured data, the counting-loss parameters can be evaluated. Corrections based on the parameters are made for various count rates measured in a nuclear reactor. As a result of the corrections, the linearity between count rate and reactor power can be restored.

  14. Genetic Regulatory Networks that count to 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Martin; Sneppen, K.

    2013-01-01

    that contain repressive links, which we model by Michaelis-Menten terms. Interestingly, we find that counting to 3 does not require a hierarchy in Hill coefficients, in contrast to counting to 2, which is known from lambda phage. Furthermore, we find two main circuit architectures: one design also found...

  15. Correcting Finger Counting to Snellen Acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanjia, Rustum; Hwang, Tiffany Jean; Chen, Alexander Francis; Pouw, Andrew; Tian, Jack J; Chu, Edward R; Wang, Michelle Y; Tran, Jeffrey Show; Sadun, Alfredo A

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the authors describe an online tool with which to convert and thus quantify count finger measurements of visual acuity into Snellen equivalents. It is hoped that this tool allows for the re-interpretation of retrospectively collected data that provide visual acuity in terms of qualitative count finger measurements.

  16. Is It Counting, or Is It Adding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, Sara; Fisher, Molly H.; Thomas, Jonathan; Schack, Edna O.; Tassell, Janet; Yoder, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010) expect second grade students to "fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies" (2.OA.B.2). Most children begin with number word sequences and counting approximations and then develop greater skill with counting. But do all teachers really understand how this…

  17. It Is Time to Count Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henscheid, Jean M.

    2015-01-01

    As the modern learning community movement turns 30, it is time to determine just how many, and what type, of these programs exist at America's colleges and universities. This article first offers a rationale for counting learning communities followed by a description of how disparate counts and unclear definitions hamper efforts to embed these…

  18. Is It Counting, or Is It Adding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, Sara; Fisher, Molly H.; Thomas, Jonathan; Schack, Edna O.; Tassell, Janet; Yoder, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010) expect second grade students to "fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies" (2.OA.B.2). Most children begin with number word sequences and counting approximations and then develop greater skill with counting. But do all teachers really understand how this…

  19. Noun Countability; Count Nouns and Non-count Nouns, What are the Syntactic Differences Between them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar A. Alkazwini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Words that function as the subjects of verbs, objects of verbs or prepositions and which can have a plural form and possessive ending are known as nouns. They are described as referring to persons, places, things, states, or qualities and might also be used as an attributive modifier. In this paper, classes and subclasses of nouns shall be presented, then, noun countability branching into count and non-count nous shall be discussed. A number of present examples illustrating differences between count and non-count nouns and this includes determiner-head-co-occurrence restrictions of number, subject-verb agreement, in addition to some exceptions to this agreement rule shall be discussed. Also, the lexically inherent number in nouns and how inherently plural nouns are classified in terms of (+/- count are illustrated. This research will discuss partitive construction of count and non-count nouns, nouns as attributive modifier and, finally, conclude with the fact that there are syntactic difference between count and non-count in the English Language. Keywords: English Language, Nouns, Count, Non-count, Syntactic Differences, Proper Nouns

  20. Count response model for the CMB spots

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    The statistics of the curvature quanta generated during a stage of inflationary expansion is used to derive a count response model for the large-scale phonons determining, in the concordance lore, the warmer and the cooler spots of the large-scale temperature inhomogeneities. The multiplicity distributions for the counting statistics are shown to be generically overdispersed in comparison with conventional Poissonian regressions. The generalized count response model deduced hereunder accommodates an excess of correlations in the regime of high multiplicities and prompts dedicated analyses with forthcoming data collected by instruments of high angular resolution and high sensitivity to temperature variations per pixel.

  1. The theory and practice of scintillation counting

    CERN Document Server

    Birks, John Bettely

    1964-01-01

    The Theory and Practice of Scintillation Counting is a comprehensive account of the theory and practice of scintillation counting. This text covers the study of the scintillation process, which is concerned with the interactions of radiation and matter; the design of the scintillation counter; and the wide range of applications of scintillation counters in pure and applied science. The book is easy to read despite the complex nature of the subject it attempts to discuss. It is organized such that the first five chapters illustrate the fundamental concepts of scintillation counting. Chapters 6

  2. B Counting at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, Grant Duncan

    2008-12-16

    In this thesis we examine the method of counting B{bar B} events produced in the BABAR experiment. The original method was proposed in 2000, but improvements to track reconstruction and our understanding of the detector since that date make it appropriate to revisit the B Counting method. We propose a new set of cuts designed to minimize the sensitivity to time-varying backgrounds. We find the new method counts B{bar B} events with an associated systematic uncertainty of {+-} 0.6%.

  3. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000675.htm Low white blood cell count and cancer To use ... high blood pressure, or seizures Continue Reading How Low is too Low? When your blood is tested, ...

  4. Mourning Dove Call-count Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura) Call-Count Survey was developed to provide an index to population size and to detect annual changes in mourning dove breeding...

  5. Furbearer track count index testing and development

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Indices of abundance can be useful in monitoring furbearer populations where actual counts of individual animals are difficult. I sampled marten and snowshoe hare...

  6. Calorie count - sodas and energy drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000888.htm Calorie count - sodas and energy drinks To use the sharing features on this page, ... to have a few servings of soda or energy drinks a day without thinking about it. Like other ...

  7. VSRR Provisional Drug Overdose Death Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This data contains provisional counts for drug overdose deaths based on a current flow of mortality data in the National Vital Statistics System. National...

  8. Uranium Determination by Delayed Neutron Counting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Uranium is a very important resource in nuclear industry, especially in the exploiture of nuclear energy. Determination of uranium using delayed neutron counting (DNC) is simple, non-destructive, and

  9. Four square mile survey pair count instructions

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This standard operating procedure (SOP) provides guidance for conducting bird pair count measurements on wetlands for the HAPETs Four-Square-Mile survey. This set of...

  10. CoC Housing Inventory Count Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Continuum of Care (CoC) Homeless Assistance Programs Housing Inventory Count Reports are a snapshot of a CoC’s housing inventory, available at the national and state...

  11. 2012 bobwhite whistle count : performance report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Performance report for the 2012 spring whistle count to monitor northern bobwhite abundance in Kansas state. This survey was initiated in 1998, and is preformed on...

  12. 2013 bobwhite whistle count : performance report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Performance report for the 2013 spring whistle count to monitor northern bobwhite abundance in Kansas state. This survey was initiated in 1998, and is preformed on...

  13. Statistical modelling for falls count data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Shahid; Finch, Caroline F; Day, Lesley

    2010-03-01

    Falls and their injury outcomes have count distributions that are highly skewed toward the right with clumping at zero, posing analytical challenges. Different modelling approaches have been used in the published literature to describe falls count distributions, often without consideration of the underlying statistical and modelling assumptions. This paper compares the use of modified Poisson and negative binomial (NB) models as alternatives to Poisson (P) regression, for the analysis of fall outcome counts. Four different count-based regression models (P, NB, zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP), zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB)) were each individually fitted to four separate fall count datasets from Australia, New Zealand and United States. The finite mixtures of P and NB regression models were also compared to the standard NB model. Both analytical (F, Vuong and bootstrap tests) and graphical approaches were used to select and compare models. Simulation studies assessed the size and power of each model fit. This study confirms that falls count distributions are over-dispersed, but not dispersed due to excess zero counts or heterogeneous population. Accordingly, the P model generally provided the poorest fit to all datasets. The fit improved significantly with NB and both zero-inflated models. The fit was also improved with the NB model, compared to finite mixtures of both P and NB regression models. Although there was little difference in fit between NB and ZINB models, in the interests of parsimony it is recommended that future studies involving modelling of falls count data routinely use the NB models in preference to the P or ZINB or finite mixture distribution. The fact that these conclusions apply across four separate datasets from four different samples of older people participating in studies of different methodology, adds strength to this general guiding principle.

  14. How to count an introduction to combinatorics

    CERN Document Server

    Allenby, RBJT

    2010-01-01

    What's It All About? What Is Combinatorics? Classic Problems What You Need to Know Are You Sitting Comfortably? Permutations and Combinations The Combinatorial Approach Permutations CombinationsApplications to Probability Problems The Multinomial Theorem Permutations and Cycles Occupancy Problems Counting the Solutions of Equations New Problems from Old A ""Reduction"" Theorem for the Stirling Numbers The Inclusion-Exclusion Principle Double Counting Derangements A Formula for the Stirling NumbersStirling and Catalan Numbers Stirling Numbers Permutations and Stirling Numbers Catalan Numbers Pa

  15. The Complexity of Approximately Counting Stable Matchings

    CERN Document Server

    Chebolu, Prasad; Martin, Russell

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the complexity of approximately counting stable matchings in the $k$-attribute model, where the preference lists are determined by dot products of "preference vectors" with "attribute vectors", or by Euclidean distances between "preference points" and "attribute points". Irving and Leather proved that counting the number of stable matchings in the general case is $#P$-complete. Counting the number of stable matchings is reducible to counting the number of downsets in a (related) partial order and is interreducible, in an approximation-preserving sense, to a class of problems that includes counting the number of independent sets in a bipartite graph ($#BIS$). It is conjectured that no FPRAS exists for this class of problems. We show this approximation-preserving interreducibilty remains even in the restricted $k$-attribute setting when $k \\geq 3$ (dot products) or $k \\geq 2$ (Euclidean distances). Finally, we show it is easy to count the number of stable matchings in the 1-attribute dot-product ...

  16. Evaluation of DAPI direct count, computer assisted and plate count methods

    OpenAIRE

    Chivu, Bogdan

    2010-01-01

    The feasibility of using automatic counting of bacteria stained with highly specific and sensitive fluorescing DNA stain DAPI, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, and direct manual counting to enumerate both pure culture of Pseudomonas putida overnight culture and sea water enhanced culture, was tested in correlation with plate direct counting, turbidity and absorbance at 600nm, to obtain cross validation. Six diluted samples from overnight pure culture of Pseudomonas putida and sea water culture ...

  17. Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford Count Rumford on the nature of heat

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Sanborn C

    1967-01-01

    Men of Physics: Benjamin Thompson - Count Rumford: Count Rumford on the Nature of Heat covers the significant contributions of Count Rumford in the fields of physics. Count Rumford was born with the name Benjamin Thompson on March 23, 1753, in Woburn, Massachusetts. This book is composed of two parts encompassing 11 chapters, and begins with a presentation of Benjamin Thompson's biography and his interest in physics, particularly as an advocate of an """"anti-caloric"""" theory of heat. The subsequent chapters are devoted to his many discoveries that profoundly affected the physical thought

  18. The Acquisition of Counting Skill in Preschooler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Çakır

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract- The aim of this study was to find out more information on the acquisition of counting skill in preschool children. For this purpose, children’s judgment of acceptability of a counting activity was used to investigate whether children’s counting skills are governed by their implicit knowledge of a number of counting principles. Data showed that children easily recognized the violation of one or more counting principles in a one’s application of counting principles in sequences of English and Turkish count words, implying that children have the understanding of counting principles. The sessions on counting in Turkish make it very likely that the children were responding to violations of rules rather than merely violation of well-learning of count words. These results give additional support to the assumption that there are innate counting principles that rule young children’s counting. Keywords: counting principles, error-detection task, mathematical development. Özet- Okul Öncesi Çocuklarda Sayma İlkeleri. Bu çalışmada çocukların bir sayma etkinliğinin geçerli olup olmadığı hakkındaki yargıları kullanılarak, sayma becerisinin doğuştan sahip olunan bir dizi örtük ilkeler tarafından yönlendirilip yönlendirilmediği incelenmiştir. Bu amaç doğrultusunda, bir grup okul öncesi çocuklardan videodan izledikleri bir aktör çocuğun hem anadilinde (İngilizce hem de bilmedikleri bir yabancı dilde (Türkçe yaptığı farklı hatalar içeren sayma serilerinin doğru veya yanlış olup olmadığı belirtmesi istenmiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlar çocukların sayma etkinliklerine rehberlik eden doğuştan getirdikleri örtük “sayma ilkelerine” sahip olduklarına ilişkin görüşleri destekler yönündedir. Örneğin, gerek İngilizce gerekse Türkçe sayma serilerinde, “standart (doğru sayma” serisi diğer tüm serilere göre anlamlı ölçüde “doğru” bir sayma olarak değerlendirilirken, T

  19. It counts who counts: an experimental evaluation of the importance of observer effects on spotlight count estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunde, Peter; Jessen, Lonnie

    2013-01-01

    Spotlight surveys conducted by volunteers is a promising method to assess the abundance of nocturnally active mammals, but estimates are subject to bias if different observer groups differ in their ability to detect animals in the dark. We quantified the variation amongst volunteer spotlight...... with non-hunters and decreased as function of age but were independent of sex or educational background. If observer-specific detection probabilities were applied to real counting routes, point count estimates from inexperienced observers without a hunting background would only be 43 % (95 % CI, 39...

  20. Photon-counting spaceborne altimeter simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazej, Josef

    2004-11-01

    We are presenting of a photon counting laser altimeter simulator. The simulator is designed to be a theoretical and numerical complement for a Technology Demonstrator of the space born laser altimeter for planetary studies built on our university. The European Space Agency has nominated the photon counting altimeter as one of the attractive devices for planetary research. The device should provide altimetry in the range 400 to 1400 km with one meter range resolution under rough conditions - Sun illumination, radiation, etc. The general altimeter concept expects the photon counting principle laser radar. According to this concept, the simulator is based on photon counting radar simulation, which has been enhanced to handle planetary surface roughness, vertical terrain profile and its reflectivity. The simulator is useful complement for any photon counting altimeter both for altimeter design and for measured data analysis. Our simulator enables to model the orbital motion, range, terrain profile, reflectivity, and their influence on the over all energy budget and the ultimate signal to noise ratio acceptable for the altimetry. The simulator can be adopted for various air or space born application.

  1. CERN_DxCTA counting mode chip

    CERN Document Server

    Moraes, D; Nygård, E

    2008-01-01

    This ASIC is a counting mode front-end electronic optimized for the readout of CdZnTe/CdTe and silicon sensors, for possible use in applications where the flux of ionizing radiation is high. The chip is implemented in 0.25 μm CMOS technology. The circuit comprises 128 channels equipped with a transimpedance amplifier followed by a gain shaper stage with 21 ns peaking time, two discriminators and two 18-bit counters. The channel architecture is optimized for the detector characteristics in order to achieve the best energy resolution at counting rates of up to 5 M counts/second. The amplifier shows a linear sensitivity of 118 mV/fC and an equivalent noise charge of about 711 e−, for a detector capacitance of 5 pF. Complete evaluation of the circuit is presented using electronic pulses and pixel detectors.

  2. High Count Rate Electron Probe Microanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Joseph D.; Herrington, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Reducing the measurement uncertainty of quantitative analyses made using electron probe microanalyzers (EPMA) requires a careful study of the individual uncertainties from each definable step of the measurement. Those steps include measuring the incident electron beam current and voltage, knowing the angle between the electron beam and the sample (takeoff angle), collecting the emitted x rays from the sample, comparing the emitted x-ray flux to known standards (to determine the k-ratio) and transformation of the k-ratio to concentration using algorithms which includes, as a minimum, the atomic number, absorption, and fluorescence corrections. This paper discusses the collection and counting of the emitted x rays, which are diffracted into the gas flow or sealed proportional x-ray detectors. The representation of the uncertainty in the number of collected x rays collected reduces as the number of counts increase. The uncertainty of the collected signal is fully described by Poisson statistics. Increasing the number of x rays collected involves either counting longer or at a higher counting rate. Counting longer means the analysis time increases and may become excessive to get to the desired uncertainty. Instrument drift also becomes an issue. Counting at higher rates has its limitations, which are a function of the detector physics and the detecting electronics. Since the beginning of EPMA analysis, analog electronics have been used to amplify and discriminate the x-ray induced ionizations within the proportional counter. This paper will discuss the use of digital electronics for this purpose. These electronics are similar to that used for energy dispersive analysis of x rays with either Si(Li) or Ge(Li) detectors except that the shaping time constants are much smaller. PMID:27446749

  3. Count rate performance of a silicon-strip detector for photon-counting spectral CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Grönberg, F.; Sjölin, M.; Karlsson, S.; Danielsson, M.

    2016-08-01

    A silicon-strip detector is developed for spectral computed tomography. The detector operates in photon-counting mode and allows pulse-height discrimination with 8 adjustable energy bins. In this work, we evaluate the count-rate performance of the detector in a clinical CT environment. The output counts of the detector are measured for x-ray tube currents up to 500 mA at 120 kV tube voltage, which produces a maximum photon flux of 485 Mphotons/s/mm2 for the unattenuated beam. The corresponding maximum count-rate loss of the detector is around 30% and there are no saturation effects. A near linear relationship between the input and output count rates can be observed up to 90 Mcps/mm2, at which point only 3% of the input counts are lost. This means that the loss in the diagnostically relevant count-rate region is negligible. A semi-nonparalyzable dead-time model is used to describe the count-rate performance of the detector, which shows a good agreement with the measured data. The nonparalyzable dead time τn for 150 evaluated detector elements is estimated to be 20.2±5.2 ns.

  4. Counting dyons in N = 4 string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Verlinde, Erik; Verlinde, Herman

    1997-02-01

    We present a microscopic index formula for the degeneracy of dyons in four-dimensional N = 4 string theory. This counting formula is manifestly symmetric under the duality group, and its asymptotic growth reproduces the macroscopic Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. We give a derivation of this result in terms of the type 11 five-brane compactified on K3, by assuming that its fluctuations are described by a closed string theory on its world-volume. We find that the degeneracies are given in terms of the denominator of a generalized super Kac-Moody algebra. We also discuss the correspondence of this result with the counting of D-brane states.

  5. Counting dyons in N=4 string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkgraaf, R; Verlinde, Herman L

    1997-01-01

    We present a microscopic index formula for the degeneracy of dyons in four-dimensional N=4 string theory. This counting formula is manifestly symmetric under the duality group, and its asymptotic growth reproduces the macroscopic Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. We give a derivation of this result in terms of the type II five-brane compactified on K3, by assuming that its fluctuations are described by a closed string theory on its world-volume. We find that the degeneracies are given in terms of the denominator of a generalized super Kac-Moody algebra. We also discuss the correspondence of this result with the counting of D-brane states.

  6. Deep Source-Counting at 3 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernstrom, Tessa; Wall, Jasper; Scott, Douglas

    2014-05-01

    We describe an analysis of 3-GHz confusion-limited data from the Karl J. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). We show that with minimal model assumptions, P(D), Bayesian and Markov-Chain Mone-Carlo (MCMC) methods can define the source count to levels some 10 times fainter than the conventional confusion limit. Our verification process includes a full realistic simulation that considers known information on source angular extent and clustering. It appears that careful analysis of the statistical properties of an image is more effective than counting individual objects.

  7. The Borda count and agenda manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Dummett

    1998-01-01

    A standard objection to the Borda count, as an actual voting procedure, is that it is subject to agenda manipulation. The classical example is the introduction, in order to favour a candidate or option y, of a new option z ranked on every voter's preference scale immediately below y; y may as a result obtain the highest Borda count, although, if z had not been introduced, a different option would have done so. Strategic use of this device is not greatly to be feared, but it does point to a de...

  8. An analytical model of crater count equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Masatoshi; Minton, David A.; Fassett, Caleb I.

    2017-06-01

    Crater count equilibrium occurs when new craters form at the same rate that old craters are erased, such that the total number of observable impacts remains constant. Despite substantial efforts to understand this process, there remain many unsolved problems. Here, we propose an analytical model that describes how a heavily cratered surface reaches a state of crater count equilibrium. The proposed model formulates three physical processes contributing to crater count equilibrium: cookie-cutting (simple, geometric overlap), ejecta-blanketing, and sandblasting (diffusive erosion). These three processes are modeled using a degradation parameter that describes the efficiency for a new crater to erase old craters. The flexibility of our newly developed model allows us to represent the processes that underlie crater count equilibrium problems. The results show that when the slope of the production function is steeper than that of the equilibrium state, the power law of the equilibrium slope is independent of that of the production function slope. We apply our model to the cratering conditions in the Sinus Medii region and at the Apollo 15 landing site on the Moon and demonstrate that a consistent degradation parameterization can successfully be determined based on the empirical results of these regions. Further developments of this model will enable us to better understand the surface evolution of airless bodies due to impact bombardment.

  9. A multilevel analysis of intercompany claim counts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonio, K.; Frees, E.W.; Valdez, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we use multilevel models to analyze data on claim counts provided by the General Insurance Association of Singapore, an organization consisting of most of the general insurers in Singapore. Our data comes from the financial records of automobile insurance policies followed over a peri

  10. Asynchronous ASCII Event Count Status Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    IRIG STANDARD 215-12 TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND TIMING GROUP ASYNCHRONOUS ASCII EVENT COUNT STATUS CODES...Inter-range Instrumentation Group ( IRIG ) Standard for American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII)-formatted EC status transfer which can be...circuits and Ethernet networks. Provides systems engineers and equipment vendors with an Inter-range Instrumentation Group ( IRIG ) Standard for American

  11. Approximately Counting Embeddings into Random Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Furer, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Let H be a graph, and let C(H,G) be the number of (subgraph isomorphic) copies of H contained in a graph G. We investigate the fundamental problem of estimating C(H,G). Previous results cover only a few specific instances of this general problem, for example, the case when H has degree at most one (monomer-dimer problem). In this paper, we present the first general subcase of the subgraph isomorphism counting problem which is almost always efficiently approximable. The results rely on a new graph decomposition technique. Informally, the decomposition is a labeling of the vertices generating a sequence of bipartite graphs. The decomposition permits us to break the problem of counting embeddings of large subgraphs into that of counting embeddings of small subgraphs. Using this method, we present a simple randomized algorithm for the counting problem. For all decomposable graphs H and all graphs G, the algorithm is an unbiased estimator. Furthermore, for all graphs H having a decomposition where each of the bipa...

  12. Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    2010-07-01

    We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

  13. A multilevel analysis of intercompany claim counts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonio, K.; Frees, E.W.; Valdez, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we use multilevel models to analyze data on claim counts provided by the General Insurance Association of Singapore, an organization consisting of most of the general insurers in Singapore. Our data comes from the financial records of automobile insurance policies followed over a peri

  14. Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count fact book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Delaware's children. The statistical portrait is based on key indicators in four areas: single-parent families, births to teenage mothers, juvenile crime and violence, and education. Following brief sections on the state's demographics and economic status, the fact book…

  15. ESL Proficiency and a Word Frequency Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlech-Jones, Brian

    1983-01-01

    In a study of the vocabulary proficiency of some South African ESL teacher trainees, the General Service List of English Words' validity was evaluated. It was found that mastery of this list would meet most of the vocabulary needs of the test group. Recommendations are made for practical uses of word counts. (MSE)

  16. KIDS COUNT in Virginia, 2001 [Data Book].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Action Alliance for Virginia's Children and Youth, Richmond.

    This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is based on the following four areas of children's well-being: health and safety; education; family; and economy. Key indicators examined are: (1) prenatal care; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child abuse or…

  17. Renormalization of singular potentials and power counting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, B.; van Koick, U.; van Kolck, U.

    2008-01-01

    We use a toy model to illustrate how to build effective theories for singular potentials. We consider a central attractive 1/r(2) potential perturbed by a 1/r(4) correction. The power-counting rule, an important ingredient of effective theory, is established by seeking the minimum set of short-range

  18. Reduced Component Count RGB LED Driver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Pedro, I.; Ackermann, B.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this master thesis is to develop new drive and contrololutions, for creating white light from mixing the light of different-color LEDs, aiming at a reduced component count resulting in less space required by the electronics and lower cost. It evaluates the LED driver concept proposed in

  19. Single Entity Electrochemistry Progresses to Cell Counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, J Justin

    2016-10-10

    Red blood cells have been counted in an electrochemical collision experiment recently described by Compton and co-workers. As a cell collides with the electrode it lyses and a current is observed from the reduction of oxygen from within the cell.

  20. Stalking the count. Dracula, Fandom and Tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Reijnders (Stijn)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractLarge numbers of tourists travel to Transylvania every year, looking for traces of Count Dracula. This article investigates why people feel the need to connect fictional stories, such as Dracula, with identifiable physical locations, and why they subsequently want to visit these

  1. Statistical tests to compare motif count exceptionalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandewalle Vincent

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Finding over- or under-represented motifs in biological sequences is now a common task in genomics. Thanks to p-value calculation for motif counts, exceptional motifs are identified and represent candidate functional motifs. The present work addresses the related question of comparing the exceptionality of one motif in two different sequences. Just comparing the motif count p-values in each sequence is indeed not sufficient to decide if this motif is significantly more exceptional in one sequence compared to the other one. A statistical test is required. Results We develop and analyze two statistical tests, an exact binomial one and an asymptotic likelihood ratio test, to decide whether the exceptionality of a given motif is equivalent or significantly different in two sequences of interest. For that purpose, motif occurrences are modeled by Poisson processes, with a special care for overlapping motifs. Both tests can take the sequence compositions into account. As an illustration, we compare the octamer exceptionalities in the Escherichia coli K-12 backbone versus variable strain-specific loops. Conclusion The exact binomial test is particularly adapted for small counts. For large counts, we advise to use the likelihood ratio test which is asymptotic but strongly correlated with the exact binomial test and very simple to use.

  2. Adaptive and Approximate Orthogonal Range Counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Timothy M.; Wilkinson, Bryan Thomas

    2013-01-01

    , we consider the 1-D range selection problem, where a query in an array involves finding the kth least element in a given subarray. This problem is closely related to 2-D 3-sided orthogonal range counting. Recently, Jørgensen and Larsen [SODA 2011] presented a linear-space adaptive data structure...

  3. Health Advocacy--Counting the Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyall, Lorna; Marama, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Access to, and delivery of, safe and culturally appropriate health services is increasingly important in New Zealand. This paper will focus on counting the costs of health advocacy through the experience of a small non government charitable organisation, the Health Advocates Trust, (HAT) which aimed to provide advocacy services for a wide range of…

  4. Fast box-counting algorithm on GPU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, J; Ruiz de Miras, J

    2012-12-01

    The box-counting algorithm is one of the most widely used methods for calculating the fractal dimension (FD). The FD has many image analysis applications in the biomedical field, where it has been used extensively to characterize a wide range of medical signals. However, computing the FD for large images, especially in 3D, is a time consuming process. In this paper we present a fast parallel version of the box-counting algorithm, which has been coded in CUDA for execution on the Graphic Processing Unit (GPU). The optimized GPU implementation achieved an average speedup of 28 times (28×) compared to a mono-threaded CPU implementation, and an average speedup of 7 times (7×) compared to a multi-threaded CPU implementation. The performance of our improved box-counting algorithm has been tested with 3D models with different complexity, features and sizes. The validity and accuracy of the algorithm has been confirmed using models with well-known FD values. As a case study, a 3D FD analysis of several brain tissues has been performed using our GPU box-counting algorithm.

  5. Adaptive and Approximate Orthogonal Range Counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Timothy M.; Wilkinson, Bryan Thomas

    2013-01-01

    , we consider the 1-D range selection problem, where a query in an array involves finding the kth least element in a given subarray. This problem is closely related to 2-D 3-sided orthogonal range counting. Recently, Jørgensen and Larsen [SODA 2011] presented a linear-space adaptive data structure...

  6. Going Online to Make Learning Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, Cathy; Klein-Collins, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Adult students often come to higher education with college-level learning that they have acquired outside of the classroom--from the workplace, military service, self-study, or hobbies. For decades, many forward-thinking colleges and universities have been offering services to evaluate that learning and award it college credit that counts towards…

  7. ADAPTIVE COUNTING RULE FOR COOPERATIVE SPECTRUM SENSING UNDER CORRELATED ENVIRONMENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno; Marchetti, Nicola; Prasad, Neeli R.;

    2010-01-01

    counting rule to perform the data fusion. The proposed scheme is evaluated against other common counting rules (e.g. 1-out-of-n and n-out-of-n) and the optimum counting rule, under different correlation conditions. The impact of correlation on the performance of the data fusion schemes, based on counting...

  8. Quantum abacus for counting and factorizing numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslov, M. V.; Lesovik, G. B.; Blatter, G.

    2011-05-01

    We generalize the binary quantum counting algorithm of Lesovik, Suslov, and Blatter [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.82.012316 82, 012316 (2010)] to higher counting bases. The algorithm makes use of qubits, qutrits, and qudits to count numbers in a base-2, base-3, or base-d representation. In operating the algorithm, the number ncounting task naturally leads to the shift operation and an algorithm based on the quantum Fourier transformation. We discuss possible implementations of the algorithm using quantum spin-d systems, d-well systems, and their emulation with spin-1/2 or double-well systems. We establish the analogy between our counting algorithm and the phase estimation algorithm and make use of the latter’s performance analysis in stabilizing our scheme. Applications embrace a quantum metrological scheme to measure voltage (an analog to digital converter) and a simple procedure to entangle multiparticle states.

  9. Correlation between total lymphocyte count, hemoglobin, hematocrit and CD4 count in HIV patients in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emuchay, Charles Iheanyichi; Okeniyi, Shemaiah Olufemi; Okeniyi, Joshua Olusegun

    2014-04-01

    The expensive and technology limited setting of CD4 count testing is a major setback to the initiation of HAART in a resource limited country like Nigeria. Simple and inexpensive tools such as Hemoglobin (Hb) measurement and Total Lymphocyte Count (TLC) are recommended as substitute marker. In order to assess the correlations of these parameters with CD4 count, 100 "apparently healthy" male volunteers tested HIV positive aged ≥ 20 years but ≤ 40 years were recruited and from whom Hb, Hct, TLC and CD4 count were obtained. The correlation coefficients, R, the Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient of Efficiency (CoE) and the p-values of the ANOVA model of Hb, Hct and TLC with CD4 count were assessed. The assessments show that there is no significant relationship of any of these parameters with CD4 count and the correlation coefficients are very weak. This study shows that Hb, Hct and TLC cannot be substitute for CD4 count as this might lead to certain individuals' deprivation of required treatment.

  10. To count or not to count: the effect of instructions on expecting a break in timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreault, Rémi; Fortin, Claudette

    2013-04-01

    When a break is expected during a time interval production, longer intervals are produced as the break occurs later during the interval. This effect of break location was interpreted as a result of distraction related to break expectancy in previous studies. In the present study, the influence of target duration and of instructions about chronometric counting strategies on the break location effect was examined. Using a strategy such as chronometric counting enhances the reliability of temporal processing, typically in terms of reduced variability, and could influence how timing is affected by break expectancy, especially when relatively long target durations are used. In two experiments, results show that time productions lengthened with increasing value of break location at various target durations and that variability was greater in the no-counting than in the counting instruction condition. More important, the break location effect was stronger in the no-counting than in the counting instruction condition. We conclude that chronometric counting orients attention toward timing processes, making them less likely to be disrupted by concurrent nontemporal processes.

  11. Counting dyons in N=4 string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, R. [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Mathematics and Computer Science; Verlinde, E. [TH-Division, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]|[Institute for Theoretical Physics, Universtity of Utrecht, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Verlinde, H. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)]|[Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    1997-01-27

    We present a microscopic index formula for the degeneracy of dyons in four-dimensional N=4 string theory. This counting formula is manifestly symmetric under the duality group, and its asymptotic growth reproduces the macroscopic Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. We give a derivation of this result in terms of the type II five-brane compactified on K3, by assuming that its fluctuations are described by a closed string theory on its world-volume. We find that the degeneracies are given in terms of the denominator of a generalized super Kac-Moody algebra. We also discuss the correspondence of this result with the counting of D-brane states. (orig.).

  12. Efficient Prime Counting and the Chebyshev Primes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Planat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The function where is the logarithm integral and the number of primes up to is well known to be positive up to the (very large Skewes' number. Likewise, according to Robin's work, the functions and , where and are Chebyshev summatory functions, are positive if and only if Riemann hypothesis (RH holds. One introduces the jump function at primes and one investigates , , and . In particular, , and for . Besides, for any odd , an infinite set of the so-called Chebyshev primes. In the context of RH, we introduce the so-called Riemann primes as champions of the function (or of the function . Finally, we find a good prime counting function , that is found to be much better than the standard Riemann prime counting function.

  13. MOIRCS Deep Survey. I: DRG Number Counts

    CERN Document Server

    Kajisawa, M; Suzuki, R; Tokoku, C; Uchimoto, Y K; Yoshikawa, T; Akiyama, M; Ichikawa, T; Ouchi, M; Omata, K; Tanaka, I; Nishimura, T; Yamada, T; Kajisawa, Masaru; Konishi, Masahiro; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tokoku, Chihiro; Uchimoto, Yuka Katsuno; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Akiyama, Masayuki; Ichikawa, Takashi; Ouchi, Masami; Omata, Koji; Tanaka, Ichi; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Yamada, Toru

    2006-01-01

    We use very deep near-infrared imaging data taken with Multi-Object InfraRed Camera and Spectrograph (MOIRCS) on the Subaru Telescope to investigate the number counts of Distant Red Galaxies (DRGs). We have observed a 4x7 arcmin^2 field in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey North (GOODS-N), and our data reach J=24.6 and K=23.2 (5sigma, Vega magnitude). The surface density of DRGs selected by J-K>2.3 is 2.35+-0.31 arcmin^-2 at K22 is smaller than that expected from the number counts at the brighter magnitude. The result indicates that while there are many bright galaxies at 222 suggest that the mass-dependent color distribution, where most of low-mass galaxies are blue while more massive galaxies tend to have redder colors, had already been established at that epoch.

  14. Direct calibration of click-counting detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohmann, M.; Kruse, R.; Sperling, J.; Silberhorn, C.; Vogel, W.

    2017-03-01

    We introduce and experimentally implement a method for the detector calibration of photon-number-resolving time-bin multiplexing layouts based on the measured click statistics of superconducting nanowire detectors. In particular, the quantum efficiencies, the dark count rates, and the positive operator-valued measures of these measurement schemes are directly obtained with high accuracy. The method is based on the moments of the click-counting statistics for coherent states with different coherent amplitudes. The strength of our analysis is that we can directly conclude—on a quantitative basis—that the detection strategy under study is well described by a linear response function for the light-matter interaction and that it is sensitive to the polarization of the incident light field. Moreover, our method is further extended to a two-mode detection scenario. Finally, we present possible applications for such well-characterized detectors, such as sensing of atmospheric loss channels and phase sensitive measurements.

  15. Going Online to Make Learning Count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Brigham

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult students often come to higher education with college-level learning that they have acquired outside of the classroom – from the workplace, military service, self-study, or hobbies. For decades, many forward-thinking colleges and universities have been offering services to evaluate that learning and award it college credit that counts towards a degree. However, for a range of reasons, not every institution can offer prior learning assessment (PLA in every discipline or for every student. With funding from several U.S. philanthropic organizations, the Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (CAEL is launching Learning Counts, a national online service that will offer students a range of opportunities to have their learning evaluated for college credit. This online service will expand the capacity of institutions offering PLA to students and provide an efficient and scalable delivery mechanism for the awarding of credit through PLA.

  16. Mesoscopic full counting statistics and exclusion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, P.-E.; Derrida, B.; Douçot, B.

    2005-02-01

    We calculate the distribution of current fluctuations in two simple exclusion models. Although these models are classical, we recover even for small systems such as a simple or a double barrier, the same distibution of current as given by traditional formalisms for quantum mesoscopic conductors. Due to their simplicity, the full counting statistics in exclusion models can be reduced to the calculation of the largest eigenvalue of a matrix, the size of which is the number of internal configurations of the system. As examples, we derive the shot noise power and higher order statistics of current fluctuations (skewness, full counting statistics, ....) of various conductors, including multiple barriers, diffusive islands between tunnel barriers and diffusive media. A special attention is dedicated to the third cumulant, which experimental measurability has been demonstrated lately.

  17. Counting and Enumeration Problems with Bounded Treewidth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Reinhard; Rümmele, Stefan; Woltran, Stefan

    By Courcelle's Theorem we know that any property of finite structures definable in monadic second-order logic (MSO) becomes tractable over structures with bounded treewidth. This result was extended to counting problems by Arnborg et al. and to enumeration problems by Flum et al. Despite the undisputed importance of these results for proving fixed-parameter tractability, they do not directly yield implementable algorithms. Recently, Gottlob et al. presented a new approach using monadic datalog to close the gap between theoretical tractability and practical computability for MSO-definable decision problems. In the current work we show how counting and enumeration problems can be tackled by an appropriate extension of the datalog approach.

  18. Pharmacy Automation-Pill Counting Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Mohamed Adam Adlan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dispensing medications in a community pharmacy was a time-consuming operation. The pharmacist dispensed most prescriptions that were in tablet or capsule form with a simple tray and spatula. Many new medications were being developed by pharmaceutical manufacturers at an ever-increasing pace, and the prices of those medications were rising steeply. A typical community pharmacist was working longer hours and often forced to hire additional staff to handle increased workloads. This extra workload did not allow the time to focus on safety issues. This new factor led to the concept of using a machine to count medications. This paper introduces a design based on using microcontrollers for counting tablets and capsules . A production flow is build to automate the whole operations

  19. Total bacterial count and somatic cell count in refrigerated raw milk stored in communal tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar da Costa Alves

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The current industry demand for dairy products with extended shelf life has resulted in new challenges for milk quality maintenance. The processing of milk with high bacterial counts compromises the quality and performance of industrial products. The study aimed to evaluate the total bacteria counts (TBC and somatic cell count (SCC in 768 samples of refrigerated raw milk, from 32 communal tanks. Samples were collected in the first quarter of 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 and analyzed by the Laboratory of Milk Quality - LQL. Results showed that 62.5%, 37.5%, 15.6% and 27.1% of the means for TBC in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively, were above the values established by legislation. However, we observed a significant reduction in the levels of total bacterial count (TBC in the studied periods. For somatic cell count, 100% of the means indicated values below 600.000 cells/mL, complying with the actual Brazilian legislation. The values found for the somatic cell count suggests the adoption of effective measures for the sanitary control of the herd. However, the results must be considered with caution as it highlights the need for quality improvements of the raw material until it achieves reliable results effectively.

  20. Method of detecting and counting bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An improved method is provided for determining bacterial levels, especially in samples of aqueous physiological fluids. The method depends on the quantitative determination of bacterial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the presence of nonbacterial ATP. The bacterial ATP is released by cell rupture and is measured by an enzymatic bioluminescent assay. A concentration technique is included to make the method more sensitive. It is particularly useful where the fluid to be measured contains an unknown or low bacteria count.

  1. Refined curve counting on complex surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Göttsche, Lothar; Shende, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    We define refined invariants which "count" nodal curves in sufficiently ample linear systems on surfaces, conjecture that their generating function is multiplicative, and conjecture explicit formulas in the case of K3 and abelian surfaces. We also give a refinement of the Caporaso-Harris recursion, and conjecture that it produces the same invariants in the sufficiently ample setting. The refined recursion specializes at y = -1 to the Itenberg-Kharlamov-Shustin recursion for Welschinger invari...

  2. Positive motivic measures are counting measures

    CERN Document Server

    Ellenberg, Jordan S

    2009-01-01

    Let K be a field. A positive motivic measure on the Grothendieck ring K_0(Var_K) is a homomorphism from K_0(Var_K) to the real numbers assigning a nonnegative value to every variety. In this note we show that the only positive motivic measures are the counting measures: measures on K_0(Var_{F_q}) which send a variety to its number of rational points over some fixed finite extension of F_q.

  3. Going Online to Make Learning Count

    OpenAIRE

    Cathy Brigham; Rebecca Klein-Collins

    2011-01-01

    Adult students often come to higher education with college-level learning that they have acquired outside of the classroom – from the workplace, military service, self-study, or hobbies. For decades, many forward-thinking colleges and universities have been offering services to evaluate that learning and award it college credit that counts towards a degree. However, for a range of reasons, not every institution can offer prior learning assessment (PLA) in every discipline or for every student...

  4. Faint Submillimter Galaxy Counts at 450 micron

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Chian-Chou; Barger, Amy J; Casey, Caitlin M; Lee, Nicholas; Sanders, David B; Wang, Wei-Hao; Williams, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of SCUBA2 observations at 450 micron and 850 micron of the field lensed by the massive cluster A370. With a total survey area > 100 arcmin2 and 1 sigma sensitivities of 3.92 and 0.82 mJy/beam at 450 and 850 micron respectively, we find a secure sample of 20 sources at 450 micron and 26 sources at 850 micron with a signal-to-noise ratio > 4. Using the latest lensing model of A370 and Monte Carlo simulations, we derive the number counts at both wavelengths. The 450 micron number counts probe a factor of four deeper than the counts recently obtained from the Herschel Space Telescope at similar wavelengths, and we estimate that ~47-61% of the 450 micron extragalactic background light (EBL) resolved into individual sources with 450 micron fluxes greater than 4.5 mJy. The faint 450 micron sources in the 4 sigma sample have positional accuracies of 3 arcseconds, while brighter sources (signal-to-noise > 6 sigma) are good to 1.4 arcseconds. Using the deep radio map (1 sigma ~ 6 uJy) we find tha...

  5. Passive hand movements disrupt adults’ counting strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ineke eImbo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we experimentally tested the role of hand motor circuits in simple-arithmetic strategies. Educated adults solved simple additions (e.g., 8+3 or simple subtractions (e.g., 11–3 while they were required to retrieve the answer from long-term memory (e.g., knowing that 8+3 = 11, to transform the problem by making an intermediate step (e.g., 8+3 = 8+2+1 = 10+1 = 11 or to count one-by-one (e.g., 8+3 = 8…9…10…11. During the process of solving the arithmetic problems, the experimenter did or did not move the participants’ hand on a 4-point matrix. The results show that passive hand movements disrupted the counting strategy while leaving the other strategies unaffected. This pattern of results is in agreement with a procedural account, showing that the involvement of hand motor circuits in adults’ mathematical abilities is reminiscent of finger counting during childhood.

  6. Automatic vehicle counting system for traffic monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzil, Alain; Khoudour, Louahdi; Valiere, Paul; Truong Cong, Dung Nghy

    2016-09-01

    The article is dedicated to the presentation of a vision-based system for road vehicle counting and classification. The system is able to achieve counting with a very good accuracy even in difficult scenarios linked to occlusions and/or presence of shadows. The principle of the system is to use already installed cameras in road networks without any additional calibration procedure. We propose a robust segmentation algorithm that detects foreground pixels corresponding to moving vehicles. First, the approach models each pixel of the background with an adaptive Gaussian distribution. This model is coupled with a motion detection procedure, which allows correctly location of moving vehicles in space and time. The nature of trials carried out, including peak periods and various vehicle types, leads to an increase of occlusions between cars and between cars and trucks. A specific method for severe occlusion detection, based on the notion of solidity, has been carried out and tested. Furthermore, the method developed in this work is capable of managing shadows with high resolution. The related algorithm has been tested and compared to a classical method. Experimental results based on four large datasets show that our method can count and classify vehicles in real time with a high level of performance (>98%) under different environmental situations, thus performing better than the conventional inductive loop detectors.

  7. FIRBACK Source Counts and Cosmological Implications

    CERN Document Server

    Dole, H; Lagache, G; Puget, J L; Aussel, H; Bouchet, F R; Ciliegi, P; Clements, D L; Césarsky, C J; Désert, F X; Elbaz, D; Franceschini, A; Guiderdoni, B; Harwit, M; Laureijs, R J; Lemke, D; McMahon, R; Moorwood, A F M; Oliver, S; Reach, W T; Rowan-Robinson, M; Stickel, M; Dole, Herve; Gispert, Richard; Lagache, Guilaine; Puget, Jean-Loup

    2000-01-01

    FIRBACK is a one of the deepest surveys performed at 170 microns with ISOPHOTonboard ISO, and is aimed at the study of cosmic far infrared backgroundsources. About 300 galaxies are detected in an area of four square degrees, andsource counts present a strong slope of 2.2 on an integral "logN-logS" plot,which cannot be due to cosmological evolution if no K-correction is present.The resolved sources account for less than 100f the Cosmic InfraredBackground at 170 microns. In order to understand the nature of the sourcescontributing to the CIB, and to explain deep source counts at otherwavelengths, we have developed a phenomenological model, which constrains in asimple way the luminosity function evolution with redshift, and fits all theexisting deep source counts from the mid-infrared to the submillimetre range.Images, materials and papers available on the FIRBACK web:http://wwwfirback.ias.u-psud.fr wwwfirback.ias.u-psud.fr

  8. Counting, Measuring And The Semantics Of Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Rothstein

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes two central claims. The first is that there is an intimate and non-trivial relation between the mass/count distinction on the one hand and the measure/individuation distinction on the other: a (if not the defining property of mass nouns is that they denote sets of entities which can be measured, while count nouns denote sets of entities which can be counted. Crucially, this is a difference in grammatical perspective and not in ontological status. The second claim is that the mass/count distinction between two types of nominals has its direct correlate at the level of classifier phrases: classifier phrases like two bottles of wine are ambiguous between a counting, or individuating, reading and a measure reading. On the counting reading, this phrase has count semantics, on the measure reading it has mass semantics.ReferencesBorer, H. 1999. ‘Deconstructing the construct’. In K. Johnson & I. Roberts (eds. ‘Beyond Principles and Parameters’, 43–89. Dordrecht: Kluwer publications.Borer, H. 2008. ‘Compounds: the view from Hebrew’. In R. Lieber & P. Stekauer (eds. ‘The Oxford Handbook of Compounds’, 491–511. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Carlson, G. 1977b. Reference to Kinds in English. Ph.D. thesis, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.Carlson, G. 1997. Quantifiers and Selection. Ph.D. thesis, University of Leiden.Carslon, G. 1977a. ‘Amount relatives’. Language 53: 520–542.Chierchia, G. 2008. ‘Plurality of mass nouns and the notion of ‘semantic parameter”. In S. Rothstein (ed. ‘Events and Grammar’, 53–103. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Danon, G. 2008. ‘Definiteness spreading in the Hebrew construct state’. Lingua 118: 872–906.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2007.05.012Gillon, B. 1992. ‘Toward a common semantics for English count and mass nouns’. Linguistics and Philosophy 15: 597–640.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00628112Grosu, A. & Landman, F. 1998. ‘Strange relatives of the third kind

  9. geoCount: An R Package for the Analysis of Geostatistical Count Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Jing

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe the R package geoCount for the analysis of geostatistical count data. The package performs Bayesian analysis for the Poisson-lognormal and binomial-logitnormal spatial models, which are subclasses of the class of generalized linear spatial models proposed by Diggle, Tawn, and Moyeed (1998. The package implements the computational intensive tasks in C++ using an R/C++ interface, and has parallel computation capabilities to speed up the computations. geoCount also implements group updating, Langevin- Hastings algorithms and a data-based parameterization, algorithmic approaches proposed by Christensen, Roberts, and Sko ?ld (2006 to improve the efficiency of the Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms. In addition, the package includes functions for simulation and visualization, as well as three geostatistical count datasets taken from the literature. One of those is used to illustrate the package capabilities. Finally, we provide a side-by-side comparison between geoCount and the R packages geoRglm and INLA.

  10. Bibliometric Approach to Research Assessment: Publication Count, Citation Count, & Author Rank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang, Kiduk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how bibliometric indicators such as publication count and citation count affect the assessment of research performance by computing various bibliometric scores of the works of Korean LIS faculty members and comparing the rankings by those scores. For the study data, we used the publication and citation data of 159 tenure-track faculty members of Library and Information Science departments in 34 Korean universities. The study results showed correlation between publication count and citation count for authors with many publications but the opposite evidence for authors with few publications. The study results suggest that as authors publish more and more work, citations to their work tend to increase along with publication count. However, for junior faculty members who have not yet accumulated enough publications, citations to their work are of great importance in assessing their research performance. The study data also showed that there are marked differences in the magnitude of citations between papers published in Korean journals and papers published in international journals.

  11. A mind you can count on: validating breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B Levinson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness practice of present moment awareness promises many benefits, but has eluded rigorous behavioral measurement. To date, research has relied on self-reported mindfulness or heterogeneous mindfulness trainings to infer skillful mindfulness practice and its effects. In four independent studies with over 400 total participants, we present the first construct validation of a behavioral measure of mindfulness, breath counting. We found it was reliable, correlated with self-reported mindfulness, differentiated long-term meditators from age-matched controls, and was distinct from sustained attention and working memory measures. In addition, we employed breath counting to test the nomological network of mindfulness. As theorized, we found skill in breath counting associated with more meta-awareness, less mind wandering, better mood, and greater nonattachment (i.e. less attentional capture by distractors formerly paired with reward. We also found in a randomized online training study that 4 weeks of breath counting training improved mindfulness and decreased mind wandering relative to working memory training and no training controls. Together, these findings provide the first evidence for breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness.

  12. Short communication: Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, G; Dik, N; Nielen, M; Lipman, L J A

    2010-06-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms, 3 bulk milk samples were collected at intervals of 2 wk. The samples were cultured for SPC, coliform count, and staphylococcal count and for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, SCC (Fossomatic 5000, Foss, Hillerød, Denmark) and TBC (BactoScan FC 150, Foss) were measured. Staphylococcal count was correlated to SCC (r=0.40), TBC (r=0.51), and SPC (r=0.53). Coliform count was correlated to TBC (r=0.33), but not to any of the other variables. Staphylococcus aureus did not correlate to SCC. The contribution of the staphylococcal count to the SPC was 31%, whereas the coliform count comprised only 1% of the SPC. The agreement of the repeated measurements was low. This study indicates that staphylococci in goat bulk milk are related to SCC and make a significant contribution to SPC. Because of the high variation in bacterial counts, repeated sampling is necessary to draw valid conclusions from bulk milk culturing.

  13. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names MB to MO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  14. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names SU to TE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  15. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names SB to SC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  16. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names CD to CH

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  17. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names NB to OL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  18. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names AS to BA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  19. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names CP to DE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  20. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names C to CE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  1. Alaska Steller sea lion Count Database (Non-pups)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains counts of adult and juvenile (non-pup) Steller sea lions on rookeries and haulouts in Alaska made between 1904 and 2015. Non-pup counts have...

  2. Low Blood Cell Counts: Side Effect of Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell counts can be a serious complication during cancer treatment. Know why your doctor closely tracks your blood ... monitor your blood cell counts carefully during your cancer treatment. There's a good reason you're having your ...

  3. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names LB to LI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  4. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names SJ to ST

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  5. 91st Christmas Bird Count : Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These are the results of the 1990 Christmas Bird Count on Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge. A total of 14 species and 1,469 individual birds were counted.

  6. 92nd Christmas Bird Count : Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These are the results of the 1991 Christmas Bird Count on Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge. A total of 25 species and 2,655 individual birds were counted.

  7. Avian Point Count Locations - Dahomey NWR 2007-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Map depicts locations of avian point counts conducted on Dahomey in 2007 and 2008. Actual point count data are contained in the avian knowledge network database

  8. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names OY to PI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  9. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names V to Z

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  10. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names DH to EC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  11. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names BCE to BZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  12. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names SD to SI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  13. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names CI to CO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  14. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names LJ to MA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  15. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names EV to GN

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  16. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names A to AM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  17. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names Q to SA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  18. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names HJ to ID

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  19. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names PP to PZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  20. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names ED to EU

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  1. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names PL to PO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  2. Controlling Hay Fever Symptoms with Accurate Pollen Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... counts Share | Controlling Hay Fever Symptoms with Accurate Pollen Counts This article has been reviewed by Thanai ... rhinitis known as hay fever is caused by pollen carried in the air during different times of ...

  3. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names HB to HI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  4. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names AN to AR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  5. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names MP to NA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  6. Counting Trees in Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Cordova, Clay

    2015-01-01

    We study the supersymmetric ground states of the Kronecker model of quiver quantum mechanics. This is the simplest quiver with two gauge groups and bifundamental matter fields, and appears universally in four-dimensional N=2 systems. The ground state degeneracy may be written as a multi-dimensional contour integral, and the enumeration of poles can be simply phrased as counting bipartite trees. We solve this combinatorics problem, thereby obtaining exact formulas for the degeneracies of an infinite class of models. We also develop an algorithm to compute the angular momentum of the ground states, and present explicit expressions for the refined indices of theories where one rank is small.

  7. A new sieve for distinct coordinate counting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We present a new sieve for the distinct coordinate counting problem.This significantly improves the classical inclusion-exclusion sieve for this problem,in the sense that the number of terms is reduced from 2(k 2) to k!,and reduced further to p(k) in the symmetric case,where p(k) denotes the number of partitions of k.As an illustration of applications,we give an in-depth study of a basic example arising from coding theory and graph theory.

  8. BMI in relation to sperm count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sermondade, N; Faure, C; Fezeu, L

    2013-01-01

    with meta-analysis. METHODS A systematic review of available literature (with no language restriction) was performed to investigate the impact of BMI on sperm count. Relevant studies published until June 2012 were identified from a Pubmed and EMBASE search. We also included unpublished data (n = 717 men...... concentration did not differ significantly across BMI categories. There was a J-shaped relationship between BMI categories and risk of oligozoospermia or azoospermia. Compared with men of normal weight, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for oligozoospermia or azoospermia was 1.15 (0...

  9. Accurate Atom Counting in Mesoscopic Ensembles

    CERN Document Server

    Hume, D B; Joos, M; Muessel, W; Strobel, H; Oberthaler, M K

    2013-01-01

    Many cold atom experiments rely on precise atom number detection, especially in the context of quantum-enhanced metrology where effects at the single particle level are important. Here, we investigate the limits of atom number counting via resonant fluorescence detection for mesoscopic samples of trapped atoms. We characterize the precision of these fluorescence measurements beginning from the single-atom level up to more than one thousand. By investigating the primary noise sources, we obtain single-atom resolution for atom numbers as high as 1200. This capability is an essential prerequisite for future experiments with highly entangled states of mesoscopic atomic ensembles.

  10. Accurate Atom Counting in Mesoscopic Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, D. B.; Stroescu, I.; Joos, M.; Muessel, W.; Strobel, H.; Oberthaler, M. K.

    2013-12-01

    Many cold atom experiments rely on precise atom number detection, especially in the context of quantum-enhanced metrology where effects at the single particle level are important. Here, we investigate the limits of atom number counting via resonant fluorescence detection for mesoscopic samples of trapped atoms. We characterize the precision of these fluorescence measurements beginning from the single-atom level up to more than one thousand. By investigating the primary noise sources, we obtain single-atom resolution for atom numbers as high as 1200. This capability is an essential prerequisite for future experiments with highly entangled states of mesoscopic atomic ensembles.

  11. Neutron coincidence counting with digital signal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagi, Janos [Institute of Isotopes (IKI)-Budapest (Hungary); Dechamp, Luc; Dransart, Pascal; Dzbikowicz, Zdzislaw [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, IPSC-Ispra, VA (Italy); Dufour, Jean-Luc [Institut de Radioprotection et Surete Nucleaire-Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Holzleitner, Ludwig [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, IPSC-Ispra (Italy); Huszti, Joseph [Institute of Isotopes (IKI)-Budapest (Hungary); Looman, Marc [Consulenze Tecniche-Cocquio Trevisago (Italy); Marin Ferrer, Montserrat [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, IPSC-Ispra (Italy); Lambert, Thierry [Institut de Radioprotection et Surete Nucleaire-Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Peerani, Paolo [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, IPSC-Ispra (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.peerani@jrc.it; Rackham, Jamie [VT Nuclear Services-Sellafield, Seascale (United Kingdom); Swinhoe, Martyn; Tobin, Steve [N-1, Safeguards Science and Technology Group, LANL-Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weber, Anne-Laure [Institut de Radioprotection et Surete Nucleaire-Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Wilson, Mark [VT Nuclear Services-Sellafield, Seascale (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-11

    Neutron coincidence counting is a widely adopted nondestructive assay (NDA) technique used in nuclear safeguards to measure the mass of nuclear material in samples. Nowadays, most neutron-counting systems are based on the original-shift-register technology, like the (ordinary or multiplicity) Shift-Register Analyser. The analogue signal from the He-3 tubes is processed by an amplifier/single channel analyser (SCA) producing a train of TTL pulses that are fed into an electronic unit that performs the time- correlation analysis. Following the suggestion of the main inspection authorities (IAEA, Euratom and the French Ministry of Industry), several research laboratories have started to study and develop prototypes of neutron-counting systems with PC-based processing. Collaboration in this field among JRC, IRSN and LANL has been established within the framework of the ESARDA-NDA working group. Joint testing campaigns have been performed in the JRC PERLA laboratory, using different equipment provided by the three partners. One area of development is the use of high-speed PCs and pulse acquisition electronics that provide a time stamp (LIST-Mode Acquisition) for every digital pulse. The time stamp data can be processed directly during acquisition or saved on a hard disk. The latter method has the advantage that measurement data can be analysed with different values for parameters like predelay and gate width, without repeating the acquisition. Other useful diagnostic information, such as die-away time and dead time, can also be extracted from this stored data. A second area is the development of 'virtual instruments.' These devices, in which the pulse-processing system can be embedded in the neutron counter itself and sends counting data to a PC, can give increased data-acquisition speeds. Either or both of these developments could give rise to the next generation of instrumentation for improved practical neutron-correlation measurements. The paper will

  12. Counting Processes for Retail Default Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiefer, Nicholas Maximilian; Larson, C. Erik

    in a discrete state space. In a simple case, the states could be default/non-default; in other models relevant for credit modeling the states could be credit scores or payment status (30 dpd, 60 dpd, etc.). Here we focus on the use of stochastic counting processes for mortgage default modeling, using data...... on high LTV mortgages. Borrowers seeking to finance more than 80% of a house's value with a mortgage usually either purchase mortgage insurance, allowing a first mortgage greater than 80% from many lenders, or use second mortgages. Are there differences in performance between loans financed...

  13. Strange Curves, Counting Rabbits, & Other Mathematical Explorations

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Keith

    2011-01-01

    How does mathematics enable us to send pictures from space back to Earth? Where does the bell-shaped curve come from? Why do you need only 23 people in a room for a 50/50 chance of two of them sharing the same birthday? In Strange Curves, Counting Rabbits, and Other Mathematical Explorations, Keith Ball highlights how ideas, mostly from pure math, can answer these questions and many more. Drawing on areas of mathematics from probability theory, number theory, and geometry, he explores a wide range of concepts, some more light-hearted, others central to the development of the field and used dai

  14. Applied categorical and count data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Wan; Tu, Xin M

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Discrete Outcomes Data Source Outline of the BookReview of Key Statistical ResultsSoftwareContingency Tables Inference for One-Way Frequency TableInference for 2 x 2 TableInference for 2 x r TablesInference for s x r TableMeasures of AssociationSets of Contingency Tables Confounding Effects Sets of 2 x 2 TablesSets of s x r TablesRegression Models for Categorical Response Logistic Regression for Binary ResponseInference about Model ParametersGoodness of FitGeneralized Linear ModelsRegression Models for Polytomous ResponseRegression Models for Count Response Poisson Regression Mode

  15. Perturbative tests of non-perturbative counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabholkar, Atish; Gomes, João

    2010-03-01

    We observe that a class of quarter-BPS dyons in mathcal{N} = 4 theories with charge vector ( Q, P) and with nontrivial values of the arithmetic duality invariant I := gcd( Q∧ P) are nonperturbative in one frame but perturbative in another frame. This observation suggests a test of the recently computed nonperturbative partition functions for dyons with nontrivial values of the arithmetic invariant. For all values of I, we show that the nonperturbative counting yields vanishing indexed degeneracy for this class of states everywhere in the moduli space in precise agreement with the perturbative result.

  16. Expected Number Counts of Radio Galaxy Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Clusters of galaxies may contain radio sources if they still experience successive mergers at present. This has been confirmed by radio observations that about 30% of nearby clusters possess radio halos. We present a theoretical prediction of radio cluster counts using a semi-analytic approach which incorporates the empirical correlation between radio power and dynamical mass of clusters, and the cluster mass function described by the Press-Schechter formalism. The total population of radio clusters over the whole sky and their redshift distribution are given.

  17. Accurate atom counting in mesoscopic ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, D B; Stroescu, I; Joos, M; Muessel, W; Strobel, H; Oberthaler, M K

    2013-12-20

    Many cold atom experiments rely on precise atom number detection, especially in the context of quantum-enhanced metrology where effects at the single particle level are important. Here, we investigate the limits of atom number counting via resonant fluorescence detection for mesoscopic samples of trapped atoms. We characterize the precision of these fluorescence measurements beginning from the single-atom level up to more than one thousand. By investigating the primary noise sources, we obtain single-atom resolution for atom numbers as high as 1200. This capability is an essential prerequisite for future experiments with highly entangled states of mesoscopic atomic ensembles.

  18. An exact exponential time algorithm for counting bipartite cliques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutzkov, Konstantin

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple exact algorithm for counting bicliques of given size in a bipartite graph on n vertices. We achieve running time of O(1.249^n), improving upon known exact algorithms for finding and counting bipartite cliques.......We present a simple exact algorithm for counting bicliques of given size in a bipartite graph on n vertices. We achieve running time of O(1.249^n), improving upon known exact algorithms for finding and counting bipartite cliques....

  19. Development of New Drummed Nuclear Waste Neutron Counting System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Li-qun; XU; Xiao-ming; BAI; Lei; LI; Xin-jun; GU; Shao-gang; HE; Li-xia; WANG; Mian

    2012-01-01

    <正>The development of a new neutron counting system (Fig. 1) for 200 L drummed radioactive waste measurement has been accomplished in this year. This waste neutron counting system is mainly used for solid radioactive waste classification. It is based on the passive neutron counting technique. The amount of radionuclide contained in the waste is

  20. 21 CFR 1210.16 - Method of bacterial count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.16 Method of bacterial count. The bacterial count of milk and cream refers to the number of viable bacteria as determined by the standard plate method of... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of bacterial count. 1210.16 Section...

  1. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used...

  2. Automated vehicle counting using image processing and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meany, Sean; Eskew, Edward; Martinez-Castro, Rosana; Jang, Shinae

    2017-04-01

    Vehicle counting is used by the government to improve roadways and the flow of traffic, and by private businesses for purposes such as determining the value of locating a new store in an area. A vehicle count can be performed manually or automatically. Manual counting requires an individual to be on-site and tally the traffic electronically or by hand. However, this can lead to miscounts due to factors such as human error A common form of automatic counting involves pneumatic tubes, but pneumatic tubes disrupt traffic during installation and removal, and can be damaged by passing vehicles. Vehicle counting can also be performed via the use of a camera at the count site recording video of the traffic, with counting being performed manually post-recording or using automatic algorithms. This paper presents a low-cost procedure to perform automatic vehicle counting using remote video cameras with an automatic counting algorithm. The procedure would utilize a Raspberry Pi micro-computer to detect when a car is in a lane, and generate an accurate count of vehicle movements. The method utilized in this paper would use background subtraction to process the images and a machine learning algorithm to provide the count. This method avoids fatigue issues that are encountered in manual video counting and prevents the disruption of roadways that occurs when installing pneumatic tubes

  3. Low-Background Counting at Homestake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Iseley

    2009-10-01

    Background characterization at Homestake is an ongoing project crucial to the experiments located there. From neutrino physics to WIMP detection, low-background materials and their screening require highly sensitive detectors. Naturally, shielding is needed to lower ``noise'' in these detectors. Because of its vast depth, Homestake will be effective in shielding against cosmic-ray radiation. This means little, however, if radiation from materials used still interferes. Specifically, our group is working on designing the first low-background counting facility at the Homestake mine. Using a high-purity germanium crystal detector from ORTEC, measurements will be taken within a shield that is made to specifically account for radiation underground and fits the detector. Currently, in the design, there is a layer of copper surrounded by an intricate stainless steel casing, which will be manufactured air tight to accommodate for nitrogen purging. Lead will surround the stainless steel shell to further absorb gamma rays. A mobile lift system has been designed for easy access to the detector. In the future, this project will include multiple testing stations located in the famous Davis Cavern where future experiments will have the ability to use the site as an efficient and accurate counting facility for their needs (such as measuring radioactive isotopes in materials). Overall, this detector (and its shield system) is the beginning of a central testing facility that will serve Homestake's scientific community.

  4. Maximal subbundles, quot schemes, and curve counting

    CERN Document Server

    Gillam, W D

    2011-01-01

    Let $E$ be a rank 2, degree $d$ vector bundle over a genus $g$ curve $C$. The loci of stable pairs on $E$ in class $2[C]$ fixed by the scaling action are expressed as products of $\\Quot$ schemes. Using virtual localization, the stable pairs invariants of $E$ are related to the virtual intersection theory of $\\Quot E$. The latter theory is extensively discussed for an $E$ of arbitrary rank; the tautological ring of $\\Quot E$ is defined and is computed on the locus parameterizing rank one subsheaves. In case $E$ has rank 2, $d$ and $g$ have opposite parity, and $E$ is sufficiently generic, it is known that $E$ has exactly $2^g$ line subbundles of maximal degree. Doubling the zero section along such a subbundle gives a curve in the total space of $E$ in class $2[C]$. We relate this count of maximal subbundles with stable pairs/Donaldson-Thomas theory on the total space of $E$. This endows the residue invariants of $E$ with enumerative significance: they actually \\emph{count} curves in $E$.

  5. Regression Models for Count Data in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kleiber

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The classical Poisson, geometric and negative binomial regression models for count data belong to the family of generalized linear models and are available at the core of the statistics toolbox in the R system for statistical computing. After reviewing the conceptual and computational features of these methods, a new implementation of hurdle and zero-inflated regression models in the functions hurdle( and zeroinfl( from the package pscl is introduced. It re-uses design and functionality of the basic R functions just as the underlying conceptual tools extend the classical models. Both hurdle and zero-inflated model, are able to incorporate over-dispersion and excess zeros-two problems that typically occur in count data sets in economics and the social sciences—better than their classical counterparts. Using cross-section data on the demand for medical care, it is illustrated how the classical as well as the zero-augmented models can be fitted, inspected and tested in practice.

  6. It's not the pixel count, you fool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriss, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    The first thing a "marketing guy" asks the digital camera engineer is "how many pixels does it have, for we need as many mega pixels as possible since the other guys are killing us with their "umpteen" mega pixel pocket sized digital cameras. And so it goes until the pixels get smaller and smaller in order to inflate the pixel count in the never-ending pixel-wars. These small pixels just are not very good. The truth of the matter is that the most important feature of digital cameras in the last five years is the automatic motion control to stabilize the image on the sensor along with some very sophisticated image processing. All the rest has been hype and some "cool" design. What is the future for digital imaging and what will drive growth of camera sales (not counting the cell phone cameras which totally dominate the market in terms of camera sales) and more importantly after sales profits? Well sit in on the Dark Side of Color and find out what is being done to increase the after sales profits and don't be surprised if has been done long ago in some basement lab of a photographic company and of course, before its time.

  7. Signatures of synchrony in pairwise count correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Tchumatchenko

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Concerted neural activity can reflect specific features of sensory stimuli or behavioral tasks. Correlation coefficients and count correlations are frequently used to measure correlations between neurons, design synthetic spike trains and build population models. But are correlation coefficients always a reliable measure of input correlations? Here, we consider a stochastic model for the generation of correlated spike sequences which replicate neuronal pairwise correlations in many important aspects. We investigate under which conditions the correlation coefficients reflect the degree of input synchrony and when they can be used to build population models. We find that correlation coefficients can be a poor indicator of input synchrony for some cases of input correlations. In particular, count correlations computed for large time bins can vanish despite the presence of input correlations. These findings suggest that network models or potential coding schemes of neural population activity need to incorporate temporal properties of correlated inputs and take into consideration the regimes of firing rates and correlation strengths to ensure that their building blocks are an unambiguous measures of synchrony.

  8. Language and counting: Some recent results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Garry

    1990-02-01

    It has long been recognised that the language of mathematics is an important variable in the learning of mathematics, and there has been useful work in isolating and describing the linkage. Steffe and his co-workers at Georgia, for example, (Steffe, von Glasersfeld, Richardson and Cobb, 1983) have suggested that young children may construct verbal countable items to count objects which are hidden from their view. Although there has been a surge of research interest in counting and early childhood mathematics, and in cultural differences in mathematics attainment, there has been little work reported on the linkage between culture as exemplified by language, and initial concepts of numeration. This paper reports on some recent clinical research with kindergarten children of European and Asian background in Australia and America. The research examines the influence that number naming grammar appears to have on young children's understandings of two-digit numbers and place value. It appears that Transparent Standard Number Word Sequences such as Japanese, Chinese and Vietnamese which follow the numerical representation pattern by naming tens and units in order ("two tens three"), may be associated with distinctive place value concepts which may support sophisticated mental algorithms.

  9. Characterization of APDs for single photon counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buglak, Wladimir; Hannen, Volker; Joehren, Raphael; Surholt, Martin; Vollbrecht, Jonas; Weinheimer, Christian [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Noertershaeuser, Wilfried [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernchemie; GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Sanchez, Rodolfo [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    For the SPECTRAP experiment at GSI, Germany, a detector system with single-photon counting capability operating in the wavelength region from 300 nm up to 1100 nm has been developed at the University of Muenster. The detector system utilises a silicon avalanche photo diode (APD) cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures and operated near the breakdown voltage to obtain high gain values. While the current setup uses a 2 x 2 mm{sup 2} APD (type RMD S0223), it would be advantageous to have a larger active area for easier adjustment of the experiment optics. On the other hand a larger active area is accompanied by increased thermal noise which might harm the photon counting performance of the device. The characterization of a 8 x 8 mm{sup 2} APD (RMD S0814) is the subject of this poster. Furthermore a signal analysis software was developed to supress noise signals, e.g. caused by microphonic effects. The software processes signal waveforms recorded by a Flash ADC and should allow for a lower trigger threshold and thus higher detection efficiency.

  10. Sampling site matters when counting lymphocyte subpopulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson Ogunjimi

    Full Text Available Clinical and scientific work routinely relies on antecubital venipunctures for hematological, immunological or other analyses on blood. This study tested the hypothesis that antecubital veins can be considered to be a good proxy for other sampling sites. Using a hematocytometer and a flow cytometer, we analyzed the cell counts from samples coming from the radial artery, the dorsal hand veins and the antecubital veins from 18 volunteers. Most surprisingly, we identified the greatest difference not to exist between arterial and venous circulation, but between the distal (radial artery & dorsal hand veins and proximal (antecubital veins sampling sites. Naïve T cells had a higher cell count distally compared to proximally and the reverse was true for effector memory T cells. Despite these differences there were high correlations between the different sampling sites, which partially supports our initial hypothesis. Our findings are crucial for the future design and interpretation of immunological research, and for clinical practice. Furthermore, our results suggest a role for interval lymph nodes in the trafficking of lymphocytes.

  11. Atmospheric pollen count in Monterrey, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Díaz, Sandra N; Rodríguez-Ortiz, Pablo G; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Macías-Weinmann, Alejandra; Cid-Guerrero, Dagoberto; Sedo-Mejia, Giovanni A

    2010-01-01

    There are few reports of pollen count and identification in Mexico; therefore, it is important to generate more information on the subject. This study was designed to describe the prevalence of pollen in the city of Monterrey, Mexico, during the year 2004. Atmospheric pollen was collected with a Hirst air sampler, with an airflow of 10 L/minute during 2004. Pollen was identified with light microscopy; the average monthly pollen count as well as total was calculated from January 2004 to January 2005. The months with the highest concentration of pollen were February and March (289 and 142 grains/m(3) per day, respectively), and July and November had the lowest concentration (20 and 11 grains/m(3) per day, respectively). Most of the pollen recollected corresponded to tree pollen (72%). Fraxinus spp had the highest concentration during the year (19 grains/m(3) per day; 27.5% of the total concentration of pollen). Tree pollen predominated from January through March; with Fraxinus spp, Morus spp, Celtis spp, Cupressus spp, and Pinus spp as the most important. Weed pollen predominated in May, June, and December and the most frequently identified, were Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae, Ambrosia spp, and Parietaria spp. The highest concentration of grass pollen was reported during the months of May, June, September, October, and December with Gramineae/Poaceae predominating. Tree pollen was the most abundant during the year, with the ash tree having the highest concentration. Weed and grass pollen were perennial with peaks during the year.

  12. B Decay Charm Counting Via Topological Vertexing

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Aaron Sze Ting

    2002-01-01

    We present a new and unique measurement of the branching fractions of b hadrons to states with 0, 1, and 2 open charm hadrons, using a sample of 350,000 hadronic Z0 decays collected during the SLD/SLC 97–98 run. The analysis takes advantage of the excellent vertexing resolution of the VXD3, a pixel-based CCD vertex detector, which allows the separation of B and cascade D decay vertices. A fit of the vertex count and the decay length distributions to distribution shapes predicted by Monte Carlo simulation allows the extraction of the inclusive branching fractions. We measure: BRB→0D X=3.7±1.1 stat±2.1 syst% BRB→2D X=17.9±1.4 stat±3.3 syst% where B, and D represent mixtures of open b and open c hadrons. The corresponding charm count, Nc = 1.188 ± 0.010 ± 0.040 ± 0.006 is consistent with previous measurement averages but slightly closer to theoretical expectations.

  13. B Decay Charm Counting via Topological Vertexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Aaron S

    2001-10-15

    We present a new and unique measurement of the branching fractions of b hadrons to states with 0, 1, and 2 open charm hadrons, using a sample of 350,000 hadronic Z{sup 0} decays collected during the SLD/SLC 97-98 run. The method takes advantage of the excellent vertexing resolution of the VXD3, a pixel-based CCD vertex detector, which allows the separation of B and cascade D decay vertices. A fit of the vertex count and the decay length distributions to distribution shapes predicted by Monte Carlo simulation allows the extraction of the inclusive branching fractions. We measure: BR(B {yields} (0D)X) = (3.7{+-}1.1(stat) {+-} 2.1(syst))%; and BR(B {yields} (2D)X) = (17.9{+-}1.4(stat) {+-} 3.3(syst))% where B and D represent mixtures of open b and open c hadrons. The corresponding charm count, N{sub c} = 1.188 {+-} 0.010 {+-} 0.040 {+-} 0.006 is consistent with previous measurement averages but slightly closer to theoretical expectations.

  14. Testing gravity with gravitational wave source counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Erminia; Battaglia, Nicholas; Spergel, David N.

    2016-08-01

    We show that the gravitational wave source counts distribution can test how gravitational radiation propagates on cosmological scales. This test does not require obtaining redshifts for the sources. If the signal-to-noise ratio (ρ) from a gravitational wave source is proportional to the strain then it falls as {R}-1, thus we expect the source counts to follow {{d}}{N}/{{d}}ρ \\propto {ρ }-4. However, if gravitational waves decay as they propagate or propagate into other dimensions, then there can be deviations from this generic prediction. We consider the possibility that the strain falls as {R}-γ , where γ =1 recovers the expected predictions in a Euclidean uniformly-filled Universe, and forecast the sensitivity of future observations to deviations from standard General Relativity. We first consider the case of few objects, seven sources, with a signal-to-noise from 8 to 24, and impose a lower limit on γ, finding γ \\gt 0.33 at 95% confidence level. The distribution of our simulated sample is very consistent with the distribution of the trigger events reported by Advanced LIGO. Future measurements will improve these constraints: with 100 events, we estimate that γ can be measured with an uncertainty of 15%. We generalize the formalism to account for a range of chirp masses and the possibility that the signal falls as {exp}(-R/{R}0)/{R}γ .

  15. The Great World Wide Star Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D.; Meymaris, K.; Henderson, S.; Johnson, R. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Great World Wide Star Count is an international citizen science event encouraging everyone, astronomers and non-astronomers alike, to measure their local light pollution and report their observations online. This project is designed to raise awareness about light pollution as well as encourage learning in astronomy. Utilizing the international networking capabilities of Windows to the Universe, Star Count has engaged over 31,000 individuals from 64 countries and all 7 continents in its first 3 years. Data collection and online reporting is designed to be simple and user-friendly for citizen scientists of all ages. The collected data is available online in a variety of formats for use by students, teachers and scientists worldwide to assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world. This session will share our results and demonstrate how students and scientists worldwide can explore and analyze the results from 2007—2010. We will discuss how the project team planned and executed the project in such a way that non-astronomers were able to make valid and useful contributions.

  16. Testing Gravity with Gravitational Wave Source Counts

    CERN Document Server

    Calabrese, Erminia; Spergel, David N

    2016-01-01

    We show that the gravitational wave source counts distribution can test how gravitational radiation propagates on cosmological scales. This test does not require obtaining redshifts for the sources. If the signal-to-noise from a gravitational wave source is proportional to the strain then it falls as $R^{-1}$, thus we expect the source counts to follow $dN/dS \\propto S^{-4}$. However, if gravitational waves decay as they propagate or can propagate into other dimensions, then there can be deviations from this generic prediction. We consider the possibility that the signal-to-noise falls as $R^{-\\gamma}$, where $\\gamma=1$ recovers the expected predictions in a Euclidean uniformly-filled universe. We forecast the sensitivity of future observations in constraining gravitational wave physics using this method by simulating sources distributed over a finite range of signal-to-noise. We first consider the case of few objects, 7 sources, with a signal-to-noise from 8 to 24, and impose a lower limit on $\\gamma$, findi...

  17. Photon Counting Using Edge-Detection Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gin, Jonathan W.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Farr, William H.

    2010-01-01

    New applications such as high-datarate, photon-starved, free-space optical communications require photon counting at flux rates into gigaphoton-per-second regimes coupled with subnanosecond timing accuracy. Current single-photon detectors that are capable of handling such operating conditions are designed in an array format and produce output pulses that span multiple sample times. In order to discern one pulse from another and not to overcount the number of incoming photons, a detection algorithm must be applied to the sampled detector output pulses. As flux rates increase, the ability to implement such a detection algorithm becomes difficult within a digital processor that may reside within a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). Systems have been developed and implemented to both characterize gigahertz bandwidth single-photon detectors, as well as process photon count signals at rates into gigaphotons per second in order to implement communications links at SCPPM (serial concatenated pulse position modulation) encoded data rates exceeding 100 megabits per second with efficiencies greater than two bits per detected photon. A hardware edge-detection algorithm and corresponding signal combining and deserialization hardware were developed to meet these requirements at sample rates up to 10 GHz. The photon discriminator deserializer hardware board accepts four inputs, which allows for the ability to take inputs from a quadphoton counting detector, to support requirements for optical tracking with a reduced number of hardware components. The four inputs are hardware leading-edge detected independently. After leading-edge detection, the resultant samples are ORed together prior to deserialization. The deserialization is performed to reduce the rate at which data is passed to a digital signal processor, perhaps residing within an FPGA. The hardware implements four separate analog inputs that are connected through RF connectors. Each analog input is fed to a high-speed 1

  18. Optimal allocation of point-count sampling effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, R.J.; Sauer, J.R.; Link, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    Both unlimited and fixedradius point counts only provide indices to population size. Because longer count durations lead to counting a higher proportion of individuals at the point, proper design of these surveys must incorporate both count duration and sampling characteristics of population size. Using information about the relationship between proportion of individuals detected at a point and count duration, we present a method of optimizing a pointcount survey given a fixed total time for surveying and travelling between count points. The optimization can be based on several quantities that measure precision, accuracy, or power of tests based on counts, including (1) meansquare error of estimated population change; (2) mean-square error of average count; (3) maximum expected total count; or (4) power of a test for differences in average counts. Optimal solutions depend on a function that relates count duration at a point to the proportion of animals detected. We model this function using exponential and Weibull distributions, and use numerical techniques to conduct the optimization. We provide an example of the procedure in which the function is estimated from data of cumulative number of individual birds seen for different count durations for three species of Hawaiian forest birds. In the example, optimal count duration at a point can differ greatly depending on the quantities that are optimized. Optimization of the mean-square error or of tests based on average counts generally requires longer count durations than does estimation of population change. A clear formulation of the goals of the study is a critical step in the optimization process.

  19. Absolute lymphocyte count is not a suitable alternative to CD4 count for determining initiation of antiretroviral therapy in fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balak, Dashika A; Bissell, Karen; Roseveare, Christine; Ram, Sharan; Devi, Rachel R; Graham, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. An absolute lymphocyte count is commonly used as an alternative to a CD4 count to determine initiation of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected individuals in Fiji when a CD4 count is unavailable. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of laboratory results of HIV-infected individuals registered at all HIV clinics in Fiji. Results. Paired absolute lymphocyte and CD4 counts were available for 101 HIV-infected individuals, and 96% had a CD4 count of ≤500 cells/mm(3). Correlation between the counts in individuals was poor (Spearman rank correlation r = 0.5). No absolute lymphocyte count could be determined in this population as a suitable surrogate for a CD4 count of either 350 cells/mm(3) or 500 cells/mm(3). The currently used absolute lymphocyte count of ≤2300 cells/μL had a positive predictive value of 87% but a negative predictive value of only 17% for a CD4 of ≤350 cells/mm(3) and if used as a surrogate for a CD4 of ≤500 cells/mm(3) it would result in all HIV-infected individuals receiving ART including those not yet eligible. Weight, CD4 count, and absolute lymphocyte count increased significantly at 3 months following ART initiation. Conclusions. Our findings do not support the use of absolute lymphocyte count to determine antiretroviral therapy initiation in Fiji.

  20. Whole body counting at nuclear facilities in North America (Supplement)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saban, C.L.; Coleman, R.L.; Haskins, A.W.

    1985-10-01

    A survey was conducted on whole body counting at nuclear facilities. The survey was a supplement to an initial study done by the Tennessee Valley Authority in 1980. Data obtained from this study were used to compare current trends in whole body counting to those observed in the 1980 survey. The current status of this method of personnel monitoring is described, including a description of whole body counting systems in use, spectral analysis software, quality assurance programs, protocol for performing whole body counts, and the technical bases for whole body counting programs. 1 ref., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Improving EWMA Plans for Detecting Unusual Increases in Poisson Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Sparks

    2009-01-01

    adaptive exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA plan is developed for signalling unusually high incidence when monitoring a time series of nonhomogeneous daily disease counts. A Poisson transitional regression model is used to fit background/expected trend in counts and provides “one-day-ahead” forecasts of the next day's count. Departures of counts from their forecasts are monitored. The paper outlines an approach for improving early outbreak data signals by dynamically adjusting the exponential weights to be efficient at signalling local persistent high side changes. We emphasise outbreak signals in steady-state situations; that is, changes that occur after the EWMA statistic had run through several in-control counts.

  2. Optimization of high count rate event counting detector with Microchannel Plates and quad Timepix readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremsin, A.S., E-mail: ast@ssl.berkeley.edu; Vallerga, J.V.; McPhate, J.B.; Siegmund, O.H.W.

    2015-07-01

    Many high resolution event counting devices process one event at a time and cannot register simultaneous events. In this article a frame-based readout event counting detector consisting of a pair of Microchannel Plates and a quad Timepix readout is described. More than 10{sup 4} simultaneous events can be detected with a spatial resolution of ~55 µm, while >10{sup 3} simultaneous events can be detected with <10 µm spatial resolution when event centroiding is implemented. The fast readout electronics is capable of processing >1200 frames/sec, while the global count rate of the detector can exceed 5×10{sup 8} particles/s when no timing information on every particle is required. For the first generation Timepix readout, the timing resolution is limited by the Timepix clock to 10–20 ns. Optimization of the MCP gain, rear field voltage and Timepix threshold levels are crucial for the device performance and that is the main subject of this article. These devices can be very attractive for applications where the photon/electron/ion/neutron counting with high spatial and temporal resolution is required, such as energy resolved neutron imaging, Time of Flight experiments in lidar applications, experiments on photoelectron spectroscopy and many others.

  3. Method for effective dead time measurement in counting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinagre, F.L.R. E-mail: fleonor@saturno.fis.uc.pt; Conde, C.A.N

    2001-04-21

    The counting losses introduced by the dead time of a counting system are a limiting factor in counting measurements. The purpose of this work is to report an efficient method for the measurement of the effective dead time of a counting system and to characterize its dead time behavior, providing a way to investigate each experimental situation. The method, which we designate as Delayed and Mixed Pulses method, is based on the artificial piling-up of detector pulses with electronic pulses delayed by a specific time interval. It is applicable to the measurement of the effective dead time of a counting system, including both pile-up effects and the dead time characteristics of the elements of the counting chain. With counting systems relying on gaseous radiation detectors, we achieved a standard uncertainty of about 5-10% in the dead times measured.

  4. Analysis of General Power Counting Rules in Effective Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gavela, B M; Manohar, A V; Merlo, L

    2016-01-01

    We derive the general counting rules for a quantum effective field theory (EFT) in $\\mathsf{d}$ dimensions. The rules are valid for strongly and weakly coupled theories, and predict that all kinetic energy terms are canonically normalized. They determine the energy dependence of scattering cross sections in the range of validity of the EFT expansion. The size of cross sections is controlled by the $\\Lambda$ power counting of EFT, not by chiral counting, even for chiral perturbation theory ($\\chi$PT). The relation between $\\Lambda$ and $f$ is generalized to $\\mathsf{d}$ dimensions. We show that the naive dimensional analysis $4\\pi$ counting is related to $\\hbar$ counting. The EFT counting rules are applied to $\\chi$PT, to Standard Model EFT and to the non-trivial case of Higgs EFT, which combines the $\\Lambda$ and chiral counting rules within a single theory.

  5. Total leucocyte count, C-reactive protein and neutrophil count: Diagnostic Aid in acute appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafi Sheikh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Acute appendicitis is one of the most common acute intraabdominal affections seen in surgical departments, which can be treated easily if an accurate diagnosis is made in time. Otherwise, delay in diagnosis and treatment can lead to diffuse peritonitis. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted on 110 patients who were operated for acute appendicitis to determine the role and predictive value of the total leucocyte count (TLC, C-reactive protein (CRP and percentage of neutrophil count in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Preoperative TLC, CRP and percentage of neutrophil count were determined and were compared with the results of the histopathology of the removed appendix. Results: Of all the patients studied, 92 had histopathologically positive appendicitis. The TLC was found to be significantly high in 90 patients who proved to have acute appendicitis, whereas CRP was high in only 88 patients and neutrophil percentage was raised in 91; four had a normal CRP level. Thus, TLC had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 97.82%, 55.55% and 91.8%, respectively. CRP had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 95.6%, 77.77% and 95.6% respectively. Percentage of neutrophil count had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 98.9%, 38.88% and 89.21%, respectively. When used in combination, there was a marked improvement in the specificity and the positive predictive value to 88.04% and 98.7%, respectively. Conclusion: The inflammatory markers, i.e., TLC, CRP and neutrophil count can be helpful in the diagnosis when measured together as this increases their specificity and positive predictive value.

  6. Total lymphocyte count and subpopulation lymphocyte counts in relation to dietary intake and nutritional status of peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorzewska, Alicja E; Leander, Magdalena

    2005-01-01

    Dietary deficiency causes abnormalities in circulating lymphocyte counts. For the present paper, we evaluated correlations between total and subpopulation lymphocyte counts (TLC, SLCs) and parameters of nutrition in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Studies were carried out in 55 patients treated with PD for 22.2 +/- 11.4 months. Parameters of nutritional status included total body mass, lean body mass (LBM), body mass index (BMI), and laboratory indices [total protein, albumin, iron, ferritin, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC)]. The SLCs were evaluated using flow cytometry. Positive correlations were seen between TLC and dietary intake of niacin; TLC and CD8 and CD16+56 counts and energy delivered from protein; CD4 count and beta-carotene and monounsaturated fatty acids 17:1 intake; and CD19 count and potassium, copper, vitamin A, and beta-carotene intake. Anorexia negatively influenced CD19 count. Serum albumin showed correlations with CD4 and CD19 counts, and LBM with CD19 count. A higher CD19 count was connected with a higher red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Correlations were observed between TIBC and TLC and CD3 and CD8 counts, and between serum Fe and TLC and CD3 and CD4 counts. Patients with a higher CD19 count showed a better clinical-laboratory score, especially less weakness. Patients with a higher CD4 count had less expressed insomnia. Quantities of ingested vitamins and minerals influence lymphocyte counts in the peripheral blood of PD patients. Evaluation of TLC and SLCs is helpful in monitoring the effectiveness of nutrition in these patients.

  7. 13/2 ways to count curves

    CERN Document Server

    Pandharipande, R

    2011-01-01

    In the past 20 years, compactifications of the families of curves in algebraic varieties X have been studied via stable maps, Hilbert schemes, stable pairs, unramified maps, and stable quotients. Each path leads to a different enumeration of curves. A common thread is the use of a 2-term deformation/obstruction theory to define a virtual fundamental class. The richest geometry occurs when X is a nonsingular projective variety of dimension 3. We survey here the 13/2 principal ways to count curves with special attention to the 3-fold case. The different theories are linked by a web of conjectural relationships which we highlight. Our goal is to provide a guide for graduate students looking for an elementary route into the subject.

  8. Application Guide to Neutron Multiplicity Counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. G. Langner; J. E. Stewart; M. M. Pickrell; M. S. Krick; N. Ensslin; W. C. Harker

    1998-11-01

    This document is intended to serve as a comprehensive applications guide to passive neutron multiplicity counting, a new nondestructive assay (NDA) technique developed over the past ten years. The document describes the principles of multiplicity counter design, electronics, and mathematics. Existing counters in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are surveyed, and their operating requirements and procedures and defined. Current applications to plutonium material types found in DOE facilities are described, and estimates of the expected assay precision and bias are given. Lastly, guidelines for multiplicity counter selection and procurement are summarized. The document also includes a detailed collection of references on passive neutron coincidence and multiplicity publications over the last ten to fifteen years.

  9. Metal ion levels and lymphocyte counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Ø; Varmarken, Jens-Erik; Ovesen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    . RESULTS: The T-lymphocyte counts for both implant types declined over the 2-year period. This decline was statistically significant for CD3(+)CD8(+) in the THA group, with a regression coefficient of -0.04 × 10(9)cells/year (95% CI: -0.08 to -0.01). Regression analysis indicated a depressive effect...... of cobalt ions in particular on T-cells with 2-year whole-blood cobalt regression coefficients for CD3+ of -0.10 (95% CI: -0.16 to -0.04) × 10(9) cells/parts per billion (ppb), for CD3+CD4+ of -0.06 (-0.09 to -0.03) × 10(9) cells/ppb, and for CD3(+)CD8(+) of -0.02 (-0.03 to -0.00) × 10(9) cells/ppb...

  10. Number Counts and Non-Gaussianity

    CERN Document Server

    Shandera, Sarah; Scott, Pat; Galarza, Jhon Yana

    2013-01-01

    We describe a general procedure for using number counts of any object to constrain the probability distribution of the primordial fluctuations, allowing for generic weak non-Gaussianity. We apply this procedure to use limits on the abundance of primordial black holes and dark matter ultracompact minihalos (UCMHs) to characterize the allowed statistics of primordial fluctuations on very small scales. We present constraints on the power spectrum and the amplitude of the skewness for two different families of non-Gaussian distributions, distinguished by the relative importance of higher moments. Although primordial black holes probe the smallest scales, ultracompact minihalos provide significantly stronger constraints on the power spectrum and so are more likely to eventually provide small-scale constraints on non-Gaussianity.

  11. Photon counting techniques with silicon avalanche photodiodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautet, H; Deschamps, P; Dion, B; Macgregor, A D; Macsween, D; McIntyre, R J; Trottier, C; Webb, P P

    1993-07-20

    The properties of avalanche photodiodes and associated electronics required for photon counting in the Geiger and the sub-Geiger modes are reviewed. When the Geiger mode is used, there are significant improvements reported in overall photon detection efficiencies (approaching 70% at 633 nm), and a timing jitter (under 200 ps) is achieved with passive quenching at high overvoltages (20-30 V). The results obtained by using an active-mode fast quench circuit capable of switching overvoltages as high as 15 V (giving photon detection efficiencies in the 50% range) with a dead time of less than 50 ns are reported. Larger diodes (up to 1 mm in diameter) that are usable in the Geiger mode and that have quantum efficiencies over 80% in the 500-800-nm range are also reported.

  12. Optimal Planar Orthogonal Skyline Counting Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2014-01-01

    The skyline of a set of points in the plane is the subset of maximal points, where a point (x,y) is maximal if no other point (x',y') satisfies x'≥ x and y'≥ x. We consider the problem of preprocessing a set P of n points into a space efficient static data structure supporting orthogonal skyline...... counting queries, i.e. given a query rectangle R to report the size of the skyline of P\\cap R. We present a data structure for storing n points with integer coordinates having query time O(lg n/lglg n) and space usage O(n). The model of computation is a unit cost RAM with logarithmic word size. We prove...

  13. Instanton Counting Through Non-abelian Localization

    CERN Document Server

    Martens, J

    2005-01-01

    In this dissertation we study the problem of calculating equivariant volumes of moduli-spaces of framed instantons. The motivation for this is given by instanton counting, a recent development in theoretical physics that gives a direct approach to the non-perturbative study of certain super-symmetric quantum field theories. We develop a strategy for calculating the integrals using a combination of several techniques in symplectic geometry and equivariant cohomology. Most importantly we use an equivariant version of non-abelian localization, applied to the ADHM-construction of the moduli-spaces. Furthermore, we reduce the problem to a compact setting by means of varying compactifications using symplectic cuts, recovering the original integral over a non-compact space as the limit of integrals over compact spaces. In contrast with previous applications, in our case the contribution at infinity introduced by these compactifications turns out to be of primordial importance. We illustrate this method by explicitly...

  14. Counting surfaces CRM Aisenstadt chair lectures

    CERN Document Server

    Eynard, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    The problem of enumerating maps (a map is a set of polygonal "countries" on a world of a certain topology, not necessarily the plane or the sphere) is an important problem in mathematics and physics, and it has many applications ranging from statistical physics, geometry, particle physics, telecommunications, biology, ... etc. This problem has been studied by many communities of researchers, mostly combinatorists, probabilists, and physicists. Since 1978, physicists have invented a method called "matrix models" to address that problem, and many results have been obtained. Besides, another important problem in mathematics and physics (in particular string theory), is to count Riemann surfaces. Riemann surfaces of a given topology are parametrized by a finite number of real parameters (called moduli), and the moduli space is a finite dimensional compact manifold or orbifold of complicated topology. The number of Riemann surfaces is the volume of that moduli space. More generally, an important problem in algeb...

  15. Counting Closed String States in a Box

    CERN Document Server

    Meana, M L; Peñalba, J P; Meana, Marco Laucelli; Peñalba, Jesús Puente

    1997-01-01

    The computation of the microcanonical density of states for a string gas in a finite volume needs a one by one count because of the discrete nature of the spectrum. We present a way to do it using geometrical arguments in phase space. We take advantage of this result in order to obtain the thermodynamical magnitudes of the system. We show that the results for an open universe exactly coincide with the infinite volume limit of the expression obtained for the gas in a box. For any finite volume the Hagedorn temperature is a maximum one, and the specific heat is always positive. We also present a definition of pressure compatible with R-duality seen as an exact symmetry, which allows us to make a study on the physical phase space of the system. Besides a maximum temperature the gas presents an asymptotic pressure.

  16. Combining cluster number counts and galaxy clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Lacasa, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed modelling of the joint covariance matrix between cluster number counts and the galaxy angular power spectrum. To this end, we use a Halo Model framework complemented by a Halo Occupation Distribution model (HOD), and we work in full-sky. We demonstrate the importance of accounting for non-Gaussianity to produce accurate covariance predictions, as the Gaussian part of the covariance can in fact become subdominant in certain configurations. We discuss in particular the case of the super-sample covariance (SSC), including the effects of galaxy shot-noise, halo second order bias and non-local bias, and demonstrating interesting mathematical properties. Using the joint covariance matrix and a Fisher matrix methodology, we examine the prospects of combining these two probes to constrain cosmological and HOD parameters. We find that the combination indeed results in noticeable better constraints, in particular because the cross-covariance introduces a synergy between the probes on small scales....

  17. Calibrating photon counts from a single image

    CERN Document Server

    Heintzmann, Rainer; Nieuwenhuizen, Robert P J; Lidke, Keith A; Rieger, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Most image capturing devices do not directly report the number of detected photons, but a value proportional to the photoelectron charge produced in a photomultiplier tube or collected in a camera pixel. In order to establish the photon count, the gain of the device must be measured, typically by recording tens of calibration images and exploiting the linear relationship between mean intensity and its variance [vanVliet1998]. Here we propose and evaluate a method that obtains the gain from a single acquired image by quantifying out-of-band information. As noise is not limited to the cut-off frequency of the optical transfer function (OTF), estimation of the out-of-band energy relative to the total energy enables computation of the gain. We show on simulation and experimental data that this much simpler procedure, which can be retroactively applied to any image, is comparable in precision to traditional gain calibration procedures.

  18. Neutron triples counting data for uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croft, Stephen, E-mail: crofts@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); LaFleur, Adrienne M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos , NM 87545 (United States); McElroy, Robert D. [Oak Ridge National laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos , NM 87545 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Correlated neutron counting using multiplicity shift register logic extracts the first three factorial moments from the detected neutron pulse train. The descriptive properties of the measurement item (mass, the ratio of (α,n) to spontaneous fission neutron production, and leakage self-multiplication) are related to the observed singles (S), doubles (D) and triples (T) rates, and this is the basis of the widely used multiplicity counting assay method. The factorial moments required to interpret and invert the measurement data in the framework of the point kinetics model may be calculated from the spontaneous fission prompt neutron multiplicity distribution P(ν). In the case of {sup 238}U very few measurements of P(ν) are available and the derived values, especially for the higher factorial moments, are not known with high accuracy. In this work, we report the measurement of the triples rate per gram of {sup 238}U based on the analysis of a set of measurements in which a collection of 10 cylinders of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}, each containing about 230 g of compound, were measured individually and in groups. Special care was taken to understand and compensate the recorded multiplicity histograms for the effect of random cosmic-ray induced background neutrons, which, because they also come in bursts and mimic fissions but with a different and harder multiplicity distribution. We compare our fully corrected (deadtime, background, efficiency, multiplication) experimental results with first principles expectations based on evaluated nuclear data. Based on our results we suspect that the current evaluated nuclear data is biased, which points to a need to undertake new basic measurements of the {sup 238}U prompt neutron multiplicity distribution.

  19. Counting OCR errors in typeset text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Jonathan S.

    1995-03-01

    Frequently object recognition accuracy is a key component in the performance analysis of pattern matching systems. In the past three years, the results of numerous excellent and rigorous studies of OCR system typeset-character accuracy (henceforth OCR accuracy) have been published, encouraging performance comparisons between a variety of OCR products and technologies. These published figures are important; OCR vendor advertisements in the popular trade magazines lead readers to believe that published OCR accuracy figures effect market share in the lucrative OCR market. Curiously, a detailed review of many of these OCR error occurrence counting results reveals that they are not reproducible as published and they are not strictly comparable due to larger variances in the counts than would be expected by the sampling variance. Naturally, since OCR accuracy is based on a ratio of the number of OCR errors over the size of the text searched for errors, imprecise OCR error accounting leads to similar imprecision in OCR accuracy. Some published papers use informal, non-automatic, or intuitively correct OCR error accounting. Still other published results present OCR error accounting methods based on string matching algorithms such as dynamic programming using Levenshtein (edit) distance but omit critical implementation details (such as the existence of suspect markers in the OCR generated output or the weights used in the dynamic programming minimization procedure). The problem with not specifically revealing the accounting method is that the number of errors found by different methods are significantly different. This paper identifies the basic accounting methods used to measure OCR errors in typeset text and offers an evaluation and comparison of the various accounting methods.

  20. Trapping cells in paper for white blood cell count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Bai, Jianhao; Wu, Hong; Ying, Jackie Y

    2015-07-15

    White blood cell count is an important indicator of each individual's health condition. An abnormal white blood cell count usually results from an infection, cancer, or other conditions that trigger systemic inflammation responses. White blood cell count also provides predictive information on the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes. Therefore, monitoring white blood cell count on a regular basis can potentially help individuals to take preventive measures and improve healthcare outcomes. Currently, white blood cell count is primarily conducted in centralized laboratories, and it requires specialized equipment and dedicated personnel to perform the test and interpret the results. So far there has been no rapid test that allows white blood cell count in low-resource settings. In this study, we have demonstrated a vertical flow platform that quantifies white blood cells by trapping them in the paper. White blood cells were tagged with gold nanoparticles, and flowed through the paper via a small orifice. The white blood cell count was determined by measuring the colorimetric intensity of gold nanoparticles on the surface of white blood cells that were trapped in the paper mesh. Using this platform, we were able to quantify white blood cells in 15 μL of blood, and visually differentiate the abnormal count of white blood cells from the normal count. The proposed platform enabled rapid white blood cell count in low resource settings with a small sample volume requirement. Its low-cost, instrument-free operations would be attractive for point-of-care applications.

  1. Improved aerobic colony count technique for hydrophobic grid membrane filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrington, L J; Sharpe, A N; Peterkin, P I

    1993-09-01

    The AOAC International official action procedure for performing aerobic colony counts on hydrophobic grid membrane filters (HGMFs) uses Trypticase soy-fast green FCF agar (FGA) incubated for 48 h. Microbial growths are various shades of green on a pale green background, which can cause problems for automated as well as manual counting. HGMFs which had been incubated 24 or 48 h at 35 degrees C on Trypticase soy agar were flooded underneath with 1 to 2 ml of 0.1% triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) solution by simply lifting one corner of the filter while it was still on the agar and adding the reagent. Microbial growths on HGMFs were counted after color had been allowed to develop for 15 min at room temperature. With representative foods, virtually all colonies stained pink to red. Automated electronic counts made by using the MI-100 HGMF Interpreter were easier and more reliable than control HGMF counts made by the AOAC International official action procedure. Manual counting was easier as well because of increased visibility of the microbial growths. Except in the case of dairy products, 24-h TTC counts did not differ significantly from 48-h FGA counts, whereas the FGA counts at 24 h were always significantly lower, indicating that for many food products the HGMF TTC flooding method permits aerobic colony counts to be made after 24 h.

  2. The relationship between total lymphocyte count and CD4 count in patients infected with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokarami F

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: CD4 T-Lymphocyte counts have proven to be a standard laboratory marker of disease progression and severity of immunodeficiency in adults infected with HIV is used to initiate and monitor highly active antiretroviral therapy; however, its application may not be feasible for its expensive equipments and reagent in resource-limited setting. There is a need to have another marker of immunodeficiency that is less resource-demanding. In April 2002, the World Health Organization (WHO recommended that, when CD4 cell count is not available, a TLC of 1200cell/mm3 or less in individuals with stage 2 or 3 of the disease may be used as an indication to initiate ART."n"nMethods: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between total lymphocyte count and CD4 count in HIV-infected adults. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study. Subject characteristics were patients who had positive serologic HIV test results, confirmed via western blot. Analysis unit was the results of CBC and CD4 measurements on the same blood sample each time. Data of 100 patients were collected. In this study, TLC accounts for the main predictor of CD4 count. The amounts of TLC which can predict CD4 less than 200cell/mm3 were

  3. The lost castle of Count Rodrigo Gonzalez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehrlich, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests that a castle called Toron built in 1137 by Count Rodrigo of Lara, and granted to the Templar Order was in Summil, where remains of a Crusader castles are still visible (ca. 25 km from Ascalon, in south west Israel. This opinion opposes a consensual view that the castle built by Count Rodrigo was in Latrun, midway between Tel-Aviv and Jerusalem. This identifi cation is based on names’ similarity and on the universal opinion that Latrun was a Templar castle. In this article it is demonstrated that the geographic setting of Summil fi ts the Count’s castle, whereas Latrun does not; that Toron was a common name in the Crusader Kingdom; and, moreover, it is not certain that Latrun was a Templar castle. The article also suggest that there was a village near the castle, called Casale Sancti Salvatoris, and also discusses Frankish fortifi cation and settlement policy during the twelfth century.Este artículo sugiere que un castillo llamado Toron, construido el año 1137 por el conde Rodrigo González de Lara, y que fue luego otorgado a la orden del Temple, estaba en Summil, donde todavía permanecen las ruinas de un castillo de los cruzados (a unos 25 km de Ascalon, en el sudoeste de Israel. Esta opinión se contrapone a la tesis general que sostiene que el castillo construido por el conde estuvo situado en Latrun, a medio camino entre Tel-Aviv y Jerusalén. Una identificación basada en la similitud de nombres y en la común opinión que Latrun era un castillo templario. En este estudio se demuestra que la ubicación geográfica de Summil encaja con la del castillo del conde, mientras que Latrun no lo hace; que Toron fue un nombre habitual en el reino cruzado y que, por otra parte, no es cierto que Latrun fuera un castillo templario. Se sugiere también que cerca del castillo de Summil existía un pueblo llamado casale Sancti Salvatoris, analizándose asimismo la política de fortificación y colonización llevada a cabo por

  4. Cascaded systems analysis of photon counting detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J.; Zbijewski, W.; Gang, G.; Stayman, J. W. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States); Taguchi, K.; Carrino, J. A. [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States); Lundqvist, M.; Fredenberg, E. [Philips Healthcare, Solna 171 41 (Sweden); Siewerdsen, J. H., E-mail: jeff.siewerdsen@jhu.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States); Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: Photon counting detectors (PCDs) are an emerging technology with applications in spectral and low-dose radiographic and tomographic imaging. This paper develops an analytical model of PCD imaging performance, including the system gain, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise-power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Methods: A cascaded systems analysis model describing the propagation of quanta through the imaging chain was developed. The model was validated in comparison to the physical performance of a silicon-strip PCD implemented on an experimental imaging bench. The signal response, MTF, and NPS were measured and compared to theory as a function of exposure conditions (70 kVp, 1–7 mA), detector threshold, and readout mode (i.e., the option for coincidence detection). The model sheds new light on the dependence of spatial resolution, charge sharing, and additive noise effects on threshold selection and was used to investigate the factors governing PCD performance, including the fundamental advantages and limitations of PCDs in comparison to energy-integrating detectors (EIDs) in the linear regime for which pulse pileup can be ignored. Results: The detector exhibited highly linear mean signal response across the system operating range and agreed well with theoretical prediction, as did the system MTF and NPS. The DQE analyzed as a function of kilovolt (peak), exposure, detector threshold, and readout mode revealed important considerations for system optimization. The model also demonstrated the important implications of false counts from both additive electronic noise and charge sharing and highlighted the system design and operational parameters that most affect detector performance in the presence of such factors: for example, increasing the detector threshold from 0 to 100 (arbitrary units of pulse height threshold roughly equivalent to 0.5 and 6 keV energy threshold, respectively), increased the f{sub 50} (spatial

  5. Study on advancement of in vivo counting using mathematical simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Kinase, S

    2003-01-01

    To obtain an assessment of the committed effective dose, individual monitoring for the estimation of intakes of radionuclides is required. For individual monitoring of exposure to intakes of radionuclides, direct measurement of radionuclides in the body - in vivo counting- is very useful. To advance in a precision in vivo counting which fulfills the requirements of ICRP 1990 recommendations, some problems, such as the investigation of uncertainties in estimates of body burdens by in vivo counting, and the selection of the way to improve the precision, have been studied. In the present study, a calibration technique for in vivo counting application using Monte Carlo simulation was developed. The advantage of the technique is that counting efficiency can be obtained for various shapes and sizes that are very difficult to change for phantoms. To validate the calibration technique, the response functions and counting efficiencies of a whole-body counter installed in JAERI were evaluated using the simulation and m...

  6. Analysis of general power counting rules in effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavela, Belen; Merlo, Luca [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Fisica Teorica, IFT-UAM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Jenkins, Elizabeth E.; Manohar, Aneesh V. [University of California at San Diego, Department of Physics, La Jolla, CA (United States); CERN TH Division, Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-09-15

    We derive the general counting rules for a quantum effective field theory (EFT) in d dimensions. The rules are valid for strongly and weakly coupled theories, and they predict that all kinetic energy terms are canonically normalized. They determine the energy dependence of scattering cross sections in the range of validity of the EFT expansion. We show that the size of the cross sections is controlled by the Λ power counting of EFT, not by chiral counting, even for chiral perturbation theory (χPT). The relation between Λ and f is generalized to d dimensions. We show that the naive dimensional analysis 4π counting is related to ℎ counting. The EFT counting rules are applied to χPT, low-energy weak interactions, Standard Model EFT and the non-trivial case of Higgs EFT. (orig.)

  7. Counting colorings of a regular graph

    CERN Document Server

    Galvin, David

    2012-01-01

    At most how many (proper) q-colorings does a regular graph admit? Galvin and Tetali conjectured that among all n-vertex, d-regular graphs with 2d|n, none admits more q-colorings than the disjoint union of n/2d copies of the complete bipartite graph K_{d,d}. In this note we give asymptotic evidence for this conjecture, giving an upper bound on the number of proper q-colorings admitted by an n-vertex, d-regular graph of the form a^n b^{n(1+o(1))/d} (where a and b depend on q and where o(1) goes to 0 as d goes to infinity) that agrees up to the o(1) term with the count of q-colorings of n/2d copies of K_{d,d}. An auxiliary result is an upper bound on the number of colorings of a regular graph in terms of its independence number. For example, we show that for all even q and fixed \\epsilon > 0 there is \\delta=\\delta(\\epsilon,q) such that the number of proper q-colorings admitted by an n-vertex, d-regular graph with no independent set of size n(1-\\epsilon)/2 is at most (a-\\delta)^n.

  8. Status Report on the Instanton Counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Shadchin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-perturbative behavior of the N = 2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories is both highly non-trivial and tractable. In the last three years the valuable progress was achieved in the instanton counting, the direct evaluation of the low-energy effective Wilsonian action of the theory. The localization technique together with the Lorentz deformation of the action provides an elegant way to reduce functional integrals, representing the effective action, to some finite dimensional contour integrals. These integrals, in their turn, can be converted into some difference equations which define the Seiberg-Witten curves, the main ingredient of another approach to the non-perturbative computations in the N = 2 super Yang-Mills theories. Almost all models with classical gauge groups, allowed by the asymptotic freedom condition can be treated in such a way. In my talk I explain the localization approach to the problem, its relation to the Seiberg-Witten approach and finally I give a review of some interesting results.

  9. Photon counting arrays for AO wavefront sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Vallerga, J; McPhate, J; Mikulec, Bettina; Clark, Allan G; Siegmund, O; CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    Future wavefront sensors for AO on large telescopes will require a large number of pixels and must operate at high frame rates. Unfortunately for CCDs, there is a readout noise penalty for operating faster, and this noise can add up rather quickly when considering the number of pixels required for the extended shape of a sodium laser guide star observed with a large telescope. Imaging photon counting detectors have zero readout noise and many pixels, but have suffered in the past with low QE at the longer wavelengths (>500 nm). Recent developments in GaAs photocathode technology, CMOS ASIC readouts and FPGA processing electronics have resulted in noiseless WFS detector designs that are competitive with silicon array detectors, though at ~40% the QE of CCDs. We review noiseless array detectors and compare their centroiding performance with CCDs using the best available characteristics of each. We show that for sub-aperture binning of 6x6 and greater that noiseless detectors have a smaller centroid error at flu...

  10. Nuclear chemistry counting facilities: requirements definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, D.W.; Baker, J.

    1979-04-05

    In an effort to upgrade outdated instrumentation and to take advantage of current and imminent technologies the Nuclear Chemistry Division at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory is about to undertake a major upgrade of their low level radiation counting and analysis facilities. It is expected that such a project will make a more coordinated data acquisition and data processing system, reduce manual data handling operations and speed up data processing throughput. Before taking on a systems design it is appropriate to establish a definition of the requirements of the facilities. This report examines why such a project is necessary in the context of the current and projected operations, needs, problems, risks and costs. The authors also address a functional specification as a prelude to a system design and the design constraints implicit in the systems implementation. Technical, operational and economic assessments establish necessary boundary conditions for this discussion. This report also establishes the environment in which the requirements definition may be considered valid. The validity of these analyses is contingent on known and projected technical, scientific and political conditions.

  11. Ether, Luminosity and Galactic Source Counts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    1998-01-01

    An interpretation of the cosmological redshift in terms of a cosmic ether is given. We study a Robertson-Walker cosmology in which the ether is phenomenologically defined by a homogeneous and isotropic permeability tensor. The speed of light becomes so a function of cosmic time like in a dielectric medium. However, the cosmic ether is dispersion free, it does not lead to a broadening of spectral lines. Locally, in Euclidean frames, the scale factors of the permeability tensor get absorbed in the fundamental constants. Mass and charge scale with cosmic time, and so do atomic energy levels. This substantially changes the interpretation of the cosmological redshift as a Doppler shift. Photon frequencies are independent of the expansion factor; their time scaling is determined by the permeability tensor. The impact of the ether on the luminosity-distance, on the distance-redshift relation, and on galactic number counts is discussed. The Hubble constant is related to the scale factors of the metric and the permeab...

  12. Counting Coloured Planar Maps: Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Olivier; Bousquet-Mélou, Mireille

    2017-08-01

    We address the enumeration of q-coloured planar maps counted by the number of edges and the number of monochromatic edges. We prove that the associated generating function is differentially algebraic, that is, satisfies a non-trivial polynomial differential equation with respect to the edge variable. We give explicitly a differential system that characterizes this series. We then prove a similar result for planar triangulations, thus generalizing a result of Tutte dealing with their proper q-colourings. In statistical physics terms, we solve the q-state Potts model on random planar lattices. This work follows a first paper by the same authors, where the generating function was proved to be algebraic for certain values of q, including {q=1, 2} and 3. It is known to be transcendental in general. In contrast, our differential system holds for an indeterminate q. For certain special cases of combinatorial interest (four colours; proper q-colourings; maps equipped with a spanning forest), we derive from this system, in the case of triangulations, an explicit differential equation of order 2 defining the generating function. For general planar maps, we also obtain a differential equation of order 3 for the four-colour case and for the self-dual Potts model.

  13. Relationship between leukocyte count and angiographical characteristics of coronary atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    En-zhi JIA; Zhi-jian YANG; Biao YUAN; Xiao-ling ZANG; Rong-hu WANG; Tie-bing ZHU; Lian-sheng WANG; Bo CHEN; Wen-zhu MA

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To explore the relationship between differential leucocyte count and coronary atherosclerosis. Methods: The study population consisted of 507 consecutive patients (376 male and 131 female) who underwent coronary angiography for suspected or known coronary atherosclerosis. The patients' smoking and drinking habits were investigated, and anthropometric measurements, serum measurements, and hematological measurements were conducted for every patient.The severity of coronary atherosclerosis was defined by using Gensini' s score system. One-way ANOVA, Spearman's correlation analysis, and multivariate stepwise linear regression analysis were employed to explore the relationship between differential leucocyte count and coronary atherosclerosis. Results: Oneway ANOVA indicated that the diastolic blood pressure, glucose, urea, creatinine,leukocyte count, neutrophil count, monocyte count, hemoglobin, and platelet count differed among the groups according to Gensini's score, the tertile values of which were used as cutoff points. Spearman's correlation analysis suggested that Gensini's score was significantly correlated with age, diastolic blood pressure,glucose, urea, creatinine, leukocyte count, neutrophil count, monocyte count,hemoglobin, and erythrocyte count, respectively. Multivariate stepwise linear regression analysis show that neutrophil count (β=0.247, P=0.000), age (β=0.141,P=0.001), glucose (β=0.173, P=0.000), creatinine (β=0.088, P=0.063), hemoglobin (β=-0.168, P=0.013) and sex (men were coded as 1 and women were coded as 2;β=-0.121, P=0.012) were significantly independently associated with the Gensini's score. Conclusion: The independent association of neutrophil count with the angiographical characteristics of coronary atherosclerosis, as estimated by Gensini's score, strongly suggests that granulocytosis may play a role in the development of coronary atherosclerosis.

  14. Counting Statistics and Ion Interval Density in AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, J S; Ognibene, T; Palmblad, M; Reimer, P

    2004-08-03

    Confidence in the precisions of AMS and decay measurements must be comparable for the application of the {sup 14}C calibration to age determinations using both technologies. We confirmed the random nature of the temporal distribution of {sup 14}C ions in an AMS spectrometer for a number of sample counting rates and properties of the sputtering process. The temporal distribution of ion counts was also measured to confirm the applicability of traditional counting statistics.

  15. Generalized quantum counting algorithm for non-uniform amplitude distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jianing; Ruan, Yue; Li, Xi; Chen, Hanwu

    2017-03-01

    We give generalized quantum counting algorithm to increase universality of quantum counting algorithm. Non-uniform initial amplitude distribution is possible due to the diversity of situations on counting problems or external noise in the amplitude initialization procedure. We give the reason why quantum counting algorithm is invalid on this situation. By modeling in three-dimensional space spanned by unmarked state, marked state and free state to the entire Hilbert space of n qubits, we find Grover iteration can be regarded as improper rotation in the space. This allows us to give formula to solve counting problem. Furthermore, we express initial amplitude distribution in the eigenvector basis of improper rotation matrix. This is necessary to obtain mathematical analysis of counting problem on various situations. Finally, we design four simulation experiments, the results of which show that compared with original quantum counting algorithm, generalized quantum counting algorithm wins great satisfaction from three aspects: (1) Whether initial amplitude distribution is uniform; (2) the diversity of situations on counting problems; and (3) whether phase estimation technique can get phase exactly.

  16. Absolute regularity and ergodicity of Poisson count processes

    CERN Document Server

    Neumann, Michael H

    2012-01-01

    We consider a class of observation-driven Poisson count processes where the current value of the accompanying intensity process depends on previous values of both processes. We show under a contractive condition that the bivariate process has a unique stationary distribution and that a stationary version of the count process is absolutely regular. Moreover, since the intensities can be written as measurable functionals of the count variables, we conclude that the bivariate process is ergodic. As an important application of these results, we show how a test method previously used in the case of independent Poisson data can be used in the case of Poisson count processes.

  17. Particle number counting statistics in ideal Bose gases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christoph Weiss; Martin Wilkens

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the exact particle number counting statistics of degenerate ideal Bose gases in the microcanonical, canonical, and grand-canonical ensemble, respectively, for various trapping potentials...

  18. Photon counting modules using RCA silicon avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightstone, Alexander W.; Macgregor, Andrew D.; Macsween, Darlene E.; Mcintyre, Robert J.; Trottier, Claude; Webb, Paul P.

    1989-01-01

    Avalanche photodiodes (APD) are excellent small area, solid state detectors for photon counting. Performance possibilities include: photon detection efficiency in excess of 50 percent; wavelength response from 400 to 1000 nm; count rate to 10 (exp 7) counts per sec; afterpulsing at negligible levels; timing resolution better than 1 ns. Unfortunately, these performance levels are not simultaneously available in a single detector amplifier configuration. By considering theoretical performance predictions and previous and new measurements of APD performance, the anticipated performance of a range of proposed APD-based photon counting modules is derived.

  19. ADAPTIVE COUNTING RULE FOR COOPERATIVE SPECTRUM SENSING UNDER CORRELATED ENVIRONMENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno; Marchetti, Nicola; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2010-01-01

    Spectrum sensing is the Cognitive Radio mechanism that enables spectrum awareness. Spectrum sensing detection performance can be greatly improved, through the use of cooperative sensing schemes. This paper considers and proposes a cooperative spectrum sensing scheme, which implements an adaptive...... counting rule to perform the data fusion. The proposed scheme is evaluated against other common counting rules (e.g. 1-out-of-n and n-out-of-n) and the optimum counting rule, under different correlation conditions. The impact of correlation on the performance of the data fusion schemes, based on counting...

  20. Men of physics Count Rumford on the nature of heat

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Sanborn C

    2013-01-01

    Men of Physics: Benjamin Thompson—Count Rumford: Count Rumford on the Nature of Heat presents the life and works of Count Rumford, an American-born British physicist and inventor. This book is divided in two parts. The first part gives a biographical sketch of Count Rumford, Benjamin Thompson, who was born on March 23, 1753 and died in 1814. This part also discusses the contemporary caloric theory and the reason why Rumford disbelieved the theory. The second part presents his technical works, discoveries, and contributions in the field of physics. Some of which are his demonstration of the e

  1. Counting independent sets using the Bethe approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chandrasekaran, V [MIT; Gamarmik, D [MIT; Shah, D [MIT; Sin, J [MIT

    2009-01-01

    The authors consider the problem of counting the number of independent sets or the partition function of a hard-core model in a graph. The problem in general is computationally hard (P hard). They study the quality of the approximation provided by the Bethe free energy. Belief propagation (BP) is a message-passing algorithm can be used to compute fixed points of the Bethe approximation; however, BP is not always guarantee to converge. As the first result, they propose a simple message-passing algorithm that converges to a BP fixed pont for any grapy. They find that their algorithm converges within a multiplicative error 1 + {var_epsilon} of a fixed point in {Omicron}(n{sup 2}E{sup -4} log{sup 3}(nE{sup -1})) iterations for any bounded degree graph of n nodes. In a nutshell, the algorithm can be thought of as a modification of BP with 'time-varying' message-passing. Next, they analyze the resulting error to the number of independent sets provided by such a fixed point of the Bethe approximation. Using the recently developed loop calculus approach by Vhertkov and Chernyak, they establish that for any bounded graph with large enough girth, the error is {Omicron}(n{sup -{gamma}}) for some {gamma} > 0. As an application, they find that for random 3-regular graph, Bethe approximation of log-partition function (log of the number of independent sets) is within o(1) of corret log-partition - this is quite surprising as previous physics-based predictions were expecting an error of o(n). In sum, their results provide a systematic way to find Bethe fixed points for any graph quickly and allow for estimating error in Bethe approximation using novel combinatorial techniques.

  2. Combining cluster number counts and galaxy clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasa, Fabien; Rosenfeld, Rogerio

    2016-08-01

    The abundance of clusters and the clustering of galaxies are two of the important cosmological probes for current and future large scale surveys of galaxies, such as the Dark Energy Survey. In order to combine them one has to account for the fact that they are not independent quantities, since they probe the same density field. It is important to develop a good understanding of their correlation in order to extract parameter constraints. We present a detailed modelling of the joint covariance matrix between cluster number counts and the galaxy angular power spectrum. We employ the framework of the halo model complemented by a Halo Occupation Distribution model (HOD). We demonstrate the importance of accounting for non-Gaussianity to produce accurate covariance predictions. Indeed, we show that the non-Gaussian covariance becomes dominant at small scales, low redshifts or high cluster masses. We discuss in particular the case of the super-sample covariance (SSC), including the effects of galaxy shot-noise, halo second order bias and non-local bias. We demonstrate that the SSC obeys mathematical inequalities and positivity. Using the joint covariance matrix and a Fisher matrix methodology, we examine the prospects of combining these two probes to constrain cosmological and HOD parameters. We find that the combination indeed results in noticeably better constraints, with improvements of order 20% on cosmological parameters compared to the best single probe, and even greater improvement on HOD parameters, with reduction of error bars by a factor 1.4-4.8. This happens in particular because the cross-covariance introduces a synergy between the probes on small scales. We conclude that accounting for non-Gaussian effects is required for the joint analysis of these observables in galaxy surveys.

  3. The Quanta Image Sensor: Every Photon Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R. Fossum

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Quanta Image Sensor (QIS was conceived when contemplating shrinking pixel sizes and storage capacities, and the steady increase in digital processing power. In the single-bit QIS, the output of each field is a binary bit plane, where each bit represents the presence or absence of at least one photoelectron in a photodetector. A series of bit planes is generated through high-speed readout, and a kernel or “cubicle” of bits (x, y, t is used to create a single output image pixel. The size of the cubicle can be adjusted post-acquisition to optimize image quality. The specialized sub-diffraction-limit photodetectors in the QIS are referred to as “jots” and a QIS may have a gigajot or more, read out at 1000 fps, for a data rate exceeding 1 Tb/s. Basically, we are trying to count photons as they arrive at the sensor. This paper reviews the QIS concept and its imaging characteristics. Recent progress towards realizing the QIS for commercial and scientific purposes is discussed. This includes implementation of a pump-gate jot device in a 65 nm CIS BSI process yielding read noise as low as 0.22 e− r.m.s. and conversion gain as high as 420 µV/e−, power efficient readout electronics, currently as low as 0.4 pJ/b in the same process, creating high dynamic range images from jot data, and understanding the imaging characteristics of single-bit and multi-bit QIS devices. The QIS represents a possible major paradigm shift in image capture.

  4. Effect of a biological activated carbon filter on particle counts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-hua WU; Bing-zhi DONG; Tie-jun QIAO; Jin-song ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Due to the importance of biological safety in drinking water quality and the disadvantages which exist in traditional methods of detecting typical microorganisms such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia,it is necessary to develop an alternative.Particle counts is a qualitative measurement of the amount of dissolved solids in water.The removal rate of particle counts was previously used as an indicator of the effectiveness of a biological activated carbon(BAC)filter in removing Cryptosporidium and Giardia.The particle counts in a BAC filter effluent over one operational period and the effects of BAC filter construction and operational parameters were investigated with a 10 m3/h pilot plant.The results indicated that the maximum particle count in backwash remnant water was as high as 1296 count/ml and it needed about 1.5 h to reduce from the maximum to less than 50 count/ml.During the standard filtration period,particle counts stay constant at less than 50 count/ml for 5 d except when influ-enced by sand filter backwash remnant water.The removal rates of particle counts in the BAC filter are related to characteristics of the carbon.For example,a columned carbon and a sand bed removed 33.3% and 8.5% of particles,respectively,while the particle counts in effluent from a cracked BAC filter was higher than that of the influent.There is no significant difference among particle removal rates with different filtration rates.High post-ozone dosage(>2 mg/L)plays an important role in particle count removal;when the dosage was 3 mg/L,the removal rates by carbon layers and sand beds decreased by 17.5% and increased by 9.5%,respectively,compared with a 2 mg/L dosage.

  5. M1 AFLATOXIN, TOTAL BACTERIAL COUNT AND SOMATIC CELL COUNT IN ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Trevisani

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Comparative quality evaluation of organic and conventional milk produced in similar environmental condition was performed. Bulk-tank milk was sampled once a week during 30 weeks from 10 organic and 10 conventional dairy farms where aflatoxin M1 level was previous tested during 11 months on bulk-tank milk from tanker at the processing plant. Somatic Cells and Total Microbial Counts did not show differences that can be related to the organic production system, suggesting an effect induced by farm size and technical factors. Higher level of Aflatoxin M1 was found in organic than conventional milk.

  6. New Jersey Kids Count 2011: The State of Our Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advocates for Children of New Jersey, 2011

    2011-01-01

    "New Jersey Kids Count 2011" again documents both advances and setbacks in key areas that affect child well-being--poverty, health, child protection, education, including early learning, and adolescent well-being. To better gauge New Jersey's progress in essential areas, a "New Jersey Kids Count Report Card" that identifies trends in 15 key…

  7. HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT (HPC) METHODOLOGY IN THE UNITED STATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT In the United States (U.S.), the history of bacterial plate counting methods used for water can be traced largely through Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (Standard Methods). The bacterial count method has evolved from the original St...

  8. Mass divergence power counting for QCD in the Feynman gauge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucci, R.

    1986-03-01

    We present a mass divergence power counting technique for QCD in the Feyman gauge. For the process ..gamma..sup(*)->qanti q, we find the leading regions of integration and show that single diagrams are at worst logarithmically divergent. Using the Weyl representation facilitates the ..gamma.. matrix manipulations necessary for power counting and adds much physical insight. (orig.).

  9. 34 CFR 200.91 - SEA counts of eligible children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false SEA counts of eligible children. 200.91 Section 200.91... Prevention and Intervention Programs for Children and Youth Who are Neglected, Delinquent, or At-Risk of Dropping Out § 200.91 SEA counts of eligible children. To receive an allocation under part D, subpart 1 of...

  10. High Reproducibility of ELISPOT Counts from Nine Different Laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundararaman, Srividya; Karulin, Alexey Y; Ansari, Tameem

    2015-01-01

    laboratories. We plated PBMC at four different concentrations, 24 replicates each, in an IFN-γ ELISPOT assay with HCMV pp65 antigen. The ELISPOT plate, and an image file of the plate was counted in nine different laboratories using ImmunoSpot® Analyzers by (A) Basic Count™ relying on subjective counting...

  11. Automated counting of white blood cells in synovial fluid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. de Jonge (Robert); R.W. Brouwer (Reinoud); M. Smit (Marij); M. de Frankrijker-Merkestijn; R.J. Dolhain; J.M.W. Hazes (Mieke); A.W. van Toorenenbergen (Albert); J. Lindemans (Jan)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of automated leucocyte (white blood cell; WBC) counting by comparison with manual counting. METHODS: The number of WBC was determined in heparinized synovial fluid samples by the use of (i) a standard urine cytometer (Kova) and a

  12. Phonics: A Large Phoneme-Grapheme Frequency Count Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Edward

    2004-01-01

    This study is a summary and simplification of a very large phoneme-grapheme frequency count done by Hanna et al. phoneme-grapheme frequency count done by Hanna et al. T(1966). Although the results and data from the original study have implications for teaching phonics and spelling, they were presented in a complicated and unwieldy manner.…

  13. Automatic counting and classification of bacterial colonies using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection and counting of bacterial colonies on agar plates is a routine microbiology practice to get a rough estimate of the number of viable cells in a sample. There have been a variety of different automatic colony counting systems and software algorithms mainly based on color or gray-scale pictu...

  14. Magnitude Representations and Counting Skills in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Sophie; Keeble, Sarah; Gilmore, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    When children learn to count, they map newly acquired symbolic representations of number onto preexisting nonsymbolic representations. The nature and timing of this mapping is currently unclear. Some researchers have suggested this mapping process helps children understand the cardinal principle of counting, while other evidence suggests that this…

  15. Galaxy Counts at 24 Microns in the SWIRE Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Shupe, David L; Lonsdale, Carol J; Masci, Frank; Evans, Tracey; Fang, Fan; Oliver, Sebastian; Vaccari, Mattia; Rodighiero, Giulia; Padgett, Deborah; Surace, Jason A; Xu, C Kevin; Berta, Stefano; Pozzi, Francesca; Franceschini, Alberto; Babbedge, Thomas; Gonzales-Solares, Eduardo; Siana, Brian D; Farrah, Duncan; Frayer, David T; Smith, H E; Polletta, Maria; Owen, Frazer; Perez-Fournon, Ismael

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents galaxy source counts at 24 microns in the six Spitzer Wide-field InfraRed Extragalactic (SWIRE) fields. The source counts are compared to counts in other fields, and to model predictions that have been updated since the launch of Spitzer. This analysis confirms a very steep rise in the Euclidean-normalized differential number counts between 2 mJy and 0.3 mJy. Variations in the counts between fields show the effects of sample variance in the flux range 0.5-10 mJy, up to 100% larger than Poisson errors. Nonetheless, a "shoulder" in the normalized counts persists at around 3 mJy. The peak of the normalized counts at 0.3 mJy is higher and narrower than most models predict. In the ELAIS N1 field, the 24 micron data are combined with Spitzer-IRAC data and five-band optical imaging, and these bandmerged data are fit with photometric redshift templates. Above 1 mJy the counts are dominated by galaxies at z less than 0.3. By 300 microJy, about 25% are between z ~ 0.3-0.8, and a significant fraction...

  16. PLATELET COUNT, ITS SIGNIFICANCE IN BURN INJURY MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanti Prakash

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Platelet count evaluation in a burn trauma patient has much significance because it has been studied in literature that decrease i n platelet count is an indicator of septicaemia in the patient and vice versa thus knowing the count level of platelets, the treatment of burn patients can be done accordingly. Septicaemia is most important cause of mortality in burn patients, the survival of the patients can only be assured if septicaemia is detected early and controlled. Platelet s play an important role in haemostaticdisorder and immune response impairment in burn patient . [1] The aim of study is to see the significance of platelet count i nvestigation in burn patient and then their outcome, whether survival or not survival. MATERIAL METHODS: We investigated 480 burn patients within the ages of 18 and 60 Years and the percentage of the burn was between 20% and 70%. Platelet count was investi gated by visual method in all patients. The investigation of the platelet count was done on day 1, 3, 7, 14 & 21 of the patients. Other parameters TLC , neutrophil count was done by visual methods. Serum creatinine estimation was also done in all patients. RESULT: In our study we found that the platelet count gradually increased towards normal count and maintained till the discharge in survival patients, and in non - survival the platelet count gradually declined. The statistical significant of difference in m ean platelet counts on different post burn days in survivors and non survivors were studied by using standard t test. It was observed that the actual difference between two means is more than double of the SED between two means in different post burn days – i . e. , (Day 1, 3, 7, 14 &, 21. So difference is significant (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that platelet count decreases initially in all cases of burn sepsis. It gradually rises to normal in case of survivors and declines gradually in non surv ivors. So serial declining

  17. Counting statistics for genetic switches based on effective interaction approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, Jun

    2012-09-01

    Applicability of counting statistics for a system with an infinite number of states is investigated. The counting statistics has been studied a lot for a system with a finite number of states. While it is possible to use the scheme in order to count specific transitions in a system with an infinite number of states in principle, we have non-closed equations in general. A simple genetic switch can be described by a master equation with an infinite number of states, and we use the counting statistics in order to count the number of transitions from inactive to active states in the gene. To avoid having the non-closed equations, an effective interaction approximation is employed. As a result, it is shown that the switching problem can be treated as a simple two-state model approximately, which immediately indicates that the switching obeys non-Poisson statistics.

  18. Estimating the Count Error in the Australian Census

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chipperfield James

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, counts of people are a key factor in the allocation of government resources. However, it is well known that errors arise in Census counting of people (e.g., undercoverage due to missing people. Therefore, it is common for national statistical agencies to conduct one or more “audit” surveys that are designed to estimate and remove systematic errors in Census counting. For example, the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS conducts a single audit sample, called the Post Enumeration Survey (PES, shortly after each Australian Population Census. This article describes the estimator used by the ABS to estimate the count of people in Australia. Key features of this estimator are that it is unbiased when there is systematic measurement error in Census counting and when nonresponse to the PES is nonignorable.

  19. An Automatic Car Counting System Using OverFeat Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Debojit; Su, Hongbo; Wang, Chengyi; Blankenship, Jason; Stevanovic, Aleksandar

    2017-06-30

    Automatic car counting is an important component in the automated traffic system. Car counting is very important to understand the traffic load and optimize the traffic signals. In this paper, we implemented the Gaussian Background Subtraction Method and OverFeat Framework to count cars. OverFeat Framework is a combination of Convolution Neural Network (CNN) and one machine learning classifier (like Support Vector Machines (SVM) or Logistic Regression). With this study, we showed another possible application area for the OverFeat Framework. The advantages and shortcomings of the Background Subtraction Method and OverFeat Framework were analyzed using six individual traffic videos with different perspectives, such as camera angles, weather conditions and time of the day. In addition, we compared the two algorithms above with manual counting and a commercial software called Placemeter. The OverFeat Framework showed significant potential in the field of car counting with the average accuracy of 96.55% in our experiment.

  20. Counting statistics for genetic switches based on effective interaction approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Ohkubo, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Applicability of counting statistics for a system with an infinite number of states is investigated. The counting statistics has been studied a lot for a system with a finite number of states. While it is possible to use the scheme in order to count specific transitions in a system with an infinite number of states in principle, we have non-closed equations in general. A simple genetic switch can be described by a master equation with an infinite number of states, and we use the counting statistics in order to count the number of transitions from inactive to active states in the gene. To avoid to have the non-closed equations, an effective interaction approximation is employed. As a result, it is shown that the switching problem can be treated as a simple two-state model approximately, which immediately indicates that the switching obeys non-Poisson statistics.

  1. Log-supermodular functions, functional clones and counting CSPs

    CERN Document Server

    Bulatov, Andrei A; Goldberg, Leslie Ann; Jerrum, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by a desire to understand the computational complexity of counting constraint satisfaction problems (counting CSPs), particularly the complexity of approximation, we study functional clones of functions on the Boolean domain, which are analogous to the familiar relational clones constituting Post's lattice. One of these clones is the collection of log-supermodular (lsm) functions, which turns out to play a significant role in classifying counting CSPs. In our study, we assume that non-negative unary functions (weights) are available. Given this, we prove that there are no functional clones lying strictly between the clone of lsm functions and the total clone (containing all functions). Thus, any counting CSP that contains a single non-lsm function is computationally as hard as any problem in #P. Furthermore, any non-trivial functional clone (in a sense that will be made precise below) contains the binary function "implies". As a consequence, all non-trivial counting CSPs (with non-negative unary wei...

  2. Preoperative elevated platelet count and thrombocytosis in gynecologic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menczer, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Platelets have multiple functions and they also play an important role in malignancies. Elevated platelet count and thrombocytosis at the time of diagnosis in patients with many solid tumors correlates with prognosis and is associated with poor survival. The aim of the following report is to review the literature concerning elevated platelet count and thrombocytosis in gynecologic malignancies. A PubMed search of all English literature peer-reviewed publications was performed containing the terms elevated platelet count or thrombocytosis and vulvar cancer, cervical cancer, endometrial cancer, and ovarian cancer. All studies published until December 31, 2015, were included in the following review. A pretreatment elevated platelet count and thrombocytosis have been shown to be associated with a poor prognosis in many studies of gynecologic malignancies with the exception of vulvar carcinoma. Since elevated platelet count and thrombocytosis may be prevented by blocking thrombopoietic cytokines, their assessment may, in the future, be of therapeutic significance.

  3. Computed neutron coincidence counting applied to passive waste assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruggeman, M.; Baeten, P.; De Boeck, W.; Carchon, R. [Nuclear Research Centre, Mol (Belgium)

    1997-11-01

    Neutron coincidence counting applied for the passive assay of fissile material is generally realised with dedicated electronic circuits. This paper presents a software based neutron coincidence counting method with data acquisition via a commercial PC-based Time Interval Analyser (TIA). The TIA is used to measure and record all time intervals between successive pulses in the pulse train up to count-rates of 2 Mpulses/s. Software modules are then used to compute the coincidence count-rates and multiplicity related data. This computed neutron coincidence counting (CNCC) offers full access to all the time information contained in the pulse train. This paper will mainly concentrate on the application and advantages of CNCC for the non-destructive assay of waste. An advanced multiplicity selective Rossi-alpha method is presented and its implementation via CNCC demonstrated. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Relationship between salivary flow rates and Candida albicans counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, M; Wood, G J; Brightman, V J

    1995-09-01

    Seventy-one persons (48 women, 23 men; mean age, 51.76 years) were evaluated for salivary flow rates and Candida albicans counts. Each person was seen on three different occasions. Samples of unstimulated whole, chewing-stimulated whole, acid-stimulated parotid, and candy-stimulated parotid saliva were collected under standardized conditions. An oral rinse was also obtained and evaluated for Candida albicans counts. Unstimulated and chewing-stimulated whole flow rates were negatively and significantly (p or = 500 count. Differences in stimulated parotid flow rates were not significant among different levels of Candida counts. The results of this study reveal that whole saliva is a better predictor than parotid saliva in identification of persons with high Candida albicans counts.

  5. High counting rate resistive-plate chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskov, V.; Anderson, D. F.; Kwan, S.

    1993-05-01

    Parallel-plate avalanche chambers (PPAC) are widely used in physics experiments because they are fast (less than 1 ns) and have very simple construction: just two parallel metallic plates or mesh electrodes. Depending on the applied voltage they may work either in spark mode or avalanche mode. The advantage of the spark mode of operation is a large signal amplitude from the chamber, the disadvantage is that there is a large dead time (msec) for the entire chamber after an event. The main advantage of the avalanche mode is high rate capability 10(exp 5) counts/mm(sup 2). A resistive-plate chamber (RPC) is similar to the PPAC in construction except that one or both of the electrodes are made from high resistivity (greater than 10(exp 10) Omega(cm) materials. In practice RPC's are usually used in the spark mode. Resistive electrodes are charged by sparks, locally reducing the actual electric field in the gap. The size of the charged surface is about 10 mm(sup 2), leaving the rest of the detector unaffected. Therefore, the rate capability of such detectors in the spark mode is considerably higher than conventional spark counters. Among the different glasses tested the best results were obtained with electron type conductive glasses, which obey Ohm's law. Most of the work with such glasses was done with high pressure parallel-plate chambers (10 atm) for time-of-flight measurements. Resistive glasses have been expensive and produced only in small quantities. Now resistive glasses are commercially available, although they are still expensive in small scale production. From the positive experience of different groups working with the resistive glasses, it was decided to review the old idea to use this glass for the RPC. This work has investigated the possibility of using the RPC at 1 atm and in the avalanche mode. This has several advantages: simplicity of construction, high rate capability, low voltage operation, and the ability to work with non-flammable gases.

  6. Electrical cell counting process characterization in a microfluidic impedance cytometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Umer; Bashir, Rashid

    2014-10-01

    Particle counting in microfluidic devices with coulter principle finds many applications in health and medicine. Cell enumeration using microfluidic particle counters is fast and requires small volumes of sample, and is being used for disease diagnostics in humans and animals. A complete characterization of the cell counting process is critical for accurate cell counting especially in complex systems with samples of heterogeneous population interacting with different reagents in a microfluidic device. In this paper, we have characterized the electrical cell counting process using a microfluidic impedance cytometer. Erythrocytes were lysed on-chip from whole blood and the lysing was quenched to preserve leukocytes which subsequently pass through a 15 μm × 15 μm measurement channel used to electrically count the cells. We show that cell counting over time is a non-homogeneous Poisson process and that the electrical cell counts over time show the log-normal distribution, whose skewness can be attributed to diffusion of cells in the buffer that is used to meter the blood. We further found that the heterogeneous cell population (i.e. different cell types) shows different diffusion characteristics based on the cell size. Lymphocytes spatially diffuse more as compared to granulocytes and monocytes. The time difference between the cell occurrences follows an exponential distribution and when plotted over time verifies the cell diffusion characteristics. We also characterized the probability of occurrence of more than one cell at the counter within specified time intervals using Poisson counting statistics. For high cell concentration samples, we also derived the required sample dilution based on our particle counting characterization. Buffer characterization by considering the size based particle diffusion and estimating the required dilution are critical parameters for accurate counting results.

  7. VARIABILITY OF LEUKOCYTE COUNT AS AN INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE AMONG HYPERTENSIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brinda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Hypertension, a globally prevailing non communicable disease has been linked to various pathophysiological mechanisms. The new spotlight is on the inflammatory mechanism, which has been embarked on this study by utilising the White blood cell counts as the predominant marker. The pathogenesis behind this concept is the endothelial alteration which occurs in hypertension, causing increased oxidative stress and release of inflammatory mediators and further causing damage to the vascular walls and may result in sustained hypertension. OBJECTIVE To substantiate the difference in leukocyte count among the hypertensives and normotensives, to assess the variation in the leukocyte count among varied grades of hypertension. METHODS 80 subjects and 40 controls of both sex and age between 20-60 years were taken. Subjects with other chronic medical disorders, pregnancy, menstruation phase, history of infections in past 3 months, obesity, smokers and regular alcoholics were excluded. Three recordings of blood pressure were measured with a standard mercury sphygmomanometer. The differential leukocyte count was estimated with an automated counter. RESULTS Statistical analysis was done using independent sample t-test and one-way ANOVA. Total Leukocyte count (Mean = 8397.50 ± 1666.57 was raised significantly among the hypertensives, with P value <0.001. Comparison was done on the total count with the varied hypertensive years, which was suggestive of increase in total count among the pre hypertensives (systolic pressure and there was linear increase in total count with diastolic pressure though not statistically significant. CONCLUSION The elevation of white blood cell count is suggestive of underlying inflammatory mechanism among the hypertensives. The onset of inflammation could be at the onset of hypertension, as there is rise in total leukocyte count among the pre hypertensives which could also lead to sustained hypertension.

  8. Flow cytometric bacterial cell counts challenge conventional heterotrophic plate counts for routine microbiological drinking water monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nevel, S; Koetzsch, S; Proctor, C R; Besmer, M D; Prest, E I; Vrouwenvelder, J S; Knezev, A; Boon, N; Hammes, F

    2017-04-15

    Drinking water utilities and researchers continue to rely on the century-old heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) method for routine assessment of general microbiological water quality. Bacterial cell counting with flow cytometry (FCM) is one of a number of alternative methods that challenge this status quo and provide an opportunity for improved water quality monitoring. After more than a decade of application in drinking water research, FCM methodology is optimised and established for routine application, supported by a considerable amount of data from multiple full-scale studies. Bacterial cell concentrations obtained by FCM enable quantification of the entire bacterial community instead of the minute fraction of cultivable bacteria detected with HPC (typically water samples per day, depending on the laboratory and selected staining procedure(s). Moreover, many studies have shown FCM total (TCC) and intact (ICC) cell concentrations to be reliable and robust process variables, responsive to changes in the bacterial abundance and relevant for characterising and monitoring drinking water treatment and distribution systems. The purpose of this critical review is to initiate a constructive discussion on whether FCM could replace HPC in routine water quality monitoring. We argue that FCM provides a faster, more descriptive and more representative quantification of bacterial abundance in drinking water.

  9. Correlation between standard plate count and somatic cell count milk quality results for Wisconsin dairy producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borneman, Darand L; Ingham, Steve

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a correlation exists between standard plate count (SPC) and somatic cell count (SCC) monthly reported results for Wisconsin dairy producers. Such a correlation may indicate that Wisconsin producers effectively controlling sanitation and milk temperature (reflected in low SPC) also have implemented good herd health management practices (reflected in low SCC). The SPC and SCC results for all grade A and B dairy producers who submitted results to the Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade, and Consumer Protection, in each month of 2012 were analyzed. Grade A producer SPC results were less dispersed than grade B producer SPC results. Regression analysis showed a highly significant correlation between SPC and SCC, but the R(2) value was very small (0.02-0.03), suggesting that many other factors, besides SCC, influence SPC. Average SCC (across 12 mo) for grade A and B producers decreased with an increase in the number of monthly SPC results (out of 12) that were ≤ 25,000 cfu/mL. A chi-squared test of independence showed that the proportion of monthly SCC results >250,000 cells/mL varied significantly depending on whether the corresponding SPC result was ≤ 25,000 or >25,000 cfu/mL. This significant difference occurred in all months of 2012 for grade A and B producers. The results suggest that a generally consistent level of skill exists across dairy production practices affecting SPC and SCC.

  10. Simulating the Counting Mechanism of PILATUS2 and PILATUS3 Detectors for Improved Count Rate Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueb, P.; Sobott, B. A.; Schnyder, R.; Loeliger, T.; Schneebeli, M.; Kobas, M.; Rassool, R. P.; Peake, D. J.; Broennimann, C.

    2013-03-01

    PILATUS systems are well established as X-ray detectors at most synchrotrons. Their single photon counting capability ensures precise measurements, but introduces a short dead time after each hit, which becomes significant for photon rates above a million per second and pixel. The resulting loss in the number of counted photons can be corrected for by applying corresponding rate correction factors. This article presents a Monte-Carlo simulation, which computes the correction factors taking into account the detector settings as well as the time structure of the X-ray beam at the synchrotron. For the PILATUS2 detector series the simulation shows good agreement with experimentally determined correction factors for various detector settings at different synchrotrons. The application of more accurate rate correction factors will improve the X-ray data quality at high photon fluxes. Furthermore we report on the simulation of the rate correction factors for the new PILATUS3 systems. The successor of the PILATUS2 detector avoids the paralysation of the counter, and allows for measurements up to a rate of ten million photons per second and pixel. For fast detector settings the simulation is capable of reproducing the data within one to two percent at an incoming photon rate of one million per second and pixel.

  11. EFFECT OF GRADE -III EXERCISE ON TOTAL LEUCOCYTE COUNT AND DIFFERENTIAL LEUCOCYTE COUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrutha.K,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exercise is a type of physical activity and is defined as a planned. Structured and repetitive bodily movement done to improve and to maintain physical fitness .exercise stress releases some amount of adrenaline from adrenal medulla. Adrenaline brings about a beta receptor mediated vasodilatation in skeletal muscles which may contribute to the anticipatory vasodilatation in the blood vassals, and increased blood flow is seen during and for a short while after the exercise. Due to the stimulation of bone marrow more number of white blood cells (WBC produced from marginal pool and released into circulation. Materials & Methods: Thirty subjects both male and female were randomly selected as control and study groups. Control group sample was collected after taking rest for 1 hour and study group sample was collected immediately after grade III exercise. Conclusion: After exercise total leukocyte count (TLC increased significantly p. value being ˂0.0001 and differential leukocyte count(DLC increased significantly p. value being ˂0.01.

  12. Dark-count-less photon-counting x-ray computed tomography system using a YAP-MPPC detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Eiichi; Sato, Yuich; Abudurexiti, Abulajiang; Hagiwara, Osahiko; Matsukiyo, Hiroshi; Osawa, Akihiro; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Manabu; Kusachi, Shinya; Sato, Shigehiro; Ogawa, Akira; Onagawa, Jun

    2012-10-01

    A high-sensitive X-ray computed tomography (CT) system is useful for decreasing absorbed dose for patients, and a dark-count-less photon-counting CT system was developed. X-ray photons are detected using a YAP(Ce) [cerium-doped yttrium aluminum perovskite] single crystal scintillator and an MPPC (multipixel photon counter). Photocurrents are amplified by a high-speed current-voltage amplifier, and smooth event pulses from an integrator are sent to a high-speed comparator. Then, logical pulses are produced from the comparator and are counted by a counter card. Tomography is accomplished by repeated linear scans and rotations of an object, and projection curves of the object are obtained by the linear scan. The image contrast of gadolinium medium slightly fell with increase in lower-level voltage (Vl) of the comparator. The dark count rate was 0 cps, and the count rate for the CT was approximately 250 kcps.

  13. Correlation analysis on total lymphocyte count and CD4 count in HIV-infected patients: a retrospective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuming; Liang, Shuying; Yu, Erman; Guo, Jinling; Li, Zizhao; Wang, Zhe; Du, Yukai

    2011-10-01

    CD4 count is the standard method for determining eligibility for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and monitoring HIV/AIDS disease progression, but it is not widely available in resource-limited settings. This study examined the correlation between total lymphocyte count (TLC) and CD4 count of HIV-infected patients before and after HAART, and assessed the thresholds of TLC for making decisions about the initiation and for monitoring HAART. A retrospective study was performed, and 665 HIV-infected patients with TLC and CD4 count from four counties (Shangcai, Queshan, Shenqiu and Weishi) were included in the study. Pearson correlation and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) were used. TLC and CD4 count after HAART was significantly increased as compared with pre-HAART (PHIV-infected individuals for making decisions about the initiation and for monitoring HAART in resource-limited settings.

  14. Modelling of fire count data: fire disaster risk in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boadi, Caleb; Harvey, Simon K; Gyeke-Dako, Agyapomaa

    2015-01-01

    Stochastic dynamics involved in ecological count data require distribution fitting procedures to model and make informed judgments. The study provides empirical research, focused on the provision of an early warning system and a spatial graph that can detect societal fire risks. It offers an opportunity for communities, organizations, risk managers, actuaries and governments to be aware of, and understand fire risks, so that they will increase the direct tackling of the threats posed by fire. Statistical distribution fitting method that best helps identify the stochastic dynamics of fire count data is used. The aim is to provide a fire-prediction model and fire spatial graph for observed fire count data. An empirical probability distribution model is fitted to the fire count data and compared to the theoretical probability distribution of the stochastic process of fire count data. The distribution fitted to the fire frequency count data helps identify the class of models that are exhibited by the fire and provides time leading decisions. The research suggests that fire frequency and loss (fire fatalities) count data in Ghana are best modelled with a Negative Binomial Distribution. The spatial map of observed fire frequency and fatality measured over 5 years (2007-2011) offers in this study a first regional assessment of fire frequency and fire fatality in Ghana.

  15. High Reproducibility of ELISPOT Counts from Nine Different Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srividya Sundararaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of immune monitoring with ELISPOT is to measure the number of T cells, specific for any antigen, accurately and reproducibly between different laboratories. In ELISPOT assays, antigen-specific T cells secrete cytokines, forming spots of different sizes on a membrane with variable background intensities. Due to the subjective nature of judging maximal and minimal spot sizes, different investigators come up with different numbers. This study aims to determine whether statistics-based, automated size-gating can harmonize the number of spot counts calculated between different laboratories. We plated PBMC at four different concentrations, 24 replicates each, in an IFN-γ ELISPOT assay with HCMV pp65 antigen. The ELISPOT plate, and an image file of the plate was counted in nine different laboratories using ImmunoSpot® Analyzers by (A Basic Count™ relying on subjective counting parameters set by the respective investigators and (B SmartCount™, an automated counting protocol by the ImmunoSpot® Software that uses statistics-based spot size auto-gating with spot intensity auto-thresholding. The average coefficient of variation (CV for the mean values between independent laboratories was 26.7% when counting with Basic Count™, and 6.7% when counting with SmartCount™. Our data indicates that SmartCount™ allows harmonization of counting ELISPOT results between different laboratories and investigators.

  16. Study on advancement of in vivo counting using mathematical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinase, Sakae [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-05-01

    To obtain an assessment of the committed effective dose, individual monitoring for the estimation of intakes of radionuclides is required. For individual monitoring of exposure to intakes of radionuclides, direct measurement of radionuclides in the body - in vivo counting- is very useful. To advance in a precision in vivo counting which fulfills the requirements of ICRP 1990 recommendations, some problems, such as the investigation of uncertainties in estimates of body burdens by in vivo counting, and the selection of the way to improve the precision, have been studied. In the present study, a calibration technique for in vivo counting application using Monte Carlo simulation was developed. The advantage of the technique is that counting efficiency can be obtained for various shapes and sizes that are very difficult to change for phantoms. To validate the calibration technique, the response functions and counting efficiencies of a whole-body counter installed in JAERI were evaluated using the simulation and measurements. Consequently, the calculations are in good agreement with the measurements. The method for the determination of counting efficiency curves as a function of energy was developed using the present technique and a physiques correction equation was derived from the relationship between parameters of correction factor and counting efficiencies of the JAERI whole-body counter. The uncertainties in body burdens of {sup 137}Cs estimated with the JAERI whole-body counter were also investigated using the Monte Carlo simulation and measurements. It was found that the uncertainties of body burdens estimated with the whole-body counter are strongly dependent on various sources of uncertainty such as radioactivity distribution within the body and counting statistics. Furthermore, the evaluation method of the peak efficiencies of a Ge semi-conductor detector was developed by Monte Carlo simulation for optimum arrangement of Ge semi-conductor detectors for

  17. Preset time count rate meter using adaptive digital signal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žigić Aleksandar D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Two presented methods were developed to improve classical preset time count rate meters by using adapt able signal processing tools. An optimized detection algorithm that senses the change of mean count rate was implemented in both methods. Three low-pass filters of various structures with adaptable parameters to implement the control of the mean count rate error by suppressing the fluctuations in a controllable way, were considered and one of them implemented in both methods. An adaptation algorithm for preset time interval calculation executed after the low-pass filter was devised and implemented in the first method. This adaptation algorithm makes it possible to obtain shorter preset time intervals for higher stationary mean count rate. The adaptation algorithm for preset time interval calculation executed before the low-pass filter was devised and implemented in the second method. That adaptation algorithm enables sensing of a rapid change of the mean count rate before fluctuations suppression is carried out. Some parameters were fixed to their optimum values after appropriate optimization procedure. Low-pass filters have variable number of stationary coefficients depending on the specified error and the mean count rate. They implement control of the mean count rate error by suppressing fluctuations in a controllable way. The simulated and realized methods, using the developed algorithms, guarantee that the response time shall not exceed 2 s for the mean count rate higher than 2 s-1 and that controllable mean count rate error shall be within the range of ±4% to ±10%.

  18. Heterotrophic plate count methodology in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasoner, Donald J

    2004-05-01

    In the United States (US), the history of bacterial plate counting (BPC) methods used for water can be traced largely through Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (Standard Methods). The bacterial count method has evolved from the original Standard Methods (1st edition, 1905) plate count which used nutrient gelatin and incubation at 20 degrees C for 48 h, to the HPC method options in the latest edition of Standard Methods that provide greater flexibility of application, depending on the data needs of the water analyst. The use of agar-agar as a gelling agent, replacing gelatin, allowed the use of higher incubation temperatures and resulted in the "body temperature count" (37 degrees C) found in the 3rd through the 8th edition of Standard Methods. The change from 37 degrees C incubation to 35+/-0.5 degrees C accommodated laboratories that did both milk and water analyses. By using a single temperature, fewer incubators were needed. The term "standard plate count" (SPC) first appeared in 1960 (11th edition) along with plate count agar. Incubation at 20 degrees C for the plate count was dropped from the 13th to 15th editions and few changes were made in the SPC method from the 11th edition through the 13th editions. Plate count analysis of bottled waters was included in the 14th edition (1975), calling for incubation at 35+/-0.5 degrees C for 72+/-4 h. Perhaps the most significant changes in plate count methods occurred with the 16th edition (1985). The term heterotrophic plate count replaced the standard plate count, and the spread plate (SP) and membrane filter (MF) methods were added along with new media for pour and spread plates (R2A agar and NWRI agar, both low nutrient) and for the membrane filter method (mHPC medium). The use of low nutrient media, lower incubation temperature, and longer incubation times, results in higher plate count results for most water samples. The options currently available, including low and high nutrient media

  19. Analysis of spatial count data using Kalman smoothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Claus

    2007-01-01

    at the location. We elaborate on a link between state space models and Markov random fields. The observations are modelled as independent Poisson counts conditional on a Gaussian Markov random field. We employ the fact that the model may be written as a state space model which may be analysed by combining......We consider spatial count data from an agricultural field experiment. Counts of weed plants in a field have been recorded in a project on precision farming. Interest is in mapping the weed intensity so that the dose of herbicide applied at any location can be adjusted to the amount of weed present...

  20. Analysis of spatial count data using Kalman smoothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Claus

    present at the location. We elaborate on a link between state space models and Markov random fields. The oberservations are modelled as independent Poisson counts conditional on a Gaussian Markov random field. We employ the fact that the model may be written as a state space model which may be analysed......This paper considers spatial count data from an agricultural field experiment. Counts of weed plants in a field have been recorded in a project on precision farming. Interest is in mapping the weed intensity so that the dose of herbicide applied at any location can be adjusted to the amount of weed...

  1. Pedestrian Counting with Occlusion Handling Using Stereo Thermal Cameras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Miklas Strøm; Dueholm, Jacob Velling; Gade, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    and the complexity of scenes with many people occluding one another. To address these challenges, this paper introduces the use of a stereo thermal camera setup for pedestrian counting. We investigate the reconstruction of 3D points in a pedestrian street with two thermal cameras and propose an algorithm...... for pedestrian counting based on clustering and tracking of the 3D point clouds. The method is tested on two five-minute video sequences captured at a public event with a moderate density of pedestrians and heavy occlusions. The counting performance is compared to the manually annotated ground truth and shows...

  2. An automated approach for annual layer counting in ice cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winstrup, Mai; Svensson, A. M.; Rasmussen, S. O.;

    2012-01-01

    detection algorithm lies in the way it is able to imitate the manual procedures for annual layer counting, while being based on statistical criteria for annual layer identification. The most likely positions of multiple layer boundaries in a section of ice core data are determined simultaneously......, and a probabilistic uncertainty estimate of the resulting layer count is provided, ensuring an objective treatment of ambiguous layers in the data. Furthermore, multiple data series can be incorporated and used simultaneously. In this study, the automated layer counting algorithm has been applied to two ice core...

  3. An automated approach for annual layer counting in ice cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winstrup, Mai; Svensson, A. M.; Rasmussen, S. O.;

    2012-01-01

    detection algorithm lies in the way it is able to imitate the manual procedures for annual layer counting, while being based on statistical criteria for annual layer identification. The most likely positions of multiple layer boundaries in a section of ice core data are determined simultaneously......, and a probabilistic uncertainty estimate of the resulting layer count is provided, ensuring an objective treatment of ambiguous layers in the data. Furthermore, multiple data series can be incorporated and used simultaneously. In this study, the automated layer counting algorithm has been applied to an ice core...

  4. Exponential Martingales and Changes of Measure for Counting Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokol, Alexander; Hansen, Niels Richard

    2015-01-01

    We give sufficient criteria for the Doléans-Dade exponential of a stochastic integral with respect to a counting process local martingale to be a true martingale. The criteria are adapted particularly to the case of counting processes and are sufficiently weak to be useful and verifiable, as we i...... illustrate by several examples. In particular, the criteria allow for the construction of for example nonexplosive Hawkes processes, counting processes with stochastic intensities depending on diffusion processes as well as inhomogeneous finite-state Markov processes....

  5. Negative Avalanche Feedback Detectors for Photon-Counting Optical Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Negative Avalanche Feedback photon counting detectors with near-infrared spectral sensitivity offer an alternative to conventional Geiger mode avalanche photodiode or phototube detectors for free space communications links at 1 and 1.55 microns. These devices demonstrate linear mode photon counting without requiring any external reset circuitry and may even be operated at room temperature. We have now characterized the detection efficiency, dark count rate, after-pulsing, and single photon jitter for three variants of this new detector class, as well as operated these uniquely simple to use devices in actual photon starved free space optical communications links.

  6. Fast sequential Monte Carlo methods for counting and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinstein, Reuven Y; Vaisman, Radislav

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive account of the theory and application of Monte Carlo methods Based on years of research in efficient Monte Carlo methods for estimation of rare-event probabilities, counting problems, and combinatorial optimization, Fast Sequential Monte Carlo Methods for Counting and Optimization is a complete illustration of fast sequential Monte Carlo techniques. The book provides an accessible overview of current work in the field of Monte Carlo methods, specifically sequential Monte Carlo techniques, for solving abstract counting and optimization problems. Written by authorities in the

  7. Negative Avalanche Feedback Detectors for Photon-Counting Optical Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Negative Avalanche Feedback photon counting detectors with near-infrared spectral sensitivity offer an alternative to conventional Geiger mode avalanche photodiode or phototube detectors for free space communications links at 1 and 1.55 microns. These devices demonstrate linear mode photon counting without requiring any external reset circuitry and may even be operated at room temperature. We have now characterized the detection efficiency, dark count rate, after-pulsing, and single photon jitter for three variants of this new detector class, as well as operated these uniquely simple to use devices in actual photon starved free space optical communications links.

  8. Adaptive Counting Rule for Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Under Correlated Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno; Marchetti, Nicola; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2012-01-01

    Spectrum sensing is the cognitive radio mechanism that enables spectrum awareness. It has been shown in the literature that spectrum sensing performance can be greatly improved through the use of cooperative sensing schemes. This paper considers and proposes a data fusion based cooperative spectrum...... sensing scheme based on data fusion, where an adaptive counting rule is used to implement the data fusion. The proposed scheme is evaluated against other common counting rules (e.g. 1-out-of-c and c-out-of-c) found in the literature and the optimum counting rule, while under different correlation...

  9. Terrain dependant hop count selection for transparent relay transmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibile K. Kanjirathumkal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this Letter, the selection of the best hop count for a particular topography, in the context of enhanced connectivity using multi-hop transparent relay communication is addressed. Based on the coefficient of variation and the terrain specific fading severity factor of the distribution, it is possible to estimate the optimal hop count that can provide the required performance at detector. Two distribution models, which can adequately characterise the terrain fading effects on empirical data are considered for performance comparison. The results are useful in selecting branches, with low variability and optimal hop count for connectivity, in multi-stream switched diversity combining systems.

  10. Daily variability of strongyle fecal egg counts in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Helena; Larsen, Lene; Ritz, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Strongyle parasites are ubiquitous in grazing horses and constitute a potential threat to equine health. Feces were collected from six horses four times daily over a period of 5 days. Fecal egg counts (FECs) were performed to identify any diurnal rhythms in strongyle egg shedding and to quantify...... variability at the different levels: individual horses, repeated counts, repeated subsamples, different time points, and different days. No significant differences in FECs were found between the different time points (P = .11). The variables-horse, day, subsample, and egg count-accounted for a variance of 104...

  11. Photon counts modulation in optical time domain reflectometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiao-Bo; Wang Jing-Jing; Zhang Guo-Feng; Xiao Lian-Tuan; Jia Suo-Tang

    2011-01-01

    The quantum fluctuation of photon counting limits the field application of optical time domain reflection. A method of photon counts modulation optics time domain reflection with single photon detection at 1.55 un is presented. The influence of quantum fluctuation can be effectively controlled by demodulation technology since quantum fluctuation shows a uniform distribution in the frequency domain. Combined with the changing of the integration time of the lock-in amplifier, the signal to noise ratio is significantly enhanced. Accordingly the signal to noise improvement ratio reaches 31.7 dB compared with the direct photon counting measurement.

  12. Characterization of the count rate performance of modern gamma cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silosky, M.; Johnson, V.; Beasley, C.; Cheenu Kappadath, S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of count rate performance (CRP) is an integral component of gamma camera quality assurance and system deadtime (τ) may be utilized for image correction in quantitative studies. This work characterizes the CRP of three modern gamma cameras and estimates τ using two established methods (decay and dual source) under a variety of experimental conditions. Methods: For the decay method, uncollimated detectors were exposed to a Tc-99m source of relatively high activity and count rates were sampled regularly over 48 h. Input count rate at each time point was based on the lowest observed count rate data point. The input count rate was plotted against the observed count rate and fit via least-squares to the paralyzable detector model (PDM) to estimate τ (rates method). A novel expression for observed counts as a function of measurement time interval was derived, taking into account the PDM and the presence of background but making no assumption regarding input count rate. The observed counts were fit via least-squares to this novel expression to estimate τ (counts method). Correlation and Bland-Altman analyses were performed to assess agreement in estimates of τ between the rates and counts methods. The dependence of τ on energy window definition and incident energy spectrum were characterized. The dual source method was also used to estimate τ and its agreement with estimates from the decay method under identical conditions was also investigated. The dependences of τ on the total activity and the ratio of source activities were characterized. Results: The observed CRP curves for each gamma camera agreed with the PDM at low count rates but deviated substantially from it at high count rates. The estimates of τ determined from the paralyzable portion of the CPR curve using the rates method and the counts method were found to be highly correlated (r = 0.999) but with a small (∼6%) difference. No statistically significant difference was observed

  13. Flow cytometric bacterial cell counts challenge conventional heterotrophic plate counts for routine microbiological drinking water monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Van Nevel, S.

    2017-02-08

    Drinking water utilities and researchers continue to rely on the century-old heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) method for routine assessment of general microbiological water quality. Bacterial cell counting with flow cytometry (FCM) is one of a number of alternative methods that challenge this status quo and provide an opportunity for improved water quality monitoring. After more than a decade of application in drinking water research, FCM methodology is optimised and established for routine application, supported by a considerable amount of data from multiple full-scale studies. Bacterial cell concentrations obtained by FCM enable quantification of the entire bacterial community instead of the minute fraction of cultivable bacteria detected with HPC (typically < 1% of all bacteria). FCM measurements are reproducible with relative standard deviations below 3% and can be available within 15 min of samples arriving in the laboratory. High throughput sample processing and complete automation are feasible and FCM analysis is arguably less expensive than HPC when measuring more than 15 water samples per day, depending on the laboratory and selected staining procedure(s). Moreover, many studies have shown FCM total (TCC) and intact (ICC) cell concentrations to be reliable and robust process variables, responsive to changes in the bacterial abundance and relevant for characterising and monitoring drinking water treatment and distribution systems. The purpose of this critical review is to initiate a constructive discussion on whether FCM could replace HPC in routine water quality monitoring. We argue that FCM provides a faster, more descriptive and more representative quantification of bacterial abundance in drinking water.

  14. High Channel Count, Low Cost, Multiplexed FBG Sensor Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. J. Pan; FengQing Zhou; Kejian Guan; Joy Jiang; Liang Dong; Albert Li; Xiangdong Qiu; Jonathan Zhang

    2003-01-01

    With rich products development experience in WDM telecommunication networks, we introduce a few of high channel count, multiplexed FBG fiber optic sensor systems featured in reliable high performance and low cost.

  15. COUNTING ROOTED NEAR-4-REGULAR EULERIAN MAPS ON SOME SURFACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RenHan; LiuYanpei

    1999-01-01

    In this article the rooted planar near-4-regular Eulerian trails are enumerated and an explicit formula for such maps is presented. Further, the rooted near-4-regular Eulerian maps on the torus are counted in an exact way.

  16. COUNTING FAIR NEAR-TRIANGULATIONS ON THE DISC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper various kinds of fair near-triangulations are enumerated and several other types of near-triangulations are counted with the root-face valency,the number of edges and faces as the parameters.

  17. Butterfly Count 2002 Wallkill River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These are the data sheets from the annual butterfly count at Wallkill River National Wildlife Refuge for 2002. There were 20 people involved in this one-day survey.

  18. Microfluidic Cytometer for Complete Blood Count Analysis Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will fabricate and test microfluidic designs for a micro-electromechanical system based complete blood count (CBC) analysis in separate modules and integrate them...

  19. Extra limit counts for southern sea otter 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The GIS shapefile "Extra limit counts of southern sea otters 2016" is a point layer representing the locations of sea otter sightings that fall outside the...

  20. Butterfly Count 2001 Wallkill River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These are the data sheets from the annual butterfly count at Wallkill River National Wildlife Refuge for 2001. There were 20 people involved in this one-day survey.

  1. St. Catherine Creek NWR Bird Point Count Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Data collected during bird point counts at St. Catherine Creek NWR using the Lower Mississippi Valley Joint Venture protocol for forest dwelling birds.

  2. 78 FR 62955 - National Character Counts Week, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... teachers, nurses, and workers, toil without fanfare so the people of this country can count on a secure... as parents, community members, and leaders to teach them not only the skills they need to...

  3. Automation system for optical counting of nuclear tracks

    CERN Document Server

    Boulyga, S F; Lomonosova, E M; Zhuk, I V

    1999-01-01

    An automation system consisting of the microscope, video camera and Pentium PC with frame recorder was created. The system provides counting of nuclear tracks on the SSNTD surface with a resolution of 752 x 582 points, determination of the surface area and main axis of the track. The pattern recognition program was developed for operation in Windows 3.1 (or higher) ensuring a convenient interface with the user. In a comparison of the results on automatic track counting with the more accurate hand mode it was shown that the program enables the tracks to be detected even on images with a rather high noise level. It ensures a high accuracy of track counting being comparable with the accuracy of manual counting for densities of tracks in the range of up to 2 centre dot 10 sup 5 tracks/cm sup 2. The automatic system was applied in the experimental investigation of uranium and transuranium elements.

  4. Automation system for optical counting of nuclear tracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulyga, S.F.; Boulyga, E.G.; Lomonosova, E.M.; Zhuk, I.V

    1999-06-01

    An automation system consisting of the microscope, video camera and Pentium PC with frame recorder was created. The system provides counting of nuclear tracks on the SSNTD surface with a resolution of 752 x 582 points, determination of the surface area and main axis of the track. The pattern recognition program was developed for operation in Windows 3.1 (or higher) ensuring a convenient interface with the user. In a comparison of the results on automatic track counting with the more accurate hand mode it was shown that the program enables the tracks to be detected even on images with a rather high noise level. It ensures a high accuracy of track counting being comparable with the accuracy of manual counting for densities of tracks in the range of up to 2{center_dot}10{sup 5} tracks/cm{sup 2}. The automatic system was applied in the experimental investigation of uranium and transuranium elements.

  5. A new method for counting trees with vertex partition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A direct and elementary method is provided in this paper for counting trees with vertex partition instead of recursion, generating function, functional equation, Lagrange inversion, and matrix methods used before.

  6. Accounts of the Count-Mass Distinction: A Critical Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Joosten

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of what is usually, but also misleadingly called the count-mass distinction, i.e. the distinction between nouns that can be counted (e.g. a car, two cars, many cars and nouns that cannot (e.g. *a sand, *two sands, *many sands, sand, much sand, has been addressed and accounted for in different ways. This paper gives a critical survey of four main theoretical views on the distinction and points out that each of them is problematic in some way. It is argued that that the count-mass distinction should not be reduced to an exclusively grammatical, ontological, semantic, or contextual issue. A proper characterisation of the distinction can only be given if its multidimensional character is fully acknowledged and if parameters such as basic count- or masshood, degree of lexicalisation, conceptualisation, and (nonarbitrariness are taken into account.

  7. AKN Landbird Point Count and Marshbird User Guidance Manual

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Users manual for how to enter, edit and access data in the Avian Knowledge Network (AKN) landbird point count and marsh bird databases. Also covers AKN Project...

  8. Pedestrian Counting with Occlusion Handling Using Stereo Thermal Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklas S. Kristoffersen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of pedestrians walking the streets or gathered in public spaces is a valuable piece of information for shop owners, city governments, event organizers and many others. However, automatic counting that takes place day and night is challenging due to changing lighting conditions and the complexity of scenes with many people occluding one another. To address these challenges, this paper introduces the use of a stereo thermal camera setup for pedestrian counting. We investigate the reconstruction of 3D points in a pedestrian street with two thermal cameras and propose an algorithm for pedestrian counting based on clustering and tracking of the 3D point clouds. The method is tested on two five-minute video sequences captured at a public event with a moderate density of pedestrians and heavy occlusions. The counting performance is compared to the manually annotated ground truth and shows success rates of 95.4% and 99.1% for the two sequences.

  9. Instructions for use of standardized pair count field forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Standardized instructions of waterfowl pair count forms for use in the Four-Square Mile survey on Wetland Management Districts. These forms have been designed for...

  10. Application Research of Developed Drummed Nuclear Waste Neutron Counting System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The application researches such as variety of factors affecting the measurement, calibrating etc. are need before the drummed nuclear waste neutron counting system (WNC) can be really put into use after installed at the site.

  11. Wind power wetland survey and duck pair count instructions

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Initial Survey Instructions for wind power wetland survey and duck pair count instructions for Kulm Wetland Management District. This survey has two surveying...

  12. A Comparison of Galaxy Counting Techniques in Spectroscopically Undersampled Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specian, Mike A.; Szalay, Alex S.

    2016-11-01

    Accurate measures of galactic overdensities are invaluable for precision cosmology. Obtaining these measurements is complicated when members of one’s galaxy sample lack radial depths, most commonly derived via spectroscopic redshifts. In this paper, we utilize the Sloan Digital Sky Survey’s Main Galaxy Sample to compare seven methods of counting galaxies in cells when many of those galaxies lack redshifts. These methods fall into three categories: assigning galaxies discrete redshifts, scaling the numbers counted using regions’ spectroscopic completeness properties, and employing probabilistic techniques. We split spectroscopically undersampled regions into three types—those inside the spectroscopic footprint, those outside but adjacent to it, and those distant from it. Through Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate that the preferred counting techniques are a function of region type, cell size, and redshift. We conclude by reporting optimal counting strategies under a variety of conditions.

  13. How to count nanoparticles with the naked eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinelnik, Artem D.; Samusev, Kirill B.

    2017-09-01

    In this work we experimentally investigated the patterns of optical Laue diffraction from photonic structures. The obtained experimental results and their interpretation allowed us to propose a very simple method of nanoparticles precise counting with the naked eye.

  14. High performance universal analog and counting photodetector for LIDAR applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linga, Krishna; Krutov, Joseph; Godik, Edward; Seemungal, Wayne; Shushakov, Dmitry; Shubin, V. E.

    2005-08-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of applying the emerging technology of internal discrete amplification to create an efficient, ultra low noise, universal analog and counting photodetector for LIDAR remote sensing. Photodetectors with internal discrete amplification can operate in the linear detection mode with a gain-bandwidth product of up to 1015 and in the photon counting mode with count rates of up to 109 counts/sec. Detectors based on this mechanism could have performance parameters superior to those of conventional avalanche photodiodes and photomultiplier tubes. For silicon photodetector prototypes, measured excess noise factor is as low as 1.02 at gains greater than 100,000. This gives the photodetectors and, consequently, the LIDAR systems new capabilities that could lead to important advances in LIDAR remote sensing.

  15. Counts of Foraminifera from Selected North Atlantic Cores, LDEO

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Counts of primarily planktonic foraminifera from Dr. W.F. Ruddiman and staff at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University are included in these...

  16. Microfluidic Cytometer for Complete Blood Count Analysis Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — RMD proposes to develop a MEMS based complete blood count (CBC) instrument that can be used aboard a spacecraft. We will produce a microfluidic scale combination...

  17. Correction of ultraviolet single photon counting image distortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinghua Zhang; Baosheng Zhao; Zhenhua Miao; Wei Li; Xiangping Zhu; Yong'an Liu; Wei Zou

    2008-01-01

    Single photon counting imaging technology has been widely used in space environment detection, astronomy observation, nuclear physics, and ultraweak bioluminescence. However, the distortion of the single photon counting image will badly affect the measurement results. Therefore, the correction of distortion for single photon counting image is very significant. Ultraviolet single photon imaging system with wedge and strip anode is introduced and the influence factor leading to image distortion is analyzed. To correct original distorted image, three different image correction methods, namely, the physical correction, the global correction, and the local correction, are applied. In addition, two parameters, i.e, the position index and the linearity index, are defined to evaluate the performance of the three methods. The results suggest that the correction methods can improve the quality of the initial image without losing gray information of each counting light spot. And the local correction can provide the best visual inspections and performance evaluation among the three methods.

  18. High quantum efficiency S-20 photocathodes for photon counting applications

    CERN Document Server

    Orlov, Dmitry A; Pinto, Serge Duarte; Glazenborg, Rene; Kernen, Emilie

    2016-01-01

    Based on conventional S-20 processes, a new series of high quantum efficiency (QE) photocathodes has been developed that can be specifically tuned for use in the ultraviolet, blue or green regions of the spectrum. The QE values exceed 30% at maximum response, and the dark count rate is found to be as low as 30 Hz/cm2 at room temperature. This combination of properties along with a fast temporal response makes these photocathodes ideal for application in photon counting detectors.

  19. Evaluation of Deterministic and Stochastic Components of Traffic Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bošnjak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Traffic counts or statistical evidence of the traffic processare often a characteristic of time-series data. In this paper fundamentalproblem of estimating deterministic and stochasticcomponents of a traffic process are considered, in the context of"generalised traffic modelling". Different methods for identificationand/or elimination of the trend and seasonal componentsare applied for concrete traffic counts. Further investigationsand applications of ARIMA models, Hilbert space formulationsand state-space representations are suggested.

  20. Fitting a distribution to miccrobial counts: making sense of zeros

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro Duarte, Ana Sofia; Stockmarr, Anders; Nauta, Maarten

    and standard deviation) and the prevalence of contaminated food units (one minus the proportion of “true zeros”) from a set of microbial counts. By running the model with in silico generated concentration and count data, we could evaluate the performance of this method in terms of estimation of the three...... of the distribution parameters mean and standard deviation by running the same model for different prevalence scenarios....

  1. E-nose identification of milk somatic cell count

    OpenAIRE

    İNALPULAT, Melis; Kızıl, Ünal; Bilgücü, Ertuğrul; GENÇ, Levent

    2016-01-01

    Mastitis is a common disease among dairy animals which causes serious economic losses. It can be diagnosed via diverse clinical findings, while milk somatic cell count (SCC) is accepted as a key indicator. However, determination of SCC with traditional methods is time consuming and laborious. This paper focuses on the ability of electronic nose (e-nose) system containing 12 different metal oxide sensors (MOS) to discriminate milks with somatic cell counts (SCC) above a th...

  2. Predicting energy expenditure from accelerometry counts in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Kathryn H; Treuth, Margarita; Hannan, Peter; McMurray, Robert; Ring, Kimberly B; Catellier, Diane; Pate, Russ

    2005-01-01

    Calibration of accelerometer counts against oxygen consumption to predict energy expenditure has not been conducted in middle school girls. We concurrently assessed energy expenditure and accelerometer counts during physical activities on adolescent girls to develop an equation to predict energy expenditure. Seventy-four girls aged 13-14 yr performed 10 activities while wearing an Actigraph accelerometer and a portable metabolic measurement unit (Cosmed K4b2). The activities were resting, watching television, playing a computer game, sweeping, walking 2.5 and 3.5 mph, performing step aerobics, shooting a basketball, climbing stairs, and running 5 mph. Height and weight were also assessed. Mixed-model regression was used to develop an equation to predict energy expenditure (EE) (kJ.min(-1)) from accelerometer counts. Age (mean [SD] = 14 yr [0.34]) and body-weight-adjusted correlations of accelerometer counts with EE (kJ.min(-1)) for individual activities ranged from -0.14 to 0.59. Higher intensity activities with vertical motion were best correlated. A regression model that explained 85% of the variance of EE was developed: [EE (kJ.min(-1)) = 7.6628 + 0.1462 [(Actigraph counts per minute - 3000)/100] + 0.2371 (body weight in kilograms) - 0.00216 [(Actigraph counts per minute - 3000)/100](2) + 0.004077 [((Actigraph counts per minute - 3000)/100) x (body weight in kilograms)]. The MCCC = 0.85, with a standard error of estimate = 5.61 kJ.min(-1). We developed a prediction equation for kilojoules per minute of energy expenditure from Actigraph accelerometer counts. This equation may be most useful for predicting energy expenditure in groups of adolescent girls over a period of time that will include activities of broad-ranging intensity, and may be useful to intervention researchers interested in objective measures of physical activity.

  3. Microscopic images dataset for automation of RBCs counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif Abbas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A method for Red Blood Corpuscles (RBCs counting has been developed using RBCs light microscopic images and Matlab algorithm. The Dataset consists of Red Blood Corpuscles (RBCs images and there RBCs segmented images. A detailed description using flow chart is given in order to show how to produce RBCs mask. The RBCs mask was used to count the number of RBCs in the blood smear image.

  4. Microscopic images dataset for automation of RBCs counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Sherif

    2015-12-01

    A method for Red Blood Corpuscles (RBCs) counting has been developed using RBCs light microscopic images and Matlab algorithm. The Dataset consists of Red Blood Corpuscles (RBCs) images and there RBCs segmented images. A detailed description using flow chart is given in order to show how to produce RBCs mask. The RBCs mask was used to count the number of RBCs in the blood smear image.

  5. Multiple-Event, Single-Photon Counting Imaging Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinyu; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Sun, Chao; Wang, Kang L.

    2011-01-01

    The single-photon counting imaging sensor is typically an array of silicon Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes that are monolithically integrated with CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) readout, signal processing, and addressing circuits located in each pixel and the peripheral area of the chip. The major problem is its single-event method for photon count number registration. A single-event single-photon counting imaging array only allows registration of up to one photon count in each of its pixels during a frame time, i.e., the interval between two successive pixel reset operations. Since the frame time can t be too short, this will lead to very low dynamic range and make the sensor merely useful for very low flux environments. The second problem of the prior technique is a limited fill factor resulting from consumption of chip area by the monolithically integrated CMOS readout in pixels. The resulting low photon collection efficiency will substantially ruin any benefit gained from the very sensitive single-photon counting detection. The single-photon counting imaging sensor developed in this work has a novel multiple-event architecture, which allows each of its pixels to register as more than one million (or more) photon-counting events during a frame time. Because of a consequently boosted dynamic range, the imaging array of the invention is capable of performing single-photon counting under ultra-low light through high-flux environments. On the other hand, since the multiple-event architecture is implemented in a hybrid structure, back-illumination and close-to-unity fill factor can be realized, and maximized quantum efficiency can also be achieved in the detector array.

  6. Characterization of a new computer-ready photon counting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andor, Gyorgy

    1998-08-01

    The photon-counting system seems to be the best solution for extremely low optical power measurements. The Hamamatsu HC135 photon counting module has a built-in high-voltage power supply amplifier, discriminator, micro-controller with an RS232 serial output. It requires only a +5V supply voltage and an IBM PC or compatible computer to run. The system is supplied with an application software. This talk is about the testing of the device.

  7. Higher order relativistic galaxy number counts: dominating terms

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Jeppe Trøst

    2016-01-01

    We review the number counts to second order concentrating on the terms which dominate on sub horizon scales. We re-derive the result for these terms and compare it with the different versions found in the literature. We generalize our derivation to higher order terms, especially the third order number counts which are needed to compute the 1-loop contribution to the power spectrum.

  8. Theory of overdispersion in counting statistics caused by fluctuating probabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Semkow, T M

    1999-01-01

    It is shown that the random Lexis fluctuations of probabilities such as probability of decay or detection cause the counting statistics to be overdispersed with respect to the classical binomial, Poisson, or Gaussian distributions. The generating and the distribution functions for the overdispersed counting statistics are derived. Applications to radioactive decay with detection and more complex experiments are given, as well as distinguishing between the source and background, in the presence of overdispersion. Monte-Carlo verifications are provided.

  9. Submillimeter Number Counts From Statistical Analysis of BLAST Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Patanchon, Guillaume; Bock, James J; Chapin, Edward L; Devlin, Mark J; Dicker, Simon R; Griffin, Matthew; Gundersen, Joshua O; Halpern, Mark; Hargrave, Peter C; Hughes, David H; Klein, Jeff; Marsden, Gaelen; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Netterfield, Calvin B; Olmi, Luca; Pascale, Enzo; Rex, Marie; Scott, Douglas; Semisch, Christopher; Thomas, Nicholas; Truch, Matthew D P; Tucker, Carole; Tucker, Gregory S; Viero, Marco P; Wiebe, Donald V

    2009-01-01

    We describe the application of a statistical method to estimate submillimeter galaxy number counts from the confusion limited observations of the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST). Our method is based on a maximum likelihood fit to the pixel histogram, sometimes called 'P(D)', an approach which has been used before to probe faint counts, the difference being that here we advocate its use even for sources with relatively high signal-to-noise ratios. This method has an advantage over standard techniques of source extraction in providing an unbiased estimate of the counts from the bright end down to flux densities well below the confusion limit. We specifically analyse BLAST observations of a roughly 10 sq. deg map centered on the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey South field. We provide estimates of number counts at the three BLAST wavelengths, 250, 350, and 500 microns, instead of counting sources in flux bins we estimate the counts at several flux density nodes connected with ...

  10. Avalanche photodiode photon counting receivers for space-borne lidars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Davidson, Frederic M.

    1991-01-01

    Avalanche photodiodes (APD) are studied for uses as photon counting detectors in spaceborne lidars. Non-breakdown APD photon counters, in which the APD's are biased below the breakdown point, are shown to outperform: (1) conventional APD photon counters biased above the breakdown point; (2) conventional APD photon counters biased above the breakdown point; and (3) APD's in analog mode when the received optical signal is extremely weak. Non-breakdown APD photon counters were shown experimentally to achieve an effective photon counting quantum efficiency of 5.0 percent at lambda = 820 nm with a dead time of 15 ns and a dark count rate of 7000/s which agreed with the theoretically predicted values. The interarrival times of the counts followed an exponential distribution and the counting statistics appeared to follow a Poisson distribution with no after pulsing. It is predicted that the effective photon counting quantum efficiency can be improved to 18.7 percent at lambda = 820 nm and 1.46 percent at lambda = 1060 nm with a dead time of a few nanoseconds by using more advanced commercially available electronic components.

  11. Step count recommendations for children based on body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, J Scott; Schofield, Grant; Duncan, Elizabeth K

    2007-01-01

    Current recommendations for pedometer-determined physical activity in children (boys, 15,000 steps/day; girls, 12,000 steps/day) were based on the association between weekday step counts and body mass index. The objective of this study was to develop new targets using both weekday and weekend step counts with percentage body fat (%BF) as the criterion reference. The %BF of 969 New Zealand European, Polynesian, and Asian children (515 male, 454 female) aged 5-12 years was measured in 2004 using hand-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis. Weekday and weekend step counts, assessed using sealed multi-day-memory pedometers over 5 days, were combined into a scaled mean step count. The contrasting groups method for determining criterion-referenced cut-off points was used to establish the optimal step count values for predicting overweight (%BF>85th percentile) and non-overweight (%BFcut-off points were 16,000 steps/day for boys and 13,000 steps/day for girls. Step count targets for reducing the risk of excess body fat in children are 1000 steps/day higher than existing BMI-referenced guidelines.

  12. Guidelines for monitoring bulk tank milk somatic cell and bacterial counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarao, B M; Pillai, S R; Sawant, A A; Wolfgang, D R; Hegde, N V

    2004-10-01

    This study was conducted to establish guidelines for monitoring bulk tank milk somatic cell count and bacterial counts, and to understand the relationship between different bacterial groups that occur in bulk tank milk. One hundred twenty-six dairy farms in 14 counties of Pennsylvania participated, each providing one bulk tank milk sample every 15 d for 2 mo. The 4 bulk tank milk samples from each farm were examined for bulk tank somatic cell count and bacterial counts including standard plate count, preliminary incubation count, laboratory pasteurization count, coagulase-negative staphylococcal count, environmental streptococcal count, coliform count, and gram-negative noncoliform count. The milk samples were also examined for presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Mycoplasma. The bacterial counts of 4 bulk tank milk samples examined over an 8-wk period were averaged and expressed as mean bacterial count per milliliter. The study revealed that an increase in the frequency of isolation of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae was significantly associated with an increased bulk tank somatic cell count. Paired correlation analysis showed that there was low correlation between different bacterial counts. Bulk tank milk with low (standard plate count also had a significantly low level of mean bulk tank somatic cell count (count (count (counts (count (count was less likely to be associated with somatic cell or other bacterial counts. Herd size and farm management practices had considerable influence on somatic cell and bacterial counts in bulk tank milk. Dairy herds that used automatic milking detachers, sand as bedding material, dip cups for teat dipping instead of spraying, and practiced pre-and postdipping had significantly lower bulk tank somatic cell and/or bacterial counts. In conclusion, categorized bulk tank somatic cell and bacterial counts could serve as indicators and facilitate monitoring of herd udder health and milk

  13. Effect of premilking teat disinfection on mastitis incidence, total bacterial count, cell count and milk yield in three dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blowey, R W; Collis, K

    1992-02-29

    An iodophor teat disinfectant was applied before milking by dip or spray to 50 cows and 50 cows were left untreated in each of three commercial herds. The mean incidence of clinical mastitis was reduced by 57 per cent, the total bacterial count by 70 per cent and the count of thermoduric organisms by 32 per cent. These results were not statistically significant, except that one herd showed a significant decrease in total bacterial count. There was no effect on somatic cell count, milk production or milk iodine residues. Atmospheric iodine concentrations increased in the two herds which applied the treatment as a spray, but the levels attained were not likely to be detrimental to human health.

  14. Correlation study between platelet count, leukocyte count, nonhemorrhagic complications, and duration of hospital stay in dengue fever with thrombocytopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, Hari Kishan; Tulasi, Sai Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Dengue is one of the common diseases presenting as fever with thrombocytopenia, also causing significant morbidity and complications. Objectives: Though the correlation between platelet count, bleeding manifestations and hemorrhagic complications has been extensively studied, less is known about the correlation between platelet count and non hemorrhagic complications. This study was done to see the correlation between platelet count and non hemorrhagic complications, duration of hospital stay and additive effect of leucopenia with thrombocytopenia on complications. Methods: Our study is prospective observational study done on 99 patients who had dengue fever with thrombocytopenia. Correlations were obtained using scatter plot and SPSS software trail version. Results: Transaminitis (12.12%) was the most common complication followed by acute renal injury (2%). In our study we found that, as the platelet count decreased the complication rate increased (P = 0.0006). In our study duration of hospital increased (P is 0.00597) with decreasing platelet count when compared to other study where there was no correlation between the two. There was no correlation between thrombocytopenia with leucopenia and complications (P is 0.292), similar to other study. Conclusion: Platelet count can be used to predict the complication and duration of hospital stay and hence better use of resources. PMID:27453855

  15. Association Between Obesity, White Blood Cell and Platelet Count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Jamshidi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Cardiovascular disease is resulted from malfunctioning’s of heart as well as blood vessels. More than two decades ago it was noted that the number of white blood cells can be an indicated of the existence of such disease. Platelet activation and aggregation are among the include processes. That are considered in pathophysiology of a coronary heart disease. However there seems to be a paucity of research on platelet count in patients suffering from obesity. Moreover although previous studies have indicated a positive correlation between platelet and white blood cells. Counts and mortality from coronary heath disease, how this might correlate with obesity is an issue still in need of more attention. Objectives The present study was designed to evaluate platelet count and white blood cell count in those patients who suffer from obesity as compared with control subjects who were not obese. Methods In this cross-sectional study, there were a total of 1024 Iranian subjects living in Hamedan include, staff of Islamic Azad University of Hamedan and subjects who referred to Ekbatan hospital in Hamedan during the period of 6 months randomly and staff of Islamic Azad University of Hamedan. The absence of infectious disease was confirmed by a general practitioner. Finally, the samples included 486 subjects, 254 male, and 232were females. Body mass index was calculated. Waist circumference in the Iranian subjects, at least in men 89 (cm and women 91 (cm was considered. White blood cell and platelet count was measured. T-test and Pearson’s correlation were run to analyze the collected data through SPSS software version 16. Results The average age of the subjects was 34.75 ± 8.1 years. The body mass indexes in 7.6 percent of men and 15.7 of women were greater than 30 (kg/m2. The averages of waist circumference in men and women was 1.04 ± 0.5 and 89.3 ± 10.2 (cm, respectively. Also there seemed to be a significant correlation between waist

  16. Quality control methods in accelerometer data processing: identifying extreme counts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly Rich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accelerometers are designed to measure plausible human activity, however extremely high count values (EHCV have been recorded in large-scale studies. Using population data, we develop methodological principles for establishing an EHCV threshold, propose a threshold to define EHCV in the ActiGraph GT1M, determine occurrences of EHCV in a large-scale study, identify device-specific error values, and investigate the influence of varying EHCV thresholds on daily vigorous PA (VPA. METHODS: We estimated quantiles to analyse the distribution of all accelerometer positive count values obtained from 9005 seven-year old children participating in the UK Millennium Cohort Study. A threshold to identify EHCV was derived by differentiating the quantile function. Data were screened for device-specific error count values and EHCV, and a sensitivity analysis conducted to compare daily VPA estimates using three approaches to accounting for EHCV. RESULTS: Using our proposed threshold of ≥ 11,715 counts/minute to identify EHCV, we found that only 0.7% of all non-zero counts measured in MCS children were EHCV; in 99.7% of these children, EHCV comprised < 1% of total non-zero counts. Only 11 MCS children (0.12% of sample returned accelerometers that contained negative counts; out of 237 such values, 211 counts were equal to -32,768 in one child. The medians of daily minutes spent in VPA obtained without excluding EHCV, and when using a higher threshold (≥19,442 counts/minute were, respectively, 6.2% and 4.6% higher than when using our threshold (6.5 minutes; p<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Quality control processes should be undertaken during accelerometer fieldwork and prior to analysing data to identify monitors recording error values and EHCV. The proposed threshold will improve the validity of VPA estimates in children's studies using the ActiGraph GT1M by ensuring only plausible data are analysed. These methods can be applied to define appropriate EHCV

  17. Is automated platelet counting still a problem in thrombocytopenic blood?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Antônio Gomes Oliveira

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Reliable platelet counting is crucial for indicating prophylactic platelet transfusion in thrombocytopenic patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the precision and accuracy of platelet counting for thrombocytopenic patients, using four different automated counters in comparison with the Brecher & Cronkite reference method recommended by the International Committee for Standardization in Hematology (ICSH. TYPE OF STUDY: Automated platelet counting assessment in thrombocytopenic patients. SETTING: Hematology Laboratory, Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo, and the Hematology Division of Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Brecher & Cronkite reference method and four different automated platelet counters. PARTICIPANTS: 43 thrombocytopenic patients with platelet counts of less than 30,000/µl RESULTS: The ADVIA-120 (Bayer, Coulter STKS, H1 System (Technicom-Bayer and Coulter T-890 automatic instruments presented great precision and accuracy in relation to laboratory thrombocytopenic samples obtained by diluting blood from normal donors. However, when thrombocytopenic patients were investigated, all the counters except ADVIA (which is based on volume and refraction index showed low accuracy when compared to the Brecher & Cronkite reference method (ICSH. The ADVIA counter showed high correlation (r = 0.947. However, all counters showed flags in thrombocytopenic samples. CONCLUSION: The Brecher & Cronkite reference method should always be indicated in thrombocytopenic patients for platelet counts below 30,000 plt /µl obtained in one dimensional counters.

  18. An Automatic Car Counting System Using OverFeat Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debojit Biswas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Automatic car counting is an important component in the automated traffic system. Car counting is very important to understand the traffic load and optimize the traffic signals. In this paper, we implemented the Gaussian Background Subtraction Method and OverFeat Framework to count cars. OverFeat Framework is a combination of Convolution Neural Network (CNN and one machine learning classifier (like Support Vector Machines (SVM or Logistic Regression. With this study, we showed another possible application area for the OverFeat Framework. The advantages and shortcomings of the Background Subtraction Method and OverFeat Framework were analyzed using six individual traffic videos with different perspectives, such as camera angles, weather conditions and time of the day. In addition, we compared the two algorithms above with manual counting and a commercial software called Placemeter. The OverFeat Framework showed significant potential in the field of car counting with the average accuracy of 96.55% in our experiment.

  19. Reproducibility of Manual Platelet Estimation Following Automated Low Platelet Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab S Al-Hosni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Manual platelet estimation is one of the methods used when automated platelet estimates are very low. However, the reproducibility of manual platelet estimation has not been adequately studied. We sought to assess the reproducibility of manual platelet estimation following automated low platelet counts and to evaluate the impact of the level of experience of the person counting on the reproducibility of manual platelet estimates. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, peripheral blood films of patients with platelet counts less than 100 × 109/L were retrieved and given to four raters to perform manual platelet estimation independently using a predefined method (average of platelet counts in 10 fields using 100× objective multiplied by 20. Data were analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC as a method of reproducibility assessment. Results: The ICC across the four raters was 0.840, indicating excellent agreement. The median difference of the two most experienced raters was 0 (range: -64 to 78. The level of platelet estimate by the least-experienced rater predicted the disagreement (p = 0.037. When assessing the difference between pairs of raters, there was no significant difference in the ICC (p = 0.420. Conclusions: The agreement between different raters using manual platelet estimation was excellent. Further confirmation is necessary, with a prospective study using a gold standard method of platelet counts.

  20. The Complexity of Approximately Counting Stable Roommate Assignments

    CERN Document Server

    Chebolu, Prasad; Martin, Russell

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the complexity of approximately counting stable roommate assignments in two models: (i) the $k$-attribute model, in which the preference lists are determined by dot products of "preference vectors" with "attribute vectors" and (ii) the $k$-Euclidean model, in which the preference lists are determined by the closeness of the "positions" of the people to their "preferred positions". Exactly counting the number of assignments is #P-complete, since Irving and Leather demonstrated #P-completeness for the special case of the stable marriage problem. We show that counting the number of stable roommate assignments in the $k$-attribute model ($k \\geq 4$) and the $3$-Euclidean model($k \\geq 3$) is interreducible, in an approximation-preserving sense, with counting independent sets (of all sizes) (#IS) in a graph, or counting the number of satisfying assignments of a Boolean formula (#SAT). This means that there can be no FPRAS for any of these problems unless NP=RP. As a consequence, we infer that there ...

  1. Single electron counting using a dual MCP assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yuzhen [School of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Shulin, E-mail: liusl@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhao, Tianchi, E-mail: tianchi@u.washington.edu [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Yan, Baojun; Wang, Peiliang [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); Yu, Yang [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); School of Science, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048 (China); Lei, Xiangcui [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); Yang, Luping [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Wen, Kaile [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); Qi, Ming [School of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); and others

    2016-09-11

    The gain, pulse height resolution and peak-to-valley ratio of single electrons detected by using a Chevron configured Microchannel Plate (MCP) assembly are studied. The two MCPs are separated by a 280 µm gap and are biased by four electrodes. The purpose of the study is to determine the optimum bias voltage arrangements for single electron counting. By comparing the results of various bias voltage combinations, we conclude that good performance for the electron counting can be achieved by operating the MCP assembly in saturation mode. In addition, by applying a small reverse bias voltage across the gap while adjusting the bias voltages of the MCPs, optimum performance of electron counting can be obtained. - Highlights: • Dual MCPs assembly with four electrodes using different voltage combinations has been investigated for single electron counting. • Both the MCP voltages and the gap voltage can affect the gain, pulse height resolution and P/V ratio. • A high gain of the first stage MCP, a saturation mode of the second stage MCP and an appropriately reverse gap voltage can improve the resolution greatly. • The optimum voltage arrangements is significant for the design of MCP detectors in single electron counting applications.

  2. Multiplicity counting from fission chamber signals in the current mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pázsit, I.; Pál, L.; Nagy, L.

    2016-12-01

    In nuclear safeguards, estimation of sample parameters using neutron-based non-destructive assay methods is traditionally based on multiplicity counting with thermal neutron detectors in the pulse mode. These methods in general require multi-channel analysers and various dead time correction methods. This paper proposes and elaborates on an alternative method, which is based on fast neutron measurements with fission chambers in the current mode. A theory of "multiplicity counting" with fission chambers is developed by incorporating Böhnel's concept of superfission [1] into a master equation formalism, developed recently by the present authors for the statistical theory of fission chamber signals [2,3]. Explicit expressions are derived for the first three central auto- and cross moments (cumulants) of the signals of up to three detectors. These constitute the generalisation of the traditional Campbell relationships for the case when the incoming events represent a compound Poisson distribution. Because now the expressions contain the factorial moments of the compound source, they contain the same information as the singles, doubles and triples rates of traditional multiplicity counting. The results show that in addition to the detector efficiency, the detector pulse shape also enters the formulas; hence, the method requires a more involved calibration than the traditional method of multiplicity counting. However, the method has some advantages by not needing dead time corrections, as well as having a simpler and more efficient data processing procedure, in particular for cross-correlations between different detectors, than the traditional multiplicity counting methods.

  3. Platelet count in healthy subjects treated with antiplatelet drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maczy González-Rincón

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Platelet count in peripheral blood of healthy subjects with antiplatelet drugs. 20 subjects were analized. They were distributed in two groups: subject A: 10 who received aspirin (100 mg and B:10 with Clopidogrel (75 mg for 7 days. In all subjects studied platelet count in peripheral blood and PRP. It found a platelet count before treatment with antiplatelet agents in peripheral blood of 258,6 ± 54,46 x 109 l and 7 days after 254 ± 41,86 x 109 l (aspirin and 285,4 ± 70, 196,5 ± 37,90 x 109 l (Clopidogrel respectively. In the PRP of subjects before receiving aspirin was 486,5 ± 129,54 x 109 l and after 449,2 ± 85,51 x 109 l; prior to Clopidogrel ingestion was 565,2 ± 150,41 and 592,9 ± 203,46 x 109 l after treatment. Significant differences were found only for the platelet count in the Clopidogrel Group (p < 0.05. A significant decrease in platelet count was observed in peripheral blood after administration of Clopidogrel, possibly as a result of its pharmacological mechanism. More studies are needed to assess a greater number of individuals and better measure the effect of antiplatelet agents.

  4. Starry Nights: The Great World Wide Star Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Dennis; Meymaris, K.; Henderson, S.; Johnson, R.

    2008-05-01

    The Great World Wide Star Count is an international field campaign encouraging participants to go outside, look skyward after dark, count the stars they see in certain constellations, and report what they see online. This Windows to the Universe citizen science event is designed to raise awareness about light pollution and the night sky as well as promote learning in astronomy. Star Count benefits from the current excitement in citizen science. The 2007 pilot effort included 15 nights for observations in October & November. Utilizing the international networking capabilities of Windows to the Universe, Star Count is able to engage people from all countries. Data collection and online reporting is designed to be simple and user-friendly for citizen scientists of all ages. The collected data is available online in a variety of formats for use by students, teachers and scientists worldwide to assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world. This session will share our results and demonstrate how students and scientists worldwide can explore and analyze the data from the of the 2007 campaign. We will discuss how the Star Count team planned and executed the project in such a way that non-astronomers were able to make valid and useful contributions. We will also discuss lessons learned and best practices based on this inaugural campaign, as well as our plans for the future, including IYA 2009.

  5. Absolute lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker for CD4+ cell count in monitoring of antiretroviral therapy, Northwest Ethiopia: retrospective evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschalew Gelaw

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the use of total lymphocyte count as a surrogate marker for CD4+ cell count among HIV infected patients at the University of Gondar Hospital. Methods: A retrospective cross sectional study was conducted at the University of Gondar Hospital antiretroviral therapy laboratory from December 2011 to May 2012. Data on CD4+ cell count, total lymphocyte count, sex, and age were collected from 2964 HIV infected patients and analyzed using SPSS version 16 computer software. Results: Total lymphocyte count was significantly correlated with CD4+ cell count (P<0.001; r 2 =0.434. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value of total lymphocyte count<1 200 cells/mm3 to predict CD4+ cell count <200 cells/mm3 was 57.8%, 86.4%%, 34.1%, 86.39%, respectively. A total lymphocyte count<1 000cells/mm3 was found to have suboptimal sensitivity (69.0%, and specificity (85.0% for predicting a CD4+ cell count <200 cells/ mm 3 . Conclusions: Total lymphocyte count and CD4+ cell count was positively correlated. Hence, lymphocyte count less than or equal to 1 000/mm3 can be used as a cutoff value in place where there is no CD4+ cell counting machine.

  6. Zeta Functions for Elliptic Curves I. Counting Bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Weng, Lin

    2012-01-01

    To count bundles on curves, we study zetas of elliptic curves and their zeros. There are two types, i.e., the pure non-abelian zetas defined using moduli spaces of semi-stable bundles, and the group zetas defined for special linear groups. In lower ranks, we show that these two types of zetas coincide and satisfy the Riemann Hypothesis. For general cases, exposed is an intrinsic relation on automorphism groups of semi-stable bundles over elliptic curves, the so-called counting miracle. All this, together with Harder-Narasimhan, Desale-Ramanan and Zagier's result, gives an effective way to count semi-stable bundles on elliptic curves not only in terms of automorphism groups but more essentially in terms of their $h^0$'s. Distributions of zeros of high rank zetas are also discussed.

  7. Performance limits of a single photon counting pixel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmeissani, M.; Mikulec, B. E-mail: bettina.mikulec@cern.ch

    2001-03-11

    X-ray imaging using hybrid pixel detectors in single photon counting mode is a relatively recent and exciting development. The photon counting mode implies that each pixel has a threshold in energy above which a hit is recorded. Sharing of charge between adjacent pixels would therefore lead to a loss of registered hits and for medical imaging applications to a higher patient dose. This explains why the demand for high spatial resolution and consequently small pixel sizes (<100 {mu}m) motivates the Medipix2 collaboration to study the effects of charge sharing between pixels on system performance. Two different simulation codes are used to simulate the energy loss inside the detector and the charge transport towards the pixel electrodes. The largest contribution to the lateral spreading of charge comes from diffusion and can result in a considerable loss of detection efficiency in photon counting systems for small pixel sizes.

  8. A Computer Vision Approach to Object Tracking and Counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Mezei

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper, introduces a new method for counting people or more generally objects that enter or exit a certain area/building or perimeter. We propose an algorithm (method that analyzes a video sequence, detects moving objects and their moving direction and filters them according to some criteria (ex only humans. As result one obtains in and out counters for objects passing the defined perimeter. Automatic object counting is a growing size application in many industry/commerce areas. Counting can be used in statistical analysis and optimal activity scheduling methods. One of the main applications is the approximation of the number of persons passing trough, or reaching a certain area: airports (customs, shopping centers and malls and sports or cultural activities with high attendance. The main purpose is to offer an accurate estimation while still keeping the anonymity of the visitors.

  9. Applications of some discrete regression models for count data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Golam Kibria

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have considered several regression models to fit the count data that encounter in the field of Biometrical, Environmental, Social Sciences and Transportation Engineering. We have fitted Poisson (PO, Negative Binomial (NB, Zero-Inflated Poisson (ZIP and Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial (ZINB regression models to run-off-road (ROR crash data which collected on arterial roads in south region (rural of Florida State. To compare the performance of these models, we analyzed data with moderate to high percentage of zero counts. Because the variances were almost three times greater than the means, it appeared that both NB and ZINB models performed better than PO and ZIP models for the zero inflated and over dispersed count data.

  10. 48-channel coincidence counting system for multiphoton experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Li, Wei; Hu, Yi; Yang, Tao; Jin, Ge; Jiang, Xiao

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a coincidence counting system with 48 input channels which is aimed to count all coincidence events, up to 531 441 kinds, in a multiphoton experiment. Using the dynamic delay adjusting inside the Field Programmable Gate Array, the alignment of photon signals of 48 channels is achieved. After the alignment, clock phase shifting is used to sample signal pulses. Logic constraints are used to stabilize the pulse width. The coincidence counting data stored in a 1G bit external random access memory will be sent to the computer to analyze the amount of 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-fold coincidence events. This system is designed for multiphoton entanglement experiments with multiple degrees of freedom of photons.

  11. Power Counting and Wilsonian Renormalization in Nuclear Effective Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Valderrama, Manuel Pavon

    2016-01-01

    Effective field theories are the most general tool for the description of low energy phenomena. They are universal and systematic: they can be formulated for any low energy systems we can think of and offer a clear guide on how to calculate predictions with reliable error estimates, a feature that is called power counting. These properties can be easily understood in Wilsonian renormalization, in which effective field theories are the low energy renormalization group evolution of a more fundamental ---perhaps unknown or unsolvable--- high energy theory. In nuclear physics they provide the possibility of a theoretically sound derivation of nuclear forces without having to solve quantum chromodynamics explicitly. However there is the problem of how to organize calculations within nuclear effective field theory: the traditional knowledge about power counting is perturbative but nuclear physics is not. Yet power counting can be derived in Wilsonian renormalization and there is already a fairly good understanding ...

  12. Single ion counting with a MCP (microchannel plate) detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawara, Hiroko; Sasaki, Shinichi; Miyajima, Mitsuhiro [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Shibamura, Eido

    1996-07-01

    In this study, a single-ion-counting method using alpha-particle-impact ionization of Ar atoms is demonstrated and the preliminary {epsilon}{sub mcp} for Ar ions with incident energies of 3 to 4.7 keV is determined. The single-ion counting by the MCP is aimed to be performed under experimental conditions as follows: (1) A signal from the MCP is reasonably identified as incidence of single Ar-ion. (2) The counting rate of Ar ions is less than 1 s{sup -1}. (3) The incident Ar ions are not focused on a small part of an active area of the MCP, namely, {epsilon}{sub mcp} is determined with respect to the whole active area of the MCP. So far, any absolute detection efficiency has not been reported under these conditions. (J.P.N.)

  13. Design and construction of a photon counting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, F. R.; Del Valle, C.; Reyes, L.; Tobón, J.; Barrero, C.; Velásquez, A.

    2007-03-01

    This article describes the design and implementation of a photon counting system, which is made using low cost electronic devices. The system is connected to a spectrometer in order to study events related to low levels of luminance intensity. It uses a photo-multiplier tube (PMT) for photon detection. The counting photon system is conformed by 5 stages, which are: the detector, a pre-amplifier, a pulse comparator, a pulses counter and a communications interface in a PC. Data acquisition is done through the serial port. The system allows the detection of radiation coming from signals whose counting rates are several thousands pulses per second. As an application of the system, the Raman Stokes spectrum of the polystyrene as well as the fluorescence band of an organic pigment on a poly-vinyl matrix is showed.

  14. Enhancing the scientific value of the Christmas Bird Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Erica H.; Francis, C.M.; Blancher, P.J.; Drennan, S.R.; Howe, M.A.; Lepage, D.; Robbins, Chandler S.; Rosenberg, K.V.; Sauer, J.R.; Smith, Kimberly G.

    2005-01-01

    The Christmas Bird Count (CBC), conducted by the National Audubon Society (NAS) since 1900, constitutes the longest-running and geographically most widespread survey of bird life in the Western Hemisphere. Starting with 25 count locations in its first year, the program has grown continuously ever since, with 20–30 locations currently being added annually. Each CBC consists of a tally of all birds detected within a circle 24.1 km (15 miles) in diameter, on a single day within a few weeks around Christmas (current allowable dates are 14 December through 5 January). More than 50,000 observers now take part each year, in close to 2,000 count circles spread across the U.S. and its territories, southern Canada, and, increasingly, Latin America.

  15. Application of neutron multiplicity counting to waste assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickrell, M.M.; Ensslin, N. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Sharpe, T.J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This paper describes the use of a new figure of merit code that calculates both bias and precision for coincidence and multiplicity counting, and determines the optimum regions for each in waste assay applications. A {open_quotes}tunable multiplicity{close_quotes} approach is developed that uses a combination of coincidence and multiplicity counting to minimize the total assay error. An example is shown where multiplicity analysis is used to solve for mass, alpha, and multiplication and tunable multiplicity is shown to work well. The approach provides a method for selecting coincidence, multiplicity, or tunable multiplicity counting to give the best assay with the lowest total error over a broad spectrum of assay conditions. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Bayesian inference from count data using discrete uniform priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comoglio, Federico; Fracchia, Letizia; Rinaldi, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    We consider a set of sample counts obtained by sampling arbitrary fractions of a finite volume containing an homogeneously dispersed population of identical objects. We report a Bayesian derivation of the posterior probability distribution of the population size using a binomial likelihood and non-conjugate, discrete uniform priors under sampling with or without replacement. Our derivation yields a computationally feasible formula that can prove useful in a variety of statistical problems involving absolute quantification under uncertainty. We implemented our algorithm in the R package dupiR and compared it with a previously proposed Bayesian method based on a Gamma prior. As a showcase, we demonstrate that our inference framework can be used to estimate bacterial survival curves from measurements characterized by extremely low or zero counts and rather high sampling fractions. All in all, we provide a versatile, general purpose algorithm to infer population sizes from count data, which can find application in a broad spectrum of biological and physical problems.

  17. Improving the counting efficiency in time-correlated single photon counting experiments by dead-time optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peronio, P.; Acconcia, G.; Rech, I.; Ghioni, M. [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) has been long recognized as the most sensitive method for fluorescence lifetime measurements, but often requiring “long” data acquisition times. This drawback is related to the limited counting capability of the TCSPC technique, due to pile-up and counting loss effects. In recent years, multi-module TCSPC systems have been introduced to overcome this issue. Splitting the light into several detectors connected to independent TCSPC modules proportionally increases the counting capability. Of course, multi-module operation also increases the system cost and can cause space and power supply problems. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach based on a new detector and processing electronics designed to reduce the overall system dead time, thus enabling efficient photon collection at high excitation rate. We present a fast active quenching circuit for single-photon avalanche diodes which features a minimum dead time of 12.4 ns. We also introduce a new Time-to-Amplitude Converter (TAC) able to attain extra-short dead time thanks to the combination of a scalable array of monolithically integrated TACs and a sequential router. The fast TAC (F-TAC) makes it possible to operate the system towards the upper limit of detector count rate capability (∼80 Mcps) with reduced pile-up losses, addressing one of the historic criticisms of TCSPC. Preliminary measurements on the F-TAC are presented and discussed.

  18. Platelet counts, MPV and PDW in culture proven and probable neonatal sepsis and association of platelet counts with mortality rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mirza Sultan; Waheed, Abdul

    2014-05-01

    To determine frequency of thrombocytopenia and thrombocytosis, the MPV (mean platelet volume) and PDW (platelet distribution width) in patients with probable and culture proven neonatal sepsis and determine any association between platelet counts and mortality rate. Descriptive analytical study. NICU, Fazle Omar Hospital, from January 2011 to December 2012. Cases of culture proven and probable neonatal sepsis, admitted in Fazle Omar Hospital, Rabwah, were included in the study. Platelet counts, MPV and PDW of the cases were recorded. Mortality was documented. Frequencies of thrombocytopenia ( 450000/mm3) were ascertained. Mortality rates in different groups according to platelet counts were calculated and compared by chi-square test to check association. Four hundred and sixty nine patients were included; 68 (14.5%) of them died. One hundred and thirty six (29%) had culture proven sepsis, and 333 (71%) were categorized as probable sepsis. Thrombocytopenia was present in 116 (24.7%), and thrombocytosis was present in 36 (7.7%) cases. Median platelet count was 213.0/mm3. Twenty eight (27.7%) patients with thrombocytopenia, and 40 (12.1%) cases with normal or raised platelet counts died (p neonatal sepsis. Those with thrombocytopenia have higher mortality rate. No significant difference was present between PDW and MPV of the cases who survived and died.

  19. Improving the counting efficiency in time-correlated single photon counting experiments by dead-time optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peronio, P.; Acconcia, G.; Rech, I.; Ghioni, M.

    2015-11-01

    Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) has been long recognized as the most sensitive method for fluorescence lifetime measurements, but often requiring "long" data acquisition times. This drawback is related to the limited counting capability of the TCSPC technique, due to pile-up and counting loss effects. In recent years, multi-module TCSPC systems have been introduced to overcome this issue. Splitting the light into several detectors connected to independent TCSPC modules proportionally increases the counting capability. Of course, multi-module operation also increases the system cost and can cause space and power supply problems. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach based on a new detector and processing electronics designed to reduce the overall system dead time, thus enabling efficient photon collection at high excitation rate. We present a fast active quenching circuit for single-photon avalanche diodes which features a minimum dead time of 12.4 ns. We also introduce a new Time-to-Amplitude Converter (TAC) able to attain extra-short dead time thanks to the combination of a scalable array of monolithically integrated TACs and a sequential router. The fast TAC (F-TAC) makes it possible to operate the system towards the upper limit of detector count rate capability (˜80 Mcps) with reduced pile-up losses, addressing one of the historic criticisms of TCSPC. Preliminary measurements on the F-TAC are presented and discussed.

  20. An analysis of dependency of counting efficiency on worker anatomy for in vivo measurements: whole-body counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Binquan; Mille, Matthew; Xu, X George [Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)], E-mail: xug2@rpi.edu

    2008-07-07

    In vivo radiobioassay is integral to many health physics and radiological protection programs dealing with internal exposures. The Bottle Manikin Absorber (BOMAB) physical phantom has been widely used for whole-body counting calibrations. However, the shape of BOMAB phantoms-a collection of plastic, cylindrical shells which contain no bones or internal organs-does not represent realistic human anatomy. Furthermore, workers who come in contact with radioactive materials have rather different body shape and size. To date, there is a lack of understanding about how the counting efficiency would change when the calibrated counter is applied to a worker with complicated internal organs or tissues. This paper presents a study on various in vivo counting efficiencies obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of two BOMAB phantoms and three tomographic image-based models (VIP-Man, NORMAN and CNMAN) for a scenario involving homogeneous whole-body radioactivity contamination. The results reveal that a phantom's counting efficiency is strongly dependent on the shape and size of a phantom. Contrary to what was expected, it was found that only small differences in efficiency were observed when the density and material composition of all internal organs and tissues of the tomographic phantoms were changed to water. The results of this study indicate that BOMAB phantoms with appropriately adjusted size and shape can be sufficient for whole-body counting calibrations when the internal contamination is homogeneous.

  1. Robotic milking and milk quality: effects on bacterial counts, somatic cell counts, freezing point and free fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne van der Vorst

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in milk quality after the introduction of automatic milking systems (AM-systems on dairy farms in TheNetherlands, Germany and Denmark were examined and the data were compared with milk quality results of farms withconventional milking technology. After introduction, a small, but significant increase in total bacterial count, somatic cellcount, freezing point and free fatty acids was observed. The highest levels for total plate count and cell count are foundin the first six months after introduction. After this period the milk quality slightly improves to a more stable level.Risk factors related with milk quality concern general farm characteristics, animal health, AM-system, cleaning and cooling,housing, management skills of the farmer and the hygiene on the farm. Total plate count was significantly relatedto milk yield of the herd, cleaning of the area around the AM-system and the overall hygiene on the farm. Bulk milksomatic cell count appeared to be significantly related to milk yield of the herd and the number of milkings before replacementof the liners. An increased milking frequency is not the only explanation of increased free fatty acid levels. Technicalfactors related to free fatty acids mainly concerned the air inlet in the teat cups, bubbling (excessive air inlet and a toolong post run time of the milk pump. However, several questions regarding the causes of increased free fatty acid levelsremained unclear.

  2. An analysis of dependency of counting efficiency on worker anatomy for in vivo measurements: whole-body counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Binquan; Mille, Matthew; Xu, X George

    2008-07-07

    In vivo radiobioassay is integral to many health physics and radiological protection programs dealing with internal exposures. The Bottle Manikin Absorber (BOMAB) physical phantom has been widely used for whole-body counting calibrations. However, the shape of BOMAB phantoms-a collection of plastic, cylindrical shells which contain no bones or internal organs-does not represent realistic human anatomy. Furthermore, workers who come in contact with radioactive materials have rather different body shape and size. To date, there is a lack of understanding about how the counting efficiency would change when the calibrated counter is applied to a worker with complicated internal organs or tissues. This paper presents a study on various in vivo counting efficiencies obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of two BOMAB phantoms and three tomographic image-based models (VIP-Man, NORMAN and CNMAN) for a scenario involving homogeneous whole-body radioactivity contamination. The results reveal that a phantom's counting efficiency is strongly dependent on the shape and size of a phantom. Contrary to what was expected, it was found that only small differences in efficiency were observed when the density and material composition of all internal organs and tissues of the tomographic phantoms were changed to water. The results of this study indicate that BOMAB phantoms with appropriately adjusted size and shape can be sufficient for whole-body counting calibrations when the internal contamination is homogeneous.

  3. High quantum efficiency S-20 photocathodes in photon counting detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, D. A.; DeFazio, J.; Duarte Pinto, S.; Glazenborg, R.; Kernen, E.

    2016-04-01

    Based on conventional S-20 processes, a new series of high quantum efficiency (QE) photocathodes has been developed that can be specifically tuned for use in the ultraviolet, blue or green regions of the spectrum. The QE values exceed 30% at maximum response, and the dark count rate is found to be as low as 30 Hz/cm2 at room temperature. This combination of properties along with a fast temporal response makes these photocathodes ideal for application in photon counting detectors, which is demonstrated with an MCP photomultiplier tube for single and multi-photoelectron detection.

  4. Estimation of atomic interaction parameters by photon counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Alexander Holm; Mølmer, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Detection of radiation signals is at the heart of precision metrology and sensing. In this article we show how the fluctuations in photon counting signals can be exploited to optimally extract information about the physical parameters that govern the dynamics of the emitter. For a simple two......-level emitter subject to photon counting, we show that the Fisher information and the Cram\\'er- Rao sensitivity bound based on the full detection record can be evaluated from the waiting time distribution in the fluorescence signal which can, in turn, be calculated for both perfect and imperfect detectors...

  5. Alpha counting and spectrometry using liquid scintillation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, W J

    1986-01-01

    The material in this report is intended to be a practical introduction and guide to the use of liquid scintillation for alpha counting and spectrometry. Other works devoted to the development of the theory of liquid scintillation exist and a minimum of such material is repeated here. Much remains to be learned and many improvements remain to be made in the use of liquid scintillation for alpha counting and spectrometry. It is hoped that this modest work will encourage others to continue development in the field.

  6. Electrostatically defined silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M., E-mail: msingh@sandia.gov; Luhman, D. R.; Lilly, M. P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87175 (United States); Pacheco, J. L.; Perry, D.; Garratt, E.; Ten Eyck, G.; Bishop, N. C.; Wendt, J. R.; Manginell, R. P.; Dominguez, J.; Pluym, T.; Bielejec, E.; Carroll, M. S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2016-02-08

    Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is crucial to donor spin quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor based quantum computing. In this work, a focused ion beam is used to implant antimony donors in 100 nm × 150 nm windows straddling quantum dots. Ion detectors are integrated next to the quantum dots to sense the implants. The numbers of donors implanted can be counted to a precision of a single ion. In low-temperature transport measurements, regular Coulomb blockade is observed from the quantum dots. Charge offsets indicative of donor ionization are also observed in devices with counted donor implants.

  7. Whole body counting at nuclear facilities in North America-1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saban, C.L.; Coleman, R.L.; Haskins, A.W. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, AL (US))

    1984-04-01

    In 1984, the Tennessee Valley Authority conducted a survey of whole body counting (WBC) programs at 75 nuclear facilities in North America. The survey was a supplement to an initial survey performed in 1980. Data obtained from the study were used to compare current trends in whole body counting to those observed in the 1980 survey. This article presents the results of the 1984 survey in five areas: types of WBC systems, WBC spectral analysis software, protocol for performing WBCs, quality assurance programs, and technical bases for WBC programs.

  8. Improved Aerobic Colony Count Technique for Hydrophobic Grid Membrane Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Parrington, Lorna J.; Sharpe, Anthony N.; Peterkin, Pearl I.

    1993-01-01

    The AOAC International official action procedure for performing aerobic colony counts on hydrophobic grid membrane filters (HGMFs) uses Trypticase soy-fast green FCF agar (FGA) incubated for 48 h. Microbial growths are various shades of green on a pale green background, which can cause problems for automated as well as manual counting. HGMFs which had been incubated 24 or 48 h at 35°C on Trypticase soy agar were flooded underneath with 1 to 2 ml of 0.1% triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) sol...

  9. Combinatorial reasoning an introduction to the art of counting

    CERN Document Server

    DeTemple, Duane

    2014-01-01

    Written by well-known scholars in the field, this book introduces combinatorics alongside modern techniques, showcases the interdisciplinary aspects of the topic, and illustrates how to problem solve with a multitude of exercises throughout. The authors' approach is very reader-friendly and avoids the ""scholarly tone"" found in many books on this topic. Combinatorial Reasoning: An Introduction to the Art of Counting: Focuses on enumeration and combinatorial thinking as a way to develop a variety of effective approaches to solving counting problemsIncludes brief summaries of basic concepts f

  10. Sampling frequency affects ActiGraph activity counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønd, Jan Christian; Arvidsson, Daniel

    in Matlab and sampled at frequencies of 30-100 Hz. Also, acceleration signals during indoor walking and running were sampled at 30 Hz using the ActiGraph GT3X and resampled in Matlab to frequencies of 40-100 Hz. All data was processed with the ActiLife software.Results: Acceleration frequencies between 5....... The difference increased with increasing activity intensity, with up to 1000 counts per minute at fast running.Discussion & conclusions: Activity counts from vigorous physical activity is highly attenuated with the ActiLife software. High frequency movement and noise information escape the bandpass filter...

  11. Phonon counting and intensity interferometry of a nanomechanical resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Justin D; MacCabe, Gregory S; Groblacher, Simon; Safavi-Naeini, Amir H; Marsili, Francesco; Shaw, Matthew D; Painter, Oskar

    2014-01-01

    Using an optical probe along with single photon detection we have performed effective phonon counting measurements of the acoustic emission and absorption processes in a nanomechanical resonator. Applying these measurements in a Hanbury Brown and Twiss set-up, phonon correlations of the nanomechanical resonator are explored from below to above threshold of a parametric instability leading to self-oscillation of the resonator. Discussion of the results in terms of a "phonon laser", and analysis of the sensitivity of the phonon counting technique are presented.

  12. Power-counting renormalizability of generalized Horava gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, Matt

    2009-01-01

    In an earlier article [arXiv:0902.0590 [hep-th], Phys. Rev D80 (2009) 025011], I discussed the potential benefits of allowing Lorentz symmetry breaking in quantum field theories. In particular I discussed the perturbative power-counting finiteness of the normal-ordered :P(phi)^{z>=d}_{d+1}: scalar quantum field theories, and sketched the implications for Horava's model of quantum gravity. In the current rather brief addendum, I will tidy up some dangling issues and fill out some of the technical details of the argument indicating the power-counting renormalizability of a z>=d variant of Horava gravity in (d+1) dimensions.

  13. Mass/Count Variation: A Mereological, Two-Dimensional Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R Sutton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We argue that two types of context are central to grounding the semantics for the mass/count distinction. We combine and develop the accounts of Rothstein (2010 and Landman (2011, which emphasize (non-overlap at a context. We also adopt some parts of Chierchia’s (2010 account which uses precisifying contexts. We unite these strands in a two-dimensional semantics that covers a wide range of the puzzling variation data in mass/count lexicalization. Most importantly, it predicts where we should expect to find such variation for some classes of nouns but not for others, and also explains why.

  14. Counting publications and citations: Is more always better?

    CERN Document Server

    Waltman, Ludo; Wouters, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Is more always better? We address this question in the context of bibliometric indices that aim to assess the scientific impact of individual researchers by counting their number of highly cited publications. We propose a simple model in which the number of citations of a publication depends not only on the scientific impact of the publication but also on other 'random' factors. Our model indicates that more need not always be better. It turns out that the most influential researchers may have a systematically lower performance, in terms of highly cited publications, than some of their less influential colleagues. The model also suggests an improved way of counting highly cited publications.

  15. Comparing Background Subtraction Algorithms and Method of Car Counting

    CERN Document Server

    Thakur, Gautam S; Hui, Pan; Helmy, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we compare various image background subtraction algorithms with the ground truth of cars counted. We have given a sample of thousand images, which are the snap shots of current traffic as records at various intersections and highways. We have also counted an approximate number of cars that are visible in these images. In order to ascertain the accuracy of algorithms to be used for the processing of million images, we compare them on many metrics that includes (i) Scalability (ii) Accuracy (iii) Processing time.

  16. Estimation of atomic interaction parameters by photon counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Alexander Holm; Mølmer, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Detection of radiation signals is at the heart of precision metrology and sensing. In this article we show how the fluctuations in photon counting signals can be exploited to optimally extract information about the physical parameters that govern the dynamics of the emitter. For a simple two......-level emitter subject to photon counting, we show that the Fisher information and the Cram\\'er- Rao sensitivity bound based on the full detection record can be evaluated from the waiting time distribution in the fluorescence signal which can, in turn, be calculated for both perfect and imperfect detectors...

  17. Comparison of Limulus assay, standard plate count, and total coliform count for microbiological assessment of renovated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, J H; Lee, J C; Alexander, G A; Wolf, H W

    1979-05-01

    The Limulus endotoxin assay was compared to the standard plate count and total coliform count for assessment of the bacteriological quality of reclaimed wastewater. A total of 48 water samples from an advanced waste treatment plant in Dallas, Tex. were examined by the three techniques. Limulus assays were technically simpler to perform and provided results much sooner than conventional culture methods. However, the endotoxin values did not correlate extremely well with determinations of viable bacterial numbers. This lack of correlation may have been due to alterations in the normal ratio of viable gram-negative cells to endotoxin caused by water reclamation procedures.

  18. The absolute lymphocyte count accurately estimates CD4 counts in HIV-infected adults with virologic suppression and immune reconstitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnaby Young

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The clinical value of monitoring CD4 counts in immune reconstituted, virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients is limited. We investigated if absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC from an automated blood counting machine could accurately estimate CD4 counts. Materials and Methods: CD4 counts, ALC and HIV viral load (VL were extracted from an electronic laboratory database for all patients in HIV care at the Communicable Diseases Centre, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore (2008–13. Virologic suppression was defined as consecutive HIV VLs 300 cells/mm3. CD4 counts were estimated using the CD4% from the first value >300 and an ALC 181–540 days later. Results: A total of 1215 periods of virologic suppression were identified from 1183 patients, with 2227 paired CD4-ALCs available for analysis. 98.3% of CD4 estimates were within 50% of the actual value. 83.3% within 25% and 40.5% within 10%. The error pattern was approximately symmetrically distributed around a mean of −6.5%, but significant peaked and with mild positive skew (kurtosis 4.45, skewness 1.07. Causes for these errors were explored. Variability between lymphocyte counts measured by ALC and flow cytometry did not follow an apparent pattern, and contributed to 32% of the total error (median absolute error 5.5%, IQR 2.6–9.3. The CD4% estimate was significantly lower than the actual value (t-test, p<0.0001. The magnitude of this difference was greater for lower values, and above 25%, there was no significant difference. Precision of the CD4 estimate was similar as baseline CD4% increased, however accuracy improved significantly: from a median 16% underestimation to 0% as baseline CD4% increased from 12 to 30. Above a CD4% baseline of 25, estimates of CD4 were within 25% of the actual value 90.2% of the time with a median 2% underestimation. A robust (bisqaure linear regression model was developed to correct for the rise in CD4% with time, when baseline was 14–24

  19. Mixture Models for the Analysis of Repeated Count Data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijn, M.A.J.; Böckenholt, U

    1995-01-01

    Repeated count data showing overdispersion are commonly analysed by using a Poisson model with varying intensity parameter. resulting in a mixed model. A mixed model with a gamma distribution for the Poisson parameter does not adequately fit a data set on 721 children's spelling errors. An

  20. Influences of Gate Operation Errors in the Quantum Counting Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Ai; Yan-Song Li; Gui-Lu Long

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the error analysis in the quantum counting algorithm is investigated. It has been found that the random error plays as important a role as the systematic error does in the phase inversion operations. Both systematic and random errors are important in the Hadamard transformation. This is quite different from the Grover algorithm and the Shor algorithm.

  1. The GLOBE Earth Day 2004 Contrail Count-a-Thon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Lin H.; Cole, Julia

    2004-01-01

    Early in 2004 the GLOBE Science team suggested a contrail count activity to celebrate Earth Day 2004, which was held this year on April 22nd in the United States and some other countries around the world. The GLOBE contrail team embraced this idea and developed a simplified data collection sheet for this special project. Information about the event was shared through the GLOBE site, UCAR and NASA press releases, the NASA portal (http://www.nasa.gov) and the CERES S'COOL Project (http://scool.larc.nasa.gov). On Earth Day, about 120 observations were received through the GLOBE Contrail Count-a-Thon website, about 70 contrail observations were received through regular GLOBE data reporting, and 19 contrail observations were received through regular S'COOL data reporting. Only observations between 11:00 and 13:00 local time were included in the Count-a-Thon. The event was reported in the Boulder Daily Camera beforehand and in the Oregon Register-Guard after the fact. It was also reported on National Public Radio s Day-to-Day show; whose host even submitted an observation. This poster discusses the Count-a-Thon experience and reports the results.

  2. [SEX HORMONE INFLUENCE ON PERIPHERAL NATURAL KILLER CELLS COUNT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, P; Konova, E; Blajeva, Sv; Lukanov, Tsv; Angelova, P; Georgieva, V; Totev, V; Komsa-Penkova, R

    2015-01-01

    Proper evaluation of immunological factors connected with pregnancy establishment increased the possibility for exact treatment in high risk gestation cases. Hormonal changes during an ovarian cycle may affect immune response, which is crucial for the embryonic implantation. Peripheral Natural killer (pNK) cells are key components of immune systems and their activities could be regulated by sex hormones. In the present study we investigated the effects of estrogen fluctuation on the number of NK cells in vivo during the early follicular and middle luteal phase of menstrual cycle. In 63 healthy women with at least one full term pregnancy and regular menstrual cycle with duration between 24 and 32 days, blood samples have been collected twice for investigation of CD3/CD16/CD56 positive lymphocytes. The mean pNK count in follicular phase was 11.6% with 4.7% variation. The median was 10.6%. The mean pNK count in luteal phase was 12.1% with 5.1% variation, respectively median for cell number 11.8%. The two-tailed t-test comparison did not find any statistical difference despite the slight elevation of pNK cells count in luteal phase. The insignificant variation in pNK cells count objected the suggestion to evaluate immunological status in women with adverse pregnancy outcome in specific phase of menstrual cycle.

  3. Erythrocyte Fragment Count Predicts Hemolysis in Roller Pumps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Jun-qiang; XU Shi-wei; CHEN Fang; DING Min-jun

    2007-01-01

    Hemolysis in blood pumps has been measured by various in vitro test methods, in which normalized index of hemolysis (NIH) was established. As NIH is complicated and difficult to calculate, erythrocyte fragment count is proposed in the present study to predict hemolysis in roller pumps. Methods: Five paired in vitro tests wereconducted using the POLYSTAN pediatric pump(group A) and COBE pump(group B). Ten whole blood samples (400 ml ) were circled in the roller pump for 16 h. Erythrocyte fragments count and plasma-free hemoglobin (FHb) were measured before pumping and every two hours through circulation after four-hour-pumping. The morphological changes of erythrocyte were observed by scanning electron microscope. Results: The two groups' EFC and FHb levels were increased linearly during a long duration of pumping and linear regression of erythrocyte fragments count and plasma-free hemoglobin were correlated. Conclusion: Erythrocyte fragments count could be used as an index in evaluating the in vitro hemolytic properties of blood pumps.

  4. Hyperbolic lattice-point counting and modular symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Petridis, Yiannis; Risager, Morten S.

    2009-01-01

    For a cocompact group $\\G$ of $\\slr$ we fix a real non-zero harmonic 1-form $\\alpha$. We study the asymptotics of the hyperbolic lattice-counting problem for $\\G$ under restrictions imposed by the modular symbols $\\modsym{\\gamma}{\\a}$. We prove that the normalized values of the modular symbols...

  5. Nutrition Counts. Massachusetts Nutrition Surveillance System. FY90 Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiecha, Jean L.; And Others

    "Nutrition Counts," the pediatric portion of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health's (MDPH) Nutrition Surveillance System, monitors and describes aspects of nutritional status among groups of young children in the state. This report presents cross-sectional data describing 5,176 infants and young children in Massachusetts. Of these, 3,181…

  6. 12 CFR 1282.16 - Special counting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special counting requirements. 1282.16 Section 1282.16 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING... market or adds liquidity to an existing market, provided however that such mortgage purchase...

  7. A Method of Recording and Predicting the Pollen Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, M.

    1985-01-01

    A hair dryer, plastic funnel, and microscope slide can be used for predicting pollen counts on a day-to-day basis. Materials, methods for assembly, collection technique, meteorological influences, and daily patterns are discussed. Data collected using the apparatus suggest that airborne grass products other than pollen also affect hay fever…

  8. Details of Programming a Model of Children's Counting in ACTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Mary S.; Greeno, James G.

    Presented is an introduction to the operation and mechanics of the ACTP production system, a version of Anderson's (1976) ACT system. ACTP is already in use modeling geometry theorem proving and counting of a set of objects, and has been identified as a potentially useful programing framework for developing models of the cognitive processes used…

  9. Graphite Nodule and Cell Count in Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Fraś

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a model is proposed for heterogeneous nucleation on substrates whose size distribution can be described by the Weibull statistics. It is found that the nuclei density, Nnuc can be given in terms of the maximum undercooling, ΔTm by Nnuc = Ns exp(-b/ΔTm; where Ns is the density of nucleation sites in the melt and b is the nucleation coefficient (b > 0 . When nucleation occurs on all the possible substrates, the graphite nodule density, NV,n or eutectic cell density NV after solidification equals Ns. In this work, measurements of NV,n and NV values were carried out on experimental nodular and flake graphite iron castings processed under various inoculation conditions. The volumetric nodule NV,,n or graphite eutectic cell NV count, were estimated from the area nodule count, NA,n or eutectic cell count NA on polished cast iron surface sections by stereological means. In addition, maximum undercoolings, ΔTm were measured using thermal analysis. The experimental outcome indicates that volumetric nodule NV,n or graphite eutectic cell NV count can be properly described by the proposed expression NV,,n = NV = Ns exp(-b/ΔTm. Moreover, the Ns and b values were experimentally determined. In particular, the proposed model suggests that the size distribution of nucleation sites is exponential in nature.

  10. Bacteria counting method based on polyaniline/bacteria thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhihua, Li; Xuetao, Hu; Jiyong, Shi; Xiaobo, Zou; Xiaowei, Huang; Xucheng, Zhou; Tahir, Haroon Elrasheid; Holmes, Mel; Povey, Malcolm

    2016-07-15

    A simple and rapid bacteria counting method based on polyaniline (PANI)/bacteria thin film was proposed. Since the negative effects of immobilized bacteria on the deposition of PANI on glass carbon electrode (GCE), PANI/bacteria thin films containing decreased amount of PANI would be obtained when increasing the bacteria concentration. The prepared PANI/bacteria film was characterized with cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique to provide quantitative index for the determination of the bacteria count, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was also performed to further investigate the difference in the PANI/bacteria films. Good linear relationship of the peak currents of the CVs and the log total count of bacteria (Bacillus subtilis) could be established using the equation Y=-30.413X+272.560 (R(2)=0.982) over the range of 5.3×10(4) to 5.3×10(8)CFUmL(-1), which also showed acceptable stability, reproducibility and switchable ability. The proposed method was feasible for simple and rapid counting of bacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Multimode model for projective photon-counting measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Ourjoumtsev, Alexei; Dantan, Aurélien

    2009-01-01

    We present a general model to account for the multimode nature of the quantum electromagnetic field in projective photon-counting measurements. We focus on photon-subtraction experiments, where non-Gaussian states are produced conditionally. These are useful states for continuous-variable quantum...

  12. People counting with stereo cameras: two template-based solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosterhout, T.; Kröse, B.; Englebienne, G.; Csurka, G.; Braz, J.

    2012-01-01

    People counting is a challenging task with many applications. We propose a method with a fixed stereo camera that is based on projecting a template onto the depth image. The method was tested on a challenging outdoor dataset with good results and runs in real time.

  13. Somatic cell count distributions during lactation predict clinical mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, M.J.; Green, L.E.; Schukken, Y.H.; Bradley, A.J.; Peeler, E.J.; Barkema, H.W.; Haas, de Y.; Collis, V.J.; Medley, G.F.

    2004-01-01

    This research investigated somatic cell count (SCC) records during lactation, with the purpose of identifying distribution characteristics (mean and measures of variation) that were most closely associated with clinical mastitis. Three separate data sets were used, one containing quarter SCC (n =

  14. Constructing biological pathways by a two-step counting approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiuying Wang

    Full Text Available Networks are widely used in biology to represent the relationships between genes and gene functions. In Boolean biological models, it is mainly assumed that there are two states to represent a gene: on-state and off-state. It is typically assumed that the relationship between two genes can be characterized by two kinds of pairwise relationships: similarity and prerequisite. Many approaches have been proposed in the literature to reconstruct biological relationships. In this article, we propose a two-step method to reconstruct the biological pathway when the binary array data have measurement error. For a pair of genes in a sample, the first step of this approach is to assign counting numbers for every relationship and select the relationship with counting number greater than a threshold. The second step is to calculate the asymptotic p-values for hypotheses of possible relationships and select relationships with a large p-value. This new method has the advantages of easy calculation for the counting numbers and simple closed forms for the p-value. The simulation study and real data example show that the two-step counting method can accurately reconstruct the biological pathway and outperform the existing methods. Compared with the other existing methods, this two-step method can provide a more accurate and efficient alternative approach for reconstructing the biological network.

  15. Semantic Inferences: The Role of Count/Mass Syntax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, Nancy N.

    A study tested the validity of a theory of count/mass syntax in word learning. The theory proposes that children infer one of two procedures, depending on whether the referent is an object or a non-solid substance. Subjects were 36 2-year-olds, divided according to three experimental conditions. All were taught a novel word with reference to…

  16. Absolute counting of neutrophils in whole blood using flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunck, Marion E G; Andersen, Stacey B; Timmins, Nicholas E; Osborne, Geoffrey W; Nielsen, Lars K

    2014-12-01

    Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is used clinically to monitor physiological dysfunctions such as myelosuppression or infection. In the research laboratory, ANC is a valuable measure to monitor the evolution of a wide range of disease states in disease models. Flow cytometry (FCM) is a fast, widely used approach to confidently identify thousands of cells within minutes. FCM can be optimised for absolute counting using spiked-in beads or by measuring the sample volume analysed. Here we combine the 1A8 antibody, specific for the mouse granulocyte protein Ly6G, with flow cytometric counting in straightforward FCM assays for mouse ANC, easily implementable in the research laboratory. Volumetric and Trucount™ bead assays were optimized for mouse neutrophils, and ANC values obtained with these protocols were compared to ANC measured by a dual-platform assay using the Orphee Mythic 18 veterinary haematology analyser. The single platform assays were more precise with decreased intra-assay variability compared with ANC obtained using the dual protocol. Defining ANC based on Ly6G expression produces a 15% higher estimate than the dual protocol. Allowing for this difference in ANC definition, the flow cytometry counting assays using Ly6G can be used reliably in the research laboratory to quantify mouse ANC from a small volume of blood. We demonstrate the utility of the volumetric protocol in a time-course study of chemotherapy induced neutropenia using four drug regimens.

  17. Automating Partial Period Bond Valuation with Excel's Day Counting Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicknair, David; Spruell, James

    2009-01-01

    An Excel model for calculating the actual price of bonds under a 30 day/month, 360 day/year day counting assumption by nesting the DAYS360 function within the PV function is developed. When programmed into an Excel spreadsheet, the model can accommodate annual and semiannual payment bonds sold on or between interest dates using six fundamental…

  18. Reducing the Child Poverty Rate. KIDS COUNT Indicator Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Rima; Shore, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, nearly one in five or 18 percent of children in the U.S. lived in poverty (KIDS COUNT Data Center, 2009). Many of these children come from minority backgrounds. African American (35 percent), American Indian (33 percent) and Latino (27 percent) children are more likely to live in poverty than their white (11 percent) and Asian (12…

  19. The Star Counting Test: An attention test for children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de P.F.; Das-Smaal, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Star Counting Test (SCT), an attention test for children, is presented. The test is suitable for groupwise administration. It was developed within a clear theoretical framework and focuses, in contrast to many current attention tests, on accuracy rather than speed. The test requires the control

  20. Somatic cell count distributions during lactation predict clinical mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, M.J.; Green, L.E.; Schukken, Y.H.; Bradley, A.J.; Peeler, E.J.; Barkema, H.W.; Haas, de Y.; Collis, V.J.; Medley, G.F.

    2004-01-01

    This research investigated somatic cell count (SCC) records during lactation, with the purpose of identifying distribution characteristics (mean and measures of variation) that were most closely associated with clinical mastitis. Three separate data sets were used, one containing quarter SCC (n = 14

  1. Power counting for nuclear forces in chiral effective field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Bingwei

    2016-01-01

    The present note summarizes the discourse on power counting issues of chiral nuclear forces, with an emphasis on renormalization-group invariance. Given its introductory nature, I will lean toward narrating a coherent point of view on the concepts, rather than covering comprehensively the development of chiral nuclear forces in different approaches.

  2. Power counting for nuclear forces in chiral effective field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Bingwei

    2016-02-01

    The present note summarizes the discourse on power counting issues of chiral nuclear forces, with an emphasis on renormalization-group invariance. Given its introductory nature, I will lean toward narrating a coherent point of view on the concepts, rather than covering comprehensively the development of chiral nuclear forces in different approaches.

  3. Pixel-Cluster Counting Luminosity Measurement In ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    McCormack, William Patrick; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A precision measurement of the delivered luminosity is a key component of the ATLAS physics program at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A fundamental ingredient of the strategy to control the systematic uncertainties affecting the absolute luminosity has been to compare the measure- ments of several luminometers, most of which use more than one counting technique. The level of consistency across the various methods provides valuable cross-checks as well as an estimate of the detector-related systematic uncertainties. This poster describes the development of a luminosity algorithm based on pixel-cluster counting in the recently installed ATLAS inner b-layer (IBL), using data recorded during the 2015 pp run at the LHC. The noise and background contamination of the luminosity-associated cluster count is minimized by a multi-component fit to the measured cluster-size distribution in the forward pixel modules of the IBL. The linearity, long-term stability and statistical precision of the cluster- counting method a...

  4. Generalized estimators of avian abundance from count survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Royle, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available I consider modeling avian abundance from spatially referenced bird count data collected according to common protocols such as capture-recapture, multiple observer, removal sampling and simple point counts. Small sample sizes and large numbers of parameters have motivated many analyses that disregard the spatial indexing of the data, and thus do not provide an adequate treatment of spatial structure. I describe a general framework for modeling spatially replicated data that regards local abundance as a random process, motivated by the view that the set of spatially referenced local populations (at the sample locations constitute a metapopulation. Under this view, attention can be focused on developing a model for the variation in local abundance independent of the sampling protocol being considered. The metapopulation model structure, when combined with the data generating model, define a simple hierarchical model that can be analyzed using conventional methods. The proposed modeling framework is completely general in the sense that broad classes of metapopulation models may be considered, site level covariates on detection and abundance may be considered, and estimates of abundance and related quantities may be obtained for sample locations, groups of locations, unsampled locations. Two brief examples are given, the first involving simple point counts, and the second based on temporary removal counts. Extension of these models to open systems is briefly discussed.

  5. Marginalized zero-altered models for longitudinal count data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabb, Loni Philip; Tchetgen, Eric J Tchetgen; Wellenius, Greg A; Coull, Brent A

    2016-10-01

    Count data often exhibit more zeros than predicted by common count distributions like the Poisson or negative binomial. In recent years, there has been considerable interest in methods for analyzing zero-inflated count data in longitudinal or other correlated data settings. A common approach has been to extend zero-inflated Poisson models to include random effects that account for correlation among observations. However, these models have been shown to have a few drawbacks, including interpretability of regression coefficients and numerical instability of fitting algorithms even when the data arise from the assumed model. To address these issues, we propose a model that parameterizes the marginal associations between the count outcome and the covariates as easily interpretable log relative rates, while including random effects to account for correlation among observations. One of the main advantages of this marginal model is that it allows a basis upon which we can directly compare the performance of standard methods that ignore zero inflation with that of a method that explicitly takes zero inflation into account. We present simulations of these various model formulations in terms of bias and variance estimation. Finally, we apply the proposed approach to analyze toxicological data of the effect of emissions on cardiac arrhythmias.

  6. Randomized algorithms for tracking distributed count, frequencies, and ranks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zengfeng, Huang; Ke, Yi; Zhang, Qin

    2012-01-01

    We show that randomization can lead to significant improvements for a few fundamental problems in distributed tracking. Our basis is the count-tracking problem, where there are k players, each holding a counter ni that gets incremented over time, and the goal is to track an ∑-approximation...

  7. Automatic counting of microglial cell activation and its applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beatriz I Gallego Collado; Pablo de Gracia

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is a multifactorial optic neuropathy characterized by the damage and death of the retinal gan-glion cells. This disease results in vision loss and blindness. Any vision loss resulting from the disease cannot be restored and nowadays there is no available cure for glaucoma;however an early detection and treatment, could offer neuronal protection and avoid later serious damages to the visual function. A full understanding of the etiology of the disease will still require the contribution of many scientiifc efforts. Glial activation has been observed in glaucoma, being microglial proliferation a hallmark in this neuro-degenerative disease. A typical project studying these cellular changes involved in glaucoma often needs thousands of images-from several animals-covering different layers and regions of the retina. The gold standard to evaluate them is the manual count. This method requires a large amount of time from special-ized personnel. It is a tedious process and prone to human error. We present here a new method to count microglial cells by using a computer algorithm. It counts in one hour the same number of images that a researcher counts in four weeks, with no loss of reliability.

  8. Attention and Intelligence: The Validity of the Star Counting Test.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de P.F.; Das-Smaal, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying performance on the Star Counting Test (SCT) and its nomothetic span were investigated along with the relationships between working memory capacity, fluid intelligence (Gf), speed, and school achievement. The SCT is an attention test for children that requires the alternatio

  9. Pixel-Cluster Counting Luminosity Measurement in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    McCormack, William Patrick; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A precision measurement of the delivered luminosity is a key component of the ATLAS physics program at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A fundamental ingredient of the strategy to control the systematic uncertainties affecting the absolute luminosity has been to compare the measurements of several luminometers, most of which use more than one counting technique. The level of consistency across the various methods provides valuable cross-checks as well as an estimate of the detector-related systematic uncertainties. This poster describes the development of a luminosity algorithm based on pixel-cluster counting in the recently installed ATLAS inner b-layer (IBL), using data recorded during the 2015 pp run at the LHC. The noise and background contamination of the luminosity-associated cluster count is minimized by a multi-component fit to the measured cluster-size distribution in the forward pixel modules of the IBL. The linearity, long-term stability and statistical precision of the cluster-counting method are ...

  10. Robotic milking and its effect on fertility and cell counts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruip, T.A.M.; Morice, H.; Robert, M.; Ouweltjes, W.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of robotic milking (RM) on fertility and somatic cell counts (SCC) among dairy herds participating in the national Dutch milk recording system. It was hypothesized that RM, and a higher milking frequency in general, would have negative effects on ferti

  11. Power counting and Wilsonian renormalization in nuclear effective field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, Manuel Pavón

    2016-05-01

    Effective field theories are the most general tool for the description of low energy phenomena. They are universal and systematic: they can be formulated for any low energy systems we can think of and offer a clear guide on how to calculate predictions with reliable error estimates, a feature that is called power counting. These properties can be easily understood in Wilsonian renormalization, in which effective field theories are the low energy renormalization group evolution of a more fundamental — perhaps unknown or unsolvable — high energy theory. In nuclear physics they provide the possibility of a theoretically sound derivation of nuclear forces without having to solve quantum chromodynamics explicitly. However there is the problem of how to organize calculations within nuclear effective field theory: the traditional knowledge about power counting is perturbative but nuclear physics is not. Yet power counting can be derived in Wilsonian renormalization and there is already a fairly good understanding of how to apply these ideas to non-perturbative phenomena and in particular to nuclear physics. Here we review a few of these ideas, explain power counting in two-nucleon scattering and reactions with external probes and hint at how to extend the present analysis beyond the two-body problem.

  12. Simple Identification of Complex ADHD Subtypes Using Current Symptom Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Heather E.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Hay, David A.; Todd, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    The results of the assessment of the accuracy of simple rules based on symptom count for assigning youths to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder subtypes show that having six or more total symptoms and fewer than three hyperactive-impulsive symptoms is an accurate predictor for the latent class sever inattentive subtype.

  13. 40Ar/39Ar age calibration against counted annuallayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storey, Michael; Stecher, Ole

    2008-01-01

    worth exploring for an improved absolute age basis for the 40Ar/39Ar system is through cross-calibration with counted annual layers (e.g. tree rings, varves and ice cores). North Atlantic Ash Zone (NAAZ) II is found within the dated part of the annual Greenland ice core record. NAAZ II has been...

  14. Working memory, attentional regulation and the Star Counting Test.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das-Smaal, E.A.; Jong, de P.F.; Koopmans, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Star Counting Test (SCT) has been developed to measure the regulatory function of attention. In a previous study it was shown that the SCT is suited for assessment of this attentional aspect with children. The present study concerns a more difficult version aimed at young adults. In the literatu

  15. Reducing the Teen Death Rate. KIDS COUNT Indicator Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Rima; Shore, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Life continues to hold considerable risk for adolescents in the United States. In 2006, the teen death rate stood at 64 deaths per 100,000 teens (13,739 teens) (KIDS COUNT Data Center, 2009). Although it has declined by 4 percent since 2000, the rate of teen death in this country remains substantially higher than in many peer nations, based…

  16. Teaching for Understanding in Science: What Counts as Conceptual Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeth, Michael E.; Hennessey, M. Gertrude

    In this study, a conceptual change model serves as a theoretical underpinning for analyzing what might count as evidence of conceptual change. Theoretical components of the conceptual change model include the status a conception has for learners, and the conceptual ecology of knowledge within which conceptions are believed to survive and have…

  17. Diplomas Count 2013: Second Chances--Turning Dropouts into Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Week, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 edition of "Diplomas Count," entitled "Second Chances: Turning Dropouts into Graduates," examines dropout recovery and innovative strategies for returning to the educational fold the 1 million students who leave school without a diploma each year. "Education Week's" journalists investigate interventions that…

  18. Automatic counting of microglial cell activation and its applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz I Gallego

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is a multifactorial optic neuropathy characterized by the damage and death of the retinal ganglion cells. This disease results in vision loss and blindness. Any vision loss resulting from the disease cannot be restored and nowadays there is no available cure for glaucoma; however an early detection and treatment, could offer neuronal protection and avoid later serious damages to the visual function. A full understanding of the etiology of the disease will still require the contribution of many scientific efforts. Glial activation has been observed in glaucoma, being microglial proliferation a hallmark in this neurodegenerative disease. A typical project studying these cellular changes involved in glaucoma often needs thousands of images - from several animals - covering different layers and regions of the retina. The gold standard to evaluate them is the manual count. This method requires a large amount of time from specialized personnel. It is a tedious process and prone to human error. We present here a new method to count microglial cells by using a computer algorithm. It counts in one hour the same number of images that a researcher counts in four weeks, with no loss of reliability.

  19. PEOPLE COUNTING WITH STEREO CAMERAS: Two Template-based Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oosterhout, Tim; Kröse, Ben; Englebienne, Gwenn

    2012-01-01

    People counting is a challenging task with many applications. We propose a method with a fixed stereo camera that is based on projecting a template onto the depth image. The method was tested on a challenging outdoor dataset with good results and runs in real time.

  20. Galaxy number counts and implications for strong lensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassnacht, C. D.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Wong, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    We compare galaxy number counts in Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) fields containing moderate-redshift (0.2

  1. Class Counts: An Overview and Response to Mr. Cooper's Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornstein, Allan

    2009-01-01

    This article presents Allan Ornstein's response to highly respected scholar, Bruce Cooper's review of Ornstein's 2007 book, "Class Counts: Education, Inequality and the Shrinking Middle Class." Here Ornstein attempts to elaborate on a few points that he felt Cooper missed in his review.

  2. Aphid Identification and Counting Based on Smartphone and Machine Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suo Xuesong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exact enumeration of aphids before the aphids outbreak can provide basis for precision spray. This paper designs counting software that can be run on smartphones for real-time enumeration of aphids. As a first step of the method used in this paper, images of the yellow sticky board that is aiming to catch insects are segmented from complex background by using GrabCut method; then the images will be normalized by perspective transformation method. The second step is the pretreatment on the images; images of aphids will be segmented by using OSTU threshold method after the effect of random illumination is eliminated by single image difference method. The last step of the method is aphids’ recognition and counting according to area feature of aphids after extracting contours of aphids by contour detection method. At last, the result of the experiment proves that the effect of random illumination can be effectively eliminated by using single image difference method. The counting accuracy in greenhouse is above 95%, while it can reach 92.5% outside. Thus, it can be seen that the counting software designed in this paper can realize exact enumeration of aphids under complicated illumination which can be used widely. The design method proposed in this paper can provide basis for precision spray according to its effective detection insects.

  3. Bilinear modulation models for seasonal tables of counts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.D. Marx (Brian); P.H.C. Eilers (Paul); J. Gampe (Jutta); R. Rau (Roland)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe propose generalized linear models for time or age-time tables of seasonal counts, with the goal of better understanding seasonal patterns in the data. The linear predictor contains a smooth component for the trend and the product of a smooth component (the modulation) and a periodic t

  4. An alternative calibration method for counting P-32 reactor monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirk, T.J. [Applied Nuclear Technologies, Sandia National Laboratories, MS 1143, PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1143 (United States); Vehar, D.W. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1143 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Radioactivation of sulfur is a common technique used to measure fast neutron fluences in test and research reactors. Elemental sulfur can be pressed into pellets and used as monitors. The {sup 32}S(n, p) {sup 32}P reaction has a practical threshold of about 3 MeV and its cross section and associated uncertainties are well characterized [1]. The product {sup 32P} emits a beta particle with a maximum energy of 1710 keV [2]. This energetic beta particle allows pellets to be counted intact. ASTM Standard Test Method for Measuring Reaction Rates and Fast-Neutron Fluences by Radioactivation of Sulfur-32 (E265) [3] details a method of calibration for counting systems and subsequent analysis of results. This method requires irradiation of sulfur monitors in a fast-neutron field whose spectrum and intensity are well known. The resultant decay-corrected count rate is then correlated to the known fast neutron fluence. The Radiation Metrology Laboratory (RML) at Sandia has traditionally performed calibration irradiations of sulfur pellets using the {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission neutron source at the National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST) [4] as a transfer standard. However, decay has reduced the intensity of NIST's source; thus lowering the practical upper limits of available fluence. As of May 2010, neutron emission rates have decayed to approximately 3 e8 n/s. In practice, this degradation of capabilities precludes calibrations at the highest fluence levels produced at test reactors and limits the useful range of count rates that can be measured. Furthermore, the reduced availability of replacement {sup 252}Cf threatens the long-term viability of the NIST {sup 252}Cf facility for sulfur pellet calibrations. In lieu of correlating count rate to neutron fluence in a reference field the total quantity of {sup 32}P produced in a pellet can be determined by absolute counting methods. This offers an attractive alternative to extended {sup 252}Cf exposures because

  5. A THUMBNAIL HISTORY OF HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT (HPC) METHODOLOGY IN THE UNITED STATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past 100 years, the method of determining the number of bacteria in water, foods or other materials has been termed variously as: bacterial plate count, total plate count, total viable plate count, aerobic plate count, standard plate cound and more recently, heterotrophi...

  6. Student Count Mechanisms for Funding Purposes. Education Policy Brief, Volume 10, Number 2, Spring 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Lindsi M.; Spradlin, Terry E.; Wodicka, Christopher Y.

    2012-01-01

    This Education Policy Brief provides an overview of the student count mechanisms that are currently employed by states. It then reviews Indiana's outgoing count mechanism, the Single Count Date, and compares it with the newly enacted Multiple Count Dates mechanism. To conclude the discussion, the brief examines how other states use the Multiple…

  7. Influence of Point Count Length and Repeated Visits on Habitat Model Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randy Dettmers; David A. Buehler; John G. Bartlett; Nathan A. Klaus

    1999-01-01

    Point counts are commonly used to monitor bird populations, and a substantial amount of research has investigated how conducting counts for different lengths of time affects the accuracy of these counts and the subsequent ability to monitor changes in population trends. However, little work has been done io assess how changes in count duration affect bird-habitat...

  8. Examine Counting Procedure among Students with Mild Intellectual Disability: A Case of Penang Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taibat, Adiat B.; Ahmad, Aznan Che; Ghazali, Munirah

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates counting procedure in number counting based on gender among students with mild intellectual disability. Quantitative approach was used for testing counting procedure in number counting among these students. The samples for the study comprise fifteen male and fifteen female students with intellectual disability. Descriptive…

  9. Study of mast cell count in skin tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher Hesham

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin tags or acrochordons are common tumors of middle-aged and elderly subjects. They consist of loose fibrous tissue and occur mainly on the neck and major flexures as small, soft, pedunculated protrusions. Objectives: The aim was to compare the mast cells count in skin tags to adjacent normal skin in diabetic and nondiabetic participants in an attempt to elucidate the possible role of mast cells in the pathogenesis of skin tags. Participants and Methods: Thirty participants with skin tags were divided into group I (15 nondiabetic participants and group II (15 diabetic participants. Three biopsies were obtained from each participant: a large skin tag, a small skin tag and adjacent normal skin. Mast cell count from all the obtained sections was carried out, and the mast cell density was expressed as the average mast cell count/high power field (HPF. Results: A statistically significant increase in mast cells count in skin tags in comparison to normal skin was detected in group I and group II. There was no statistically significant difference between mast cell counts in skin tags of both the groups. Conclusion: Both the mast cell mediators and hyperinsulinemia are capable of inducing fibroblast proliferation and epidermal hyperplasia that are the main pathologic abnormalities seen in all types of skin tags. However, the presence of mast cells in all examined skin tags regardless of diabetes and obesity may point to the possible crucial role of mast cells in the etiogenesis of skin tags through its interaction with fibroblasts and keratinocytes.

  10. The Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count (CopDiff database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen CL

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Christen Lykkegaard Andersen,1,2 Volkert Dirk Siersma,1 Willy Karlslund,1 Hans Carl Hasselbalch,2 Peter Felding,3 Ole Weis Bjerrum,4 Niels de Fine Olivarius11The Research Unit for General Practice and Section of General Practice, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, 2Department of Hematology, Roskilde University Hospital, 3The Elective Laboratory of the Capital Region, 4Department of Hematology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, DenmarkBackground: The differential blood cell count provides valuable information about a person's state of health. Together with a variety of biochemical variables, these analyses describe important physiological and pathophysiological relations. There is a need for research databases to explore associations between these parameters, concurrent comorbidities, and future disease outcomes.Methods and results: The Copenhagen General Practitioners’ Laboratory is the only laboratory serving general practitioners in the Copenhagen area, covering approximately 1.2 million inhabitants. The Copenhagen General Practitioners’ Laboratory has registered all analytical results since July 1, 2000. The Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count database contains all differential blood cell count results (n=1,308,022 from July 1, 2000 to January 25, 2010 requested by general practitioners, along with results from analysis of various other blood components. This data set is merged with detailed data at a person level from The Danish Cancer Registry, The Danish National Patient Register, The Danish Civil Registration System, and The Danish Register of Causes of Death.Conclusion: This paper reviews methodological issues behind the construction of the Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count database as well as the distribution of characteristics of the population it covers and the variables that are recorded. Finally, it gives examples of its use as an inspiration to peers for collaboration

  11. Predicting U.S. tuberculosis case counts through 2020.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel S Y E L K Woodruff

    Full Text Available In 2010, foreign-born persons accounted for 60% of all tuberculosis (TB cases in the United States. Understanding which national groups make up the highest proportion of TB cases will assist TB control programs in concentrating limited resources where they can provide the greatest impact on preventing transmission of TB disease. The objective of our study was to predict through 2020 the numbers of U.S. TB cases among U.S.-born, foreign-born and foreign-born persons from selected countries of birth. TB case counts reported through the National Tuberculosis Surveillance System from 2000-2010 were log-transformed, and linear regression was performed to calculate predicted annual case counts and 95% prediction intervals for 2011-2020. Data were analyzed in 2011 before 2011 case counts were known. Decreases were predicted between 2010 observed and 2020 predicted counts for total TB cases (11,182 to 8,117 [95% prediction interval 7,262-9,073] as well as TB cases among foreign-born persons from Mexico (1,541 to 1,420 [1,066-1,892], the Philippines (740 to 724 [569-922], India (578 to 553 [455-672], Vietnam (532 to 429 [367-502] and China (364 to 328 [249-433]. TB cases among persons who are U.S.-born and foreign-born were predicted to decline 47% (4,393 to 2,338 [2,113-2,586] and 6% (6,720 to 6,343 [5,382-7,476], respectively. Assuming rates of declines observed from 2000-2010 continue until 2020, a widening gap between the numbers of U.S.-born and foreign-born TB cases was predicted. TB case count predictions will help TB control programs identify needs for cultural competency, such as languages and interpreters needed for translating materials or engaging in appropriate community outreach.

  12. Predicting U.S. tuberculosis case counts through 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Rachel S Y E L K; Winston, Carla A; Miramontes, Roque

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, foreign-born persons accounted for 60% of all tuberculosis (TB) cases in the United States. Understanding which national groups make up the highest proportion of TB cases will assist TB control programs in concentrating limited resources where they can provide the greatest impact on preventing transmission of TB disease. The objective of our study was to predict through 2020 the numbers of U.S. TB cases among U.S.-born, foreign-born and foreign-born persons from selected countries of birth. TB case counts reported through the National Tuberculosis Surveillance System from 2000-2010 were log-transformed, and linear regression was performed to calculate predicted annual case counts and 95% prediction intervals for 2011-2020. Data were analyzed in 2011 before 2011 case counts were known. Decreases were predicted between 2010 observed and 2020 predicted counts for total TB cases (11,182 to 8,117 [95% prediction interval 7,262-9,073]) as well as TB cases among foreign-born persons from Mexico (1,541 to 1,420 [1,066-1,892]), the Philippines (740 to 724 [569-922]), India (578 to 553 [455-672]), Vietnam (532 to 429 [367-502]) and China (364 to 328 [249-433]). TB cases among persons who are U.S.-born and foreign-born were predicted to decline 47% (4,393 to 2,338 [2,113-2,586]) and 6% (6,720 to 6,343 [5,382-7,476]), respectively. Assuming rates of declines observed from 2000-2010 continue until 2020, a widening gap between the numbers of U.S.-born and foreign-born TB cases was predicted. TB case count predictions will help TB control programs identify needs for cultural competency, such as languages and interpreters needed for translating materials or engaging in appropriate community outreach.

  13. Counting people with low-level features and Bayesian regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Antoni B; Vasconcelos, Nuno

    2012-04-01

    An approach to the problem of estimating the size of inhomogeneous crowds, which are composed of pedestrians that travel in different directions, without using explicit object segmentation or tracking is proposed. Instead, the crowd is segmented into components of homogeneous motion, using the mixture of dynamic-texture motion model. A set of holistic low-level features is extracted from each segmented region, and a function that maps features into estimates of the number of people per segment is learned with Bayesian regression. Two Bayesian regression models are examined. The first is a combination of Gaussian process regression with a compound kernel, which accounts for both the global and local trends of the count mapping but is limited by the real-valued outputs that do not match the discrete counts. We address this limitation with a second model, which is based on a Bayesian treatment of Poisson regression that introduces a prior distribution on the linear weights of the model. Since exact inference is analytically intractable, a closed-form approximation is derived that is computationally efficient and kernelizable, enabling the representation of nonlinear functions. An approximate marginal likelihood is also derived for kernel hyperparameter learning. The two regression-based crowd counting methods are evaluated on a large pedestrian data set, containing very distinct camera views, pedestrian traffic, and outliers, such as bikes or skateboarders. Experimental results show that regression-based counts are accurate regardless of the crowd size, outperforming the count estimates produced by state-of-the-art pedestrian detectors. Results on 2 h of video demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the regression-based crowd size estimation over long periods of time.

  14. Making fingers and words count in a cognitive robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Cruz, Vivian M; Di Nuovo, Alessandro; Di Nuovo, Santo; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from developmental as well as neuroscientific studies suggest that finger counting activity plays an important role in the acquisition of numerical skills in children. It has been claimed that this skill helps in building motor-based representations of number that continue to influence number processing well into adulthood, facilitating the emergence of number concepts from sensorimotor experience through a bottom-up process. The act of counting also involves the acquisition and use of a verbal number system of which number words are the basic building blocks. Using a Cognitive Developmental Robotics paradigm we present results of a modeling experiment on whether finger counting and the association of number words (or tags) to fingers, could serve to bootstrap the representation of number in a cognitive robot, enabling it to perform basic numerical operations such as addition. The cognitive architecture of the robot is based on artificial neural networks, which enable the robot to learn both sensorimotor skills (finger counting) and linguistic skills (using number words). The results obtained in our experiments show that learning the number words in sequence along with finger configurations helps the fast building of the initial representation of number in the robot. Number knowledge, is instead, not as efficiently developed when number words are learned out of sequence without finger counting. Furthermore, the internal representations of the finger configurations themselves, developed by the robot as a result of the experiments, sustain the execution of basic arithmetic operations, something consistent with evidence coming from developmental research with children. The model and experiments demonstrate the importance of sensorimotor skill learning in robots for the acquisition of abstract knowledge such as numbers.

  15. Effects of Fluoride Varnish on Streptococcus mutans Count in Saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badjatia, Sourabh; Badjatia, Rini G; Thanveer, K; Krishnan, Ajith Cg

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of fluoride varnish on Streptococcus mutans count in saliva among 12-year-old school children. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of fluoride varnish on S. mutans count in saliva among 12-year-old school children. A total of 42 school-going children attending schools in Vadodara district, Gujarat, India, were divided into two groups. Group I was treated with fluoride varnish and group II received no treatment. Assessment of S. mutans was carried out at baseline and 3 to 6 months postfluoride varnish application. Friedman analysis of variance test and post hoc test were applied to detect statistically significant differences between baseline, 3 to 6 months of fluoride varnish application, and also between groups I and II. The mean number of salivary S. mutans value found in case group at baseline, 3 to 6 months was 31.23 ± 1.119, 9.27 ± 0.852, and 9.39 ± 0.908 × 10(4) colony-forming unit CFU/mL respectively. The difference in S. mutans count from baseline to 3 to 6 months was highly statistically significant (p = 0.000), but the difference from 3 to 6 months was not statistically significant (p = 0.142). In control group, the mean S. mutans value found at baseline, 3 to 6 months was 30.63 ± 1.436, 31.23 ± 1.351, and 31.40 ± 1.374 × 10(4) CFU/mL respectively. The differences between these values were not statistically significant (p = 0.11). Statistically significant reduction in S. mutans count in saliva was seen 3 to 6 months after fluoride varnish application. Badjatia S, Badjatia RG, Thanveer K, Krishnan ACG. Effects of Fluoride Varnish on Streptococcus mutans Count in Saliva. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):62-66.

  16. Investigation on Carbohydrate Counting Method in Type 1 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Son

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The results from Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT have propounded the importance of the approach of treatment by medical nutrition when treating diabetes mellitus (DM. During this study, we tried to inquire carbohydrate (Kh count method’s positive effects on the type 1 DM treatment’s success as well as on the life quality of the patients. Methods. 22 of 37 type 1 DM patients who applied to Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Faculty of Medicine Hospital, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, had been treated by Kh count method and 15 of them are treated by multiple dosage intensive insulin treatment with applying standard diabetic diet as a control group and both of groups were under close follow-up for 6 months. Required approval was taken from the Ethical Committee of Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Medical Faculty, as well as informed consent from the patients. The body weight of patients who are treated by carbohydrate count method and multiple dosage intensive insulin treatment during the study beginning and after 6-month term, body mass index, and body compositions are analyzed. A short life quality and medical research survey applied. At statistical analysis, t-test, chi-squared test, and Mann-Whitney U test were used. Results. There had been no significant change determined at glycemic control indicators between the Kh counting group and the standard diabetic diet and multiple dosage insulin treatment group in our study. Conclusion. As a result, Kh counting method which offers a flexible nutrition plan to diabetic individuals is a functional method.

  17. An innovative method to reduce count loss from pulse pile-up in a photon-counting pixel for high flux X-ray applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D.; Lim, K.; Park, K.; Lee, C.; Alexander, S.; Cho, G.

    2017-03-01

    In this study, an innovative fast X-ray photon-counting pixel for high X-ray flux applications is proposed. A computed tomography system typically uses X-ray fluxes up to 108 photons/mm2/sec at the detector and thus a fast read-out is required in order to process individual X-ray photons. Otherwise, pulse pile-up can occur at the output of the signal processing unit. These superimposed signals can distort the number of incident X-ray photons leading to count loss. To minimize such losses, a cross detection method was implemented in the photon-counting pixel. A maximum count rate under X-ray tube voltage of 90 kV was acquired which reflect electrical test results of the proposed photon counting pixel. A maximum count of 780 kcps was achieved with a conventional photon-counting pixel at the pulse processing time of 500 ns, which is the time for a pulse to return to the baseline from the initial rise. In contrast, the maximum count of about 8.1 Mcps was achieved with the proposed photon-counting pixel. From these results, it was clear that the maximum count rate was increased by approximately a factor 10 times by adopting the cross detection method. Therefore, it is an innovative method to reduce count loss from pulse pile-up in a photon-counting pixel while maintaining the pulse processing time.

  18. Mini-FLOTAC for counting Toxoplasma gondii oocysts from cat feces--comparison with cell counting plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djokic, Vitomir; Blaga, Radu; Rinaldi, Laura; Le Roux, Delphine; Ducry, Tamara; Maurelli, Maria Paola; Perret, Catherine; Djurkovic Djakovic, Olgica; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Boireau, Pascal

    2014-12-01

    Oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii represent one of the most common environmental contaminants causing the zoonotic infection toxoplasmosis. The aim of the present study was to compare the Mini-FLOTAC device with traditional cell counting plates (Kova Slide) for the detection of T. gondii oocysts from feline feces. Two types of experiments were performed: (i) purified oocysts were counted in different dilutions and (ii) specific pathogen free T. gondii-negative cat feces was inoculated with numbers of purified oocysts and counting was performed directly from feces. Our analysis showed a thousand times higher sensitivity of Mini-FLOTAC (5 × 10(2) oocysts) compared to Kova Slide (5 × 10(5) oocysts). Also, when compared by McNemar's test, counting of the purified oocysts showed a higher sensitivity of Mini-FLOTAC compared to Kova Slide, for a dilution of 10(3) oocysts/ml (chi(2) = 6.1; P microscopes in any laboratory or field conditions. We therefore recommend its use for regular screening. Further studies are needed to validate Mini-FLOTAC for the detection of oocysts in soil and water samples in field conditions.

  19. Factor V Leiden is associated with increased sperm count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mens, T E; Joensen, U N; Bochdanovits, Z; Takizawa, A; Peter, J; Jørgensen, N; Szecsi, P B; Meijers, J C M; Weiler, H; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Repping, S; Middeldorp, S

    2017-09-12

    Is the thrombophilia mutation factor V Leiden (FVL) associated with an increased total sperm count? Carriers of FVL have a higher total sperm count than non-FVL-carriers, which could not be explained by genetic linkage or by observations in a FVL-mouse model. FVL has a high prevalence in Caucasians despite detrimental health effects. Carriers have been shown to have higher fecundity, which might partly explain this evolutionary paradox. We determined FVL status in two cohorts (Dutch, n = 627; Danish, n = 854) of consecutively included men without known causes for spermatogenic failure, and performed an individual patient data meta-analysis of these two cohorts together with one previously published (Dutch, n = 908) cohort. We explored possible biological underpinnings for the relation between sperm count and FVL, by use of a FVL-mouse model and investigations of genetic linkage. Participants were male partners of subfertile couples (two Dutch cohorts) and young men from the general population (Danish cohort): FVL carrier rate was 4.0%, 4.6% and 7.3%, respectively. There were differences in smoking, abstinence time and age between the cohorts. We corrected for these in the primary analysis, which consisted of a mixed linear effects model, also incorporating unobjectified population differences. In public haplotype data from subjects of European descent, we explored linkage disequilibrium of FVL with all known single nucleotide polymorphisms in a 1.5 MB region around the F5 gene with an R2 cutoff of 0.8. We sequenced exons of four candidate genes hypothesized to be linked to FVL in a subgroup of FVL carriers with extreme sperm count values. The animal studies consisted of never mated 15-18-week-old C57BL/J6 mice heterozygous and homozygous for FVL and wild-type mice. We compared spermatogenesis parameters (normalized internal genitalia weights, epididymis sperm content and sperm motility) between FVL and wild-type mice. Human FVL carriers have a higher total sperm

  20. Count Nouns - Mass Nouns, Neat Nouns - Mess Nouns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Landman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I propose and formalize a theory of the mass-count distinction in which the denotations of count nouns are built from non-overlapping generators, while the denotations of mass nouns are built from overlapping generators. Counting is counting of generators, and it will follow that counting is only correct on count denotations. I will show that the theory allows two kinds of mass nouns: mess mass nouns with denotations built from overlapping minimal generators, and neat mass nouns with denotations built from overlapping generators, where the overlap is not located in the minimal generators. Prototypical mass nouns like meat and mud are of the first kind. I will argue that mass nouns like furniture and kitchenware are of the second type. I will discuss several phenomena—all involving one way or the other explicitly or implicitly individual classifiers like stuks in Dutch—that show that both distinctions mass/count and mess/neat are linguistically robust. I will show in particular that nouns like kitchenware pattern in various ways like count nouns, and not like mess mass nouns, and that these ways naturally involve the neat structure of their denotation. I will also show that they are real mass nouns: they can involve measures in the way mess mass nouns can and count nouns cannot. I will discuss grinding interpretations of count nouns, here rebaptized fission interpretations, and argue that these interpretations differ in crucial ways from the interpretations of lexical mass nouns. The paper will end with a foundational problem raised by fission interpretations, and in the course of this, atomless interpretation domains will re-enter the scene through the back door.ReferencesBarner, D. & Snedeker, J. 2005. ‘Quantity judgements and individuation: evidence that mass nouns count’. Cognition 97: 41–66.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2004.06.009PMid:16139586Bunt, H. 1985. Mass Terms and Model Theoretic Semantics. Cambridge

  1. Star Counts and Nature of the Galactic Thick Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Yuzuru

    Modern star counts at high Galactic latitudes played a major role in revealing the existence of a thick disk as the third stellar component of the Milky Way Galaxy in addition to the old thin disk and halo. A number of star count observations and models showed that the thick disk is represented well by a double exponential density law in the vertical and radial directions. The thick-disk structural parameters determined to date from star count analysis are reviewed, and their limitations are described in terms of the correlation among the derived parameters. The recent preference for h Z ˜ 0. 7 kpc for the scale height of the thick disk, associated with f thick ˜ 0. 1 for its normalization relative to the thin disk, is likely a consequence of the recent popularity of the flattened inner halo with an axial ratio of q ˜ 0. 6 prescribed in star-count modeling. This value of h Z for the thick disk is supported by the kinematic constraint of ˜ 40 km s- 1 for the measured vertical velocity dispersion of candidate thick-disk stars more than 1 kpc from the disk plane. Furthermore, star counts in multiple directions and from all-sky near-infrared surveys have arrived at a convergent result, indicating that the thick disk has a scale length h R ˜ 3. 5 kpc and has a greater radial extension compared to the thin disk, with h R ˜ 2. 5 kpc. Other constraints have arisen from high-resolution spectroscopic observations of the kinematics, chemical abundances, and ages of candidate thick-disk stars, confirming the rotational lag of ˜ 40 km s- 1 as well as the vertical gradients of the mean rotation and velocity dispersions in three directions, the constant ratio of alpha to the iron abundances [α/Fe] of ˜ +0.4 dex up to [Fe/H] ˜ - 0.4 dex, a large scatter of metallicity around the mean [Fe/H] ˜ - 0.8 dex with little or no spatial gradient, and a fairly old thick-disk age of ˜ 10 Gyr. The star counts and other constraints together indicate dissipational contraction and

  2. Factor V Leiden is associated with increased sperm count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Mens, T E; Joensen, U N; Bochdanovits, Z

    2017-01-01

    ) of consecutively included men without known causes for spermatogenic failure, and performed an individual patient data meta-analysis of these two cohorts together with one previously published (Dutch, n = 908) cohort. We explored possible biological underpinnings for the relation between sperm count and FVL......, by use of a FVL-mouse model and investigations of genetic linkage. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Participants were male partners of subfertile couples (two Dutch cohorts) and young men from the general population (Danish cohort): FVL carrier rate was 4.0%, 4.6% and 7.3%, respectively...... FVL carriers have a higher total sperm count than non-carriers, with an adjusted mean difference of 31 × 106 (95%CI 0.2-61.7; P = 0.048). Mice with the FVL mutation do not have increased spermatogenesis as compared to wildtype mice. None of the studied polymorphisms was in linkage disequilibrium...

  3. Galaxy evolution at low redshift?; 1, optical counts

    CERN Document Server

    Dennefeld, M

    1996-01-01

    We present bright galaxy number counts in the blue (16counts and colour distributions exhibit no large departure from what standard no-evolution models predict, removing the need for evolution of the galaxy population in the optical, out to Bj=21. This result disagrees with that of Maddox et al. (1990) on the APM catalog. We show that the APM and similar catalogs may be affected by a systematic magnitude scale error which would explain this discrepancy.

  4. Towards a Graphene-Based Low Intensity Photon Counting Photodetector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jamie O D; Alexander-Webber, Jack A; Lapington, Jon S; Roy, Mervyn; Hutchinson, Ian B; Sagade, Abhay A; Martin, Marie-Blandine; Braeuninger-Weimer, Philipp; Cabrero-Vilatela, Andrea; Wang, Ruizhi; De Luca, Andrea; Udrea, Florin; Hofmann, Stephan

    2016-08-23

    Graphene is a highly promising material in the development of new photodetector technologies, in particular due its tunable optoelectronic properties, high mobilities and fast relaxation times coupled to its atomic thinness and other unique electrical, thermal and mechanical properties. Optoelectronic applications and graphene-based photodetector technology are still in their infancy, but with a range of device integration and manufacturing approaches emerging this field is progressing quickly. In this review we explore the potential of graphene in the context of existing single photon counting technologies by comparing their performance to simulations of graphene-based single photon counting and low photon intensity photodetection technologies operating in the visible, terahertz and X-ray energy regimes. We highlight the theoretical predictions and current graphene manufacturing processes for these detectors. We show initial experimental implementations and discuss the key challenges and next steps in the development of these technologies.

  5. Optimization of simultaneous tritium-radiocarbon internal gas proportional counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonicalzi, R. M.; Aalseth, C. E.; Day, A. R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Mace, E. K.; Moran, J. J.; Overman, C. T.; Panisko, M. E.; Seifert, A.

    2016-03-01

    Specific environmental applications can benefit from dual tritium and radiocarbon measurements in a single compound. Assuming typical environmental levels, it is often the low tritium activity relative to the higher radiocarbon activity that limits the dual measurement. In this paper, we explore the parameter space for a combined tritium and radiocarbon measurement using a natural methane sample mixed with an argon fill gas in low-background proportional counters of a specific design. We present an optimized methane percentage, detector fill pressure, and analysis energy windows to maximize measurement sensitivity while minimizing count time. The final optimized method uses a 9-atm fill of P35 (35% methane, 65% argon), and a tritium analysis window from 1.5 to 10.3 keV, which stops short of the tritium beta decay endpoint energy of 18.6 keV. This method optimizes tritium-counting efficiency while minimizing radiocarbon beta-decay interference.

  6. Towards a Graphene-Based Low Intensity Photon Counting Photodetector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie O. D. Williams

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Graphene is a highly promising material in the development of new photodetector technologies, in particular due its tunable optoelectronic properties, high mobilities and fast relaxation times coupled to its atomic thinness and other unique electrical, thermal and mechanical properties. Optoelectronic applications and graphene-based photodetector technology are still in their infancy, but with a range of device integration and manufacturing approaches emerging this field is progressing quickly. In this review we explore the potential of graphene in the context of existing single photon counting technologies by comparing their performance to simulations of graphene-based single photon counting and low photon intensity photodetection technologies operating in the visible, terahertz and X-ray energy regimes. We highlight the theoretical predictions and current graphene manufacturing processes for these detectors. We show initial experimental implementations and discuss the key challenges and next steps in the development of these technologies.

  7. Optimized tomography of continuous variable systems using excitation counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chao; Heeres, Reinier W.; Reinhold, Philip; Jiang, Luyao; Liu, Yi-Kai; Schoelkopf, Robert J.; Jiang, Liang

    2016-11-01

    We propose a systematic procedure to optimize quantum state tomography protocols for continuous variable systems based on excitation counting preceded by a displacement operation. Compared with conventional tomography based on Husimi or Wigner function measurement, the excitation counting approach can significantly reduce the number of measurement settings. We investigate both informational completeness and robustness, and provide a bound of reconstruction error involving the condition number of the sensing map. We also identify the measurement settings that optimize this error bound, and demonstrate that the improved reconstruction robustness can lead to an order-of-magnitude reduction of estimation error with given resources. This optimization procedure is general and can incorporate prior information of the unknown state to further simplify the protocol.

  8. Measurement of platelet aggregation, independently of patient platelet count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinholt, P. J.; Frederiksen, H.; Hvas, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    platelet aggregation ruled out bleeding tendency in thrombocytopenic patients. Summary: Background: Methods for testing platelet aggregation in thrombocytopenia are lacking. Objective: To establish a flow-cytometric test of in vitro platelet aggregation independently of the patient's platelet count......, and examine the association of aggregation with a bleeding history in thrombocytopenic patients. Patients/methods: We established a flow-cytometric assay of platelet aggregation, and measured samples from healthy individuals preincubated with antiplatelet drugs, and samples from two patients with inherited...... platelets at platelet counts of > 10 × 109 L-1; otherwise, platelet isolation was required. The platelet aggregation percentage decreased with increasing antiplatelet drug concentration. Platelet aggregation in patients was reduced as compared with healthy individuals: 42% (interquartile range [IQR] 27...

  9. Synthesis of Reversible Functions Beyond Gate Count and Quantum Cost

    CERN Document Server

    Wille, Robert; Drechsler, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    Many synthesis approaches for reversible and quantum logic have been proposed so far. However, most of them generate circuits with respect to simple metrics, i.e. gate count or quantum cost. On the other hand, to physically realize reversible and quantum hardware, additional constraints exist. In this paper, we describe cost metrics beyond gate count and quantum cost that should be considered while synthesizing reversible and quantum logic for the respective target technologies. We show that the evaluation of a synthesis approach may differ if additional costs are applied. In addition, a new cost metric, namely Nearest Neighbor Cost (NNC) which is imposed by realistic physical quantum architectures, is considered in detail. We discuss how existing synthesis flows can be extended to generate optimal circuits with respect to NNC while still keeping the quantum cost small.

  10. A review on models for count data with extra zeros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamri, Nik Sarah Nik; Zamzuri, Zamira Hasanah

    2017-04-01

    Typically, the zero inflated models are usually used in modelling count data with excess zeros. The existence of the extra zeros could be structural zeros or random which occur by chance. These types of data are commonly found in various disciplines such as finance, insurance, biomedical, econometrical, ecology, and health sciences. As found in the literature, the most popular zero inflated models used are zero inflated Poisson and zero inflated negative binomial. Recently, more complex models have been developed to account for overdispersion and unobserved heterogeneity. In addition, more extended distributions are also considered in modelling data with this feature. In this paper, we review related literature, provide a recent development and summary on models for count data with extra zeros.

  11. Nano-optomechanical measurement in the photon counting regime

    CERN Document Server

    de Lépinay, Laure Mercier; Rohr, Sven; Gloppe, Arnaud; Kuhn, Aurélien; Verlot, Pierre; Dupont-Ferrier, Eva; Besga, Benjamin; Arcizet, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Optically measuring in the photon counting regime is a recurrent challenge in modern physics and a guarantee to develop weakly invasive probes. Here we investigate this idea on a hybrid nano-optomechanical system composed of a nanowire hybridized to a single Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) defect. The vibrations of the nanoresonator grant a spatial degree of freedom to the quantum emitter and the photon emission event can now vary in space and time. We investigate how the nanomotion is encoded on the detected photon statistics and explore their spatio-temporal correlation properties. This allows a quantitative measurement of the vibrations of the nanomechanical oscillator at unprecedentedly low light intensities in the photon counting regime when less than one photon is detected per oscillation period, where standard detectors are dark-noise-limited. These results have implications for probing weakly interacting nanoresonators, for low temperature experiments and for investigating single moving markers.

  12. The Copenhagen primary care differential count (CopDiff) database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christen Bertel L; Siersma, V.; Karlslund, W.

    2014-01-01

    of various other blood components. This data set is merged with detailed data at a person level from The Danish Cancer Registry, The Danish National Patient Register, The Danish Civil Registration System, and The Danish Register of Causes of Death. CONCLUSION: This paper reviews methodological issues behind...... associations between these parameters, concurrent comorbidities, and future disease outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Copenhagen General Practitioners' Laboratory is the only laboratory serving general practitioners in the Copenhagen area, covering approximately 1.2 million inhabitants. The Copenhagen General...... Practitioners' Laboratory has registered all analytical results since July 1, 2000. The Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count database contains all differential blood cell count results (n=1,308,022) from July 1, 2000 to January 25, 2010 requested by general practitioners, along with results from analysis...

  13. Pharmaceutical Pill Counting and Inspection Using a Capacitive Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesan LETCHUMANAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A capacitive sensor for high-speed counting and inspection of pharmaceutical products is proposed and evaluated. The sensor is based on a patented Electrostatic Field Sensor (EFS device, previously developed by Sparc Systems Limited. However, the sensor head proposed in this work has a significantly different geometry and has been designed with a rectangular inspection aperture of 160mm × 21mm, which best meets applications where a larger count throughput is required with a single sensor. Finite element modelling has been used to simulate the electrostatic fields generated within the sensor, and as a design tool for optimising the sensor head configuration. The actual and simulated performance of the sensor is compared and analysed in terms of the sensor performance at discriminating between damaged products or detection of miscount errors.

  14. The Space Complexity of 2-Dimensional Approximate Range Counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Zhewei; Yi, Ke

    2013-01-01

    with additive error εn. A well-known solution for this problem is the ε-approximation. Informally speaking, an ε-approximation of P is a subset A ⊆ P that allows us to estimate the number of points in P ∩ R by counting the number of points in A ∩ R. It is known that an ε-approximation of size exists for any P......We study the problem of 2-dimensional orthogonal range counting with additive error. Given a set P of n points drawn from an n × n grid and an error parameter ε, the goal is to build a data structure, such that for any orthogonal range R, the data structure can return the number of points in P ∩ R...

  15. Probing the Conformations of Single Molecule via Photon Counting Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Yonggang; Yang, Chuanlu; Zheng, Yujun

    2014-01-01

    We suggest an approach to detect the conformation of single molecule by using the photon counting statistics. The generalized Smoluchoswki equation is employed to describe the dynamical process of conformational change of single molecule. The resonant trajectories of the emission photon numbers $$ and the Mandel's $Q$ parameter, in the space of conformational coordinates $\\bm{\\mathcal{X}}$ and frequency $\\omega_L$ of external field ($\\bm{\\mathcal{X}}-\\omega_L$ space), can be used to rebuild the conformation of the single molecule. As an example, we consider Thioflavin T molecule. It demonstrates that the results of conformations extracted by employing the photon counting statistics is excellent agreement with the results of {\\it ab initio} computation.

  16. [Electronic platelet counting with particular reference to thrombocytopenias (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuse, R; Burmeister, H; Hausmann, K

    1977-09-29

    Platelet counts in platelet-rich plasma without hematocrit dependent correction were performed by following rapid and simple steps: 1. pre-dilution of 20 microliter of whole blood by an isotonic solution 1:25; 2. stabilized low-speed centrifugation with 55 g for 5 minutes; 3. final dilution 1 : 5000; 4. enumeration by use of a TOA platelet counter PL-100 which has been technically improved in comparison to similar machines. Erroneously high results were obtained after a too short or too low centrifugation. As reason for this artifical small pulses due to disturbances of the flow patterns around the aperture (so-called vortex-effect) can be assumed having been caused by large-volumed erythrocytes and leukocytes in the suspension. The routinely used procedure was reliable for all platelet ranges, especially in thrombocytopenias between 100 X 10(9)/l and 25 X 10(9)l. In lower ranges comparisons with visual counts are essential.

  17. Combinatorial algorithm for counting small induced graphs and orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hočevar, Tomaž; Demšar, Janez

    2017-01-01

    Graphlet analysis is an approach to network analysis that is particularly popular in bioinformatics. We show how to set up a system of linear equations that relate the orbit counts and can be used in an algorithm that is significantly faster than the existing approaches based on direct enumeration of graphlets. The approach presented in this paper presents a generalization of the currently fastest method for counting 5-node graphlets in bioinformatics. The algorithm requires existence of a vertex with certain properties; we show that such vertex exists for graphlets of arbitrary size, except for complete graphs and a cycle with four nodes, which are treated separately. Empirical analysis of running time agrees with the theoretical results. PMID:28182743

  18. Distinct counting with a self-learning bitmap

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Aiyou; Shepp, Larry; Nguyen, Tuan

    2011-01-01

    Counting the number of distinct elements (cardinality) in a dataset is a fundamental problem in database management. In recent years, due to many of its modern applications, there has been significant interest to address the distinct counting problem in a data stream setting, where each incoming data can be seen only once and cannot be stored for long periods of time. Many probabilistic approaches based on either sampling or sketching have been proposed in the computer science literature, that only require limited computing and memory resources. However, the performances of these methods are not scale-invariant, in the sense that their relative root mean square estimation errors (RRMSE) depend on the unknown cardinalities. This is not desirable in many applications where cardinalities can be very dynamic or inhomogeneous and many cardinalities need to be estimated. In this paper, we develop a novel approach, called self-learning bitmap (S-bitmap) that is scale-invariant for cardinalities in a specified range....

  19. Experimental study of photo counting imaging based on APD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Huiming; Li, Yuan-yuan; Cao, Dan; Zheng, Qi; Ji, Zhong-Jie; Chen, Qian

    2012-10-01

    Photo counting imaging is a promising imaging method for very low-level-light condition and super high-speed imaging. An experimental setup with Geiger mode silicon avalanche photodiode single-photon counter was established in this study. This experimental setup achieved photon counting imaging through serial two-dimensional scanning mode of single APD. It extracts the extremely weak signal from the noise by scanning image, and then reconstructs the photon distribution image. The feasibility of the experiment platform was verified with many experiments. The resolution bar was scanned and imaged in different lighting condition. A Lena image was also scanned and imaged among several illumination conditions. The resolution ability and imaging quality are evaluated in different illumination surroundings. The imaging limited condition was concluded based on existing APD sensor. The experimental result indicates that the imaging based Geiger mode APD is an excellent candidate for very low level light imaging.

  20. Optical phase estimation via coherent state and displaced photon counting

    CERN Document Server

    Izumi, Shuro; Wakui, Kentaro; Fujiwara, Mikio; Ema, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Masahide

    2016-01-01

    We consider the phase sensing via weak optical coherent state at quantum limit precision. A new detection scheme for the phase estimation is proposed which is inspired by the suboptimal quantum measurement in coherent optical communication. We theoretically analyze a performance of our detection scheme, which we call the displaced-photon counting, for phase sensing in terms of the Fisher information and show that the displaced-photon counting outperforms the static homodyne and heterodyne detections in wide range of the target phase. The proof-of-principle experiment is performed with linear optics and a superconducting nanowire single photon detector. The result shows that our scheme overcomes the limit of the ideal homodyne measurement even under practical imperfections.