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Sample records for countermeasures element nutrition

  1. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element Nutrition Risk Standing Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistrian, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    The Nutrition Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) reviewed and discussed the specific gaps and tasks for the Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element related to nutrition identified in the Human Research Program (HRP) Integrated Research Plan. There was general consensus that the described gaps and proposed tasks were critical to future NASA mission success. The SRP acknowledged the high scientific quality of the work currently being undertaken by the Nutritional Biochemistry group under the direction of Dr. Scott Smith. In review of the entire HRP, four new gaps were identified that complement the Element's existing research activities. Given the limitations of ground-based analogs for many of the unique physiological and metabolic alterations in space, future studies are needed to quantify nutritional factors that change during actual space flight. In addition, future tasks should seek to better evaluate the time course of physiological and metabolic alterations during flight to better predict alterations during longer duration missions. Finally, given the recent data suggesting a potential role for increased inflammatory responses during space flight, the role of inflammation needs to be explored in detail, including the development of potential countermeasures and new ground based analogs, if this possibility is confirmed.

  2. Nutritional Countermeasures to Ameliorate Losses in Muscle Mass and Function

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Major Accomplishments This project represents a combination of two NASA-funded protocols, which investigated nutritional countermeasures to activity-induced...

  3. Risk assessment model for nuclear accident emergency protection countermeasure based on fuzzy matter-element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin Jing; Tang Huaqing; Zhang Yinghua; Zhang Limin

    2009-01-01

    A risk assessment model of nuclear accident emergency protection countermeasure based on fuzzy matter-element analysis and Euclid approach degree is proposed in the paper. The weight of assessed index is determined by information entropy and the scoring by experts, which could not only make full use of the inherent information of the indexes adequately, but reduce subjective assumption in the course of assessment effectively. The applied result shows that it is reasonable that the model is adopted to make risk assessment for nuclear accident emergency protective countermeasure,and it could be a kind of effective analytical method and decision making basis to choose the optimum protection countermeasure. (authors)

  4. Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element Management Plan: Human Research Program. Revision B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsk, Peter; Baumann, David

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Human Research Program (HRP) is an applied research and technology program within the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) that addresses human health and performance risk mitigation strategies in support of exploration missions. The HRP research and technology development is focused on the highest priority risks to crew health and safety with the goal of ensuring mission success and maintaining long-term crew health. Crew health and performance standards, defined by the NASA Chief Health and Medical Officer (CHMO), set the acceptable risk level for exploration missions. The HRP conducts research to inform these standards as well as provide deliverables, such as countermeasures, that ensure standards can be met to maximize human performance and mission success. The Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element was formed as part of the HRP to develop a scientifically-based, integrated approach to understanding and mitigating the health risks associated with human spaceflight. These health risks have been organized into four research portfolios that group similar or related risks. A fifth portfolio exists for managing technology developments and infrastructure projects. The HHC Element portfolios consist of: a) Vision and Cardiovascular; b) Exercise and Performance; c) Multisystem; d) Bone; and e) Technology and Infrastructure. The HHC identifies gaps associated with the health risks and plans human physiology research that will result in knowledge required to more fully understand risks and will result in validated countermeasures to mitigate risks.

  5. Trace Elements in Human Nutrition and Health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trace Elements in Human Nutrition and Health, a report of a. World Heatth Organisation Expert Committee, contains material contributed by numerous experts consulted in different specialised fields, together with the conClusions reached and recommendations made by the Expert. Consultation. The nineteen nutritionally ...

  6. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norfleet, William; Harris, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    The Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) was favorably impressed by the operational risk management approach taken by the Human Research Program (HRP) Integrated Research Plan (IRP) to address the stated life sciences issues. The life sciences community at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) seems to be focused on operational risk management. This approach is more likely to provide risk managers with the information they need at the time they need it. Concerning the information provided to the SRP by the EVA Physiology, Systems, and Performance Project (EPSP), it is obvious that a great deal of productive activity is under way. Evaluation of this information was hampered by the fact that it often was not organized in a fashion that reflects the "Gaps and Tasks" approach of the overall Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) effort, and that a substantial proportion of the briefing concerned subjects that, while interesting, are not part of the HHC Element (e.g., the pressurized rover presentation). Additionally, no information was provided on several of the tasks or how they related to work underway or already accomplished. This situation left the SRP having to guess at the efforts and relationship to other elements, and made it hard to easily map the EVA Project efforts currently underway, and the data collected thus far, to the gaps and tasks in the IRP. It seems that integration of the EPSP project into the HHC Element could be improved. Along these lines, we were concerned that our SRP was split off from the other participating SRPs at an early stage in the overall agenda for the meeting. In reality, the concerns of EPSP and other projects share much common ground. For example, the commonality of the concerns of the EVA and exercise physiology groups is obvious, both in terms of what reduced exercise capacity can do to EVA capability, and how the exercise performed during an EVA could contribute to an overall exercise countermeasure prescription.

  7. Nutritional composition, antinutritional factors and elemental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study is aimed at evaluating nutritional composition, antinutritional factors and elemental analysis of three parts (roots sample RS, seed sample SS and leave sample LS) of Nymphaea lotus (water lily) using standard methods. The plant parts were analyzed for the content of crude lipid, crude fiber, crude proteins, ash, ...

  8. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element Cardiovascular Risks Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Cardiovascular Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) evaluated several cardiovascular risks associated with space flight along with the ongoing and emerging plans to study these issues and potentially propose and/or develop countermeasures. The areas of focus included: 1) The risk of cardiac rhythm problems during prolonged space flight, and 2) Issues related to the risk of orthostatic intolerance during re-exposure to gravity. An emerging area of concern is radiation associated vascular injury. The risk of cardiac rhythm disturbances has emerged based on case reports only. No systematic study of this risk has been published. However, concerns about this risk are heightened by the age range of astronauts, the structural changes in the heart that occur during space flight, and the potential shifts in fluids and electrolytes. The current plan is to use prolonged Holter monitor EKG records made as part of the "Integrated Cardiovascular SMO" in space to determine more about the frequency and magnitude of this problem and to link this data to complementary data from the nutrition group on electrolytes. The SRP was supportive of this approach. The SRP also felt that any data related to cardiovascular risk in space should be better coordinated with the medical screening data that all astronauts undergo at regular intervals. Additionally, while there are potential privacy issues related to this suggestion, many of the current barriers to better coordination of experimental and clinical data appear to reflect longstanding cultural traditions at NASA that need rethinking. The risk of orthostatic intolerance during re-exposure to gravity was seen by the SRP as an area supported by a wealth of published physiological evidence. The SRP also felt that moving forward with the planned approach to countermeasures was reasonable and that extensive additional hypothesis testing on the physiology of orthostatic intolerance was not needed at this time. There was support for developing

  9. Elements of effective nutrition education for adults with Diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elements of effective nutrition education for adults with Diabetes mellitus in resource poor settings: A review. ... Journal Home > Vol 14, No 1 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access ... Type 2 diabetes is increasing to epidemic levels globally.

  10. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element: Evidence Report - Artificial Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    The most serious risks of long-duration flight involve radiation, behavioral stresses, and physiological deconditioning. Artificial gravity (AG), by substituting for the missing gravitational cues and loading in space, has the potential to mitigate the last of these risks by preventing the adaptive responses from occurring. The rotation of a Mars-bound spacecraft or an embarked human centrifuge offers significant promise as an effective, efficient multi-system countermeasure against the physiological deconditioning associated with prolonged weightlessness. Virtually all of the identified risks associated with bone loss, muscle weakening, cardiovascular deconditioning, and sensorimotor disturbances might be alleviated by the appropriate application of AG. However, experience with AG in space has been limited and a human-rated centrifuge is currently not available on board the ISS. A complete R&D program aimed at determining the requirements for gravity level, gravity gradient, rotation rate, frequency, and duration of AG exposure is warranted before making a decision for implementing AG in a human spacecraft.

  11. Potential for acid emissions affecting trace element nutrition of livestock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    The role of sour gas emissions in trace element nutrition of livestock is discussed. Trace mineral nutrition and the evaluation of factors affecting it is very complex. Some trace minerals are antagonistic to each other, for example a dietary sulfur content of greater than 0.4% will suppress the availability of copper to ruminants. Dietary plants, age, pregnancy, and disease can all alter trace element concentrations. Species and breed of animal play a significant role in copper metabolism. Clinical signs associated with copper and zinc deficiency are discussed. These symptoms include lameness, lack of hair pigmentation, infertility, and scouring. Some of these symptoms may be caused by excess molybdenum. Clinical features associated with zinc deficiency include parakeratosis and inflammation of the skin. 4 figs., 1 tab

  12. Trace Elements in Parenteral Nutrition: Considerations for the Prescribing Clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jennifer; Mulesa, Leanne; Carrilero Rouillet, Mariana

    2017-04-28

    Trace elements (TEs) are an essential component of parenteral nutrition (PN). Over the last few decades, there has been increased experience with PN, and with this knowledge more information about the management of trace elements has become available. There is increasing awareness of the effects of deficiencies and toxicities of certain trace elements. Despite this heightened awareness, much is still unknown in terms of trace element monitoring, the accuracy of different assays, and current TE contamination of solutions. The supplementation of TEs is a complex and important part of the PN prescription. Understanding the role of different disease states and the need for reduced or increased doses is essential. Given the heterogeneity of the PN patients, supplementation should be individualized.

  13. Toxic element composition of multani mitti clay for nutritional safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Faiz, Y.; Rahman, S.; Siddique, N.

    2013-01-01

    Geophagy of multani mitti (MM) clay is very common in central Pakistan especially amongst women. It was therefore mandatory to establish baseline levels of toxic elements in this clay for its safe dietary consumption by consumers of different genders, age groups and physical states. Instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry techniques were used to determine the nutritional safety of MM clay for oral intake. All quantified toxic elements were detected at trace levels with composition in the descending order; Pb > Br > As > Sb > Hg > Cd. Comparison of these elements in MM clay with other clays shows that As, Cd, and Pb, are lowest in MM clay while its Br and Hg contents are high. Highest weekly dietary intakes of As, Br, Cd, Hg, and Sb were found to be 18, 0.05, 1.6, 9.2 and 1.1 % of the respective recommended provisional tolerable weekly intakes. The findings of this study show that As, Br, Cd, Hg and Sb in MM clay are well below the tolerance levels. However its Pb concentration is very high and may pose health concerns. The data presented in this study can be used as national base level guideline for geophagy of MM clay by men, women (normal, pregnant and lactating) and children. (author)

  14. Elemental analysis and nutritional value of edible Trifolium (clover) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounden, Thaveshan; Moodley, Roshila; Jonnalagadda, Sreekantha B

    2018-04-30

    Trifolium species, commonly known as clover species, have a cosmopolitan distribution and, as such, are used in many different traditional systems of medicine and consumed by many communities all over the world. In this study, the elemental distribution and nutritional value of five edible Trifolium species, namely, Trifolium africanum, Trifolium burchellianum, Trifolium repens, Trifolium dubium and Trifolium pratense were investigated to evaluate the potential of these plant species to alleviate malnutrition, thereby contributing toward the fight against food insecurity. Trifolium species were found to be a rich alternate source of essential nutrients with concentrations of elements being in decreasing order of Ca > Mg > Fe > Mn > Zn > Se > Cu > Cr > Pb > Ni > Co > Cd > As and with adequate levels of lipids (4.2 to 8.6%), proteins (35.1 to 45.4%) and carbohydrates (26.7 to 47.0%). Trifolium species were found to be rich in Se (contributing greater than 516% toward its RDA) with T. dubium having a concentration of 0.53 mg 10 g -1 , dry mass, which is higher than Brazil nuts. T. pratense was found to be the most suitable species for human consumption due to it having low levels of toxic metals (As, Cd and Pb) while being rich in macro- and micro-elements, especially Fe (7.84 mg 10 g -1 , dry mass) and Se (0.36 mg 10 g -1 , dry mass).

  15. Trace elements in animal nutrition: Can a great potential be realized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertz, W.

    1976-01-01

    Few of the advances in trace element research have found universal application to practical problems of animal nutrition in the field. Environmental or man-made imbalances of trace elements can result in significant reduction of animal performance resulting in substantial economic loss and, indirectly, in a poorer nutritional status of human populations. Extrapolation of existing data suggests that wide areas of the world will be found to have considerable problems of animal trace element nutrition. Once diagnosed, correction of existing imbalances is feasible and inexpensive, with a resulting improvement of animal productivity and of human health. (author)

  16. Half-elemental Nutrition Mixtures for Enteral Nutrition of Children in Critical Conditions: Features of Usage and Economic Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Berestennikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Enteral (tube nutrition has demonstrated its superiority in comparison with parenteral nutrition for patients with a preserved function of gastrointestinal tract who are in intensive care units, or ICU, and who cannot eat or are not allowed to eat by medical indications. International guidelines recommend enteral injections of mixtures for patients in critical conditions in need of nutritial support. The first twenty-four hour is considered the optimal period for starting nutritional support. It is known that costs of the enteral nutrition are much lower than costs of intravascular supply for patients who are in the ICU. The usage of special-purpose dietary products — half-elemental mixtures with high energy density — is the most physiological for children in ICU from 1 year and for adults in critical conditions.

  17. Serum trace elements as nutritional markers in a case with acute aortic dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Y.; Suwabe, A.; Tawara, M.; Endo, R.; Ikeda, K.; Sera, K.

    2008-01-01

    Serum trace elements were analyzed by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method in a patient with acute aortic dissection during the supportive process by a Nutrition support team (NST). The patient was a 53-year old male who suffered from acute aortic dissection on March 1, 2007. He received emergent Bentall operation and bow pars total displacement. Since he suffered from diarrhea as a result of hypoalbuminemia and bowel dysfunction, enteral nutrition was not sufficient to maintain adequate intake. Therefore, we also used parenteral nutrition until the 97th disease day. Afterwards, the patient managed only with enteral nutrition. We measured serum trace elements during these periods. Serum trace elements such as Fe, Zn and Se were preserved within normal ranges. On the other hand, Cu gradually decreased until the 54th disease day (44 μg/l) and stayed in the lower levels around the detection limit until the 109th disease day. Thereafter, Cu slightly increased and reached 117 μg/l on the 131st disease day (reference range of serum Cu in adult males: 700-1,300 μg/l). It was suggested that the serum levels of these trace elements might reflect the nutritional stages of the patient and could be useful as clinical markers for nutritional therapies. (author)

  18. Countermeasures and barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Johannes [Oersted - DTU, Automation, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2005-10-01

    In 1973 Haddon proposed ten strategies for reducing and avoiding damages based on a model of potential harmful energy transfer (Haddon, 1973). The strategies apply to a large variety of unwanted phenomena. Haddon's pioneering work on countermeasures has had a major influence on later thinking about safety. Considering its impact it is remarkable that the literature offers almost no discussions related to the theoretical foundations of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. The present report addresses a number of theoretical issues related to Haddon's countermeasure strategies, which are: 1) A reformulation and formalization of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. 2) An identification and description of some of the problems associated with the term 'barrier'. 3) Suggestions for a more precise terminology based on the causal structure of countermeasures. 4) Extending the scope of countermeasures to include sign-based countermeasures. (au)

  19. Countermeasures and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, Johannes

    2005-10-01

    In 1973 Haddon proposed ten strategies for reducing and avoiding damages based on a model of potential harmful energy transfer (Haddon, 1973). The strategies apply to a large variety of unwanted phenomena. Haddon's pioneering work on countermeasures has had a major influence on later thinking about safety. Considering its impact it is remarkable that the literature offers almost no discussions related to the theoretical foundations of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. The present report addresses a number of theoretical issues related to Haddon's countermeasure strategies, which are: 1) A reformulation and formalization of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. 2) An identification and description of some of the problems associated with the term 'barrier'. 3) Suggestions for a more precise terminology based on the causal structure of countermeasures. 4) Extending the scope of countermeasures to include sign-based countermeasures. (au)

  20. Nutritional values of trace elements in dried desserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyritsis, A.; Kanias, G.D.; Tzia, C.

    1997-01-01

    Desserts are the most aromatic and delicious parts of meals, and also a source of nutrient trace elements for the human body. In this work, instrumental neutron activation analysis has been applied to determine the trace elements antimony, chromium, cobalt, iron, manganese, potassium, rubidium, scandium, sodium and zinc in creme caramel, ice-creams, jellies and mousse dried desserts from the Greek market. According to our results, their classification as nutrient trace element sources for the human body is: mousse>ice-cream> creme caramel> jelly. Among the different studied flavours, chocolate and its derivatives are the richest in nutrient trace elements. Moreover, the consumption of one portion of a chocolate mousse dessert can offer to the human body about 60% of the daily required chromium, 40% of the daily required iron, 10% of the daily required manganese and potassium and 4% of the daily required sodium. (author)

  1. Defining core elements and outstanding practice in Nutritional Science through collaborative benchmarking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samman, Samir; McCarthur, Jennifer O; Peat, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Benchmarking has been adopted by educational institutions as a potentially sensitive tool for improving learning and teaching. To date there has been limited application of benchmarking methodology in the Discipline of Nutritional Science. The aim of this survey was to define core elements and outstanding practice in Nutritional Science through collaborative benchmarking. Questionnaires that aimed to establish proposed core elements for Nutritional Science, and inquired about definitions of " good" and " outstanding" practice were posted to named representatives at eight Australian universities. Seven respondents identified core elements that included knowledge of nutrient metabolism and requirement, food production and processing, modern biomedical techniques that could be applied to understanding nutrition, and social and environmental issues as related to Nutritional Science. Four of the eight institutions who agreed to participate in the present survey identified the integration of teaching with research as an indicator of outstanding practice. Nutritional Science is a rapidly evolving discipline. Further and more comprehensive surveys are required to consolidate and update the definition of the discipline, and to identify the optimal way of teaching it. Global ideas and specific regional requirements also need to be considered.

  2. Mineral Elements in Relation to Protein-Calorie Malnutrition and the Nutritional Anaemias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstead, H. H. [Division of Nutrition, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States)

    1970-07-01

    Protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) and the nutritional anaemias are problems of major importance the world over. The metabolism of the major elements in PCM has been clarified during the last decade. However, relatively little is known about the trace elements. Of the trace elements, evidence has recently been reported which suggests that deficiencies of copper, zinc, selenium and chromium may occur in PCM. The pathological effects of potassium and magnesium deficiency in PCM have come under increased scrutiny. The mineral elements of importance in haematopoiesis include iron, copper, cobalt and possibly selenium. Studies of the effect of copper and selenium are in the formative stage. (author)

  3. Clinical relevance of trace element measurement in patients on initiation of parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salota, Rashim; Omar, Sohail; Sherwood, Roy A; Raja, Kishor; Vincent, Royce P

    2016-11-01

    Background and Aims Serum zinc, copper and selenium are measured in patients prior to commencing on parenteral nutrition; however, their interpretation can be difficult due to acute phase reactions. We assessed (i) the relationship of raised C-reactive protein with trace elements and albumin (ii) benefits of measuring trace elements when C-reactive protein is raised in patients requiring short-term parenteral nutrition. Methods Samples were collected for zinc, copper, selenium and albumin at baseline and then every two weeks and correlated with C-reactive protein results in patients on parenteral nutrition. Results were categorized into four groups based on the C-reactive protein concentrations: (i)  0.05), whereas selenium and albumin were lower in the group with C-reactive protein > 40 mg/L ( P parenteral nutrition, measurement of C-reactive protein is essential when interpreting zinc and selenium but not copper results. Routine measurement of trace elements prior to commencing parenteral nutrition has to be considered on an individual basis in patients with inflammation.

  4. Clinical Aspects of Trace Elements: Zinc in Human Nutrition – Zinc Deficiency and Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M Pluhator

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Available evidence suggests that trace elements, such as zinc, once thought to have no nutritional relevance, are possibly deficient in large sections of the human population. Conditioned deficiencies have been reported to result from malabsorption syndromes, acrodermatitis enteropathica, alcoholism, gastrointestinal disease, thermal injury, chronic diseases (eg, diabetes, sickle cell anemia, and in total parenteral nutrition therapy. Awareness that patients with these problems are at risk has led health professionals to focus increasingly on the importance of zinc therapy in the prevention and treatment of deficiency. More recently zinc toxicity and its role in human nutrition and well-being have come under investigation. Reports have focused on the role of zinc toxicity in causes of copper deficiency, changes in the immune system and alterations in blood lipids. As the numerous challenges presented by the study of zinc in human nutrition are met, more appropriate recommendations for dietary and therapeutic zinc intake are being made.

  5. Nutritional Aspects of Essential Trace Elements in Oral Health and Disease: An Extensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Tomar Bhattacharya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human body requires certain essential elements in small quantities and their absence or excess may result in severe malfunctioning of the body and even death in extreme cases because these essential trace elements directly influence the metabolic and physiologic processes of the organism. Rapid urbanization and economic development have resulted in drastic changes in diets with developing preference towards refined diet and nutritionally deprived junk food. Poor nutrition can lead to reduced immunity, augmented vulnerability to various oral and systemic diseases, impaired physical and mental growth, and reduced efficiency. Diet and nutrition affect oral health in a variety of ways with influence on craniofacial development and growth and maintenance of dental and oral soft tissues. Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD are treated with antioxidants containing essential trace elements like selenium but even increased dietary intake of trace elements like copper could lead to oral submucous fibrosis. The deficiency or excess of other trace elements like iodine, iron, zinc, and so forth has a profound effect on the body and such conditions are often diagnosed through their early oral manifestations. This review appraises the biological functions of significant trace elements and their role in preservation of oral health and progression of various oral diseases.

  6. Detecting changes in the nutritional value and elemental composition of transgenic sorghum grain

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndimba, R

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 363 (2015) 183–187 Detecting changes in the nutritional value and elemental composition of transgenic sorghum grain R. Ndimba a,c,, A.W. Grootboom b, L. Mehlo b, N.L. Mkhonza b, J. Kossmann c, A...

  7. Pyrotechnic countermeasures: II. Advanced aerial infrared countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Ernst-Christian [Diehl BGT Defence GmbH and Co. KG, Fischbachstrasse 16, D-90552 Roethenbach a. d. Pegnitz (Germany)

    2006-02-15

    This paper discusses the technology of advanced aerial infrared countermeasures and related work disclosed in the unclassified literature. Missile-seeker head counter-countermeasures include spectral discrimination, kinematical discrimination, rise-time discrimination, UV/VIS discrimination and area temperature matching. Advanced flare payloads designed to counter dual color seekers contain selectively emitting compositions based primarily on high carbon fuels and perchlorates. Other advanced payloads consist of low temperature emitters like pyrophoric metal foils and gasless pyrotechnic compositions like Fe/KClO{sub 4}. The optimization of black body flares, still considered essential to a successful countermeasure solution, make use of new fuels based on e.g. meta-stable alloys and nanometer-sized powders as well as high energetic oxidizers. Kinematic flares today use combined propellant and infrared grains. 116 references from the public domain are given. For part I see Propellants, Explos., Pyrotech. 2001, 26, 3. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Measurement of some radiologically and nutritionally important trace elements in human milk and commercially available milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Suma; Sathyapriya, R.S.; Nair, M.G.; Ravi, Prabhat; Bhati, Sharda

    2011-01-01

    Milk is considered to be a complete food and an almost indispensable part of the diets of infants and children. In this paper we present the concentration of some radiologically and nutritionally important trace elements such as Th, Cs, Co, Rb, Fe, Ca and Zn present in human milk and commercially available milk. The trace elements in human and other milk samples were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. The results show that higher concentrations of Th, Cs, Ca and Rb were found in ordinary milk samples in comparison with the human milk samples. Whereas, a higher concentrations of Fe and Co were observed in human milk samples. These data will be useful for the nutritional and biokinetic studies of these elements in infants and children of different age groups. (author)

  9. Serum concentrations of trace elements in patients with Crohn's disease receiving enteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johtatsu, Tomoko; Andoh, Akira; Kurihara, Mika; Iwakawa, Hiromi; Tsujikawa, Tomoyuki; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Fujiyama, Yoshihide; Sasaki, Masaya

    2007-11-01

    We investigated the trace element status in Crohn's disease (CD) patients receiving enteral nutrition, and evaluated the effects of trace element-rich supplementation. Thirty-one patients with CD were enrolled in this study. All patients were placed on an enteral nutrition regimen with Elental(R) (Ajinomoto pharmaceutical. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). Serum selenium, zinc and copper concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Serum selenoprotein P levels were determined by an ELISA system. Average serum levels of albumin, selenium, zinc and copper were 4.1 +/- 0.4 g/dl, 11.2 +/- 2.8 microg/dl, 71.0 +/- 14.8 microg/dl, and 112.0 +/- 25.6 microg/dl, respectively. In 9 patients of 31 CD patients, serum albumin levels were lower than the lower limit of the normal range. Serum selenium, zinc and copper levels were lower than lower limits in 12 patients, 9 patients and 1 patient, respectively. Serum selenium levels significantly correlated with both serum selenoprotein P levels and glutathione peroxidase activity. Supplementation of selenium (100 microg/day) and zinc (10 mg/day) for 2 months significantly improved the trace element status in CD patients. In conclusion, serum selenium and zinc levels are lower in many CD patients on long-term enteral nutrition. In these patients, supplementation of selenium and zinc was effective in improving the trace element status.

  10. Application of energy dispersive XRF-spectrometry to analyse nutritional elements in relation to cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hota, P.K.; Vijayan, V.; Singh, L.P.

    2001-01-01

    Food is the principal media for intake of elements from environment to human body. Thus, it is felt important to determine the daily dietary intake of such elements in the field of toxicity and nutrition, the deficiency or sufficiency of which may lead to various diseases, disorders and allergies in human health. In this study, the elements present in commonly used cereals, pulses, noodles, some condiments/spices, tobacco products, some common leaves used in herbal medicine and tea leaves have been analyzed using EDXRF spectrometry technique. Elemental concentrations of K, Ca, Fe, Sr, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, As and Se are detected and quantified in all the samples using this method. The results are discussed in relation to cancer. (author)

  11. Comparative study of the nutritional composition and toxic elements of farmed and wild Chanodichthys mongolicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haifeng; Cheng, Xiaofei; Geng, Longwu; Tang, Shizhan; Tong, Guangxiang; Xu, Wei

    2017-07-01

    Information of the difference in quality between farmed and wild fish is central to better ensuring fish products produced in aquaculture meet regulatory and consumer requirements. Proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid profiles, and toxic elements contents of farmed and wild Chanodichthys mongolicus were established and compared. Significantly higher crude protein content while lower moisture content in farmed fish compared to wild fish were observed ( Pacids (TAA), total essential amino acids (TEAA), total non-essential amino acids (TNEAA) and total delicious amino acids (TDAA) in farmed fish were all significantly higher than those in the wild equivalent ( Pacid profiles in both farmed and wild C. mongolicus were dominated by monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), with farmed fish contained much more MUFA content compared to wild counterpart ( Pacid (PUFA) including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) than farmed fish ( Pacid (C18:2n6) were the predominant PUFA in wild and farmed C. mongolicus, respectively. Moreover, farmed fish displayed an overall lower toxic element levels (As, Cd, Pb and Hg) in comparison with wild fish, and both were far lower than the established limit standard. In conclusion, our results suggest that the nutritional quality of farmed C. mongolicus was inferior to their wild counterpart with respect to fatty acids nutrition, and therefore further studies should focus on the improving C. mongolicus diet in order to enhance the overall nutritional composition.

  12. Accumulation of elements by edible mushroom species II. A comparison of aluminium, barium and nutritional element contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Siwulski, Marek; Stuper-Szablewska, Kinga; Sobieralski, Krzysztof; Magdziak, Zuzanna; Goliński, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare accumulation efficiency of Al, Ba and nutritional elements (Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na) exhibited by six edible mushrooms collected in particular regions of Poland during the last 20 years. The studied mushroom species were Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, Lactarius deliciosus, Leccinum aurantiacum, Suillus luteus and Xerocomus badius. The highest and the lowest concentrations of the elements in tested mushroom species were 11 - 410, 34 - 337, 16785 - 34600, 140 - 607, 12 - 75 and 16 - 143 mg kg(-1)d.m., respectively. The highest average concentrations of Al, Mg and Mn were observed in Suillus luteus fruiting bodies, while for Ba, Ca, K and Na it was in Lactarius deliciosus. BCF >1 was found for K and Mg in all tested mushroom species and additionally for the highest Ca and Na concentrations of all tested mushroom species except for C. cibarius and S. luteus, respectively. For the other tested elements (Al, Ba, Fe and Mn) BCF values < 1 were recorded.

  13. Use of NAA to determine nutritive elements in immature and mature soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskander, F.Y.

    1986-01-01

    During the maturation of soybeans, several changes in the chemical composition take place. However, data available relating mineral and vitamin content to maturation stage are limited and show a wide range of values. There are several factors that affect the mineral content of soybeans. These factors include, but are not limited to, soil composition, application of fertilizers, environmental conditions, and genetic factors. For the samples examined in this study all the aforementioned factors, except genetic, were kept unchanged. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was employed to measure calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, and zinc in three soybean varieties at three maturation stages. Samples from three soybean varieties were investigated. The three maturation stages were defined as immature, green mature, and dry mature. The concentration of calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, and zinc in the three soybean varieties at different maturation stages are shown. The concentration of some nutritive elements (for example, calcium, iron, manganese, and zinc) in soybeans are much higher than in other grain cereals such as wheat and corn. However, it is questionable whether too much nutritional importance be given to these elements in soybeans since phytate content in soybeans is much higher than that of wheat or corn, and it has been postulated that low bioavailability of the aforementioned elements are related to phytate content

  14. Countermeasures in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggenstos, M.; Brunner, H.

    1995-01-01

    Concerning countermeasures in Switzerland, part of them are tested every year in exercises. An operational emergency management in the EPZ (Emergency Planning Zones) is a condition for operating a NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) in Switzerland. The NPP operators have to pay special installations and preparations, automatic monitoring network in the inner EPZ and iodine tablets for the EPZ population. Countermeasures concerning EPZ, sheltering hospitals, farmers are summarized in this document. It also presents the use of iodine tablets based on the ICRP's recommendations (International Commission Radiological Protection), and the implementation of evacuation plans, public information or exercises organised by the EOR (Emergency Organisation Radioactivity). (TEC). 4 refs., 1 fig

  15. The effect of postoperative radiotherapy on leukocyte zinc, serum trace elements and nutritional status of breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antila, H.M.J.; Salo, M.S.; Kirvelae, O.; Nikkanen, V.

    1992-01-01

    Mononuclear (MNC) and polymorphonuclear cell (PMNC) zinc content was determined together with serum zinc, copper, selenium and iron concentrations in 24 operable breast cancer patients during and after postoperative radiotherapy. Anthropometric and biochemical indices of nutritional status were measured as background data. The measurements were carried out in the years 1987-1988. Nine patients used unconventional multivitamin or trace element preparations. A steady but statistically insignificant decrease in PMNC zinc was seen during treatment. No changes occurred in MNC zinc. Serum copper levels increased in five patients possibly due to tamoxifen treatment, but no other alterations occurred in serum trace element levels. Appetite was well maintained and nutritional status remained unaltered. Postoperative radiotherapy for breast carcinoma had thus no effect on either trace element or nutritional status. Patient-initiated alternative treatments did not significantly affect their trace element levels. This was probably due to small supplementation doses or irregular use of the preparations. (orig.)

  16. Daily dietary intake of elements of nutritional and radiological importance by adult Koreans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S.Y.; Kang, S.H.; Lee, J.K.; Chung, Y.S.; Lee, J.Y.

    2001-01-01

    A one day representative mixed diet of an adult Korean was collected from the data based on the food intake of 108 healthy subjects between the ages 20 and 50. Sampling for the Korean total diet was carried out by using a market basket study based on the Korean standard food consumption scheme reported by the Korean Nutriting Society. Average consumption frequency of different food items for a one day representative mixed diet of an adult Korean and the amount of each item to prepare a one day Korean representative total diet are surveyed. The analytical methods involve both instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation techniques develop for the determination of the elements Cs, I, Sr, Th and U in various kinds of food samples. Concentrations of trace elements including 5 important elements for radiological protection, U, Th, Cs, Sr and I in the Korean total diet and the 4 most frequently consumed Korean foodstuffs have been analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Detection limits for U, Th, Sr and I were improved to ppb levels by radiochemical separation after neutron irradiation. Five biological NIST reference materials were also analyzed for quality control of the analysis. Seventeen trace elements in the Korean total diet and four Korean representative foodstuffs were also analyzed quantitatively by instrumental neutron activation analysis. (author)

  17. Daily dietary intake of trace elements of radiological and nutritional importance by the adult Indian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, H.S.; Jaiswal, D.D.; Nair, S.

    2001-01-01

    The concentrations of eleven elements: Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, I, K, Se, Sr, Th and Zn were determined in total diet samples and also in individual food materials which constitute the typical Indian diet. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) were employed for the analysis. Whereas the elements Fe, Co, Cr, Se and Zn are important from the view point of their role in nutrition, the elements Cs, K, Sr and Th are of importance in radiation protection, and Ca and I have dual importance: both in nutrition as well as in radiation protection. Based on the analysis of twenty total diet samples, prepared as per the data on the dietary intake pattern of four provinces of India and the data on intake pattern of an average adult Indian, the geometric mean (GM) intake of various elements was estimated to be 0.33 g (0.2-0.67) for Ca, 16.5 μg (8.3-31.1) for Co, 52.3μg (35.1-131) for Cr, 4.7μg (2.79-11.8) for Cs, 94.6μg (60.6-201) for I, 1.90 g (1.25-3.54) for K, 1.13 mg (0.78-2.97) for Sr, 0.76μg (0.45-1.66) for Th, 15.9 mg (10.2-34.3) for Fe, 56.3μg (27.6-105.3) for Se and 8.6 mg (5.1-16.7) for Zn. Some of the important individual food materials, such as cereals, pulses, milk, vegetables etc., were also analysed for these elements to observe the contributions of the individual food materials to their daily dietary intake. The results of the analysis showed that in the case of Cs, K, Sr, Th, Fe, Zn and Co, almost 50% of the daily dietary intake of the above stated elements is contributed by cereals and pulses. In the case of Ca however, significant amount is amount is contributed by milk and in case of I, iodised salt could make significant contribution. The data collected so far, for Se and Cr, was not sufficient to draw any definite conclusion. (author)

  18. Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of States, Districts, and Schools That Required Teaching Nutrition and Dietary Behavior, by School Level 100 80 60 40 20 0 72. ... no comparable variable existed in both survey years. Nutrition Services • 68.6% of schools offered breakfast to students and 63.0% participated ...

  19. Disaster countermeasures around nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsuta, Yoshinori

    1982-01-01

    The following matters are described. Safety regulation administration for nuclear power plants; nuclear disaster countermeasures in the United States; disaster countermeasures around nuclear facilities (a report of the ad hoc committee in Nuclear Safety Commission), including general requirements, the scope of areas to take the countermeasures, emergency environmental monitoring, guidelines for taking the countermeasures, and emergency medical treatment. In the nuclear safety administration, the system of stationing safety expert personnel on the sites of nuclear power generation and qualifying the persons in charge of reactor operation in the control room is also introduced. As for the disaster countermeasures, such as the detection of an abnormal state, the notification of the abnormality to various organs concerned, the starting of emergency environmental monitoring, the establishment of the countermeasure headquarters, and emergency measures for the local people. (Mori, K.)

  20. Heavy metals and mineral elements not included on the nutritional labels in table olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Antonio; López, Rafael; Madrid, Fernando; Garrido-Fernández, Antonio

    2008-10-22

    The average contents, in mg/kg edible portion (e.p.), of elements not considered for nutritional labeling in Spanish table olives were as follows: aluminum, 71.1; boron, 4.41; barium, 2.77; cadmium, 0.04; cobalt, 0.12; chromium, 0.19; lithium, 6.56; nickel, 0.15; lead, 0.15; sulfur, 321; tin, 18.4; strontium, 9.71; and zirconium, 0.04. Sulfur was the most abundant element in table olives, followed by aluminum and tin (related to green olives). There were significant differences between elaboration styles, except for aluminum, tin, and sulfur. Ripe olives had significantly higher concentrations (mg/kg e.p.) of boron (5.32), barium (3.91), cadmium (0.065), cobalt (0.190), chromium (0.256), lithium (10.01), nickel (0.220), and strontium (10.21), but the levels of tin (25.55) and zirconium (0.039) were higher in green olives. The content of contaminants (cadmium, nickel, and tin) was always below the maximum limits legally established. The discriminant analysis led to an overall 86% correct classification of cases (80% after cross-validation).

  1. Fatigue Countermeasures in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    rbucks® Short 1 Starbucks ® Tall 1 Sta rbucks® Grande 1 Coke® 1 Mountain Dew® 1 cup tea 2 Anacin® 2 Excedrin Xtra. Strength 1 Max. Strength NoDoz® 46...72. Dinges OF, Price N],Maislin G, Powell JW, Ecker AJ, Malli.s MM. Szuba, et a1. Prospective laboratory re-validation of ocular-based drowsiness...detection technologies and countermeasures. In: Wierwille WW, Hanowski RJ, Olson RL, Dinges OF, Price NJ, Maislin G, et a1. NHTSA Drowsy Driver ·Detection

  2. Successful early elemental diet nutritional support in an esophageal cancer patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chun Chao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Our case involved a 58-year-old man with a medical history of moderately differentiated esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Positron emission tomography (PET and computed tomography (CT scan revealed a tumor in the upper two-thirds of the esophagus, with a maximal length of 14.4 cm and at least 6 enlarged lymph nodes. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT was performed on June 12, 2015, and a chest CT 2 weeks later revealed partial tumor response and shrinkage of the right upper paratracheal lymph node. The patient (cT3N3MO, stage III c underwent esophagectomy with gastric tube reconstruction, lymph node dissection, and jejunostomy on July 6, 2015. Bodyweight (BW loss occurred because of inadequate calorie intake. The nutrition support team (NST commenced an intervention and estimated the patient's malnutrition status from the BW loss (>8% in 3 months, body mass index (BMI, 21 kg/m2, triceps skinfold thickness (TSF, 5.7 mm, arm circumference (AC, 20 cm, and serum albumin level (2.7 g/dL. The NST administered an enteral nutrition formula with an elemental diet (Peptamen through enterostomy feeding, and provided meals according to the patient's digestive ability. The Scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA improved from 13 to 5, and energy support increased from 10 to 30 kcal/kg BW, with the BMI rising from 21 to 22 kg/m2, TSF from 5.7 to 7.0 mm, AC from 20 to 21.7 cm, and serum albumin level from 2.7 to 3.1 g/dL. The patient's wound healed completely.

  3. Countermeasure in forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    It is suggested that for economic reasons local governments in the areas of Sweden which are most contaminated from the Chernobyl major nuclear accident, as well as the forest companies, should have an interest in countermeasures for reducing the Cesium-137 acitivity concentrations in moose. This viewpoint is explained. Potassium fertilizing experiments were carried out on rocky ground with a shallow layer of soil or at a boggy area with peat soil. By fertilizing the heater, eaten by moose Cesium-137 activity could be reduced by 50%. The mean value was 11,000 Bq kg -1 . The decrease occuring within 2-3 months also showed that there is an exchange of radiocesium in heather plants. There was found a large seasonal variation in the Cesium-137 activity concentration in roe-deer, so another countermeasure was to change the time of the hunting season from August to May where cesium activity in the meat was lowest. Deer were also given salt licks with Geisesalt (resulting in 50% reduction) and cesiumbinder in their fodder (as yet no reliable results) in furhter attempts to reduce cesium activity in their meat. Results are presented in the form of graphs. (AB)

  4. Trace elements in human milk. Part of a coordinated programme on comparative methods for the study of trace elements in human nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosta, L.

    1981-01-01

    New analytical methods based on radiochemical neutron activation analysis were developed for the determination of Sn, V, I and Se at nanogram levels in biological materials, particularly in milk and other foodstuffs. By the application of these and similar methods, results for trace elements in human and cow's milk were collected from which the normal concentration ranges of up to 12 trace elements were established. Significant data on vanadium levels were also collected allowing assessment of the dietary intake and body pool of this element and a reappraisal of its significance in nutrition. Similar data on a smaller scale were also collected for tin. Results were also obtained for several different trace elements in a range of biological reference materials

  5. Nutritional Content and Elemental and Phytochemical Analyses of Moringa oleifera Grown in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica A. Valdez-Solana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera is a tree distributed in Mexican semiarid and coastal regions. M. oleifera is used in practice in the treatment of various diseases and is available without a medical prescription, often in the form of an herbal infusion for everyday use. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the chemical composition and nutritional values of dried M. oleifera leaf powder collected from two different regions in Mexico. All samples of M. oleifera exhibited moisture levels varying from 3.06 to 3.34%, lipids from 10.21 to 10.31%, fiber from 7.29 to 9.46%, ashes from 10.71 to 11.18%, crude protein from 10.74 to 11.48%, and carbohydrates from 54.61 to 57.61%. The predominant mineral elements in the leaf powder according to ICP-MS were Ca (2016.5–2620.5 mg/100 g, K (1817–1845 mg/100 g, and Mg (322.5–340.6 mg/100 g. The HPLC analysis indicated the presence of phenolic acids (gallic and chlorogenic acids and flavonoids (rutin, luteolin, quercetin, apigenin, and kaempferol. We concluded that Lombardia M. oleifera samples could be employed in edible and commercial applications. Our results showed that the highest mean value of As from the San Pedro samples exceeds the recommended level and may constitute a health hazard to consumers.

  6. Moving toward a precise nutrition: preferential loading of seeds with essential nutrients over non-essential toxic elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mather A. Khan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants and seeds are the main source of essential nutrients for humans and livestock. Many advances have recently been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms by which plants take up and accumulate micronutrients such as iron, zinc, copper and manganese. Some of these mechanisms however, also facilitate the accumulation of non-essential toxic elements such as cadmium (Cd and arsenic (As. In humans, Cd and As intake has been associated with multiple disorders including kidney failure, diabetes, cancer and mental health issues. Recent studies have shown that some transporters can discriminate between essential metals and non-essential elements. Furthermore, sequestration of non-essential elements in roots has been described in several plant species as a key process limiting the translocation of non-essential elements to aboveground edible tissues, including seeds. Increasing the concentration of bioavailable micronutrients (biofortification in grains while lowering the accumulation of non-essential elements will likely require the concerted action of several transporters. This review discusses the most recent advances on mineral nutrition that could be used to preferentially enrich seeds with micronutrients and also illustrates how precision breeding and transport engineering could be used to enhance the nutritional value of crops by re-routing essential and non-essential elements to separate sink tissues (roots and seeds.

  7. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE CONSERVATION OF NUTRITIONAL ELEMENTS OF PEAS FOR STORAGE AND FOOD PROCESSING I. NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMELIA VIZIREANU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern food grains are nominated as the main sources of soluble fiber in time that vegetables are the main sources of insoluble fiber, among which are the peas. The Romanian market has been flooded with a wide range of plant products frozen or preserved by sterilizing, whose culinary use is growing. But the quality of these products has decreased, the material may be affected by the storage modules to suppliers or customers and product type. Our study followed the evolution of the nutritional characteristics of three varieties of peas grown in the Galati region subjected to freezing or sterilization, and their behavior during food processing.

  8. Countermeasures implemented in intensive agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firsakova, S.; Hove, K.; Alexakhin, R.; Prister, B.; Arkhipov, N.; Bogdanov, G.

    1996-01-01

    The wide application of countermeasures in agriculture at different times after the Chernobyl accident provided an opportunity to estimate the most efficient means of reducing radionuclide transfer through the chain soil-plant-animal-man. The choice of countermeasures against the background of traditional practices was governed by a variety of factors, including the composition of the radioactive fallout, the soil types, land usage, the time elapsed since the accident and the economics. The efficiency of the various countermeasures was assessed in terms of both reduction of individual dose in the contaminated areas and of the collective dose. The estimation of the various countermeasures comparative efficiency is presented, their impact on individual doses reduction and the contribution reduction of produce produced in the contaminated area into the collective dose of the population is shown

  9. Short-term countermeasures questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, R.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the analysis of a questionnaire transmitted to fourteen countries. The questions were about shot-term countermeasures countries have implemented in case of a nuclear accident. Those questions concerned the main different aspects of the issue, such as the objective of the countermeasures implemented, the kind of measures depending on the people concerned (emergency workers or not, children, pregnant women...), or the use of stable iodine in order to avoid a contamination. (TEC)

  10. Good governance for nutrition in the Philippines: elements, experiences, and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solon, Florentino S

    2006-12-01

    Malnutrition is a multifactorial problem that needs a multisectoral solution. This article reviews the role of good governance in nutrition programs, citing the Philippines as an example. In the Philippines, these efforts are reflected in the partnership between the public and private sectors in the establishment of the country's capability in research, policy-making, and program implementation. The establishment of the different public institutions engaged in research and policy-making is discussed, highlighting the role of political will through legislation. The evolving tasks of the nutrition program are discussed by citing the tasks in two eras. In the 1970s, the challenges were limited national nutrition data, man-power, tools, and health infrastructure. The public and private institutions were able to respond by legislating national nutrition surveys and dedicated nutrition workers in each village. The challenges in the current era are improved implementation of health programs, given the devolution of health services, and the gathering of an evidence base to further strengthen and refine the strategies of supplementation, fortification, breastfeeding, and food security. In responding to these challenges, multisectoral solutions and collaboration are critical in providing an evidence base to formulate policy. The role of the private sector, with the Nutrition Center of the Philippines used as an example, is that of a supportive and collaborative partner in good governance. Finally, the lessons learned from the past decades of implementing a national nutrition program, given changes in political and economic circumstances, are summarized.

  11. Countermeasures in radiation emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, K.K.

    1998-01-01

    ICRP Publication 60 (1990) contains recommendations on two radiological situations: (i) Human activities that add radiation exposure to that which people normally incur due to background radiation, or that increases the likelihood of their incurring exposure are termed PRACTICES. Here the occurrences of the exposure are foreseen and can be limited by control of source and by application of the ICRP system of dose limitation and (ii) The human activities that seek to reduce the existing radiation exposure, or the existing likelihood of incurring exposure which is not part of a controlled practice are termed INTERVENTIONS. Here the source of exposure is not subject to control, for example, in accident situations so that any subsequent exposure can be limited only by some form of INTERVENTION. The relevant general recommendations on intervention are that the countermeasures forming a program of intervention, which always have some disadvantage, should be justified in the sense that they should do more good than harm. Their form, scale and duration should be then optimised so as to maximise the net benefit

  12. The interrelation among the radiological, toxicological and some nutritional trace elements in daily diets (T3c/176)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, A.G.; Hashemi, F.A.

    2004-01-01

    The interrelation of Cs and a few more similar functioning elements such as Sr, Rb, I, K, Mg and Ca with themselves and their relevant radio nuclides have come to consideration since 134+137 9 0 Sr and to some extent 87 Rb and 1'2 9 + 131 I:a ) can be produced in maximum level b) their have lives c) Cesium may be spread in a very long distance as the result of its low melting point and also d) their easily deposition with K, Ca, and Mg, they are potentially very much dangerous to human if they are entered to the body directly or indirectly. Also, since the diets have been prepared almost simultaneously by human investigators from various countries in different parts of the world, including Iran, in a coordinated project, therefore a comparable basis is provided. In this work almost the natural relevant elements, measured in diets. Their interrelation and interaction among their own or other group of trace elements discussed ( not only radiological but the toxicological and some nutritional trace elements). Nevertheless the protection role of these trace metals in human organs is the main issue of this assessment. The matter regarding the origin of natural cesium and radioactive fallout is to be discussed. The effect of 137 Cs and other radionuclides of the foodstuff depend upon direct exposure or via the mineral and organic content of these radionuclides in the soil and environments to be transferred to nutritive species is considered. In this work the toxicity of some trace elements (e.g. As, Cd, Pb and Hg) were studied and their interrelation with radiological elements are of interested subject. However the actual study groups are Iranian and their daily diets were prepared through dietary recording and duplicate portion. The status of toxicological trace elements in Iranian diets is to be discussed including their. environmental impacts

  13. Biofortification of essential nutritional compounds and trace elements in rice and cassava

    OpenAIRE

    Sautter, C.; Poletti, S.; Zhang, P.; Gruissem, W.

    2017-01-01

    Plant biotechnology can make important contributions to food security and nutritional improvement. For example, the development of ‘Golden Rice' by Professor Ingo Potrykus was a milestone in the application of gene technology to deliver both increased nutritional qualities and health improvement to wide sections of the human population. Mineral nutrient and protein deficiency as well as food security remain the most important challenges for developing countries. Current projects are addressin...

  14. The effects of rare earth elements on the growth and nutrition of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diatloff, E.; Asher, C.J.; Smith, F.W.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The rare earth elements (REEs) have many and varied uses throughout the world. However, the large scale use of REEs in agriculture is confined to China where some beneficial effects of REEs have been reported. Very little is known about the basic physiological effects of REEs on plants. Such information is essential for an understanding of how these elements may influence agricultural crop production. In this paper we summarise results of experiments rigorously conducted over 3 years to examine the effects of lanthanum (La) and cerium (Ce) on the growth and mineral nutrition of plants. Lanthanum and Ce were applied to the foliage or roots of two plant species (Corn ( Zea mays) and mungbean ( Vigna radiata)) of agricultural importance in the sub-tropical and tropical areas of the world. A commercial REE fertiliser was obtained from China, chemically analysed and found to contain mainly La and Ce nitrates. This fertiliser and comparable synthetic REE solutions were applied at the recommended rates to the leaves of corn and mungbean plants grown on a low-REE medium under well-controlled environmental conditions. Foliar application of REEs did not significantly increase the shoot dry weight of corn or mungbean. Both REE sources applied at 0.5 and 1.0% produced symptoms of foliar damage and reduced shoot dry weight in both plant species. Damage symptoms and growth reductions of plants sprayed with pure La and Ce solutions were similar to those of plants sprayed with commercial REE fertiliser. When REEs were maintained in a soluble form in nutrient solutions comparable in composition to soil solutions, concentrations of La or Ce from 1 to 16 μM (0.1 - 2 ppm) were found to be toxic to the root elongation of corn and mungbean. Subsequently, when concentrations of La or Ce below 1.5 μM (<0.2 ppm) were accurately maintained in solution, concentrations as low as 0.2 μM (0.03 ppm) were shown to be toxic to mungbean. Thus Ce at 0.2 μM (0.03 ppm) reduced the total

  15. Copper and Zinc Deficiency in a Patient Receiving Long-Term Parenteral Nutrition During a Shortage of Parenteral Trace Element Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Eric; Dotson, Bryan

    2015-11-01

    Drug shortages in the United States, including parenteral nutrition (PN) components, have been common in recent years and can adversely affect patient care. Here we report a case of copper and zinc deficiency in a patient receiving PN during a shortage of parenteral trace element products. The management of the patient's deficiencies, including the use of an imported parenteral multi-trace element product, is described. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  16. On-Command Exoskeleton for Countermeasure Microgravity Effects on Muscles and Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Bao, X.; Badescu, M.; Sherrit, S.; Mavroidis, C.; Unluhisarcikh, O.; Pietrusinski, M.; Rajulu, S.; Berka, R.; Cowley, M.

    2012-06-01

    On-command exoskeleton with impeding and augmenting elements would support the operation of astronauts traveling to Mars. Thus, countermeasure deleterious effects on the muscles and bones during travel and assist their physical activity on Mars.

  17. Aerobic exercise deconditioning and countermeasures during bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M C; Moore, Alan D; Everett, Meghan E; Stenger, Michael B; Platts, Steven H

    2010-01-01

    Bed rest is a well-accepted model for spaceflight in which the physiologic adaptations, particularly in the cardiovascular system, are studied and potential countermeasures can be tested. Bed rest without countermeasures results in reduced aerobic capacity and altered submaximal exercise responses. Aerobic endurance and factors which may impact prolonged exercise, however, have not been well studied. The initial loss of aerobic capacity is rapid, occurring in parallel with the loss of plasma volume. Thereafter, the reduction in maximal aerobic capacity proceeds more slowly and is influenced by central and peripheral adaptation. Exercise capacity can be maintained during bed rest and may be improved during recovery with appropriate countermeasures. Plasma volume restoration, resistive exercise, orthostatic stress, aerobic exercise, and aerobic exercise plus orthostatic stress all have been tested with varying levels of success. However, the optimal combination of elements-exercise modality, intensity, duration, muscle groups exercised and frequency of aerobic exercise, orthostatic stress, and supplementary resistive or anaerobic exercise training-has not been systematically evaluated. Currently, frequent (at least 3 days per week) bouts of intense exercise (interval-style and near maximal) with orthostatic stress appears to be the most efficacious method to protect aerobic capacity during bed rest. Further refinement of protocols and countermeasure hardware may be necessary to insure the success of countermeasures in the unique environment of space.

  18. Nutritional values in aspects of essential and non essential elements in variety of milk samples by AAS and FES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perween, R.; Haque, Q.

    2011-01-01

    Milk makes a significant contribution to the human diet through provision of macro nutrient, vitamins and minerals. The exact composition of milk varies by species to naturally or contamination. It is recognized that imbalance quantity of minerals and trace element being a serious health hazards especially for infants. Therefore, some essentials elements like K, Fe, Co and Pb (as a non essential element) have been determined in locally available milk powder of infant formulas, milk powder of growing children , processed milk or tetra pack milk of different brands and fresh milk samples (cow and buffalo) by sophisticated analytical techniques flame emissions spectroscopy (FES) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The range of mean concentration of elements (K, Fe and Co) in milk samples was found to be 650.00-1500.00 mg/l, 2.76-8.93 mg/l and 0.05 mg/l respectively. The levels of these elements in milk powder of infant formulas (1 and 2) were compared with the standards of FAO/WHO, recommended values of the Committee on Nutrition of the American Academy of Pediatrics, human milk and cow's milk. (author)

  19. Nutritional value of trace elements in spaghetti sauces and their classification according to the labeled taste using pattern recognition techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanias, G.D.; Ghitakou, S.; Papaefthymiou, H.

    2006-01-01

    The nutrient trace elements chromium, iron and zinc as well as cobalt, rubidium and scandium were determined in dry spaghetti sauce samples from the Greek market by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results were evaluated according to the new US Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA), US Adequate Intake (AI), US Reference Values for nutrition labeling (RVNL) and European Union reference values for nutrition labeling (EURV). Moreover, the same data has been used with pattern recognition techniques in order to classify the sauce samples according to their labeled flavor. The evaluation showed that the nutrition rate depends strongly on the reference value under consideration. The spaghetti sauces studied are a good source for the covering of chromium daily AI. The same sauces are poor source for zinc daily needs of the organism (RDA, RVNL), but they are a moderate source for iron daily needs (RDA). The application of cluster analysis, of linear discriminant analysis and of the principal component analysis classified the spaghetti sauce samples according to their labeled taste successfully. In addition using the same techniques, another classification in red and white spaghetti sauces is carried out according to their tomato content. (author)

  20. Biofortification of essential nutritional compounds and trace elements in rice and cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautter, C; Poletti, S; Zhang, P; Gruissem, W

    2006-05-01

    Plant biotechnology can make important contributions to food security and nutritional improvement. For example, the development of 'Golden Rice' by Professor Ingo Potrykus was a milestone in the application of gene technology to deliver both increased nutritional qualities and health improvement to wide sections of the human population. Mineral nutrient and protein deficiency as well as food security remain the most important challenges for developing countries. Current projects are addressing these issues in two major staple crops, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and rice. The tropical root crop cassava is a major source of food for approximately 600 million of the population worldwide. In sub-Saharan Africa >200 million of the population rely on cassava as their major source of dietary energy. The nutritional quality of the cassava root is not sufficient to meet all dietary needs. Rice is the staple food for half the world population, providing approximately 20% of the per capita energy and 13% of the protein for human consumption worldwide. In many developing countries the dietary contributions of rice are substantially greater (29.3% dietary energy and 29.1% dietary protein). The current six most popular 'mega' rice varieties (in terms of popularity and acreage), including Chinese hybrid rice, have an incomplete amino acid profile and contain limited amounts of essential micronutrients. Rice lines with improved Fe contents have been developed using genes that have functions in Fe absorption, translocation and accumulation in the plant, as well as improved Fe bioavailability in the human intestine. Current developments in biotechnology-assisted plant improvement are reviewed and the potential of the technology in addressing human nutrition and health are discussed.

  1. A gravity loading countermeasure skinsuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldie, James M.; Newman, Dava J.

    2011-04-01

    Despite the use of several countermeasures, significant physiological deconditioning still occurs during long duration spaceflight. Bone loss - primarily due to the absence of loading in microgravity - is perhaps the greatest challenge to resolve. This paper describes a conceptual Gravity Loading Countermeasure Skinsuit (GLCS) that induces loading on the body to mimic standing and - when integrated with other countermeasures - exercising on Earth. Comfort, mobility and other operational issues were explored during a pilot study carried out in parabolic flight for prototype suits worn by three subjects. Compared to the 1- or 2-stage Russian Pingvin Suits, the elastic mesh of the GLCS can create a loading regime that gradually increases in hundreds of stages from the shoulders to the feet, thereby reproducing the weight-bearing regime normally imparted by gravity with much higher resolution. Modelling shows that the skinsuit requires less than 10 mmHg (1.3 kPa) of compression for three subjects of varied gender, height and mass. Negligible mobility restriction and excellent comfort properties were found during the parabolic flights, which suggests that crewmembers should be able to work normally, exercise or sleep while wearing the suit. The suit may also serve as a practical 1 g harness for exercise countermeasures and vibration applications to improve dynamic loading.

  2. Protein turnover in malnourished patients with cystic fibrosis: Effects of elemental and nonelemental nutritional supplements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelekanos, J.T.; Holt, T.L.; Ward, L.C.; Cleghorn, G.J.; Shepherd, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    To evaluate the relative efficacy of nonelemental versus semielemental enteral supplements for nutritional rehabilitation of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, whole-body protein turnover using the [ 15 N]glycine method was studied in nine malnourished CF patients during enteral feedings, in a block design study comparing a semielemental formula (Criticare), a higher protein density but nonelemental formula (Traumacal) (T), and a nonelemental formula that had been modified to become isocaloric and isonitrogenous to the semielemental formula (modified Traumacal, MT). No significant differences in rates of protein synthesis or catabolism were observed comparing the three formulas. However, the higher protein density nonelemental formula resulted in higher net protein deposition compared to the other two formulas (T + 0.42 g kg-1 10 h-1 versus 0.33 g kg-1 10 h-1 for Criticare and -0.59 g kg-1 10 h-1 for MT), although this was significant (p less than 0.05) for the MT versus T comparison only. This study lends support to the use of less expensive nonelemental formulas for the nutritional management of malnourished patients with CF

  3. Sports Nutrition Food Industry Chain Development Research

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Yin

    2015-01-01

    Through the study of Henan sports nutrition food industry chain optimization, the study analyses development advantage and competitive advantage of Henan in sports nutrition food industry chain and existing problems and challenges in Henan sports nutrition food industry chain and at the same time introduces the theory of supply chain management to the development of sports nutrition food industry chain, clearly optimizes countermeasures of sports nutrition food industry chain. Pointing out sp...

  4. Zhengzhou Distribution Research and Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Wujun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the acceleration of urbanization process in China, the city has become an increasingly important part of the logistics. This paper analyzes the current development in Zhengzhou logistics and distribution, and use the SWOT analysis model to analyze the Zhengzhou logistics and distribution strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges presented in Zhengzhou distribution tertiary network architecture, and finally summarized the Zhengzhou logistics countermeasures and suggestions distribution.

  5. Detecting changes in the nutritional value and elemental composition of transgenic sorghum grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndimba, R., E-mail: rminnis@tlabs.ac.za [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation (South Africa); Institute for Plant Biotechnology, University of Stellenbosch, Matieland (South Africa); Grootboom, A.W.; Mehlo, L.; Mkhonza, N.L. [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) Biosciences, Pretoria (South Africa); Kossmann, J. [Institute for Plant Biotechnology, University of Stellenbosch, Matieland (South Africa); Barnabas, A.D.; Mtshali, C. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation (South Africa); Pineda-Vargas, C. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation (South Africa); Faculty of Health and Wellness Sciences, CPUT, Bellville (South Africa)

    2015-11-15

    We have previously demonstrated that poor digestibility in sorghum can be addressed by using RNA interference (RNAi) to suppress kafirin synthesis. The approach resulted in a twofold improvement in overall protein digestibility levels. In the present study, the effect of this targeted kafirin suppression on other grain quality parameters was investigated. Several significant changes in the proximate composition, amino acid profile and the bulk mineral content were detected. Importantly, the most limiting amino acid, lysine, was significantly increased in the transgenic grains by up to 39%; whilst mineral elements in the bulk, such as sulphur (S) and zinc (Zn) were reduced by up to 15.8% and 21% respectively. Elemental mapping of the grain tissue, using micro-PIXE, demonstrated a significant decrease in Zn (>75%), which was localised to the outer endosperm region, whilst TEM revealed important changes to the protein body morphology of the transgenic grains.

  6. Evaluation of medicinal potential of medicinal plants and herbs in terms of nutritional elements analysis using INAA; under thermal neutrons irradiation, and ICPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ram, Rajesh; Awashthi, N.K.

    2012-01-01

    Radioactivity is the phenomenon of spontaneous emission of short waves radiations. It is toxic to Bio Organisms. But it can be used to analyze toxic as well as Nutritional Elements, when powdered sample of plants and herbs irradiated with thermal neutrons (γ-radiation). The Nutritional Elements Acquire Artificial radioactivity and emits radiation which is used to analyze the Elements by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Plants and Herbs use known to be reservoir of various metabolite. Minerals are primary metabolite and play vital role in the regulation of the metabolic activity in the body as well as formation of body structure and skeleton. Many trace elements play a vital role in the general well being as well as cure of diseases. Role of metals in curing ailment was first realized in Ayurveda. It is reviewed that the herbal medicines can supply the deficient element in a bioavailable form and the person suffering from its deficiency can be easily cured. Therefore an attempt has been made to evaluate the Medicinal Potential in some medicinal herbs use as brain tonic by using Induced Couple Plasma Spectroscopy, Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. We have analyzed sixteen medicinal herbs for four bulk elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg) and nine trace elements (Fe, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd, Pb). In order to check quality assurance and validation of elemental data eight biological standard Reference Materials (BSRMS) are also analyzed. Accuracy and precision measurements were carried out by replicate analysis. Our data should be reliable within ± 10%. On the basis of elemental data in sixteen medicinal herbs commonly used as brain tonic and vitalizer, it is concluded that Amala, Gokshur, Yastimadhu, Sankhpuspi most enriched in Fe, Ca, Mg and other nutritional elements specially Mn, Cu, Zn,. No particular herb is enriched in all elements. Elemental contents of environmental contaminants such Ni, Cd, Pb, Hg, are minimal so as not to cause any harm to our body

  7. Water, electrolytes, vitamins and trace elements – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Working group for developing the guidelines for parenteral nutrition of The German Association for Nutritional Medicine

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A close cooperation between medical teams is necessary when calculating the fluid intake of parenterally fed patients. Fluids supplied parenterally, orally and enterally, other infusions, and additional fluid losses (e.g. diarrhea must be considered. Targeted diagnostic monitoring (volume status is required in patients with disturbed water or electrolyte balance. Fluid requirements of adults with normal hydration status is approximately 30–40 ml/kg body weight/d, but fluid needs usually increase during fever. Serum electrolyte concentrations should be determined prior to PN, and patients with normal fluid and electrolyte balance should receive intakes follwing standard recommendations with PN. Additional requirements should usually be administered via separate infusion pumps. Concentrated potassium (1 mval/ml or 20% NaCl solutions should be infused via a central venous catheter. Electrolyte intake should be adjusted according to the results of regular laboratory analyses. Individual determination of electrolyte intake is required when electrolyte balance is initially altered (e.g. due to chronic diarrhea, recurring vomiting, renal insufficiency etc.. Vitamins and trace elements should be generally substituted in PN, unless there are contraindications. The supplementation of vitamins and trace elements is obligatory after a PN of >1 week. A standard dosage of vitamins and trace elements based on current dietary reference intakes for oral feeding is generally recommended unless certain clinical situations require other intakes.

  8. Minor Millets as a Central Element for Sustainably Enhanced Incomes, Empowerment, and Nutrition in Rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Padulosi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Minor millets comprise a group of cereal species that are genetically diverse and adapted to a range of marginal growing conditions where major cereals such as wheat, rice, and maize are relatively unsuccessful. Millets require few inputs and withstand severe biotic and abiotic stresses. They are also more nutritious than major cereals. Despite these advantages, neglect in several arenas has resulted in a steady decline in the cultivation of minor millets in India over the past few decades. As part of a United Nations global project on underutilized species, we undertook action research intended to stem the decline in cultivation and enhance the conservation and use of minor millets in 753 households spread across 34 villages in four states of India. Our aim was to improve incomes, nutritional status, and empowerment, especially for women. Overall, our holistic approach to mainstreaming species such as finger millet, little millet, foxtail millet, and barnyard millet indicates that these neglected and underutilized species can play a strategic role in improving many dimensions of livelihoods.

  9. Preparation of bovine muscle, bovine liver and pig kidney reference materials and the certification of the contents of nine elements of toxicological and nutritional interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagstaffe, P.J.; Muntau, H.

    1987-01-01

    The preparation of 3 meat reference materials (bovine muscle, bovine liver and pig kidney) and the steps taken to confirm their homogeneity and stability are described. Details are presented of a preliminary intercomparison and of the final collaborative exercise which led to the certification of the contents of 9 elements of toxicological and nutritional importance. Indicative values are given for the contents of a further 9 elements in these materials. (orig.)

  10. Trace Element Status (Zinc, Copper, Selenium, Iron, Manganese) in Patients with Long-Term Home Parenteral Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastych, Milan; Šenkyřík, Michal; Dastych, Milan; Novák, František; Wohl, Petr; Maňák, Jan; Kohout, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine concentrations of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), selenium (Se) in blood plasma and manganese (Mn) in the whole blood in patients with long-term home parenteral nutrition (HPN) in comparison to the control group. We examined 68 patients (16 men and 52 women) aged from 28 to 68 years on a long-term HPN lasting from 4 to 96 months. The short bowel syndrome was an indication for HPN. The daily doses of Zn, Cu, Fe, Se and Mn in the last 3 months were determined. No significant differences in blood plasma were found for Zn, Cu and Fe in patients with HPN and in the control group (p > 0.05). The concentration of Mn in whole blood was significantly increased in HPN patients (p < 0.0001), while Se concentration in these patients was significantly decreased (p < 0.005). The concentration of Mn in the whole blood of 16 patients with cholestasis was significantly increased compared to the patients without cholestasis (p < 0.001). The Cu concentration was increased with no statistical significance. In long-term HPN, the status of trace elements in the patients has to be continually monitored and the daily substitution doses of these elements have to be flexibly adjusted. Dosing schedule needs to be adjusted especially in cases of cholestatic hepatopathy. A discussion about the optimal daily dose of Mn in patients on HPN is appropriate. For clinical practice, the availability of a substitution mixture of trace elements lacking Mn would be advantageous. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Evaluation of Biochemical Contents, Trace Elements, Nutritive Value and HPTLC Profiling in Two Edible Food Plants Based Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Aberoumand

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: Our findings suggest that both Asparagus officinalis DC and Chlorophytum comosum Linn are endowed with antioxidant phytochemicals and nutritive values. Keywords: Asparagus officinalis DCChlorophytum comosum Linn, Nutritive values

  12. [Relationship between groundwater quality index of nutrition element and organic matter in riparian zone and water quality in river].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua-Shan, Xu; Tong-Qian, Zhao; Hong-Q, Meng; Zong-Xue, Xu; Chao-Hon, Ma

    2011-04-01

    bank, which is the efficient microbial nitrogen purification unit, nitrification-denitrification is intensive. Farm manure is an important source of organic matter loss at the artificial wetlands. Floodplain has sandy soil texture, with high infiltration capacity and low water and fertilizer conservation ability. Such features are prone for the loss of surface soil nutrition and organic matter if agricultural activities taken place in these areas change the land use of wetlands and apply extensive fertilizer. The infiltrated nutrition elements and organic matter can pollute the groundwater and the river. Compared with the losses of nutrition element and organic matter caused by surface runoff, the infiltrated process is even more prominent. As typical floodplain groundwater-river ecotone, the area between 50 m and 200 m from the river bank is a momentous pollution purification unit. Rational protection for this region is critical for the conservation of water quality in the river and groundwater.

  13. Evolution in radioactive waste countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriguchi, Yasutaka

    1984-01-01

    The establishment of radioactive waste management measures is important to proceed further with nuclear power development. While the storage facility projects by utilities are in progress, large quantity of low level wastes are expected to arise in the future due to the decommissioning of nuclear reactors, etc. An interim report made by the committee on radioactive waste countermeasures to the Atomic Energy Commission is described as follows: the land disposal measures of ultra-low level and low level radioactive wastes, that is, the concept of level partitioning, waste management, the possible practice of handling wastes, etc.; the treatment and disposal measures of high level radioactive wastes and transuranium wastes, including task sharing among respective research institutions, the solidification/storage and the geological formation disposal of high level wastes, etc. (Mori, K.)

  14. Nutritional control of gene expression in Drosophila larvae via TOR, Myc and a novel cis-regulatory element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grewal Savraj S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutrient availability is a key determinant of eukaryotic cell growth. In unicellular organisms many signaling and transcriptional networks link nutrient availability to the expression of metabolic genes required for growth. However, less is known about the corresponding mechanisms that operate in metazoans. We used gene expression profiling to explore this issue in developing Drosophila larvae. Results We found that starvation for dietary amino acids (AA's leads to dynamic changes in transcript levels of many metabolic genes. The conserved insulin/PI3K and TOR signaling pathways mediate nutrition-dependent growth in Drosophila and other animals. We found that many AA starvation-responsive transcripts were also altered in TOR mutants. In contrast, although PI3K overexpression induced robust changes in the expression of many metabolic genes, these changes showed limited overlap with the AA starvation expression profile. We did however identify a strong overlap between genes regulated by the transcription factor, Myc, and AA starvation-responsive genes, particularly those involved in ribosome biogenesis, protein synthesis and mitochondrial function. The consensus Myc DNA binding site is enriched in promoters of these AA starvation genes, and we found that Myc overexpression could bypass dietary AA to induce expression of these genes. We also identified another sequence motif (Motif 1 enriched in the promoters of AA starvation-responsive genes. We showed that Motif 1 was both necessary and sufficient to mediate transcriptional responses to dietary AA in larvae. Conclusions Our data suggest that many of the transcriptional effects of amino acids are mediated via signaling through the TOR pathway in Drosophila larvae. We also find that these transcriptional effects are mediated through at least two mechanisms: via the transcription factor Myc, and via the Motif 1 cis-regulatory element. These studies begin to elucidate a nutrient

  15. Sensor-guided threat countermeasure system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Brent C.; Hackel, Lloyd A.; Hermann, Mark R.; Armstrong, James P.

    2012-12-25

    A countermeasure system for use by a target to protect against an incoming sensor-guided threat. The system includes a laser system for producing a broadband beam and means for directing the broadband beam from the target to the threat. The countermeasure system comprises the steps of producing a broadband beam and directing the broad band beam from the target to blind or confuse the incoming sensor-guided threat.

  16. Correlation of drinking water nutritional element levels with body composition of women aged 55-70 years living in Batman province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Çetin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A growing interest in cellular targets of nutritional minerals and biochemical mechanisms has attracted the attentions of researchers towards their role in formation of obesity. However, there is no study investigating the effects of nutritional element levels of drinking water on body composition of the elderly. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effects of nutritional element levels in drinking water on body composition of women aged 55-70. Methods: The study population consisted of 80 participants in total, and was divided into three groups as overweight, obese and control women aged between 55-70. The bioelectric impedance device was used for measurements of body composition of the participants. Iron (Fe, copper (Cu, cobalt (Co, zinc (Zn, manganese (Mn and selenium (Se levels of drinking water were measured via plasma mass spectrometry coupled inductively. Results: It was found that Se mineral content in drinking water correlated with the body mass index of the individuals living in Batman, Turkey. Moreover, it was found that Fe, Cu, Co, Zn, Mn and Se levels of drinking water significantly correlated with the abdominal adiposity of women of 55-70. Conclusion: It may be suggested that the obesity risk may be higher in women who are between 55-70 and consume drinking water with high levels of Fe, Cu, Co, Zn, Mn and especially Se.

  17. Analysis of nutrition-relevant trace elements in human blood and serum by means of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stosnach, Hagen; Mages, Margarete

    2009-01-01

    In clinical service laboratories, one of the most common analytical tasks with regard to inorganic traces is the determination of the nutrition-relevant elements Fe, Cu, Zn, and Se. Because of the high numbers of samples and the commercial character of these analyses, a time-consuming sample preparation must be avoided. In this presentation, the results of total reflection X-ray fluorescence measurements with a low-power system and different sample preparation procedures are compared with those derived from analysis with common methods like Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The results of these investigations indicate that the optimal total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of the nutrition-relevant elements Fe, Cu, Zn, and Se can be performed by preparing whole blood and serum samples after dilution with ultrapure water and transferring 10 μl of internally standardized sample to an unsiliconized quartz glass sample carrier with subsequent drying in a laboratory oven. Suitable measurement time was found to be 600 s. The enhanced sample preparation by means of microwave or open digestion, in parts combined with cold plasma ashing, led to an improvement of detection limits by a factor of 2 for serum samples while for whole blood samples an improvement was only observed for samples prepared by means of microwave digestion. As the matrix elements P, S, Cl, and for whole blood Fe have a major influence on the detection limits, most probably a further enhancement of analytical quality requires the removal of the organic matrix. However, for the routine analysis of the nutrition-relevant elements, the dilution preparation was found to be sufficient.

  18. Countermeasures to Enhance Sensorimotor Adaptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Brady, R. A.; Batson, C. C.; Miller, C. A.; Cohen, H. S.

    2011-01-01

    adaptability. These results indicate that SA training techniques can be added to existing treadmill exercise equipment and procedures to produce a single integrated countermeasure system to improve performance of astro/cosmonauts during prolonged exploratory space missions.

  19. Stability of hydrophilic vitamins mixtures in the presence of electrolytes and trace elements for parenteral nutrition: a nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uccello-Barretta, Gloria; Balzano, Federica; Aiello, Federica; Falugiani, Niccolò; Desideri, Ielizza

    2015-03-25

    In total parenteral nutrition (TPN), especially in the case of preterm infants, simultaneous administration of vitamins and trace elements is still a problematic issue: guidelines put in evidence the lack of specific documentation. In this work NMR spectroscopy was applied to the study of vitamins (pyridoxine hydrochloride, thiamine nitrate, riboflavin-5'-phosphate and nicotinamide) stability in presence of salts and trace elements. Vitamins in D2O were first analyzed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy in absence of salts and trace elements; changes in chemical shifts or in diffusion coefficients, measured by NMR DOSY technique, were analyzed. The effects of salts and trace elements on single vitamins and on their admixtures were then investigated by performing quantitative analyses during 48h. Selected vitamins are subject to intermolecular interactions. No degradative effects were observed in presence of salts and trace elements. Only riboflavin-5'-phosphate is subject to precipitation in presence of divalent cations; however, at low concentration and in presence of other vitamins this effect was not observed. Solutions analyzed, in the condition of this study, are stable for at least 48h and vitamins and trace elements can be administered together in TPN. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Social intervention and risk reduction - indirect countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, N.A.; Morrey, M.

    1996-01-01

    An indirect countermeasure (IC) is an action which is intended to mitigate detrimental effects experienced by individuals or the community after an accident. Indirect countermeasures (ICs) achieve this, both by averting radiation risks arising from the accident, but by removing or reducing other risks and sources of stress or harm to which the community may be subject. ICs naturally fall into two categories: social action ICs, which range from introducing compensation payments to providing information centres; and risk reducing ICs which mitigate risks to which the population might be exposed, such as radon. By including a consideration of ICs in an assessment of the optimal response, it is likely that a decision maker will become aware of a greater range of harms and benefits that might result from the application of a countermeasure. The decision maker will then be in a better position to judge the appropriateness of any action. (author)

  1. NASA Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures Project Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loerch, Linda; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2009-01-01

    Efficient exercise countermeasures are necessary to offset or minimize spaceflight-induced deconditioning and to maximize crew performance of mission tasks. These countermeasure protocols should use the fewest crew and vehicle resources. NASA s Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures (ExPC) Project works to identify, collect, interpret, and summarize evidence that results in effective exercise countermeasure protocols which protect crew health and performance during International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions. The ExPC and NASA s Human Research Program are sponsoring multiple studies to evaluate and improve the efficacy of spaceflight exercise countermeasures. First, the Project will measure maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) during cycle ergometry before, during, and after ISS missions. Second, the Project is sponsoring an evaluation of a new prototype harness that offers improved comfort and increased loading during treadmill operations. Third, the Functional Tasks Test protocol will map performance of anticipated lunar mission tasks with physiologic systems before and after short and long-duration spaceflight, to target system contributions and the tailoring of exercise protocols to maximize performance. In addition to these studies that are actively enrolling crewmember participants, the ExPC is planning new studies that include an evaluation of a higher-intensity/lower-volume exercise countermeasure protocol aboard the ISS using the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device and second-generation treadmill, studies that evaluate bone loading during spaceflight exercise, and ground-based studies that focus on fitness for duty standards required to complete lunar mission tasks and for which exercise protocols need to protect. Summaries of these current and future studies and strategies will be provided to international colleagues for knowledge sharing and possible collaboration.

  2. Integrated Locomotor Function Tests for Countermeasure Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Cohen, H. S.; Landsness, E. C.; Black, F. O.

    2005-01-01

    Following spaceflight crewmembers experience locomotor dysfunction due to inflight adaptive alterations in sensorimotor function. Countermeasures designed to mitigate these postflight gait alterations need to be assessed with a new generation of tests that evaluate the interaction of various sensorimotor sub-systems central to locomotor control. The goal of the present study was to develop new functional tests of locomotor control that could be used to test the efficacy of countermeasures. These tests were designed to simultaneously examine the function of multiple sensorimotor systems underlying the control of locomotion and be operationally relevant to the astronaut population. Traditionally, gaze stabilization has been studied almost exclusively in seated subjects performing target acquisition tasks requiring only the involvement of coordinated eye-head movements. However, activities like walking involve full-body movement and require coordination between lower limbs and the eye-head-trunk complex to achieve stabilized gaze during locomotion. Therefore the first goal of this study was to determine how the multiple, interdependent, full-body sensorimotor gaze stabilization subsystems are functionally coordinated during locomotion. In an earlier study we investigated how alteration in gaze tasking changes full-body locomotor control strategies. Subjects walked on a treadmill and either focused on a central point target or read numeral characters. We measured: temporal parameters of gait, full body sagittal plane segmental kinematics of the head, trunk, thigh, shank and foot, accelerations along the vertical axis at the head and the shank, and the vertical forces acting on the support surface. In comparison to the point target fixation condition, the results of the number reading task showed that compensatory head pitch movements increased, peak head acceleration was reduced and knee flexion at heel-strike was increased. In a more recent study we investigated the

  3. International Short-Term Countermeasures Survey - 2012 Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingham, Grant

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear emergency planning, preparedness, response, and management, in general, are essential elements of any country's nuclear power programme. Part of nuclear emergency planning and preparedness is the implementation of national emergency plans, including detailed procedures for the implementation of short-term countermeasures, before during, and after the release of radioactive substances. The timely and appropriate implementation of short-term countermeasures, such as sheltering, evacuation, and iodine prophylaxis, can, in case of a nuclear emergency with a release of radioactive material, considerably reduce the doses to the public in the vicinity of the nuclear installation. Although international guidelines exist, national procedures and practices may differ due to different national habits, cultural specificity, and societal needs. Different national procedures and practices may, however, in the case of a radioactive release affecting two neighbouring countries, lead to different decisions in the implementation of countermeasures. In order to better understand existing approaches and to facilitate the comparison of national practices, the NEA decided to launch a questionnaire on current practices regarding short-term countermeasures, updating a similar survey performed in 1994 and 2003, as countries' practices have since evolved and been modified. In 2012, it was decided to reevaluate the country approaches in light of the early lessons learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. The information collected may be used to understand the basis for decisions in various countries, and, if deemed appropriate, as a basis for international harmonisation. This may also assist member countries to explain to the public affected by an emergency why the decisions in neighbouring countries may vary. This report summarises the information given by member countries and includes nine sections to explore the different aspects, covering the following topics: member

  4. Countermeasures that work : a highway safety countermeasure guide for state highway safety offices : eighth edition : 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The guide is a basic reference to assist State Highway Safety Offices in selecting effective, evidence- based : countermeasures for traffic safety problem areas. These areas include: : - Alcohol-and Drug-Impaired Driving; : - Seat Belts and Child Res...

  5. Threats and countermeasures for network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1991-01-01

    In the late 1980's, the traditional threat of anonymous break-ins to networked computers was joined by viruses and worms, multiplicative surrogates that carry out the bidding of their authors. Technologies for authentication and secrecy, supplemented by good management practices, are the principal countermeasures. Four articles on these subjects are presented.

  6. Risk Analysis and Security Countermeasure Selection

    CERN Document Server

    Norman, Thomas L

    2009-01-01

    Explains how to evaluate the appropriateness of security countermeasures, from a cost-effectiveness perspective. This title guides readers from basic principles to complex processes in a step-by-step fashion, evaluating DHS-approved risk assessment methods, including CARVER, API/NPRA, RAMCAP, and various Sandia methodologies

  7. NEDAC: A worm countermeasure mechanism | Ahmad | Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents an Internet worm countermeasure mechanism that uses DNS activities as a behavioural technique to detect worm propagation. The mechanism also uses a data-link containment solution to block traffic from an infected host. The concept has been demonstrated using a developed prototype and tested in ...

  8. The modelling of countermeasures in COSYMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, K.; Hasemann, I.

    1991-01-01

    The modelling of countermeasures in COSYMA has been extended in comparison to UFOMOD and MARC in order to allow the user considerable freedom in specifying a wide range of emergency actions and criteria at which these actions will be assumed to be imposed and withdrawn, so that most of the recommendations and criteria adopted in different countries inside and outside the EC can be modelled. Countermeasures are implemented with the aim of reducing either acute exposure during and shortly after the accident or continuing and long-term exposure due to deposited or incorporated radionuclides. Different countermeasures may be necessary in different areas or even in the same area (e.g. sheltering followed by evacuation). Therefore not just several types of individual protective actions but different combinations thereof are modelled in COSYMA. Each of the individual protective actions may be assumed to have a large variety of possible features characterized by parameters with user-defined values. Some of the countermeasures can be assumed to be initiated automatically in a certain area; others are defined on the basis of dose criteria

  9. Post-Chernobyl scientific perspectives: Agricultural countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, J.I.; Hance, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    One of the lessons of Chernobyl is that farming is vulnerable to the effects of a nuclear accident hundreds, even thousands, of miles away from the site. Therefore plans are needed for countermeasures that can reduce contamination of agricultural produce, regardless of whether or not a country has its own nuclear programme. The plans need to specify radiation levels for foods and feedstuffs at which intervention is necessary and to include a range of countermeasures to be taken to protect agriculture under a range of possible post-accident situations. The FAO/WHO Codes Alimentarius Commission has developed international standards for radionuclides contamination to be applied to food moving in international trade. The intervention levels are based on a number of conservative assumptions to be confident that there will be essentially no effect over a lifetime of exposure. An important purpose of agricultural countermeasures is to maximize the quantity of food produced which passes intervention criteria. The present report discusses how the Joint FAO/IAEA programme on nuclear techniques in food and agriculture has approached agricultural countermeasures

  10. Modelling of agricultural countermeasures in RODOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.; Wilkins, B.T.; Nisbet, A.F.; Ivanov, Y.A.; Perepelyatnikova, L.V.; Fesenko, S.V.; Sanzharova, N.I.; Bouzdalkin, C.N.

    1996-01-01

    Predictions of the effects of agricultural countermeasures taken to reduce doses are an important part of the decision making process following an accidental release of radioactive material into the environment. Models have been developed for this purpose within the EC decision support system, RODOS. This paper describes the methodology used and the development of databases on the practicability of agricultural countermeasures for use in such a system. Within RODOS a wide range of potentially practicable countermeasures are considered and endpoints related to their imposition are calculated such that the economic and health impacts can be evaluated. The methodology utilizes time-dependent information from a food chain model, together with databases of empirical transfer parameters and effectiveness factors for the various countermeasures. Measures implemented in both the immediate aftermath of an accident and in the longer term are considered. A database containing robust representative data that can be applied to relatively large areas is currently implemented in RODOS. The database utilizes information from the Chernobyl accident compiled within an EC initiated collaborative project (JSP1) by institutes in the Ukraine, Russia, Belarus and the NRPB. Detailed data for four settlements in these countries have been compiled and compared with the robust database. The use of detailed databases at a local level in the three countries, where account is taken of factors such as soil type, is also discussed. The applicability of agricultural countermeasures implemented in the Ukraine, Russia and Belarus following the Chernobyl accident to agricultural systems in the UK has been evaluated and the appropriateness of the compiled databases for wider application is discussed

  11. Iron nutrition and premenopausal women: effects of poor iron status on physical and neuropsychological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, James P; Murray-Kolb, Laura E

    2013-01-01

    Iron is a nutritionally essential trace element that functions through incorporation into proteins and enzymes, many of which contribute to physical and neuropsychological performance. Poor iron status, including iron deficiency (ID; diminished iron stores) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA; poor iron stores and diminished hemoglobin), affects billions of people worldwide. This review focuses on physical and neuropsychological outcomes associated with ID and IDA in premenopausal women, as the prevalence of ID and IDA is often greater in premenopausal women than other population demographics. Recent studies addressing the physiological effects of poor iron status on physical performance, including work productivity, voluntary activity, and athletic performance, are addressed. Similarly, the effects of iron status on neurological performance, including cognition, affect, and behavior, are summarized. Nutritional countermeasures for the prevention of poor iron status and the restoration of decrements in performance outcomes are described.

  12. INAA and AAS of different products from sugar cane industry in Pakistan. Toxic trace elements for nutritional safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Rahman, S.; Gill, K.P.

    2009-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) have been used to determine As, Br, Hg, Sb and Se in combination with atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) as a complementary technique for the quantification of Cd and Pb in jaggery, brown sugar, white sugar and molasses. All sugar cane products were collected from the local sugar cane industry of Pakistan. The highest concentration of these potentially toxic elements was quantified in molasses; however, molasses together with jaggery, brown sugar and white sugar contains trace amounts of all of these elements. Due to very low concentration of Cd it could only be detected in molasses. To evaluate the percentage contribution of these elements in the sugar cane products to the weekly recommended values, intakes on weekly consumption of 100 g of each item have also been calculated which follow the pattern Br>Se>Pb>Hg>As>Sb. The elevated Br contents may be attributed to the use of Br-containing chemicals for fumigation; however, these contents are well within the tolerance levels. The estimated weekly intake of all toxic elements is very low indicating that sugar cane products can be safely ingested as part of the diets. (author)

  13. Dietary Intakes of Minerals, Essential and Toxic Trace Elements for Adults from Eragrostis tef L.: A Nutritional Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Koubová

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the contents of thirty-six mineral and trace elements in teff (Eragrostis tef L. grains. What is more, dietary intakes were calculated. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS was used to assess mineral and trace element contents. Consequently, the appropriate Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA or adequate intake (AI, and provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI or provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI values for adults were determined according to the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO and Institute of Medicine (IOM regulations. Teff is a significant contributor to RDAs and AIs for females in the following order: Mn > Cu > Zn ≥ Mg > Fe ≥ P and Ca. For males, teff contributes in the order, Mn > Cu > Fe > Zn ≥ P ≥ Mg > and Ca. The concentration of arsenic (65.9 µg/kg in brown teff originating in Bolivia exceeded the average acceptable value set by Reg. No. 1881 of 6–50 µg/kg in cereals consumed in the EU. The PTWIs or PTMIs for Al, Cd, Sn and Hg were all under 7%, which is below the limits of toxic element intake related to the body weight of 65 kg for adult females and 80 kg for males, set by the FAO/WHO. Teff grains can be recommended as a valuable and safe source of minerals and trace elements.

  14. Elemental contents in hair of children from Zanzibar in Tanzania as bio-indicator of their nutritional status

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mohammed, N.K.; Mizera, Jiří; Spyrou, N. M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 276, č. 1 (2008), s. 125-128 ISSN 0236-5731. [Kailua Kona, Hawaii, 03.04.2006-07.04.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : neutron activation analysis * malnourished children * trace-elements Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.659, year: 2008

  15. Accumulation of cadmium, zinc, and copper by Helianthus annuus L.: impact on plant growth and uptake of nutritional elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivelli, Anna Rita; De Maria, Susanna; Puschenreiter, Markus; Gherbin, Piergiorgio

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the effects on physiological response, trace elements and nutrients accumulation of sunflower plants grown in soil contaminated with: 5 mg kg(-1) of Cd; 5 and 300 mg kg(-1) of Cd and Zn, respectively; 5, 300, and 400 mg kg(-1) of Cd, Zn, and Cu, respectively. Contaminants applied did not produce large effects on growth, except in Cd-Zn-Cu treatment in which leaf area and total dry matter were reduced, by 15%. The contamination with Cd alone did not affect neither growth nor physiological parameters, despite considerable amounts of Cd accumulated in roots and older leaves, with a high bioconcentration factor from soil to plant. By adding Zn and then Cu to Cd in soil, significant were the toxic effects on chlorophyll content and water relations due to greater accumulation of trace elements in tissues, with imbalances in nutrients uptake. Highly significant was the interaction between shoot elements concentration (Cd, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mg, K, Ca) and treatments. Heavy metals concentrations in roots always exceeded those in stem and leaves, with a lower translocation from roots to shoots, suggesting a strategy of sunflower to compartmentalise the potentially toxic elements in physiologically less active parts in order to preserve younger tissues.

  16. Design and Implementation of a New Real-Time Frequency Sensor Used as Hardware Countermeasure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Pedro-Carrasco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A new digital countermeasure against attacks related to the clock frequency is presented. This countermeasure, known as frequency sensor, consists of a local oscillator, a transition detector, a measurement element and an output block. The countermeasure has been designed using a full-custom technique implemented in an Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC, and the implementation has been verified and characterized with an integrated design using a 0.35 mm standard Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS technology (Very Large Scale Implementation—VLSI implementation. The proposed solution is configurable in resolution time and allowed range of period, achieving a minimum resolution time of only 1.91 ns and an initialization time of 5.84 ns. The proposed VLSI implementation shows better results than other solutions, such as digital ones based on semi-custom techniques and analog ones based on band pass filters, all design parameters considered. Finally, a counter has been used to verify the good performance of the countermeasure in avoiding the success of an attack.

  17. Development towards optimization of emergency countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susnik, J.

    1995-01-01

    We report on severe accident scenarios consequences evaluation in connection to the applied emergency countermeasures and use of the PC COSYMA code. We present some of the results for the reactor core melt accident assumed to happen at the 632 MWE PWR Krsko Nuclear Power Plant in Slovenia. The efficiency of several potential countermeasures in limiting the late health effects was studied. Regarding the source term, the majority of release parameters are as specified for category 2 in the German Risk Study. Site specific data were used. As the outside (meteorologic) conditions during the potential accident onset can be very different, the study limited to the deterministic runs, assuming the wind direction upstream the Sava river into the WNW direction, wind speed of 5 ms -1 and the C Pasquill stability category. The population distribution file was formed from the NEK-FSAR data for the 1991. (author)

  18. Radon problems in Sweden. Investigations and countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snihs, J.O.; Ehdwall, H.

    1978-11-01

    For some years radon has been of great concern in Sweden both as a source of occupational exposure in mines and other underground spaces and as a source of radiation exposures in dwellings has lately increased to a considerable extent and appropriate measurements and possible countermeasures are under intensive discussion. The policy and general principles of the supervision especially at work places are described here with a brief description of the progress of the development work on measuring methods. (author)

  19. Zika Virus: Medical Countermeasure Development Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Robert W.; Homan, Jane; Callahan, Michael V.; Glasspool-Malone, Jill; Damodaran, Lambodhar; Schneider, Adriano De Bernardi; Zimler, Rebecca; Talton, James; Cobb, Ronald R.; Ruzic, Ivan; Smith-Gagen, Julie; Janies, Daniel; Wilson, James

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Reports of high rates of primary microcephaly and Guillain–Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia and Brazil have raised concerns that the virus circulating in these regions is a rapidly developing neuropathic, teratogenic, emerging infectious public health threat. There are no licensed medical countermeasures (vaccines, therapies or preventive drugs) available for Zika virus infection and disease. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) predicts that Zika virus will continue to spread and eventually reach all countries and territories in the Americas with endemic Aedes mosquitoes. This paper reviews the status of the Zika virus outbreak, including medical countermeasure options, with a focus on how the epidemiology, insect vectors, neuropathology, virology and immunology inform options and strategies available for medical countermeasure development and deployment. Methods Multiple information sources were employed to support the review. These included publically available literature, patents, official communications, English and Lusophone lay press. Online surveys were distributed to physicians in the US, Mexico and Argentina and responses analyzed. Computational epitope analysis as well as infectious disease outbreak modeling and forecasting were implemented. Field observations in Brazil were compiled and interviews conducted with public health officials. PMID:26934531

  20. Zika Virus: Medical Countermeasure Development Challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Malone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reports of high rates of primary microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia and Brazil have raised concerns that the virus circulating in these regions is a rapidly developing neuropathic, teratogenic, emerging infectious public health threat. There are no licensed medical countermeasures (vaccines, therapies or preventive drugs available for Zika virus infection and disease. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO predicts that Zika virus will continue to spread and eventually reach all countries and territories in the Americas with endemic Aedes mosquitoes. This paper reviews the status of the Zika virus outbreak, including medical countermeasure options, with a focus on how the epidemiology, insect vectors, neuropathology, virology and immunology inform options and strategies available for medical countermeasure development and deployment.Multiple information sources were employed to support the review. These included publically available literature, patents, official communications, English and Lusophone lay press. Online surveys were distributed to physicians in the US, Mexico and Argentina and responses analyzed. Computational epitope analysis as well as infectious disease outbreak modeling and forecasting were implemented. Field observations in Brazil were compiled and interviews conducted with public health officials.

  1. Comparison of elemental, nutritional, and isotopic composition of Philippine and Japanese polished rice samples for provenance validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.; Sucgang, Raymond J.; Mendoza, Norman dS.; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Conanan, Aida P.; Nosotros, Ro-Ann S.

    2012-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa), has been considered the best staple food among all cereals and is the staple food for over 3 billion people, constituting over half of the world's population (Cantral and Reeves, 2002). In this study, elemental, isotopic and proximate analyses were done on rice samples in a attempt to establish variances between Philippine and Japanese rice, which can be useful for geographical authenticity testing. Rice samples were collected in Japan and in the Philippines (market survey samples from Metro Manila, and farm harvests from Aklan province). The samples were washed, dried and ground to fine powder. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), a very sensitive non-destructive multi-element analytical technique, was used for the elemental analysis of the samples and isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) was used to obtain the isotopic signatures of the samples. Proximate analysis (AOAC procedure) was used to determine nutrient aggregates. Results show that compared with the unpolished rice standard NIES CRM10b, the polished Japanese and Philippine rice sampled show reduced concentrations of elements by as much as 1/10, 1/4, 1/5 and 1/3 for Mg, Mn, K and Na, respectively. Levels of Ca and Zn are not greatly affected. Arsenic is found in all the Japanese rice tested at an average concentration of 0.103 μg/g and three out of four of the Philippine rice at an average concentration of 0.070 μg/g. Arsenic contamination may have been introduced from the fertilizer used in rice fields. Higher levels of Br are seen in two of the Philippine rice at 14 and 34 μg/g with the most probable source being the pesticide methyl bromide. The rice samples from Aklan showed inter-variety variability in composition (70 to 85 % carbohydrates, 0.5 to 3.0 % fat and 4 to 5 % protein) which makes it difficult to establish provenance in terms of proximate composition. Isotopic ratio of δ 13 C show signature that of a C3 plant with possible narrow distinguishable

  2. Nutrition for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2005-01-01

    Nutrition has proven to be critical throughout the history of human exploration, on both land and water. The importance of nutrition during long-duration space exploration is no different. Maintaining optimal nutritional status is critical for all bodily systems, especially in light of the fact that that many are also affected by space flight itself. Major systems of concern are bone, muscle, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, protection against radiation damage, and others. The task ahead includes defining the nutritional requirements for space travelers, ensuring adequacy of the food system, and assessing crew nutritional status before, during, and after flight. Accomplishing these tasks will provide significant contributions to ensuring crew health on long-duration missions. In addition, development and testing of nutritional countermeasures to effects of space flight is required, and assessment of the impact of other countermeasures (such as exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutrition is also critical for maintaining overall crew health. Vitamin D stores of crew members are routinely low after long-duration space flight. This occurs even when crew members take vitamin D supplements, suggesting that vitamin D metabolism may be altered during space flight. Vitamin D is essential for efficient absorption of calcium, and has numerous other benefits for other tissues with vitamin D receptors. Protein is a macronutrient that requires additional study to define the optimal intake for space travelers. Administration of protein to bed rest subjects can effectively mitigate muscle loss associated with disuse, but too much or too little protein can also have negative effects on bone. In another bed rest study, we found that the ratio of protein to potassium was correlated with the level of bone resorption: the higher the ratio, the more bone resorption. These relationships warrant further study to optimize the beneficial effect of protein on both bone and muscle

  3. Effect of Salinity Stress on Concentrations of Nutrition Elements in Almond (Prunus Dulcis 'Shokofeh', 'Sahand' Cultivars and '13-40' Genotype Budded on GF677 Rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Momenpour

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Almond (Prunus amygdalus B. is one of the most important crops consumed as a dry fruit and it is mainly adaptable to arid and semi-arid regions mostly suffering from salinity stress (8. Soils with dry humidity regime are dominant in Iran and in the world at large and mostly include regions with more evaporation than precipitation. This in turn leads to increased salinity of the soil (9 and 10. Based on available reports, roughly 12.5% of land areas in Iran are saline, which overwhelmingly contain sodium, while more than 800 million hectares of land area on the earth (6% of overall global land area are affected by salinity (9 and 10. Therefore, compound of rootstock and scion may be used as one of the influence factors in sensitivity or tolerance to salinity of planted fruit trees including almonds (8 and 11. In recent years, for various reasons including the uniformity of trees, instead of sexual rootstock, vegetative rootstock is used. Rootstock GF677 an inter-specific hybrid (Almond Peach is propagated asexually as clone (8. It has been reported that rootstock GF677 is tolerant to salinity while rootstock nemagard (P. persica X P. davidiana is sensitive to salinity (16. It has been reported that rootstock GF677 tolerated salinity (5.5 ds/m, (19 or 5.2 ds/m (17 and 14.However, as plant species and different cultivars within the same plant species vary considerably in their tolerance to salinity (10, properly selecting plants and/or cultivars that can be grown well under adverse conditions, created in the root zone by salinization, is the most efficient and environmentally friendly agricultural practice for a more permanent solution of the problem of salinity (10. Despite the presence of information on the effect of salinity on concentration of nutrition elements of almond cultivars leaves and roots, tolerantscion/rootstock combinationshave not been introduced for this plant. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to

  4. Variation in the mineral element concentration of Moringa oleifera Lam. and M. stenopetala (Bak. f.) Cuf.: Role in human nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumssa, Diriba B; Joy, Edward Jm; Young, Scott D; Odee, David W; Ander, E Louise; Broadley, Martin R

    2017-01-01

    Moringa oleifera (MO) and M. stenopetala (MS) (family Moringaceae; order Brassicales) are multipurpose tree/shrub species. They thrive under marginal environmental conditions and produce nutritious edible parts. The aim of this study was to determine the mineral composition of different parts of MO and MS growing in their natural environments and their potential role in alleviating human mineral micronutrient deficiencies (MND) in sub-Saharan Africa. Edible parts of MO (n = 146) and MS (n = 50), co-occurring cereals/vegetables and soils (n = 95) underneath their canopy were sampled from localities in southern Ethiopia and Kenya. The concentrations of seven mineral elements, namely, calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iodine (I), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) in edible parts and soils were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. In Ethiopian crops, MS leaves contained the highest median concentrations of all elements except Cu and Zn, which were greater in Enset (a.k.a., false banana). In Kenya, Mo flowers and MS leaves had the highest median Se concentration of 1.56 mg kg-1 and 3.96 mg kg-1, respectively. The median concentration of Se in MS leaves was 7-fold, 10-fold, 23-fold, 117-fold and 147-fold more than that in brassica leaves, amaranth leaves, baobab fruits, sorghum grain and maize grain, respectively. The median Se concentration was 78-fold and 98-fold greater in MO seeds than in sorghum and maize grain, respectively. There was a strong relationship between soil total Se and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4)-extractable Se, and Se concentration in the leaves of MO and MS. This study confirms previous studies that Moringa is a good source of several of the measured mineral nutrients, and it includes the first wide assessment of Se and I concentrations in edible parts of MO and MS grown in various localities. Increasing the consumption of MO and MS, especially the leaves as a fresh vegetable or in powdered form

  5. Cryptanalysis of Two Fault Countermeasure Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banik, Subhadeep; Bogdanov, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    function with some additional randomness and computes the value of the function. The second called the unmasking function, is computed securely using a different register and undoes the effect of the masking with random bits. We will show that there exists a weakness in the way in which both these schemes...... is meant for the protection of block ciphers like AES. The second countermeasure was proposed in IEEE-HOST 2015 and protects the Grain-128 stream cipher. The design divides the output function used in Grain-128 into two components. The first called the masking function, masks the input bits to the output...

  6. Research on the Combination of Underwater Acoustic Countermeasure Equipments Against Torpedo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Jie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today the use of acoustic countermeasure equipment has become the main means in submarine defense torpedo operation. Combination of acoustic countermeasure equipments are used during the operation so that we can amplify the countermeasure effect. Based on the subject of the acoustic countermeasure equipments’ combined use, this paper analyses the interference between these soft kill countermeasure equipments including gas curtain, acoustic decoy and acoustic interferometer, summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of the different combined use of acoustic countermeasure equipments.

  7. Human Adaptation to Space: Space Physiology and Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews human physiological responses to spaceflight, and the countermeasures taken to prevent adverse effects of manned space flight. The topics include: 1) Human Spaceflight Experience; 2) Human Response to Spaceflight; 3) ISS Expeditions 1-16; 4) Countermeasure; and 5) Biomedical Data;

  8. 77 FR 15398 - Attentive Driving: Countermeasures for Distraction Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Attentive Driving: Countermeasures for Distraction Forum The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a forum, Attentive Driving: Countermeasures for... a period of 3 months from the date of the event. Distracted driving is a serious safety risk on our...

  9. Effectiveness and environmental considerations for non-dispersant chemical countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, A.H.; Kucklick, J.H.; Michel, J.

    1999-01-01

    Mechanical countermeasures for oil spill response have various effectiveness and operational limitations under certain spill situations. This has led to an interest in and use of alternative treatment methods. This chapter reviews the potential utility of one such group, nondispersant chemical countermeasures, in controlling the adverse impacts from marine oil spills. The types of nondispersant chemical countermeasures presented here include: herding agents, emulsion treating agents, solidifiers, elasticity modifiers, and shoreline cleaning agents. Each countermeasure group is discussed separately to provide a definition, mechanism of action, and effectiveness and environmental considerations for the group. Where ever possible, examples are given of countermeasure use during an actual spill. In addition to the groups mentioned above, a few other treating agents are briefly described under the section 'Miscellaneous Agents' to illustrate other, less prominent types of chemical countermeasures. Non-dispersant chemical countermeasures appear to have discrete response niches, i.e. situations where the countermeasures are well-suited and offer potential benefits. The key is matching conditions for optimal effectiveness with the appropriate incident-specific characteristics and window of opportunity. The practical aspects of logistics are not addressed because, if their potential utility can be demonstrated, the resolution of these issues would follow. (author)

  10. Priority of areas for agricultural countermeasure assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochedo, E.R.R.; Barboza, A.E.; Igreja, E.; Silva, D.N.G. da; Wasserman, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Within the overall preparedness related to nuclear and/or radiological accidents that lead to the release of radionuclides to the environment with the consequent contamination of agricultural areas, the priority of research for agricultural areas should then focus on the surrounding areas of nuclear power plants that have higher probability of public exposure through the ingestion pathway. The objective of this work was to create a rank order of priority of agricultural products to be considered in assessing the effects of countermeasures, based on both economic value and doses to the public. Additionally, the study describes relevant needs of radioecological studies to improve short and long-terms dose assessments. . Sixteen municipalities surrounding the Brazilian Nuclear Power Central were analyzed for a contamination with 137 Cs, considering seasonal aspects related to agricultural practices in the Southeastern Brazil. Rank order provided by considering economical aspects shows that there is a need for radioecological research for some high value products, such as palmetto and sugar cane, and the need to include in the current model more detailed description for some food items, such as eggs. Combined rank criteria shows that main product within the considered area is milk. As so, the study of countermeasures for the ingestion of milk should be prioritized. (authors)

  11. Developing Personalized Sensorimotor Adaptability Countermeasures for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, A. P.; Seidler, R. D.; Peters, B.; Cohen, H. S.; Wood, S.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor disturbances during their initial exposure to microgravity and during the re-adaptation phase following a return to an Earth-gravitational environment. Interestingly, astronauts who return from spaceflight show substantial differences in their abilities to readapt to a gravitational environment. The ability to predict the manner and degree to which individual astronauts would be affected would improve the effectiveness of countermeasure training programs designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. In this paper we will be presenting results from our ground-based study that show how behavioral, brain imaging and genomic data may be used to predict individual differences in sensorimotor adaptability to novel sensorimotor environments. This approach will allow us to better design and implement sensorimotor adaptability training countermeasures against decrements in post-mission adaptive capability that are customized for each crewmember's sensory biases, adaptive capacity, brain structure, functional capacities, and genetic predispositions. The ability to customize adaptability training will allow more efficient use of crew time during training and will optimize training prescriptions for astronauts to ensure expected outcomes.

  12. Agricultural countermeasures in the Nordic countries after a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brink, M.; Lauritzen, B.

    2001-12-01

    This report by the NKSBOK-1.4 project group describes agricultural countermeasures after a nuclear accident, aiming at the reduction of radiation doses to man from the ingestion of foodstuffs. The intention has been to collect information based on common understanding that can be used as a Nordic handbook and in further developments of the national preparedness systems. The report covers two areas: the gathering and dissemination of information before and during a nuclear emergency, and the development of a countermeasures strategy. A number of factors are discussed, which will affect the choice of countermeasure(s), and as a case study, a technical cost-benefit assessment of a specific countermeasure is described. (au)

  13. Geological impacts on nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter reviews the nutritional roles of mineral elements, as part of a volume on health implications of geology. The chapter addresses the absorption and post-absorptive utilization of the nutritionally essential minerals, including their physiological functions and quantitative requirements....

  14. Nuclear industry project audit and countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongxin; Zhang Jian

    2012-01-01

    With China's increasing use of nuclear energy, nuclear power related construction projects related to the deepening of the audit, some of the nuclear industry in construction field of the dominant issues have been more effective containment, such as inflated workload, high-set fixed standards, to improve billing unit price, which overestimate the risk calculation tools and behavior completed audit of the accounts have been able to escape his stuff. However, some nuclear industry construction field with a hidden problem because of its hidden nature, not easily found, and some even have intensified the trend. Construction funds to the country such problems caused by the loss of waste is enormous, to the breeding of corruption provided the soil is fertile, if not promptly and effectively to stop the breeding will spread. This paper on the current construction of the nuclear industry in several major areas of the hidden problems are discussed, and the angle from the audit of appropriate countermeasures. (authors)

  15. Effects of an Oral Elemental Nutritional Supplement on Post-gastrectomy Body Weight Loss in Gastric Cancer Patients: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Hiroshi; Nishikawa, Kazuhiro; Kishi, Kentaro; Inoue, Kentaro; Matsuyama, Jin; Akamaru, Yusuke; Kimura, Yutaka; Tamura, Shigeyuki; Kawabata, Ryohei; Kawada, Junji; Fujiwara, Yoshiyuki; Kawase, Tomono; Fukui, Junichi; Takagi, Mari; Takeno, Atsushi; Shimokawa, Toshio

    2016-09-01

    Post-gastrectomy weight loss is associated with deterioration in quality of life, and influences the long-term prognosis of gastric cancer patients. We conducted a prospective, randomized controlled, open-label study to examine whether an oral elemental diet (Elental(®), Ajinomoto Pharmaceuticals, Tokyo, Japan; hereafter referred to as ED) prevents postoperative weight loss in post-gastrectomy patients. Patients were randomly divided to receive the ED or control diet. The ED group received 300 kcal of ED plus their regular diet for 6-8 weeks after surgery, starting from the day the patient started a soft rice or equivalent diet after surgery, while the control group received the regular diet alone. The primary endpoint was the percentage of body weight loss (%BWL) from the presurgical body weight to that at 6-8 weeks after surgery. Secondary endpoints were dietary adherence, nutrition-related blood parameters, and adverse events. This study included 112 patients in eight hospitals. The mean treatment compliance rate in the ED group was 68.7 ± 30.4 % (median 81.2 %). The %BWL was significantly different between the ED and control groups (4.86 ± 3.72 vs. 6.60 ± 4.90 %, respectively; p = 0.047). In patients who underwent total gastrectomy, the %BWL was significantly different between the two groups (5.03 ± 3.65 vs. 9.13 ± 5.43 %, respectively; p = 0.012). In multivariate analysis, ED treatment, surgery type, and preoperative performance status were independently associated with %BWL. No significant differences were observed in the other clinical variables. ED supplementation reduced postoperative weight loss in gastric cancer patients undergoing gastrectomy.

  16. Effect of long-term mineral fertilization with different nutrition elements norms and ratios on humic condition of the slightly leached chernozem in Dobroudja

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nankova, M.; Djendova, R.; Kirchev, H.; Penchev, E.

    1999-01-01

    As a result from a 30 year dressing with mineral fertilizers, a considerable differences were established in the soil nitrogen and humic content both along the soil profile and according to the combination of applied nutrition elements. The fertilization variant N 180 P 180 K 180 had the highest humus content - 3.51 % in the 0-20 cm layer, and 3.35 % in the 20-40 cm layer. This consecutively lead to accumulation of highest humus reserves in soil - 168 t/ha for the root-deep layer (0-40 cm) in total. Total nitrogen content in soil varied from 0.184 to 0.220 % according to the fertilization norms and the profile depth. Highest reserves of total nitrogen were formed in the variants with N 60 P 0 K 0 , N 60 P 60 K 0 and N 120 P 60 K 0 . The degree of nitrogen concentration in humus within the limits of the trial was determined as moderate for the whole root-deep layer. In the 20-40 cm layer, however, it tended to be high in the variants with independent nitrogen fertilization, regardless of the fertilization norm. The long-term application of high nitrogen norms lead to an increase in the humus mobility. It was also established that fertilization with moderate and high nitrogen norms increased the C ha : C pa , ratio, as well as the humic acid content linked with Ca, especially in the 0-20 cm layer. The amount of non-hydrolyzable residue (humine) also increased with the increase mainly of the nitrogen fertilization norm. In the variants dressed with moderate and high nitrogen norms the humus type was markedly humatic. Refs. 9 (author)

  17. Validation of a Cephalad Fluid Shift Countermeasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, B.; Cole, C.; Kesari, S.; Hargens, A.; Stenger, M.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S. M. C.; Sargsyan, A.; Liu, J.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This project will provide critical data required to objectively determine how an optimized thigh cuff could be incorporated into the NASA integrated physiological countermeasure suite. This project will determine if thigh cuffs used during simulated spaceflight impact intracranial pressure (ICP), ocular structure and function, and intraocular pressure (IOP) using state of-the-art techniques. Additionally, some of the same methods, hardware, and protocols will be employed in the present investigation to enable direct comparisons to the International Space Station (ISS) "Fluid Shifts" experiment with Chibis-Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP). This study will determine the temporal physiological responses of thigh cuff application and removal on ocular and cerebral variables (including invasive ICP) in a microgravity analog. Furthermore, this proposed study will determine tissue pressure distribution applied by thigh cuffs in order to improve comfort, mobility, and efficacy of the countermeasure. Our specific aim is to determine the efficacy of a novel thigh cuff device to mitigate cephalad fluid shifts. We hypothesize that a thigh cuff countermeasure employed in a microgravity analog will temporarily reverse or attenuate ocular and cerebral-volume-pressure variables, approaching normal Earth-based seated posture, the most frequent posture assumed in daily life. In addition, we hypothesize that the magnitude of fluid and pressure redistribution using a thigh cuff countermeasure may require a longer exposure time than that of Chibis-LBNP (using ground-based data from our "Fluid Shifts" project). This project directly addresses Critical Path Roadmap Risks and Questions regarding "Risk of Spaceflight-Induced Intracranial Hypertension/Vision Alterations," and IRP Gap VIIP13: We need to identify preventative and treatment countermeasures to mitigate changes in ocular structure and function and intracranial pressure during spaceflight. METHODS: Noninvasive

  18. Physical and biomedical countermeasures for space radiation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durante, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Radiation exposure represents a serious hindrance for long-term interplanetary missions because of the high uncertainty on risk coefficients, and to the lack of simple countermeasures. Even if uncertainties in risk assessment will he reduced in the next few years, there is little doubt that appropriate countermeasures have to be taken to reduce the exposure or the biological damage produced by cosmic radiation. In addition, it is necessary to provide effective countermeasures against solar particle events, which can produce acute effects, even life threatening, for inadequately protected crews. Strategies that may prove to he effective in reducing exposure, or the effects of the irradiation, include shielding, administration of drugs or dietary supplements to reduce the radiation effects, crew selection based on a screening of individual radiation sensitivity. It is foreseeable that research in passive and active radiation shielding, radioprotective chemicals, and individual susceptibility will boost in the next years to provide efficient countermeasures to the space radiation threat. (orig.)

  19. Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit for Space Habitation and Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The "Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) for Space Habitation and Exploration" is a visionary system concept that will revolutionize space missions by...

  20. Limits to radioactive effluents and countermeasures in accidental situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowotny, G.; Gonzalez, A.

    1978-01-01

    The paper discusses the criteria used by the Argentine Atomic Energy Commission, as competent authority, to set limits to radioactive effluents from nuclear installations. It also discusses the selection of action levels for carrying out countermeasures in accidental situations. (author)

  1. 77 FR 21785 - Medical Countermeasures Initiative Regulatory Science Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... forum for the exchange of ideas for medical countermeasure development, highlight work on regulatory... information: (1) Your name, (2) title, (3) company or organization (if applicable), (4) mailing address, (5...

  2. 78 FR 20664 - 2013 Medical Countermeasures Initiative Regulatory Science Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... symposium is intended to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas for medical countermeasure development...) Your name, (2) title, (3) company or organization (if applicable), (4) mailing address, (5) phone...

  3. Bluetooth security attacks comparative analysis, attacks, and countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Haataja, Keijo; Pasanen, Sanna; Toivanen, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    This overview of Bluetooth security examines network vulnerabilities and offers a comparative analysis of recent security attacks. It also examines related countermeasures and proposes a novel attack that works against all existing Bluetooth versions.

  4. Countermeasure System and Method to Emulate Target with Spatial Extent

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ayers, Roderick E

    2006-01-01

    ...). The individual countermeasure devices are programmed to produce acoustic signals, such as in response to a ping or pulse by an incoming torpedo, that collectively appear to be an echo similar...

  5. Countermeasures for dairy products in nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkko, K.; Ammann, M.; Kostiainen, E.; Salo, A.; Liskola, K.; Haemaelaeinen, R.P.; Mustajoki, J.

    2001-01-01

    This work was performed in order to plan countermeasures that, after an accidental release of radioactivity, could reduce the dose to the public due to the consumption of contaminated milk and milk products. The attention was focused on whether there are justified and optimised actions below the international recommended concentration levels in foodstuffs. The analysis was conducted as a case study, i.e., it was assumed that a hypothetical accident had happened in a nuclear power plant leading to a release of radionuclides which severely contaminated a wide area of Ostrobothnia, one of Finland's most important milk production areas. The dose averted by actions, the' monetary costs and the feasibility of actions were assessed. It was also studied what information is needed by decision-makers and in which form this information should be presented. Finally, it was examined how planning of countermeasures could be enhanced by applying decision analysis in establishing actions strategies and valuing attributes considered in decision making. Preparative meetings and a concluding workshop was arranged and all authorities involved in food-related emergency management were invited to jointly analyse different options. According to the query made the participants considered the decision workshop and decision analysis very practicable in exercises. The exercise as a whole was also evaluated useful or very useful. The presented techniques in a real situation were considered applicable but not as useful as in exercises. Thus it can be deduced that the concluding workshop and decision analysis interviews augment well conventional emergency exercises. Realistic dose assessments proved out to be very difficult. The software used was able to calculate the maximum radionuclide concentrations in foodstuffs processed from local raw materials. Radionuclide concentration in food or feedstuffs may, however, change quickly. Also, the production and processing of foodstuffs is a complex

  6. Countermeasure development using a formalised metric-based process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Laurence

    2008-10-01

    Guided weapons, are a potent threat to both air and surface platforms; to protect the platform, Countermeasures are often used to disrupt the operation of the tracking system. Development of effective techniques to defeat the guidance sensors is a complex activity. The countermeasure often responds to the behaviour of a responsive sensor system, creating a "closed loop" interaction. Performance assessment is difficult, and determining that enough knowledge exists to make a case that a platform is adequately protected is challenging. A set of metrics known as Countermeasure Confidence Levels (CCL) is described. These set out a measure of confidence in prediction of Countermeasure performance. The CCL scale provides, for the first time, a method to determine whether enough evidence exists to support development activity and introduction to operational service. Application of the CCL scale to development of a hypothetical countermeasure is described. This tracks how the countermeasure is matured from initial concept to in-service application. The purpose of each stage is described, together with a description of what work is likely to be needed. This will involve timely use of analysis, simulation, laboratory work and field testing. The use of the CCL scale at key decision points is described. These include procurement decision points, and entry-to-service decisions. Each stage requires collection of evidence of effectiveness. Completeness of the available evidence can be assessed, and duplication can be avoided. Read-across between concepts, weapon systems and platforms can be addressed and the impact of technology insertion can be assessed.

  7. Time to wake up: reactive countermeasures to sleep inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilditch, Cassie J; Dorrian, Jillian; Banks, Siobhan

    2016-12-07

    Sleep inertia is the period of impaired performance and grogginess experienced after waking. This period of impairment is of concern to workers who are on-call, or nap during work hours, and need to perform safety-critical tasks soon after waking. While several studies have investigated the best sleep timing and length to minimise sleep inertia effects, few have focused on countermeasures -especially those that can be implemented after waking (i.e. reactive countermeasures). This structured review summarises current literature on reactive countermeasures to sleep inertia such as caffeine, light, and temperature and discusses evidence for the effectiveness and operational viability of each approach. Current literature does not provide a convincing evidence-base for a reactive countermeasure. Caffeine is perhaps the best option, although it is most effective when administered prior to sleep and is therefore not strictly reactive. Investigations into light and temperature have found promising results for improving subjective alertness; further research is needed to determine whether these countermeasures can also attenuate performance impairment. Future research in this area would benefit from study design features highlighted in this review. In the meantime, it is recommended that proactive sleep inertia countermeasures are used, and that safety-critical tasks are avoided immediately after waking.

  8. Phytotoxic mechanisms of bur cucumber seed extracts on lettuce with special reference to analysis of chloroplast proteins, phytohormones, and nutritional elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seok-Min; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Kang, Sang-Mo; Kim, Jin-Hyo; Lee, In-Yong; Moon, Bong-Kyu; Yoon, Byung-Wook; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-12-01

    Bioherbicides from plant extracts are an effective and environmentally friendly method to prevent weed growth. The present investigation was aimed at determining the inhibitory effect of bur cucumber seed extracts (BSE) on lettuce plant growth. Bur cucumber seeds were ground with water, and two different concentrations of seed extracts (10% and 20%) were prepared and applied to lettuce plants. Decreased plant height, number of leaves, leaf length, leaf width, anProd. Type: FTPd leaf area were found in lettuce exposed to BSE as compared with controls. A significant reduction in lettuce biomass was observed in 20% BSE-treated plants due to the presence of higher amounts of phenolic content in the extracts. Moreover, a significant inhibitory chemical, 2-linoleoyl glycerol, was identified in BSE extracts. The mechanism of plant growth inhibition was assayed in lettuce proteins by 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and the LC-MS/MS method. In total, 57 protein spots were detected in plants treated with 20% BSE and control plants. Among these, 39 proteins were down-regulated and 18 proteins were up-regulated in plants exposed to 20% BSE as compared with controls. The presence of low levels of chlorophyll a/b binding protein and oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 1 in BSE-exposed plants reduced photosynthetic pigment synthesis and might be a reason for stunted plant growth. Indeed, the plant-growth stimulating hormone gibberellin was inhibited, and synthesis of stress hormones such as abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid were triggered in lettuce by the effects of BSE. Uptake of essential nutrients, Ca, Fe, Mg, K, S, and Mo, was deficient and accumulation of the toxic ions Cu, Zn, and Na was higher in BSE-treated plants. The results of this study suggest that extracts of bur cucumber seeds can be an effective eco-friendly bioherbicide for weed control that work by inhibiting mechanisms of photosynthesis and regulating phytohormones and nutritional elements

  9. 311 disaster and mental health countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiharu Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available On 11 March 2011, a devastating earthquake struck off the coast of Japan, causing blustering tsunami that swept over the northeast coast of the country. Many struggled to evacuate from their homes, schools, and workplaces as 8- to 9-m-tall tsunami rapidly reached the coast within half an hour after the earthquake (Emergency Disaster Response Headquarters. The officials reported a record-breaking magnitude of 9.0 Mw, which made this earthquake the most devastating earthquake in the Japan's history. It had not been long since the previous massive earthquake had hit Kobe in 1995, killing 6,434 people (Japan Meteorological Agency. The author presents the outline of the initial mental-health-care responses at various levels. It has focused on the comprehensive strategies and policies that were intended to cover all the affected areas but has not described the individual countermeasures and reactions in each prefecture and city. The psychological effects of the atomic plant accident in Fukushima has not been mentioned in detail, because the scope of the physiological effect of the accident has not been settled yet and the society is not necessarily ready to deal with the accident as a psychological matter rather than a sociopolitical one. A number of psychiatric professionals are deeply concerned with the psychological and prolonged impact of the accident, including those who are in the Fukushima prefecture and conducting heroic efforts to care for the residents.

  10. Radiation. Basics, influences, contamination situation, and countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Mamoru; Nomura, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident resulted in the contamination of a large area, and by now the situation of contamination and exposure has gradually clarified, and a lot of information has been being accumulated. Toward reconstruction of Fukushima prefecture from the current circumstance that the residents still live under continuing fear, this article discusses how to clarify the current situation and deal with the contamination, which the residents are concerned about. First, radiation, basic properties of radiation, and so on are introduced. Regarding the influence on human bodies, the mechanism and the degree of influence by radiation, especially on children, women, and pregnant women are explained. Next, regarding the measurements of radiation and radioactivity, the properties of measurement methods and the detectors are explained. Regarding the current situation of contamination and exposure, mainly addressing the area around Koriyama city, various topics are covered including: (1) situation of contamination and radiation monitoring, (2) countermeasures for radioactivity contamination, (3) internal exposure dose, (4) exposed dose from water and food, as well as (5) safety standards. (S.K.)

  11. Small Animal Models for Evaluating Filovirus Countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banadyga, Logan; Wong, Gary; Qiu, Xiangguo

    2018-05-11

    The development of novel therapeutics and vaccines to treat or prevent disease caused by filoviruses, such as Ebola and Marburg viruses, depends on the availability of animal models that faithfully recapitulate clinical hallmarks of disease as it is observed in humans. In particular, small animal models (such as mice and guinea pigs) are historically and frequently used for the primary evaluation of antiviral countermeasures, prior to testing in nonhuman primates, which represent the gold-standard filovirus animal model. In the past several years, however, the filovirus field has witnessed the continued refinement of the mouse and guinea pig models of disease, as well as the introduction of the hamster and ferret models. We now have small animal models for most human-pathogenic filoviruses, many of which are susceptible to wild type virus and demonstrate key features of disease, including robust virus replication, coagulopathy, and immune system dysfunction. Although none of these small animal model systems perfectly recapitulates Ebola virus disease or Marburg virus disease on its own, collectively they offer a nearly complete set of tools in which to carry out the preclinical development of novel antiviral drugs.

  12. Countermeasures to earthquakes in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kazuhide

    1979-01-01

    The contribution of atomic energy to mankind is unmeasured, but the danger of radioactivity is a special thing. Therefore in the design of nuclear power plants, the safety has been regarded as important, and in Japan where earthquakes occur frequently, the countermeasures to earthquakes have been incorporated in the examination of safety naturally. The radioactive substances handled in nuclear power stations and spent fuel reprocessing plants are briefly explained. The occurrence of earthquakes cannot be predicted effectively, and the disaster due to earthquakes is apt to be remarkably large. In nuclear plants, the prevention of damage in the facilities and the maintenance of the functions are required at the time of earthquakes. Regarding the location of nuclear plants, the history of earthquakes, the possible magnitude of earthquakes, the properties of ground and the position of nuclear plants should be examined. After the place of installation has been decided, the earthquake used for design is selected, evaluating live faults and determining the standard earthquakes. As the fundamentals of aseismatic design, the classification according to importance, the earthquakes for design corresponding to the classes of importance, the combination of loads and allowable stress are explained. (Kako, I.)

  13. Nutritional Status Assessment (SMO 016E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. M.; Zwart, S. R.; Heer, M.; Ericson, K.; Coburn, S. P.; Booth, S. A.; Jones, J. A.; Lupton, J.

    2009-01-01

    Until 2006, it was not been possible to assess nutritional status of crewmembers on the ISS during flight because blood and urine could not be collected during ISS missions. Postflight observations of alterations in status of several nutrients are troubling, and we require the ability to monitor the status of these nutrients during flight to determine if there is a specific impetus or timeframe for these changes. In addition to the monitoring of crew nutritional status during flight, in-flight sample collection would allow better assessment of countermeasure effectiveness. Collecting samples during flight is one of the objectives of SMO 016E, and it is also designed to expand the current medical requirement for nutritional assessment (MR016L) to include additional normative markers for assessing crew health and countermeasure effectiveness. Additional markers of bone metabolism will be measured to better monitor bone health and the effectiveness of countermeasures to prevent bone resorption. New markers of oxidative damage will be measured to better assess the type of oxidative insults that occur during space flight. The array of nutritional assessment variables will be expanded to include ones that will allow us to better understand changes in folate, vitamin K, and vitamin B6 status, as well as risk factors for cardiovascular and oxidative damage during and after flight. Stress hormones and hormones that affect bone and muscle metabolism will also be measured. Measuring these additional variables will allow us to better monitor the health of crewmembers and make more accurate recommendations for their rehabilitation. Several nutritional assessment variables are altered at landing, but it is not known how long these changes persist. We extended the original protocol to include an additional postflight blood and urine sample collection 30 days after landing. Data are being collected before, during, and after flight. These data will provide a complete survey of how

  14. Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Diet & Nutrition Eating healthy to take charge of your health. Shelly Diagnosed in 2006 Diet & Nutrition Take Control of Your Weight Portion Control Low ...

  15. Evaluation of the effectiveness of countermeasures in contaminated forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S.; Voigt, G.; Spiridonov, S.; Gontarenko, I.

    2004-01-01

    In many regions subjected to the contamination forest products play an important role in radiation impact on the population. The contribution of mushrooms and berries to the internal doses varies depending on the time after the accident up to 40-45%. To protect people against additional exposure associated with forest contamination an appropriate system of countermeasures should be applied. The decision making framework to optimise implementation of forest countermeasures in the long term after the ChNPP accident is described. The approach is based on the analysis of the main exposure pathways related to contaminated forest and application of different criteria (reduction of individual dose to population and members of critical groups, cost for countermeasures implementation; cost of averted dose of 1 man-Sv; secondary ecological effect and psycho-social impact) for the selection of optimal countermeasures strategies. Because of diversity of these criteria for selection of optimal countermeasures a decision support technology based on a multi-attributive analysis is applied. Results of the application of the approach proposed for the study area (Novozybkov district, Bryansk region, Russian Federation) are presented. Applicability of twelve forest countermeasure options is evaluated and their effectiveness in terms of cost and dose reduction is estimated for the current period. It has been found that limitation on mushrooms or berries collections to the species with low accumulation of radionuclides and mushrooms processing before consumption (for the population) and combined application of Prussian Blue with limitation of tree harvesting to the area with low doses to decrease exposure of the critical groups members are most justified for the long term after the accident in the most contaminated regions of Russia. The results emphasize the effectiveness of the application of a flexible technique to provide the optimization of forest countermeasures taking into

  16. Processing of foodstuffs as countermeasures following a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, R.; Despres, A.; Diaz, A.; Soulatges, D.

    1989-01-01

    The processing of foodstuffs is one of the countermeasures which may be taken following a nuclear accident in order to reduce the contamination of the foodstuffs concerned. A consideration of the transfer of radioactivity during the processing or the preparation of food makes it possible to estimate the effectiveness of the countermeasure concerned, which is one essential criterion for its selection; the other is the cost of its application. In short, consideration must be given at the same time to both of these factors if a rational choice is to be made between the various potential options on an industrial scale. In addition to the countermeasures involving processing or culinary preparation of the foodstuffs concerned, they may also be destroyed, stored, used as feedingstuffs or decontaminated, and the crops may be buried, the feedingstuffs of animals changed, farmland frozen, etc. An expert system using the GOLDWORKS software should help to select the most appropriate countermeasure on the basis of its cost and effectiveness. Such a system would evaluate: - the effectiveness of each of the countermeasures likely to be selected (to be expressed in terms of dose); - the social cost of the dose avoided by their application; - the cost of the countermeasure itself. The last is estimated as thoroughly as possible by taking into account, inter alia, food processing, compensation to the producers, the costs of transport and storage or of destruction. This is followed by a proposed classification of the countermeasures according to their cost effectiveness. 17 radionuclides and 4 foodstuffs (milk, meat, green vegetables and cereals) are considered. Depending on the date of the accident concerned, the input data for themodel are produced from the concentrations measured in the foodstuffs or in the soil. In the latter case, dynamic transfer coefficients make it possible to evaluate the contamination of future harvests [fr

  17. Total parenteral nutrition - Problems in compatibility and stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroder, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Adding calcium, trace elements and vitamins could turn parenteral nutrition into a dangerous product, which could harm the patient. This article focuses on the major pharmaceutical problems of parenteral. nutrition when adding nutritional compounds Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  18. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvares, N.J.; Beason, D.G.; Bergman, W.; Ford, H.W.; Lipska, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect HEPA filters in exit ventilation ducts from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Several methods for partially mitigating the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified through testing and analysis. These independently involve controlling the fuel, controlling the fire, and intercepting the smoke aerosol prior to its sorption on the HEPA filter. Exit duct treatment of aerosols is not unusual in industrial applications and involves the use of scrubbers, prefilters, and inertial impaction, depending on the size, distribution, and concentration of the subject aerosol. However, when these unmodified techniques were applied to smoke aerosols from fires on materials, common to experimental laboratories of LLNL, it was found they offered minimal protection to the HEPA filters. Ultimately, a continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. This technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modificaton of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has a particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, we laminated rolling filter media with the desired properties. It is not true that the use of rolling prefilters solely to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols is cost effective in every type of containment system, especially if standard fire-protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified

  19. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvares, N.; Beason, D.; Bergman, V.; Creighton, J.; Ford, H.; Lipska, A.

    1980-01-01

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters, in exit ventilation ducts, from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Initially, methods were developed to cool fire-heated air by fine water spray upstream of the filters. It was recognized that smoke aerosol exposure to HEPA filters could also cause disruption of the containment system. Through testing and analysis, several methods to partially mitigate the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified. A continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. The technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total time duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modification of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, rolling filter media were laminated with the desired properties. The approach was Edisonian, but truncation in short order to a combination of prefilters was effective. The application of this technique was qualified, since it is of use only to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols. It is not believed that this technique is cost effective in the total spectrum of containment systems, especially if standard fire protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high-fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified

  20. Initial basis for agronomic countermeasure selection following a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonetto, Juan P.; Kunst, Juan J.; Bruno, Hector; Jordan, Osvaldo; Hernandez, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    During the recovery stage, following a nuclear accident, application of agricultural countermeasures will be relevant to the minimization of the radiation induced detriment due to ingestion of locally produced contaminated foodstuff, as long as the magnitude of the averted dose is sufficient to justify their implementation. Nuclear emergency planning in Argentina currently holds food ban as the accepted countermeasure, at least until other measures are taken. Though it may ensure no residual collective dose, food ban may also imply very high costs, compared to other alternatives, specially due to the need of disposing off perishable food such as milk. Therefore, an exhaustive evaluation of all the alternatives, considering both quantitative and qualitative factors is still needed to identify optimal countermeasure strategies, bearing in mind also that decisions made during the early phase of an emergency will affect the fate of the measures to be taken later. As a first step in this direction, a basic quantitative decision-aiding technique, the cost-benefit analysis, is carried out for comparison of countermeasures related to Cesium contaminated cow-milk which are considered feasible for implementation in Argentina. Countermeasures total costs are estimated from various local sources, while their effectiveness are adopted from international bibliography. At this stage, a simple theoretical example considering milk contamination in the surroundings of the Embalse Nuclear Power Plant is used for a generic analysis, since actual collective doses and costs can only be calculated for a specific modelled scenario. (author)

  1. Initial Basis for Agronomic Countermeasure Selection Following a Nuclear Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonetto, J.P.; Kunst, J.J.; Bruno, H.A.; Jordan, O.D.; Hernandez, D.G.

    2011-01-01

    During the recovery stage, following a nuclear accident, application of agricultural countermeasures will be relevant to the minimization of the radiation induced detriment due to ingestion of locally produced contaminated foodstuff, as long as the magnitude of the averted dose is sufficient to justify their implementation. Nuclear emergency planning in Argentina currently holds food ban as the accepted countermeasure, at least until other measures are taken. Though it may ensure no residual collective dose, food ban may also imply very high costs, compared to other alternatives, specially due to the need of disposing off perishable food such as milk. Therefore, an exhaustive evaluation of all the alternatives, considering both quantitative and qualitative factors is still needed to identify optimal countermeasure strategies, bearing in mind also that decisions made during the early phase of an emergency will affect the fate of the measures to be taken later. As a first step in this direction, a basic quantitative decis sion-aiding technique, the cost-benefit analysis, is carried out for comparison of countermeasures related to Cesium contaminated cow-milk which are considered feasible for implementation in Argentina. Countermeasures total costs are estimated from various local sources, while their effectiveness are adopted from international bibliography. At this stage, a simple theoretical example considering milk contamination in the surroundings of the Embalse Nuclear Power Plant is used for a generic analysis, since actual collective doses and costs can only be calculated for a specific modelled scenario. (authors)

  2. Disaster countermeasures around nuclear facilities in self-governing bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunji, Yoshikiyo

    1982-01-01

    In Tokai Village, Ibaraki Prefecture, a nuclear disaster countermeasure training practice was carried out on November 5, 1981, assuming the occurrence of an abnormal state in Tokai No. 2 Nuclear Power Station of JAPC. In the morning, the prefectural and village disaster countermeasure headquarters were set up, and first environmental monitoring was conducted, and various countermeasures were determined. In the afternoon, second environmental monitoring with newly movilized personnel and instruments, and also traffic control and the evacuation of people were carried out. Sixty-eight organizations, 1530 persons, two helicopters, one patrol boat, 153 vehicles, etc. participated in the training practice. The following matters are described: purpose, scenario, the items of practice, results, future problems. (Mori, K.)

  3. Stakeholder involvement for countermeasures in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carle, B.

    2005-01-01

    In the aftermath of a large scale radioactive contamination, the authorities will have to decide on protective measures for reducing the contamination of the food chain. The overall aim is to reduce the dose of the population to an acceptable level while still guaranteeing sufficient foodstuffs and feeding stuffs on the market and also to limit the social, environmental and economic impact of the countermeasures implemented. Many countermeasures have been developed over the years, but their large scale feasibility and especially their acceptability have hardly been studied. Within the context of a European research project called Farming (2000-2004). SCK-CEN has organised stakeholder meetings, leading to guidance to the authorities for improvements in the emergency organisation. To improve emergency countermeasure decisions related to the food chain, especially as regards feasibility and acceptability, taking into account stakeholder opinions. The stakeholders include scientists and representatives from both governmental and non-governmental organisations

  4. Radiation countermeasures from Himalayan herbs - an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhu Bala

    2012-01-01

    A successful radioprotector is the one, which essentially renders protection from the multi-organ dis-function syndrome (MODS) caused by the total body exposure to ionizing radiation. Our rationale is that and instead of a single molecule, a group of molecules/compounds working synergistically can combat the MODS more effectively. Plant extracts offer natural combinations of a plethora of compounds, which act through different mechanisms and are, therefore, the ideal choice. Plants of Himalayan regions have survived under extreme climatic conditions through millions of years and are expected to harbor a battery of anti-stress adaptive molecules offering survival benefits. Our group is actively engaged in developing composite herbal radioprotective preparations from Himalayan Plants. This group is working to develop radiation countermeasures by tapping the essential complex phytochemicals from the plants inhabiting extreme climatic zones of Himalayas. In our laboratory, systematic studies were undertaken to investigate some of these plants located at high altitude regions of Himalayas viz. Hippophae rhamnoides, Rhodiola imbricata and Podophylium hexandruin. The most effective preparation from each of these plants individually, could provide more than 80% survival benefit to the irradiated (10 Gy) mice population against zero per cent survival in non-drug treated irradiated (10 Gy) mice population. It was observed that whole extracts of plant provided much better protection than the partial extracts/fractions. It was also observed that some of the partial extracts/fractions although, provided much higher survival benefits, yet were found to be unsuitable for drug development due to much higher mutagenic and/or recombinogenic effects in comparison to the whole extracts, One of the preparations from leaves of Hippophae rhamnoides (drug) showed more than 90% survival benefits in the irradiated mice population. Only one time intra-peritoneal administration of the drug

  5. Bridge scour and stream instability countermeasures : experience, selection, and design guidance : third edition. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    This document identifies and provides design guidelines for bridge scour and stream instability countermeasures that have been implemented by various State departments of transportation (DOTs) in the United States. Countermeasure experience, selectio...

  6. Bridge scour and stream instability countermeasures : experience, selection, and design guidance : third edition. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    This document identifies and provides design guidelines for bridge scour and stream instability countermeasures that have been implemented by various State departments of transportation (DOTs) in the United States. Countermeasure experience, selectio...

  7. 76 FR 71982 - Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical Countermeasure Devices...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... Multiplexed Microbiology Devices: Their clinical application and public health/clinical needs; inclusion of...] Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/ Medical Countermeasure Devices; Public... Multiplexed Microbiology/ Medical Countermeasure Devices'' that published in the Federal Register of August 8...

  8. Physiological effects of weightlessness: countermeasure system development for a long-term Chinese manned spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linjie; Li, Zhili; Tan, Cheng; Liu, Shujuan; Zhang, Jianfeng; He, Siyang; Zou, Peng; Liu, Weibo; Li, Yinghui

    2018-04-25

    The Chinese space station will be built around 2020. As a national space laboratory, it will offer unique opportunities for studying the physiological effects of weightlessness and the efficacy of the countermeasures against such effects. In this paper, we described the development of countermeasure systems in the Chinese space program. To emphasize the need of the Chinese space program to implement its own program for developing countermeasures, we reviewed the literature on the negative physiological effects of weightlessness, the challenges of completing missions, the development of countermeasure devices, the establishment of countermeasure programs, and the efficacy of the countermeasure techniques in American and Russian manned spaceflights. In addition, a brief overview was provided on the Chinese research and development on countermeasures to discuss the current status and goals of the development of countermeasures against physiological problems associated with weightlessness.

  9. 77 FR 38631 - Request for Comments on Ethical Issues Associated with the Development of Medical Countermeasures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Request for Comments on Ethical Issues Associated with the... ethical issues associated with the development of medical countermeasures for children, including ethical... issues associated with the development of medical countermeasures for children, including ethical...

  10. Effect of Processing and Subsequent Storage on Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele H.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation includes the following objectives: 1) To determine the effects of thermal processing, freeze drying, irradiation, and storage time on the nutritional content of food; 2) To evaluate the nutritional content of the food items currently used on the International Space Station and Shuttle; and 3) To determine if there is a need to institute countermeasures. (This study does not seek to address the effect of processing on nutrients in detail, but rather aims to place in context the overall nutritional status at the time of consumption).

  11. Studies on the contribution of drinking water to the daily intake of some trace elements of importance in nutrition and radiation protection - a preliminary survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    The data were obtained on the concentration of sixteen trace elements in drinking water collected from various parts of India, and from various sources such as river, lake, and well (including borewell). These data were then employed to determine the possible contribution of drinking water to the daily intake of the trace elements by Indian population. The study showed that for the elements Ca, K, Fe, Mn, Mo, As and Rb, their maximum contribution from drinking water, to their daily intake ranged between 3.2-10% of the total daily intake. For elements Na, Mg, Zn, I and Th, however, drinking water contributed up to 40% of the total intake. In the case of elements such as, Cu, Cr, U and Sr, the drinking water could in some cases become the main contributor of their daily intake. (author)

  12. 75 FR 63093 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule--Compliance Date... certain facilities must prepare or amend their Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plans... facilities must prepare or amend their Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plans (or ``Plan...

  13. Nutritional Biochemistry of Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2000-01-01

    Adequate nutrition is critical for maintenance of crew health during and after extended-duration space flight. The impact of weightlessness on human physiology is profound, with effects on many systems related to nutrition, including bone, muscle, hematology, fluid and electrolyte regulation. Additionally, we have much to learn regarding the impact of weightlessness on absorption, mtabolism , and excretion of nutrients, and this will ultimately determine the nutrient requirements for extended-duration space flight. Existing nutritional requirements for extended-duration space flight have been formulated based on limited flight research, and extrapolation from ground-based research. NASA's Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory is charged with defining the nutritional requirements for space flight. This is accomplished through both operational and research projects. A nutritional status assessment program is included operationally for all International Space Station astronauts. This medical requirement includes biochemical and dietary assessments, and is completed before, during, and after the missions. This program will provide information about crew health and nutritional status, and will also provide assessments of countermeasure efficacy. Ongoing research projects include studies of calcium and bone metabolism, and iron absorption and metabolism. The calcium studies include measurements of endocrine regulation of calcium homeostasis, biochemical marker of bone metabolism, and tracer kinetic studies of calcium movement in the body. These calcium kinetic studies allow for estimation of intestinal absorption, urinary excretion, and perhaps most importantly - deposition and resorption of calcium from bone. The Calcium Kinetics experiment is currently being prepared for flight on the Space Shuttle in 2001, and potentially for subsequent Shuttle and International Space Station missions. The iron study is intended to assess whether iron absorption is down-regulated dUl1ng

  14. A short history of tsunami research and countermeasures in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuto, Nobuo; Fujima, Koji

    2009-01-01

    The tsunami science and engineering began in Japan, the country the most frequently hit by local and distant tsunamis. The gate to the tsunami science was opened in 1896 by a giant local tsunami of the highest run-up height of 38 m that claimed 22,000 lives. The crucial key was a tide record to conclude that this tsunami was generated by a "tsunami earthquake". In 1933, the same area was hit again by another giant tsunami. A total system of tsunami disaster mitigation including 10 "hard" and "soft" countermeasures was proposed. Relocation of dwelling houses to high ground was the major countermeasures. The tsunami forecasting began in 1941. In 1960, the Chilean Tsunami damaged the whole Japanese Pacific coast. The height of this tsunami was 5-6 m at most. The countermeasures were the construction of structures including the tsunami breakwater which was the first one in the world. Since the late 1970s, tsunami numerical simulation was developed in Japan and refined to become the UNESCO standard scheme that was transformed to 22 different countries. In 1983, photos and videos of a tsunami in the Japan Sea revealed many faces of tsunami such as soliton fission and edge bores. The 1993 tsunami devastated a town protected by seawalls 4.5 m high. This experience introduced again the idea of comprehensive countermeasures, consisted of defense structure, tsunami-resistant town development and evacuation based on warning.

  15. Noise countermeasures for accelerator facilities as seen from earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumoto, Masaru [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology

    1996-12-01

    As seen from the viewpoint of noise countermeasures, the earth system for various experimental facilities is generally improper, for example independent earth method. It is considered that only by changing this to the earth system which is suitable to noise countermeasures, the antinoise property can be largely heightened. Also it is important to make earth system into that, to which the countermeasure technology suitable to the features of facilities is applied. The features of large accelerators and their building structures related to noise circulation are explained. As to the basic technology of the earth system that heightens antinoise property, induction shielding, the resistance-dependent and inductance-dependent zones in its frequency characteristics, the lowering of impedance, the shielding characteristics of various cables, the method of realizing low impedance, the method of absorbing same phase noise, the characteristics of superhigh permeability materials, and the restraint of interference noise voltage by reducing common impedance and restraining circulating noise current are discussed. As the concrete countermeasures, the earth system in accelerator buildings and beam lines are shown. (K.I.)

  16. A Study of Gaps in Defensive Countermeasures for Web Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-14

    MySQL , and PHP (LAMP) system. A more recent work in this domain, Passe [4] automates most of this process by extracting data and control flow... course , require access to the source code of the web server and are, therefore, not binary compatible (C.2). 22 Moreover such countermeasures also do

  17. Behaviour of radionuclides in meadows including countermeasures application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prister, B.S.; Ivanov, Yu.A.; Perepelyatnikov, G.P.; Il'yn, M.I.; Belli, M.; Sanzharova, N.I.; Fesenko, S.V.; Alexakhin, R.M.; Bunzl, K.; Petriaev, E.P.; Sokolik, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    Main regularities of the behaviour of ChNPP release radionuclides in components of meadow ecosystems are considered. Developed mathematical model of radionuclide migration in components of meadow ecosystems is discussed. Radioecological classification of meadow ecosystems is proposed. Effectiveness of countermeasures application in meadow ecosystems is estimated

  18. Toolset for evaluating infrared countermeasures and signature reduction for ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The protection of ships against infrared guided missiles is a concern for modern naval forces. The vulnerability of ships can be reduced by applying countermeasures such as infrared decoys and infrared signature reduction. This paper presents a set of simulation tools which can be used for assessing

  19. Effect of countermeasures on radionuclide uptake by green plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharova, N.

    1999-01-01

    In the present paper results will be discussed in the field of countermeasures effectiveness on the radiocaesium and radiostrontium transfer to plants in relation to soil characteristics at the different sites investigated, as well as their influence on the crop yield. Refs. 4 (author)

  20. Analysis of the Reasons and Countermeasures for Academic Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xia; Bin, Feng

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a perspective of the various types of academic corruption that is currently running rife in society, a theoretical analysis of the roots of academic corruption, and proposals for a number for countermeasures to put a stop to academic corruption. (Contains 3 notes.) [This article was translated by Ted Wang.

  1. The Situation and Countermeasures of Accounting Teaching in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jinyu Yang

    2015-01-01

    The economic development proposes new issues for accounting teaching, which not only relies on educators¡¯ own perfection as well as the joint efforts of the accounting practitioners and social parties. The author briefly described the new circumstances the accounting education faces in recent years, summarized the characteristics of accounting teaching and proposed countermeasures to these accounting teaching issues.

  2. Livermore Site Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures Plan, May 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mertesdorf, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plan describes the measures that are taken at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL) Livermore Site in Livermore, California, to prevent, control, and handle potential spills from aboveground containers that can contain 55 gallons or more of oil.

  3. Noise countermeasures for accelerator facilities as seen from earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumoto, Masaru

    1996-01-01

    As seen from the viewpoint of noise countermeasures, the earth system for various experimental facilities is generally improper, for example independent earth method. It is considered that only by changing this to the earth system which is suitable to noise countermeasures, the antinoise property can be largely heightened. Also it is important to make earth system into that, to which the countermeasure technology suitable to the features of facilities is applied. The features of large accelerators and their building structures related to noise circulation are explained. As to the basic technology of the earth system that heightens antinoise property, induction shielding, the resistance-dependent and inductance-dependent zones in its frequency characteristics, the lowering of impedance, the shielding characteristics of various cables, the method of realizing low impedance, the method of absorbing same phase noise, the characteristics of superhigh permeability materials, and the restraint of interference noise voltage by reducing common impedance and restraining circulating noise current are discussed. As the concrete countermeasures, the earth system in accelerator buildings and beam lines are shown. (K.I.)

  4. Nutrition Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Shareables Autoimmune Diseases Breastfeeding Cancer Fitness and Nutrition Heart Disease and Stroke HIV and AIDS Mental ... health topic Autoimmune Diseases Breastfeeding Cancer Fitness and Nutrition Heart Disease and Stroke HIV and AIDS Mental ...

  5. Nutritional Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional support is therapy for people who cannot get enough nourishment by eating or drinking. You may need ... absorb nutrients through your digestive system You receive nutritional support through a needle or catheter placed in your ...

  6. Nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss...

  7. Bridge scour countermeasure assessments at select bridges in the United States, 2014–16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudunake, Taylor J.; Huizinga, Richard J.; Fosness, Ryan L.

    2017-05-23

    In 2009, the Federal Highway Administration published Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 23 (HEC-23) to provide specific design and implementation guidelines for bridge scour and stream instability countermeasures. However, the effectiveness of countermeasures implemented over the past decade following those guidelines has not been evaluated. Therefore, in 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration, began a study to assess the current condition of bridge-scour countermeasures at selected sites to evaluate their effectiveness. Bridge-scour countermeasures were assessed during 2014-2016. Site assessments included reviewing countermeasure design plans, summarizing the peak and daily streamflow history, and assessments at each site. Each site survey included a photo log summary, field form, and topographic and bathymetric geospatial data and metadata. This report documents the study area and site-selection criteria, explains the survey methods used to evaluate the condition of countermeasures, and presents the complete documentation for each countermeasure assessment.

  8. Methodological approaches to analysis of agricultural countermeasures on radioactive contaminated areas: Estimation of effectiveness and comparison of different alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yatsalo, B.I.; Hedemann Jensen, P.; Alexakhin, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    Methodological aspects of countermeasure analysis in the long-term period after a nuclear accident are discussed for agriculture countermeasures for illustrative purposes. The estimates of effectiveness fbr specific countermeasures as well as methods of justified action levels assessments...... and comparison of different alternatives (countermeasures) based on the use of several criteria are considered....

  9. Adolescent nutrition: what do pediatricians do?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eell Ryoo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple psychosocial problems and many chronic diseases of adulthood can be influenced by adolescent nutritional problems. In Korea, adolescent obesity and obesity related health risks have been increased and insufficient intakes of nutrients, such as calcium, iron and potassium, and distorted thinking about obesity are also common. However there are no comprehensive countermeasure because of the excessive burden of studies and the lack of community interest. And the nutrition guidelines that is suitable for Korean adolescent leaves something to be desired, and the pediatrician’s concern is lacking yet. In the Korean dietary reference intakes 2010 that was revised according to the 2007 Korean National Growth Chart and 2007 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the range for adolescents is changed to the age 12-18 and dietary reference intakes of some nutrients mainly with vitamin D is changed. Recently several researches, about how school nutrition policies and media effect on eating habits and the weight concerns, and influences of public nutrition policies and fast food commercials have been actively studied to improve adolescent nutritive conditions. In this review, I summarize the dietary reference intakes for Korean adolescents that were revised in 2010, and current studies about the adolescent nutrition.

  10. The elemental analysis of staple foods for children in Tanzania as a step to the improvement of their nutrition and health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, Najat K. [Department of Physics, School of Electronics and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: njkassim@yahoo.com; Spyrou, Nicholas M. [Department of Physics, School of Electronics and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the contents of essential elements in the two staple foods (rice and maize flour) consumed by children in Tanzania as a possible selection measure for high nutrient foods in order to combat malnutrition. Samples were analysed using proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) at the University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre. The mean concentrations of elements determined in the two staple foods are presented and compared with the mean concentrations published in the literature.

  11. The elemental analysis of staple foods for children in Tanzania as a step to the improvement of their nutrition and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Najat K.; Spyrou, Nicholas M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the contents of essential elements in the two staple foods (rice and maize flour) consumed by children in Tanzania as a possible selection measure for high nutrient foods in order to combat malnutrition. Samples were analysed using proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) at the University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre. The mean concentrations of elements determined in the two staple foods are presented and compared with the mean concentrations published in the literature

  12. Advantages of enteral nutrition over parenteral nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Seres, David S.; Valcarcel, Monika; Guillaume, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    It is a strong and commonly held belief among nutrition clinicians that enteral nutrition is preferable to parenteral nutrition. We provide a narrative review of more recent studies and technical reviews comparing enteral nutrition with parenteral nutrition. Despite significant weaknesses in the existing data, current literature continues to support the use of enteral nutrition in patients requiring nutrition support, over parenteral nutrition.

  13. Settlement mechanism of piled-raft foundation due to cyclic train loads and its countermeasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Linlin; Ye, Guanlin; Wang, Zhen; Ling, Xianzhang; Zhang, Feng

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, numerical simulation with soil-water coupling finite element-finite difference (FE-FD) analysis is conducted to investigate the settlement and the excess pore water pressure (EPWP) of a piled-raft foundation due to cyclic high-speed (speed: 300km/h) train loading. To demonstrate the performance of this numerical simulation, the settlement and EPWP in the ground under the train loading within one month was calculated and confirmed by monitoring data, which shows that the change of the settlement and EPWP can be simulated well on the whole. In order to ensure the safety of train operation, countermeasure by the fracturing grouting is proposed. Two cases are analyzed, namely, grouting in No-4 softest layer and No-9 pile bearing layer respectively. It is found that fracturing grouting in the pile bearing layer (No-9 layer) has better effect on reducing the settlement.

  14. Minerals and Trace Elements in Milk, Milk Products, Infant Formula, and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula, ICP-MS Method: Collaborative Study, AOAC Final Action 2015.06, ISO/DIS 21424, IDF 243.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacquette, Lawrence H; Thompson, Joseph J; Malaviole, I; Zywicki, R; Woltjes, F; Ding, Y; Mittal, A; Ikeuchi, Y; Sadipiralla, B; Kimura, S; Veltman, H; Miura, A

    2018-03-01

    AOAC Final Action Official MethodSM 2015.06 "Minerals and Trace Elements in Milk, Milk Products, Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritional Formula, ICP-MS Method" was collaboratively studied. Note that "milk, milk products" has now been added to the title of the Final Action method because whole milk and several dairy ingredients were successfully incorporated into the collaborative study for the purpose of developing an International Organization for Standardization/International Dairy Federation standard (ISO/DIS 21424; in progress). The method determines sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, chromium, molybdenum, and selenium by inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-MS after microwave digestion. Ten laboratories participated in the study, and data from five different model ICP-MS units were represented. Thirteen products, five placebo products, and six dairy samples were tested as blind duplicates in this study, along with a standard reference material, for a total 50 samples. The overall repeatability and reproducibility for all samples met Standard Method Performance Requirements put forth by the AOAC Stakeholder Panel on Infant Formula and Adult Nutritionals, with a few exceptions. Comparisons are made to ICP-atomic emission data from a collaborative study of AOAC Official Method 2011.14 carried out concurrently on these same samples.

  15. Nutrition Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    because consumers will avoid products that the label shows to be nutritionally deficient, but also because food producers will try to avoid marketing products that appear, according to the label, as nutritionally problematic, for example, because of a high content of saturated fat or salt. Nutrition......Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... to make healthier choices when choosing food products. Nutrition labeling is thus closely linked to the notion of the informed consumer, that chooses products according to their aims, on the basis of the information at their disposal. Because many consumers are assumed to be interested in making healthy...

  16. Nitrate contamination of groundwater and its countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitamura, Hisayoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    The inevitable increases of food production and energy consumption with an increase in world population become main causes of an increase of nitrate load to the environment. Although nitrogen is essential for the growth of animal and plant as a constituent element of protein, excessive nitrate load to the environment contaminates groundwater resources used as drinking water and leads to seriously adverse effects on the health of man and livestock. In order to clarify the problem of nitrate contamination of groundwater and search a new trend of technology development from the viewpoint of environment remediation and protection, the present paper has reviewed adverse effects of nitrate on human health, the actual state of nitrogen cycle, several kinds of nitrate sources, measures for reducing nitrate level, etc. (author)

  17. Psychosomatic problems and countermeasures in Japanese children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Hidetaka

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Japan there are a number of children and adolescents with emotion-related disorders including psychosomatic diseases (orthostatic dysregulation, anorexia nervosa, recurrent pains, behavior problems and school absenteeism. According to our previous report, the Japanese children had significantly higher score of physical symptoms and psychiatric complaints than did the Swedish children, and these were more strongly influenced by school-related stress than by home-related stress. To enforce countermeasures for psychosomatic problems in children, the Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Pediatrics (established in 1982 have started several new projects including multi-center psychosomatic researches and society-based activities. In this article, we present an outline of our study on mental health in Japanese children in comparison with Swedish children. Countermeasures including clinical guidelines for child psychosomatic diseases are reviewed and discussed.

  18. The human body and weightlessness operational effects, problems and countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, William

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on all of the major problems associated with the absence of body weight in space, by analyzing effects, adaption, and re-adaptation upon returning to Earth, using sound scientific principles embedded in a historical context. Serious problems for space travelers range from Space Motion Sickness (SMS) to recently discovered ocular effects that may permanently impair vision. Fluid loss and shifts, spinal changes, and bone and muscle loss are also all results of weightlessness. Starting with a brief definition and history of weightlessness, the authors then address in detail each problem as well as the countermeasures aimed at alleviating them. In some cases, alternative hypotheses regarding what can and should be attempted are also presented. As plans for long-term missions to the Moon and Mars develop, it will be essential to find countermeasures to weightlessness that are effective for missions that could span years.

  19. Research on the Countermeasures against Electromagnetic Interface in Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Bin; Kang, Young Suk; Choi, Hyo Yul; Cha, Ok Hyun [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gi Chul; Le, Jae Bok; Ha, Tae Hyun; Kim, Suk Joo; Na, Dae Yul; Kim, Yong Ho; Jeong, Kyo Beom [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    As the results of widespread use of microelectronics in electric power system, electric environment of power operation facilities in substation has become more weak and severe for surge voltages. Electromagnetic coupled overvoltage caused by HV bus switching operating lead to the malfunction or destruction of low voltage control circuit which mostly used signal. To scope with this transients overvoltage, it is necessary to be investigated transient source and propagation path and analysed its effects to low voltage circuit such as relay. This study is to analysis source of conducted EMP(electromagnetic pulse) on the low voltage control circuit and to acquits transient voltage waveforms, and to provide countermeasures against transient voltage, and EMP filtering method according to each EMP each type. With this, gradual improvement of EMI countermeasure will be achieved. (author). 49 refs., figs.

  20. Behaviour of radionuclides in meadows and efficiency of countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanzharova, N.I.; Fesenko, S.V.; Kotik, V.A.; Spiridonov, S.I.

    1996-01-01

    The behaviour of radionuclides and the efficiency of countermeasures were dependent on meadow type. The migration of 137 Cs proceeds much more slowly in the soil profile on dry meadows than on peatlands and flooded land. The half-life of 137 Cs in the root zone changes from 10 to 25 years. The highest transfer factors in grasslands are obtained for peaty lands and flooded meadows, and minimal ones for dry meadows. The first half-life of 137 Cs transfer to plants changes from 2.0 to 2.2 years and the second (slower) half-life changes from 4.0 to 12 years for different meadow types. The countermeasure efficiency in meadows varied from 1.2 to 10.0. (Author)

  1. Improvement of practical Countermeasures: Preventive medication. Post-Chernobyl action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, G.

    1991-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident, which occurred on 26 April 1986, presented major challenges to the European Community with respect to the practical and regulatory aspects of radiation protection, public information, trade, particularly in food, and international politics. The Chernobyl accident was also a major challenge to the international scientific community which had to evaluate rapidly the radiological consequences of the accident and advise on the introduction of any countermeasures. Prior to the accident at Chernobyl, countermeasures to reduce the consequences of radioactive contamination had been conceived largely in the context of relatively small accidental releases and for application over relatively small areas. Less consideration had been given to the practical implications of applying such measures in case of a large source term and a spread over a very large area

  2. Research on the Countermeasures against Electromagnetic Interface in Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Bin; Kang, Young Suk; Choi, Hyo Yul; Cha, Ok Hyun [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gi Chul; Le, Jae Bok; Ha, Tae Hyun; Kim, Suk Joo; Na, Dae Yul; Kim, Yong Ho; Jeong, Kyo Beom [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    As the results of widespread use of microelectronics in electric power system, electric environment of power operation facilities in substation has become more weak and severe for surge voltages. Electromagnetic coupled overvoltage caused by HV bus switching operating lead to the malfunction or destruction of low voltage control circuit which mostly used signal. To scope with this transients overvoltage, it is necessary to be investigated transient source and propagation path and analysed its effects to low voltage circuit such as relay. This study is to analysis source of conducted EMP(electromagnetic pulse) on the low voltage control circuit and to acquits transient voltage waveforms, and to provide countermeasures against transient voltage, and EMP filtering method according to each EMP each type. With this, gradual improvement of EMI countermeasure will be achieved. (author). 49 refs., figs.

  3. Radioactivity and countermeasures like clean feeding of sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    It's been 25 years since the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, but there is still radioactivity remaining in the Norwegian nature. The radioactive cesium-137 is taken up by plants and fungi and transferred to animals on rangelands. In the grazing season of 2010 had 20 000 sheep on Countermeasures like clean feeding to reduce radioactivity levels in the meat before slaughter. Oppland had most sheep on Countermeasures like clean feeding with almost 12 000 animals. Total was paid 2.2 million in compensation to livestock owners in 2010. In the period 1986-2010 is about 2.2 million sheep have been suspended with a charge of approximately NOK 227 million. (AG)

  4. Countermeasure technology for environmental pollution due to radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the progress of challenges by Maeda Corporation toward the countermeasures for the environmental pollution caused by radioactive substances that covers the whole areas of Naraha Town in Fukushima Prefecture. It also introduces in full detail the environmental pollution countermeasure technologies against radioactive substances challenged by the said company. These technologies are as follows; (1) porous block kneaded with zeolite, (2) Aqua-filter System (technique to automatically and continuously purify construction work water to the level of tap water), (3) super vacuum press (dehydration unit to realize the dehydration, volume reduction and solidification, and insolubilization at the same time), (4) mist blender (technique to manufacture bentonite-mixed soil), (5) wet-type classification washing technique for contaminated soil, (6) soil sorting technique (continuous discrimination technique to sort soil depending on radiation level), and (7) speedy construction technique for dam body using CSG (cemented sand and gravel). (A.O.)

  5. Regional Logistics Information Resources Integration Patterns and Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui; Shangguan, Xu-ming

    Effective integration of regional logistics information resources can provide collaborative services in information flow, business flow and logistics for regional logistics enterprises, which also can reduce operating costs and improve market responsiveness. First, this paper analyzes the realistic significance on the integration of regional logistics information. Second, this paper brings forward three feasible patterns on the integration of regional logistics information resources, These three models have their own strengths and the scope of application and implementation, which model is selected will depend on the specific business and the regional distribution of enterprises. Last, this paper discusses the related countermeasures on the integration of regional logistics information resources, because the integration of regional logistics information is a systems engineering, when the integration is advancing, the countermeasures should pay close attention to the current needs and long-term development of regional enterprises.

  6. Risk and Business Goal Based Security Requirement and Countermeasure Prioritization

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Andrea; Morali, A.; Etalle, Sandro; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Niedrite, Laila; Strazdina, Renate; Wangler, Benkt

    2012-01-01

    Companies are under pressure to be in control of their assets but at the same time they must operate as efficiently as possible. This means that they aim to implement “good-enough security‿ but need to be able to justify their security investment plans. Currently companies achieve this by means of checklist-based security assessments, but these methods are a way to achieve consensus without being able to provide justifications of countermeasures in terms of business goals. But such justificat...

  7. Questions and Countermeasures on Developing General Aviation Industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yongming

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available China’s general aviation industry has exposed many problems with the low-altitude airspace expanding openness. General aviation is an important part of national economy and defence forces, the development of general aviation has a practical and far-reaching significance. By analysing the China’s current general aviation industry, combined with the importance of the development of general aviation, propose some countermeasures and suggestions for the development of China’s general aviation industry.

  8. Password Cracking and Countermeasures in Computer Security: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Aaron L. -F.; Wong, Derek F.; Chao, Lidia S.

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of internet technologies, social networks, and other related areas, user authentication becomes more and more important to protect the data of the users. Password authentication is one of the widely used methods to achieve authentication for legal users and defense against intruders. There have been many password cracking methods developed during the past years, and people have been designing the countermeasures against password cracking all the time. However, we fi...

  9. Research on Risks and Forecasting Countermeasures of Hainan Banana Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yan-qun; Zeng, Xiao-hong; Fang, Jia

    2011-01-01

    Based on the overviews of the current conditions of Hainan banana industry, the research makes an analysis of the risks faced by Hainan banana industry. They are respectively marketing risks, natural risks, information risks and production risks. In order to promote a sustainable and rapid development of Hainan banana industry, Countermeasures are proposed in the research. The first is to strengthen the leading organization of forecasting mechanisms on banana industry. The second is to establ...

  10. Fluxes of radiocesium to milk and appropriate countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, J.; Hove, K.; Prister, B.; Sobolev, A; Ratnikov, A; Travnikova, I.; Averin, V.; Tronevitch, V.; Strand, P.; Bogdanov, G.

    1996-01-01

    Radiocesium contamination of milk persists in some areas of Belarus, Ukraine and Russian Federation which received fallout from the Chernobyl accident. In general, effective countermeasures have been used which ensure that radiocesium activity concentrations in milk from collective farms does not exceed intervention limits. However, farming practices differ greatly between the large collective farms, and the small, family operated private farms which are responsible for a major part of the food consumed in many rural areas. As a result of comparative low rate of use of fertilizers and utilization of poor quality land 137 Cs activity concentrations in milk from family-owned cows continues to exceed intervention limits in some areas. It is therefore important to be able reliably to quantify the rates of transfer of 137 Cs to private milk, so that all areas where persistent problems occur are identified, and appropriate countermeasure strategies applied. Where there is considerable variation, within a few km 2 , in both soil type and deposition, the 137 Cs content of private milk is highly variable. However, combining information about soil type, transfer rates for each major soil type, deposition, pasture size and grazing strategies can be a useful method of quantifying transfer of radiocesium to milk. Geographical information systems provide a promising new tool to integrate these factors. Effective Countermeasures are available to reduce radiocesium transfer to private milk. Private farmers are more sceptical of such methods than the scientists, administrators and agriculturalists in their society, particularly those methods involving the use of chemical additives given to their animals. Increased information efforts on the local level appears to be a prerequisite for a successful implementation of necessary Countermeasures

  11. Information Overload and Viral Marketing: Countermeasures and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jiesi; Sun, Aaron; Zeng, Daniel

    Studying information diffusion through social networks has become an active research topic with important implications in viral marketing applications. One of the fundamental algorithmic problems related to viral marketing is the Influence Maximization (IM) problem: given an social network, which set of nodes should be considered by the viral marketer as the initial targets, in order to maximize the influence of the advertising message. In this work, we study the IM problem in an information-overloaded online social network. Information overload occurs when individuals receive more information than they can process, which can cause negative impacts on the overall marketing effectiveness. Many practical countermeasures have been proposed for alleviating the load of information on recipients. However, how these approaches can benefit viral marketers is not well understood. In our work, we have adapted the classic Information Cascade Model to incorporate information overload and study its countermeasures. Our results suggest that effective control of information overload has the potential to improve marketing effectiveness, but the targeting strategy should be re-designed in response to these countermeasures.

  12. Public acceptance and assessment of countermeasures after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, E.I.; Archangelskaya, G.V.; Zykova, I.A.

    1997-01-01

    General Background. Previous studies confirmed that the main reason of the psychological stress after Chernobyl was a worry about radiation influence on personal health and health of children. This ''Chernobyl stress'' is typical ''information'' or emotional stress resulting from mass media information on radioactive contamination and exposure but not from direct personal visual or auditory and other impression for 5 million population. The population was not able to define the radiation danger by direct sensual perception without measuring equipment but was obliged to change their life-style and diet as a remedial action and to follow the radiation protection requirements and advices. Therefore the anxiety was related not only to information about the accident but also to implemental countermeasures, which changed the everyday life. The countermeasures became the first real sign of the accident. Methods. In 1988-1994 studies based on population interview of about 5 thousand residents and questionnaires were carried out on contaminated (15 - 40 Ci/km2) territories, adjacent and distant areas. The following information was used: population knowledge of protective measures; sources of information about radiation and level of trust; assessment of the effectiveness and reasons of non-satisfaction of the protection measures; compliance and involvement of population in countermeasures including effects of life-style changes and behavior; public opinion on priority for financial expenditure for mitigation of accident consequences

  13. The use of multi-criteria analysis (MCA) for evaluating feasible countermeasures after an accidental release of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenker-Wicki, A.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this study is to establish a system that enables rational decisions to be taken for reducing (if necessary) the radiological risk to a population. These decisions normally concern whether a particular food product will be consumed or not, as well as wether it should be diverted for other uses. To evaluate the consequences of such actions, many different criteria have to be taken into account such as the radiological risk, nutritional and environmental criteria, current technical intervention levels, economic costs and public reaction. Under the guidance of the Institute of Automation and Operations Research at the University of Fribourg a Multi-Criteria-Analysis (MCA) approach, based on the most recent developments in decision theory, is being elaborated. MCA requires input from a suite of sub-models combined with basic input data. For the radiological impact model the German code ECOSYS will be adapted for Swiss conditions. Furthermore, input data on the effect of food processing on radionuclide content of foodstuffs and consumption habits are needed. MCA thus allows the consequences of different countermeasures to be assessed in relation to the different governing criteria. In order to allow efficient use of this technique it shall be implemented as a user friendly computerized decision support system. In this paper, an example of different countermeasures to reduce the dose from milk contaminated with I-131 resulting from a reactor accident is given

  14. Electronic countermeasures (ECM) and acoustic countermeasures (ACM) supported protection for merchant ships against SSM/ASM missiles and mines

    OpenAIRE

    Wallander, Bo L.

    1989-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited The necessity for merchant ship self protection has become more and more obvious during recent years. This thesis will investigate the threat (missiles and mines) and associated counter-measures that might be installed to provide a reasonable degree of protection. The results indicate that it is possible to get protection against a sea-skimming missile with a combination of ECM and ESM deployed aboard the ship. For protection against the ...

  15. Improvement of AOAC Official Method 984.27 for the determination of nine nutritional elements in food products by Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy after microwave digestion: single-laboratory validation and ring trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitevin, Eric; Nicolas, Marine; Graveleau, Laetitia; Richoz, Janique; Andrey, Daniel; Monard, Florence

    2009-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation (SLV) and a ring trial (RT) were undertaken to determine nine nutritional elements in food products by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy in order to improve and update AOAC Official Method 984.27. The improvements involved optimized microwave digestion, selected analytical lines, internal standardization, and ion buffering. Simultaneous determination of nine elements (calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, phosphorus, and zinc) was made in food products. Sample digestion was performed through wet digestion of food samples by microwave technology with either closed or open vessel systems. Validation was performed to characterize the method for selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, ruggedness, and uncertainty. The robustness and efficiency of this method was proved through a successful internal RT using experienced food industry laboratories. Performance characteristics are reported for 13 certified and in-house reference materials, populating the AOAC triangle food sectors, which fulfilled AOAC criteria and recommendations for accuracy (trueness, recovery, and z-scores) and precision (repeatability and reproducibility RSD and HorRat values) regarding SLV and RT. This multielemental method is cost-efficient, time-saving, accurate, and fit-for-purpose according to ISO 17025 Norm and AOAC acceptability criteria, and is proposed as an improved version of AOAC Official Method 984.27 for fortified food products, including infant formula.

  16. United States Department of Health and Human Services Biodosimetry and radiological/nuclear medical countermeasure programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homer, Mary J.; Raulli, Robert; Esker, John; Moyer, Brian; Wathen, Lynne; DiCarlo-Cohen, Andrea L.; Maidment, Bert W.; Rios, Carmen; Macchiarini, Francesca; Hrdina, Chad; Prasanna, Pataje G.

    2016-01-01

    The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is fully committed to the development of medical countermeasures to address national security threats from chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear agents. Through the Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures Enterprise, HHS has launched and managed a multi-agency, comprehensive effort to develop and operationalize medical countermeasures. Within HHS, development of medical countermeasures includes the National Institutes of Health (NIH), (led by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases), the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Preparedness and Response/Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA); with the Division of Medical Countermeasure Strategy and Requirements, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Food and Drug Administration as primary partners in this endeavor. This paper describes various programs and coordinating efforts of BARDA and NIH for the development of medical countermeasures for radiological and nuclear threats. (authors)

  17. Modelling of an industrial environment, part 2.: External dose calculation with relevant countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eged, K.; Kis, Z.; Alvarez-Farizo, B.; Gil, J.; Voigt, G.

    2002-01-01

    The calculation of the collective dose and averted collective dose after applying countermeasures in an industrial environment has been divided in two parts. In the first part (Kis et al. 2002) separate Monte Carlo simulations of photon transport resulted in the air kermas per photon per unit area due to the industrial surfaces contaminated by 1 37C s at specific points using the so-called local approach. In the local approach the air kerma rates due to specific intervention elements at the evaluation locations in the whole environment are determined (Gutierrez et al. 2000). In this way the collective and averted collective dose due to the radiation from a particular intervention element (e.g. the roof of a building) can be obtained. It can, therefore, provide a ranking of the specific intervention elements based on their contribution to collective dose as well. The deposition pattern and the long-term behaviour of deposited radionuclides vary widely in natural circumstances; therefore the number of the photons emitted from the various surfaces per unit area and time can differ significantly. This means the results of the Monte Carlo simulations have to be weighted according to the number of emitted photons so that the actual radiation field can be set up. For this purpose, a dose calculation code has been developed in the framework of the TEMAS project (Gutierrez et al. 2000) which allows to calculate collective doses for different environments. This code has been applied in the present work

  18. [Community Nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranceta, Javier

    2004-06-01

    In the last 20 years, Public Health Nutrition focused mainly on the qualitative aspects which may influence the onset of chronic diseases, quality of life, physical and mental performance and life expectancy. This applied knowledge organised as part of preventive and health promotion programs led to the development of Community Nutrition. The aim of Community Nutrition actions is to adequate lifestyles related to food consumption patterns in order to improve the quality of life and contribute to health promotion of the population in the community where programs and services are delivered. Key functions to develop in a Community Nutrition Unit consist in the identification and assessment of nutrition problems in the community as well as the design, implementation and evaluation of intervention programs by means of appropriate strategies. These should aim at different populations groups and settings, such as work places, schools, high risk groups or the general public. Nowadays, Community Nutrition work efforts should focus on three main aspects: nutrition education in schools and in the community; food safety and food security and the development and reinforcement of food preparation skills across all age groups. Social catering services, either in schools, the work place or at the community level, need to ensure adequate nutritional supply, provide foods contributing to healthy eating practices as well as to enhance culinary traditions and social learning. Food safety and food security have become a top priority in Public Health. The concepts referes to the availability of food safe and adequate as well as in sufficient amount in order to satisfy nutrition requirements of all individuals in the community. Social changes along new scientific developments will introduce new demands in Community Nutrition work and individual dietary counselling will become a key strategy. In order to face new challenges, community nutrition pactitioners require a high quality

  19. The impact of countermeasure propagation on the prevalence of computer viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Chiou; Carley, Kathleen M

    2004-04-01

    Countermeasures such as software patches or warnings can be effective in helping organizations avert virus infection problems. However, current strategies for disseminating such countermeasures have limited their effectiveness. We propose a new approach, called the Countermeasure Competing (CMC) strategy, and use computer simulation to formally compare its relative effectiveness with three antivirus strategies currently under consideration. CMC is based on the idea that computer viruses and countermeasures spread through two separate but interlinked complex networks-the virus-spreading network and the countermeasure-propagation network, in which a countermeasure acts as a competing species against the computer virus. Our results show that CMC is more effective than other strategies based on the empirical virus data. The proposed CMC reduces the size of virus infection significantly when the countermeasure-propagation network has properties that favor countermeasures over viruses, or when the countermeasure-propagation rate is higher than the virus-spreading rate. In addition, our work reveals that CMC can be flexibly adapted to different uncertainties in the real world, enabling it to be tuned to a greater variety of situations than other strategies.

  20. Synthesis of a Controller for Swarming Robots Performing Underwater Mine Countermeasures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tan, Yong

    2004-01-01

    This Trident Scholar project involved the synthesis of a swarm controller that is suitable for controlling movements of a group of autonomous robots performing underwater mine countermeasures (UMCM...

  1. Sports Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

    This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the…

  2. Nutritional epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter is intended to provide a timely overview of the current state of research at the intersection of nutrition and epigenetics. I begin by describing epigenetics and molecular mechanisms of eigenetic regulation, then highlight four classes of nutritional exposures currently being investiga...

  3. Sports nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomanić Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to higher energy consumption, physically active people have higher nutritional requirements. In addition to other important factors for sports, such as good health and physical predisposition, adequate nutrition is a fundamental component. Sports nutrition must be well planned and individually adapted based on physical characteristics, tendencies towards gaining or losing weight, frequency, duration and intensity of training sessions. Studies have shown that a well-balanced ratio of macro and micronutrients, with the support of supplements and adequate hydration, can significantly improve athletic performance and plays a key role in achieving better results. An optimally designed nutritional program, with realistic and achievable goals, which complements a well-planned training program, is the basis for success in sports. Only when nutritional requirements are met, deficits can be prevented and performance in sport pushed to the limit.

  4. Transcranial direct current stimulation versus caffeine as a fatigue countermeasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, Lindsey K; McKinley, R Andy; Nelson, Justin M; Goodyear, Chuck

    To assess the efficacy of using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to remediate the deleterious effects of fatigue induced by sleep deprivation and compare these results to caffeine, a commonly used fatigue countermeasure. Based on previous research, tDCS of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) can modulate attention and arousal. The authors hypothesize that tDCS can be an effective fatigue countermeasure. Five groups of ten participants each received either active tDCS and placebo gum at 1800, caffeine gum with sham tDCS at 1800, active tDCS and placebo gum at 0400, caffeine gum with sham tDCS at 0400, or sham tDCS with placebo gum at 1800 and 0400 during 36-h of sustained wakefulness. Participants completed a vigilance task, working memory task, psychomotor vigilance task (PVT), and a procedural game beginning at 1800 h and continued every two hours throughout the night until 1900 the next day. tDCS dosed at 1800 provided 6 h of improved attentional accuracy and reaction times compared to the control group. Caffeine did not produce an effect. Both tDCS groups also had an improved effect on mood. Participants receiving tDCS reported feeling more vigor, less fatigue, and less bored throughout the night compared to the control and caffeine groups. We believe tDCS could be a powerful fatigue countermeasure. The effects appear to be comparable or possibly more beneficial than caffeine because they are longer lasting and mood remains more positive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Countermeasures for Developing New Energy Bus Standards in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xin

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid development of new energy vehicle technology, new energy bus has become more and more popular in China, and the relevant standards and policy are urgently needed to guide the market. According to the assessment of the development situation on new energy vehicle technology and new energy bus, combing with traffic policy guidance and the development trend of new energy vehicles, this paper aims to put forward the countermeasures of the new energy bus standard in China, including standard system, key standards and relevant recommendations. Research result is expected to provide decision support for the wide application of new energy bus in China.

  6. Problems in Food Safety of Hunan Province and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fanfan; OUYANG; Fangming; DENG

    2014-01-01

    In recent years,serious food safety accidents are of frequent occurrence. Although government has taken many practical and feasible measures to contain food safety accidents,new food safety accidents still emerge in large numbers. In this situation,food safety control is a long-term and arduous task to be performed jointly by many government departments. Finally,it presents corresponding countermeasures and recommendations on the basis of current situations of food safety in Hunan Province,problem causes,in combination with control measures related to food safety both at home and abroad.

  7. Chemical Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures Plan: 100 Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, Y.M.

    1989-06-01

    The purpose of this Chemical Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan is to identify the chemical spill control practices, procedures, and containment devices Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) employs to prevent a reportable quantity (RQ) of a hazardous substance (as defined in 40 CFR Part 302) from being released to the environment. The chemical systems and chemical storage facilities in the 100 Areas are described. This document traces the ultimate fate of accidental chemical spills at the 100 Areas. Also included in the document destinations, spill containment devices, and systems surveillance frequencies. 2 tabs.

  8. Chemical Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures Plan: 100 Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, Y.M.

    1989-06-01

    The purpose of this Chemical Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan is to identify the chemical spill control practices, procedures, and containment devices Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) employs to prevent a reportable quantity (RQ) of a hazardous substance (as defined in 40 CFR Part 302) from being released to the environment. The chemical systems and chemical storage facilities in the 100 Areas are described. This document traces the ultimate fate of accidental chemical spills at the 100 Areas. Also included in the document destinations, spill containment devices, and systems surveillance frequencies. 2 tabs

  9. Autogenic-feedback training: A countermeasure for orthostatic intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Kamiya, Joe; Miller, Neal E.; Pickering, Thomas G.

    1991-01-01

    NASA has identified cardiovascular deconditioning as a serious biomedical problem associated with long-duration exposure to microgravity in space. High priority has been given to the development of countermeasures for this disorder and the resulting orthostatic intolerance experienced by crewmembers upon their return to the 1g norm of Earth. The present study was designed to examine the feasibility of training human subjects to control their own cardiovascular responses to gravitational stimulation (i.e., a tilt table). Using an operant conditioning procedure, Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT), we would determine if subjects could learn to increase their own blood pressure voluntarily.

  10. Metabolic syndrome in healthy ponies facilitates nutritional countermeasures against pasture laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronfeld, David S; Treiber, Kibby H; Hess, Tanja M; Splan, Rebecca K; Byrd, Bridgett M; Staniar, W Burton; White, Nathanial W

    2006-07-01

    Treatment of clinical laminitis usually fails to prevent some degree of persistent disability; thus, intervention should aim at avoiding risk factors and preventing the disease. Efficiency of intervention would be improved by identifying predisposed horses and ponies. A herd of 160 healthy ponies included 54 previously laminitic (PL) and 106 never laminitic (NL). Pedigree analysis was consistent with dominant inheritance partially suppressed in males. Blood analysis revealed higher plasma concentrations of insulin and triglycerides but not cortisol, glucose, or free fatty acids in the PL group. Proxies for insulin sensitivity and beta-cell responsiveness, which were calculated from plasma insulin and glucose, indicated compensated insulin resistance in the PL group. A prelaminitic metabolic syndrome (PLMS) was derived statistically to have cut-off points for the 2 proxies, hypertriglyceridemia, and body condition score. It had a total predictive power of 78%. It identified 62 ponies with PLMS, and 98 as PLMS-free. Two months later, pasture starch concentration doubled, and 13 clinical cases of laminitis developed, 11 in the PLMS group and 2 in the PLMS-free group, giving an odds ratio of 10.4 (P = 0.0006). The PLMS can be used to identify predisposed ponies in need of special care; the efficiency of intervention would increase nearly 3-fold in the present case. It enables the design of new interventions suitable for testing. The PLMS also might influence market values.

  11. The role of pyridoxine as a countermeasure for in-flight loss of lean body mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Joyce A.

    1992-01-01

    Ground based and in flight research has shown that humans, under conditions of microgravity, sustain a loss of lean body tissue (protein) and changes in several biological processes including, reductions in red blood cell mass, and neurotransmitters. The maintenance of muscle mass, the major component of lean body mass, is required to meet the needs of space station EVAs. Central to the biosynthesis of amino acids, the building blocks of protein, is pyridoxine (vitamin B-6). Muscle mass integrity requires the availability of vitamin B-6 for protein metabolism and neurotransmitter synthesis. Furthermore, the formation of red blood cells require pyridoxine as a cofactor in the biosynthesis of hemoglobin, a protein that carries oxygen to tissues. In its active form, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP), vitamin B-6 serves as a link between amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism through intermediates of glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. In addition to its role in energy metabolism, PLP is involved in the biosynthesis of hemoglobin and neurotransmitter which are necessary for neurological functions. Alterations in pyridoxine metabolism may affect countermeasures designed to overcome some of these biochemical changes. The focus of this research is to determine the effects of microgravity on the metabolic utilization of vitamin B-6, integrating nutrition as an integral component of the countermeasure (exercise) to maintain lean body mass and muscle strength. The objectives are: 1) to determine whether microgravity effects the metabolic utilization of pyridoxine and 2) to quantitate changes in B-6 vitamer distribution in tissue and excreta relative to loss of lean body tissue. The rationale for this study encompasses the unique challenge to control biochemical mechanisms effected during space travel and the significance of pyridoxine to maintain and counter muscle integrity for EVA activities. This experiment will begin to elucidate the importance of biochemical

  12. Improvements around nuclear power plants for effective implementation of emergency countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivasista, K.; Ravi, K.; Gupta, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    The 5 km sterilized zone (SZ) and 16 km emergency planning zone (EPZ) were set up for Indian nuclear power plants in 1960s. There is also a requirement that the growth of population in SZ shall be controlled. In the current scenario where population growth in SZ at some of the sites is much above the natural growth, the distinction between the two zones may disappear. It is clear that emergency preparedness plans shall be in place for these zones. In today's context if these numbers have to be revised, there is a need to give a fresh look to the basis and growth of population in these zones. In view of this, the issue of size and requirement of SZ and EPZ in Indian context are revisited. Technological advances and emerging improvements in some of the elements of emergency response were reviewed to determine their potential effects on decisions of emergency protective actions. Some such elements which affect implementation of emergency countermeasures effectively in SZ and EPZ around Indian nuclear power plants are discussed in this paper. (author)

  13. 75 FR 45572 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule--Proposed... Federal Regulations is proposed to be amended as follows: PART 112--OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION 1. The... certain facilities must prepare or amend their Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plans...

  14. Evaluation of Ebola Virus Countermeasures in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) pathology in humans remains incompletely understood; therefore, a number of rodent and nonhuman primate (NHP) models have been established to study the disease caused by this virus. While the macaque model most accurately recapitulates human disease, rodent models, which display only certain aspects of human disease but are more cost-effective, are widely used for initial screens during EBOV countermeasure development. In particular, mice and guinea pigs were among the first species used for the efficacy testing of EBOV vaccines and therapeutics. While mice have low predictive value, guinea pigs have proven to be a more reliable predictor for the evaluation of countermeasures in NHPs. In addition, guinea pigs are larger in size compared to mice, allowing for more frequent collection of blood samples at larger volumes. However, guinea pigs have the disadvantage that there is only a limited pool of immunological tools available to characterize host responses to vaccination, treatment and infection. In this chapter, the efficacy testing of an EBOV vaccine and a therapeutic in the guinea pig model are described.

  15. Development of an in-vehicle intersection collision countermeasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierowicz, John A.

    1997-02-01

    Intersection collisions constitute approximately twenty-six percent of all accidents in the United States. Because of their complexity, and demands on the perceptual and decision making abilities of the driver, intersections present an increased risk of collisions between automobiles. This situation provides an opportunity to apply advanced sensor and processing capabilities to prevent these collisions. A program to determine the characteristics of intersection collisions and identify potential countermeasures will be described. This program, sponsored by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, utilized accident data to develop a taxonomy of intersection crashes. This taxonomy was used to develop a concept for an intersection collision avoidance countermeasure. The concept utilizes in-vehicle position, dynamic status, and millimeter wave radar system and an in-vehicle computer system to provide inputs to an intersection collision avoidance algorithm. Detection of potential violation of traffic control device, or proceeding into the intersection with inadequate gap will lead to the presentation of a warning to the driver. These warnings are presented to the driver primarily via a head-up display and haptic feedback. Roadside to vehicle communication provides information regarding phased traffic signal information. Active control of the vehicle's brake and steering systems are described. Progress in the development of the systems will be presented along with the schedule of future activities.

  16. Application of crime countermeasures for the protection of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bean, C.H.

    1975-01-01

    Federal regulations prepared by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and published in the Federal Register require licensees to take appropriate action to protect the health and safety of the public from unauthorized use of special nuclear material (SNM), which includes plutonium, uranium-233, and highly enriched uranium. Crime countermeasures for compliance with these regulations are an important part of the guidance that is provided by the NRC's Office of Standards Development. The use of crime countermeasures and protective devices is intended to prevent the unauthorized diversion of material and to aid in the detection of diversion should it be attempted. Plant and equipment designs should incorporate both electronic and physical security measures for protection of SNM. This applies to facilities and equipment for reprocessing, fabrication, and transportation of SNM. The protection systems include physical barriers, access controls, intrusion detection devices, surveillance devices, central alarm stations, communications, and response capability. Acceptable security measures and devices applicable to protected areas, material access areas, vital areas, vital equipment, and transportation vehicles have been presented in Regulatory Guides. (U.S.)

  17. Variation in stakeholder opinion on countermeasures across Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisbet, A.F.; Mercer, J.A.; Rantavaara, A.; Hanninen, R.; Vandecasteele, C.; Hardeman, F.; Ioannides, K.G.; Tzialla, C.; Ollagnon, H.; Pupin, V.; Jullien, T.

    2005-01-01

    A compendium of agricultural countermeasures and rural waste disposal options has been compiled as part of the EC STRATEGY (Sustainable Restoration and Long-Term Management of Contaminated Rural, Urban and Industrial Ecosystems) project. The compendium was discussed by the FARMING (Food and Agriculture Restoration Management Involving Networked Groups) network of stakeholders during meetings of national panels in the UK, Finland, Belgium, Greece and France in 2002. Their preliminary feedback has been summarised in terms of whether an option is generally acceptable, unacceptable or only acceptable under specific circumstances. A considerable divergence of opinion between national panels was apparent for many of the options considered. This could be attributed to differences in geomorphology, climate, land management, infrastructure, consumer confidence, sociopolitical context and culture. Where consensus was reached between stakeholders it was generally for those countermeasures that provide public reassurance, sustain farming practices and minimise environmental impact. Furthermore, whilst there was general agreement that contaminated food should not enter the food chain, many of the options proposed for its subsequent management were not generally acceptable to stakeholders

  18. Space Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  19. Nutritional surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J B; Mitchell, J T

    1983-01-01

    The concept of nutritional surveillance is derived from disease surveillance, and means "to watch over nutrition, in order to make decisions that lead to improvements in nutrition in populations". Three distinct objectives have been defined for surveillance systems, primarily in relation to problems of malnutrition in developing countries: to aid long-term planning in health and development; to provide input for programme management and evaluation; and to give timely warning of the need for intervention to prevent critical deteriorations in food consumption. Decisions affecting nutrition are made at various administrative levels, and the uses of different types of nutritional surveillance information can be related to national policies, development programmes, public health and nutrition programmes, and timely warning and intervention programmes. The information should answer specific questions, for example concerning the nutritional status and trends of particular population groups.Defining the uses and users of the information is the first essential step in designing a system; this is illustrated with reference to agricultural and rural development planning, the health sector, and nutrition and social welfare programmes. The most usual data outputs are nutritional outcome indicators (e.g., prevalence of malnutrition among preschool children), disaggregated by descriptive or classifying variables, of which the commonest is simply administrative area. Often, additional "status" indicators, such as quality of housing or water supply, are presented at the same time. On the other hand, timely warning requires earlier indicators of the possibility of nutritional deterioration, and agricultural indicators are often the most appropriate.DATA COME FROM TWO MAIN TYPES OF SOURCE: administrative (e.g., clinics and schools) and household sample surveys. Each source has its own advantages and disadvantages: for example, administrative data often already exist, and can be

  20. Countermeasures against methotrexate intolerance in juvenile idiopathic arthritis instituted by parents show no effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuern, Andrea; Tyrrell, Pascal N; Haas, Johannes-Peter; Hügle, Boris

    2017-06-01

    A high proportion of children with JIA will develop intolerance to MTX with anticipatory and associative gastrointestinal adverse effects. Parents and physicians frequently try to alleviate these symptoms with a variety of countermeasures. The objective of this study was to investigate the course of MTX intolerance within a 6 month period, and the effects of countermeasures on MTX intolerance severity. We performed a prospective study of 196 consecutive JIA patients treated with MTX. Intolerance was determined using the Methotrexate Intolerance Severity Score (MISS) questionnaire. MISS and countermeasures instituted by parents or physicians were determined at four time points, each 2 months apart. Countermeasures, classified into four types (antiemetic drugs, covert dosing, taste masking and complementary medicine), were analysed using non-parametric statistics and mixed linear modelling, adjusted by propensity scoring for use of countermeasures. Ninety patients (46%) showed MTX intolerance, with 58 (64%) using countermeasures at time of inclusion. Median MISS at inclusion was 11 (interquartile range = 8.0-14.25), and did not change significantly over time. No significant difference in MISS score was observed between patients receiving countermeasures and those who did not. For specific countermeasures, MISS did not change significantly after introduction. Sensitivity analysis adjusting for propensity score indicated no significant association of MISS severity on parents' decision to implement any countermeasures. MTX intolerance was present in many children with JIA and symptoms decreased little in the short term. Various modalities used as countermeasures against nausea by parents showed no discernible effect. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Customizing Countermeasure Prescriptions using Predictive Measures of Sensorimotor Adaptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Miller, C. A.; Batson, C. D.; Wood, S. J.; Guined, J. R.; Cohen, H. S.; Buccello-Stout, R.; DeDios, Y. E.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor disturbances during the initial exposure to microgravity and during the readapation phase following a return to a gravitational environment. These alterations may lead to disruption in the ability to perform mission critical functional tasks during and after these gravitational transitions. Astronauts show significant inter-subject variation in adaptive capability following gravitational transitions. The ability to predict the manner and degree to which each individual astronaut will be affected would improve the effectiveness of a countermeasure comprised of a training program designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. Due to this inherent individual variability we need to develop predictive measures of sensorimotor adaptability that will allow us to predict, before actual space flight, which crewmember will experience challenges in adaptive capacity. Thus, obtaining this information will allow us to design and implement better sensorimotor adaptability training countermeasures that will be customized for each crewmember's unique adaptive capabilities. Therefore the goals of this project are to: 1) develop a set of predictive measures capable of identifying individual differences in sensorimotor adaptability, and 2) use this information to design sensorimotor adaptability training countermeasures that are customized for each crewmember's individual sensorimotor adaptive characteristics. To achieve these goals we are currently pursuing the following specific aims: Aim 1: Determine whether behavioral metrics of individual sensory bias predict sensorimotor adaptability. For this aim, subjects perform tests that delineate individual sensory biases in tests of visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive function. Aim 2: Determine if individual capability for strategic and plastic-adaptive responses predicts sensorimotor adaptability. For this aim, each subject's strategic and plastic-adaptive motor learning abilities are assessed using

  2. The research reactor radiation emergency countermeasure system in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Reyoung; Choi, Geun-Sik; Lee, Wanno; Chung, Kun Ho; Kang, Mun Ja; Lee, Chang-Woo

    2010-01-01

    A disaster prevention system was established for a radiation emergency from an operation of a research reactor with a thermal power of 30 MW th in Korea. A national radiation disaster countermeasure organization was set up to cope with the radiation emergency classified into three cases whose effective doses were more than 1 mSv/h inside the nuclear facility, inside the site boundary and outside the site boundary. Its role consists of the proclamation and consequent withdrawal of a disaster, a general assessment, an emergency medical service, a field control, radiation protection, resident protection implement, an accident analysis, a security plan, a radiation environmental investigation plan and probe, a radiation environmental effect assessment, and others. The emergency planning zone (EPZ) was settled to be within a radius of 800 m, the average distance between the site boundary and the center of a research reactor in operation, as a quick and effective early countermeasure from the result of the radiation environmental effect assessment. The environmental probing zone was chosen to extend to a radius of 2 km from a research reactor according to the moving path of the radioactive cloud so that a densely populated area could be considered and would be extended to 10 km according to the radiation level of the research reactor and atmospheric diffusion. Practically, the environmental probing is implemented at 22 points inside the site and eight points outside the site considering the geography, population and the wind direction. The gamma radiation dose and atmospheric radioactivity are analyzed during an effluence, and the radioactivity of a ground surface deposit and an environmental sample are analyzed after an effluence. The environmental laboratory covers the analysis of the gamma radioisotopes, tritium, strontium, uranium, gross alpha and beta. It is estimated that the habitability can be recovered when the radiation dose rate is less than 1 mSv/h inside the

  3. Parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inayet, N; Neild, P

    2015-03-01

    Over the last 50 years, parenteral nutrition has been recognised as an invaluable and potentially lifesaving tool in the physician's arsenal in the management of patients with intestinal failure or inaccessibility; however, it may also be associated with a number of potentially life-threatening complications. A recent NCEPOD report (2010) identified a number of inadequacies in the overall provision and management of parenteral nutrition and recommendations were made with the aim of improving clinical practice in the future. This paper focuses on the practical aspects relating to parenteral nutrition for adults, including important concepts, such as patient selection, as well as general management. We also explore the various pitfalls and potential complications and how these may be minimised.

  4. Strategies for Creating Supportive School Nutrition Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Good nutrition is vital to optimal health. The school environment plays a fundamental role in shaping lifelong healthy behaviors and can have a powerful influence on students' eating habits. A supportive school nutrition environment includes multiple elements: access to healthy and appealing foods and beverages available to students in school…

  5. Augmented Reality as a Countermeasure for Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, James; Dorrlan, Jillian; Banks, Siobhan; Chatburn, Alex; Smith, Ross T; Carskadon, Mary A; Lushington, Kurt; Thomas, Bruce H

    2016-04-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to have serious deleterious effects on executive functioning and job performance. Augmented reality has an ability to place pertinent information at the fore, guiding visual focus and reducing instructional complexity. This paper presents a study to explore how spatial augmented reality instructions impact procedural task performance on sleep deprived users. The user study was conducted to examine performance on a procedural task at six time points over the course of a night of total sleep deprivation. Tasks were provided either by spatial augmented reality-based projections or on an adjacent monitor. The results indicate that participant errors significantly increased with the monitor condition when sleep deprived. The augmented reality condition exhibited a positive influence with participant errors and completion time having no significant increase when sleep deprived. The results of our study show that spatial augmented reality is an effective sleep deprivation countermeasure under laboratory conditions.

  6. [Current status and sustainable development countermeasures of Anoectochilus roxburghii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Lin; Shao, Qing-Song; Zhou, Ai-Cun; Wang, Hong-Zhen; Zhang, Ai-Lian; Xu, Jian-Wei; Huang, Yu-Qiu

    2016-02-01

    The current status of the domestic manufacturing and sales markets of Anoectochilus roxburghii were investigated and analyzed in the study. Some problems in the A. roxburghii industry were revealed and a variety of sustainable development countermeasures were also proposed. The main problems of A. roxburghii industry are the lack of protection for wild resources, the lag in the speed of variety breeding, the insufficient research on the quality systems, the low level of industry and product innovation capability, as well as the relatively low market cognition and brand competence. Therefore, strengthening the protection for breeding resources, establishing a dynamic monitoring system, promoting the variety breeding, constructing a propagation system for improved varieties, enhancing the quality of medicinal herbs, accelerating the adjustment of product structure, upgrading the industry technology, strengthening brand competence and expanding the market, will be the effective methods to realize the sustainable development of A. roxburghii industry. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  7. Combining Technical and Financial Impacts for Countermeasure Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Gonzalez-Granadillo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Research in information security has generally focused on providing a comprehensive interpretation of threats, vulnerabilities, and attacks, in particular to evaluate their danger and prioritize responses accordingly. Most of the current approaches propose advanced techniques to detect intrusions and complex attacks but few of these approaches propose well defined methodologies to react against a given attack. In this paper, we propose a novel and systematic method to select security countermeasures from a pool of candidates, by ranking them based on the technical and financial impact associated to each alternative. The method includes industrial evaluation and simulations of the impact associated to a given security measure which allows to compute the return on response investment for different candidates. A simple case study is proposed at the end of the paper to show the applicability of the model.

  8. On the Effectiveness of Security Countermeasures for Critical Infrastructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausken, Kjell; He, Fei

    2016-04-01

    A game-theoretic model is developed where an infrastructure of N targets is protected against terrorism threats. An original threat score is determined by the terrorist's threat against each target and the government's inherent protection level and original protection. The final threat score is impacted by the government's additional protection. We investigate and verify the effectiveness of countermeasures using empirical data and two methods. The first is to estimate the model's parameter values to minimize the sum of the squared differences between the government's additional resource investment predicted by the model and the empirical data. The second is to develop a multivariate regression model where the final threat score varies approximately linearly relative to the original threat score, sectors, and threat scenarios, and depends nonlinearly on the additional resource investment. The model and method are offered as tools, and as a way of thinking, to determine optimal resource investments across vulnerable targets subject to terrorism threats. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Analysis and Countermeasures of PPP Project Implementation Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yifeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of 1995, the model of PPP project construction was introduced in China. It has been widely used in many fields such as energy, municipal, and so on. It has accumulated a lot of experience in improving the investment system structure and guiding the social capital into the infrastructure field. But the mode of PPP project construction in the implementing process in different environment often encounters a lot of problems. Based on a large amount of analysis on the existing literature, this paper resorts out the PPP project model combining the problems occurred in the implementation process of PPP project, and summarizes corresponding countermeasures aiming at the problems in order to provide help for PPP project implementation in the future.

  10. Planning countermeasures on pasture-milk pathway in nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eged, K.; Kanyar, B.; Kis, Z.

    1998-01-01

    The pasture → milk → human exposure pathway was modelled with respect to the countermeasures in a nuclear emergency situation. The measures included feed and milk substitution by non-contaminated material, and cost-benefit analysis and uncertainty analysis was performed. Comparison of the maximum benefit of the two kinds of intervention suggests that feed substitution is superior to milk substitution. The duration of the pasture substitution depends strongly on the initial concentration of iodine-131 in the pasture. For relatively low values of activity concentration, the optimum date of withdrawing the intervention increases linearly with the logarithm of the initial radionuclide concentration in the pasture, the maximum value, however, takes nearly 40 days. For milk or feed substitution, the effect of the excess cost of early intervention reduces the maximum value of the cost-benefit function. (P.A.)

  11. Classification,Hazards and Countermeasures of Agricultural Environmental Pollution Emergencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoming; CHUAI; Haixia; ZHOU; Jianping; ZHAO; Shubo; CHENG; Jiang; YU

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural environmental pollution emergencies have become a hot research topic because of the high incidence and influence depth.This paper introduces classification and features of agricultural environmental pollution emergencies:by pollutant type,it falls into organic pollution emergencies and inorganic pollution emergencies;by the approach of entering agricultural environment,it falls into water resource agricultural environmental pollution emergencies and non-water resource agricultural environmental pollution emergencies.Hazards of agricultural environmental pollution emergencies are analyzed from 4 perspectives:personal security,indirect loss,ecological environment and social stability.In view of the hazards,countermeasures are given to deal with the pollution emergencies as(i)establishing a risk evaluation mechanism for agricultural environment;(ii)enhancing the capacity of handling agricultural environmental pollution emergencies;(iii)introducing new management concepts for environmental emergencies,and cultivating keen emergency management consciousness.

  12. Preventive maintenance-A countermeasure to plant aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlubek, W.

    1985-01-01

    The aging of power plants is caused by manifold and different influences. For instance, mechanical and thermal stress, radiation exposure, denting or wastage can considerably affect the aging of plant components and thus cause premature failures of components. In this presentation, the term 'Plant Aging' in nuclear power plants is to be understood more comprehensively than wear on components and material fatigue. In addition, nuclear power plants are to be adjusted to the advancing state of the science and technology (state-of-the-art) in order to guarantee safe operation at all times. The preventive maintenance - as a countermeasure to plant aging - comprises the systematic checks and servicing of the plant systems in operation and follows aging by inspection and tests. Experience with Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Elektrizitaetswerk AG (RWE) preventive maintenance program at the Biblis NNP (1300 MW, PWR) is discussed. The concept of an 'Integrated Maintenance System' as a means to avoid 'Plant Aging' is presented

  13. Countermeasures Against Blinding Attack on Superconducting Nanowire Detectors for QKD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elezov M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs are used in Quantum Key Distribution (QKD instead of single-photon avalanche photodiodes. Recently bright-light control of the SSPD has been demonstrated. This attack employed a “backdoor” in the detector biasing technique. We developed the autoreset system which returns the SSPD to superconducting state when it is latched. We investigate latched state of the SSPD and define limit conditions for effective blinding attack. Peculiarity of the blinding attack is a long nonsingle photon response of the SSPD. It is much longer than usual single photon response. Besides, we need follow up response duration of the SSPD. These countermeasures allow us to prevent blind attack on SSPDs for Quantum Key Distribution.

  14. A methodology for optimisation of countermeasures for animal products after a nuclear accident and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Tae; Cho, Gyuseong; Han, Moon Hee

    1999-01-01

    A methodology for the optimisation of the countermeasures associated with the contamination of animal products was designed based on cost-benefit analysis. Results are discussed for the hypothetical deposition of radionuclides on 15 August, when pastures are fully developed in Korean agricultural conditions. A dynamic food chain model, DYNACON, was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the countermeasures for reducing the ingestion dose. The countermeasures considered were: (1) a ban on food consumption; and (2) the substitution of clean fodder. These are effective in reducing the ingestion dose as well as simple and easy to carry out in the first year after deposition. The net benefit of the countermeasures was quantitatively estimated in terms of avertable doses and monetary costs. The benefit depends on a variety of factors, such as radionuclide concentrations on the ground, starting time and duration of the countermeasures. It is obvious that a fast reaction after deposition is important in maximising the cost effectiveness of the countermeasures. In most cases, the substitution of clean fodder is more cost effective than a ban on food consumption. The methodology used in this study may serve as a basis for rapid decision-making on the introduction of countermeasures relating to the contamination of animal products after a nuclear accident

  15. Plan of disaster prevention in district of Shizuoka Prefecture countermeasures to nuclear power. 1984 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Based on the basic act for disaster countermeasures, this plan aimes at establishing the necessary system concerning the countermeasures for preventing the disaster due to the release of a large quantity of radioactive substances from the Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station, Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., determining the measures to be taken for disaster prevention, and striving for the safety of inhabitants by executing the deskworks and services of the disaster prevention related to nuclear power synthetically and purposefully. The general matters concerning the disaster prevention in the district of Shizuoka Prefecture are determined in the ''Plan of disaster prevention in the district of Shizuoka Prefecture (General countermeasures)'', but in view of the peculiarity of nuclear power disaster, the peculiar matters are to be determined in this plan. The general rules on the works of respective disaster prevention organizations, the countermeasures for preventing nuclear power disaster, the emergency countermeasures to nuclear power disaster, the countermeasures to Tokai earthquakes and the countermeasures for restoration after nuclear power disaster are stipulated. (Kako, I.)

  16. Plant nutrition and soil fertility manual

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, J. Benton

    2012-01-01

    .... With over 70 percent new material, the second edition of the Plant Nutrition and Soil Fertility Manual discusses the principles determining how plants grow and the elements essential for successful...

  17. Countermeasures for siting and environment of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Koichi

    1976-01-01

    Though the requests to urge the construction of nuclear power plants increased since the oil crisis, it is clear that it is necessary to take some countermeasures without delay at present because the location problems are in deadlock. Drastic change of the way of thinking should be made first if the social and political extensions of the problem are considered. It must require the persevering effort based on long-range outlook. Accordingly, emphasis is put on the introduction of the environmental administration in U.S. which seems to have many respects to be referred to in the following description. Then National Environmental Policy Act and the permission and approval procedures for nuclear power stations in U.S. are described, and the details of environmental disputes are listed. It reveals the discrepancy of the actual circumstances in Japan and the United States, and that the important portion of the U.S. experience and concept is not learned by Japanese. The Government lacks the recognition that the public acceptance of safety is not obtained till the report of safety investigation and environmental assessment by the governmental organizations are entrusted to people's judgement. That is, the procedures to win the public acceptance are omitted in Japan. The thoroughness of environmental protection is first of all necessary for achieving the target of nuclear power development. Since it seems to be nothing but the countermeasures for the public acceptance of nuclear power generation to cope with ''60 mens' testimony'', the main points of the ''Sixty mens' testimony'' in Fukushima public hearing are cited at the end, which is supposed to include almost all opposite opinions. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  18. Countermeasures for unintentional and intentional video watermarking attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguillaume, Frederic; Csurka, Gabriela; Pun, Thierry

    2000-05-01

    These last years, the rapidly growing digital multimedia market has revealed an urgent need for effective copyright protection mechanisms. Therefore, digital audio, image and video watermarking has recently become a very active area of research, as a solution to this problem. Many important issues have been pointed out, one of them being the robustness to non-intentional and intentional attacks. This paper studies some attacks and proposes countermeasures applied to videos. General attacks are lossy copying/transcoding such as MPEG compression and digital/analog (D/A) conversion, changes of frame-rate, changes of display format, and geometrical distortions. More specific attacks are sequence edition, and statistical attacks such as averaging or collusion. Averaging attack consists of averaging locally consecutive frames to cancel the watermark. This attack works well for schemes which embed random independent marks into frames. In the collusion attack the watermark is estimated from single frames (based on image denoising), and averaged over different scenes for better accuracy. The estimated watermark is then subtracted from each frame. Collusion requires that the same mark is embedded into all frames. The proposed countermeasures first ensures robustness to general attacks by spread spectrum encoding in the frequency domain and by the use of an additional template. Secondly, a Bayesian criterion, evaluating the probability of a correctly decoded watermark, is used for rejection of outliers, and to implement an algorithm against statistical attacks. The idea is to embed randomly chosen marks among a finite set of marks, into subsequences of videos which are long enough to resist averaging attacks, but short enough to avoid collusion attacks. The Bayesian criterion is needed to select the correct mark at the decoding step. Finally, the paper presents experimental results showing the robustness of the proposed method.

  19. Genomics in development of radiation countermeasure from Hippophae rhamnoides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhu Bala

    2013-01-01

    Development of an effective and non-toxic radiation countermeasure has been a global challenge, till date. On one hand single molecules have failed due to unacceptable toxicity and on the other hand herbal drugs, though non-toxic, are generally neglected because of issues such as incomplete understanding on mechanisms of actions, efficacy and quality control. In the conventional drug discovery process, a single active constituent is isolated, purified, and standardized, but herbal drugs have complex composition and multiple targeted actions. The assessment of efficacy and toxicity of herbal drugs is, therefore, not as straight forward as in case of single active compound. The completion of genome projects of human, mouse and many other simpler experimental models has opened multiple newer avenues for evaluating the metabolism, safety and efficacy of herbal drugs. The radioprotective properties of leaves of Hippophae rhamnoides L. (common name Seabuckthorn, family Eleagnaceae) were reported (Bala et al., 2009, J Herbs and Med Plants). Administration of SBL-1 (a coded herbal preparation from Seabuckthorn leaves), before whole body exposure to lethal dose of 60 Co-gamma-rays (10 Gy), rendered >90% survivors in mice population, while 100% mortality was observed in non-SBL-1 treated, 60 Co-gamma- irradiated (10 Gy) controls. Though, plant H. rhamnoides is popular for its medicinal and neutraceutical values and finds place is in many traditional medicinal systems world over, its prophylactic use as a radiation countermeasure is novel and needed thorough evaluation. To gain in depth understanding on metabolism and safety of SBL-1, the experimental animals were treated with radioprotective concentration of SBL-1. The genome evaluation was performed at different time intervals after the treatment. This talk highlights some of the prominent molecular pathways and genes affected by SBL-1 treatment in experimental animals. Our study suggested that application of genomics

  20. Orthostatic Intolerance in Older Persons: Etiology and Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandu Goswami

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Orthostatic challenge produced by upright posture may lead to syncope if the cardiovascular system is unable to maintain adequate brain perfusion. This review outlines orthostatic intolerance related to the aging process, long-term bedrest confinement, drugs, and disease. Aging-associated illness or injury due to falls often leads to hospitalization. Older patients spend up to 83% of hospital admission lying in bed and thus the consequences of bedrest confinement such as physiological deconditioning, functional decline, and orthostatic intolerance represent a central challenge in the care of the vulnerable older population. This review examines current scientific knowledge regarding orthostatic intolerance and how it comes about and provides a framework for understanding of (patho- physiological concepts of cardiovascular (in- stability in ambulatory and bedrest confined senior citizens as well as in individuals with disease conditions [e.g., orthostatic intolerance in patients with diabetes mellitus, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's, spinal cord injury (SCI] or those on multiple medications (polypharmacy. Understanding these aspects, along with cardio-postural interactions, is particularly important as blood pressure destabilization leading to orthostatic intolerance affects 3–4% of the general population, and in 4 out of 10 cases the exact cause remains elusive. Reviewed also are countermeasures to orthostatic intolerance such as exercise, water drinking, mental arithmetic, cognitive training, and respiration training in SCI patients. We speculate that optimally applied countermeasures such as mental challenge maintain sympathetic activity, and improve venous return, stroke volume, and consequently, blood pressure during upright standing. Finally, this paper emphasizes the importance of an active life style in old age and why early re-mobilization following bedrest confinement or bedrest is crucial in preventing orthostatic intolerance, falls

  1. Nutrition and Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITION AND EXERCISE ▶ Nutrition and Diet ▶ Diet for the ... Thalassemia (for providers) Exercise for Patients with Thalassemia Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  2. Medical Issues: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... support & care > living with sma > medical issues > nutrition Nutrition Good nutrition is essential to health and growth. ... must make decisions based on their own needs. Nutrition Considerations Since we are still waiting for clinical ...

  3. The dynamics of radionuclide behaviour in soil solution with special reference to the application of countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisbet, A.F.; Lembrechts, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    Any investigations into the effect of countermeasures on radionuclide transfer to plants should include a comprehensive chemical analysis of soil solution. This is because of the disturbances that soil-based countermeasures cause on soil:solution equilibria and radionuclide distribution between solid and liquid phases. As it is difficult to determine directly the effects of countermeasures under field conditions, it is recommended that laboratory-based studies be done first. These should include batch equilibrium experiments for soil:solution interactions, and hydroponic studies for solution:plant relationships. Speciation of radionuclides should form a fundamental part of both studies. (author)

  4. Obstacles to the Mortgage Financing of Forest Rights and its Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Current status of the mortgage financing of forest rights is introduced.Significance of the development of mortgage financing of rural forest rights is analyzed,indicating that the mortgage financing of rural forest rights is an inevitable trend of rural reform development,Mortgage financing of forest rights in rural China is an effective vector for the farmers’ income increase project with financial support,explores the great potential of forest resources,promotes the coordinated development of forestry and financial services.Major obstacles for the mortgage financing of forest rights at present is pointed out,which are the high assessment fees,the complex mortgage valuation,the unsound element market of forestry,and the lack of risk protection mechanism.Countermeasures for the development of mortgage financing of forest rights is out forward.For instance,both government and Forestry Bureau should strengthen the circulation services,establish smooth evaluation mechanism,establish companies for rural assets platform,increase the interest subsidies for forest right mortgage and the risk compensation,strengthen the team construction and improve the service system.

  5. Supporting role of ontology in a simulation system for countermeasure evaluation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lombard, N

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Military aircraft in the battlefield are under constant threat from missile attacks. Technology such as infra-red countermeasures are used to protect against these threats. Measurements, modelling and simulation are used by the military to develop...

  6. The Combined Mine Countermeasures Force: A Unified Commander-in-Chief's Answer to the Mine Threat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilbert, Jason

    2001-01-01

    .... History demonstrates that the U.S. Navy's inability to maintain a mine countermeasures (MCM) force sufficiently large enough and technologically advanced enough has been nominally off-set by the strengths of a combined MCM force...

  7. A Framework for Evaluating Advanced Search Concepts for Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Mine Countermeasures (MCM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gooding, Trent

    2001-01-01

    .... In recent years, autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV) have emerged as a viable technology for conducting underwater search, survey, and clearance operations in support of the mine countermeasures (MCM) mission...

  8. Stream instability countermeasures applied at Kansas Department of Transportation highway structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    This project considered stream instability countermeasures used by the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) to protect the highway infrastructure at stream crossings from changes due to the dynamic nature of streams. Site visits were made to 13...

  9. Biomechanics for Enhancement & Verification of Countermeasure Analysis Tools for Human Exploration Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Digital Astronaut Simulator (DAS) is a low Technology Readiness Level (TRL) NASA project with promising benefits to Human Health Countermeasures. In providing...

  10. A study on the analysis and countermeasures of domestic and foreign factors for technical indigenization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Ryung

    1998-12-01

    This report is focused on the following two views : First view is the issues that the domestic nuclear industry is presently facing are diagnosis of the actuality and survey of the countermeasure for the domestic market opening due to UR agreement and advance to foreign market. Second view is diagnosis of the outside status and grouping of the countermeasure. For the second view, internal restraints of public research institute are studied by dividing it into research and industry. As a short-term countermeasure, effective results can be expected by considering th e collaborating countermeasure which the domestic nuclear industry can oppose, with positive and negative views for the change of local and international nuclear circumstances

  11. Changing the Scale and Efficiency of Chemical Warfare Countermeasure Discovery Using the Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Randall T.; MacRae, Calum A.

    2013-01-01

    As the scope of potential chemical warfare agents grows rapidly and as the diversity of potential threat scenarios expands with non-state actors, so a need for innovative approaches to countermeasure development has emerged. In the last few years, the utility of the zebrafish as a model organism that is amenable to high-throughput screening has become apparent and this system has been applied to the unbiased discovery of chemical warfare countermeasures. This review summarizes the in vivo screening approach that has been pioneered in the countermeasure discovery arena, and highlights the successes to date as well as the potential challenges in moving the field forward. Importantly, the establishment of a zebrafish platform for countermeasure discovery would offer a rapid response system for the development of antidotes to the continuous stream of new potential chemical warfare agents. PMID:24273586

  12. A study on the analysis and countermeasures of domestic and foreign factors for technical indigenization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Ryung

    1998-12-01

    This report is focused on the following two views : First view is the issues that the domestic nuclear industry is presently facing are diagnosis of the actuality and survey of the countermeasure for the domestic market opening due to UR agreement and advance to foreign market. Second view is diagnosis of the outside status and grouping of the countermeasure. For the second view, internal restraints of public research institute are studied by dividing it into research and industry. As a short-term countermeasure, effective results can be expected by considering th e collaborating countermeasure which the domestic nuclear industry can oppose, with positive and negative views for the change of local and international nuclear circumstances.

  13. Technological problems and counter-measures on equipment materials for reprocessing of high burnup fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, K.; Kato, T.; Motooka, H.; Hamada, S.

    2002-01-01

    The reliability of structural materials is considered as one of the most important technological issues on the commercial reprocessing of high burnup fuels. The durability prediction study of equipment materials used in commercial purex process has been conducted in the JAERI. From the experimental results obtained by scaled mock-up tests and laboratory tests, the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) for a dissolvor made of zirconium and the trans-passive corrosion of heat transfer tubes for evaporators made of austenitic stainless steels have been clarified as critical issues on the reliability. The susceptibility to these failures increases with the amount of TRU and FP elements included in spent fuels, because Np, Pu, Ru, Pd act as strong oxidizers. As counter-measures against these problems, the development of the modified alloys is going on in the JAERI. It has been found that the intergranular corrosion resistance of stainless steels is possible to be completely improved by purifying the electron beam melting process and by modifying the metallographic structure. The other counter measure is to inhibit the trans-passive corrosion by addition of oxide film former elements such as W and Si. It has also been found that the susceptibility to SCC of Zr can be improved by addition of titanium. However, the addition of titanium decreases the corrosion resistance of Zr. We selected niobium alloys as alternative materials to zirconium. By addition of tungsten to the niobium, the corrosion resistance and the mechanical strength have been improved. This niobium alloy can be used in heavily corrosive nitric acid contaminated with fluorine. It is considered that the difference between corrosion resistance of Zr and Nb-alloys is attributed to the chemical stability of the oxide films (MO 2 on Zr and M 2 O 5 on Nb). (author)

  14. International harmonization of countermeasures - needed, but still far away

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuur, C.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: After the Chernobyl accident (European) countries have developed and some are still developing a system of intervention in the case of a nuclear or radiological accident, including the establishment of intervention levels (ILs) for short-term measurements such as sheltering, iodine prophylaxis and evacuation. Most countries have based these ILs an international recommendations from ICRP, IAEA, European Commission, WHO, OECD etc. combined with there own political, social or scientific views. All these recommendations have as a common factor that they are all very theoretical, which is probably satisfactory for the preparation phase, but not in the case of a real accident or an exercise. Besides that, all approaches differ, e.g.: averted dose versus projected dose, ranges of ILs or fixed values; also the assumptions for basic scenarios and parameter values for dose calculations vary wildly. Consequently all countries have different levels or at least, different ways of applying these: e.g. an IL for a dose integrated over one day, one week or one year; for children or for adults; including some effect of other countermeasures or not; etc. These different approaches cause problems because most nuclear power plants are located at frontier sites. One could negotiate bilaterally with the relevant neighbouring country to get harmonization, but most countries have more neighbours. Moreover, even if the ILs are harmonized, the different dispersion models, parameter (values) etc cause differences in doses calculated. Therefore, at least within Europe, not only harmonized levels but also harmonised approaches, dose calculation models etc should be set. Because of the problems recognized the expert group ex article 31 EURATOM has established a Working Group for Harmonization of Intervention Levels (WP HIL). The work of this WP HIL is divided in three phases: the short-term aims are the identification of the differences between governmental and non

  15. Nutritional Metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde

    strategy influences the patterns identified as important for the nutritional question under study. Therefore, in depth understanding of the study design and the specific effects of the analytical technology on the produced data is extremely important to achieve high quality data handling. Besides data......Metabolomics provides a holistic approach to investigate the perturbations in human metabolism with respect to a specific exposure. In nutritional metabolomics, the research question is generally related to the effect of a specific food intake on metabolic profiles commonly of plasma or urine....... Application of multiple analytical strategies may provide comprehensive information to reach a valid answer to these research questions. In this thesis, I investigated several analytical technologies and data handling strategies in order to evaluate their effects on the biological answer. In metabolomics, one...

  16. Physical countermeasures to sustain acceptable living and working conditions in radioactively contaminated residential areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Roed, Jørn; Eged, K.

    2003-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident highlighted the need in nuclear preparedness for robust, effective and sustainable countermeasure strategies for restoration of radioactively contaminated residential areas. Under the EC-supported STRATEGY project a series ofinvestigations were made of countermeasures...... that were deemed potentially applicable for implementation in such events in European Member States. The findings are presented in this report, in a standardised datasheet format to clarify the features of theindividual methods and facilitate intercomparison. The aspects of averted doses and management...

  17. Nutritional Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids

  18. Celss nutrition system utilizing snails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midorikawa, Y.; Fujii, T.; Ohira, A.; Nitta, K.

    At the 40th IAF Congress in Malaga, a nutrition system for a lunar base CELSS was presented. A lunar base with a total of eight crew members was envisaged. In this paper, four species of plants—rice, soybean, lettuce and strawberry—were introduced to the system. These plants were sufficient to satisfy fundamental nutritional needs of the crew members. The supply of nutrition from plants and the human nutritional requirements could almost be balanced. Our study revealed that the necessary plant cultivation area per crew member would be nearly 40 m 3 in the lunar base. The sources of nutrition considered in the study were energy, sugar, fat, amino acids, inorganic salt and vitamins; however, calcium, vitamin B 2, vitamin A and sodium were found to be lacking. Therefore, a subsystem to supply these elements is of considerable value. In this paper, we report on a study for breeding snails and utilizing meat as food. Nutrients supplied from snails are shown to compensate for the abovementioned lacking elements. We evaluate the snail breeder and the associated food supply system as a subsystem of closed ecological life support system.

  19. Benefits, Consequences, and Uncertainties of Conventional (Exercise) Countermeasure Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will review the pros, cons, and uncertainties of using exercise countermeasures in hypothetical long duration exploration missions. The use of artificial gravity and exercise will be briefly discussed. One benefit to continued use of exercise is related to our extensive experience with spaceflight exercise hardware and programming. Exercise has been a part of each space mission dating back to the 1960's when simple isometric and bungee exercises were performed in the Gemini capsule. Over the next 50 years, exercise hardware improved cumulating in today's ISS suite of exercise equipment: Cycle Ergometer with Vibration Isolation and Stabilization System (CEVIS), Treadmill (T2) and Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED). Today's exercise equipment is the most robust ever to be flown in space and allows the variety and intensity of exercise that might reasonably be expected to maintain muscle mass and function, bone density and cardiovascular fitness. A second benefit is related to the large body of research literature on exercise training. There is a considerable body of supporting research literature including >40,000 peer reviewed research articles on exercise training in humans. A third benefit of exercise is its effectiveness. With the addition of T2 and ARED to our ISS exercise suite, crew member outcomes on standard medical tests have improved. Additionally exercise has other positive side effects such as stress relief, possible improvement of immune function, improved sleep, etc. Exercise is not without its consequences. The major cons to performance of in-flight exercise are the time and equipment required. Currently crew are scheduled 2.5 hrs/day for exercise and there is considerable cost to develop, fly and maintain exercise hardware. While no major injuries have been reported on ISS, there is always some risk of injury with any form of exercise There are several uncertainties going forward; these relate mostly to the development of

  20. Nutritional support and parenteral nutrition in cancer patients: An expert consensus report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocón Bretón, María Julia; Luengo Pérez, Luis Miguel; Virizuela, Juan Antonio; Álvarez Hernández, Julia; Jiménez Fonseca, Paula; Cervera Peris, Mercedes; Sendrós Madroño, María José; Grande, Enrique; Camblor Álvarez, Miguel

    2018-03-01

    Malnutrition is a common medical problem in cancer patients with a negative impact on quality of life. The aim of this study was to address different issues related to nutritional management of cancer patients in clinical practice. A multidisciplinary group of experts in Medical Oncology, Pharmacy, and Endocrinology and Nutrition prepared a list of topics related to the nutritional status of cancer patients and grouped them into three blocks: nutritional support, parenteral nutrition (PN), and home PN (HPN). A literature review was made of articles published in Spanish, English and French until April 2017. This consensus emphasizes several key elements that help physicians standardize management of the nutritional status of cancer patients in clinical practice, and establishes common guidelines for indication, monitoring, nutritional requirements, and access routes to PN. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Evidence Report: Risk Factor of Inadequate Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.; Heer, Martina

    2015-01-01

    The importance of nutrition in exploration has been documented repeatedly throughout history, where, for example, in the period between Columbus' voyage in 1492 and the invention of the steam engine, scurvy resulted in more sailor deaths than all other causes of death combined. Because nutrients are required for the structure and function of every cell and every system in the body, defining the nutrient requirements for spaceflight and ensuring provision and intake of those nutrients are primary issues for crew health and mission success. Unique aspects of nutrition during space travel include the overarching physiological adaptation to weightlessness, psychological adaptation to extreme and remote environments, and the ability of nutrition and nutrients to serve as countermeasures to ameliorate the negative effects of spaceflight on the human body. Key areas of clinical concern for long-duration spaceflight include loss of body mass (general inadequate food intake), bone and muscle loss, cardiovascular and immune system decrements, increased radiation exposure and oxidative stress, vision and ophthalmic changes, behavior and performance, nutrient supply during extravehicular activity, and general depletion of body nutrient stores because of inadequate food supply, inadequate food intake, increased metabolism, and/or irreversible loss of nutrients. These topics are reviewed herein, based on the current gap structure.

  2. Research on the development and countermeasures for circular economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ecological economics and sustainable development economics are the basic theories to research on circular economy. Through the systemically research on the relationship of the three above, this paper thinks that the reuse and recycle of circular economy ts a way that the stall is mended after a sheep is lost. Although the reduction technically controls the production process, it cannot solve the waste caused by blind production and excess competition. We have experienced variety obstacles when implementing the circular economy, whose main reason ts the conflict between the individual ration and the social ration. Therefore, only when the individual ration and social ration incline to conformity,the cooperating Nash equilibrium will be appeared. In order to realize the harmony of ecology, economy and society, we have to explore effective evaluation theory. This paper cites the "five flows of wealth operation theory"from professor Ma Chuandong to search operation mechanism of circular economy, makes clear the developing thoughts of circular economy based on the realities, and brings forward some countermeasures to develop circular economy based on the above theoretical analysis.

  3. Fatal injection: a survey of modern code injection attack countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Mitropoulos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With a code injection attack (CIA an attacker can introduce malicious code into a computer program or system that fails to properly encode data that comes from an untrusted source. A CIA can have different forms depending on the execution context of the application and the location of the programming flaw that leads to the attack. Currently, CIAs are considered one of the most damaging classes of application attacks since they can severely affect an organisation’s infrastructure and cause financial and reputational damage to it. In this paper we examine and categorize the countermeasures developed to detect the various attack forms. In particular, we identify two distinct categories. The first incorporates static program analysis tools used to eliminate flaws that can lead to such attacks during the development of the system. The second involves the use of dynamic detection safeguards that prevent code injection attacks while the system is in production mode. Our analysis is based on nonfunctional characteristics that are considered critical when creating security mechanisms. Such characteristics involve usability, overhead, implementation dependencies, false positives and false negatives. Our categorization and analysis can help both researchers and practitioners either to develop novel approaches, or use the appropriate mechanisms according to their needs.

  4. Livermore Site Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellah, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Griffin, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mertesdorf, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-21

    This Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plan describes the measures that are taken at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL) Livermore Site in Livermore, California, to prevent, control, and handle potential spills from aboveground containers that can contain 55 gallons or more of oil. This SPCC Plan complies with the Oil Pollution Prevention regulation in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR), Part 112 (40 CFR 112) and with 40 CFR 761.65(b) and (c), which regulates the temporary storage of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This Plan has also been prepared in accordance with Division 20, Chapter 6.67 of the California Health and Safety Code (HSC 6.67) requirements for oil pollution prevention (referred to as the Aboveground Petroleum Storage Act [APSA]), and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Order No. 436.1. This SPCC Plan establishes procedures, methods, equipment, and other requirements to prevent the discharge of oil into or upon the navigable waters of the United States or adjoining shorelines for aboveground oil storage and use at the Livermore Site.

  5. Game Analysis and Countermeasures Discussion on Green Marketing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of making certain assumption on the game situation of carrying out green marketing, this paper conducts game analysis on the green marketing choice among enterprises, the green marketing choice between enterprises and consumers, and the green marketing choice of consumers. Then this paper expounds the necessity of implementing green marketing as follows: the green marketing is the inevitable requirements of sustainable development of economy; the green marketing is the inevitable choice of green consumption mode; the green marketing is the inevitable results of legalization of environmental problems. The problems faced by the implementation of green marketing are analyzed as follows: first, the concept of green marketing has not yet been established; second, the sociality of green demand has not yet taken shape; third, production characteristic of green products has not yet formed. The countermeasures of implementing green marketing as follows: pay attention to the propaganda and education of modern marketing concept; regulate the competition in the market of green products; strengthen transparency of green market information; reinforce the legislation work of food safety.

  6. Smart grid data integrity attacks: characterizations and countermeasuresπ

    KAUST Repository

    Giani, Annarita

    2011-10-01

    Coordinated cyberattacks of power meter readings can be arranged to be undetectable by any bad data detection algorithm in the power system state estimation process. These unobservable attacks present a potentially serious threat to grid operations. Of particular interest are sparse attacks that involve the compromise of a modest number of meter readings. An efficient algorithm to find all unobservable attacks [under standard DC load flow approximations] involving the compromise of exactly two power injection meters and an arbitrary number of line power meters is presented. This requires O(n 2m) flops for a power system with n buses and m line meters. If all lines are metered, there exist canonical forms that characterize all 3, 4, and 5-sparse unobservable attacks. These can be quickly detected in power systems using standard graph algorithms. Known-secure phasor measurement units [PMUs] can be used as countermeasures against an arbitrary collection of cyberattacks. Finding the minimum number of necessary PMUs is NP-hard. It is shown that p + 1 PMUs at carefully chosen buses are sufficient to neutralize a collection of p cyberattacks. © 2011 IEEE.

  7. Countermeasure technologies against materials deterioration of nuclear power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-09-01

    This report was tentative safety standard on countermeasure technologies against materials deterioration of nuclear power plant components issued in 2004 on the base of the testing data obtained until March 2004, which was to be applied for technical evaluation for lifetime management of aged plants and preventive maintenance or repair of neutron irradiated components such as core shrouds and jet pumps. In order to prevent stress corrosion cracks (SCCs) of austenitic stainless steel welds of reactor components, thermal surface modification using laser beams was used on neutron irradiated materials with laser cladding or surface melting process methods by limiting heat input according to amount of accumulated helium so as to prevent crack initiation caused by helium bubble growth and coalescence. Laser cladding method of laser welding using molten sleeve set inside pipe surface to prevent SCCs of nickel-chromium-iron alloy welds, alloy 690 cladding method using tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding to prevent SCCs of nickel-chromium-iron alloy welds for dissimilar joints of pipes, and laser surface solid solution heat treatment method of laser irradiation on surfaces to prevent SCCs of austenitic stainless steel welds were also included as repair technologies. (T. Tanaka)

  8. An Interagency Collaboration to Facilitate Development of Filovirus Medical Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin O. Nuzum

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Filovirus Animal Non-Clinical Group (FANG is a US interdepartmental and interagency group established to support and facilitate the advanced development of filovirus Medical Countermeasures (MCM, both vaccines and therapeutics. It is co-led by one representative from the Department of Defense (DoD, the first author, and one from the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS, the second author. The FANG membership includes operational level program staff and Subject Matter Experts (SME from performing organizations as well as scientific staff and program managers from DoD and HHS funding and regulatory agencies. Focus areas include animal models, assays, reagents, product manufacture and characterization, and other interagency product development issues that will support Food and Drug Administration (FDA licensure of safe and effective filovirus MCMs. The FANG continues to develop strategies to address broadly applicable and interagency product development challenges relevant to filovirus MCM development. This paper summarizes FANG structure and accomplishments and is meant to heighten community awareness of this government-led collaborative effort.

  9. Preliminary studies on the optimization of countermeasures for agricultural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Igreja, Eduardo; Barboza, Adriana E.; Silva, Diogo N.G. da; Guimaraes, Jean R.D.; Perez, Daniel V.

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of remediation measures for rural areas is more complex than that for urban ones, due to the influence of large number of variables associated with climate, diet, farming practices and the type of soil. Thus, it is not possible to perform generic studies applicable to all types of area. Specific studies and surveys should be made in the areas most likely to contamination from a nuclear accident. Preliminary studies demonstrated that the different soil types in Brazil is more relevant to the ingestion dose than the regional differences in diets. Other studies have described the prioritization of areas and products for detailed survey on soil types and remediation procedures, for an accident at the NPP in Angra dos Reis, based on radiological and economic aspects. The most relevant product was milk, due to both its relevance to the intake and the loss of income for the counties. The contribution of milk to dose depends on the season of the year when the accident occurs, mainly due to the relative contribution of other items of the diet. The timing of the application of the countermeasure has an important effect on the dose reduction that can be achieved. For I-131, protective measures must be considered within the emergency phase in order to be effective. The main action on reducing ingestion doses is the removal of food items from diet, while providing clean food to the population. (author)

  10. Pleasant music as a countermeasure against visually induced motion sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Behrang; Hecht, Heiko

    2014-05-01

    Visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) is a well-known side-effect in virtual environments or simulators. However, effective behavioral countermeasures against VIMS are still sparse. In this study, we tested whether music can reduce the severity of VIMS. Ninety-three volunteers were immersed in an approximately 14-minute-long video taken during a bicycle ride. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups, either including relaxing music, neutral music, stressful music, or no music. Sickness scores were collected using the Fast Motion Sickness Scale and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire. Results showed an overall trend for relaxing music to reduce the severity of VIMS. When factoring in the subjective pleasantness of the music, a significant reduction of VIMS occurred only when the presented music was perceived as pleasant, regardless of the music type. In addition, we found a gender effect with women reporting more sickness than men. We assume that the presentation of pleasant music can be an effective, low-cost, and easy-to-administer method to reduce VIMS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Preliminary studies on the optimization of countermeasures for agricultural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Igreja, Eduardo; Barboza, Adriana E., E-mail: elainerochedo@gmail.com, E-mail: eduigreja@gmail.com, E-mail: adrianaebarboza@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Diogo N.G. da; Guimaraes, Jean R.D., E-mail: diogons@gmail.com, E-mail: jeanrdg@biof.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho; Wasserman, Maria Angelica V., E-mail: mwasserman@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Perez, Daniel V. [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos (EMBRAPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The assessment of remediation measures for rural areas is more complex than that for urban ones, due to the influence of large number of variables associated with climate, diet, farming practices and the type of soil. Thus, it is not possible to perform generic studies applicable to all types of area. Specific studies and surveys should be made in the areas most likely to contamination from a nuclear accident. Preliminary studies demonstrated that the different soil types in Brazil is more relevant to the ingestion dose than the regional differences in diets. Other studies have described the prioritization of areas and products for detailed survey on soil types and remediation procedures, for an accident at the NPP in Angra dos Reis, based on radiological and economic aspects. The most relevant product was milk, due to both its relevance to the intake and the loss of income for the counties. The contribution of milk to dose depends on the season of the year when the accident occurs, mainly due to the relative contribution of other items of the diet. The timing of the application of the countermeasure has an important effect on the dose reduction that can be achieved. For I-131, protective measures must be considered within the emergency phase in order to be effective. The main action on reducing ingestion doses is the removal of food items from diet, while providing clean food to the population. (author)

  12. Treatment countermeasures for common problems in dacryocystorhinostomy under nasal endoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Ling Luo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To discuss the common problems and treatment countermeasures in dacryocystorhinostomy under nasal endoscope.METHODS: The clinical data of 37 cases(43 eyesof postoperative dacryocystorhinostomy under nasal endoscope, by using high-frequency electric knife to open the nasal mucosa, hemostasis in surgery, burning fixed lacrimal sac mucosal flap and nasal mucosal flap, methylene blue staining of the lacrimal sac, lacrimal drainage tube implanted and expansion foam support fixed anastomotic methods were reviewed in our hospital from Mar. 2011 to June. 2013. The effects of surgery were observed, and the intraoperative common questions and the treatments were discussed.RESULTS: In the 37 cases(43 eyes, 42 eyes(97.7%were cured, and 1 eye was improved, and the total efficiency was 100%. All operations were successfully completed without any serious complications during surgery.CONCLUSION: The common complication in dacryocystorhinostomy under nasal endoscope are effectively treated and the success rates of surgery are improved, by using high-frequency electric knife to open the nasal mucosa, hemostasis in surgery, burning fixed lacrimal sac mucosal flap and nasal mucosal flap, methylene blue staining of the lacrimal sac, lacrimal drainage tube implanted and expansion foam support fixed anastomotic methods. These methods are worthy of application and promotion.

  13. Site 300 Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mertesdorf, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plan describes the measures that are taken at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL) Experimental Test Site (Site 300) near Tracy, California, to prevent, control, and handle potential spills from aboveground containers that can contain 55 gallons or more of oil. This SPCC Plan complies with the Oil Pollution Prevention regulation in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 112 (40 CFR 112) and with 40 CFR 761.65(b) and (c), which regulates the temporary storage of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This Plan has also been prepared in accordance with Division 20, Chapter 6.67 of the California Health and Safety Code (HSC 6.67) requirements for oil pollution prevention (referred to as the Aboveground Petroleum Storage Act [APSA]), and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Order No. 436.1. This SPCC Plan establishes procedures, methods, equipment, and other requirements to prevent the discharge of oil into or upon the navigable waters of the United States or adjoining shorelines for aboveground oil storage and use at Site 300. This SPCC Plan has been prepared for the entire Site 300 facility and replaces the three previous plans prepared for Site 300: LLNL SPCC for Electrical Substations Near Buildings 846 and 865 (LLNL 2015), LLNL SPCC for Building 883 (LLNL 2015), and LLNL SPCC for Building 801 (LLNL 2014).

  14. Application of the selected countermeasures for animal products to a dynamic food chain model in a nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Tae; Suh, Kyung Suk; Kim, Eun Han; Choi, Young Gil; Han, Moon Hee; Cho, Gyu Seong

    1998-01-01

    The methodology for the application of the principles of radiation protection on the selected countermeasures in linking with a dynamic food chain model DYNACON was studied using the cost and benefit analysis and its application results were analyzed in terms of net benefit. The considerations focus on the simple and easy countermeasures to carry out in the first harvest after the deposition for animal products, such as the ban of food consumption and the substitution of clean fodder. The net benefit of the selected countermeasures depended on a variety of factors such as foodstuffs, radionuclides, starting time and performing duration of countermeasures. The methodology used in this study may serve as a basis for the planning and preparedness of long-term countermeasures as well as the rapid decision of countermeasures against the contamination of agricultural ecosystems in a nuclear emergency

  15. Risk Assessment and Control through Countermeasure System Iplementation for Long-term Crew Exposure to Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernand, Jeremy M.

    2004-01-01

    Experience with the International Space Station (ISS) program demonstrates the degree to which engineering design and operational solutions must protect crewmembers from health risks due to long-term exposure to the microgravity environment. Risks to safety and health due to degradation in the microgravity environment include crew inability to complete emergency or nominal activities, increased risk of injury, and inability to complete safe return to the ground due to reduced strength or embrittled bones. These risks without controls slowly increase in probability for the length of the mission and become more significant for increasing mission durations. Countermeasures to microgravity include hardware systems that place a crewmember s body under elevated stress to produce an effect similar to daily exposure to gravity. The ISS countermeasure system is predominately composed of customized exercise machines. Historical treatment of microgravity countermeasure systems as medical research experiments unintentionally reduced the foreseen importance and therefore the capability of the systems to function in a long-term operational role. Long-term hazardous effects and steadily increasing operational risks due to non-functional countermeasure equipment require a more rigorous design approach and incorporation of redundancy into seemingly non- mission-critical hardware systems. Variations in the rate of health degradation and responsiveness to countermeasures among the crew population drastically increase the challenge for design requirements development and verification of the appropriate risk control strategy. The long-term nature of the hazards and severe limits on logistical re-supply mass, volume and frequency complicates assessment of hardware availability and verification of an adequate maintenance and sparing plan. Design achievement of medically defined performance requirements by microgravity countermeasure systems and incorporation of adequate failure tolerance

  16. The Role of Countermeasures in Mitigating the Radiological Consequences of Nuclear Power Plant Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawfik, F. S.; Abdel-Aal, M.M., E-mail: basant572000@yahoo.com [Siting & Environmental Department, Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2014-10-15

    During the Fukushima accident the mitigation actions played an important role to decrease the consequences of the accident. The countermeasures are the actions that should be taken after the occurrence of a nuclear accident to protect the public against the associated risk. The actions may be represented by sheltering, evacuation, distribution of stable iodine tablets and/or relocation. This study represents a comprehensive probabilistic study to investigate the role of the adoption of the countermeasures in case of a hypothetical accident of type LOCA for a nuclear power plant of PWR (1000 Mw) type. This work was achieved through running of the PC COSYMA{sup (1)} code. The effective doses in different organs, short and long term health effects, and the associated risks were calculated with and without countermeasures. In addition, the overall costs of the accident and the costs of countermeasures are estimated which represent our first trials to know how much the postulated accident costs. The source term of a hypothetical accident is determined by knowing the activity of the core inventory. The meteorological conditions around the site in addition to the population distribution were utilized as input parameters. The stability conditions and the height of atmospheric boundary layers ABL of the concerned site were determined by developing a computer program utilizing Pasquill-Gifford atmospheric stability conditions. The results showed that, the area around the site requires early and late countermeasures actions after the accident especially in the downwind sectors. For late countermeasures, the duration of relocation ranged from about two to 10 years. The adoption of the countermeasures increases the costs of emergency planning by 40% but reduces the risk associated with the accident. (author)

  17. Standard elements; Elements standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Following his own experience the author recalls the various advantages, especially in the laboratory, of having pre-fabricated vacuum-line components at his disposal. (author) [French] A la suite de sa propre experience, l'auteur veut rappeler les divers avantages que presente, tout particulierement en laboratoire, le fait d'avoir a sa disposition des elements pre-fabriques de canalisations a vide. (auteur)

  18. Predicted effects of countermeasures on radiation doses from contaminated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hideaki; Nielsen, S.P.; Nielsen, F.

    1993-02-01

    Quantitative assessments of the effects on radiation-dose reductions from nine typical countermeasures against accidental fod contamination have been carried out with dynamic radioecological models. The foodstuffs are assumed to be contaminated with iodine-131, caesium-134 and caesium-137 after a release of radioactive materials from the Ringhals nuclear power station in Sweden resulting from a hypothetical core melt accident. The release of activity of these radionuclides is assumed at 0.07% of the core inventory of the unit 1 reactor (1600 TBq of I-131, 220 TBq of Cs-134 and 190 TBq of Cs-137). Radiation doses are estimated for the 55,000 affected inhabitants along the south-eastern coast of Sweden eating locally produced foodstuffs. The average effective dose equivalent to an individual in the critical group is predicted to be 2.9 mSv from food consumption contaminated with I-131. An accident occurring during winter is estimated to cause average individual doses of 0.32 mSv from Cs-134 and 0.47 mSv from Cs-137, and 9.4 mSv and 6.8 mSv from Cs-134 and Cs-137, respectively, for an accident occurring during summer. Doses from the intake of radioiodine may be reduced by up to a factor of 60 by rejecting contaminated food for 30 days. For the doses from radiocaesium, the largest effect is found form deep ploughing which may reduce the dose by up to a factor of 80. (au) (12 tabs., 6 ills., 19 refs.)

  19. Stabilized NADH as a Countermeasure for Jet Lag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Gary G.; Viirre, Erik; Clark, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    Current remedies for jet lag (phototherapy, melatonin, stimulant, and sedative medications) are limited in efficacy and practicality. The efficacy of a stabilized, sublingual form of reduced nicotin amide adenine dinucleotide (NADH, ENADAlert, Menuco Corp.) as a countermeasure for jet lag was examined. Because NADH increases cellular production of ATP and facilitates dopamine synthesis, it may counteract the effects of jet lag on cognitive functioning and sleepiness. Thirty-five healthy, employed subjects participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Training and baseline testing were conducted on the West Coast before subjects flew overnight to the East Coast, where they would experience a 3-hour time difference. Upon arrival, individuals were randomly assigned to receive either 20 mg of sublingual stabilized ADH (n=18) or identical placebo tablets (n=17). All participants completed computer-administered tests (including CogScreen7) to assess changes in cognitive functioning, mood, and sleepiness in the morning and afternoon. Jet lag resulted in increased sleepiness for over half the participants and deterioration of cognitive functioning for approximately one third. The morning following the flight, subjects experienced lapses of attention in addition to disruptions in working memory, divided attention, and visual perceptual speed. Individuals who received NADH performed significantly better on 5 of 8 cognitive and psychomotor test measures (P less than or equal to 0.5) and showed a trend for better performance on the other three measures (P less than or equal to .l0). Subjects also reported less sleepiness compared with those who received placebo. No adverse effects were observed with NADH treatment. Stabilized NADH significantly reduced jet lag-induced disruptions of cognitive functioning, was easily administered, and was found to have no adverse side effects.

  20. Nutrition for Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Aging Nutrition for Young Men Print Email Nutrition for Young Men Reviewed by Taylor Wolfram, MS, ... 2017 XiXinXing/iStock/Thinkstock For many young men, nutrition isn't always a focus. There are many ...

  1. Nutrition Advice and Recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sign-Up Home Patient Information Nutrition Advice & Recipes Nutrition Advice & Recipes This is a very important section ... information on all aspects of daily life, including nutrition, medical treatments, pain management, and practical tips. For ...

  2. Nutrition Following Pancreatic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BACK Contact Us DONATE NOW GENERAL DONATION PURPLESTRIDE Nutrition Following Pancreatic Surgery Home Facing Pancreatic Cancer Living with Pancreatic Cancer Diet and Nutrition Nutrition Following Pancreatic Surgery Ver esta página en ...

  3. Artificial Hydration and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ... Your Health Resources Healthcare Management Artificial Hydration and Nutrition Artificial Hydration and Nutrition Share Print Patients who ...

  4. Nutritive and Anti-nutritive Evaluation of Cnidoscolus aurifolia Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwemedimo Emmanuel Udo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Cnidoscolus aurifolia were analysed for their chemical, antinutrients, proximate and mineral element compositions using standard procedures. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, terpenes and tannins while anthraquinones, glycosides and phlobatannins were absent. Proximate analysis indicated high protein content (59.45 ± 0.07% with crude fibre and fat also present in appreciable quantities. Mineral elements determination showed the presence of calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium and zinc. Antinutrient analysis of the leaf extract of C. aurifolia indicated low levels of phytic acid and hydrocyanide well below the lethal doses. An unusually high oxalate level of 404.80 ± 0.11 mg/100 g (dry weight was also obtained although still below toxic level. These results support the ethnomedicinal and nutritional uses of this plant and suggest that the consumption of leaves of C. aurifolia is not harmful nutritively.

  5. Nutrition during lactation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation, Institute of Medicine

    On the basis of a comprehensive literature review and analysis, Nutrition During Lactation points out specific directions for needed research in understanding the relationship between the nutrition...

  6. Nutritional supplementation for Alzheimer's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Thomas B; Remington, Ruth

    2015-03-01

    Evidence for the benefit of nutrition in Alzheimer's disease continues to accumulate. Many studies with individual vitamins or supplements show marginal, if any, benefit. However, new findings with combinatorial formulations demonstrate improvement in cognitive performance and behavioral difficulties that accompany Alzheimer's disease. Herein, we review some of the most recent clinical advances and summarize supportive preclinical studies. We present novel positive effects on Alzheimer's disease derived from diet, trace elements, vitamins and supplements. We discuss the inherent difficulty in conducting nutritional studies because of the variance in participants' nutritional history, versus pharmacological interventions in which participants are naive to the intervention. We examine the evidence that epigenetics play a role in Alzheimer's disease and how nutritional intervention can modify the key epigenetic events to maintain or improve cognitive performance. Overall consideration of the most recent collective evidence suggests that the optimal approach for Alzheimer's disease would seem to combine early, multicomponent nutritional approaches (a Mediterranean-style diet, multivitamins and key combinatorial supplements), along with lifestyle modifications such as social activity and mental and physical exercise, with ultimate addition of pharmacological agents when warranted.

  7. Feasibility study on application of bio-accumulation radionuclides as a countermeasure to restoration of contaminated environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Teruhisa; Hirano, Shigeki; Nakamura, Ryoichi

    2001-01-01

    Phenomena of bio-accumulation of radionuclides was reviewed in order to know whether or not it was useful and effective to apply as a countermeasure to restoration of contaminated area, and to examine the extent of removal of radioactive contaminants from the environment. Special attention was directed to the technique, ''phytoremediation'' in which plants that hyperaccumulated heavy metals were cultivated on the contaminated lands for removing them. Plant species recognized as ''hyperaccumulator'' were searched in the literature and listed for providing a botanical and taxonomical prospect. On the other hand, a screening analysis was carried out for determining the elemental concentrations in sea weeds in order to find species with a high affinity for the specific elements. Of 30 species of sea weeds, the highest concentration of iron, iodine, strontium, and uranium was observed in Ulva sp., Laminaria sp., Corallina sp. and Undaria sp., respectively, although there were no species having the elemental concentration 100 times higher than those for so called ''reference plant''. Brown algae generally showed relatively higher concentrations for almost all elements of interest. It could be concluded that brown algae might be effective to use for phytoremediation because of their high affinity for many elements along with their high biomass in a possible case of radioactive contamination in the marine environment. Phytoremediation would be more advantageous not only from an economical viewpoint, but from the viewpoint of preservation of the environments than other possible remedial procedures, such as acid leaching of contaminants, excavation and storage of the soil, physical separation of the pollutants, and so on. This technique has been put into practical use and would gain much more support of the public in the future, however it needs more detailed information to establish as a sound and reliable methodology. (author)

  8. Feasibility study on application of bio-accumulation radionuclides as a countermeasure to restoration of contaminated environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watabe, Teruhisa; Hirano, Shigeki; Nakamura, Ryoichi [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki (Japan). Lab. for Radioecology] [and others

    2001-12-01

    Phenomena of bio-accumulation of radionuclides was reviewed in order to know whether or not it was useful and effective to apply as a countermeasure to restoration of contaminated area, and to examine the extent of removal of radioactive contaminants from the environment. Special attention was directed to the technique, ''phytoremediation'' in which plants that hyperaccumulated heavy metals were cultivated on the contaminated lands for removing them. Plant species recognized as ''hyperaccumulator'' were searched in the literature and listed for providing a botanical and taxonomical prospect. On the other hand, a screening analysis was carried out for determining the elemental concentrations in sea weeds in order to find species with a high affinity for the specific elements. Of 30 species of sea weeds, the highest concentration of iron, iodine, strontium, and uranium was observed in Ulva sp., Laminaria sp., Corallina sp. and Undaria sp., respectively, although there were no species having the elemental concentration 100 times higher than those for so called ''reference plant''. Brown algae generally showed relatively higher concentrations for almost all elements of interest. It could be concluded that brown algae might be effective to use for phytoremediation because of their high affinity for many elements along with their high biomass in a possible case of radioactive contamination in the marine environment. Phytoremediation would be more advantageous not only from an economical viewpoint, but from the viewpoint of preservation of the environments than other possible remedial procedures, such as acid leaching of contaminants, excavation and storage of the soil, physical separation of the pollutants, and so on. This technique has been put into practical use and would gain much more support of the public in the future, however it needs more detailed information to establish as a sound and reliable

  9. 2013 Nutrition Risk Research Plan Review Final Report. Research Plan Review for: The Risk Factor of Inadequate Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 Nutrition Risk Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) was impressed by the degree of progress the nutrition discipline has made with the research plan presented since the 2012 Nutrition Risk SRP WebEx/teleconference. The scientists and staff associated with the nutrition discipline have, in addition, continued their impressive publication track record. Specifically the SRP found that the novel and important progress in the ocular health research area (Gap N7.3) represents an important advance in understanding the etiology and potential countermeasures for this condition and thinks that the work will not only be valuable for vision, but may have implications for cardiovascular health, as well. The SRP also considered the bone countermeasure data presented a potentially valuable tool for investigating bone metabolism under the unique conditions of space travel, specifically the innovation of variable use of stable Ca isotopes for bone synthesis and equal contribution for bone to investigate bone metabolism, as well as, the impact of the advanced resistive exercise device (ARED) on body composition during spaceflight. Finally, the SRP considers the planned Integrated Nutrition task to be an important and necessary strategic part of the research plan. The SRP is concerned that the risks observed in previous research on Low Earth Orbit (LEO) may not capture all the risks of longer duration flight beyond LEO. In particular, the SRP believes that there may be a much greater likelihood of an intensified chronic inflammatory response compared to the very minimal evidence seen to date and that modest effects seen in LEO, such as the reduction in appetite, may not predict an absence in longer duration flight out of LEO. The added complications of longer duration flight, greater bio-behavioral stress, radiation exposure, poorer communication, and inability to respond to unforeseen exigencies may create different risks. Thus, preparation for

  10. A methodology for assessing the effect of countermeasures against a nuclear accident using fuzzy set theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, M.H.; Hwang, W.T.; Kim, E.H.; Suh, K.S.; Choi, Y.G.

    2000-01-01

    A methodology for assessing the effectiveness of countermeasures against a nuclear accident has been designed by means of the concept of fuzzy set theory. In most of the existing countermeasure models in actions under radiological emergencies, the large variety of possible features is simplified by a number of rough assumptions. During this simplification procedure, a lot of information is lost which results in much uncertainty concerning the output of the countermeasure model. Furthermore, different assumptions should be used for different sites to consider the site specific conditions. In this study, the diversity of each variable related to protective action has been modelled by the linguistic variable. The effectiveness of sheltering and evacuation has been estimated using the proposed method. The potential advantage of the proposed method is in reducing the loss of information by incorporating the opinions of experts and by introducing the linguistic variables which represent the site specific conditions. (author)

  11. The Cyber Defense (CyDef) Model for Assessing Countermeasure Capabilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Margot [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); DeVries, Troy Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gordon, Susanna P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Cybersecurity is essential to maintaining operations, and is now a de facto cost of business. Despite this, there is little consensus on how to systematically make decisions about cyber countermeasures investments. Identifying gaps and determining the expected return on investment (ROI) of adding a new cybersecurity countermeasure is frequently a hand-waving exercise at best. Worse, cybersecurity nomenclature is murky and frequently over-loaded, which further complicates issues by inhibiting clear communication. This paper presents a series of foundational models and nomenclature for discussing cybersecurity countermeasures, and then introduces the Cyber Defense (CyDef) model, which provides a systematic and intuitive way for decision-makers to effectively communicate with operations and device experts.

  12. Physical countermeasures to sustain acceptable living and working conditions in radioactively contaminated residential areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K G; Roed, J; Eged, K [and others

    2003-02-01

    The Chernobyl accident highlighted the need in nuclear preparedness for robust, effective and sustainable countermeasure strategies for restoration of radioactively contaminated residential areas. Under the EC-supporter STRATEGY project a series of investigations were made of countermeasures that were deemed potentially applicable for implementation in such events in European Member States. The findings are presented in this report, in a standardised data sheet format to clarify the features of the individual methods and facilitate intercomparison. The aspects of averted doses and management of wastes generated by countermeasures had to be described separately to provide room for the required level of detail. The information is mainly intended as a tool for decision makers and planners and constitutes of basis for the STRATEGY decision framework for remediation of contaminated urban areas. (au)

  13. Physical countermeasures to sustain acceptable living and working conditions in radioactively contaminated residential areas

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, K G; Roed, J

    2003-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident highlighted the need in nuclear preparedness for robust, effective and sustainable countermeasure strategies for restoration of radioactively contaminated residential areas. Under the EC-supporter STRATEGY project a series of investigations were made of countermeasures that were deemed potentially applicable for implementation in such events in European Member States. The findings are presented in this report, in a standardised data sheet format to clarify the features of the individual methods and facilitate intercomparison. The aspects of averted doses and management of wastes generated by countermeasures had to be described separately to provide room for the required level of detail. The information is mainly intended as a tool for decision makers and planners and constitutes of basis for the STRATEGY decision framework for remediation of contaminated urban areas. (au)

  14. Countermeasure against probabilistic blinding attack in practical quantum key distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Yong-Jun; Li Hong-Wei; He De-Yong; Yin Zhen-Qiang; Zhang Chun-Mei; Chen Wei; Wang Shuang; Han Zheng-Fu

    2015-01-01

    In a practical quantum key distribution (QKD) system, imperfect equipment, especially the single-photon detector, can be eavesdropped on by a blinding attack. However, the original blinding attack may be discovered by directly detecting the current. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic blinding attack model, where Eve probabilistically applies a blinding attack without being caught by using only an existing intuitive countermeasure. More precisely, our countermeasure solves the problem of how to define the bound in the limitation of precision of current detection, and then we prove security of the practical system by considering the current parameter. Meanwhile, we discuss the bound of the quantum bit error rate (QBER) introduced by Eve, by which Eve can acquire information without the countermeasure. (paper)

  15. Countermeasures for reduction of radioactive contamination of farm animals and animal products in agricultural ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeschl, M.

    2006-01-01

    Contamination of food products reaching the consumer may be a serious problem following radioactive contamination deposited in the agricultural environment. A wide variety of measures is available to reduce or prevent the transfer of radionuclides through the food-chain and hence reduce the radiation dose to the consumer. This paper reviews both literature sources and practice of applying agricultural countermeasures: Interventions at the soil-plant step, at the plant-animal step, and at the foodstuff-man step. In practice, the most effective countermeasures which can be used to reduce radionuclide contamination of animals in agricultural ecosystems will be obtained by a combination of both management changes and the use of chemical binders to prevent gut absorption. Social, economic, and practical considerations of the countermeasures such as availability, technical feasibility, acceptability and side-effects need to be also taken into account. (authors)

  16. Outline of Fukushima nuclear accident and future action. Lessons learned from accident and countermeasure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Toshihiko

    2012-01-01

    Fukushima nuclear accident was caused by loss of all AC power sources (SBO) and loss of ultimate heat sink (LUHS) at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) hit by the Great East Japan Earthquake. This article reviewed outline of Fukushima nuclear accident progression when on year had passed since and referred to lessons learned from accident and countermeasure plan to prevent severe accident in SBO and LUHS events by earthquake and tsunami as future action. This countermeasure would be taken to (1) prevent serious flooding in case a tsunami overwhelms the breakwater, with improving water tightness of rooms for emergency diesel generator, batteries and power centers, (2) enhance emergency power supply and cooling function with mobile electricity generator, high pressure fire pump car and alternate water supply source, (3) mitigate environmental effects caused by core damage with installing containment filtered venting, and (4) enforce emergency preparedness in case of severe accident. Definite countermeasure plan for Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPPs was enumerated. (T. Tanaka)

  17. Identifying optimal agricultural countermeasure strategies for a hypothetical contamination scenario using the strategy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, G.; Beresford, N.A.; Alvarez-Farizo, B.; Oughton, D.; Kis, Z.; Eged, K.; Thorring, H.; Hunt, J.; Wright, S.; Barnett, C.L.; Gil, J.M.; Howard, B.J.; Crout, N.M.J.

    2005-01-01

    A spatially implemented model designed to assist the identification of optimal countermeasure strategies for radioactively contaminated regions is described. Collective and individual ingestion doses for people within the affected area are estimated together with collective exported ingestion dose. A range of countermeasures are incorporated within the model, and environmental restrictions have been included as appropriate. The model evaluates the effectiveness of a given combination of countermeasures through a cost function which balances the benefit obtained through the reduction in dose with the cost of implementation. The optimal countermeasure strategy is the combination of individual countermeasures (and when and where they are implemented) which gives the lowest value of the cost function. The model outputs should not be considered as definitive solutions, rather as interactive inputs to the decision making process. As a demonstration the model has been applied to a hypothetical scenario in Cumbria (UK). This scenario considered a published nuclear power plant accident scenario with a total deposition of 1.7 x 10 14 , 1.2 x 10 13 , 2.8 x 10 10 and 5.3 x 10 9 Bq for Cs-137, Sr-90, Pu-239/240 and Am-241, respectively. The model predicts that if no remediation measures were implemented the resulting collective dose would be approximately 36 000 person-Sv (predominantly from 137 Cs) over a 10-year period post-deposition. The optimal countermeasure strategy is predicted to avert approximately 33 000 person-Sv at a cost of approximately pound 160 million. The optimal strategy comprises a mixture of ploughing, AFCF (ammonium-ferric hexacyano-ferrate) administration, potassium fertiliser application, clean feeding of livestock and food restrictions. The model recommends specific areas within the contaminated area and time periods where these measures should be implemented

  18. Bone Loss During Spaceflight: Available Models and Counter-Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jonathan; Bach, David; Geller, David

    2015-01-01

    There is ongoing concern for human health during spaceflights. Of particular interest is the uncoupling of bone remodeling and its resultant effect on calcium metabolism and bone loss. The calculated average loss of bone mineral density (BMD) is approximately 1-1.5% per month of spaceflight. The effect of decreased BMD on associated fractures in astronauts is not known. Currently on the International Space Station (ISS), bone loss is managed through dietary supplements and modifications and resistance exercise regimen. As the duration of space flights increases, a review of the current methods available for the prevention of bone loss is warranted. The goal of this project is to review and summarize recent studies that have focused on maintaining BMD during exposure to microgravity. Interventions were divided into physical (Table 1), nutritional (Table 2), or pharmacologic (Table 3) categories. Physical modalities included resistance exercise, low level vibration, and low intensity pulsed ultrasound. Nutritional interventions included altering protein, salt, and fat intake; and vitamin D supplementation. Pharmacologic interventions included the use of bisphosphonates and beta blockers. Studies reported outcomes based on bone density determined by DXA bone scan, micro-architecture of histology and microCT, and serum and urine markers of bone turnover. The ground analog models utilized to approximate osseous physiology in microgravity included human patients previously paralyzed or subjects confined to bedrest. Ground analog animal models include paralysis, immobilization and ovariectomies. As a result of the extensive research performed there is a multi-modality approach available for the management of BMD during spaceflight that includes resistance training, nutrition and dietary supplements. However, there is a paucity of literature describing a formalized tiered protocol to guide investigators through the progression from animal models to human patient ground

  19. A Comparative Analysis of State Traffic Safety Countermeasures and Implications for Progress “Toward Zero Deaths” in the United States : Traffic Safety Facts - Research Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    States use a variety of countermeasures to reduce traffic crashes, injuries, and fatalities within their jurisdictions. These countermeasures focus primarily on engineering, law enforcement, and public education (NHTSA, 2006). NHTSA's bi-annual publi...

  20. Galvanic element. Galvanisches Element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprengel, D.; Haelbig, H.

    1980-01-03

    The invention concerns a gas-tight sealed accumulator with positive and negative electrode plates and an auxillary electrode electroconductively bound to the latter for suppressing oxygen pressure. The auxillary electrode is an intermediate film electrode. The film catalysing oxygen reduction is hydrophilic in character and the other film is hydrophobic. A double coated foil has proved to be advantageous, the hydrophilic film being formed from polymer-bound activated carbon and the hydrophrobic film from porous polytetrafluoroethylene. A metallic network of silver or nickel is rolled into the outer side of the activated carbon film. This auxillary electrode can be used to advantage in all galvanic elements. Even primary cells fall within the scope of application for auxillary electrodes because many of these contain a highly oxidized electrodic material which tends to give off oxygen.

  1. A study on the application of countermeasure for the reduction of the ingestion dose after nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Tae; Suh, Kyung Suk; Kim, Eun Han; Choi, Young Gil; Han, Moon Hee; Cho, Gyu Seong

    1998-01-01

    The effectiveness of dose reduction resulting from the application of countermeasures for ingestion pathways after nuclear accidents was investigated together with the derivation of optimized intervention levels for Korean foodstuffs. The radioactivity in foodstuffs was predicted from a dynamic food chain model DYNACON for the date which the deposition occurs. The effectiveness of countermeasures strongly depended on radionuclides, foodstuffs and date of deposition

  2. Seminar on countermeasures for pipe cracking in BWRs. Volume 4 of 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    Intergranular stress corrosion cracking of welded type 304 stainless steel in the recirculation piping of boiling water reactors has had an impact on plant availability and reliability since the fall of 1974. Investigations of this problem have resulted in significant progress in understanding the phenomenon and providing an engineering resolution by developing and qualifying countermeasures. A number of these countermeasures including solution heat treatment, corrosion resistant clad, alternate pipe materials, induction heating stress improvement and heat sink welding have been implemented. Separate abstracts are included for each of the papers presented.

  3. Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, S V [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Alexakhin, R M [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Balonov, M I [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Bogdevich, I M [Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Minsk (Belarus); Howard, B J [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom); Kashparov, V A [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Street 7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine); Sanzharova, N I [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Panov, A V [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Voigt, G [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Zhuchenka, Yu M [Research Institute of Radiology, 246000 Gomel (Belarus)

    2006-12-15

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

  4. Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S V; Alexakhin, R M; Balonov, M I; Bogdevich, I M; Howard, B J; Kashparov, V A; Sanzharova, N I; Panov, A V; Voigt, G; Zhuchenka, Yu M

    2006-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

  5. Seminar on countermeasures for pipe cracking in BWRs. Volume 2 of 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    Intergranular stress corrosion cracking of welded type 304 stainless steel in the recirculation piping of boiling water reactors has had an impact on plant availability and reliability since the fall of 1974. Investigtions of this problem have resulted in significant progress in understanding the phenomenon and providing an engineering resolution by developing and qualifying countermeasures. A number of these countermeasures including solution heat treatment, corrosion resistant clad, alternate pipe materials, induction heating stress improvement and heat sink welding have been implemented. Separate abstracts are included for each of the papers presented.

  6. Public-relation and countermeasure in crisis in the area of nuclear and radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ruiping

    2009-01-01

    We are living in the world filling crises, with information transparency and economy globalization. The public-relation is one of important measures against those crises, whose achievements have been proved in our past practices. The countermeasure is a complementarity with propaganda and crises preparation for crises. It is a new field, needing new ideas and technology to fit developing situations, and new conceptions and countermeasures to set it up. In the article, the author is trying to explain why to apply the measure to answer crises in the nuclear and radiation safety management. (author)

  7. Impact of bed rest on conduit artery remodeling: effect of exercise countermeasures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnhoven, N.T.L. van; Green, D.J.; Felsenberg, D.; Belavy, D.L.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a potent stimulus for vascular remodeling, leading to a marked decrease in conduit artery diameter. However, little is known about the impact of physical inactivity on artery wall thickness or wall:lumen ratio or the potential of exercise countermeasures to modify artery wall

  8. Data sheet based countermeasure evaluation for radioactively contaminated Nordic food-producing areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, K.G.; Roed, J.; Rantavaara, A.; Rosen, K.; Salbu, B.; Skipperud, L.

    2002-01-01

    A Nordic expert group has identified and critically evaluated the countermeasures that may potentially be implemented in connection with major nuclear accident situations contaminating Nordic food-producing areas. This paper demonstrates how the derived technical information can be applied by decision-makers to identify practicable and cost-effective means for mitigation of the impact of contamination. (au)

  9. Several problems and their countermeasures of recent developments in nuclear techniques in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Yuanfu

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear technique that is developing at top speed in China is introduced. Several characteristics of recent international developments in nuclear techniques are discussed and a precise classification is suggested. Particularly the present problems and their countermeasures of recent developments in nuclear techniques in China are explored

  10. Countermeasure to plant life management of the nuclear power plants out of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Some investigations on countermeasure to plant life management of the nuclear power plants were begun since beginning of 1990s under cooperation with Ministry of International Trade and Industry and all electric power companies under consideration of recent state on abroad and at concept of preventive conservation implementation against the plant life management. As a result, the Tokyo Electric Power Company, the Kansai Electric Power Company and the Japan Atomic Power Company settled each program on countermeasure to plant life management of the Fukushima-1 Power Plant, the Mihama-1 Power Plant and the Tsuruga-1 Power Plant, respectively, which were reported to the Atomic Energy Safety Commission to issue on February, 1999, after deliberation in the Adviser Group of Ministry of International Trade and Industry. Such investigations on countermeasure to the plant life management are also conducted out of Japan in parallel to those in Japan, which contain programs reflecting states of operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants and atmosphere around atomic energy in each country. Here were described on some present states of the countermeasures to plant life management in U.S.A., France, Germany, Sweden, England and so forth. (G.K.)

  11. 77 FR 2556 - Ethical and Regulatory Challenges in the Development of Pediatric Medical Countermeasures; Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ...] Ethical and Regulatory Challenges in the Development of Pediatric Medical Countermeasures; Public Workshop... Administration (FDA), Office of Pediatric Therapeutics, is announcing a public workshop entitled ``Ethical and... provide a forum for careful consideration of scientific, ethical, and regulatory issues confronting FDA...

  12. Present condition and countermeasures for nuclear application environmental impact assessment in Jiangsu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Xia; Huang Xin

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, with the deepening of nuclear and radiation safety supervision, great advances have been made in nuclear application environmental impact assessment in Jiangsu province. But some problems and deficiencies still exist in management. This paper describes the present management situation of nuclear application environmental impact assessment, analysis and discusses the existing problems as well as their countermeasures. (authors)

  13. Data sheet based countermeasure evaluation for radioactively contaminated Nordic food-producing areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K.G.; Roed, J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Rantavaara, A. [STUK, Helsinki (Finland); Rosen, K. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Salbu, B.; Skipperud, L. [Agricultural Univ. of Norway, Aas (Norway)

    2002-04-01

    A Nordic expert group has identified and critically evaluated the countermeasures that may potentially be implemented in connection with major nuclear accident situations contaminating Nordic food-producing areas. This paper demonstrates how the derived technical information can be applied by decision-makers to identify practicable and cost-effective means for mitigation of the impact of contamination. (au)

  14. ECONO-MARC: A method for assessing the cost of emergency countermeasures after an accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, M.J.; Dionian, J.

    1982-12-01

    A method is proposed for assessing the cost of emergency countermeasures taken to reduce radiation exposures after an accidental release of radionuclides into the environment. The cost is estimated as the potential loss of goods and services due to the imposition of countermeasures, measured by a lost contribution to the nation's Gross Domestic Product (GDP). A primary aim in developing such a method is to provide the basis for clear quantitative inputs to difficult decisions in emergency planning; decisions on whether to apply countermeasures, and on the extent to which they should be applied. The method should also provide useful inputs to nuclear siting policy and to safety design assessments. While the method should aid decision-making, it does not measure all the costs; other major costs of nuclear accidents, such as the loss of nuclear plant capacity and the social disruption caused by countermeasures require separate additional assessment. The models in the MARC procedure for accident assessment are under continuing review. This memorandum records the method currently included in ECONO-MARC; additional models and improved procedures will be incorporated, as appropriate, in the future. (author)

  15. Assessment of agricultural countermeasures and the development of the decision support system 'FORCON'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S.V.; Sanzharova, N.I.; Perepelyatnikova, L.V.; Prister, B.S.; Wilkins, B.T.; Bouzdalkin, C.N.

    1996-01-01

    A large amount of data on agricultural countermeasures has been complied and assessed within an EC-sponsored collaborative project. The results of the work are summarized, and the development of a predictive tool to aid decisions at the local level is briefly described

  16. Assessing potential secondary effects of countermeasures in agricultural systems: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salt, C.A.; Rafferty, B.

    2001-01-01

    Secondary effects are defined as any positive or negative impacts resulting from the application of countermeasures other than radiological benefits or direct costs. They are categorised into environmental, radioecological, economic and social effects. Impacts on the environment may include changes in water, air and soil pollution or in the conservation and amenity value of an area. Radioecological effects occur when the countermeasure unintentionally alters the behaviour of the target radionuclide or any other radionuclide present. Economic effects may range from changes in agricultural income to environmental costs (e.g. impact of soil erosion on fisheries). Social effects relate to the acceptability of countermeasures, for example in terms of consumer confidence and animal welfare. Recent research into the identification and assessment of secondary effects is summarised. Non-quantitative and quantitative approaches are explained and formal evaluation procedures involving decision matrices and decision support systems are introduced. Examples of recent experimental and modelling work focusing on radiocaesium are given for the following countermeasures: soil application of potassium, administration of AFCF to livestock and ploughing techniques

  17. Influence of spatial variation on countermeasures with special regards to animal food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, G.; Kiefer, P.

    2000-07-01

    In the context of SAVE, soil and animal based countermeasures have been considered as well as human based ones: In this technical deliverable we have considered the following countermeasures: - Soil-plant transfer: The effectiveness of Ca, K, fertilisers and substances with a high cation exchange capacity on the transfer of radiocaesium from soil to plant for different soil types within Europe have been considered. In addition, the fertility status of soils will give an indication of the potential effectiveness of fertilisation. In this report the effect of K application in a specified area and a given contamination scenario is evaluated and demonstrated. - Plant-animal transfer: A wide range of countermeasures is available to directly reduce transfer of radionuclides to animals, and thereby animal products. The preferred option will always be the most cost effective and practically acceptable one, for both producers and consumers. In this report collection of animal based countermeasures for Cs, Sr and I with special respect to their acceptability, effectiveness and spatial variation is presented. The contribution and importance of countries in import and export of feedstuff used for animals is estimated based on trading information. (orig.)

  18. Pollution Status of Dioxins Persistent Organic Pollutants in Guangxi and Control Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Hua; Fan Yongji; Feng Bo; Chen Zhiming; Mo Zhaoyu

    2017-01-01

    Production and pollution control situations of dioxins persistent organic pollutants in Guangxi were introduced.Pollution status of dioxins persistent organic pollutants in Guangxi was understood,and the existing problems in pollution control were analyzed,and finally pollution control countermeasures and suggestions were proposed.

  19. Improving the Effectiveness of Countermeasures to Prevent Motor Vehicle Crashes among Young Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Hartos, Jessica L.

    2003-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are the leading cause of injury and death among adolescents 16 to 19 years of age. Three areas of countermeasures for decreasing young driver risk are driver education, licensing policies, and parental management. Driver education is an essential part of teaching adolescents the rules of the road and operating a…

  20. 76 FR 72120 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule--Compliance Date... rule will be effective November 22, 2011. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 112 Oil pollution prevention... Regulations is amended as follows: PART 112--OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION 0 1. The authority citation for part 112...

  1. 76 FR 64296 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule--Compliance Date... Federal Register. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 112 Oil pollution prevention, Farms, Compliance date... proposing to amend the date by which farms must prepare or amend, and implement their Spill Prevention...

  2. 76 FR 64245 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule--Compliance Date... burden to comply with the regulations contained in 40 CFR part 112--Oil Pollution Prevention. However, in... rule will be effective November 7, 2011. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 112 Oil pollution prevention...

  3. Current Situations and Countermeasures of Development of Kiwifruit Industry in Guizhou Province

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Wei; Wan, Ming-chang; Yang, Sheng-jun; Zhang, Xue; Qiao, Rong

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of current development situations of planting, scientific research and processing of kiwifruit industry in Guizhou Province, the paper analyzes main factors restricting development of kiwifruit industry, including lack of unified planning, standardized planting specifications, and backward management of kiwifruit orchard. In accordance with current development situations and restricting factors, the paper presents some countermeasures for development of kiwifruit industry in Guiz...

  4. Countermeasures to consider in the combat against cyberterrorism

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available targets. Laqueur states that many terrorist groups traditionally contain strong quasi-religious fanatical elements for only total certainty of belief (or total moral relativism) provide justification for taking lives [11]. Religious terrorism thus... Training Intelligence Reconnaissance Planning Logistics Finance Propaganda Social services Objectives Techniques Social factors Culture Beliefs Political Views Upbringing Personality Traits Figure 1: Framework for cyberterrorism...

  5. Investigations of the magnetic fields from ships due to corrosion and its countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Peter J.

    Corrosion is one of the main concerns for the shipping industry. The enormous cost associated with the corrosion of ships means that operators are more than ever seeking methods to provide optimal protection. Another problem which results from the corrosion of ships is that the electric currents produced give rise to a corrosion related magnetic field which adds to the ships overall electromagnetic field which can trigger underwater mines. Hence for the Admiralty to protect their fleet, they need to understand, predict and reduce these electromagnetic signatures. This will also be a concern for operators of merchant ships if, as recently suggested, terrorists begin to target them. There are a number of factors contributing to the electromagnetic signature of a ship. The work presented in this study is concerned with the magnetic field arising due to corrosion and the countermeasures employed against it (namely Impressed Current Cathodic Protection (ICCP) systems]. This field is called the Corrosion Related Magnetic (CRM) field. Since this field is directly related to the rate of corrosion of a ship, it may also be used as an indicator as to the efficiency of the corrosion protection measures, This work presents a range of techniques which may be used to model the CRM field. Simple dipole models are used to investigate the general behaviour of a corroding ship in sea water. These investigations result in an expression for an approximation of the CRM field from a dipole-wire configuration which can be used to estimate the CRM field from a corroding ship with an active ICCP system. A second, more detailed, method was then developed using the Boundary Element Method (BEM) to model a ship corroding in a tank of sea water. The BEM uses a large set of simultaneous equations, the coefficients of which are calculated by numerical integration using a new method based around the moments of triangular surface elements which discretise the boundary of the domain. By using a

  6. Evaluation of countermeasures for red light running by traffic simulator-based surrogate safety measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changju; So, Jaehyun Jason; Ma, Jiaqi

    2018-01-02

    The conflicts among motorists entering a signalized intersection with the red light indication have become a national safety issue. Because of its sensitivity, efforts have been made to investigate the possible causes and effectiveness of countermeasures using comparison sites and/or before-and-after studies. Nevertheless, these approaches are ineffective when comparison sites cannot be found, or crash data sets are not readily available or not reliable for statistical analysis. Considering the random nature of red light running (RLR) crashes, an inventive approach regardless of data availability is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of each countermeasure face to face. The aims of this research are to (1) review erstwhile literature related to red light running and traffic safety models; (2) propose a practical methodology for evaluation of RLR countermeasures with a microscopic traffic simulation model and surrogate safety assessment model (SSAM); (3) apply the proposed methodology to actual signalized intersection in Virginia, with the most prevalent scenarios-increasing the yellow signal interval duration, installing an advance warning sign, and an RLR camera; and (4) analyze the relative effectiveness by RLR frequency and the number of conflicts (rear-end and crossing). All scenarios show a reduction in RLR frequency (-7.8, -45.5, and -52.4%, respectively), but only increasing the yellow signal interval duration results in a reduced total number of conflicts (-11.3%; a surrogate safety measure of possible RLR-related crashes). An RLR camera makes the greatest reduction (-60.9%) in crossing conflicts (a surrogate safety measure of possible angle crashes), whereas increasing the yellow signal interval duration results in only a 12.8% reduction of rear-end conflicts (a surrogate safety measure of possible rear-end crash). Although increasing the yellow signal interval duration is advantageous because this reduces the total conflicts (a possibility of total

  7. The weeping cow: impact of countermeasures on daily life in Chernobyl contaminated regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, C.; Avetova, E.; Murphy, M.; Allen, P.

    1998-01-01

    Twelve years after the Chernobyl catastrophe, what is the daily life of rural dwellers in contaminated regions of Belarus and the Ukraine? Over the years, protective countermeasures have been applied or withdrawn, and radiation protection advice is still in effect concerning e.g. the consumption of milk or of forest food products. How is that advice regarded by villagers? To what extent do they comply or not comply, and what is their reasoning? How are countermeasures woven into the fabric of social life? In the goal of optimisation, radiation protection countermeasures may be evaluated as the sum of individual dose averted, cost, and distress. A detailed formula exists for calculating dose, but social and economic costs, and individual distress, are in need of modelling.. Twelve focus groups (10 in Belarus, 2 in Ukraine; six groups each of men or of women) were consulted in an effort to develop a convincing and workable definition of distress experienced by members of the rural communities affected by Chernobyl. Stresses introduced by countermeasures, or linked to other aspects of the post-accidental situation, were identified. A systematic content analysis was carried out, bearing on the benefits or satisfactions linked to focus behaviours (e.g, milk consumption, forest visits...), distress experienced, attitudes towards countermeasures, impacts and management of information, etc. The focus group transcripts contain telling, humorous or poignant representations of how people carry on living in the face of threat, uncertainty, and absurdity. This presentation explores social representations of milk, and some of the reported impacts in the Belarus settlements of the post-accident restrictions on milk production and consumption. SPARPA or Social psychological aspects of radiation protection after accidents, is a European Commission part-funded project (F14C-CT96-0010) involving U. Surrey European Institute of Health an Medical Science, Symlog, and UK National

  8. Development of an Integrated Countermeasure Device for Long Duration Space Flight and Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. M. C.; Streeper, T.; Spiering, B. A.; Loehr, J. A.; Guilliams, M. E.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Cavanagh, P. R.; Lang, T.

    2010-01-01

    Musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and sensorimotor deconditioning have been observed consistently in astronauts and cosmonauts following long-duration spaceflight. Studies in bed rest, a spaceflight analog, have shown that high intensity resistive or aerobic exercise attenuates or prevents musculoskeletal and cardiovascular deconditioning, respectively, but complete protection has not been achieved during spaceflight. Exercise countermeasure hardware used during earlier International Space Station (ISS) missions included a cycle ergometer, a treadmill, and the interim resistive exercise device (iRED). Effectiveness of the countermeasures may have been diminished by limited loading characteristics of the iRED as well as speed restrictions and subject harness discomfort during treadmill exercise. The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) and the second generation treadmill were designed to address many of the limitations of their predecessors, and anecdotal reports from ISS crews suggest that their conditioning is better preserved since the new hardware was delivered in 2009. However, several countermeasure devices to protect different physiologic systems will not be practical during exploration missions when the available volume and mass will be severely restricted. The combined countermeasure device (CCD) integrates a suite of hardware into one device intended to prevent spaceflight-induced musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and sensorimotor deconditioning. The CCD includes pneumatic loading devices with attached cables for resistive exercise, a cycle for aerobic exercise, and a 6 degree of freedom motion platform for balance training. In a proof of concept test, ambulatory untrained subjects increased muscle strength (58%) as well as aerobic capacity (26%) after 12-weeks of exercise training with the CCD (without balance training), improvements comparable to those observed with traditional exercise training. These preliminary results suggest that this CCD can

  9. Modeling the benefits of an artificial gravity countermeasure coupled with exercise and vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Rahul; Kaderka, Justin; Newman, Dava

    2012-01-01

    The current, system-specific countermeasures to space deconditioning have limited success with the musculoskeletal system in long duration missions. Artificial gravity (AG) that is produced by short radius centrifugation has been hypothesized as an effective countermeasure because it reintroduces an acceleration field in space; however, AG alone might not be enough stimuli to preserve the musculoskeletal system. A novel combination of AG coupled with one-legged squats on a vibrating platform may preserve muscle and bone in the lower limbs to a greater extent than the current exercise paradigm. The benefits of the proposed countermeasure have been analyzed through the development of a simulation platform. Ground reaction force data and motion data were collected using a motion capture system while performing one-legged and two-legged squats in 1-G. The motion was modeled in OpenSim, an open-source software, and inverse dynamics were applied in order to determine the muscle and reaction forces of lower limb joints. Vibration stimulus was modeled by adding a 20 Hz sinusoidal force of 0.5 body weight to the force plate data. From the numerical model in a 1-G acceleration field, muscle forces for quadriceps femoris, plantar flexors and glutei increased substantially for one-legged squats with vibration compared to one- or two-legged squats without vibration. Additionally, joint reaction forces for one-legged squats with vibration also increased significantly compared to two-legged squats with or without vibration. Higher muscle forces and joint reaction forces might help to stimulate muscle activation and bone modeling and thus might reduce musculoskeletal deconditioning. These results indicate that the proposed countermeasure might surpass the performance of the current space countermeasures and should be further studied as a method of mitigating musculoskeletal deconditioning.

  10. The Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit for Space Habitation and Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R Duda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit for Space Habitation and Exploration is a novel system concept that provides a platform for integrating sensors and actuators with daily astronaut intravehicular activities to improve health and performance, while reducing the mass and volume of the physiologic adaptation countermeasure systems, as well as the required exercise time during long-duration space exploration missions. The V2Suit system leverages wearable kinematic monitoring technology and uses inertial measurement units (IMUs and control moment gyroscopes (CMGs within miniaturized modules placed on body segments to provide a viscous resistance during movements against a specified direction of down – initially as a countermeasure to the sensorimotor adaptation performance decrements that manifest themselves while living and working in microgravity and during gravitational transitions during long-duration spaceflight, including post-flight recovery and rehabilitation. Several aspects of the V2Suit system concept were explored and simulated prior to developing a brassboard prototype for technology demonstration. This included a system architecture for identifying the key components and their interconnects, initial identification of key human-system integration challenges, development of a simulation architecture for CMG selection and parameter sizing, and the detailed mechanical design and fabrication of a module. The brassboard prototype demonstrates closed-loop control from down initialization through CMG actuation, and provides a research platform for human performance evaluations to mitigate sensorimotor adaptation, as well as a tool for determining the performance requirements when used as a musculoskeletal deconditioning countermeasure. This type of countermeasure system also has Earth benefits, particularly in gait or movement stabilization and rehabilitation.

  11. Bed Rest is an Analog to Study the Physiological Changes of Spaceflight and to Evaluate Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannenstiel, P.; Ottenbacher, M.; Inniss, A.; Ware, D.; Anderson, K.; Stranges, S.; Keith, K.; Cromwell, R.; Neigut. J.; Powell, D.

    2012-01-01

    The UTMB/NASA Flight Analog Research Unit is an inpatient unit with a bionutrition kitchen and unique testing areas for studying subjects subjected to 6 degree head-down complete bed rest for prolonged periods as an analog for zero gravity. Bed rest allows study of physiological changes and performance of functional tasks representative of critical interplanetary mission operations and measures of the efficacy of countermeasures designed to protect against the resulting deleterious effects. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Subjects are healthy adults 24-55 years old; 60 75 in tall; body mass index 18.5-30; and bone mineral density normal by DXA scan. Over 100 subjects have been studied in 7 campaigns since 2004. The iRAT countermeasure combines high intensity interval aerobic exercises on alternating days with continuous aerobic exercise. Resistance exercise is performed 3 days per week. Subjects are tested on an integrated suite of functional and interdisciplinary physiological tests before and after 70 days of total bed rest. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: It is anticipated that post-bed rest functional performance will be predicted by a weighted combination of sensorimotor, cardiovascular and muscle physiological factors. Control subjects who do not participate in the exercise countermeasure will have significantly greater decreases in these parameters. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Astronauts experience alterations in multiple physiological systems due to exposure to the microgravity, leading to disruption in the ability to perform functional tasks after reintroduction to a gravitational environment. Current flight exercise countermeasures are not fully protective of cardiovascular, muscle and bone health. There is a need to refine and optimize countermeasures to mitigate health risks associated with long-term space missions.

  12. Decision analysis of countermeasures for the milk pathway after an accidental release of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammann, M.; Sinkko, K.; Kostiainen, E.; Salo, E.; Liskola, K.; Haemaelaeinen, R.P.; Mustajoki, J

    2001-12-01

    A facilitated workshop was arranged to plan countermeasures that could reduce the dose arising from the consumption of radionuclide-contaminated milk products. It was assumed that a hypothetical accident in a nuclear facility had led to the release of considerable amounts of radionuclides, which subsequently spread across one of Finland's most important agricultural regions and contaminated the milk produced there. The participants in the workshop, interest groups on food issues, considered all the factors influencing the countermeasure decision, not only radiological or monetary ones but less tangible psychosocial effects as well. The participants preferred the countermeasures provision of uncontaminated fodder and production control to banning and disposal. The analysis showed that these countermeasures could be implemented even if the radionuclide concentrations in foodstuffs were below internationally recommended intervention levels. Banning and withdrawal of milk products from sale was not a favourable option, because of the high costs and disadvantages to producers and the industry, and because the disposal of enormous amounts of milk causes a considerable environmental problem. The study revealed the need to further develop methods to realistically assess the radiological and cost implications of food countermeasures. The feasibility and constraints of actions also need further investigation. The experience gained strongly supports the format of a facilitated workshop to tackle a decision problem that concerns different stakeholders. The participants considered the workshop and the decision analysis very useful in exercises. They also expected a similar approach to be applicable in a real situation, although the suitability was not rated as high as for exercises. It is concluded that a facilitated workshop is a valuable instrument for emergency management and in exercises, when revising emergency plans or in order to identify issues that need to be

  13. Nutrition Therapy in Elderly with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minidian Fasitasari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is an important health element for elderly people and influence aging process. Malnutrition prevalence is increasing in this population. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD is one of the chronic diseases in elderly that is related to malnutrition. The association between malnutrition and pulmonary disease (including COPD has been known for a long time. Malnutrition has negative impacts on pulmonary structure, elasticity, and function, strength and endurance of respiratory muscles, pulmonary immunity defense mechanism, and breath control. Inversely, pulmonary disease (including COPD will increase energy need and may reduce dietary intake. Nutrition intervention in COPD patient is intended for regulating anorexia, improving pulmonary function, and controlling weight loss. Nutrient requirements will be calculated according to the results of nutrition assessment. This article will discuss about nutrition therapy in elderly with COPD. It describes respiratory system in aging, association COPD and nutrition, and nutrition assessment, as well as nutrition intervention in elderly people with COPD.

  14. A methodology for justification and optimization of countermeasures for milk after a nuclear accident and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Tae; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Eun Han; Cho, Gyu Seong

    1998-01-01

    The methodology for justification and optimization of the countermeasures related with contamination management of milk was designed based on the cost and benefit analysis. The application results were discussed for the deposition on August 15, when pasture is fully developed in Korean agricultural conditions. A dynamic food chain model DYNACON was used to estimate the time-dependent radioactivity of milk after the deposition. The considered countermeasures are (1) the ban of milk consumption (2) the substitution of clean fodder, which are effective in reducing the ingestion dose as well as simple and easy to carry out in the first year after the deposition. The total costs of the countermeasures were quantitatively estimated in terms of cost equivalent of doses and monetary costs. It is obvious that a fast reaction after the deposition is an important factor in cost effectiveness of the countermeasures. In most cases, the substitution of clean fodder was more effectiveness of the countermeasures. In most cases, the substitution of clean fodder was more effective countermeasure than the ban of consumption. A fast reaction after the deposition made longer justifiable/optimal duration of the countermeasure

  15. Nutrition knowledge and nutritional status of primary school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-04

    Jan 4, 2010 ... b Research Fellow, CSL, Vaal University of Technology, South Africa ... Keywords: primary school children; nutrition knowledge; nutritional status. Nutrition ... research on basic nutrition education focusing on adolescents has.

  16. Methodology for assessing the effectiveness of countermeasures in rural settlements in the long term after the Chernobyl accident on the multi-attribute analysis basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, A.V.; Alexakhin, R.M.; Fesenko, S.V.

    2006-01-01

    A methodology has been developed for the assessment of the effectiveness of countermeasures in agriculture based on a multi-attribute analysis of quantitative (radiological, economic, regulatory) and qualitative (social, psychological, technological) indicators characterizing their application. The method makes use of weight coefficients established for the countermeasures parameters with their subsequent comparison adjusted to a single scale. The method is realized with the P.R.I.M.E. Decision support system adapted for the task of countermeasures planning. The multi-attribute analysis of countermeasures effectiveness was made depending on the aspect of rehabilitation works considered: dose, financial or social. Presented are results from the analysis of effectiveness of individual countermeasures and most effective countermeasures and their combinations. Based on the multi attribute analysis data, rating of the most effective countermeasures and their combinations was performed. (authors)

  17. Methodology for assessing the effectiveness of countermeasures in rural settlements in the long term after the Chernobyl accident on the multi-attribute analysis basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panov, A.V.; Alexakhin, R.M. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Fesenko, S.V. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Lab. (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    A methodology has been developed for the assessment of the effectiveness of countermeasures in agriculture based on a multi-attribute analysis of quantitative (radiological, economic, regulatory) and qualitative (social, psychological, technological) indicators characterizing their application. The method makes use of weight coefficients established for the countermeasures parameters with their subsequent comparison adjusted to a single scale. The method is realized with the P.R.I.M.E. Decision support system adapted for the task of countermeasures planning. The multi-attribute analysis of countermeasures effectiveness was made depending on the aspect of rehabilitation works considered: dose, financial or social. Presented are results from the analysis of effectiveness of individual countermeasures and most effective countermeasures and their combinations. Based on the multi attribute analysis data, rating of the most effective countermeasures and their combinations was performed. (authors)

  18. Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Malignancies and Acute Biological Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann

    , oral supplementation with antioxidants appears to be an effective approach for the radioprotection of hematopoietic cells against the cell killing effects of radiation, and for improving survival in irradiated animals. Preliminary data suggest similar antioxidant protective effects for animals exposed to potentially lethal doses of proton radiation. Studies were also performed to determine whether dietary antioxidants could affect the incidence rates of malignancies in CBA mice exposed to 300 cGy proton (1 GeV/n) radiation or 50 cGy iron ion (1 GeV/n) radiation [9]. Two antioxidant formulations were utilized in these studies; an AOX formulation containing the mixture of antioxidant agents developed from our previous studies and an antioxidant dietary formulation containing the soybean-derived protease inhibitor known as the Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI). BBI was evaluated in the form of BBI Concentrate (BBIC), which is the form of BBI utilized in human trials. BBIC has been utilized in human trials since 1992, as described [10]. The major finding in the long-term animal studies was that there was a reduced risk of malignant lymphoma in mice exposed to space radiations and maintained on diets containing the antioxidant formulations. In addition, the two different dietary countermeasures also reduced the yields of a variety of different rare tumor types, arising from both epithelial and connective tissue cells, observed in the animals exposed to space radiation. REFERENCES [1] Guan J. et al (2004) Radiation Research 162, 572-579. [2] Wan X.S. et al (2005) Radiation Research 163, 364-368. [3] Wan X.S. et al (2005) Radiation Research 163, 232-240. [4] Guan J. et al (2006) Radiation Research 165, 373-378. [5] Wan X.S. et al (2006) International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 64, 1475-1481. [6] Kennedy A.R. et al (2006) Radiation Research 166, 327-332. [7] Kennedy A.R. et al (2007) Radiation & Environmental Biophysics 46(2), 201-3. [8]Wambi, C., Sanzari, J

  19. Nutrition and athletic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exercise - nutrition; Exercise - fluids; Exercise - hydration ... Bird R. Nutrition. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  20. Nutrition and OI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition and OI Introduction To promote bone development and optimal health, children and adults with osteogenesis imperfecta ( ... no foods or supplements that will cure OI. Nutrition Related Problems Difficulties eating solid food have been ...

  1. Nutrition.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gov Sites FAQ Contact Us En Español Search Nutrition.Gov Search all USDA Advanced Search Browse by ... FAQs USDA Research, Education, and Economics Resources Welcome Nutrition.gov is a USDA-sponsored website that offers ...

  2. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  3. Total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000177.htm Total parenteral nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  4. Living with COPD: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > COPD > Living With COPD Nutrition and COPD Most people are surprised to learn ... asking your doctor or visiting the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics at EatRight.org . Be sure to ...

  5. Cooking utensils and nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002461.htm Cooking utensils and nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cooking utensils can have an effect on your nutrition. ...

  6. Nutrition and Myasthenia Gravis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good nutrition is important for everyone. This is especially true when you have a chronic disorder like myasthenia gravis ( ... difficulty with chewing and swallowing may interfere with nutrition and create safety issues. Diet modifications may be ...

  7. Stroke Prevention & Treatment: Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention & Treatment: Diet & Nutrition Stroke Prevention & Treatment: Diet & Nutrition A healthy diet can reduce your risk for ... Treatment How does a stroke affect eating and nutrition? Stroke can devastate a person's nutritional health because ...

  8. Nutrition support in hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrup, Jens

    2005-01-01

    Nutrition support in hospitals is becoming an area of focus because of the evidence showing improved clinical outcome with nutrition support, its status as a human rights issue and its integration into quality assurance.......Nutrition support in hospitals is becoming an area of focus because of the evidence showing improved clinical outcome with nutrition support, its status as a human rights issue and its integration into quality assurance....

  9. Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Food and Nutrition Sections Diet and Nutrition Can Fish Oil Help ... Cataract Prevention in the Produce Aisle Diet and Nutrition Leer en Español: Dieta y nutrición May. 24, ...

  10. Nutrition Guide for Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Nutrition Guide for Toddlers KidsHealth / For Parents / Nutrition Guide ... español Guía de nutrición para sus hijos pequeños Nutrition Through Variety Growth slows somewhat during the toddler ...

  11. Public Health Nutrition Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torheim, Liv Elin; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva; Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    , Oslo, Norway, 2Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali University Hospital , 3Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland, 4Global Nutrition and Health, Metropolitan University College, Copenhagen, Denmark, 5School of Hospitality, culinary arts and meal science...

  12. Nutrition for Sport Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition Foundation, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guidebook presents basic facts about nutrition, focusing upon the nutritional needs of athletes. Information is given on: (1) the importance of water, salt and other electrolytes, and treating and preventing heat disorders; (2) nutrition for training and performance, the best diet, caloric and energy requirements for various and specific…

  13. Comparison of proposed countermeasures for dilemma zone at signalized intersections based on cellular automata simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yina; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Ding, Yaoxian; Jia, Bin; Shi, Qi; Yan, Xuedong

    2018-07-01

    The Type II dilemma zone describes the road segment to a signalized intersection where drivers have difficulties to decide either stop or go at the onset of yellow signal. Such phenomenon can result in an increased crash risk at signalized intersections. Different types of warning systems have been proposed to help drivers make decisions. Although the warning systems help to improve drivers' behavior, they also have several disadvantages such as increasing rear-end crashes or red-light running (RLR) violations. In this study, a new warning system called pavement marking with auxiliary countermeasure (PMAIC) is proposed to reduce the dilemma zone and enhance the traffic safety at signalized intersections. The proposed warning system integrates the pavement marking and flashing yellow system which can provide drivers with better suggestions about stop/go decisions based on their arriving time and speed. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed warning system, this paper presents a cellular automata (CA) simulation study. The CA simulations are conducted for four different scenarios in total, including the typical intersection without warning system, the intersection with flashing green countermeasure, the intersection with pavement marking, and the intersection with the PMAIC warning system. Before the specific CA simulation analysis, a logistic regression model is calibrated based on field video data to predict drivers' general stop/go decisions. Also, the rules of vehicle movements in the CA models under the influence by different warning systems are proposed. The proxy indicators of rear-end crash and potential RLR violations were estimated and used to evaluate safety levels for the different scenarios. The simulation results showed that the PMAIC countermeasure consistently offered best performance to reduce rear-end crash and RLR violation. Meanwhile, the results indicate that the flashing-green countermeasure could not effectively reduce either rear

  14. Trace elements in human milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parr, R M [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Div. of Life Sciences

    1983-06-01

    Trace elements are those elements having a concentration lower than 10 ppm in body fluids or tissues. A total of 24 elements, both trace and minor elements, present in human milk have been analysed in this study, employing neutron activation analysis and absorption spectroscopy. The analyses have been carried out collaboratively by several different laboratories and the Agency which has also served as a coordinating centre. Although the evaluation of the results, altogether 8500 separate values, is still in progress, enough evidence is already available, however, to show some very interesting differences between different study areas and, in some cases, between different socio-economic groups within a single country. The main value of these data will probably be to throw new light on the nutritional requirements of young babies for trace elements.

  15. Development of Countermeasure and Application technologies to Space Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Byun, Myung Woo; Kim, Jae Hun

    2009-02-01

    Basic studies to evaluate the microbial activity changes by irradiation, and identify the composting microorganisms using the hyperthermal composter were conducted. And establishment of research protocols on muscle atrophy mechanism using two-dimensional electrophoresis and various blotting analyses are conducted. And two bio-active molecules that potentially play an preventive role of muscle atrophy are uncovered. Integrative protocols linking between the effect of bio-active molecules and treadmill exercise for muscle atrophy inhibition are established. And, successful induction of hibernation-like animation (reduction in body temperature and heartbeat rate) were monitored after HIT injection to mice. The space Bibimbap was developed by a combination treatment of 0.4% baking powder, soaking for 45 min, cooking, freezing, and packaging. It could be consumed easily after rehydration for 10 with 70 .deg. C water, which can be supplied from the International Space Station. And Bulgogi steak developed by combination treatment of packaging, freezing, antioxidant, charcoal and irradiation is a ready-to-eat type and has long shelf-life at the room temperature. Four foods items (Kimchi, Ramen, Saengshik bar, Sujeonggwa) were certified for the use in space flight conditions of 30 days by IBMP to be supplied to the first Korean astronaut, So-Yeon Lee, who accomplished space missions (sensory comparison test) at the International Space Station in 2008. To participate in the nutritional and physiological evaluation of Korean space foods in the MARS-500 project and evaluation of growth change in radio-durable micro organisms and plant seeds by space flight using BION-M1 satellite, a series of meeting were held in Russia and Korea

  16. Development of Countermeasure and Application technologies to Space Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Byun, Myung Woo; Kim, Jae Hun

    2009-02-15

    Basic studies to evaluate the microbial activity changes by irradiation, and identify the composting microorganisms using the hyperthermal composter were conducted. And establishment of research protocols on muscle atrophy mechanism using two-dimensional electrophoresis and various blotting analyses are conducted. And two bio-active molecules that potentially play an preventive role of muscle atrophy are uncovered. Integrative protocols linking between the effect of bio-active molecules and treadmill exercise for muscle atrophy inhibition are established. And, successful induction of hibernation-like animation (reduction in body temperature and heartbeat rate) were monitored after HIT injection to mice. The space Bibimbap was developed by a combination treatment of 0.4% baking powder, soaking for 45 min, cooking, freezing, and packaging. It could be consumed easily after rehydration for 10 with 70 .deg. C water, which can be supplied from the International Space Station. And Bulgogi steak developed by combination treatment of packaging, freezing, antioxidant, charcoal and irradiation is a ready-to-eat type and has long shelf-life at the room temperature. Four foods items (Kimchi, Ramen, Saengshik bar, Sujeonggwa) were certified for the use in space flight conditions of 30 days by IBMP to be supplied to the first Korean astronaut, So-Yeon Lee, who accomplished space missions (sensory comparison test) at the International Space Station in 2008. To participate in the nutritional and physiological evaluation of Korean space foods in the MARS-500 project and evaluation of growth change in radio-durable micro organisms and plant seeds by space flight using BION-M1 satellite, a series of meeting were held in Russia and Korea

  17. Enteral nutrition in surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucha, R.; Lichvarova, I.; Duchon, R.; Dolnik, J.; Pindak, D.

    2011-01-01

    Enteral feeding provides physiologic, metabolic, safety, and cost benefits over parenteral nutrition. There are various ways enteral nutritional is administered and scheduled. The method of administration must be individualized to each patient's specific needs. Enteral nutrition is not only the supply of exogenous substrates and to prevent depletion of endogenous sources. Today the enteral nutrition becomes part of a therapeutic strategy to influence the severity of the disease to affect the function of GIT, and to modulate immune responses of the gut and the whole organism. Early enteral nutrition in the postoperative period reduces the risk of infectious complications. (author)

  18. Impact of Perceptual Speed Calming Curve Countermeasures on Drivers’ Anticipation and Mitigation Ability : A Driving Simulator Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Horizontal curves are unavoidable in rural roads and are a serious crash risk to vehicle occupants. This study investigates the impact and effectiveness of three curve-based perceptual speed-calming countermeasures (advance curve warning signs, chevr...

  19. Quieter Cars and the Safety of Blind Pedestrians, Phase 2 : Development of Potential Specifications for Vehicle Countermeasure Sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This project performed research to support the development of potential specifications for vehicle : sounds, (i.e., audible countermeasures) to be used in vehicles while operating in electric mode in specific low speed : conditions. The purpose of th...

  20. Situational Awareness, Crew Resource Management and Operational Performance in Fatigued Two-Man Crews Using Three Stimulant Countermeasures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Darlington, K; Palacio, L. V; Dowler, T; LeDuc, P

    2006-01-01

    .... Army researchers have done a thorough job in the pursuit of countermeasures to Soldier fatigue that do not interfere with soldier performance, when that issue is couched in terms of individual...

  1. Transplutonium elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaramakrishnan, C. K.; Jadhav, A. V.; Reghuraman, K.; Mathew, K. A.; Nair, P. S.; Ramaniah, M. V.

    1973-07-01

    Research progress is reported on studies of the transplutonium elements including recovery and purification of americium, preparation of /sup 238/Pu, extraction studies using diethylhexyl phosphate. (DHM)

  2. Personal use of countermeasures seen in a coping perspective. Could the development of expedient countermeasures as a repertoire in the population, optimise coping and promote positive outcome expectancies, when exposed to a contamination threat?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toennessen, A.; Skuterud, L.; Strand, P.; Panova, J.; Travnikova, I.G.; Balonov, M.I.

    1996-01-01

    The appraisal and use of countermeasures in a rural district of Russia with quite high deposition after the Chernobyl accident is studied from a coping perspective. The field work was done during the summer of 1994, in the Bryansk region. There are important methodological shortages in the study, the sample of respondents is not a random sample and therefore not necessarily representative for the villages covered, and in some parts of the questionnaire the frequency of 'don't know/missing' responses is too high. With these limitations in mind the current study tries to expand the knowledge about reactions to diffuse environmental threats by studying populations as they continue their daily lives living in a contaminated area. The data from interviews with the final net sample of 163 respondents shows that about one in four were users of countermeasures such as, refraining from consumption of natural foods, or radiometric inspection of the food. Of the different countermeasures that were included in the questionnaire, the renunciation of natural products was most frequently employed. Findings indicate that the respondents who used countermeasures had lower levels of radiocaesium content in their bodies, they felt more able to influence possible health effects of the accident, and at the same time answered that they were more afraid of possible health effects than the non-users of countermeasures. This higher emotional concern is seen in a perspective of 'realistic anxiety', and the use of countermeasures is related to perceived control and outcome expectancies. (author)

  3. Biological Defense: DOD Has Strengthened Coordination on Medical Countermeasures but Can Improve Its Process for Threat Prioritization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    diseases such as equine encephalitis and Ebola have contributed to concerns about the nation’s vulnerability to biological attacks and naturally occurring...private sector and incorporates the cost associated with failed attempts to develop a medical countermeasure. DOD officials told us they face similar...biodefense medical countermeasure innovators (including those from the private sector ) that can use emerging platform technologies to enhance the

  4. FORECO. Countermeasures applied in forest ecosystems and their secondary effects. A review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafferty, B.; Synnot, H.

    1998-01-01

    The present document reports a literature review of the countermeasures applied in forest ecosystems and their secondary effects. The review has been prepared as a deliverable for the FORECO research Project. FORECO (Forest Ecosystems: Classification of Restoration Options, Considering Dose Reduction, Long-Term Ecological Quality and Economic Factors) is a project funded by the European Commission (Research Contract n. ERBIC-CT96-0202) in the frame of the Cooperation with third countries and international organizations (INCO-COPERNICUS) and coordinated by the National Environmental Protection Agency of Italy. The main aim of FORECO activities with respect to forest ecosystems is the classification of countermeasure options in different forest types, considering the balance between dose reduction, long-term ecological quality and economical factors

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis of countermeasures using accident consequence assessment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, A.; Gallego, E.

    1987-01-01

    In the event of a large release of radionuclides from a nuclear power plant, protective actions for the population potentially affected must be implemented. Cost-effectiveness analysis will be useful to define the countermeasures and the criteria needed to implement them. This paper shows the application of Accident Consequence Assessment (ACA) models to cost-effectiveness analysis of emergency and long-term countermeasures, making use of the different relationships between dose, contamination levels, affected areas and population distribution, included in such a model. The procedure is illustrated with the new Melcor Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS 1.3), developed at Sandia National Laboratories (USA), for a fixed accident scenario. Different alternative actions are evaluated with regard to their radiological and economical impact, searching for an 'optimum' strategy. (author)

  6. COUNTERMEASURE FOR MINIMIZE UNWANTED ALARM OF AUTOMATIC FIRE NOTIFICATION SYSTEM IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasung Kong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article investigated the cause of error through survey to building officials for minimizing the unwanted alarm of automatic fire notification and suggested countermeasure for minimizing the unwanted alarm. The main cause of the unwanted alarm is defective fire detector, interlocking with automatic fire detection system, lack in fire safety warden’s ability, worn-out fire detect receiving system. The countermeasure for minimizing unwanted alarm is firstly, tightening up the standard of model approval, Secondly, interlocking with cross-section circuit method fire extinguishing system or realizing automatic fire notification system interlocking with home network, thirdly, tightening up licensing examination of fire safety warden, lastly, it suggested term of use rule of fire detect receiving system. 

  7. COUNTERMEASURE FOR MINIMIZE UNWANTED ALARM OF AUTOMATIC FIRE NOTIFICATION SYSTEM IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasung Kong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article investigated the cause of error through survey to building officials for minimizing the unwanted alarm of automatic fire notification and suggested countermeasure for minimizing the unwanted alarm. The main cause of the unwanted alarm is defective fire detector, interlocking with automatic fire detection system, lack in fire safety warden’s ability, worn-out fire detect receiving system. The countermeasure for minimizing unwanted alarm is firstly, tightening up the standard of model approval, Secondly, interlocking with cross-section circuit method fire extinguishing system or realizing automatic fire notification system interlocking with home network, thirdly, tightening up licensing examination of fire safety warden, lastly, it suggested term of use rule of fire detect receiving system.

  8. A media information analysis for implementing effective countermeasure against harmful rumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Mitsuyoshi; Suto, Kazuhiro; Ohuchi, Azuma

    2010-04-01

    When large scale earthquake occurred, the word of "harmful rumor" came to be frequently heard. The harmful rumor means an economic damage which is caused by the action that people regard actually safe foods or areas as dangerous and then abort consumption or sightseeing. In the case of harmful rumor caused by earthquake, especially, tourism industry receives massive economic damage. Currently, harmful rumor which gives substantial economic damage have become serious social issue which must be solved. In this paper, we propose a countermeasure method for harmful rumor on the basis of media trend in order to implement speedy recovery from harmful rumor. Here, we investigate the amount and content of information which is transmitted to the general public by the media when an earthquake occurred. In addition, the media information in three earthquakes is treated as instance. Finally, we discuss an effective countermeasure method for dispeling harmful rumor through these analysis results.

  9. FORECO. Countermeasures applied in forest ecosystems and their secondary effects: a review of literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, B.; Synnot, H. [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, (Ireland)

    1998-12-31

    The present document reports a literature review of the countermeasures applied in forest ecosystems and their secondary effects. The review has been prepared as a deliverable for the FORECO research Project. FORECO (Forest Ecosystems: Classification of Restoration Options, Considering Dose Reduction, Long-Term Ecological Quality and Economic Factors) is a project funded by the European Commission (Research Contract n. ERBIC-CT96-0202) in the frame of the Cooperation with third countries and international organizations (INCO-COPERNICUS) and coordinated by the National Environmental Protection Agency of Italy. The main aim of FORECO activities with respect to forest ecosystems is the classification of countermeasure options in different forest types, considering the balance between dose reduction, long-term ecological quality and economical factors.

  10. Countermeasures for electrolytic corrosion - Part II: Implementation of a rapid potential-controlled rectifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Dae-Kyeong; Lee, Hyun-Goo; Ha, Yoon-Cheol; Bae, Jeong-Hyo [Underground Systems Group, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, 28-1 Sungju-dong, Changwon, 641-120 (Korea)

    2004-07-01

    In electrolytic interference circumstances such as underground pipelines in the vicinity of DC electrified railroads, drainage method or impressed current cathodic protection method has been widely used as a countermeasure for the electrolytic corrosion. In the former method, forced or polarized drainage is commonly adopted and in the latter, the phase-controlled rectifier with thyristor is in common use. Both methods, however, does not show as the optimal measure for the integrity of the pipeline, since the pipe-to-soil potential fluctuates highly positive to the cathodic protection criterion. In particular, as the potential of the pipeline near the railroad varies rapidly, a new rapidly responding countermeasure is necessary. In this paper, we introduce a new rapid potential controlled rectifier and report the result in field tests. Comparison with the existing forced drainage method is also made. The pipe-to-soil potential data show the effectiveness of the rapid potential-controlled rectifier. (authors)

  11. [Risk of thyroid cancer occurrence by nuclear disasters and its countermeasures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Atsushi; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2012-11-01

    Looking back at the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, besides further studying the appropriateness of the initial response and post-countermeasures against the severe Fukushima nuclear accident, the importance of the epidemiological study in human health risk management and the comprehensive radiation protection standard need to be emphasized; lessons learnt from the Chernobyl accident should be also implemented. Therefore, since May 2011, Fukushima Prefecture has started the "Health Care Project (Fukushima Health Management Survey Project)" for the purpose of long-term health care administration and medical diagnosis/treatment for the prefectural residents. In this issue, risk and countermeasures of thyroid cancer occurrence by nuclear disasters, especially due to radioactive iodine will be discussed despite the difficult challenge of accurate estimation of low dose and low-dose rate radiation exposures.

  12. Proposed Pharmacological Countermeasures Against Apoptotic Cell Death in Experimental Models Mimicking Space Environment Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulli, Matteo; Papucci, Laura; Witort, Ewa; Donnini, Martino; Lapucci, Andrea; Lazzarano, Stefano; Mazzoni, Tiziano; Simoncini, Madine; Falciani, Piergiuseppe; Capaccioli, Sergio

    2008-06-01

    Several damaging agents have been suggested to affect human vision during long term space travels. Recently, apoptosis induced by DNA-damaging agents has emerged as frequent pathogenetic mechanism of ophthalmologic pathologies. Here, we propose two countermeasures: coenzyme Q10 and bcl-2 downregulation preventing antisense oligoribonucleotides (ORNs), aimed to inhibit cellular apoptotic death. Our studies have been carried out on retina and neuronal cultured cells treated with the following apoptotic stimuli mimicking space environment: a several-day exposure to either 3H-labeled tymidine or to the genotoxic drug doxorubicin, UV irradiation, hypoxia and glucose/growth factor starvation (Locke medium). The preliminary results clearly indicate that CoQ10, as well as bcl-2 down-regulation preventing ORNs, significantly counteract apoptosis in response to different DNA damaging agents in cultured eye and in neuronal cells. This supports the possibility that both could be optimal countermeasures against ophthalmologic lesions during space explorations.

  13. Countermeasures for Intensive Use of Land from the Perspective of Urban-Rural Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Li-bin

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes problems of excessive emphasis on expansion of urban land, improper village and town construction, and low land utilization efficiency in urban-rural integration construction. In line with characteristics and principle of intensive land use of urban-rural integration, it puts forward integration of urban-rural land layout, practically exploring connotation, and improving land intensification in many ways. Based on these, it presents countermeasures for intensive use of lan...

  14. Economic Development Mode and Countermeasure Research on the Nansi Lake Drainage Area Based on Circular Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Yong-fei; Peng, Li-min

    2011-01-01

    Firstly, it is pointed out that circular economy should be vigorously developed in the Nansi Lake Drainage Area, and the connotation of circular economy is expounded. Then, problems in developing circular economy in Nansi Lake Drainage Area are analyzed from the aspects of agriculture, industrial enterprises, and waste utilization. Finally, combining with the four modes of peasant household, enterprise, region and society in the development of circular economy, corresponding countermeasures a...

  15. In-duct countermeasures for reducing fire-generated-smoke-aerosol exposure to HEPA filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvares, N.J.; Beason, D.G.; Ford, H.W.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to assess the endurance and lifetime of HEPA filters exposed to fire-generated aerosols, and to reduce the aerosol exposure by installing engineering countermeasures in the duct between the fire source and HEPA filters. Large cribs of wood and other potential fuels of interest were ''forcefully burned'' in a partially ventilated enclosure. In a ''forceful burn'' the crib of fuel is continuously exposed to an energetic premixed methane flame during the entire experimental period. This tactic serves two purposes: it optimizes the production of smoke rich in unburned pyrolyzates which provides severe exposure to the filters, and it facilitates the ignition and enhances the combustion of cribs formed with synthetic polymers. The experiments were conducted in an enclosure specifically designed and instrumented for fire tests. The test cell has a volume of 100 m 3 and includes instrumentation to measure the internal temperature distribution, pressure, thermal radiation field, flow fields, gas concentration, particulate size distribution and mass, fuel weight loss, inlet and exit air velocities, and smoke optical density. The countermeasure techniques include the use of passively operated sprinkler systems in the fire test cell, of fine and dense water scrubbing sprays, and of rolling prefiltration systems in the exit duct of the fire test cell. Of the countermeasures surveyed, the rolling prefilter system showed the most promise. This paper concentrates on the effect of control variables; i.e., enclosure air supply, fuel composition and crib porosity on the combustion response; i.e., crib burning rate, enclosure temperature rise, oxygen consumption, and CO, CO 2 and total hydrocarbon production. A discussion of the attempts to rationalize smoke aerosol properties will be included along with results from the effect of countermeasure application on HEPA filter lifetimes

  16. Study on Status, Problems and Countermeasures of Developing Popular Science Tourism of Geoparks in Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wufu; Cheng, Xianfeng; Huang, Qianrui

    2017-12-01

    Tourism development of Yunnan geoparks keeps in the stage of “sightseeing tour” and the real “popular science tourism” keeps in the explorative stage, thus it has a series of problems, such as uncorrelation between tourist attractions and geology, uncorrelation between geologic observation spot and tourism, and insufficient scientificity of commentary, etc. By aiming at these problems, corresponding countermeasures and suggestion were proposed.

  17. The Challenges and Countermeasures of Human Resources on Nuclear Power in the 21st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Mingguang; Ye Cheng; Han Xu

    2011-01-01

    The paper addresses the situations of nuclear power development and nuclear industry human resources and points out that the development and supply of human resources are becoming the big challenges in the effective and sustainable development of nuclear power. At the same time, the paper analyzes the root causes of human resources shortage and recommends several countermeasures to confront human resources problems. At last, the paper introduces what SNPTC and SNERDI do to overcome the human resources problem and give conclusions. (author)

  18. Analysis on Present Situation and Countermeasures of Rural Ecotourism in Jiangsu Province

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, Haiqin; GUAN, Yongxiang; WANG, Zichen

    2013-01-01

    This article briefly outlines the concept, present situation and form of rural ecotourism. It also preliminarily analyses the existing problems of rural ecotourism. Then countermeasures and suggestions related to the further development of rural ecotourism and the promotion of new countryside construction are put forward, which can be summarized as follows: carrying out multichannel financing, in order to strengthen the development dynamics of rural ecotourism; focusing on cultivation of ecol...

  19. An Objective Approach for Burkholderia pseudomallei Strain Selection as Challenge Material for Medical Countermeasures Efficacy Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Van Zandt, Kristopher E.; Tuanyok, Apichai; Keim, Paul S.; Warren, Richard L.; Gelhaus, H. Carl

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a rare disease of biodefense concern with high mortality and extreme difficulty in treatment. No human vaccines are available that protect against B. pseudomallei infection, and with the current limitations of antibiotic treatment, the development of new preventative and therapeutic interventions is crucial. Although clinical trials could be used to test the efficacy of new medical countermeasures (MCMs), the high mortality rate...

  20. Radon in the life environment and its countermeasures of prevention and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhenyuan; Zhang Shucheng

    2004-01-01

    Radon and its daughters are a primary component for human body received total natural radiation. They will hurt human body, even fall ill when human body is over-received radiation permitted in the life environment, especially indoors. The paper introduces mainly production mechanism of the radon and its daughters at indoor environment, the live environment investigation and monitoring technology, and effect factors on the radon concentration and distribution, as well as protection and control countermeasures for radon. (authors)

  1. Medical countermeasures for national security: a new government role in the pharmaceuticalization of society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbe, Stefan; Roemer-Mahler, Anne; Long, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    How do governments contribute to the pharmaceuticalization of society? Whilst the pivotal role of industry is extensively documented, this article shows that governments too are accelerating, intensifying and opening up new trajectories of pharmaceuticalization in society. Governments are becoming more deeply invested in pharmaceuticals because their national security strategies now aspire to defend populations against health-based threats like bioterrorism and pandemics. To counter those threats, governments are acquiring and stockpiling a panoply of 'medical countermeasures' such as antivirals, next-generation vaccines, antibiotics and anti-toxins. More than that, governments are actively incentivizing the development of many new medical countermeasures--principally by marshaling the state's unique powers to introduce exceptional measures in the name of protecting national security. At least five extraordinary policy interventions have been introduced by governments with the aim of stimulating the commercial development of novel medical countermeasures: (1) allocating earmarked public funds, (2) granting comprehensive legal protections to pharmaceutical companies against injury compensation claims, (3) introducing bespoke pathways for regulatory approval, (4) instantiating extraordinary emergency use procedures allowing for the use of unapproved medicines, and (5) designing innovative logistical distribution systems for mass drug administration outside of clinical settings. Those combined efforts, the article argues, are spawning a new, government-led and quite exceptional medical countermeasure regime operating beyond the conventional boundaries of pharmaceutical development and regulation. In the first comprehensive analysis of the pharmaceuticalization dynamics at play in national security policy, this article unearths the detailed array of policy interventions through which governments too are becoming more deeply imbricated in the pharmaceuticalization of

  2. Countermeasures for reduction of radioactive contamination of farm animals and animal products in agricultural ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeschl, M.

    2006-01-01

    A wide variety of measures is available to reduce or prevent the transfer of radionuclides through the food-chain and hence reduce the radiation dose to the consumer. In this mini-review, both literature sources and the practice of applying agricultural countermeasures are summarized very shortly: Interventions at the soil-plant step, at the plant-animal step, and at the foodstuff-man step. (authors)

  3. Present situation and countermeasures for managing expenses of safety in production in enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Liefen

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces the evolutions concerning accountant accounting for the capital of safety in production over the recent years, and analyses the present situation and reasons for the problems existed in enterprise as for gathering expenses of safety in production, and propose the countermeasures to reinforce the management of enterprise expenses of safety in production, in order to improve the management of enterprise expenses of safety in production and to enhance the level of the management in safety for the enterprise. (author)

  4. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors to h...

  5. Nutrition in Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Anna Salwa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and purpose of the work. Diabetic kidney disease usually occurs at a late stage of diabetes and is often the result of long-term disease failure. As in diabetes alone, the diet used by the patient has a significant influence on how quickly the nephropathy will proceed. The aim of the study is to present issues related to dietary management in kidney diseases being complication of diabetes. . Brief description of the state of knowledge. People with type 2 diabetes usually struggle with overweight or obesity and hypertension. Obesity is one of the factors that causes the progression of diabetic kidney disease. A diet for such people requires a negative energy balance. Insulin itself increases appetite and the frequent occurrence of hypoglycaemia is the reason for increasing the number of meals. Summary. Diet is a very important element in the treatment of diabetes. It determines the maintenance of proper blood glucose and lipid (lipid levels and optimal blood pressure values. A well-chosen diet reduces the risk of diabetic complications, as well as reduces the risk of vascular diseases. The right model of nutrition also plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of chronic diabetes complications.

  6. Molecular events underlying skeletal muscle atrophy and the development of effective countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, F. W.; Criswell, D. S.

    1997-01-01

    Skeletal muscle adapts to loading; atrophying when exposed to unloading on Earth or in spaceflight. Significant atrophy (decreases in muscle fiber cross-section of 11-24%) in humans has been noted after only 5 days in space. Since muscle strength is determined both by muscle cross-section and synchronization of motor unit recruitment, a loss in muscle size weakens astronauts, which would increase risks to their safety if an emergency required maximal muscle force. Numerous countermeasures have been tested to prevent atrophy. Resistant exercise together with growth hormone and IGF-I are effective countermeasures to unloading as most atrophy is prevented in animal models. The loss of muscle protein is due to an early decrease in protein synthesis rate and a later increase in protein degradation. The initial decrease in protein synthesis is a result of decreased protein translation, caused by a prolongation in the elongation rate. A decrease in HSP70 by a sight increase in ATP may be the factors prolonging elongation rate. Increases in the activities of proteolytic enzymes and in ubiquitin contribute to the increased protein degradation rate in unloaded muscle. Numerous mRNA concentrations have been shown to be altered in unloaded muscles. Decreases in mRNAs for contractile proteins usually occur after the initial fall in protein synthesis rates. Much additional research is needed to determine the mechanism by which muscle senses the absence of gravity with an adaptive atrophy. The development of effective countermeasures to unloading atrophy will require more research.

  7. Herbal radiation countermeasure agents: promising role in the management of radiological/nuclear exigencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, Rajesh; Sharma, A.; Kumar, R.; Tripathi, R.P.

    2008-01-01

    In the future, there is a need to substantially boost biomass production and employ elicitors/precursors for improving the production of radioprotective compounds from such alternative sources for ensuring a sustainable supply of the high-value, low volume radioprotective molecules. Chemical fingerprinting, identification and characterization of bioactive constituents using modem analytical techniques and evaluation of their multifaceted mode of action at genomic/proteomic level is also the need of the hour. Such data will help in the development of novel, safe and effective radiation countermeasure agents for human use. Herbal radiation countermeasure agents, including several dietary agents, are likely to find large-scale acceptance in most countries in view of their widespread acceptance, holistic mode of action, less toxicity and economical nature. Endeavours made at INMAS in this direction are likely to fructify in coming years and radiation countermeasure agents from several of these herbal sources would become available, possibly several would be obtainable over-the-counter, for use by civilians, military personnel, first emergency responders and other rescue and recovery personnel. (author)

  8. Application of fuzzy decision making to countermeasure strategies after a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Ruan, D.

    1996-01-01

    In the event of a nuclear accident, any decision on countermeasures to protect the public should be made based upon the basic principles recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The application of these principles requires that there is a balance between the cost and the averted radiation dose, taking into account many subjective factors such as social/political acceptability, psychological stress, and the confidence of the population in the authorities etc. In the framework of classical methods, it is difficult to quantify human subjective judgements and the uncertainties of data efficiently. Hence, any attempt to find the optimal solution for countermeasure strategies without deliberative sensitivity analysis can be misleading. However, fuzzy sets, with linguistic terms to describe the human subjective judgement and with fuzzy numbers to model the uncertainties of the parameters, can be introduced to eliminate these difficulties. With fuzzy rating, a fuzzy multiple attribute decision making method can rank the possible countermeasure strategies. This paper will describe the procedure of the method and present an illustrative example

  9. Urbapat: External exposure and countermeasures after a radiological accident in the urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.E.; Gallego, E.

    1992-01-01

    URBAPAT (URBAN PATHWAY) is a computer model, written in FORTRAN 77, for the evaluation of the gamma external exposure, and the adequate countermeasures, after a radiological accident involving dispersion and deposition of radioactive material on different urban surfaces. The code estimates the evolution of radioactive material in the urban environment using a dynamic model consisting on 21 compartments, that simulate five different urban surfaces with their particular retention properties. For the assessment of the gamma external exposure in urban areas, one of then main contributors to the long-term individual dose, the model considers the contribution of each surface to the dose rate delivered by five radionuclides (Cs-137, Cs-134, I-131, Te-132, Ba-140) in different locations outside and inside three types of buildings (semi-detached houses, terrace houses and multi-stored buildings). The population is classified in various groups, attending to their stay time in each location. The model can evaluate the dose avoided by the introduction of countermeasures like decontamination of the urban surfaces or relocation. An assessment of their associated costs will permit to perform the needed cost-benefit analysis of the different countermeasures and alternatives, following IAEA and ICRP recommendations. The capability to perform sensitivity and uncertainty assessment of the more important parameters affecting the results obtained will also be included in the model. (Author)

  10. Study to Improve Security for IoT Smart Device Controller: Drawbacks and Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Su

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Including mobile environment, conventional security mechanisms have been adapted to satisfy the needs of users. However, the device environment-IoT-based number of connected devices is quite different to the previous traditional desktop PC- or mobile-based environment. Based on the IoT, different kinds of smart and mobile devices are fully connected automatically via device controller, such as smartphone. Therefore, controller must be secure compared to conventional security mechanism. According to the existing security threats, these are quite different from the previous ones. Thus, the countermeasures applied should be changed. However, the smart device-based authentication techniques that have been proposed to date are not adequate in terms of usability and security. From the viewpoint of usability, the environment is based on mobility, and thus devices are designed and developed to enhance their owners’ efficiency. Thus, in all applications, there is a need to consider usability, even when the application is a security mechanism. Typically, mobility is emphasized over security. However, considering that the major characteristic of a device controller is deeply related to its owner’s private information, a security technique that is robust to all kinds of attacks is mandatory. In this paper, we focus on security. First, in terms of security achievement, we investigate and categorize conventional attacks and emerging issues and then analyze conventional and existing countermeasures, respectively. Finally, as countermeasure concepts, we propose several representative methods.

  11. Exercise Countermeasures Demonstration Project During the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project Phase 2A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Guilliams, Mark E.; Moore, Alan D., Jr.; Williams, W. Jon; Greenisen, M. C.; Fortney, S. M.

    1998-01-01

    This demonstration project assessed the crew members' compliance to a portion of the exercise countermeasures planned for use onboard the International Space Station (ISS) and the outcomes of their performing these countermeasures. Although these countermeasures have been used separately in other projects and investigations, this was the first time they'd been used together for an extended period (60 days) in an investigation of this nature. Crew members exercised every day for six days, alternating every other day between aerobic and resistive exercise, and rested on the seventh day. On the aerobic exercise days, subjects exercised on an electronically braked cycle ergometer using a protocol that has been previously shown to maintain aerobic capacity in subjects exposed to a space flight analogue. On the resistive exercise days, crew members performed five major multijoint resistive exercises in a concentric mode, targeting those muscle groups and bones we believe are most severely affected by space flight. The subjects favorably tolerated both exercise protocols, with a 98% compliance to aerobic exercise prescription and a 91% adherence to the resistive exercise protocol. After 60 days, the crew members improved their peak aerobic capacity by an average 7%, and strength gains were noted in all subjects. These results suggest that these exercise protocols can be performed during ISS, lunar, and Mars missions, although we anticipate more frequent bouts with both protocols for long-duration spaceflight. Future projects should investigate the impact of increased exercise duration and frequency on subject compliance, and the efficacy of such exercise prescriptions.

  12. A review of countermeasures to reduce radioiodine in milk of dairy animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.; Voigt, G.; Segal, M.G.

    1996-01-01

    The most effective countermeasure for radioiodine contamination of milk is to provide dairy animals with uncontaminated feed, with the added advantage that it will be effective for other radionuclides in the fallout. Another effective response is to process the milk into storable dairy products for an appropriate length of time to allow for physical decay. The use of additives given to ruminants to reduce radioiodine in milk is an alternative countermeasure which could be effective. Stable iodine administration is a practically feasible option which has the potential to reduce radioiodine levels in milk by at most a factor of three. Stable iodine supplementation should be at sufficiently high rates to be effective (and at least 1 g d -1 for dairy cows), particularly for ruminants already receiving high amounts of iodine in the diet. Currently available data are inadequate to recommend a suitable stable iodine administration rate for different species of ruminants. Other compounds, such as perchlorate and thiocyanate, also reduce the transfer to radioiodine to milk (and thyroid). Some of these compounds seem to be potentially equally as effective as stable iodine. However, currently there is inadequate information on their effectiveness and possible toxicity to both ruminants and humans for these compounds to be considered as suitable countermeasure additives. 85 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Study on countermeasures for effective assessment of domestic system of physical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Uk; An, J. S.; Min, G. S.; Yoon, W. K.; Kim, K. J.; Kim, J. K.; Lim, J. H.; Choe, K. K.; Park, S. G.

    2004-04-01

    Since the threat for nuclear facilities has increased due to the collapse of the Soviet Union and the allegations of Iraq and North Korean nuclear programmes, the concern for international regime of physical protection has been a hot issue worldwide. In addition, as the international strengthening trend of physical protection had been speeded up since the September 11th terror, Member States including the IAEA had agreed to revise the CPPNM(INFCIRC/274/rev.1) and prepared a draft amendment of CPPNM to establish their systems of physical protection based on threat assessment. However, Korean government has not yet established the domestic regime of threat assessment as well as national DBT for nuclear facilities, so it is very urgent to prepare the measures for them. As a domestic countermeasure for the international trend, Korean government promulgated a new 'Law for Physical Protection and Radiological Emergency'(LPPRE) on May 2003, which was based on establishing the regime of threat assessment, but it is necessary for us to construct the substantial countermeasures for its implementation as well as to legislate the following regulations of the LPPRE. Therefore, this study suggests the measures for constructing domestic regime of threat assessment in order to establish the legal and institutional framework and provides the efficient countermeasures for its implementation

  14. Pharmaceutical Point of View on Parenteral Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stawny

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Parenteral nutrition—a form of administering nutrients, electrolytes, trace elements, vitamins, and water—is a widely used mode of therapy applied in many diseases, in patients of different ages both at home and in hospital. The success of nutritional therapy depends chiefly on proper determination of the patient’s energetic and electrolytic needs as well as preparation and administration of a safe nutritional mixture. As a parenterally administered drug, it is expected to be microbiologically and physicochemically stable, with all of the components compatible with each other. It is very difficult to obtain a stable nutritional mixture due to the fact that it is a complex, two-phase drug. Also, the risk of incompatibility between mixture components and packaging should be taken into consideration and possibly eliminated. Since parenteral nutrition is a part of therapy, simultaneous use of drugs may cause pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions as well as those with the pharmaceutical phase. The aim of this paper is to discuss such aspects of parenteral nutrition as mixture stability, methodology, and methods for determining the stability of nutritional mixtures and drugs added to them.

  15. Pharmaceutical Point of View on Parenteral Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawny, M.; Olijarczyk, R.; Jaroszkiewicz, E.; Jelińska, A.

    2013-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition—a form of administering nutrients, electrolytes, trace elements, vitamins, and water—is a widely used mode of therapy applied in many diseases, in patients of different ages both at home and in hospital. The success of nutritional therapy depends chiefly on proper determination of the patient's energetic and electrolytic needs as well as preparation and administration of a safe nutritional mixture. As a parenterally administered drug, it is expected to be microbiologically and physicochemically stable, with all of the components compatible with each other. It is very difficult to obtain a stable nutritional mixture due to the fact that it is a complex, two-phase drug. Also, the risk of incompatibility between mixture components and packaging should be taken into consideration and possibly eliminated. Since parenteral nutrition is a part of therapy, simultaneous use of drugs may cause pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions as well as those with the pharmaceutical phase. The aim of this paper is to discuss such aspects of parenteral nutrition as mixture stability, methodology, and methods for determining the stability of nutritional mixtures and drugs added to them. PMID:24453847

  16. The Relationship between Migraine and Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayçıl Özturan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Migraine is a kind of headache accompanied by neurologic, gastrointestinal, and autonomous variations. The roles of factors that trigger migraine, especially nutrition triggers, have become much more questionable with the increase in the rate of migraine occurrence. Some patients with migraine have stated that their headache attacks start without any reason. However, inner triggers such as hormonal changes or external triggers such as air exchange, some smells or the association of both triggers can start the headache. Each patient may not have same sensitivity to these triggers. A single factor might become prominent in some patients, but more than one factor may need to be required in other patients. Although the connection between migraine and the factors such as stress, environmental factors, chronic diseases, and nutritional and sleep status has been known, their mechanisms are still not clear. Nutritional status and the effects of nutrition play an important role being pain triggers in everybody, especially children and young people who suffer from migraine headache. Considering the migraine triggers generally, it has been suggested in studies that there is at least one nutrition-related trigger and hunger is the most frequently reported trigger in terms of diet. Moreover it is known that chocolate, tea, coffee, cheese, and alcohol may trigger migraine because of some specific elements within them. In recently conducted studies, using some functional foods have raised on the treatment of migraine. For this reason, the relationship between migraine and triggering factors as food and nutrition are examined in this study.

  17. The Project for Developing Countermeasures against Landslides in the Abay River Gorge, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guta, H. E.

    2016-12-01

    The Blue Nile Gorge of Ethiopia is characterized by high relief landscape. The stretch of major arterial road that connects Ethiopia to Sudan passes through the Gorge. The Gorge is plagued by swarms of landslides which makes it a tremendous obstacle for travel and communication. Therefore, landside study was carried out from 2010 to 2012 by JICA and Geological survey of Ethiopia to figure out the mechanisms that trigger the swarms of landslides that occur in the area and identify appropriate countermeasures that would be best implemented. The study included geomorphologic and geologic survey, drilling survey, displacement monitoring, ground water and precipitation monitoring, geophysical exploration, and stability analysis. About 42 landslide monitoring instruments namely extensometers (both surface and borehole), inclinometers and ground water level meters were installed in four highly landslide prone areas to detect slip surface, and determine amount and direction of movement. The amount of landslide movement at the four zones is 42.4, 57.6, 294.9 and 136mm during rainy season. Ground water level rising, nature of material and intense rainfall are found to be among the major triggering factors. Stability analysis using Simple Jambu and modified Fellenus methods was conducted resulting in safety factor Fs less than one and reasonably 0.98 by adopting shear parameters of soils by back analysis. By assuming cohesion (c') to be very close to 0 due to landslide blocks active movement when ground water rises during rainy season, Shear resistance angle, ɸ, was obtained to be 10.80, 26.30, 10.20 and 16.30 in the four areas using Modified Fellenius method and 10.70, 26.60, 10.00 and 16.10 using Simple Janbu method. Effect of countermeasures was checked by trial calculation. Accordingly the factory of safety increased from 0.98 to 1.2 when ɸ=60, ground water is lowered by 6m, and steel pipe pile of ɸ500mm x t40mm at an interval of 1.9m are implemented. consequently

  18. Optimizing patient nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium

    (Paper I). The present study is, to my knowledge, the only study investigating the validity of performed nutritional risk screenings by comparing them with medical records. Eight per cent of patients were correctly screened for nutritional risk. A total of 24% of 2393 patients were nutritionally screened......Malnutrition, under-nutrition and/or obesity, may develop due to disease but may also cause disease. The prevalence of under-nutrition among hospitalized patients is high: 40-60% are either already under-nourished on admittance or at-risk of becoming malnourished. As in the general population...... of prescription medication, and take longer to recover. Acknowledging the adverse effects of malnutrition on health, since 2006 it has been mandatory to screen all patients for nutritional risk within 24 hours of admittance at all hospitals in the Capital Region, Denmark. The compliance to and the validity...

  19. Inadequate Nutritional Status of Hospitalized Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alkan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In oncology practice, nutrition and also metabolic activity are essential to support the nutritional status and prevent malignant cachexia. It is important to evaluate the patients and plan the maneuvers at the start of the therapy. The primary objective of the study is to define the nutritional status of hospitalized patients and the factors affecting it in order to define the most susceptible patients and maneuvers for better nutritional support. Methods: Patients hospitalized in oncology clinic for therapy were evaluated for food intake and nutritional status through structured interviews. The clinical properties, medical therapies, elements of nutritional support were noted and predictors of inadequate nutritional status (INS were analyzed. Results: Four hundred twenty three patients, between 16-82 years old (median: 52 were evaluated. Nearly half of the patients (185, 43% reported a better appetite at home than in hospital and declared that hospitalization is an important cause of loss of appetite (140/185, 75.6%. Presence of nausea/vomiting (N/V, depression, age less than 65 and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs were associated with increased risk of INS in hospitalized cancer patients. On the contrary, steroid medication showed a positive impact on nutritional status of cancer patients. Conclusion: N/V, younger age, presence of depression and NSAIDs medication were associated with INS in hospitalized cancer patients. Clinicians should pay more attention to this group of patients. In addition, unnecessary hospitalizations and medications that may disturb oral intake must be avoided. Corticosteroids are important tools for managing anorexia and INS.

  20. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armijo, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    A fuel element for nuclear reactors is proposed which has a higher corrosion resisting quality in reactor operations. The zirconium alloy coating around the fuel element (uranium or plutonium compound) has on its inside a protection layer of metal which is metallurgically bound to the substance of the coating. As materials are namned: Alluminium, copper, niobium, stainless steel, and iron. This protective metallic layer has another inner layer, also metallurgically bound to its surface, which consists usually of a zirconium alloy. (UWI) [de

  1. Nutritional Issues and Nutrition Support in Older Home Care Patients in the City of Zagreb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranešić Bender, Darija; Kovačević, Marta; Hanževački, Miro; Vrabec, Božena; Benković, Vanesa; Domislović, Viktor; Krznarić, Željko

    2017-12-01

    Population aging is a global demographic trend showing continuous growth and among its consequences is a rise in malnutrition that is characteristic for the elderly. The objective of this study was to evaluate nutritional status of elderly home care patients immediately after hospital discharge and to determine factors that affect nutritional status using questionnaires based on validated tools (NRS-2002, DETERMINE checklist) and basic medical history data. The study involved 76 elderly individuals (51.3% of them older than 70) living in the City of Zagreb. The nutritional status assessment using the NRS-2002 tool showed that 57.6% of the subjects were at nutritional risk. The findings of the assessment by use of the DETERMINE tool were also unfavorable, indicating that 82.1% of persons older than 70 were categorized as being at a high nutritional risk, while 17.9% were at moderate risk. The DETERMINE checklist elements (illness; reduced intake of fruits, vegetables or dairy products; alcohol consumption; oral health problems; and weight loss) were linked to a higher NRS score. The mean number of hospital days in subjects at nutritional risk was 14.27 (the mean number in the Republic of Croatia is 8.56 days). Although the study involved a small number of subjects, the results showed a substantial presence of malnutrition among the elderly. A timely -intervention by the healthcare system and training of healthcare personnel can be a step towards achieving a better nutritional status.

  2. Nutritional assessment of athletes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Driskell, Judy A; Wolinsky, Ira

    2011-01-01

    "Evaluating dietary intake, determining energy metabolism, and conducting other nutritional assessments are essential in understanding the relationships between diet, exercise, health, and physical...

  3. Introduction to clinical nutrition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sardesai, Vishwanath M

    2012-01-01

    .... Introduction to Clinical Nutrition, Third edition discusses the physiologic and metabolic interrelationships of all nutrients and their roles in health maintenance and the prevention of various...

  4. What Is Enteral Nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Solution Center NOVEL Project Parenteral Nutrition Resources Intravenous Lipid Emulsions (ILE) Video Series SmartPN Practice and Research Toolkits Publications & ASPEN Journals Journal of Parenteral and ...

  5. European consumers and nutrition labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling of food in Europe is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made for the product. The European Commission is proposing mandatory nutrition labelling, even front of pack labelling with nutrition information. Yet, how widespread is nutrition labelling in the EU...

  6. Food & Nutrition: Nourish Your Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food & Nutrition: Nourish Your Body; food & nutrition; food and nutrition; food and nutrition articles; information about nutrition; health & nutrition; health and nutrition; health and nutrition articles; health and nutrition facts; health nutrition; nutrition and health; nutrition health; nutrition health articles; healthy; a healthy diet; diet healthy; eating healthy; healthy diet; healthy diets; nutrition diet; diet and nutrition; diet and nutrition articles; diet and nutrition article; diet nutrition; nutrition and diet; article on nutrition; article about nutrition; articles on nutrition; facts about nutrition; good nutrition; nutrition article; nutrition articles; healthy tips; eat healthy tips; eating healthy tips; healthy diet tips; healthy eating tip; healthy eating tips; healthy food tips; should eat; reasons why you should eat healthy; why people should eat healthy; why should I eat healthy; why should people eat healthy; why should we eat healthy; why should you eat healthy; why we should eat healthy; why you should eat healthy; healthy diet; a healthy diet; diets healthy eating; eat a healthy diet; eat healthy diet; eating a healthy diet; eating healthy diet; eating healthy diets; healthy diet; way to eat; best way to eat healthy; easy way to eat healthy; easy ways to eat healthy; healthy way of eating; healthy way to eat; healthy ways of eating; healthy ways to eat; ways to eat healthy; benefits; benefits eating healthy; benefits for eating healthy; benefits from eating healthy; benefits of eating healthy; benefits of healthy eating; benefits on eating healthy; benefits to eating healthy; eating healthy benefits; health benefits of eating healthy; eat healthier; eat healthier; eating healthier; healthier eating; healthier ways to eat; how can I eat healthier; how do I eat healthier; how to eat healthier; how to start eating healthier; tips to eat healthier; ways to start eating healthier

  7. Immediate preoperative enteral nutrition (preoperative enteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lađević Nebojša

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional support of surgical patients is a necessary part of the treatment. It alone cannot cure the disease but it significantly affects the recovery of patients and supports surgical interventions. Patients in malnutrition have shown to have significantly more postoperative infectious and non-infectious complications. This significantly prolongs treatment time and increases costs. However, there is one fact that cannot be expressed in money, which is the patient's impression of the surgical intervention. Adequate preoperative patient support, based on the intake of liquid nutritive solutions, reduces preoperative stress and deflects the metabolic response. Now, it is recommended for adults and children older than one year to drink clear liquid up to 2 hours before induction in anesthesia. Appropriate enteral nutrition has a significant place in the postoperative recovery of patients. Enteral nutrition is reducing complications, mainly infectious complications because the function of the digestive system as one large immune system is preserved. Perioperative enteral nutrition is a necessary part of the modern treatment of surgical patients. In addition to the significant effect on the occurrence of postoperative complications, it is also important that this type of diet improves the psychological status of patients.

  8. Neutron activation analysis applied to nutritional and foodstuff studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maihara, Vera A.; Santos, Paola S.; Moura, Patricia L.C.; Castro, Lilian P. de; Avegliano, Roseane P.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis, NAA, has been successfully used on a regularly basis in several areas of nutrition and foodstuffs. NAA has become an important and useful research tool due to the methodology's advantages. These include high accuracy, small quantities of samples and no chemical treatment. This technique allows the determination of important elements directly related to human health. NAA also provides data concerning essential and toxic concentrations in foodstuffs and specific diets. In this paper some studies in the area of nutrition which have been carried out at the Neutron Activation Laboratory of IPEN/CNEN-SP will be presented: a Brazilian total diet study: nutritional element dietary intakes of Sao Paulo state population; a study of trace element in maternal milk and the determination of essential trace elements in some edible mushrooms. (author)

  9. Human Health Countermeasures - Partial-Gravity Analogs Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Yael; Clement, Gilles; Norsk, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The experimental conditions that were deemed the most interesting by the HHC Element lead scientists are those permitting studies of the long-term effects of exposure to (a) chronic rotation when supine or in head down tilt (ground-based); and (b) long-radius centrifugation (space based). It is interesting to note that chronic ground based slow rotation room studies have not been performed since the 1960's, when the USA and USSR were investigating the potential use of AG for long-duration space missions. On the other hand, the other partial gravity analogs, i.e., parabolic flight, HUT, suspension, and short-radius centrifugation, have been regularly used in the last three decades (see review in Clément et al. 2015). Based on the workshop evaluations and the scores by the HHC scientific disciplines indicated in tables 3 and 4, simulation of partial G between 0 and 1 should be prioritized as follows: Priority 1. Chronic space-based partial-G analogs: a. Chronic space-based long-radius centrifugation. The ideal scenario would be chronic long-radius centrifugation of cells, animals and humans in a translational research approach - ideally beyond low earth orbit under deep space environmental effects and at various rotations - to obtain different G-effects. In this scenario, all physiological systems could be evaluated and the relationship between physiological response and G level established. This would be the most integrative way of defining, for the first time ever, G-thresholds for each physiological system. b. Chronic space-based centrifugation of animals. Chronic centrifugation of rodents at various G levels in space would allow for determination of AG thresholds of protection for each physiological system. In this case, all physiological systems will be of interest. Intermittent centrifugation will be of secondary interest. c. Chronic space-based centrifugation of cell cultures (RWV). Bioreactor studies of cells and cell cultures of various tissues at various G

  10. Public Health Nutrition as a Profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen

    population groups rather than those of individuals. Central elements of the profession are to assess the impact of various aspects of the food systems on the nutritional status, health and health inequalities of population groups, and to develop, recommend and implement evidence-based measures to improve...... dietary intake and nutritional status of population groups. These measures may be environmental, educational, social, economic, structural, political and/or legislative. The knowledge, skills, competencies and cultural heritage of the broader community should form a basis for all analyses and actions...... nutrition related challenges in the Nordic region and globally. The network facilitates exchange of lecturers, students, innovative educational resources and teaching methods and supports the consolidation of PHN as a recognized/accredited profession throughout the Nordic region. The network has done...

  11. Diet and Nutrition (Parkinson's Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living With Parkinson's › Managing Parkinson's › Diet & Nutrition Diet & Nutrition 1. Maintain Health 2. Ease PD Symptoms 3. ... your team Seek reliable information about diet and nutrition from your medical team and local resources. Please ...

  12. Systems biology of personalized nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommen, B. van; Broek, T. van den; Hoogh, I. de; Erk, M. van; Someren, E. van; Rouhani-Rankouhi, T.; Anthony, J.C.; Hogenelst, K.; Pasman, W.; Boorsma, A.; Wopereis, S.

    2017-01-01

    Personalized nutrition is fast becoming a reality due to a number of technological, scientific, and societal developments that complement and extend current public health nutrition recommendations. Personalized nutrition tailors dietary recommendations to specific biological requirements on the

  13. 寒害与季节变化对油棕叶片大中量营养元素含量及其变化规律的影响%Effect of Cold Injuries and Seasonal Variations on Nutritional Element of Oil Palm Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立云; 李艳; 雷新涛; 曹红星; 张如莲

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,the effects of cold injuries and seasonal variations on the nutritional elements of oil palm leaves were studied.The results showed that the content of nitrogen in oil palm leaf decreased during the cold injury and increased slowly afterwards; the content of phosphorus decreased obviously under cold injury and presented ‘W' curves during seasonal variations; the content of potassium declined during seasonal variations,however,the content of calcium significantly increased and presented ‘M' curv es under cold injury.The content of sodium of oil palm leaves decreased in seasonal variation but increased during the cold injuries.It indicated that the nutritional elements of oil palm were fluctuated with seasonal variations,which would provide some fertilizer guides and cold tolerance theories for oil palm.%本文探索了寒害对油棕叶片大中量营养元素含量及其变化规律的影响.结果表明:油棕叶片N含量在寒害期间整体呈现降低趋势,而后缓慢升高;P含量在寒害期间明显下降,在整个周年的季节变化中呈现规则的“W”变化曲线;K含量在周年变化中,呈现下降趋势;Ca含量在寒害期间呈明显增高的趋势,呈现规则的“M”变化曲线;油棕叶片Na含量在周年季节变化中,呈现出明显的下降趋势,寒害期间油棕叶片Na元素含量仍呈增高的趋势.这表明油棕叶片营养元素含量在生长季节的波动情况,因季节不同而异.此结果将为油棕施肥和耐寒性提供理论指导.

  14. PELTIER ELEMENTS

    CERN Document Server

    Tani, Laurits

    2015-01-01

    To control Peltier elements, temperature controller was used. I used TEC-1091 that was manufactured my Meerstetter Engineering. To gain control with the temperature controller, software had to be intalled on a controlling PC. There were different modes to control the Peltier: Tempererature controller to control temperature, Static current/voltage to control voltage and current and LIVE ON/OFF to auto-tune the controller respectively to the system. Also, since near the collision pipe there is much radiation, radiation-proof Peltier elements have to be used. To gain the best results, I had to find the most efficient Peltier elements and try to get their cold side to -40 degrees Celsius.

  15. [Nutrition and oropharyngeal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampman, E.

    2008-01-01

    The conclusion of a recent systematic review of the literature on the relation between nutrition, physical activity and cancer is that more than 30% of all cases of cancer can be prevented by improving nutrition and increasing physical activity. In The Netherlands, 1 out of 100 men and 1 out of 160

  16. Nutrition and allergic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerven, van R.J.J.; Savelkoul, Huub

    2017-01-01

    The development of IgE-mediated allergic diseases is influenced by many factors, including genetic and environmental factors such as pollution and farming, but also by nutrition. In the last decade, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the impact that nutrition can have on

  17. Insects and human nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Nanna

    2018-01-01

    Despite high diversity in species as well as metamorphological life-­stages, edible insects are essentially an animal-source food contributing high quality protein and fat when viewed in the context of human nutrition. The nutritional contribution of insects to diets in populations where insects ...

  18. You Score With Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Ruth McNabb

    1976-01-01

    The leader's guide and student activity booklet contain learning activities, ideas, information, games, and resources for nutrition instruction designed to appeal to the interests of teens and pre-teens and to improve their knowledge of nutrition and their eating habits. (MS)

  19. Nutrition in adolescent pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenders, C M; McElrath, T F; Scholl, T O

    2000-06-01

    Prevention of unintended adolescent pregnancy is a primary goal of the American Academy of Pediatrics and of many health providers. Nevertheless, many adolescents become pregnant every year in America. Pediatricians therefore should be aware of nutritional recommendations for pregnant adolescents to provide optimal care. The importance of nutrition during pregnancy is here reviewed from a pediatric perspective. Pregnancy, particularly during adolescence, is a time of extreme nutritional risk. The adolescents most likely to become pregnant are often those with inadequate nutritional status and unfavorable socio-economic background. There is increasing evidence of competition for nutrients between the growing pregnant adolescent and her fetus. Also, the prenatal environment has been implicated in the development of obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes in both the mother and her offspring. Many adolescents have poor diet quality and poor knowledge of appropriate nutrition; these habits may not change during pregnancy. Current knowledge and recommendations regarding the intake of energy, calcium, and folate are discussed in detail.

  20. Good maternal nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breda, Joao; Robertson, Aileen

    This publication has three parts: •a summary of the results of a systematic review of the most recent evidence on maternal nutrition, the prevention of obesity and noncommunicable diseases; •a review of existing recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy...... in European countries; and •lists of possible opportunities for action in European countries. The overview and exploration of the national recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy are based on the results of a survey in which 51 of the 53 Member States in the WHO....... These are opportunities to promote nutrition and health throughout the life-course, ensure optimal diet-related fetal development and reduce the impact of morbidity and risk factors for noncommunicable diseases by improving maternal nutrition....

  1. Rade-aid a decision support system to evaluate countermeasures after a radiological accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagenaar, G.; Van Den Bosch, C.J.H.; Weger, D. de.

    1990-01-01

    After Chernobyl the authorities in many countries were overwhelmed by the enormous amount of information that was being generated by measuring and monitoring programs. In making decisions, this information had to be combined with the results of specific countermeasures, in order to determine the optimal strategy with respect to a large number of consequences. The development of RADE-AID, the Radiological Accident Decision AIDing system, is aimed at providing a powerful tool in the decision-making process. RADE-AID is developed by TNO (The Netherlands) in a joint contract with KfK (FRG) and NRPB (UK). In the first phase a demonstration system will be built, called RADE-AID/D. RADE-AID/D will be used as a decision support system in the intermediate and late phase after a radiological accident. RADE-AID/D will consider countermeasures with respect to external exposure and internal exposure by food ingestion. Countermeasures are evaluated considering reduction in doses and in numbers of health effects, costs, and social effects. The paper covers the structure of the program, presentation of data and results, and the decision analysis technique that is being used. This decision analysis part is an important feature of the system; an advanced decision analysis technique is used, that is able to compare data of varying nature. Furthermore the place of RADE-AID in the decision-making process will be treated. RADE-AID/D is an interactive computer program, that offers the user the possibility to enter relevant data and to have data and results displayed in a variety of ways. Furthermore the system contains an advanced decision analysis technique, that is able to compare data of varying nature. Input data for the decision analysis calculations are provided by models from UFOMOD and MARC-codes

  2. Review on recent progress in observations, source identifications and countermeasures of PM2.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chun-Sheng; Duan, Feng-Kui; He, Ke-Bin; Ma, Yong-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Recently, PM2.5 (atmospheric fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) have received so much attention that the observations, source appointment and countermeasures of it have been widely studied due to its harmful impacts on visibility, mood (mental health), physical health, traffic safety, construction, economy and nature, as well as its complex interaction with climate. A review on the PM2.5 related research is necessary. We start with summary of chemical composition and characteristics of PM2.5 that contains both macro and micro observation results and analysis, wherein the temporal variability of concentrations of PM2.5 and major components in many recent reports is embraced. This is closely followed by an overview of source appointment, including the composition and sources of PM2.5 in different countries in the six inhabitable continents based on the best available results. Besides summarizing PM2.5 pollution countermeasures by policy, planning, technology and ideology, the World Air Day is proposed to be established to inspire and promote the crucial social action in energy-saving and emission-reduction. Some updated knowledge of the important topics (such as formation and evolution mechanisms of hazes, secondary aerosols, aerosol mass spectrometer, organic tracers, radiocarbon, emissions, solutions for air pollution problems, etc.) is also included in the present review by logically synthesizing the studies. In addition, the key research challenges and future directions are put forward. Despite our efforts, our understanding of the recent reported observations, source identifications and countermeasures of PM2.5 is limited, and subsequent efforts both of the authors and readers are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nitrosative stress in human skeletal muscle attenuated by exercise countermeasure after chronic disuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salanova, Michele; Schiffl, Gudrun; Gutsmann, Martina; Felsenberg, Dieter; Furlan, Sandra; Volpe, Pompeo; Clarke, Andrew; Blottner, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Activity-induced nitric oxide (NO) imbalance and "nitrosative stress" are proposed mechanisms of disrupted Ca(2+) homeostasis in atrophic skeletal muscle. We thus mapped S-nitrosylated (SNO) functional muscle proteins in healthy male subjects in a long-term bed rest study (BBR2-2 Study) without and with exercise as countermeasure in order to assess (i) the negative effects of chronic muscle disuse by nitrosative stress, (ii) to test for possible attenuation by exercise countermeasure in bed rest and (iii) to identify new NO target proteins. Muscle biopsies from calf soleus and hip vastus lateralis were harvested at start (Pre) and at end (End) from a bed rest disuse control group (CTR, n=9) and two bed rest resistive exercise groups either without (RE, n=7) or with superimposed vibration stimuli (RVE, n=7). At subcellular compartments, strong anti-SNO-Cys immunofluorescence patterns in control muscle fibers after bed rest returned to baseline following vibration exercise. Total SNO-protein levels, Nrf-2 gene expression and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling were changed to varying degrees in all groups. Excess SNO-protein levels of specific calcium release/uptake proteins (SNO-RyR1, -SERCA1 and -PMCA) and of contractile myosin heavy chains seen in biopsy samples of chronically disused skeletal muscle were largely reduced by vibration exercise. We also identified NOS1 as a novel NO target in human skeletal muscle controlled by activity driven auto-nitrosylation mechanisms. Our findings suggest that aberrant levels of functional SNO-proteins represent signatures of uncontrolled nitrosative stress management in disused human skeletal muscle that can be offset by exercise as countermeasure.

  4. Nitrosative stress in human skeletal muscle attenuated by exercise countermeasure after chronic disuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Salanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity-induced nitric oxide (NO imbalance and “nitrosative stress” are proposed mechanisms of disrupted Ca2+ homeostasis in atrophic skeletal muscle. We thus mapped S-nitrosylated (SNO functional muscle proteins in healthy male subjects in a long-term bed rest study (BBR2-2 Study without and with exercise as countermeasure in order to assess (i the negative effects of chronic muscle disuse by nitrosative stress, (ii to test for possible attenuation by exercise countermeasure in bed rest and (iii to identify new NO target proteins. Muscle biopsies from calf soleus and hip vastus lateralis were harvested at start (Pre and at end (End from a bed rest disuse control group (CTR, n=9 and two bed rest resistive exercise groups either without (RE, n=7 or with superimposed vibration stimuli (RVE, n=7. At subcellular compartments, strong anti-SNO-Cys immunofluorescence patterns in control muscle fibers after bed rest returned to baseline following vibration exercise. Total SNO-protein levels, Nrf-2 gene expression and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling were changed to varying degrees in all groups. Excess SNO-protein levels of specific calcium release/uptake proteins (SNO-RyR1, –SERCA1 and –PMCA and of contractile myosin heavy chains seen in biopsy samples of chronically disused skeletal muscle were largely reduced by vibration exercise. We also identified NOS1 as a novel NO target in human skeletal muscle controlled by activity driven auto-nitrosylation mechanisms. Our findings suggest that aberrant levels of functional SNO-proteins represent signatures of uncontrolled nitrosative stress management in disused human skeletal muscle that can be offset by exercise as countermeasure.

  5. Improvement of practical countermeasures: the agricultural environment post-Chernobyl action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desmet, G.

    1991-01-01

    The contamination of the rural areas near the site of the accident at Chernobyl has posed problems of reclamation from which the Community could learn. The objective of the project has been to assess the usefulness of applied and existing techniques and to develop new procedures of decontamination. To reduce transfer of radioactivity, the main classes of countermeasures envisaged are: - treatment of vegetative cover present at the time of the accident; - chemical treatment of soil; - mechanical treatment of soil; - alternatives to in situ vegetation and soil treatment: - change of crops; - crop management; - food processing

  6. Numerical simulation of aerobic exercise as a countermeasure in human spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Poch, Antoni

    The objective of this work is to analyse the efficacy of long-term regular exercise on relevant cardiovascular parameters when the human body is also exposed to microgravity. Computer simulations are an important tool which may be used to predict and analyse these possible effects, and compare them with in-flight experiments. We based our study on a electrical-like computer model (NELME: Numerical Evaluation of Long-term Microgravity Effects) which was developed in our laboratory and validated with the available data, focusing on the cardiovascu-lar parameters affected by changes in gravity exposure. NELME is based on an electrical-like control system model of the physiological changes, that are known to take place when grav-ity changes are applied. The computer implementation has a modular architecture. Hence, different output parameters, potential effects, organs and countermeasures can be easily imple-mented and evaluated. We added to the previous cardiovascular system module a perturbation module to evaluate the effect of regular exercise on the output parameters previously studied. Therefore, we simulated a well-known countermeasure with different protocols of exercising, as a pattern of input electric-like perturbations on the basic module. Different scenarios have been numerically simulated for both men and women, in different patterns of microgravity, reduced gravity and time exposure. Also EVAs were simulated as perturbations to the system. Results show slight differences in gender, with more risk reduction for women than for men after following an aerobic exercise pattern during a simulated mission. Also, risk reduction of a cardiovascular malfunction is evaluated, with a ceiling effect found in all scenarios. A turning point in vascular resistance for a long-term exposure of microgravity below 0.4g has been found of particular interest. In conclusion, we show that computer simulations are a valuable tool to analyse different effects of long

  7. Report of the International conference on low-level radiation injury and medical countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allenet-Le-Page, B.; Voisin, P.

    2000-01-01

    The conference has been separated in six sessions: the first one treats the biological dosimetry and the research of new indicators for low doses; the second one is about the physical dosimetry and the development of new dosemeters for low dose rates; the third one is relative to the prevention and treatment; the fourth part is devoted to the nuclear, biological and chemical interactions; the fifth part studies the physiological and psychological impact; finally, the last part exposes the different points of view about doses evaluation and the countermeasures. (N.C.)

  8. Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: facts, environmental contamination, possible biological effects, and countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Kazunori; Ban, Nobuhiko; Ozawa, Toshihiko; Tokonami, Shinji

    2012-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, an earthquake led to major problems at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A 14-m high tsunami triggered by the earthquake disabled all AC power to Units 1, 2, and 3 of the Power Plant, and carried off fuel tanks for emergency diesel generators. Despite many efforts, cooling systems did not work and hydrogen explosions damaged the facilities, releasing a large amount of radioactive material into the environment. In this review, we describe the environmental impact of the nuclear accident, and the fundamental biological effects, acute and late, of the radiation. Possible medical countermeasures to radiation exposure are also discussed.

  9. Present status and legal countermeasures of electromagnetic radiation pollution in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Qiu

    2007-01-01

    With the wide utilization of electronic technology, electromagnetic radiation has rapidly been one of the most serious pollution sources, causing corresponding disputes of pollution on the rise and the contradictions sharp increasingly because of the limited supply and research of law. The article analyses the characters and present status of electromagnetic radiation pollution, points out the inadequacy supply of relevant law and its reasons and presents legal countermeasures, that is: complying with present laws, establishing national standard systems, strengthening local legislation. The paper also presents the basic idea and principle of making 'Prevention Electromagnetic Radiation Pollution'. (authors)

  10. [Study on restriction factors and countermeasures of influence of China medical devices competitiveness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijun

    2012-07-01

    Recent years, China medical devices industry has been a sunrise industry with widely-ranged products, high-tech innovation, and booming market demands. But with the globalization of market economy, China industry is still in the inferior position of competition. How to promote the industrial structure transition, increase scientific and technological level, speed up the updating of products, enhance the international competitiveness is one of the major tasks to maintain the healthy development of industry. This article makes a study on current situation of China medical devices industry, analyses the new opportunities, challenges and restriction factors, provides the countermeasures of strengthening industry competitiveness as well.

  11. Development of Vestibular Stochastic Resonance as a Sensorimotor Countermeasure: Improving Otolith Ocular and Motor Task Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Fiedler, Matthew; DeDios,Yiri E.; Galvan, Raquel; Bloomberg, Jacob; Wood, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Astronauts experience disturbances in sensorimotor function after spaceflight during the initial introduction to a gravitational environment, especially after long-duration missions. Stochastic resonance (SR) is a mechanism by which noise can assist and enhance the response of neural systems to relevant, imperceptible sensory signals. We have previously shown that imperceptible electrical stimulation of the vestibular system enhances balance performance while standing on an unstable surface. The goal of our present study is to develop a countermeasure based on vestibular SR that could improve central interpretation of vestibular input and improve motor task responses to mitigate associated risks.

  12. Seismic-load-induced human errors and countermeasures using computer graphics in plant-operator communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Fumio

    1988-01-01

    This paper remarks the importance of seismic load-induced human errors in plant operation by delineating the characteristics of the task performance of human beings under seismic loads. It focuses on man-machine communication via multidimensional data like that conventionally displayed on large panels in a plant control room. It demonstrates a countermeasure to human errors using a computer graphics technique that conveys the global state of the plant operation to operators through cartoon-like, colored graphs in the form of faces that, with different facial expressions, show the plant safety status. (orig.)

  13. Countermeasure development for Rift Valley fever: deletion, modification or targeting of major virulence factor NSs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihoradova, Olga; Ikegami, Tetsuro

    2014-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease characterized by a high rate of abortion in ruminants, and febrile illness, hemorrhagic fever, retinitis and encephalitis in humans. RVF is caused by the RVF virus (RVFV), belonging to the genus Phlebovirus of the family Bunyaviridae . RVFV encodes a major virulence factor, NSs , which is dispensable for viral replication, yet required for evasion of host innate immune responses. RVFV NSs inhibits host gene upregulation at the transcriptional level, while promoting viral translation in the cytoplasm. In this article, we summarize the virology and pathology of RVF, and countermeasure development for RVF, with emphasis on NSs function and applications.

  14. Exercise countermeasures for long-duration spaceflight: muscle- and intensity-specific considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappe, Todd

    2012-07-01

    On-orbit and ground-based microgravity simulation studies have provided a wealth of information regarding the efficacy of exercise countermeasures for protecting skeletal muscle and cardiovascular function during long-duration spaceflights. While it appears that exercise will be the central component to maintaining skeletal muscle and cardiovascular health of astronauts, the current exercise prescription is not completely effective and is time consuming. This lecture will focus on recent exercise physiology studies examining high intensity, low volume exercise in relation to muscle specific and cardiovascular health. These studies provide the basis of the next generation exercise prescription currently being implemented during long-duration space missions on the International Space Station.

  15. Preventive radioecological assessment of territory for optimization of monitoring and countermeasures after radiation accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prister, B S; Vinogradskaya, V D; Lev, T D; Talerko, M M; Garger, E K; Onishi, Y; Tischenko, O G

    2018-04-01

    A methodology of a preventive radioecological assessment of the territory has been developed for optimizing post-emergency monitoring and countermeasure implementation in an event of a severe radiation accident. Approaches and main stages of integrated radioecological zoning of the territory are described. An algorithm for the assessment of the potential radioecological criticality (sensitivity) of the area is presented. The proposed approach is validated using data of the dosimetric passportization in Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident for the test site settlements. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The long-term problems of contaminated land: Sources, impacts and countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, C.F. III

    1986-11-01

    This report examines the various sources of radiological land contamination; its extent; its impacts on man, agriculture, and the environment; countermeasures for mitigating exposures; radiological standards; alternatives for achieving land decontamination and cleanup; and possible alternatives for utilizing the land. The major potential sources of extensive long-term land contamination with radionuclides, in order of decreasing extent, are nuclear war, detonation of a single nuclear weapon (e.g., a terrorist act), serious reactor accidents, and nonfission nuclear weapons accidents that disperse the nuclear fuels (termed ''broken arrows'').

  17. The long-term problems of contaminated land: Sources, impacts and countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baes, C.F. III.

    1986-11-01

    This report examines the various sources of radiological land contamination; its extent; its impacts on man, agriculture, and the environment; countermeasures for mitigating exposures; radiological standards; alternatives for achieving land decontamination and cleanup; and possible alternatives for utilizing the land. The major potential sources of extensive long-term land contamination with radionuclides, in order of decreasing extent, are nuclear war, detonation of a single nuclear weapon (e.g., a terrorist act), serious reactor accidents, and nonfission nuclear weapons accidents that disperse the nuclear fuels (termed ''broken arrows'')

  18. [Current quality management situation and administration countermeasure study of enterprises marketing corneal contact lens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yungui; Yao, Ying; Shangguan, Shihao; Gu, Qun; Gao, Wuming; Chen, Yaoshui

    2014-05-01

    Study the current quality management situation of enterprises marketing corneal contact lens via systemic investigations and explore effective administration countermeasures in the future. The quality management indicators of sixty-two corneal contact lens marketing enterprises in Xuhui district of Shanghai were systematically investigated and enterprises of different operation models was compared and analyzed. Wholesale enterprises and retail chain enterprises are apparently better than independent enterprises almost in all facets. Facilitate market accession of corneal contact lens marketing enterprises, encourage the business model of retail chain, enhance supervision of corneal contact lens marketing enterprises, especially independent franchisors.

  19. Current status of countermeasures for ageing of nuclear power plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, M.; Ishikawa, M.; Tajima, K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes ageing coutermeasure program of the nuclear power plants performed by the Japanese Government and industries and related activities, and describes current research program and utilization of the research results for the aged nuclear power plants. Regulatory bodies (NISA of METI: Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) reviewed the ageing issues of nuclear power plants to enhance countermeasures for the aged plants. Nuclear Power Plant Life Engineering Center (PLEC) entrusted by NISA is carrying out the task relating to the aged plants. (orig.)

  20. Status and countermeasures for localization of safety class emergency diesel generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Banghua

    2014-01-01

    After analysis of various issues and root causes during domestic manufacture of emergency diesel generator, this paper brought forward a series of countermeasures. This paper points out that great efforts shall be made to establish perfect quality assurance system, ensure the effective operation of quality assurance system, reinforce design control, prevent problem arising from design, perfect and enhance manufacture process, ensure equipment manufacture quality, reinforce quality inspection for outsourcing, ensure the quality of outsourcing, attach importance to personnel training, enhance absorption of import technology, reduce human error, attach importance to technology management, ensure design and manufacture in compliance with code and process, etc. so as to achieve localization. (author)

  1. High Intensity Exercise Countermeasures does not Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance Following Prolonged Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Lee, Stuart M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 20% of Space Shuttle astronauts became presyncopal during operational stand and 80deg head-up tilt tests, and the prevalence of orthostatic intolerance increases after longer missions. Greater than 60% of the US astronauts participating in Mir and early International Space Station missions experienced presyncope during post-flight tilt tests, perhaps related to limitations of the exercise hardware that prevented high intensity exercise training until later ISS missions. The objective of this study was to determine whether an intense resistive and aerobic exercise countermeasure program designed to prevent cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning during 70 d of bed rest (BR), a space flight analog, would protect against post-BR orthostatic intolerance. METHODS Twenty-six subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: non-exercise controls (n=11) or one of two exercise groups (ExA, n=8; ExB, n=7). Both ExA and ExB groups performed the same resistive and aerobic exercise countermeasures during BR, but one exercise group received testosterone supplementation while the other received a placebo during BR in a double-blinded fashion. On 3 d/wk, subjects performed lower body resistive exercise and 30 min of continuous aerobic exercise (=75% max heart rate). On the other 3 d/wk, subjects performed only highintensity, interval-style aerobic exercise. Orthostatic intolerance was assessed using a 15-min 80? head-up tilt test performed 2 d (BR-2) before and on the last day of BR (BR70). Plasma volume was measured using carbon monoxide rebreathing on BR-3 and before rising on the first recovery day (BR+0). The code for the exercise groups has not been broken, and results are reported here without group identification. RESULTS Only one subject became presyncopal during tilt testing on BR-2, but 7 of 11 (63%) controls, 3 of 8 (38%) ExA, and 4 of 7 (57%) ExB subjects were presyncopal on BR70. Survival analysis of post-BR tilt tests revealed no

  2. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, S.T.

    1982-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element wherein a stack of nuclear fuel is prevented from displacement within its sheath by a retainer comprising a tube member which is radially expanded into frictional contact with the sheath by means of a captive ball within a tapered bore. (author)

  3. Transactinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemingway, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The review is covered in sections, entitled: predicted nuclear properties - including closed shells, decay characteristics; predicted chemical properties - including electronic structure and calculated properties, X-radiation, extrapolated chemical properties, separation chemistry; methods of synthesis; the natural occurrence of superheavy elements. (U.K.)

  4. Justification of strategies for agricultural countermeasures in the long term after the Chernobyl accident based on a cost-benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, A.V.; Fesenko, S.V.; Pakhomov, A.Y.; Alexakhin, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    In the long term after the Chernobyl accident the introduction of systems of countermeasures in agriculture must be based on the optimization principle. To implement this principle, a concept was used of evaluation of the effectiveness of countermeasures based on a cost-benefit analysis. Countermeasure options were developed separately for collective and private sectors of rural settlements. For each type of farming a range of countermeasures were defined and the optimal ones were identified. The effectiveness of countermeasures was estimated on the basis of integral criteria: cost of averted collective dose (1 man-Sv), overall costs needed for countermeasures introduction and time for fulfilling legal regulations. Based on the most effective countermeasures, optimal combinations (strategies) were developed. An assessment was given of the effectiveness of countermeasures aimed at reducing the radionuclide content in animal products from collective farms and lowering doses to rural residents affected by the Chernobyl accident, based on a comparative cost benefit analysis. A study into the dynamics of 1 man-Sv cost when applying different countermeasures in the collective and private sectors allowed an identification of the most optimal measures for various time periods after the accident. The situation in the private sector is more critical than in the collective one. This is demonstrated by higher costs of countermeasures and costs of potential averted doses in the course of their application, as well as difference in times of legal regulations fulfillment. To optimize costs of the rehabilitation of agricultural lands, the most optimal in terms of meeting the standards strategy was determined, which is an address application of countermeasures. (author)

  5. An evaluation of a public health nutrition workforce development intervention for the nutrition and dietetics workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, C; Hughes, R; McCall, L

    2010-06-01

    Workforce development is a key element for building the capacity to effectively address priority population nutrition issues. On-the-job learning and mentoring have been proposed as strategies for practice improvement in public health nutrition; however, there is limited evidence for their effectiveness. An evaluation of a mentoring circle workforce development intervention was undertaken. Thirty-two novice public health nutritionists participated in one of three mentoring circles for 2 h, every 6 weeks, over a 7-month period. Pre- and post-intervention qualitative (questionnaire, interview, mentor diary) and quantitative (competence, time working in public health nutrition) data were collected. The novice public health nutritionists explained the intervention facilitated sharing of ideas and strategies and promoted reflective practice. They articulated the important attributes of the mentor in the intervention as having experience in and a passion for public health, facilitating a trusting relationship and providing effective feedback. Participants reported a gain in competency and had an overall mean increase in self-reported competence of 15% (range 3-48% change; P work time allocated to preventive work post-intervention. Mentoring supported service re-orientation and competency development in public health nutrition. The nature of the group learning environment and the role and qualities of the mentor were important elements contributing to the interventions effects. Mentoring circles offer a potentially effective strategy for workforce development in nutrition and dietetics.

  6. Chinese dietary composition and element ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Hongda

    1990-01-01

    Based on the dietary composition and results of some nutrients obtained from the second Nationwide Nutrition Survey in 1982, as well as recently published element contents in various Chinese food, the resultant dietary intake of 19 kinds of elements and 17 radionuclides for Chinese public (mainly for male adults) were estimated. This estimation might be used as basis for development of Chinese Reference Man and estimation of the public background exposure

  7. In-car countermeasures open window and music revisited on the real road: popular but hardly effective against driver sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Johanna F A; Ingre, Michael; Fors, Carina; Anund, Anna; Kecklund, Göran; Taillard, Jacques; Philip, Pierre; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of two very commonly used countermeasures against driver sleepiness, opening the window and listening to music, on subjective and physiological sleepiness measures during real road driving. In total, 24 individuals participated in the study. Sixteen participants received intermittent 10-min intervals of: (i) open window (2 cm opened); and (ii) listening to music, during both day and night driving on an open motorway. Both subjective sleepiness and physiological sleepiness (blink duration) was estimated to be significantly reduced when subjects listened to music, but the effect was only minor compared with the pronounced effects of night driving and driving duration. Open window had no attenuating effect on either sleepiness measure. No significant long-term effects beyond the actual countermeasure application intervals occurred, as shown by comparison to the control group (n = 8). Thus, despite their popularity, opening the window and listening to music cannot be recommended as sole countermeasures against driver sleepiness. © 2012 European Sleep Research Society.

  8. Behavior as a common focus of toxicology and nutrition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, B.

    1980-01-01

    Behavior as an index of toxicity parallels its role as an index of nutritional impairment, just as toxicology and nutrition share other common themes. Intersections among the three disciplines arise because foodstuffs serve as one of the major routes of toxic exposure and also because food elements modify toxicity. With this perspective, the safety of our food supply is examined in the contexts of essential nutrients, toxins, toxic metals, manufactured contaminants, self-administered toxicants, and food additives.

  9. Applications of nuclear analytical techniques in human nutrition research as exemplified by research programmes of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    In human nutrition research, nuclear analytical techniques, particularly neutron activation analysis (NAA), are used mainly for the in vitro study of trace elements. According to work sponsored by the IAEA, up to 15 trace elements and 5 minor elements of nutritional interest may be determined in biological materials by NAA with good accuracy and precision. A programme is described in which NAA was used for the determination of 14 trace elements and one minor element in human milk. NAA also plays an important role in the certification of reference materials for nutritional studies. (author) 17 refs.; 6 tables

  10. Nutrition and Imagenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Allende, Miguel Angel

    2003-01-01

    In this article we present the close, although little explored, relationship between Nutrition and Imagenology, relying mainly on an important number of images which will allow us to explain all the ways an Imagenology can influence upon the nutritional support of a patient.We primarily emphasize the diagnostic aspects of non-operated patients, as well as of those who have undergone surgical treatment, by showing both normality and the resulting surgical complications. We finally describe several interventionist Imagenology techniques used to achieve an adequate enteral nutrition

  11. Early Prevention of Instability-Use of Self Propagating Graph for the Fast Search for Optimal Grid Nodes to Apply Countermeasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmitrova, Evgenia; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a method for a fast determination of the grid nodes where countermeasures, in the form of changes in nodal admittance, would provide greatest impact on the stability margin for a specific generator that is facing the risk of instability. The sensitivity of the stability criter...... of the developed approach for the fast identification of the optimal nodes for countermeasure application....

  12. New elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flerov, G.

    1976-01-01

    The history is briefly described of the investigation of superheavy elements at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at Dubna. The significance of the investigation is assessed from the point of view of the nuclear structure study and major problems encountered in experimental efforts are indicated. Current experimental methods aiming at the discovery or the production of superheavy nuclei with Z approximately 114 are listed. (I.W.)

  13. A Korean radioecology model to simulate radionuclide behavior in agricultural ecosystems following a nuclear emergency and its application to countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, W.T.; Suh, K.S.; Kim, E.H.; Han, M.H.; Lee, H.S.; Lee, C.W.

    2003-01-01

    A Korean radioecology model to simulate radionuclide behavior in agricultural ecosystems has been developed as a module for evaluating the ingestion dose in a Korean real-time dose assessment system FADAS, which evaluates the comprehensive radiological consequences in an accidental release of radionuclides to the environment. Using the predictive results of a Korean radioecology model, a methodology for the optimization of countermeasures has been designed based on a cost-benefit analysis. In this manuscript, a Korean radioecology model including agricultural countermeasures was introduced, and discussed with the sample calculations for the postulated accidental release of radionuclides to the environment. (author)

  14. Emergency planning requirements and short-term countermeasures for commercial nuclear power plants in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantor, F.; Hogan, R.; Mohseni, A.

    1995-01-01

    Since the accident at the Three Mile Island Unit, the United States Nuclear Regulatory's Commission (NRC's) emergency planning regulations are now considered and an important part of the regulatory framework for protecting the public health and safety. Many aspects of the countermeasures are presented: Emergency Planning Zones (EPZ), off-Site emergency planning and preparedness, responsibilities of nuclear power plants operators and states and local government. Finally, protective action recommendations are given as well as the federal response to an emergency. The authors noted that the use of potassium iodide is not considered as an effective countermeasure for the public protection in the US. (TEC). 1 fig

  15. Countermeasures to Mitigate the Negative Impact of Sensory Deprivation and Social Isolation in Long-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Katharine Ridgeway OBrien; Otto, Christian; Leveton, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Long-duration space flight presents several challenges to the behavioral health of crew members. The environment that they are likely to experience will be isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) and, as such, crew members will experience extreme sensory deprivation and social isolation. The current paper briefly notes the behavioral, cognitive, and affective consequences of psychological stress induced by ICE environments and proposes nine countermeasures aimed at mitigating the negative effects of sensory deprivation and social isolation. Implementation of countermeasures aims to maintain successful crew performance and psychological well-being in a long-duration space flight mission.

  16. Geophysics and nutritional science: toward a novel, unified paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Gidon; Martin, Pamela A

    2009-05-01

    This article discusses a few basic geophysical processes, which collectively indicate that several nutritionally adverse elements of current Western diets also yield environmentally harmful food consumption patterns. We address oceanic dead zones, which are at the confluence of oceanography, aquatic chemistry, and agronomy and which are a clear environmental problem, and agriculture's effects on the surface heat budget. These exemplify the unknown, complex, and sometimes unexpected large-scale environmental effects of agriculture. We delineate the significant alignment in purpose between nutritional and environmental sciences. We identify red meat, and to a lesser extent the broader animal-based portion of the diet, as having the greatest environmental effect, with clear nutritional parallels.

  17. A Study of Heavy Metal Pollution in China: Current Status, Pollution-Control Policies and Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Hu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past 30 years, China’s economy has experienced rapid development, which led to a vast increase in energy consumption and serious environmental pollution. Among the different types of pollution, heavy metal pollution has become one of the major environmental issues in China. A number of studies show that high level of heavy metal exposure is a frequent cause of permanent intellectual and developmental disabilities. In recent years, some traditional pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide, have been put under control in China. However, heavy metal pollution, which poses even greater risks to public health and sustainable development, has yet to gain policymakers’ attention. The purpose of this paper is to explore effective countermeasures for heavy metal pollution in China. The present study reviews the current status of China’s heavy metal pollution and analyzes related public policies and countermeasures against that pollution. It also presents a few recommendations and measures for prevention of heavy metal pollution.

  18. Countermeasure for Surplus Electricity of PV using Replacement Battery of EVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Masaaki; Iwafune, Yumiko; Yamamoto, Hiromi; Yamaji, Kenji; Okano, Kunihiko; Hiwatari, Ryouji; Ikeya, Tomohiko

    In the power sector, the national government has set the goal that the introduction of PV reaches 53 million kW by 2030. However, large-scale introduction of PV will cause several problems in power systems such as surplus electricity. We need large capacity of pumped storages or batteries for the surplus electricity, but the construction costs of these plants are very high. On the other hand, in the transport sector, Electric Vehicle (EV) is being developed as an environmentally friendly vehicle. To promote the diffusion of EV, it is necessary to build infrastructures that can charge EV in a short time; a battery switch station is one of the solutions to this problem. At a station, the automated switch platform will replace the depleted battery with a fully-charged battery. The depleted battery is placed in a storage room and recharged to be available to other drivers. In this study, we propose the use of station's battery as a countermeasure for surplus electricity of PV and evaluate the economic value of the proposed system. We assumed that 53 million kW of PV is introduced in the nationwide power system and considered two countermeasures for surplus electricity: (1) Pumped storage; (2) Battery of station. The difference in total annual cost between Pumped case and Battery case results in 792.6 billion yen. Hence, if a utility leases the batteries from stations fewer than 792.6 billion yen, the utility will have the cost advantage in Battery case.

  19. Incorporation of omics analyses into artificial gravity research for space exploration countermeasure development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael A; Goodwin, Thomas J; Pelligra, Ralph

    The next major steps in human spaceflight include flyby, orbital, and landing missions to the Moon, Mars, and near earth asteroids. The first crewed deep space mission is expected to launch in 2022, which affords less than 7 years to address the complex question of whether and how to apply artificial gravity to counter the effects of prolonged weightlessness. Various phenotypic changes are demonstrated during artificial gravity experiments. However, the molecular dynamics (genotype and molecular phenotypes) that underlie these morphological, physiological, and behavioral phenotypes are far more complex than previously understood. Thus, targeted molecular assessment of subjects under various G conditions can be expected to miss important patterns of molecular variance that inform the more general phenotypes typically being measured. Use of omics methods can help detect changes across broad molecular networks, as various G-loading paradigms are applied. This will be useful in detecting off-target, or unanticipated effects of the different gravity paradigms applied to humans or animals. Insights gained from these approaches may eventually be used to inform countermeasure development or refine the deployment of existing countermeasures. This convergence of the omics and artificial gravity research communities may be critical if we are to develop the proper artificial gravity solutions under the severely compressed timelines currently established. Thus, the omics community may offer a unique ability to accelerate discovery, provide new insights, and benefit deep space missions in ways that have not been previously considered.

  20. A review of multi-threat medical countermeasures against chemical warfare and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Fred M; Broomfield, Clarence A; Stojiljkovic, Milos P; Smith, William J

    2004-11-01

    The Multi-Threat Medical Countermeasure (MTMC) hypothesis has been proposed with the aim of developing a single countermeasure drug with efficacy against different pathologies caused by multiple classes of chemical warfare agents. Although sites and mechanisms of action and the pathologies caused by different chemical insults vary, common biochemical signaling pathways, molecular mediators, and cellular processes provide targets for MTMC drugs. This article will review the MTMC hypothesis for blister and nerve agents and will expand the scope of the concept to include other chemicals as well as briefly consider biological agents. The article will also consider how common biochemical signaling pathways, molecular mediators, and cellular processes that contribute to clinical pathologies and syndromes may relate to the toxicity of threat agents. Discovery of MTMC provides the opportunity for the integration of diverse researchers and clinicians, and for the exploitation of cutting-edge technologies and drug discovery. The broad-spectrum nature of MTMC can augment military and civil defense to combat chemical warfare and chemical terrorism.

  1. Quantum key distribution with an efficient countermeasure against correlated intensity fluctuations in optical pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Ken-ichiro; Fujiwara, Mikio; Nakata, Kensuke; Sumiya, Tatsuya; Sasaki, Toshihiko; Takeoka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masahide; Tajima, Akio; Koashi, Masato; Tomita, Akihisa

    2018-03-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two distant parties to share secret keys with the proven security even in the presence of an eavesdropper with unbounded computational power. Recently, GHz-clock decoy QKD systems have been realized by employing ultrafast optical communication devices. However, security loopholes of high-speed systems have not been fully explored yet. Here we point out a security loophole at the transmitter of the GHz-clock QKD, which is a common problem in high-speed QKD systems using practical band-width limited devices. We experimentally observe the inter-pulse intensity correlation and modulation pattern-dependent intensity deviation in a practical high-speed QKD system. Such correlation violates the assumption of most security theories. We also provide its countermeasure which does not require significant changes of hardware and can generate keys secure over 100 km fiber transmission. Our countermeasure is simple, effective and applicable to wide range of high-speed QKD systems, and thus paves the way to realize ultrafast and security-certified commercial QKD systems.

  2. Uncertainty analyses of the countermeasures module of the program system UFOMOD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, F.; Ehrhardt, J.; Burkart, K.

    1989-10-01

    This report refers to uncertainty analyses of the countermeasures submodule of the program system UFOMOD, version NE 87/1, whose important input parameters are linked with probability distributions derived from expert judgement. Uncertainty bands show how much variability exists, sensitivity measures determine what causes this variability in consequences. Results are presented as confidence bands of complementary cumulative frequency distributions (CCFDs) of individual acute organ doses (lung, bone marrow), individual risks (pulmonary and hematopoietic syndrome) and the corresponding number of early fatalities, partially as a function of distance from the site. In addition the ranked influence of the uncertain parameters on the different consequence types is shown. For the estimation of confidence bands a model parameter sample size of n=60 equal to 3 times the number of uncertain model parameters is chosen. For a reduced set of nine model parameters a sample size of n=50 is selected. A total of 20 uncertain parameters is considered. The most sensitive parameters of the countermeasures submodule of UFOMOD appeared to be the initial delay of emergency actions in a keyhole shaped area A and the fractions of the population evacuating area A spontaneously during the sheltering period or staying outdoors. Under the conditions of the source term the influence on the overall uncertainty in the consequence variables - individual acute organ doses, individual risks and early fatalities - of driving times to leave the evacuation area is small. (orig./HP) [de

  3. X1: A Robotic Exoskeleton for In-Space Countermeasures and Dynamometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Rochelle; Beck, Christopher; Rovekamp, Roger; Diftler, Myron; Neuhaus, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Bone density loss and muscle atrophy are among the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) highest concerns for crew health in space. Countless hours are spent maintaining an exercise regimen aboard the International Space Station (ISS) to counteract the effect of zero-gravity. Looking toward the future, NASA researchers are developing new compact and innovative exercise technologies to maintain crew health as missions increase in length and take humans further out into the solar system. The X1 Exoskeleton, initially designed for assisted mobility on Earth, was quickly theorized to have far-reaching potential as both an in-space countermeasures device and a dynamometry device to measure muscle strength. This lower-extremity device has the ability to assist or resist human movement through the use of actuators positioned at the hips and knees. Multiple points of adjustment allow for a wide range of users, all the while maintaining correct joint alignment. This paper discusses how the X1 Exoskeleton may fit NASA's onorbit countermeasures needs.

  4. Characteristics of the development of the radiological situation resulting from the accident, intervention levels and countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, S.T.; Demin, V.F.; Kutkov, V.A.; Bariakhtar, V.G.; Petriaev, E.P.

    1996-01-01

    Great efforts have been made in the frame of the national and international research programs to get complete data on the radioactive releases, environmental contamination and radiological situation resulted from the Chernobyl accident. Beginning from the first publication (IAEA meeting, August 1986) these data have been considerably improved and added. The most important change of them with their influence on the decision making in the mitigation activity and the current situation is described and analyzed. The national and international regulatory documents at the moment of the accident were neither complete nor perfect in some necessary aspects especially in respect to the countermeasures at the intermediate and long-term phases. New documents have been worked out during the intervention activity. From 1986 series of documents were developed on the national and international levels. These documents are considered and analyzed in the context of their practical implementation and by the modern experience and research results. The history of countermeasures adopted on the different intervention phases are described. These documents mainly establish intervention levels in terms of averted doses and regulate only radiation protection. They don't content any intervention levels in terms of residual doses and risk, which are necessary for regulation of social and health protection of population suffered from the accident. Other restriction for the optimal regulation comes from use of the effective dose for establishing intervention levels. These and other respective aspects are discussed

  5. Assessment of Geohazards and Preventative Countermeasures Using AHP Incorporated with GIS in Lanzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Min Lyu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates geohazards and preventative countermeasures for Lanzhou City, China. To investigate the factors related to the development of geohazards in Lanzhou, the regional geological conditions around Lanzhou were investigated. The geomorphology of the region is comprised of a loess landform underlying quaternary loess deposits. A large number of faults induced by strong neotectonic movements are present in the area. Therefore, earthquakes frequently occur around Lanzhou. Earthquakes cause numerous rock falls and landslides, with landslide masses found scattered on the upper middle level of the area’s mountains. When intense rainfall occurs, a lot of loose deposits are brought together along steep gullies, forming debris flows; hence, a disaster chain of earthquake–landslide–debris flow is formed. To evaluate the georisks around Lanzhou, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP was employed to assess geohazards. The spatial distribution of the evaluated georisk levels was mapped using a Geographic Information System (GIS. Based on the assessed results, about 55% of the urban area and 44% of Gaolan County have high or very high-risk levels. The ratio of relatively high disaster risk levels is up to 31% of the total area. To mitigate these geohazards, both strategic decision making and technical countermeasures should be implemented.

  6. Development and assessment of countermeasure formulations for treatment of lung injury induced by chlorine inhalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyle, Gary W., E-mail: Gary.Hoyle@louisville.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health and Information Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States); Chen, Jing; Schlueter, Connie F.; Mo, Yiqun; Humphrey, David M. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health and Information Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States); Rawson, Greg; Niño, Joe A.; Carson, Kenneth H. [Microencapsulation and Nanomaterials Department, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Division, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Chlorine is a commonly used, reactive compound to which humans can be exposed via accidental or intentional release resulting in acute lung injury. Formulations of rolipram (a phosphodiesterase inhibitor), triptolide (a natural plant product with anti-inflammatory properties), and budesonide (a corticosteroid), either neat or in conjunction with poly(lactic:glycolic acid) (PLGA), were developed for treatment of chlorine-induced acute lung injury by intramuscular injection. Formulations were produced by spray-drying, which generated generally spherical microparticles that were suitable for intramuscular injection. Multiple parameters were varied to produce formulations with a wide range of in vitro release kinetics. Testing of selected formulations in chlorine-exposed mice demonstrated efficacy against key aspects of acute lung injury. The results show the feasibility of developing microencapsulated formulations that could be used to treat chlorine-induced acute lung injury by intramuscular injection, which represents a preferred route of administration in a mass casualty situation. - Highlights: • Chlorine causes lung injury when inhaled and is considered a chemical threat agent. • Countermeasures for treatment of chlorine-induced acute lung injury are needed. • Formulations containing rolipram, triptolide, or budesonide were produced. • Formulations with a wide range of release properties were developed. • Countermeasure formulations inhibited chlorine-induced lung injury in mice.

  7. Developing GIS based decision-support tools for agricultural counter-measurements after radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepka, Pavel; Prochazka, Jan; Brom, Jakub; Pecharova, Emilie

    2009-01-01

    There is a whole variety of possibilities proposed by EURANOS data sheets for agriculture, for mid-term and long-term counter-measures after contamination of crops by radiation. We have developed a set of supportive tools for decision-makers within the project 'Methods of evaluation of contaminated territory after radiation accident - the importance of structure and functioning of a land cover'. Our TM tools are based on ArcGIS platform and Python programming language. We have developed a simple model for estimating the current biomass of the polluted crops. Inputs for this model are: a shape file of land cover data, database table with customisable plant growth characteristics and shape file of polluted areas. The model provides a shape file data set of estimated amounts of biomass of selected crops per hectare for a given day. The results are helpful for better performing of the countermeasure 'Early removal of crops'. The total amount of polluted waste, logistic costs (transport of people and material; required time; other costs) could be estimated only with basic GIS tools. The number of days expected for the harvest can be also calculated and compared with the dose and half-lives of the contaminating radionuclides. This analysis could also lead to a 'Do nothing' decision, especially in case of radionuclides with short times of half-life. (author)

  8. Information Disclosure on Hazards from Industrial Water Pollution Incidents: Latent Resistance and Countermeasures in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Tang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available China has suffered frequent water pollution incidents in recent years, and information disclosure on relevant hazards is often delayed and insufficient. The purpose of this paper is to unearth the latent resistance, and analyze the institutional arrangements and countermeasures. After reviewing representative journal literature about environmental information disclosure, this paper provides a theoretical review based on a comparison of the ontological differences between stakeholder theory and fraud triangle theory. A tentative application of fraud triangle theory as a means of explaining the phenomenon is proposed. Empirical analysis is undertaken to verify the tentative theoretical explanation. Based on news reports from Chinese official news websites, content analysis on longitudinal case evidence of representative water pollution incidents is applied, to contribute to unearthing the mechanism of the latent resistance towards information disclosure. The results show that local government agencies have a dominant position vis a vis information disclosure, but that some important actors rarely participate in information disclosure, which provides a chance for local government agencies’ information disclosure to commit fraud. The phenomenon, its essence, and proposed countermeasures are discussed and explained by referring to recent governmental environmental practices in China. Promising research topics are illuminated, providing enlightenment for future study.

  9. Development of countermeasure against scale deposition at steam generators of PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domae, M.; Miyajima, K.; Hirano, H.; Kushida, H.

    2002-01-01

    Scale deposition has occurred at steam generators of several PWRs. The scale deposition may lead to reduction of flow rate of coolant, deterioration of heat exchanging efficiency and so on. These phenomena affect plant operation performance. Thus, elucidation of the mechanism of the scale deposition and some effective countermeasure are required. In CRIEPI (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry), the scale deposition is studied from two aspects: fluid dynamics and water chemistry. Concerning the water chemistry, we think that electro-kinetic behavior of scale, that is, metal oxides is of great importance. The final goal of the water chemical approach is to evaluate electro-kinetic potential (zeta potential) of metal oxides such as magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) and hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ), and to develop some countermeasure of the scale deposition based on the electro-kinetic data. As a first step, the zeta potential of 25 μm Fe 3 O 4 particles was measured by the streaming potential method at room temperature, and effect of dispersant addition was studied. The dispersants examined were poly-acrylic acid (PAA, M w ∝ 25,000) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, M w ∝ 40,000). It has been found that the addition of PAA of more than 10 ppm lowers the zeta potentials by 5 - 15 mV in whole pH range, and that the addition of PVP of more than 10 ppm reduces absolute value of the zeta potentials. (authors)

  10. Research on countermeasures to global environment change in the field of urban planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawanaka, Takashi [Building Research Inst., Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    There are a lot of research themes in the field of urban planning and related fields as mitigation of global environment change. Main theme is reduction method of CO{sub 2} gas emission as a countermeasure against global warming. Some groups research on estimation of CO{sub 2} emission caused by construction activities both in building engineering and civil engineering and also on evaluation of countermeasures. They investigate reduction of CO{sub 2} emission by fossil fuel combustion and by building materials (cement, steel and so on) production process. But we cannot use data fitted to a spatial scale of urban planning. Many researches are focused on nation wide analysis. We, BRI, make a study of {open_quotes}Research on CO{sub 2} Emission in Urban Development and the Control Technologies{close_quotes} as will be seen later at 2. (2). There are two ways of research to reduce CO{sub 2} emission caused by daily activities to urban planning field. One is research on positive utilizing of natural environment in urban areas without depending to energy consuming artificial facilities. There is a research on mitigation of heat island phenomenon for instance. The other ways are research on improvement of energy consumption effect and on reusing of wasted energy In energy consuming type urban space for instance. There s a research on promoting District Heating and Cooling (DHC) and cogeneration.

  11. Antioxidants as potential medical countermeasures for chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Cameron S; Day, Brian J

    2016-01-15

    The continuing horrors of military conflicts and terrorism often involve the use of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Many CWA and TIC exposures are difficult to treat due to the danger they pose to first responders and their rapid onset that can produce death shortly after exposure. While the specific mechanism(s) of toxicity of these agents are diverse, many are associated either directly or indirectly with increased oxidative stress in affected tissues. This has led to the exploration of various antioxidants as potential medical countermeasures for CWA/TIC exposures. Studies have been performed across a wide array of agents, model organisms, exposure systems, and antioxidants, looking at an almost equally diverse set of endpoints. Attempts at treating CWAs/TICs with antioxidants have met with mixed results, ranging from no effect to nearly complete protection. The aim of this commentary is to summarize the literature in each category for evidence of oxidative stress and antioxidant efficacy against CWAs and TICs. While there is great disparity in the data concerning methods, models, and remedies, the outlook on antioxidants as medical countermeasures for CWA/TIC management appears promising. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A European Commission software tool for radon risk calculation and evaluation of countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrange, J.P.; Levy, F.P.; Birchall, A.; Haylock, R.; Marsh, J.; Muirhead, C.; Janssens, A.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of exposure to radon on workers and members of the public have been examined for many years. Recent advances have been made in evaluating the risk associated with radon exposure and in implementing remediation programmes in dwellings. However, decisions about whether to implement countermeasures to reduce radon exposures may benefit from an enhanced capability to evaluate and understand the associated health risk. In this context, the European Commission has launched a project to develop a user friendly software package based upon current information on radon epidemiology, radon dosimetry, demography, and countermeasure efficiency. The software has been designed to perform lung cancer risk calculations specific to European populations for various exposure profiles and to evaluate, in terms of risk reduction, the efficiency of various countermeasures in dwellings. This paper presents an overview of the general structure of the software and outlines its most important modelling approaches. The software is able to evaluate the risk of fatal lung cancer associated with individual or collective exposure to radon. The individual risk calculation module determines, for an individual of given age, sex and tobacco consumption, the excess risk for a given exposure (past or future exposure) time-profile, on the basis of demographic data (WHO, 1996 and 1998) specific to the selected population. The collective risk calculation module determines the excess risk for each occupant of a dwelling, for an exposure time-profile derived from data describing the dwelling, its occupancy, and the chosen countermeasures. These calculations may be done using one of two classical approaches: 1) The epidemiological approach in which the risk is obtained directly from the radon exposure data using a risk model (BEIR IV, 1988; BEIR VI, 1999) derived from epidemiological studies of uranium miners; 2) The dosimetric approach in which the risk is derived from the radon exposure data

  13. A European Commission software tool for radon risk calculation and evaluation of countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degrange, J.P.; Levy, F.P. [CEPN, Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Birchall, A.; Haylock, R.; Marsh, J.; Muirhead, C. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom); Janssens, A. [European Commission, DG XI (Luxembourg)

    2000-05-01

    The effects of exposure to radon on workers and members of the public have been examined for many years. Recent advances have been made in evaluating the risk associated with radon exposure and in implementing remediation programmes in dwellings. However, decisions about whether to implement countermeasures to reduce radon exposures may benefit from an enhanced capability to evaluate and understand the associated health risk. In this context, the European Commission has launched a project to develop a user friendly software package based upon current information on radon epidemiology, radon dosimetry, demography, and countermeasure efficiency. The software has been designed to perform lung cancer risk calculations specific to European populations for various exposure profiles and to evaluate, in terms of risk reduction, the efficiency of various countermeasures in dwellings. This paper presents an overview of the general structure of the software and outlines its most important modelling approaches. The software is able to evaluate the risk of fatal lung cancer associated with individual or collective exposure to radon. The individual risk calculation module determines, for an individual of given age, sex and tobacco consumption, the excess risk for a given exposure (past or future exposure) time-profile, on the basis of demographic data (WHO, 1996 and 1998) specific to the selected population. The collective risk calculation module determines the excess risk for each occupant of a dwelling, for an exposure time-profile derived from data describing the dwelling, its occupancy, and the chosen countermeasures. These calculations may be done using one of two classical approaches: 1) The epidemiological approach in which the risk is obtained directly from the radon exposure data using a risk model (BEIR IV, 1988; BEIR VI, 1999) derived from epidemiological studies of uranium miners; 2) The dosimetric approach in which the risk is derived from the radon exposure data

  14. [Modular enteral nutrition in pediatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo Sanchís, S; Prenafeta Ferré, M T; Sempere Luque, M D

    1991-01-01

    Modular Enteral Nutrition may be a substitute for Parenteral Nutrition in children with different pathologies. Study of 4 children with different pathologies selected from a group of 40 admitted to the Maternal-Childrens Hospital "Valle de Hebrón" in Barcelona, who received modular enteral nutrition. They were monitored on a daily basis by the Dietician Service. Modular enteral nutrition consists of modules of proteins, peptides, lipids, glucids and mineral salts-vitamins. 1.--Craneo-encephalic traumatisms with loss of consciousness, Feeding with a combination of parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition for 7 days. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended and modular enteral nutrition alone used up to a total of 43 days. 2.--55% burns with 36 days of hyperproteic modular enteral nutrition together with normal feeding. A more rapid recovery was achieved with an increase in total proteins and albumin. 3.--Persistent diarrhoea with 31 days of modular enteral nutrition, 5 days on parenteral nutrition alone and 8 days on combined parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended. 4.--Mucoviscidosis with a total of 19 days on modular enteral nutrition, 12 of which were exclusively on modular enteral nutrition and 7 as a night supplement to normal feeding. We administered proteic intakes of up to 20% of the total calorific intake and in concentrations of up to 1.2 calories/ml of the final preparation, always with a good tolerance. Modular enteral nutrition can and should be used as a substitute for parenteral nutrition in children with different pathologies, thus preventing the complications inherent in parenteral nutrition.

  15. Nutrition screening: science behind simplicity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrition screening triggers entry into the nutrition care process.1 Screening has informally been described as simple, quick or low-intensity proxy for more complex procedures. More formal definitions for the nutrition setting have been proposed, describing nutrition screening as a process of identifying patients, clients, or ...

  16. Application of neutron activation and high resolution X-ray spectrometry to the development of analytical methods suitable for the assay of trace elements in biological materials. Part of a coordinated programme on comparative methods for the study of trace elements in human nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantel, J.

    1980-12-01

    A new method for determining trace elements in biological materials by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been investigated. This method is based on the measurement of low-energy X-rays emitted by the sample after appropriate activation with thermal neutrons. The X-rays were detected by a Si(Li) diode connected to a multichannel analyser. The background in the energy region of interest was reduced by means of an electromagnet which deflects high-energy beta-particles away from the detector. This method of measurement has been evaluated by application to a number of different biological reference materials. The use of the electromagnet for background reduction was shown to be extremely effective for several radionuclides that are common sources of disturbance in INAA. For 32 P the background was only 0.8% of its original value. For real samples the background reduction depends somewhat on the matrix and therefore varies from one material to another. Practical detection limits for typical biological materials were derived for 18 different trace elements. The use of a perspex absorber was also considered as an alternative to magnetic deflection of the beta rays. In practice, magnetic deflection is preferable for the lower-energy X-ray emitters such as the activation products of Co, Cr, Cu and Zn

  17. Food and Nutrition Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Perdue Pledges Support on the Long Road to Recovery 4/5 USDA Continues Disaster Assistance in Puerto Rico USDA is continuing its efforts to address the nutrition needs of Puerto Rican residents affected by Hurricanes ...

  18. Nutrition in children posttransplantation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    status and to detect, prevent and treat late-onset complications such as obesity ... potential, prevent further liver injury, promote liver regeneration, minimise risk of infection and .... Campos ACL, Matias JEF and Coelho JCU. Nutritional Aspects ...

  19. Dairy goat nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ronchi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Good goat nutrition is fundamental to the success and sustainability of dairy goat farming in terms of economics, goat health, high quality products, and minimizing environmental impact.

  20. Liver Transplant: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Transplant: Nutrition Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans and the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting ...

  1. Youth Education - Health / Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Deborah L. Angell: The Bug Stops Here! Cheryl L. Barber: Successful Snacks - Food, Fitness and Food Safety Learning Activities. Darcy Batura: At-Risk Youth and Household Hazardous Waste Education. Katherine L. Cason: Nutrition Mission – A Multimedia Educational Tool for Youth . Patsy A. Ezell: An Interactive Food and Nutrition Education Program for Youth. Rhea Lanting: Got Calcium? Sandy McCurdy: Reaching Teens through a Food Safety Education Partnership. Patricia Mulkeen: Choosing 4-H Fitnes...

  2. Nutrition for Sarcopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2015-01-01

    Aging-related sarcopenia means that muscle mass, strength, and physical performance tend to decline with age, and malnutrition is associated with sarcopenia. Therefore, nutritional interventions may make an important contribution to prevent the development of sarcopenia. Here I reviewed published articles about the effects of nutritional factors on sarcopenia in elderly people. A growing body of evidence suggests that metabolic factors associated with obesity and diabetes induce the progressi...

  3. Nutrition and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, G; Tagliabue, A

    2007-12-01

    The first studies about fertility and nutrition date back to the 70ies and already showed a strict relation among female fertility, weight and body composition. However, the mechanisms of this connection started to be explained only after leptin's discovery. According to some authors' opinion, leptin could interact with reproductive axis at multiple sites with stimulatory effects at the hypothalamus and pituitary and stimulatory or inhibitory actions at the gonads. Leptin could play a role in other physiologic processes such as menstruation and pregnancy, and could initiate the complex process of puberty. It has been showed that conditions in which nutritional status is suboptimal, such as eating disorders, exercise induced amenhorrea, functional hypothalamic amenhorrea and polycystic ovarian syndrome, are associated with abnormal leptin levels. These conditions, are characterized by severe changes in body composition and dietary habits. Since leptin is regulated by body composition and dietary factors, (such as energy intake and macronutrient composition), a strict connection between nutritional intake and fertility regulated by leptin is confirmed. This review focuses on the current knowledge about nutritional factors that influence leptin levels. Since clinical and subclinical nutritional imbalance can determine the development and the maintenance of neuroendocrine and metabolic aberrations, studies on fertility need a deeper attention about dietary habits and nutritional status.

  4. Progress in the study of multivitamins and minerals nutritional supplements for troops stationed in high altitude regions

    OpenAIRE

    Yan-qiang ZHONG; Ying LU

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional supplements are products intended to supplement and improve the diet, and they contain one or more dietary ingredients (including vitamins, minerals herbs or other botanicals, amino acids, protein and other substances) or their constituents. Supplement of vitamins and trace elements play an important role in the nutritional supplements. Supplements play a direct role in health by filling the nutritional gap and preventing diseases caused by nutritional deficiencies, especially for...

  5. Radiographic element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, T.I.; Jones, C.G.

    1984-01-01

    Radiographic elements are disclosed comprised of first and second silver halide emulsion layers separated by an interposed support capable of transmitting radiation to which the second image portion is responsive. At least the first imaging portion contains a silver halide emulsion in which thin tubular silver halide grains of intermediate aspect ratios (from 5:1 to 8:1) are present. Spectral sensitizing dye is adsorbed to the surface of the tubular grains. Increased photographic speeds can be realized at comparable levels of crossover. (author)

  6. Superheavy elements

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, S

    1999-01-01

    The outstanding aim of experimental investigations of heavy nuclei is the exploration of spherical 'SuperHeavy Elements' (SHEs). On the basis of the nuclear shell model, the next double magic shell-closure beyond sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb is predicted at proton numbers between Z=114 and 126 and at neutron number N=184. All experimental efforts aiming at identifying SHEs (Z>=114) were negative so far. A highly sensitive search experiment was performed in November-December 1995 at SHIP. The isotope sup 2 sup 9 sup 0 116 produced by 'radiative capture' was searched for in the course of a 33 days irradiation of a sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb target with sup 8 sup 2 Se projectiles, however, only cross-section limits were measured. Positive results were obtained in experiments searching for elements from 110 to 112 using cold fusion and the 1n evaporation channel. The produced isotopes were unambiguously identified by means of alpha-alpha correlations. Not fission, but alpha emission is the dominant decay mode. The measurement ...

  7. Strategies for nutritional improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, K S

    1991-01-01

    India has achieved self-sufficiency in the production of food grains, yet the production of milk, legumes, vegetables, oils and fats, eggs, and meat is far short of the needs of the population. The Indian diet predominantly comprises cereals, and the diets of expectant and nursing mothers as well as children are grossly deficient in protective foods. Serious nutritional inadequacies have resulted in low birth weight, retarded growth, and nutritional deficiencies (protein energy malnutrition in preschool children, vitamin A deficiency, iron deficiency in women of reproductive age, and iodine deficiency disorders among neonates and schoolchildren). General malnutrition is prevalent in 25% of the rural and 20% of the urban population. Deficiency symptoms of vitamin B complex and vitamin C are also not uncommon. 37% of the population of India lives below the poverty limit, the literacy rate is only 52.1% (39.4% for women), safe drinking water is scarce, nutritional ignorance is rampant, there is a lack of personal hygiene, and poor sanitation all account for malnutrition. A number of government and nongovernmental organizations' programs have attempted to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living of the people. Some of them include the integrated child development services, special nutritional program, national vitamin A deficiency prophylaxis program, national anemia prophylaxis program, national goiter control program, midday meal program, special class feeding programs, universal immunization program, nutritional and health education through the mass media as well as the observance of world food day and world health day. The national health policy gives high priority to the promotion of family planning, the provision of primary health care, and the acceleration of welfare programs for women and children. As a result of policies and programs of health and nutrition, the infant, child, and maternal mortality rates have declined and life expectancy at

  8. Trace elements in wild and orchard honeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida-Silva, M.; Canha, N.; Galinha, C.; Dung, H.M. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Freitas, M.C., E-mail: cfreitas@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Sitoe, T. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2011-11-15

    The present study aims the identification and quantification of trace elements in two types of honey samples: Orchard honey and Wild honey from mainland Portugal. Chemical elements content was assessed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Concentrations were determinated for Ag, As, Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, U, V and Zn. The nutritional values of both honey types were evaluated since this product contains some elements that are essential dietary nutrients for humans. Physical properties of the honey samples, such as electrical conductivy and pH, were assessed as well.

  9. Bone Loss in Space: Shuttle/MIR Experience and Bed Rest Countermeasure Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, L. C.; LeBlanc, A.; Feiveson, A.; Oganov, V.

    1999-01-01

    Loss of bone mineral during space flight was documented in the 1970's Skylab missions. The USSR space program made similar observations in the 1980's. The Institute of Biomedical Problems in Moscow and NASA JSC in 1989 began to collect pre- and post-flight bone mineral density (BMD) using Hologic QDR 1000 DEXA scanners transferred from JSC to Moscow and Star City. DEXA whole body, hip, and lumbar spine scans were performed prior to and during the first week after return from 4- to 6-month missions (plus one 8-month mission and one 14- month mission) on the Mir space station. These data documented the extent and regional nature of bone loss during long duration space flight. Of the 18 cosmonauts participating in this study between 1990 and 1995, seven flew two missions. BMD scans prior to the second flight compared to the first mission preflight scans indicated that recovery was possibly delayed or incomplete. Because of these findings, NASA and IBMP initiated the study "Bone Mineral Loss and Recovery After Shuttle/Mir Flights" in 1995 to evaluate bone recovery during a 3-year post-flight period. All of the 14 participants thus far evaluated lost bone in at least one region of the spine and lower extremities during flight. Of the 14, only one to date has exhibited full return to baseline BNM values in all regions. The current study will continue until the last participant has reached full bone recovery in all regions, has reached a plateau, or until three years after the flight (2001 for the last mission of the program). Bone mineral density losses in space and difficulty in returning to baseline indicate a need for countermeasure development. In late 1996 NASA JSC and Baylor College of Medicine were approved to conduct two countermeasure studies during 17 weeks of bed rest. In 1997 the studies were begun in the bed rest facility established by NASA, Baylor College of Medicine, and The Methodist Hospital in Houston. To date, three bed rest controls, five resistive

  10. Back pain in space and post-flight spine injury: Mechanisms and countermeasure development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayson, Jojo V.; Lotz, Jeffrey; Parazynski, Scott; Hargens, Alan R.

    2013-05-01

    During spaceflight many astronauts experience moderate to severe lumbar pain and deconditioning of paraspinal muscles. There is also a significant incidence of herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) in astronauts post-flight being most prevalent in cervical discs. Relief of in-flight lumbar back pain is facilitated by assuming a knee-to-chest position. The pathogenesis of lumbar back pain during spaceflight is most likely discogenic and somatic referred (from the sinuvertebral nerves) due to supra-physiologic swelling of the lumbar intervertebral discs (IVDs) due to removal of gravitational compressive loads in microgravity. The knee-to-chest position may reduce lumbar back pain by redistributing stresses through compressive loading to the IVDs, possibly reducing disc volume by fluid outflow across IVD endplates. IVD stress redistribution may reduce Type IV mechanoreceptor nerve impulse propagation in the annulus fibrosus and vertebral endplate resulting in centrally mediated pain inhibition during spinal flexion. Countermeasures for lumbar back pain may include in-flight use of: (1) an axial compression harness to prevent excessive IVD expansion and spinal column elongation; (2) the use of an adjustable pulley exercise developed to prevent atrophy of spine muscle stabilisers; and (3) other exercises that provide Earth-like annular stress with low-load repetitive active spine rotation movements. The overall objective of these countermeasures is to promote IVD health and to prevent degenerative changes that may lead to HNPs post-flight. In response to "NASA's Critical Path Roadmap Risks and Questions" regarding disc injury and higher incidence of HNPs after space flight (Integrated Research Plan Gap-B4), future studies will incorporate pre- and post-flight imaging of International Space Station long-duration crew members to investigate mechanisms of lumbar back pain as well as degeneration and damage to spinal structures. Quantitative results on morphological, biochemical

  11. Light vehicle crash avoidance needs and countermeasure profiles for safety applications based on vehicle-to-vehicle communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    This report discusses light-vehicle crash countermeasure profiles and functions for five target pre-crash scenario groups based on vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications. Target pre-crash scenario groups include rear-end, lane change, opposite direc...

  12. In-car countermeasures open window and music revisited on the real road: popular but hardly effective against driver sleepiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarz, J.F.A.; Ingre, M.; Fors, C.; Anund, A.; Kecklund, L.G.; Taillard, J.; Philip, P.; Äkerstedt, T.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of two very commonly used countermeasures against driver sleepiness, opening the window and listening to music, on subjective and physiological sleepiness measures during real road driving. In total, 24 individuals participated in the study. Sixteen participants

  13. MOIRA models and methodologies for assessing the effectiveness of countermeasures in complex aquatic systems contaminated by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte, L.; Haakanson, L.; Gallego Diaz, E.

    1999-01-01

    The present report is composed of a set of articles written by the partners of the MOIRA project (a model-based computerized system for management support to identify optimal remedial strategies for restoring radionuclide contaminated aquatic ecosystems and drainage areas). The report describes models for predicting the behaviour of radionuclides in complex aquatic systems and the effects of countermeasures for their restoration [it

  14. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Yasuo.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the plenum space in a fuel element used for a liquid metal cooled reactor. Constitution: A fuel pellet is secured at one end with an end plug and at the other with a coil spring in a tubular container. A mechanism for fixing the coil spring composed of a tubular unit is mounted by friction with the inner surface of the tubular container. Accordingly, the recoiling force of the coil spring can be retained by fixing mechanism with a small volume, and since a large amount of plenum space can be obtained, the internal pressure rise in the cladding tube can be suppressed even if large quantities of fission products are discharged. (Kamimura, M.)

  15. Combined enteral and parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernerman, Jan

    2012-03-01

    To review and discuss the evidence and arguments to combine enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition in the ICU, in particular with reference to the Early Parenteral Nutrition Completing Enteral Nutrition in Adult Critically Ill Patients (EPaNIC) study. The EPaNIC study shows an advantage in terms of discharges alive from the ICU when parenteral nutrition is delayed to day 8 as compared with combining enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition from day 3 of ICU stay. The difference between the guidelines from the European Society of Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition in Europe and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition/Society of Critical Care Medicine in North America concerning the combination of enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition during the initial week of ICU stay was reviewed. The EPaNIC study clearly demonstrates that early parenteral nutrition in the ICU is not in the best interests of most patients. Exactly at what time point the combination of enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition should be considered is still an open question.

  16. Elements of effective nutrition education for adults with Diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health SA Gesondheid. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 14, No 1 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. Zinc: physiology, deficiency, and parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Callum

    2015-06-01

    The essential trace element zinc (Zn) has a large number of physiologic roles, in particular being required for growth and functioning of the immune system. Adaptive mechanisms enable the body to maintain normal total body Zn status over a wide range of intakes, but deficiency can occur because of reduced absorption or increased gastrointestinal losses. Deficiency impairs physiologic processes, leading to clinical consequences that include failure to thrive, skin rash, and impaired wound healing. Mild deficiency that is not clinically overt may still cause nonspecific consequences, such as susceptibility to infection and poor growth. The plasma Zn concentration has poor sensitivity and specificity as a test of deficiency. Consequently, diagnosis of deficiency requires a combination of clinical assessment and biochemical tests. Patients receiving parenteral nutrition (PN) are susceptible to Zn deficiency and its consequences. Nutrition support teams should have a strategy for assessing Zn status and optimizing this by appropriate supplementation. Nutrition guidelines recommend generous Zn provision from the start of PN. This review covers the physiology of Zn, the consequences of its deficiency, and the assessment of its status, before discussing its role in PN. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  18. [Should pediatric parenteral nutrition be individualized?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Renata Germano Borges de Oliveira Nascimento; Nogueira, Roberto José Negrão; Saron, Margareth Lopes Galvão; Lima, Alexandre Esteves Souza; Hessel, Gabriel

    2014-12-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) formulations are commonly individualized, since their standardization seem inadequate for the pediatric population. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional state and the reasons for PN individualization in pediatric patients using PN hospitalized in a tertiary hospital in Campinas, São Paulo. This longitudinal study comprised patients using PN followed by up to 67 days. Nutritional status was classified according to the criteria established by the World Health Organization (WHO) (2006) and WHO (2007). The levels of the following elements on blood were analyzed: sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, chloride, magnesium, inorganic phosphorus and triglycerides (TGL). Among the criteria for individualization, were considered undeniable: significant reduction in blood levels of potassium (nutritional state of patients was considered critical in most cases. Thus, the individualization performed in the beginning of PN for energy protein adequacy was indispensable. In addition, the individualized PN was indispensable in at least 29.2% of PN for correction of alterations found in biochemical parameters. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Nutrition and pubertal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compared to past decades. Excessive eating of many processed, high-fat foods, may be the cause of this phenomenon. Overweight or obese children are more likely to enter puberty early. Some evidence suggests that obesity can accelerate the onset of puberty in girls and may delay the onset of puberty in boys. Moreover, the progression of puberty is affected by nutrition. On the other hand, puberty triggers a growth spurt, which increases nutritional needs including macro and micronutrients. Increased caloric, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and folate needs have to be provided during this critical period of rapid growth. Severe primary or secondary malnutrition also can delay the onset and progression of puberty. The higher incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents imposes a nutritional risk on pubertal development. Moreover, many environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs have been identified that can significantly impair the normal course of puberty. This mini-review sums up some important findings in this important complex that link nutrition and pubertal development.

  20. Nutritional Considerations for Bouldering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Edward J; Storey, Ryan; Ranchordas, Mayur K

    2017-08-01

    Bouldering competitions are held up to International level and governed by the International Federation of Sport Climbing. Bouldering has been selected to feature at the 2020 Olympic Games in Tokyo, however, physiological qualities and nutritional requirements to optimize performance remain inadequately defined due to large gaps in the literature. The primary goals of training include optimizing the capacity of the anaerobic energy systems and developing sport-specific strength, with emphasis on the isometric function of the forearm flexors responsible for grip. Bouldering athletes typically possess a lean physique, similar to the characteristics of sport climbers with reported body fat values of 6-12%. Athletes strive for a low body weight to improve power to weight ratio and limit the load on the extremities. Specialized nutritional support is uncommon and poor nutritional practices such as chronic carbohydrate restriction are prevalent, compromising the health of the athletes. The high intensity nature of bouldering demands a focus on adequate carbohydrate availability. Protein intake and timing should be structured to maximize muscle protein synthesis and recovery, with the literature suggesting 0.25-0.3 g/kg in 3-4 hr intervals. Supplementing with creatine and b-alanine may provide some benefit by augmenting the capacity of the anaerobic systems. Boulderers are encouraged to seek advice from nutrition experts to enhance performance, particularly important when weight loss is the desired outcome. Further research is warranted across all nutritional aspects of bouldering which is summarized in this review.