WorldWideScience

Sample records for countermeasures electronic

  1. Probability of Intercept in Electronic Countermeasures Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    signal and the mechani - cal generation of the acoustic wave. The transducer must be designed with a high coupling efficiency to limit heat generation...Strum, R. D., Ward, J. R., Electronic Circuits and Networks, p. 300, Quantum Publishers, 1973. 13. Taub, H., Schilling, D. L., Principles of

  2. Corrosion in electronics: Overview of failures and countermeasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Verdingovas, Vadimas; Conseil, Helene

    2014-01-01

    life conditions (humidity and contamination) where water film formation on the printed circuit board assembly (PCBA) leads to leakage currents resulting in wrong output signal of the electronic device. If the leakage current itself will not result in malfunctioning of the electronics, the formed water......Many field failure returns of electronics are marked as “no failure found”, yet numerous of these failures are likely due to corrosion, since corrosion related failures are not easily detected during subsequent failure analysis. In some cases failures are intermittent and occur because of service...... film and potential bias of the PCBA will eventually lead to failure caused by more easy recognisable corrosion. Typical corrosion failure types seen in electronics are galvanic corrosion, electrochemical migration, and other types of bias induced corrosion. This paper describes the most commonly used...

  3. Corrosion in electronics: Overview of failures and countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Verdingovas, Vadimas; Conseil, Helene; Piotrowska, Kamila; Ambat, Rajan

    2014-01-01

    Many field failure returns of electronics are marked as “no failure found”, yet numerous of these failures are likely due to corrosion, since corrosion related failures are not easily detected during subsequent failure analysis. In some cases failures are intermittent and occur because of service life conditions (humidity and contamination) where water film formation on the printed circuit board assembly (PCBA) leads to leakage currents resulting in wrong output signal of the electronic devic...

  4. Self-organizing fuzzy clustering neural network and application to electronic countermeasures effectiveness evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A self-organizing fuzzy clustering neural network by combining the self-organizing Kohonen clustering network with the fuzzy theory is proposed.This network model is designed for the effectiveness evaluation of electronic countermeasures,which not only exerts the advantages of the fuzzy theory,but also has a good ability in machine learning and data analysis.The subjective value of sample versus class is computed by the fuzzy computing theory,and the classified results obtained by self-organizing learning of Kohonen neural network are represented on output layer.Meanwhile,the fuzzy competition learning algorithm keeps the similar information between samples and overcomes the disadvantages of neural network which has fewer samples.The simulation result indicates that the proposed algorithm is feasible and effective.

  5. Development and Countermeasures of Electronic Sports Industrialization%电子竞技运动产业化的发展现状及对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐慧; 陈玉婷

    2015-01-01

    以相关的统计数据为基础,分析了电子竞技运动在发展过程中存在的一系列问题:存在认识误区、竞技项目国产化程度不高、职业化水平不高、运动员面临退役再就业等。提出电子竞技运动的产业化发展需要科学的认知观、品牌创新、政策引导、重视战略转型等,以确保其健康的发展,充分挖掘其市场潜力。%Based on related statistical data, some problems in the development of electronic sports industrialization are discussed:misconceptions in the field and lower level of domestic production in game,poor professional performances and re-employment of retired athletes. Countermeasures are as follows:the development of electronic sports industrialization requires scientific cognitive perspective, brand innovation, policy guidance, strategic transformation and so on. That will ensure its healthy development and realize the full potential in its developing markets.

  6. Countermeasures and barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Johannes [Oersted - DTU, Automation, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2005-10-01

    In 1973 Haddon proposed ten strategies for reducing and avoiding damages based on a model of potential harmful energy transfer (Haddon, 1973). The strategies apply to a large variety of unwanted phenomena. Haddon's pioneering work on countermeasures has had a major influence on later thinking about safety. Considering its impact it is remarkable that the literature offers almost no discussions related to the theoretical foundations of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. The present report addresses a number of theoretical issues related to Haddon's countermeasure strategies, which are: 1) A reformulation and formalization of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. 2) An identification and description of some of the problems associated with the term 'barrier'. 3) Suggestions for a more precise terminology based on the causal structure of countermeasures. 4) Extending the scope of countermeasures to include sign-based countermeasures. (au)

  7. Adaptive network countermeasures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClelland-Bane, Randy; Van Randwyk, Jamie A.; Carathimas, Anthony G.; Thomas, Eric D.

    2003-10-01

    This report describes the results of a two-year LDRD funded by the Differentiating Technologies investment area. The project investigated the use of countermeasures in protecting computer networks as well as how current countermeasures could be changed in order to adapt with both evolving networks and evolving attackers. The work involved collaboration between Sandia employees and students in the Sandia - California Center for Cyber Defenders (CCD) program. We include an explanation of the need for adaptive countermeasures, a description of the architecture we designed to provide adaptive countermeasures, and evaluations of the system.

  8. Research on Configuration Optimization of Electronic Countermeasure Air Reconnaissance Radar Position%电子对抗对空侦察雷达阵地配置优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭强; 高建军; 张弓胤

    2016-01-01

    针对电子对抗对空侦察雷达阵地优化配置问题,通过分析雷达站的侦察范围与定位条件,提出双机定位和三机定位的最优配置模式,分别建立双机定位和三机定位的最优站距、定位纵深、配置间隔、阵地高度等相关参数的计算模型。通过对电子对抗对空侦察雷达阵地优化配置问题进行实例计算,表明模型实用、有效。%Aimed at the optimization configuration problem of electronic countermeasure air reconnaissance radar position,the paper analyzes the reconnaissance scope and positioning condition at the radar station,proposes the optimal configuration modes of dual-unit positioning and ternary-unit positioning,and respectively sets up the calculation models related to the optimal station spacing, positioning depth,configuration interval,position height and other relevant parameters of dual-unit positioning and ternary -unit positioning. The real example’s calculation of the optimization configuration problem of electronic countermeasure air reconnaissance radar position indicates that the model is practical and effective.

  9. 试论电子图书对图书馆的影响及发展对策%Discussion on Influence of Electronic Books on the Library and Development Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晶

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of electronic books brings lots of convenience to our life. Of course, it also has very profound influence on the library. This paper mainly discusses the advantages and disadvantages of electronic books and its influence on the traditional library, and the future development countermeasures for reference.%电子图书的出现给我们的生活带来很多方便.当然,它对于图书馆也有很深远的影响.本文主要论述电子图书的优势和不足以及它对传统图书馆的影响,和其以后的发展对策,供有关人士参考查阅.

  10. 高校图书馆电子阅览室改善运行模式的对策%The Countermeasures and Approaches for Improving the Operating Mode of University Library’s Electronic Reading Room

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳霞

    2014-01-01

    In the light of the problems existing in the operation of university library’s electronic reading room, this paper puts forward some countermeasures and approaches for repositioning electronic reading room’s operating mode and service function, and through strengthening the construction of digital resources, realizing the resources sharing, and improving the operating efficiency and quality.%针对高校图书馆电子阅览室运行中存在的问题,提出了对电子阅览室运行模式和服务功能进行重新定位,通过强化数字资源建设,实现资源共享,提升运行效率和质量的对策途径。

  11. Integrated Defensive Electronic Countermeasures (IDECM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Estimate: POE Disposal/ Demilitarization Total Cost (BY 2008 $M): Total costs for disposal of all System are 0.7 While these costs are not part of the...372.1 Disposal Estimate Details Date of Estimate: February 01, 2015 Source of Estimate: POE Disposal/ Demilitarization Total Cost (BY 2008 $M

  12. 可穿戴电子信息对抗设备的概念与应用浅析%Conception and Application Analysis on Wearable Electronic Information Countermeasure Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石荣

    2015-01-01

    The wearable devices have more and more influence upon the people's work and life with the technique development of super-integration, lower power consumption, smaller scale, and function realization by software and promotion by the all kinds of applications. The new con-ception about the wearable electronic information countermeasure device should be researched in conformity with this trend. The formation, characteristic, configuration, function, utilization and main users of the wearable electronic information countermeasure device are analyzed ac-cording to the requirements from the military and civil application. The common and specialized techniques are also discussed. The development trend and broad application foreground of the wearable electronic information countermeasure device and technology are exhibited. It is a bet-ter base for electromagnetism spectrum efficient sense, comprehensive management, available control, reasonable utilization and the technique development, equipment manufacture in the following phase.%随着高密度集成、低功耗小型化、功能软件化等技术的发展与各种应用开发的牵引,可穿戴设备对人们的生产和生活产生了越来越重要的影响。在这一科技浪潮的推动下“可穿戴电子信息对抗设备”也初露端倪成为新的研究点。结合电子信息对抗军民两方面的实际应用需求,对可穿戴电子信息对抗设备的组成特点、产品形态、功能用途和主要用户等各方面进行了分析,并对其中所涉及的共用技术和专用技术进行了讨论,展示了可穿戴电子信息对抗设备及其技术的未来发展趋势和广阔的应用前景,从而为电磁频谱的高效感知、全面管理、有效控制、合理利用,以及后续可穿戴电子信息对抗设备的技术研发和设备研制奠定了良好的基础。

  13. 重庆高校图书馆电子文献资源建设现状及对策%The Present Situation and Countermeasure of Electronic Literature Resources Construction about Chongqing University Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘子辉; 彭渝; 陈强; 吴晓英

    2014-01-01

    In the information society, Electronic document resources are very important for library development and the school's teaching and research. The university library should pay more at ention to the construction of electronic document resources. Through the survey of the electronic document resources in Chongqing, We have mastered the distribution of electronic document resources, analyzed the existing problems in resource construction, and proposed the related countermeasure. We hope to provide reference for the electronic document resources construction.%在信息社会,电子文献资源对高校图书馆建设、学校的教学与科研都起到非常重要的作用,各高校图书馆应该更加重视电子文献资源的建设。通过对重庆高校图书馆电子文献资源建设情况进行调查,掌握了本地区电子文献资源的分布情况,分析了资源建设中存在的问题,并提出了相关对策,希望为本地区高校图书馆电子文献资源建设提供参考。

  14. ANALYSIS OF PROBLEMS AND COUNTERMEASURES OF ELECTRONIC GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT IN CHINA%我国电子化政府采购存在的问题及对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马江; 罗雯

    2015-01-01

    Rapid development of electronic information technology in China make that the electronic government procurement is gradually becoming the dominant direction of government procurement reform of our country. The current situation and existing problem of electronic government procurement in China were analyzed in this paper, and some suggestions and countermeasures were proposed to solve the problems of electronic government procure-ment.%我国电子信息技术的日新月异, 使得我国电子化政府采购逐渐成为我国政府采购改革的主导方向.文章就我国电子化政府采购的现状、 存在问题进行了分析, 并针对存在问题提出了解决问题、 发展我国电子化政府采购相关的对策和建议.

  15. Analysis on Current Situation and Countermeasure of Domestic Electronic Commerce Logistics in the Internet Age——Based on Resource Dependence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jiapeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the status of electric business logistics in the current Internet era in China, and combines the SWOT analysis with AHP to do the empirical analysis, then puts forward the countermeasure that the electric business logistics resource should be shared based on the resource dependence theory. Through the empirical analysis, it is found that the disadvantages and opportunities of the logistics status are important in the Internet era.The resource sharing strategy based on the resource dependence theory is more scientific. The rational use of Internet technology in electric business logistics industry can achieve “sharing”. It is of great significance for its balanced development, intelligent development and optimization and development.

  16. Discussion on the Countermeasures of Implementing Structured Electronic Medical Record System%实施结构化电子病历系统对策探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晟

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces the definition of structured electronic medical record, elaborates how to make the templates for struc-tured electronic medical record, establish master patient indexes and integrate various information systems in electronic medical record im-plementation process, so as to guide the doctors to correctly understand the features and specifications of electronic medical record.%介绍结构化电子病历的含义,阐述在电子病历实施过程中如何制作结构化电子病历模板、建立患者主索引并集成各信息系统,引导临床医生正确认识电子病历功能和规范。

  17. 电子商务存在的问题及对策研究%Study on the problems and countermeasures existing in the electronic commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶勇海

    2013-01-01

    Electronic commerce is a hot issue in the field of China's economy in recent years, but the current e-commerce development in China, there are still inadequate infrastructure, electronic payment security can not be assured, has seriously affected the healthy development of e-commerce. In this paper, by analyzing the situation of the development of electronic commerce in our country at present, to point out the existing constraints of electronic commerce in China, looking for the development of electronic commerce in line with China's national conditions.%电子商务是近年来我国经济领域中的一个热点问题,但当前在我国电子商务发展中尚存在基础设施不足、电子支付安全性无法得以保障等问题,已严重影响了电子商务的健康发展。本文通过对当前我国电子商务发展现状的分析,指出我国电子商务存在的制约因素,寻找符合我国国情的电子商务发展的过程。

  18. 我国电子废弃物管理现状及对策研究%Research on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipments(WEEE)Management and Countermeasure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵诣臻; 黄菊文; 李光明; 贺文智; 庄绪宁; 殷进

    2011-01-01

    Associated with the rapid development of the electric industry, more and more electrical and electronic equipments (EEE) have come into their end of life stage which led to a huge amount of waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE) to be disposed of. The high environmental risk and high recycling value of WEEE has become a concerned problem for the world. Simultaneously, the growth of WEEE in China is fast while the building of WEEE management system is not complete. The WEEE management in developed countries is reviewed including Europe, USA and Japan then the situation of legislation development of WEEE in China is analyzed. With the analysis, the existing problems related to policies, regulations, technology and social economy are pointed out. Concerned with the experience and ideas from developed countries, countermeasures are proposed to improve the China's WEEE management system.%随着电子工业的快速发展,越来越多的电子电气产品进入了报废期,带来了巨大的电子废弃物产生量.电子废弃物以高环境风险性和高资源化价值引起了全球的关注.同时,我国的电子废弃物也快速增长,其管理现状亦不容乐观.介绍了国外发达国家(包括欧洲、美国和日本)电子废弃物的管理现状以及分析了我国电子废弃物管理和立法的进程发展.在对我国分析的基础之上,指出目前我国在电子废弃物管理中所存在的问题,问题涉及政策、技术及社会经济等方面;并结合发达国家的先进管理经验,提出针对我国的对策与建议.

  19. The Current Situation of Government Electronic Procurement in China and the Countermeasures%我国政府电子化采购的发展现状及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田剑

    2015-01-01

    随着电子商务的迅速发展,政府电子化采购已成为一种发展趋势。目前我国政府电子化采购方面存在着采购信息网上公开不规范、实际采购程序与电子化采购程序不相符、电子化采购技术与政府采购制度不匹配等问题,应在借鉴欧美及韩国相关经验基础上,加快中央和地方采购平台的建设,协调顶层设计与采购制度的关系,完善政府电子化采购的相关法律法规,构建政府电子化采购绩效评估体系,共同促进我国政府电子化采购的规范发展。%With the rapid development of e-commerce,traditional government procurement is undergoing a dramatic change toward e-commercialization. There are still some problems with e-procurement in China,such as the not standardized online information transparency,the not compatible real e-procurement procedure with preset one,and the unmatched e-procurement technology with related mechanism. Based on reviewing the experience of government e-procurement in South Korea and other advanced countries, to promote the standardized government e- procurement in China, such four countermeasures are given:first, accelerating the construction of the central and local procurement platform;second, coordinating the relationship between the top design and procurement system;third,improving the relevant laws and regulations of government electronic procurement;and fourth,constructing government electronic procurement performance evaluation system.

  20. 中国电子商务诚信问题分析及对策研究%Analysis and Countermeasure Research on Chinese Electronic Commerce Credibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 任寰; 邹阳

    2012-01-01

    On May 4th 2012, the MITT published The Intemet Industry's 12th Five Year Plan, which proposed e - commerce transactions to reach 18 trillion yuan in 2015 and actively promote the construction of third - party e - commerce platform, and the size of mobile e - commerce application. E-commerce will usher in a period of ac- celerated development of opportunities in China. In the case of the rapid development of electronic commerce in China, a lot of honesty problems restrict the development of e - commerce in China. This article can recommend appropriate solutions by analyzing the main features of e - commerce businesses and consumers, manifestations of e - commerce credit, and analysis for the integrity of the source of the problems of electronic commerce.%2012年5月4日发布的《互联网行业"十二五"发展规划》提出,2015年电子商务交易额达到18万亿元,并要求积极推进第三方电子商务平台建设和移动电子商务的规模应用。我国电子商务将迎来加速发展的重要时期。在现今我国电子商务如此高速发展的情况下,却有着诸多诚信问题制约着我国电子商务的发展。本文通过分析电子商务企业与消费者的主要特征以及电子商务诚信问题的表现形式,对电子商务诚信问题根源性进行分析,并提出相应解决办法。

  1. Evaluating the multi-threading countermeasure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Frieslaar, Ibraheem

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the resistance of the multi-threaded countermeasure to side channel analysis (SCA) attacks. The multi-threaded countermeasure is attacked using the Correlation Power Analysis (CPA) and template attacks. Additionally...

  2. 《电路与电子技术概述》课程课堂教学问题及对策研究%Countermeasures againstclassroom teaching problems of“Overview of Circuit and Electronic Technology”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨睿

    2014-01-01

    “Overview of Circuit and Electronic Technology”is a professional basic course for Computer Science and Technology Program,which is integrated by“Circuit Analysis”and“Artificial Circuit”.This course has characteristics of large knowledge content,structural complexity and particularity of students.Quality of teaching and learning initiative could be affected because of knowledge,teaching mode and students’classroom behavior,and so on.Teachers should analyze characteristics of the course and student’s psychological patiently to seek countermeasures against problems of Classroom teaching.%《电路与电子技术概述》课程是计算机科学与技术专业十分关键的专业基础课程,由《电路分析》和《模拟电路》2门课程整合而成。该课程具有知识含量大、构成复杂,面向的学生特殊等特点。其课堂教学过程中可能在知识内容、教学模式及学生课堂行为习惯等方面遇到诸多问题,影响课堂教学质量,甚至影响学生专业课程学习积极性,从而导致后续专业应用课程的学习受较大影响。《电路与电子技术概述》课程授课教师应针对该课程课堂教学过程中出现的各类问题,耐心分析课程特点和学生心理,认真总结经验教训,努力寻求解决课堂教学问题对策,培养学生良好课堂学习习惯,进一步调动学生课堂参与积极性,提高课堂学习效果,为学生后续专业应用课程学习打下扎实基础。

  3. Network radar countermeasure systems integrating radar and radar countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Qiuxi

    2016-01-01

    This is the very first book to present the network radar countermeasure system. It explains in detail the systematic concept of combining radar and radar countermeasures from the perspective of the information acquisition of target location, the optimization of the reconnaissance and detection, the integrated attack of the signals and facilities, and technological and legal developments concerning the networked system. It achieves the integration of the initiative and passivity, detection and jamming. The book explains how the system locates targets, completes target identification, tracks targets and compiles the data.

  4. 我国家电连锁销售企业进军电子商务市场过程中的问题与对策分析%Analysis of Problems and Countermeasures in the Process of Chain Retailers of Traditional Household Electronic Appliance Marching into E-commerce Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱骅; 朱翔

    2011-01-01

    近年来,传统型家电连锁销售企业纷纷加大了向电子商务市场进军的力度,引起业界关注。以其中代表企业为例,分析该类企业所面临的问题、其产生的原因和对策建议,以供相关企业参考。%Chain retailers of traditional household electronic appliance have increased their investment in electronic commerce market in recent years. Taking representative retailers for examples, this paper analyzes problems, causes and countermeasures confronting these retailers for the reference of similar enterprises.

  5. Investigation of Terrain Bounce Electronic Countermeasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    no point for which both the slope of the curve and the value of Vpd are equal to zero. (See Figure 5 for C -. 5.) Thus, there is no physical ...for rough terrain. A methodology was presented for solving the Terrain Bounce problem. In Section II1, the metho - dology was applied to a specific...Waves from Slightly Rough Surfaces", Communications on Pure Applied Mathematics , 4: 351-378 (1951). 22. Sherwood, E.M. and E.L. Ginzton. "Reflection

  6. XQuery Injection Attack and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭玉森

    2014-01-01

    As a database that allows data to be stored in XML format, XML database suffers from some similar attacks as traditional relational database does. These attacks include injection attack by XQuey function in application software. These include BaseX, eXist and MarkLogic. In order to defeat these attacks, countermeasures are proposed.

  7. Zhengzhou Distribution Research and Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Wujun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the acceleration of urbanization process in China, the city has become an increasingly important part of the logistics. This paper analyzes the current development in Zhengzhou logistics and distribution, and use the SWOT analysis model to analyze the Zhengzhou logistics and distribution strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges presented in Zhengzhou distribution tertiary network architecture, and finally summarized the Zhengzhou logistics countermeasures and suggestions distribution.

  8. 护士执行电子医嘱过程存在缺陷分析及对策%Defect analysis and countermeasures in the process of executing electronic doctor's advice by nurses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾慧

    2011-01-01

    目的 总结归纳我院护士执行电子医嘱过程中常见的缺陷类型,分析主要原因,提出管理对策.方法 通过医院医嘱信息系统,抽查部分科室归档前出院病历1 840份,医嘱47 840条.主要检查记录医嘱缺陷类别及执行护士一般情况和班次.结果 缺陷医嘱2 392条,其中已执行医嘱漏签名885条,占全部缺陷的37;医嘱执行者与签名不一致443条,占全部缺陷的18.52%;用药执行时间与医嘱要求不符371条,占全部缺陷的15.51%.3种缺陷合计1 699条,占全部缺陷医嘱的71%.结论 护士执行医嘱存在的缺陷与年龄、工作年限、职称、学历成负相关,不同班次发生缺陷医嘱数量各不相同,尤以中班医嘱缺陷最高,占总缺陷的49.7%.这些缺陷已成为当前护患纠纷的隐患.应引起重视并探讨有效的措施,除科学合理安排人力外,将法律法规学习纳入管理常规工作,教育护理人员充分认识医嘱的法律性,把医嘱执行的完整性纳入考核等,提高医嘱执行的完整率,以保护护患双方的根本利益,全面提高护理质量.%Objective To summarize the common defect types in the process of executing electronic doctor's advice by nurses of our hospital, analyze the main reasons and then propose management countermeasures. Methods 1840 discharge records and 47480 doctor's advice from some departments in our hospital were chosen for spot check before they were filed through the hospital medical information system. Primary inspection was on the defect type of doctors' advice and the general execution of nurses. Results There were 2392 defect doctor's advice, of which 885 were executed with no doctors' signatures, accounting for 37 percent. 443 doctor's advice had different signatures, accounting for 18.52 percent. 371 executing time of administration drug was different from doctors' advice, accounting for 15. 51 percent. The sum of three types added up to 1699, accounting for 71 percent

  9. A survey of Attacks on VoIP networks and Countermeasures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... Julius N. Obidinnu 1 and Ayei E. Ibor ... convergence of the voice and data networks pose a plethora of threats to ... insight into the unpredictable nature of ..... "Security analysis and countermeasures assessment against spit ... Artificial Intelligence, Management Science and Electronic Commerce (AIMSEC),.

  10. The Biomechanics of Exercise Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Peter R.; Arnold, Steven; Derr, Janice; Sharkey, Neil; Wu, Ge

    1999-01-01

    The Penn State Zero-gravity Simulator (PSZS) is a device developed by the Center for Locomotion Studies (CELOS) to enable ground studies of exercise countermeasures for the bone loss that has been shown to occur during long-term exposure to zero gravity (0G). The PSZS simulates 0G exercise by providing a suspension system that holds an individual in a horizontal (supine) position above the floor in order to enable exercise on a wall-mounted treadmill. Due to this orientation, exercise performed in the PSZS is free of the force of -ravity in the direction that would normally contribute to ground reaction forces. In order for movements to be more similar to those in 0G, a constant force suspension of each segment (equal to the segment weight) is provided regardless of limb position. During the preliminary development of the PSZS, CELOS researchers also designed an optional gravity-replacement simulation feature for the PSZS. This feature was a prototype tethering system that consisted of a spring tension system to pull an exercising individual toward the treadmill. The immediate application of the tethering system was to be the provision of gravity-replacement loading so that exercise in 0G- and 1G-loading conditions could be compared, and the PSZS could then be used to evaluate exercise countermeasures for bone loss during space flight. This tethering system would also be a model for the further refinement of gravity-replacement systems provided for astronaut usage while performing prescribed exercise countermeasures for bone loss during long-term space flights.

  11. RFID identity theft and countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrigel, Alexander; Zhao, Jian

    2006-02-01

    This paper reviews the ICAO security architecture for biometric passports. An attack enabling RFID identity theft for a later misuse is presented. Specific countermeasures against this attack are described. Furthermore, it is shown that robust high capacity digital watermarking for the embedding and retrieving of binary digital signature data can be applied as an effective mean against RFID identity theft. This approach requires only minimal modifications of the passport manufacturing process and is an enhancement of already proposed solutions. The approach may also be applied in combination with a RFID as a backup solution (damaged RFID chip) to verify with asymmetric cryptographic techniques the authenticity and the integrity of the passport data.

  12. Cryptanalysis of Two Fault Countermeasure Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banik, Subhadeep; Bogdanov, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    is meant for the protection of block ciphers like AES. The second countermeasure was proposed in IEEE-HOST 2015 and protects the Grain-128 stream cipher. The design divides the output function used in Grain-128 into two components. The first called the masking function, masks the input bits to the output......In this paper, we look at two fault countermeasure schemes proposed very recently in literature. The first proposed in ACISP 2015 constructs a transformation function using a cellular automata based linear diffusion, and a non-linear layer using a series of bent functions. This countermeasure...

  13. The NIAID Radiation Countermeasures Program business model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafer, Nathaniel; Maidment, Bert W; Hatchett, Richard J

    2010-12-01

    The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Radiation/Nuclear Medical Countermeasures Development Program has developed an integrated approach to providing the resources and expertise required for the research, discovery, and development of radiation/nuclear medical countermeasures (MCMs). These resources and services lower the opportunity costs and reduce the barriers to entry for companies interested in working in this area and accelerate translational progress by providing goal-oriented stewardship of promising projects. In many ways, the radiation countermeasures program functions as a "virtual pharmaceutical firm," coordinating the early and mid-stage development of a wide array of radiation/nuclear MCMs. This commentary describes the radiation countermeasures program and discusses a novel business model that has facilitated product development partnerships between the federal government and academic investigators and biopharmaceutical companies.

  14. Practical hacking techniques and countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Spivey, Mark D

    2006-01-01

    Examining computer security from the hacker''s perspective, Practical Hacking Techniques and Countermeasures employs virtual computers to illustrate how an attack is executed, including the script, compilation, and results. It provides detailed screen shots in each lab for the reader to follow along in a step-by-step process in order to duplicate and understand how the attack works. It enables experimenting with hacking techniques without fear of corrupting computers or violating any laws.Written in a lab manual style, the book begins with the installation of the VMware® Workstation product and guides the users through detailed hacking labs enabling them to experience what a hacker actually does during an attack. It covers social engineering techniques, footprinting techniques, and scanning tools. Later chapters examine spoofing techniques, sniffing techniques, password cracking, and attack tools. Identifying wireless attacks, the book also explores Trojans, Man-in-the-Middle (MTM) attacks, and Denial of S...

  15. Countermeasures to consider in the combat against cyberterrorism

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, N

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available various social, political or religious views. This paper presents an overview of the motivating forces behind cyberterrorism which can provide the baseline to develop a countermeasure strategy. In this paper, countermeasures that can be used to deter...

  16. Evolution of Naval Radio-Electronics and Contributions of the Naval Research Laboratory. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    elements were dis- equipped ships and aircraft at distances well 316 ELECTRONIC COUNTERMEASURES 28165 ANTENNAT 3171 ELECTRONIC COUNTERMEASURES 6063 (14...RGE 9037. Report No. VIII. Oct. 1949. NRL Document *T.D. Hatisconie. "Investigation of Window Types for S Band 496,-; t5 Use." NRL Report 235 1. Mar 194

  17. The Current Situation and Development Countermeasure of Electronic Waste Treatment in Guangxi%广西电子废弃物处理现状与发展对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾健华; 蒋中伟

    2012-01-01

    分析广西电子废弃物处理现状,认为广西电子废弃物处理还存在法律体系不够健全,缺乏规范的回收体系,处理技术落后,公众环保意识不强等问题,建议广西尽快采取加强立法、整顿市场、建立回收体系,加强科学研究和公众宣传等方面的措施,提升广西电子废弃物处理水平。%The current situation of electronic waste treatment in Guangxi was analyzed. Current problems in electronic waste treatment of Guangxi are no well-constructed legal system of electronic waste treatment,lack of specific recycling systems, unadvanced treatment technology and lack of public environment protection awareness. In order to solve these problems and improve the technology of electronic waste treatment,Guangxi government should strengthen the legislation,rectify the market and establish a recycling system. On the other hand, scientific researches and public awareness in electronic waste treatment should also be improved.

  18. NASA Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures Project Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loerch, Linda; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2009-01-01

    Efficient exercise countermeasures are necessary to offset or minimize spaceflight-induced deconditioning and to maximize crew performance of mission tasks. These countermeasure protocols should use the fewest crew and vehicle resources. NASA s Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures (ExPC) Project works to identify, collect, interpret, and summarize evidence that results in effective exercise countermeasure protocols which protect crew health and performance during International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions. The ExPC and NASA s Human Research Program are sponsoring multiple studies to evaluate and improve the efficacy of spaceflight exercise countermeasures. First, the Project will measure maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) during cycle ergometry before, during, and after ISS missions. Second, the Project is sponsoring an evaluation of a new prototype harness that offers improved comfort and increased loading during treadmill operations. Third, the Functional Tasks Test protocol will map performance of anticipated lunar mission tasks with physiologic systems before and after short and long-duration spaceflight, to target system contributions and the tailoring of exercise protocols to maximize performance. In addition to these studies that are actively enrolling crewmember participants, the ExPC is planning new studies that include an evaluation of a higher-intensity/lower-volume exercise countermeasure protocol aboard the ISS using the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device and second-generation treadmill, studies that evaluate bone loading during spaceflight exercise, and ground-based studies that focus on fitness for duty standards required to complete lunar mission tasks and for which exercise protocols need to protect. Summaries of these current and future studies and strategies will be provided to international colleagues for knowledge sharing and possible collaboration.

  19. Optical countermeasures against CLOS weapon systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Benoist, K.W.; Lingen, J.N.J. van; Schleijpen, H.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    There are many weapon systems in which a human operator acquires a target, tracks it and designates it. Optical countermeasures against this type of systems deny the operator the possibility to fulfill this visual task. We describe the different effects that result from stimulation of the human

  20. Risk Analysis and Security Countermeasure Selection

    CERN Document Server

    Norman, Thomas L

    2009-01-01

    Explains how to evaluate the appropriateness of security countermeasures, from a cost-effectiveness perspective. This title guides readers from basic principles to complex processes in a step-by-step fashion, evaluating DHS-approved risk assessment methods, including CARVER, API/NPRA, RAMCAP, and various Sandia methodologies

  1. Threats and countermeasures for network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1991-01-01

    In the late 1980's, the traditional threat of anonymous break-ins to networked computers was joined by viruses and worms, multiplicative surrogates that carry out the bidding of their authors. Technologies for authentication and secrecy, supplemented by good management practices, are the principal countermeasures. Four articles on these subjects are presented.

  2. Human Monoclonal Antibodies as a Countermeasure Against Botulinum Toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    REPORT Human monoclonal antibodies as a countermeasure against Botulinum toxins 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: In this report, we...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 - 31-Aug-2012 Human monoclonal antibodies as a countermeasure against Botulinum toxins Report Title ABSTRACT In this report...DTRA Final Report: Human monoclonal antibodies as a countermeasure against Botulinum toxins   Page 1 of 22 DTRA Final Report: Human monoclonal

  3. Countermeasure Research on Rapid Development of Electronic Commerce in Express Industry%快递行业应对电子商务快速发展的对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙颖荪; 李刚

    2013-01-01

    China’s electronic commerce industry has entered a period of rapid development,and the competition between e-commerce enterprises has been very intense.All this brings higher requirements for the express service quality and will cause the promotion of express industry from development of scale to quality.Express enterprises can expand their service network,improve the professional level of service,and increase the merger and reorganization among enterprises and the integration with e-commerce enterprises to meet the demand of industry development.%中国的电子商务行业进入了一个高速发展的时期,电子商务企业之间的竞争已经非常激烈,对于快递服务质量有了更高要求,这就使得快递行业要从规模发展向质量提升进行转变。快递企业可以从迅速扩大网络、提高服务专业化水平、加大企业间的兼并重组和加大与电子商务企业融合来应对行业发展的诉求。

  4. Dimethyl trisulfide: A novel cyanide countermeasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwood, Gary A; Thompson, David E; Petrikovics, Ilona

    2016-12-01

    In the present studies, the in vitro and in vivo efficacies of a novel cyanide countermeasure, dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), were evaluated. DMTS is a sulfur-based molecule found in garlic, onion, broccoli, and similar plants. DMTS was studied for effectiveness as a sulfur donor-type cyanide countermeasure. The sulfur donor reactivity of DMTS was determined by measuring the rate of the formation of the cyanide metabolite thiocyanate. In experiments carried out in vitro in the presence of the sulfurtransferase rhodanese (Rh) and at the experimental pH of 7.4, DMTS was observed to convert cyanide to thiocyanate with greater than 40 times higher efficacy than does thiosulfate, the sulfur donor component of the US Food and Drug Administration-approved cyanide countermeasure Nithiodote(®) In the absence of Rh, DMTS was observed to be almost 80 times more efficient than sodium thiosulfate in vitro The fact that DMTS converts cyanide to thiocyanate more efficiently than does thiosulfate both with and without Rh makes it a promising sulfur donor-type cyanide antidote (scavenger) with reduced enzyme dependence in vitro The therapeutic cyanide antidotal efficacies for DMTS versus sodium thiosulfate were measured following intramuscular administration in a mouse model and expressed as antidotal potency ratios (APR = LD50 of cyanide with antidote/LD50 of cyanide without antidote). A dose of 100 mg/kg sodium thiosulfate given intramuscularly showed only slight therapeutic protection (APR = 1.1), whereas the antidotal protection from DMTS given intramuscularly at the same dose was substantial (APR = 3.3). Based on these data, DMTS will be studied further as a promising next-generation countermeasure for cyanide intoxication. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Scour and Scour Countermeasures at Bridge Sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHIEW Yee-Meng

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines scour and scour countermeasures at bridge piers and abutments.Abutment scour is by far more complex than its counterpart associated with piers because of the possibility of the presence of a floodplain. Notwithstanding this, the mechanism of scour at both piers and abutments is very similar; moreover, the failure mechanisms associated with both armor-ing and flow-altering countermeasures are not very different. In rivers with a floodplain, abutment scour becomes much more complex. In cases where the abutment ends at or near to the flood-plain, it can initiate bank erosion, which clearly is an important erosion problem that is quite distinct from the customary scour at either an abutment in rivers without a floodplain or a pier. For this rea-son, abutment scour can be very site-specific while pier-scour is more generic in nature. To this end, the ability to identify the type of abutment scour that may form in a particular channel is closely related to an engineer's ability to propose devices for effective scour countermeasure.By summarizing research efforts on using riprap as a pier or abutment countermeasure over the past few decades, this paper highlights the deficiencies of riprap in arresting pier scour. To this end,different failure mechanisms are identified. They are shear failure, winnowing failure, edge failure,bedform-induced failure and bed-degradation induced failure. Each failure mechanism can singly or, more likely, combine to cause the eventual breakdown of the riprap layer. The study shows that a riprap layer is vulnerable to other failure mechanisms even though it is adequately designed against shear failure, rendering it ineffective in arresting scour.

  6. Attacks and countermeasures on AES and ECC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tange, Henrik; Andersen, Birger

    2013-01-01

    AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) is widely used in LTE and Wi-Fi communication systems. AES has recently been exposed to new attacks which have questioned the overall security of AES. The newest attack is a so called biclique attack, which is using the fact that the content of the state array...... side-channels attacks can be applied to ECC. This paper reflects an ongoing research in the field of countermeasures against the attacks mentioned above....

  7. 广西外贸企业面向东盟开展跨境电商的问题与对策%Problems and Their Countermeasures of Carrying out Cross-border Electronic Commerce ASEAN Foreign Trade Enterprises in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃伟赋

    2015-01-01

    在中国—东盟自由贸易区已建成的背景下,广西外贸企业与东盟各国开展跨境电子商务迎来了前所未有的发展机遇。文章分析了面向中国—东盟的广西外贸企业跨境电子商务的发展现状,探讨目前广西外贸企业发展跨境电子商务存在的主要问题,并提出广西外贸企业利用跨境电子商务开拓东盟市场对策,对提升面向东盟的广西外贸企业国际竞争力,保障广西经济取得持续增长的重要路径选择,具有重大实际应用价值。%In the background of Chinese ASEAN Free Trade Area has been built,Guangxi foreign trade enterpris⁃es on cross-border e-commerce has ushered in unprecedented opportunities for rapid development with ASEAN coun⁃tries. This paper analyzes the present situation of cross-border e-commerce in Guangxi foreign trade enterprises for China-ASEAN,and discusses the main problems existing in the development of cross-border e-commerce in Guangxi foreign trade enterprises,while puts forward the Countermeasures of Guangxi foreign trade enterprises to develop ASEAN market,Research on theoretical basis,for Guangxi foreign trade enterprises provide a necessary countermea⁃sures about cross-border electronic commerce to open up the ASEAN market,to promote the ASEAN Guangxi foreign trade international competitiveness of enterprises. For guarantee the important way of Guangxi’s economy has contin⁃ued to grow,it has great practical value.

  8. Zika Virus: Medical Countermeasure Development Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Robert W.; Homan, Jane; Callahan, Michael V.; Glasspool-Malone, Jill; Damodaran, Lambodhar; Schneider, Adriano De Bernardi; Zimler, Rebecca; Talton, James; Cobb, Ronald R.; Ruzic, Ivan; Smith-Gagen, Julie; Janies, Daniel; Wilson, James

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Reports of high rates of primary microcephaly and Guillain–Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia and Brazil have raised concerns that the virus circulating in these regions is a rapidly developing neuropathic, teratogenic, emerging infectious public health threat. There are no licensed medical countermeasures (vaccines, therapies or preventive drugs) available for Zika virus infection and disease. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) predicts that Zika virus will continue to spread and eventually reach all countries and territories in the Americas with endemic Aedes mosquitoes. This paper reviews the status of the Zika virus outbreak, including medical countermeasure options, with a focus on how the epidemiology, insect vectors, neuropathology, virology and immunology inform options and strategies available for medical countermeasure development and deployment. Methods Multiple information sources were employed to support the review. These included publically available literature, patents, official communications, English and Lusophone lay press. Online surveys were distributed to physicians in the US, Mexico and Argentina and responses analyzed. Computational epitope analysis as well as infectious disease outbreak modeling and forecasting were implemented. Field observations in Brazil were compiled and interviews conducted with public health officials. PMID:26934531

  9. Zika Virus: Medical Countermeasure Development Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Robert W; Homan, Jane; Callahan, Michael V; Glasspool-Malone, Jill; Damodaran, Lambodhar; Schneider, Adriano De Bernardi; Zimler, Rebecca; Talton, James; Cobb, Ronald R; Ruzic, Ivan; Smith-Gagen, Julie; Janies, Daniel; Wilson, James

    2016-03-01

    Reports of high rates of primary microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia and Brazil have raised concerns that the virus circulating in these regions is a rapidly developing neuropathic, teratogenic, emerging infectious public health threat. There are no licensed medical countermeasures (vaccines, therapies or preventive drugs) available for Zika virus infection and disease. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) predicts that Zika virus will continue to spread and eventually reach all countries and territories in the Americas with endemic Aedes mosquitoes. This paper reviews the status of the Zika virus outbreak, including medical countermeasure options, with a focus on how the epidemiology, insect vectors, neuropathology, virology and immunology inform options and strategies available for medical countermeasure development and deployment. Multiple information sources were employed to support the review. These included publically available literature, patents, official communications, English and Lusophone lay press. Online surveys were distributed to physicians in the US, Mexico and Argentina and responses analyzed. Computational epitope analysis as well as infectious disease outbreak modeling and forecasting were implemented. Field observations in Brazil were compiled and interviews conducted with public health officials.

  10. Zika Virus: Medical Countermeasure Development Challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Malone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reports of high rates of primary microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia and Brazil have raised concerns that the virus circulating in these regions is a rapidly developing neuropathic, teratogenic, emerging infectious public health threat. There are no licensed medical countermeasures (vaccines, therapies or preventive drugs available for Zika virus infection and disease. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO predicts that Zika virus will continue to spread and eventually reach all countries and territories in the Americas with endemic Aedes mosquitoes. This paper reviews the status of the Zika virus outbreak, including medical countermeasure options, with a focus on how the epidemiology, insect vectors, neuropathology, virology and immunology inform options and strategies available for medical countermeasure development and deployment.Multiple information sources were employed to support the review. These included publically available literature, patents, official communications, English and Lusophone lay press. Online surveys were distributed to physicians in the US, Mexico and Argentina and responses analyzed. Computational epitope analysis as well as infectious disease outbreak modeling and forecasting were implemented. Field observations in Brazil were compiled and interviews conducted with public health officials.

  11. Human Adaptation to Space: Space Physiology and Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews human physiological responses to spaceflight, and the countermeasures taken to prevent adverse effects of manned space flight. The topics include: 1) Human Spaceflight Experience; 2) Human Response to Spaceflight; 3) ISS Expeditions 1-16; 4) Countermeasure; and 5) Biomedical Data;

  12. 77 FR 15398 - Attentive Driving: Countermeasures for Distraction Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... SAFETY BOARD Attentive Driving: Countermeasures for Distraction Forum The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a forum, Attentive Driving: Countermeasures for Distraction, which will begin... the forum, and all five NTSB Board Members will serve as members of the Board of Inquiry. The forum is...

  13. Countering countermeasures: detecting identity lies by detecting conscious breakthrough.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Bowman

    Full Text Available One major drawback of deception detection is its vulnerability to countermeasures, whereby participants wilfully modulate their physiological or neurophysiological response to critical guilt-determining stimuli. One reason for this vulnerability is that stimuli are usually presented slowly. This allows enough time to consciously apply countermeasures, once the role of stimuli is determined. However, by increasing presentation speed, stimuli can be placed on the fringe of awareness, rendering it hard to perceive those that have not been previously identified, hindering the possibility to employ countermeasures. We tested an identity deception detector by presenting first names in Rapid Serial Visual Presentation and instructing participants to lie about their own identity. We also instructed participants to apply a series of countermeasures. The method proved resilient, remaining effective at detecting deception under all countermeasures.

  14. Agricultural countermeasures in the Nordic countries after a nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brink, M. [Danish Plant Directorate (Denmark); Lauritzen, B. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)] (eds.)

    2001-12-01

    This report by the NKSBOK-1.4 project group describes agricultural countermeasures after a nuclear accident, aiming at the reduction of radiation doses to man from the ingestion of foodstuffs. The intention has been to collect information based on common understanding that can be used as a Nordic handbook and in further developments of the national preparedness systems. The report covers two areas: the gathering and dissemination of information before and during a nuclear emergency, and the development of a countermeasures strategy. A number of factors are discussed, which will affect the choice of countermeasure(s), and as a case study, a technical cost-benefit assessment of a specific countermeasure is described. (au)

  15. Completing the Complete ECC Formulae with Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Chmielewski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This work implements and evaluates the recent complete addition formulae for the prime order elliptic curves of Renes, Costello and Batina on an FPGA platform. We implement three different versions:(1 an unprotected architecture; (2 an architecture protected through coordinate randomization; and (3 an architecture with both coordinate randomization and scalar splitting in place. The evaluation is done through timing analysis and test vector leakage assessment (TVLA. The results show that applying an increasing level of countermeasures leads to an increasing resistance against side-channel attacks. This is the first work looking into side-channel security issues of hardware implementations of the complete formulae.

  16. Where Sepsis and Antimicrobial Resistance Countermeasures Converge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Timothy J. J.; Urosevic, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    The United Nations General Assembly debate on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) recognizes the global significance of AMR. Much work needs to be done on technology capability and capacity to convert the strategic intent of the debate into operational plans and tangible outcomes. Enhancement of the biomedical science–clinician interface requires better exploitation of systems biology tools for in-laboratory and point of care methods that detect sepsis and characterize AMR. These need to link sepsis and AMR data with responsive, real-time surveillance. We propose an AMR sepsis register, similar in concept to a cancer registry, to aid coordination of AMR countermeasures. PMID:28220145

  17. Musculoskeletal adaptations to weightlessness and development of effective countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, K. M.; White, T. P.; Arnaud, S. B.; Edgerton, V. R.; Kraemer, W. J.; Kram, R.; Raab-Cullen, D.; Snow, C. M.

    1996-01-01

    A Research Roundtable, organized by the American College of Sports Medicine with sponsorship from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, met in November 1995 to define research strategies for effective exercise countermeasures to weightlessness. Exercise was considered both independently of, and in conjunction with, other therapeutic modalities (e.g., pharmacological nutritional, hormonal, and growth-related factors) that could prevent or minimize the structural and functional deficits involving skeletal muscle and bone in response to chronic exposure to weightlessness, as well as return to Earth baseline function if a degree of loss is inevitable. Musculoskeletal deficits and countermeasures are described with respect to: 1) muscle and connective tissue atrophy and localized bone loss, 2) reductions in motor performance, 3) potential proneness to injury of hard and soft tissues, and 4) probable interaction between muscle atrophy and cardiovascular alterations that contribute to the postural hypotension observed immediately upon return from space flight. In spite of a variety of countermeasure protocols utilized previously involving largely endurance types of exercise, there is presently no activity-specific countermeasure(s) that adequately prevent or reduce musculoskeletal deficiencies. It seems apparent that countermeasure exercises that have a greater resistance element, as compared to endurance activities, may prove beneficial to the musculoskeletal system. Many questions remain for scientific investigation to identify efficacious countermeasure protocols, which will be imperative with the emerging era of long-term space flight.

  18. Improved self-protection using dynamically optimized expendable countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, Harald

    2007-04-01

    The use of expendable countermeasures is still found to be a viable choice for self protection against Man Portable Air Defense Systems (MANPADS) due to their simplicity, low cost, flexibility, recent improvements in decoy technology, the ability to handle multiple threats simultaneously and the off-board nature of these countermeasures. In civil aviation, the risk of general hazards linked to the use of pyrotechnics is the main argument against expendable countermeasures, whereas for military platforms, the limitation in capacity due to a limited number of rounds is often used as an argument to replace expendable countermeasures by laser-based countermeasures. This latter argument is in general not substantiated by modelling or figures of merit, although it is often argued that a laser based system allows for more false alarms, hence enabling a more sensitive missile approach warning system. The author has developed a model that accounts for the statistical effects of running out of expendable countermeasures during a mission, in terms of the overall mission survival probability. The model includes key parameters of the missile approach warning system (MAWS), and can handle multiple missile types and missile attack configurations, as well as various statistical models of missile attacks. The model enables quantitative comparison between laser based and expendable countermeasures, but also a dynamic optimization of the countermeasures in terms of whether to use small or large countermeasure programs, as well as the dynamic tuning of MAWS key parameters to optimize the overall performance. The model is also well suited for determination of the contributions of the different components of the system in the overall survival probability.

  19. Countermeasure for Radiation Protection and Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation during long-duration space missions is expected to cause short-term illness and increase long-term risk of cancer for astronauts. Radiation-induced free radicals overload the antioxidant defense mechanisms and lead to cellular damage at the membrane, enzyme, and chromosome levels. A large number of radioprotective agents were screened, but most had significant side effects. But there is increasing evidence that significant radioprotective benefit is achieved by increasing the dietary intake of foods with high antioxidant potential. Early plant-growing systems for space missions will be limited in both size and volume to minimize power and mass requirements. These systems will be well suited to producing plants containing high concentrations of bioprotective antioxidants. This project explored whether the production of bioprotective compounds could be increased by altering the lighting system, without increasing the space or power requirements for production, and evaluated the effects of environmental conditions (light quantity, light quality, and carbon dioxide [CO2] concentration) on the production of bioprotective compounds in lettuce, which provide a biological countermeasure for radiation exposure. The specific deliverables were to develop a database of bioprotectant compounds in plants that are suitable for use on longduration space missions, develop protocols for maintaining and increasing bioprotectant production under light emitting diodes (LEDs), recommend lighting requirements to produce dietary countermeasures of radiation, and publish results in the Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science.

  20. Problems in Employment Trend of Higher Vocational Graduates and Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jianhua; Sheng, Zhichong

    2011-01-01

    Based on analyzing the regional character of higher vocational graduates employment, this paper analyzes the reasons for this employment trend, advances relevant countermeasures for employment of higher vocational graduates, and explores the direction for higher vocational graduates employment.

  1. Bluetooth security attacks comparative analysis, attacks, and countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Haataja, Keijo; Pasanen, Sanna; Toivanen, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    This overview of Bluetooth security examines network vulnerabilities and offers a comparative analysis of recent security attacks. It also examines related countermeasures and proposes a novel attack that works against all existing Bluetooth versions.

  2. GNSS-based positioning: Attacks and Countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Papadimitratos, P

    2010-01-01

    Increasing numbers of mobile computing devices, user-portable, or embedded in vehicles, cargo containers, or the physical space, need to be aware of their location in order to provide a wide range of commercial services. Most often, mobile devices obtain their own location with the help of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), integrating, for example, a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. Nonetheless, an adversary can compromise location-aware applications by attacking the GNSS-based positioning: It can forge navigation messages and mislead the receiver into calculating a fake location. In this paper, we analyze this vulnerability and propose and evaluate the effectiveness of countermeasures. First, we consider replay attacks, which can be effective even in the presence of future cryptographic GNSS protection mechanisms. Then, we propose and analyze methods that allow GNSS receivers to detect the reception of signals generated by an adversary, and then reject fake locations calculated because of ...

  3. 76 FR 71982 - Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical Countermeasure Devices...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... paper entitled ''Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical Countermeasure... the ``Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical Countermeasure Devices... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly...

  4. Computer simulation analysis of the effects of countermeasures for reentry orthostatic intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, R. S.; Simanonok, K. E.; Charles, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    Fluid loading is a countermeasure currently in routine use to improve the g-tolerance of crewmembers during reentry and return of Shuttle flights. However, its effectiveness diminishes with mission duration. Countermeasures that will be effective on long-duration flights are needed and are presently under development. This paper discusses the application of computer simulation in the analysis of the effects of countermeasures for reentry orthostatic intolerance. The results suggest improvements upon the fluid loading countermeasure currently in use.

  5. Recreational Snow-Sports Injury Risk Factors and Countermeasures: A Meta-Analysis Review and Haddon Matrix Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Patria A; Lorimer, Anna V; Griffiths, Peter C; Carlson, Isaac; Lamont, Mike

    2015-08-01

    Snow sports (alpine skiing/snowboarding) would benefit from easily implemented and cost-effective injury prevention countermeasures that are effective in reducing injury rate and severity. For snow sports, to identify risk factors and to quantify evidence for effectiveness of injury prevention countermeasures. Searches of electronic literature databases to February 2014 identified 98 articles focused on snow sports that met the inclusion criteria and were subsequently reviewed. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 90% confidence intervals (CIs) and inferences (percentage likelihood of benefit/harm) were calculated using data from 55 studies using a spreadsheet for combining independent groups with a weighting factor based on quality rating scores for effects. More experienced skiers and snowboarders are more likely to sustain an injury as a result of jumps, while beginners sustain injuries primarily as a result of falls. Key risk factors that countermeasure interventions should focus on include, beginner skiers (OR 2.72; 90% CI 2.15-3.44, 99% most likely harmful), beginner snowboarders (OR 2.66; 90% CI 2.08-3.40, 99% harmful), skiers/snowboarders who rent snow equipment (OR 2.58; 90% CI 1.98-3.37, 99% harmful) and poor visibility due to inclement weather (OR 2.69; 90% CI 1.43-5.07, 97% harmful). Effective countermeasures include helmets for skiers/snowboarders to prevent head injuries (OR 0.58; 90% CI 0.51-0.66, 99% most likely beneficial), and wrist guards for snowboarders to prevent wrist injuries (OR 0.33; 90% CI 0.23-0.47, 99% beneficial). The review identified key risk factors for snow-sport injuries and evaluated the evidence for the effectiveness of existing injury prevention countermeasures in recreational (general public use of slopes, not racing) snow sports using a Haddon's matrix conceptual framework for injury causation (host/snow-sport participant, agent/mechanism and environment/community). Best evidence for the effectiveness of injury prevention

  6. Validation of a Cephalad Fluid Shift Countermeasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, B.; Cole, C.; Kesari, S.; Hargens, A.; Stenger, M.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S. M. C.; Sargsyan, A.; Liu, J.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This project will provide critical data required to objectively determine how an optimized thigh cuff could be incorporated into the NASA integrated physiological countermeasure suite. This project will determine if thigh cuffs used during simulated spaceflight impact intracranial pressure (ICP), ocular structure and function, and intraocular pressure (IOP) using state of-the-art techniques. Additionally, some of the same methods, hardware, and protocols will be employed in the present investigation to enable direct comparisons to the International Space Station (ISS) "Fluid Shifts" experiment with Chibis-Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP). This study will determine the temporal physiological responses of thigh cuff application and removal on ocular and cerebral variables (including invasive ICP) in a microgravity analog. Furthermore, this proposed study will determine tissue pressure distribution applied by thigh cuffs in order to improve comfort, mobility, and efficacy of the countermeasure. Our specific aim is to determine the efficacy of a novel thigh cuff device to mitigate cephalad fluid shifts. We hypothesize that a thigh cuff countermeasure employed in a microgravity analog will temporarily reverse or attenuate ocular and cerebral-volume-pressure variables, approaching normal Earth-based seated posture, the most frequent posture assumed in daily life. In addition, we hypothesize that the magnitude of fluid and pressure redistribution using a thigh cuff countermeasure may require a longer exposure time than that of Chibis-LBNP (using ground-based data from our "Fluid Shifts" project). This project directly addresses Critical Path Roadmap Risks and Questions regarding "Risk of Spaceflight-Induced Intracranial Hypertension/Vision Alterations," and IRP Gap VIIP13: We need to identify preventative and treatment countermeasures to mitigate changes in ocular structure and function and intracranial pressure during spaceflight. METHODS: Noninvasive

  7. Modeling of C3 I system in laser countermeasure weapon system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chang-xi; GUO Li-hong

    2008-01-01

    With the spectrum extended in modem Electronic War, Laser Countermeasure Weapon will be re-quested in order to snatch up and keep the Electromagnetism-Power in war field. If Command, Control, Com-munications and Intelligence called Double-Army-Power-Implement is applied to general design of Laser Coun-termeasure Weapon System, the efficiency of Weapon System can be greatly improved. The Object-Oriented a-nalysis and design approach based on UML for C3I system architecture was put forward, by which logical archi-tecture described by class diagrams and behavior diagrams can be developed through Object-Oriented analysis,and physical architecture described by component diagrams and deployment diagrams can be developed through Object-Oriented design. The framework of Modeling based UML was firstly set forth, the high process of Com-mand, Control, Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance and UML Architecture was utilized., Then the Modeling process was particularly discussed through following the core ideology and basic principle of RUP(Rational Unified Process). Next, a series of diagrams of UML diagram which include Activity diagrams, Use Case diagrams, Sequence diagrams, Package diagrams and Class diagrams of system analysis, Component dia-grams, and Deployment diagrams of system design are illustrated in the process of Modeling of C3I system soft-ware. Lastly, some problems that should be noticed in the Modeling process, merit and demerit of model, next works were also put forward.

  8. A Countermeasure for Space Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, M. F.; Somers, J. T.; Leigh, R. J.; Jones, G. Melvill

    2006-01-01

    Overall, the results obtained in both the U.S. and the Russian space programs indicate that most space crews will experience some symptoms of motion sickness (MS) causing significant impact on the operational objectives that must be accomplished to assure mission success. At this time the primary countermeasure for MS requires the administration of Promethazine. Promethazine is not a benign drug, and is most frequently administered just prior to the sleep cycle to prevent its side effects from further compromising mission objectives. Clearly other countermeasures for SMS must be developed. Currently the primary focus is on two different technologies: (1) developing new and different pharmacological compounds with less significant side effects, (2) preflight training. The primary problem with all of these methods for controlling MS is time. New drugs that may be beneficial are years from testing and development, and preflight training requires a significant investment of crew time during an already intensive pre-launch schedule. Granted, motion sickness symptoms can be minimized with either of the two methods detailed above, however, it may be possible to develop a countermeasure that does not require either extensive adaptation time or exposure to motion sickness. Approximately 25 years ago Professor Geoffrey Melvill Jones presented his work on adaptation of the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) using optically reversed vision (left-right prisms) during head rotations in the horizontal plane. It was of no surprise that most subjects experienced motion sickness while wearing the optically reversing prisms. However, a serendipitous finding emerged during this research showing that the same subjects did not experience motion sickness symptoms when wearing the reversing prisms under stroboscopic illumination. The mechanism, by which this side-effect was believed to have occurred, is not clearly understood. However, the fact that no motion sickness was ever noted, suggests

  9. Selection of invasive wild pig countermeasures using multicriteria decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondum, Matthew C; Collier, Zachary A; Luke, Christopher S; Goatcher, Buddy L; Linkov, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Wild pigs are a widespread invasive species that pose significant environmental and social risks. A number of wild pig eradication and control measures exist, but many eradication campaigns are ultimately unsuccessful. Decision making regarding how to design and execute an eradication plan is difficult because of multiple costs and benefits spanning various decision criteria that are associated with different eradication and control countermeasures. Moreover, multiple stakeholders are often involved with differing and sometimes competing objectives, and wild pigs are adaptive adversaries, meaning that the ideal countermeasure may change over time. In this paper, we propose the use of formal decision analytic tools which can structure decision problems into a set of relevant criteria, countermeasures, and stakeholder preferences to facilitate the evaluation of tradeoffs. We operationalize this method in a simple Excel-based decision tool and conclude with a path forward regarding how to successfully implement such tools for effective wild pig control.

  10. [Assignment of psychiatry in the Japanese suicide countermeasures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Toshihiko

    2011-01-01

    In Japan, national suicide countermeasures have been promoted since enactment of the "Basic Act on Suicide Countermeasures" in 2006, and the "Comprehensive Suicide Prevention Initiative" in 2007. The key element of the Japanese countermeasures is expressed by the word "comprehensive," which indicates that suicide prevention should not only be implemented through mental health approaches, but should also be addressed via other measures, including changes in administrative practices. This is an appropriate policy, although the mental health measures appear to be too simplistic, inclining toward psychiatric treatment using pharmacotherapy for the classic type of "depression." This paper presents the findings of a psychological autopsy study which was recently conducted in Japan, and stipulates that mental health measures, including psychiatric treatments, need to be made more comprehensive.

  11. Centrifugal intensity and duration as countermeasures to soleus muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aunno, Dominick S.; Thomason, Donald B.; Booth, Frank W.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of artificially induced gravity on the atrophy process of slow-twitch soleus muscle are studied in order to determine whether centrifugation could be an effective countermeasure to nonweight bearing at 1 G. It is observed that the soleus muscle atrophied 32 percent during seven days of nonweight bearing without countermeasures, and centrifugation treatment did not completely prevent atrophy relative to precontrol wet weight of the soleus muscle. Nonweight-bearing groups receiving treatments of 1, 1.5, or 2.6 G had 48, 56, and 65 percent, respectively, of the atrophy observed in a nonweight-bearing-only group compared with the precontrol group. It is concluded that, as a countermeasure to nonweight-bearing-induced atrophy of the soleus muscle, centrifugation at 2.6 G is no more effective than exposure to 1 or 1.5 G.

  12. Warming countermeasure law carries it out; Ondanka taisakuho ga seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    Law about the promotion of the global warming countermeasure was enforced on April 8. And, a Cabinet meeting decided the basic policy related to the global warming countermeasure on April 9 as the government based on the same law. A country settled on an executive plan for five years, and included grappling with the promotion of saving energy, the development of the new energy and the collection of the fron to attain the goal for a greenhouse effect gas discharge reduction for which to decide it by Kyoto fixed calligraphy with a basic policy. A global warming countermeasure was concluded by law of world for the purpose of prevention of global warming in October, the 10th year of Heisei how to promote it. (translated by NEDO)

  13. Bridge scour countermeasure assessments at select bridges in the United States, 2014–16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudunake, Taylor J.; Huizinga, Richard J.; Fosness, Ryan L.

    2017-05-23

    In 2009, the Federal Highway Administration published Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 23 (HEC-23) to provide specific design and implementation guidelines for bridge scour and stream instability countermeasures. However, the effectiveness of countermeasures implemented over the past decade following those guidelines has not been evaluated. Therefore, in 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration, began a study to assess the current condition of bridge-scour countermeasures at selected sites to evaluate their effectiveness. Bridge-scour countermeasures were assessed during 2014-2016. Site assessments included reviewing countermeasure design plans, summarizing the peak and daily streamflow history, and assessments at each site. Each site survey included a photo log summary, field form, and topographic and bathymetric geospatial data and metadata. This report documents the study area and site-selection criteria, explains the survey methods used to evaluate the condition of countermeasures, and presents the complete documentation for each countermeasure assessment.

  14. Safety Assessment and Countermeasures of Genetically Modified Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of science-biotechnology, the safety of genetically modified organisms has become some of the most controversial issues in our society. This study aims to review the safety assessment and countermeasures of Genetically Modified (GM foods. Firstly, the research status and the main contents of GM foods safety assessment are discussed. What’s more, the countermeasures of GM foods safety assessment are proposed. This study tries to summarize and discuss the safety assessment of GM foods.

  15. Evaluation of an Impedance Threshold Device as a VIIP Countermeasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, D.; Macias, B.; Sargsyan, A.; Garcia, K.; Stenger, M.; Kemp, D.; Hargens, A.; Johnston, S.

    2017-01-01

    Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) is a top human spaceflight risk for which NASA does not currently have a proven mitigation strategy. Thigh cuffs (Braslets) and lower body negative pressure (LBNP; Chibis) devices have been or are currently being evaluated as a means to reduce VIIP signs and symptoms, but these methods alone may not provide sufficient relief of cephalic venous congestion and VIIP symptoms. Additionally, current LBNP devices are too large and cumbersome for their systematic use as a countermeasure. Therefore, a novel approach is needed that is easy to implement and provides specific relief of symptoms. This investigation will evaluate an impedance threshold device (ITD) as a VIIP countermeasure.

  16. CAUSES AND COUNTERMEASURES FOR CHAOHU LAKESHORE COLLAPSE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Chao; WANG Xin-yuan; YANG Ze-dong; LU Ying-cheng; HE Hui

    2005-01-01

    By interpreting the remote sensing data of aerial photos and satellite images in different time, combining with field investigation, landform and water level observation, collecting data of weather, hydrology in Chaohu Lake, Anhui Province from 1957 to 2003, the reasons for collapse of Chaohu lakeshore were analyzed. The results are as follows: 1) The collapse of the Chaohu lakeshore is controlled macroscopically by two sets of north-east and the north-west faults, and the degree of collapse is determined microcosmically by lithology. 2) The constant change of water level, resulting from precipitation, wind speed and its direction, is one of the main reasons for intermittence collapse. 3) The soil and water loss or mud and sand filling up, resulting from artificial factors, such as inconsequence control of Chaohu sluice or irrational agricultural and industrial activities, etc., can uplift the lake's bed and drive water level up. The high water level also results in the collapse. Judging from the above mentioned reasons for the collapse, we have proposed some countermeasures: 1) Putting the lakeshore slope protection project such as stone and cement mortar into practice, and upstream slope should be 1:2.5 or 1:3, some parts of them should be 1:4, if they were not stable. The back slope, which is from Gui Mountain to Zhongmiao Temple, should be 1:1.5-1:3.2) Constructing a greenbelt for the lakeshore, planting some vegetation such as osier, bulrush and poplar, to resist waves between the high and the low water level. 3) Controlling Chaohu Lake water level scientifically. Corrosion of lakeshore that contains gravel clay and ferruginous-manganese concretionary structures, can decrease at low water level. 4) Renovating Chaohu Lake drainage area, strengthening the administration and supervision, breaking regionalism and establishing special administration organization.

  17. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvares, N.; Beason, D.; Bergman, V.; Creighton, J.; Ford, H.; Lipska, A.

    1980-08-25

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters, in exit ventilation ducts, from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Initially, methods were developed to cool fire-heated air by fine water spray upstream of the filters. It was recognized that smoke aerosol exposure to HEPA filters could also cause disruption of the containment system. Through testing and analysis, several methods to partially mitigate the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified. A continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. The technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total time duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modification of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, rolling filter media were laminated with the desired properties. The approach was Edisonian, but truncation in short order to a combination of prefilters was effective. The application of this technique was qualified, since it is of use only to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols. It is not believed that this technique is cost effective in the total spectrum of containment systems, especially if standard fire protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high-fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.

  18. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvares, N.J.; Beason, D.G.; Bergman, W.; Ford, H.W.; Lipska, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect HEPA filters in exit ventilation ducts from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Several methods for partially mitigating the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified through testing and analysis. These independently involve controlling the fuel, controlling the fire, and intercepting the smoke aerosol prior to its sorption on the HEPA filter. Exit duct treatment of aerosols is not unusual in industrial applications and involves the use of scrubbers, prefilters, and inertial impaction, depending on the size, distribution, and concentration of the subject aerosol. However, when these unmodified techniques were applied to smoke aerosols from fires on materials, common to experimental laboratories of LLNL, it was found they offered minimal protection to the HEPA filters. Ultimately, a continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. This technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modificaton of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has a particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, we laminated rolling filter media with the desired properties. It is not true that the use of rolling prefilters solely to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols is cost effective in every type of containment system, especially if standard fire-protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.

  19. USMC Electronic Warfare 2025: Trading Expertise for Advanced Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    airborne electronic warlare during the transition period away from legacy equipment. EA-6B pilots and Electroilic Countermeasures Officers ( ECMOs ...Electronic Warfare (EW) capability. As an EA-6B Electronic Countenneasures Officer ( ECMO ), I anticipate that both the United States Marine Corps and all... ECMOs . An increased workload for Radio Battalion will have the same effect that the assumption of an additional function of Marine aviation will have on

  20. The Main Problems and Countermeasures of English Classroom Talk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Bojie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available English classroom talk is one of the effective media for knowledge transfer in the English classroom, and how to use it effectively is a problem worth discussing. This article summarizes the main problems of English classroom talk through the analysis of its characteristics, and finally puts forward targeted counter-measures.

  1. Countermeasures of Implementing Sustainable Development Strategy in Shandong, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Jianhai

    2004-01-01

    This paper set forth the goals of implementing sustainable development strategy in Shandong Province guided by the view of scientific development of being people oriented, comprehensive,coordinated and sustainable. Based on the target of sustainable development strategy in Shandong province this paper discusses the main tasks in the sustainable development strategy Countermeasures for sustainable development strategy in Shandong province are put forward.

  2. Analysis of the Reasons and Countermeasures for Academic Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xia; Bin, Feng

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a perspective of the various types of academic corruption that is currently running rife in society, a theoretical analysis of the roots of academic corruption, and proposals for a number for countermeasures to put a stop to academic corruption. (Contains 3 notes.) [This article was translated by Ted Wang.

  3. Toolset for evaluating infrared countermeasures and signature reduction for ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The protection of ships against infrared guided missiles is a concern for modern naval forces. The vulnerability of ships can be reduced by applying countermeasures such as infrared decoys and infrared signature reduction. This paper presents a set of simulation tools which can be used for assessing

  4. Drug and Alcohol Abuse in the Workplace: Consequences and Countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahandeh, Behrouz

    1985-01-01

    The numerous company programs in North America that have developed countermeasures against drug and alcohol abuse in the workplace, ranging from prevention, health promotion and education, to treatment and rehabilitation, provide instructive examples of an effective approach that in most cases has more than paid for its cost. (Author/CT)

  5. Pollution of Solid Waste to Agricultural Environment and Preventive Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi; YAN

    2014-01-01

    This paper elaborated the pollution and hazards caused by different kinds of agricultural solid wastes to the agro-ecological environment from the aspects of the types of solid wastes and the way they are produced. Besides,it came up with some countermeasures for preventing and controlling solid waste pollution and hazards.

  6. Causes for Ineffective College English Teaching and Relevant Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changyu; Li, Lijuan

    2009-01-01

    Through a questionnaire and a survey, the paper analyses the present College English teaching and the contributing factors for the ineffective College English teaching. Based on the analysis, the paper suggests four countermeasures to improve College English teaching quality. According to this paper, only when teachers and educational workers…

  7. 77 FR 21785 - Medical Countermeasures Initiative Regulatory Science Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Medical Countermeasures Initiative Regulatory Science... scientific progress and accomplishments. Date and Time: This symposium will be held on Tuesday, June 5 and... viewing via Web cast must register by Tuesday, May 29, 2012, at 5 p.m. EST. Location: The symposium...

  8. [Historical evolution and development countermeasures of uncommon-territorial herbs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hua-sheng; Wang, De-qun; Hao, Jin-da; Xie, Jin; Liu, He-ling; Peng, Dai-yin; Huang, Lu-qi

    2015-05-01

    As an important part of Chinese medicinal materials, uncommon-territorial herbs are also the most complex parts in the herbal medicine markets. Through years of investigation on the key markets of Chinese herbal medicine, the meaning of uncommon-territorial herbs, their historical evolution, origin and characteristics were clarified in this paper, and some countermeasures were put forward for its development.

  9. Livermore Site Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures Plan, May 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mertesdorf, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plan describes the measures that are taken at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL) Livermore Site in Livermore, California, to prevent, control, and handle potential spills from aboveground containers that can contain 55 gallons or more of oil.

  10. Toolset for evaluating infrared countermeasures and signature reduction for ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The protection of ships against infrared guided missiles is a concern for modern naval forces. The vulnerability of ships can be reduced by applying countermeasures such as infrared decoys and infrared signature reduction. This paper presents a set of simulation tools which can be used for assessing

  11. Fatigue-Related Countermeasures for Long-Duration Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmire, A.; Johnston, S.; Sipes, W.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Human Research Program's (HRP) Behavioral Health and Performance Element (BHP) supports and conducts research to mitigate deleterious outcomes related to fatigue, sleep loss, circadian desynchronization, and work overload. Objective evidence indicates that within the context of the International Space Station (ISS), sleep is reduced and there is circadian misalignment. Despite chronic sleep loss and high workloads; however, astronauts successfully complete their missions. Contributing to their success is not only the tremendous skills and capabilities of each astronaut, but also the collaborative team efforts amongst the crew, between flight and ground crews, and through real-time care provided by medical personnel. It is anticipated that risks to human health and performance will increase in the context of exploration missions, where crewmembers will venture to deep space for extended durations and in small vehicles with limited communication with home. Hence, fatigue-related countermeasures are being developed and/or validated that include unobtrusive monitoring technologies to detect fatigue-related performance decrements, environmental countermeasures, and sleep education and training for flight and ground crews. Given that fatigue is an issue in current ISS missions, the BHP works collaboratively with Space Medicine operations to collect data in the operational environment, to validate fatigue-related countermeasures, and provide evidence-based mitigations. Our presentation will summarize fatigue-related operational research that is underway through NASA's BHP in partnership with its operational counterparts. Efforts include studies evaluating the effects of hypnotics, lighting protocols as countermeasures for circadian entrainment, and investigations involving education and training. This presentation will further identify, based on flight and terrestrial evidence, additional sleep and circadian countermeasures that may still be needed to support

  12. Response of radiation monitoring labels to gamma rays and electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahim, F. Abdel; Miller, Arne; McLaughlin, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    , and differences in dose rate and radiation type (gamma rays and electron beams) were made on 15 kinds of labels. The results show that, for many types of indicators, diverse effects may give misleading conclusions unless countermeasures are taken. For example, some of the most commonly used labels, which contain...

  13. Physical countermeasures to sustain acceptable living and working conditions in radioactively contaminated residential areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Roed, Jørn; Eged, K.;

    2003-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident highlighted the need in nuclear preparedness for robust, effective and sustainable countermeasure strategies for restoration of radioactively contaminated residential areas. Under the EC-supported STRATEGY project a series ofinvestigations were made of countermeasures...... of wastes generated by countermeasures had to be described separately to provide room for the required level of detail. The information is mainly intended as atool for decision makers and planners and constitutes a basis for the STRATEGY decision framework for remediation of contaminated urban areas....

  14. Research on the Countermeasures against Electromagnetic Interface in Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Bin; Kang, Young Suk; Choi, Hyo Yul; Cha, Ok Hyun [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gi Chul; Le, Jae Bok; Ha, Tae Hyun; Kim, Suk Joo; Na, Dae Yul; Kim, Yong Ho; Jeong, Kyo Beom [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    As the results of widespread use of microelectronics in electric power system, electric environment of power operation facilities in substation has become more weak and severe for surge voltages. Electromagnetic coupled overvoltage caused by HV bus switching operating lead to the malfunction or destruction of low voltage control circuit which mostly used signal. To scope with this transients overvoltage, it is necessary to be investigated transient source and propagation path and analysed its effects to low voltage circuit such as relay. This study is to analysis source of conducted EMP(electromagnetic pulse) on the low voltage control circuit and to acquits transient voltage waveforms, and to provide countermeasures against transient voltage, and EMP filtering method according to each EMP each type. With this, gradual improvement of EMI countermeasure will be achieved. (author). 49 refs., figs.

  15. Regional Logistics Information Resources Integration Patterns and Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui; Shangguan, Xu-ming

    Effective integration of regional logistics information resources can provide collaborative services in information flow, business flow and logistics for regional logistics enterprises, which also can reduce operating costs and improve market responsiveness. First, this paper analyzes the realistic significance on the integration of regional logistics information. Second, this paper brings forward three feasible patterns on the integration of regional logistics information resources, These three models have their own strengths and the scope of application and implementation, which model is selected will depend on the specific business and the regional distribution of enterprises. Last, this paper discusses the related countermeasures on the integration of regional logistics information resources, because the integration of regional logistics information is a systems engineering, when the integration is advancing, the countermeasures should pay close attention to the current needs and long-term development of regional enterprises.

  16. Harmful and Needless Emission of Refrigerant and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Zeqiu

    2009-01-01

    Refrigerants used in refrigerators are an important source of ozone depleting substances released into the atmosphere,and can have a significantly negative effect on the hole in the ozone layer.But most emission of refrigerants is man-made,unreasonable and needless.Since in most emission cases the refrigerants are contained in the refrigerators,we can retrieve them by some technique that changes the 'manual emission' into manual retrieving.To promote the retrieval action and diminish the pollution,society can use economic,administrative and technical countermeasures,which can create a 'good-cycle' both 'harnessing pollution and earning income simultaneously',reinforce the motive of retrieving,and retrieve most proportion of refrigerants used by all refrigerators.This 'good-cycle' method can be easily promoted,and also a valuable way to promote other forms of environmental protection.The three countermeasures have almost no social cost,even no cost at all.

  17. Space Debris - Evaluation of risk perception and countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belviso, L.

    The problem of Space Debris not only belongs to purely technical domain Although the main effort is to establish legal background to handle with possible accident caused by space debris as well as finding countermeasures another relevant problem is the perception of risk by both general public and space operators The main objective of this paper concerns the analysis and comparison of real and perceived risk related to space debris in order to gives useful outputs for decision makers in both public and private sector of space operators A correct evaluation of the real risk deriving from space debris will be particularly useful in the next years to correctly evaluate launch and operational phases of commercial satellites as well as possible countermeasures to avoid or limitate damages In the public sector a correct evaluation of risk will represents an extremely useful tool to handle crisis management and promote correct information on space

  18. Information hiding in communication networks fundamentals, mechanisms, applications, and countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Mazurczyk, Wojciech; Zander, Sebastian; Houmansadr, Amir; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Describes Information Hiding in communication networks, and highlights their important issues, challenges, trends, and applications. This book provides the fundamental concepts, terminology, and classifications of information hiding in communication networks along with its historical background. Information Hiding In Communication Networks: Fundamentals, Mechanisms, Applications, and Countermeasures begins with introducing data concealment methods and their evolution. Chapter two discusses the existing terminology and describes the model for hidden communication and related communication scenarios. Chapters three to five present the main classes of information hiding in communication networks accompanied by a discussion of their robustness and undetectability. The book concludes with a discussion of potential countermeasures against information hiding techniques, which includes different types of mechanisms for the detection, limitation and prevention of covert co munication channels.

  19. Environmental issues and countermeasures in exploiting water resources of rivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hou-gui

    2006-01-01

    Based on affirming the tremendous benefits that water resources of rivers can provide in their exploitation, main environmental problems and their countermeasures have been proposed and analyzed in this paper. It is argued that multiple measures should be applied to solving those problems by simultaneously carrying out engineering measures, scientific research and also programs to cultivate the society's awareness, aimed at a sustainable development strategy for exploiting water resources.

  20. Research on Development Status and Countermeasures of Agricultural Cleaner Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the study,the connotation and objectives of agricultural cleaner production were introduced firstly,and then the development status of agricultural cleaner production in China was analyzed,and the problems existing in the development of agricultural cleaner production were pointed out.From the strategy of agricultural sustainable development,the necessity and feasibility of implementing agricultural cleaner production in China were discussed.Finally,some related countermeasures were put forward according...

  1. Analysis of Factors Influencing English Listening Teaching and the Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Tian

    2013-01-01

    English teaching focuses on cultivating and improving students’listening, speaking, reading, writing and translating skills, which are complementary to each other. Among these five skills, listening, as an important basic skill, should be put into top priority in English teaching. Mainly based on the analysis of factors influencing English listening teaching, the paper puts for-ward some effective countermeasures in improving teaching effectiveness.

  2. Analysis on Causes and Countermeasures of Bullwhip Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Dai Jianhua; Li Shibiao; Peng Shengbo

    2017-01-01

    Bullwhip effect is an inevitable phenomenon in supply chain management, because of its objective existence. This phenomenon is very common and harmful to make the operating costs of enterprises double and become one of the main concerns of many enterprises. In this paper, the causes of the bullwhip effect are explored through the methods of literature research and investigated consultation to weaken the bullwhip effect. This paper analyzes the key countermeasures with Wal-Mart successful logi...

  3. Elementary Experiences,Problems and Countermeasures of County Forestry Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaozhi; CHEN; Baomin; FAN; Rong; ZHAO; Youjun; HE; Decheng; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    County forestry economy is a strong power for regional green economic development,and an important way to improve farmers’ income and promote living environment in urban and rural areas. According to the investigation of ten typical counties or cities with forestry industrial advantage,this paper sums up the elementary experiences of county forestry economy,analyzes its prominent problems. Countermeasures are brought forward to improve the development of county forestry economy.

  4. Current Situation and Countermeasures of Rural Primary School English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国良

    2014-01-01

    The promotion of rural primary schools in English and open, influenced by many factors, there are many problems, making the rural and urban pupils compared to the poor standard of English is great, even when individual students graduated from elementary school even 26 English letters are read incomplete or pronunciation, this article will explain the status quo and countermeasures of teaching English in primary schools in rural areas.

  5. Exercise Countermeasure Hardware Evolution on ISS: The First Decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korth, Deborah W

    2015-12-01

    The hardware systems necessary to support exercise countermeasures to the deconditioning associated with microgravity exposure have evolved and improved significantly during the first decade of the International Space Station (ISS), resulting in both new types of hardware and enhanced performance capabilities for initial hardware items. The original suite of countermeasure hardware supported the first crews to arrive on the ISS and the improved countermeasure system delivered in later missions continues to serve the astronauts today with increased efficacy. Due to aggressive hardware development schedules and constrained budgets, the initial approach was to identify existing spaceflight-certified exercise countermeasure equipment, when available, and modify it for use on the ISS. Program management encouraged the use of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware, or hardware previously developed (heritage hardware) for the Space Shuttle Program. However, in many cases the resultant hardware did not meet the additional requirements necessary to support crew health maintenance during long-duration missions (3 to 12 mo) and anticipated future utilization activities in support of biomedical research. Hardware development was further complicated by performance requirements that were not fully defined at the outset and tended to evolve over the course of design and fabrication. Modifications, ranging from simple to extensive, were necessary to meet these evolving requirements in each case where heritage hardware was proposed. Heritage hardware was anticipated to be inherently reliable without the need for extensive ground testing, due to its prior positive history during operational spaceflight utilization. As a result, developmental budgets were typically insufficient and schedules were too constrained to permit long-term evaluation of dedicated ground-test units ("fleet leader" type testing) to identify reliability issues when applied to long-duration use. In most cases

  6. An Investigation of Kernel Data Attacks and Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-14

    WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION University of Delaware REPORT NUMBER 210 Hullihen...area code) 757-813-4390 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std . Z39.16 Final Technical Report for "An Investigation of Kernel Data...Attacks and Countermeasures" Award No: N00014-15-l-2136 Haining Wang Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Delaware

  7. Current Situation and Countermeasures for Green Electricity in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Rui; Gao Yang

    2007-01-01

    @@ The present situation of the green electricity in Shanghai is briefly introduced. The author analyzes various advantages in natural environment, market environment and social environment as well as various disadvantages in the respects of cost, price, economy for Shanghai to develop green electricity. It is pointed out that governments, non-government organizations, consumers and enterprises shall jointly make efforts to promote the green electricity in Shanghai. Finally,concrete countermeasures and suggestions are put forward.

  8. Intermittent acceleration as a countermeasure to soleus muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aunno, Dominick S.; Robinson, Ronald R.; Smith, Gregory S.; Thomason, Donald B.; Booth, Frank W.

    1992-01-01

    The effectiveness of using intermittent acceleration as a countermeasure to muscle atrophy was investigated in rats subjected to 7 days of hindlimb suspension interrupted by daily periods of 1.2 g acceleration, for 15-min periods evenly spaced over 12-hr interval. It was found that this regimen, when repeated for 7 days, failed to completely maintain the mass of soleus muscle, which was 84 percent of control.

  9. Research on Risks and Forecasting Countermeasures of Hainan Banana Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yan-Qun; Zeng, Xiao-Hong; Fang, Jia

    2011-01-01

    Based on the overviews of the current conditions of Hainan banana industry, the research makes an analysis of the risks faced by Hainan banana industry. They are respectively marketing risks, natural risks, information risks and production risks. In order to promote a sustainable and rapid development of Hainan banana industry, Countermeasures are proposed in the research. The first is to strengthen the leading organization of forecasting mechanisms on banana industry. The second is to establ...

  10. Bottleneck on Supply Chain of Organic Agricultural Products and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xin-min

    2012-01-01

    Organic agriculture is one of successful models of low-carbon agriculture, and plays an important role in alleviating and adapting to climate change. However, the development of supply chain of organic agricultural products lags behind, which seriously restricts development of organic agricultural product market. In this paper, major models and bottleneck of supply chain of organic agricultural products are analyzed, and finally countermeasures are put forward.

  11. Information Overload and Viral Marketing: Countermeasures and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jiesi; Sun, Aaron; Zeng, Daniel

    Studying information diffusion through social networks has become an active research topic with important implications in viral marketing applications. One of the fundamental algorithmic problems related to viral marketing is the Influence Maximization (IM) problem: given an social network, which set of nodes should be considered by the viral marketer as the initial targets, in order to maximize the influence of the advertising message. In this work, we study the IM problem in an information-overloaded online social network. Information overload occurs when individuals receive more information than they can process, which can cause negative impacts on the overall marketing effectiveness. Many practical countermeasures have been proposed for alleviating the load of information on recipients. However, how these approaches can benefit viral marketers is not well understood. In our work, we have adapted the classic Information Cascade Model to incorporate information overload and study its countermeasures. Our results suggest that effective control of information overload has the potential to improve marketing effectiveness, but the targeting strategy should be re-designed in response to these countermeasures.

  12. Updates on measurements and modeling techniques for expendable countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gignilliat, Robert; Tepfer, Kathleen; Wilson, Rebekah F.; Taczak, Thomas M.

    2016-10-01

    The potential threat of recently-advertised anti-ship missiles has instigated research at the United States (US) Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) into the improvement of measurement techniques for visual band countermeasures. The goal of measurements is the collection of radiometric imagery for use in the building and validation of digital models of expendable countermeasures. This paper will present an overview of measurement requirements unique to the visual band and differences between visual band and infrared (IR) band measurements. A review of the metrics used to characterize signatures in the visible band will be presented and contrasted to those commonly used in IR band measurements. For example, the visual band measurements require higher fidelity characterization of the background, including improved high-transmittance measurements and better characterization of solar conditions to correlate results more closely with changes in the environment. The range of relevant engagement angles has also been expanded to include higher altitude measurements of targets and countermeasures. In addition to the discussion of measurement techniques, a top-level qualitative summary of modeling approaches will be presented. No quantitative results or data will be presented.

  13. FDA Experience with Medical Countermeasures under the Animal Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Aebersold

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Food and Drug Administration issued a final rule in May 2002 to permit the Agency to approve drugs or license biological products on the basis of animal efficacy studies for use in ameliorating or preventing serious or life-threatening conditions caused by exposure to lethal or permanently disabling toxic biological, chemical, radiological, or nuclear substances. Only two drugs were approved in the first nine years of the “Animal Rule” despite massive investment by the federal government since 2001 to stimulate development of medical countermeasures to biological threats. This article therefore examines the Food and Drug Administration reviews made public after approval of those two drugs and the public discussion at the Agency's Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee of one biological product under development under the Animal Rule. Despite the paucity of approved drugs or licensed biological products as medical countermeasures, several investigational drugs have been placed in the National Strategic Stockpile for use as medical countermeasures, if needed.

  14. Methodological approaches to analysis of agricultural countermeasures on radioactive contaminated areas: Estimation of effectiveness and comparison of different alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yatsalo, B.I.; Hedemann Jensen, P.; Alexakhin, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    Methodological aspects of countermeasure analysis in the long-term period after a nuclear accident are discussed for agriculture countermeasures for illustrative purposes. The estimates of effectiveness fbr specific countermeasures as well as methods of justified action levels assessments and com...

  15. Environmental Characterization of Mine Countermeasure Test Ranges: Hydrography and Water Column Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    the performance characteristics of laser imaging systems. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as...5 IMPACT/APPLICATIONS This work is an important aspect of the transition of laser imaging systems to the fleet for mine countermeasure...Environmental Characterization of Mine Countermeasure Test Ranges: Hydrography and Water Column Optics David A. Phinney Bigelow Laboratory for

  16. 组网电子对抗中应对远程威胁的对抗优选决策%Optimal Decision-Making of Long Range Threat Countermeasures under the Netted ECM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连涛; 王星

    2012-01-01

    Under the background of netted electronic countermeasure ( ECM ) , long range threats in modern battle are analyzed. Threat decision factors are discussed and optimal membership degree algorithm is given. Based on these analyses, a countermeasure decision method through countermeasure design and optimal selection is presented; the model of long range threat countermeasures decision-making is established. Finally, the method under assumed war situation is adopted to analyze decision process. The result shows this method is scientific and rational.%在组网电子对抗作战背景下,简单分析作战中远程威胁目标,讨论了威胁决策因子及其优属度获取办法,在此基础上,提出了经过对抗方案总体设计、最优方案选择的决策方法,建立了应对远程威胁目标的决策模型.最后,通过合理假定作战场景进行实例分析,验证了该方法是科学合理的.

  17. [A study on origin of genetic ethics problem and countermeasure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yan-Ping

    2008-03-01

    The genetic ethical problem is one of problems which are the most disputable or difficult to resolve perfectly in the fields of life science. In these years the research for the problems is being concentrated on the types of genetic ethical problem and the ways to resolve them. But the systematic research for origin of genetic ethical problem is rare to be known. Thus it seems to be short of theoretical support to bring forward corresponding countermeasure. In this paper we focus on the evolving germ of genetic ethical problem and its evolving rule from the twofold views of human biological evolution and cultural evolution. A human being is a double offspring with biological evolution and cultural evolution . And he is a species which has both biological and cultural attribute on the earth. Through comparing and studying human biological evolution , cultural evolution, and characteristics of both biological attribute and cultural attribute, we bring forward a viewpoint that all ethical problems originate from a conflict originating from interplay of human biological evolution and cultural evolution. We intend to seek for the gist of theory and practice in order to research for genetic ethical problem and put forward some corresponding countermeasures. At the same time we'll advance a series of corresponding countermeasures of genetic ethical problem. The final aim in the paper is that not only some of our opinions will be admitted, but also through learning and understanding genetic ethical problem and its origin, the decision-makers and investigators in genetics field will be promoted to have more sense of fate and responsibility , so that the average public are able to misunderstand less and understand more for studying and genetics applying. We all work hard for genetics career to make it in healthy and continuing development and give a lot of happiness to human beings.

  18. A comprehensive program for countermeasures against potentially hazardous objects (PHOs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, Walter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Giguere, P T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Guzik, J A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Plesko, C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wohletz, K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, L N [SMD; Boice, D C [SWR; Chocron, S [SWRI; Ghosh, A [SWRI; Goldstein, R [SWRI; Mukerherjee, J [SWRI; Patrick, W [SWRI; Walker, J D [SWRI

    2008-01-01

    At the hundredth anniversary of the Tunguska event in Siberia it is appropriate to discuss measures to avoid such occurrences in the future. Recent discussions about detecting, tracking, cataloguing, and characterizing near-Earth objects (NEOs) center on objects larger than about 140 m in size. However, objects smaller than 100 m are more frequent and can cause significant regional destruction of civil infrastructures and population centers. The cosmic object responsible for the Tunguska event provides a graphic example: although it is thought to have been only about 50 to 60 m in size, it devastated an area of about 2000 km{sup 2}. Ongoing surveys aimed at early detection of a potentially hazardous object (PHO: asteroid or comet nucleus that approaches the Earth's orbit within 0.05 AU) are only a first step toward applying countermeasures to prevent an impact on Earth. Because 'early' may mean only a few weeks or days in the case of a Tunguska-sized object or a long-period comet, deflecting the object by changing its orbit is beyond the means of current technology, and destruction and dispersal of its fragments may be the only reasonable solution. Highly capable countermeasures - always at the ready - are essential to defending against an object with such short warning time, and therefore short reaction time between discovery and impending impact. We present an outline for a comprehensive plan for countermeasures that includes smaller (Tunguska-sized) objects and long-period comets, focuses on short warning times, uses non-nuclear methods (e.g., hyper-velocity impactor devices and conventional explosives) whenever possible, uses nuclear munitions only when needed, and launches from the ground. The plan calls for international collaboration for action against a truly global threat.

  19. Autogenic-feedback training: A countermeasure for orthostatic intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Kamiya, Joe; Miller, Neal E.; Pickering, Thomas G.

    1991-01-01

    NASA has identified cardiovascular deconditioning as a serious biomedical problem associated with long-duration exposure to microgravity in space. High priority has been given to the development of countermeasures for this disorder and the resulting orthostatic intolerance experienced by crewmembers upon their return to the 1g norm of Earth. The present study was designed to examine the feasibility of training human subjects to control their own cardiovascular responses to gravitational stimulation (i.e., a tilt table). Using an operant conditioning procedure, Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT), we would determine if subjects could learn to increase their own blood pressure voluntarily.

  20. Security Attacks and its Countermeasures in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar,

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks have come to the forefront of the scientific community recently. Present WSNs typically communicate directly with a centralized controller or satellite. Going on the other hand, a smart WSN consists of a number of sensors spread across a geographical area; each sensor has wireless communication ability and sufficient intelligence for signal processing and networking of the data. This paper surveyed the different types of attacks, security related issues, and it’s Countermeasures with the complete comparison between Layer based Attacks in Wireless Sensor Network.

  1. Optimization of massive countermeasure design in complex rockfall settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agliardi, Federico; Crosta, Giovanni B.

    2015-04-01

    Rockfall protection is a major need in areas impended by subvertical rockwalls with complex 3D morphology and little or no talus to provide natural rockfall attenuation. The design of massive embankments, usually required to ensure such protection, is particularly difficult in complex rockfall settings, due to: widespread occurrence of rockfall sources; difficult characterization of size distribution and location of unstable volumes; variability of failure mechanisms; spatial scattering of rockfall trajectories; high expected kinetic energies. Moreover, rockwalls in complex lithological and structural settings are often prone to mass falls related to rock mass sector collapses. All these issues may hamper a safe application of classic embankment analysis approaches, using empirical rules or 2D-based height/energy statistics, and point to the need of integrated analyses of rock slope instability and rockfall runout in 3D. We explore the potential of combining advanced rock mass characterisation techniques and 3D rockfall modelling to support challenging countermeasure design at a site near Lecco (Southern Alps, Italy). Here subvertical cliffs up to 600 m high impend on a narrow (flat land along the Como Lake shore. Rock is thickly bedded limestone (Dolomia Principale Fm) involved in a ENE-trending, S-verging kilometre-scale anticline fold. The spatial variability of bedding attitude and fracture intensity is strongly controlled by the geological structure, with individual block sizes varying in the range 0.2-15 m3. This results in spatially variable rockfall susceptibility and mechanisms, from single block falls to mass falls. Several rockfall events occurred between 1981 and 2010 motivated the design of slope benching and a massive embankment. To support reliable design verification and optimization we performed a 3D assessment of both rock slope instability and rockfall runout. We characterised fracture patterns and rock mass quality associated to different

  2. Development Status and Countermeasures of China's Urban Rail Transit Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Ning; Qian Jun

    2008-01-01

    Urban rail transit has been a new emerging industry growing up since China's reform and opening-up. As the city's public service facility, the construction and operation of urban rail transit will surely face a series of impact and reform on management and concept under the condition of market economy system. By analyzing the development status of China's urban rail transit, the paper identifies the problems existing in the development and puts fin-ward the countermeasures for securing sound develolopment of the China's urban rail transit industry.

  3. Intrusions into Privacy in Video Chat Environments: Attacks and Countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Xing, Xinyu; Han, Richard; Liu, Xue; Mishra, Shivakant

    2010-01-01

    Video chat systems such as Chatroulette have become increasingly popular as a way to meet and converse one-on-one via video and audio with other users online in an open and interactive manner. At the same time, security and privacy concerns inherent in such communication have been little explored. This paper presents one of the first investigations of the privacy threats found in such video chat systems, identifying three such threats, namely de-anonymization attacks, phishing attacks, and man-in-the-middle attacks. The paper further describes countermeasures against each of these attacks.

  4. Countermeasures for Tobacco Branding and Industrial Development in Enshi Prefecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangzhong; DAI

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural branding is an important mark of agricultural modernization. Enshi Prefecture of Hubei Province is reputed as " Tobacco Kingdom" and " World Capital of Selenium". It is also the key production area of flue-cured tobacco,burley tobacco and selenium-enriched tobacco. The tobacco industry has become a pillar industry of Enshi Prefecture. This paper firstly introduces tobacco resource and industry of Enshi Prefecture. Then,it analyzes countermeasures for tobacco branding and industrial development. Finally,it comes up with several constructive recommendations.

  5. Analysis on Mortgage of Farmland Contractual Management Right and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaohua; YIN; Zegan; XIAO

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a series of pilot projects in mortgage of farmland contractual management right have been carried out in some regions. However, there is considerable dispute over whether the farmland contractual management right can be mortgaged in the practice of China’s legislation on land circulation. We firstly introduced current situations of mortgage of farmland contractual management right in China. Then, we analyzed existing problems in mortgage of farmland contractual management right. Finally, we put forward corresponding countermeasures and recommendations, to bring into full play land use efficiency, more rationally distribute land resource, and further promote development of rural economy.

  6. Problems in Food Safety of Hunan Province and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fanfan; OUYANG; Fangming; DENG

    2014-01-01

    In recent years,serious food safety accidents are of frequent occurrence. Although government has taken many practical and feasible measures to contain food safety accidents,new food safety accidents still emerge in large numbers. In this situation,food safety control is a long-term and arduous task to be performed jointly by many government departments. Finally,it presents corresponding countermeasures and recommendations on the basis of current situations of food safety in Hunan Province,problem causes,in combination with control measures related to food safety both at home and abroad.

  7. Obstacles to Rural Residents’ Consumption in China and the Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of relevant statistical data, this paper analyzes the obstacles to rural residents’ consumption in China as follows: the consumption structure is restricted critically; the consumption environment cannot meet the need of social development; the traditional consumption concept has not yet been changed; the social security system is not sound; the support of rural finance is short. Pointed countermeasures for eliminating the obstacles to rural residents’ consumption are put forward as follows: first, adopt effective measures to elevate the level of farmers’ income; second, strengthen the credit support of rural finance; third, quicken the pace of modernized development in rural areas; fourth, construct perfect rural social security system.

  8. Causes and Countermeasures of Helping Poor Students to Learn English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏

    2012-01-01

    In English teaching,there is a common phenomenon:at the beginning of English learning,students are enthusiastic and full of interest; then polarization appears after a period of study.Some of the students become discouraged and lose confidence in learning English,and gradually become the so-called poor learners.Therefore,teachers should make careful analysis,find out the causes and regulate countermeasures to improve teaching methods,so that every student can get a comprehensive and healthy development.

  9. Evaluation of remedial countermeasures using the analytic network process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promentilla, M A B; Furuichi, T; Ishii, K; Tanikawa, N

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an evaluation method to aid decision makers in the prioritization and selection of appropriate countermeasures at the planning stage of site remediation. We introduced a hierarchical network (hiernet) decision structure and applied the Analytic Network Process (ANP) supermatrix approach to measure the relative desirability of the remedial alternatives using the decision maker's value judgment as input. A simplified illustrative example is presented to elucidate the process, as it is being applied to evaluate the feasible remedial countermeasures of a contaminated site caused by uncontrolled landfill. Four decision models derived from the generalized hiernet were examined to describe the effect of hierarchic functional dependence, inner dependence and feedback cycle on the derivation of the priority weights. The ANP could provide a more flexible analytical framework to break down one's judgment through a more elaborate structure in a systematic way to understand the complexity of the decision problem. The proposed method therefore may not only aid in selecting the best alternative but also may help to facilitate communication to understand why an alternative is preferred over the other alternatives through the analysis of the derived weights and its underlying decision structure.

  10. Trend analysis of UNFCCC and countermeasures of power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.H.; Na, I.K.; Seo, J.H. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) emerges as an important factor to bring big changes to all fields such as economy, society, culture, etc. as well as environment of the world. Esp., the Kyoto Protocol adopted on December, 1997 is expected to form new current to the world economic order by introducing brand new system such as emission rights trading system, joint carry-out, clean development apparatus, etc. This study looked into the current trend of negotiation in UNFCCC, forecast, and our countermeasure plans, and esp., analyzed the emission rights trading system, countermeasure and utilization plan of joint carry-out centered on power industry. According to this analysis, Korea should hurry up the cooperation and entry with prospective countries such as Eastern Europe, Southeast Asia, and North Korea, etc. for the positive utilization of emission rights trading system and joint carry-out and establish an integrated management system of green-house gases by building an agency that assumes full responsibility of emission rights trading system and joint carry-out since its reduction costs of green-house gases is high. 31 refs., 2 figs., 60 tabs.

  11. Exercise Countermeasures on ISS: Summary and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loerch, Linda H

    2015-12-01

    The first decade of the International Space Station Program (ISS) yielded a wealth of knowledge regarding the health and performance of crewmembers living in microgravity for extended periods of time. The exercise countermeasures hardware suite evolved during the last decade to provide enhanced capabilities that were previously unavailable to support human spaceflight, resulting in attenuation of cardiovascular, muscle, and bone deconditioning. The ability to protect crew and complete mission tasks in the autonomous exploration environment will be a critical component of any decision to proceed with manned exploration initiatives.The next decade of ISS habitation promises to be a period of great scientific utilization that will yield both the tools and technologies required to safely explore the solar system. Leading countermeasure candidates for exploration class missions must be studied methodically on ISS over the next decade to ensure protocols and systems are highly efficient, effective, and validated. Lessons learned from the ISS experience to date are being applied to the future, and international cooperation enables us to maximize this exceptional research laboratory.

  12. Cardiovascular adaptations, fluid shifts, and countermeasures related to space flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, Alan R; Richardson, Sara

    2009-10-01

    Significant progress has been made related to understanding cardiovascular adaptations to microgravity and development of countermeasures to improve crew re-adaptation to gravity. The primary ongoing issues are orthostatic intolerance after flight, reduced exercise capacity, the effect of vascular-smooth muscle loss on other physiologic systems, development of efficient and low-cost countermeasures to counteract these losses, and an understanding of fluid shift mechanisms. Previous animal studies of cardiovascular adaptations offer evidence that prolonged microgravity remodels walls of blood vessels, which in turn, is important for deconditioning of the cardiovascular system and other functions of the body. Over the past 10 years, our studies have documented that treadmill exercise within lower body negative pressure counteracts most physiologic decrements with bed rest in both women and men. Future studies should improve hardware and protocols to protect crew members during prolonged missions. Finally, it is proposed that transcapillary fluid shifts in microgravity may be related to the loss of tissue weight and external compression of blood vessels.

  13. Models for the Development of Radiation Countermeasures (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indracanti Prem Kumar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate models are essential for making the transition from scientific discoveries to meaningful applications of the knowledge for human use. Acute as well as delayed effects of ionising radiation to the biological systems develop hierarchically starting from damage to the vital macromolecules up to the disturbances caused at the whole organism level. In vitro models like bacteria, yeast, various mammalian cells cultured as monolayers (2-D and spheroids (3-D as well as cells with specific genetic alterations have provided insight into the complex relationships between damage induction and various signal transduction pathways, allowing identification of molecular and sub-cellular targets vital to the fate of irradiated cells. On the other hand, in vivo models (multicellular whole organisms, ranging from simple worms to non-human primates, have been gainfully employed to evaluate efficacy as well as toxicity of potential countermeasure agents (molecules, combinations and formulated preparations facilitating their deployment in human subjects. This review provides a brief account of the efforts with various in vitro and in vivo models for understanding the biological basis of radiation damage as well as the development of radiation countermeasures, viz., protectors, mitigators and therapeutics.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(2, pp.146-156, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.835

  14. Lessons learned from Shuttle/Mir: psychosocial countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, Nick; Salnitskiy, Vyacheslav; Grund, Ellen M.; Gushin, Vadim; Weiss, Daniel S.; Kozerenko, Olga; Sled, Alexander; Marmar, Charles R.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During future long-duration space missions, countermeasures need to be developed to deal with psychosocial issues that might impact negatively on crewmember performance and well-being. METHODS: In our recently completed NASA-funded study of 5 U.S. astronauts, 8 Russian cosmonauts, and 42 U.S. and 16 Russian mission control personnel who participated in the Shuttle/Mir program, we evaluated a number of important psychosocial issues such as group tension, cohesion, leadership role, and the displacement of negative emotions from crewmembers to people in mission control and from mission control personnel to management. RESULTS: Based on our findings, which are reviewed, a number of psychosocial countermeasures are suggested to help ameliorate the negative impact of potential psychosocial problems during future manned space missions. CONCLUSIONS: Crewmembers should be selected not only to rule out psychopathology but also to select-in for group compatibility and facility in a common language. Training should include briefings and team building related to a number of psychosocial issues and should involve both crewmembers and mission control personnel. During the mission, both experts on the ground and the crewmembers themselves should be alert to potential interpersonal problems, including the displacement of negative emotions from the crew to the ground. Supportive activities should consist of both individual and interpersonal strategies, including an awareness of changing leisure time needs. Finally, attention should be given to postmission readjustment and to supporting the families on Earth.

  15. Potential Security Attacks on Wireless Networks and their Countermeasure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreedhar. C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The security of wireless networks has been a constant topic in the recent years. With the advance ofwireless networks, building reliable and secured communication is becoming extremely important.Wireless security is a mechanism of preventing unauthorized access or damage to computers usingwireless networks. A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET is a self-organizing system of mobile nodes thatcommunicate with each other through wireless links with no fixed infrastructure or centralizedadministration. This paper presents potential security attacks on Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector(AODV routing protocol and their countermeasure. IETF standardized AODV and considered as one ofthe most popular and promising on-demand routing protocols because of its lower network overhead andalgorithm complexity. AODV protocol does not store all the routing information in its routing table andthis causes potential security threat to the wireless networks. In this paper, we consider various knownsecurity attacks and in- specific blackhole attack on AODV and propose a countermeasure to thwartblackhole attack.

  16. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  17. Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) for Space Habitation and Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The “Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) for Space Habitation and Exploration” is a visionary system concept that will revolutionize space...

  18. Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) for Space Habitation and Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) is a specialized spacesuit designed to keep astronauts healthy during long-duration space exploration missions and...

  19. On-Command Exoskeleton for Countermeasure Microgravity Effects on Muscles and Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Bao, X.; Badescu, M.; Sherrit, S.; Mavroidis, C.; Unluhisarcikh, O.; Pietrusinski, M.; Rajulu, S.; Berka, R.; Cowley, M.

    2012-06-01

    On-command exoskeleton with impeding and augmenting elements would support the operation of astronauts traveling to Mars. Thus, countermeasure deleterious effects on the muscles and bones during travel and assist their physical activity on Mars.

  20. DEVELOPING A COUNTERMEASURES TO USING COVERT CHANNELS IN PACKET-SWITCHED NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarov I. V.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the given article a model which allows defining general characteristics of covert channels in packet-switched networks as well as countermeasures to covert channels developed on the basis of the model in question are presented

  1. Countermeasures to prevent detection failure of a vehicle approaching on collision course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uchida, Nobuyuki; de Waard, Dick; Brookhuis, Karel A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated causal factor of perceptual failure and possible countermeasure of crossing path crashes at clear-sighted unsignalised intersections. Background: Crossing path crashes involving two vehicles at intersections are a common and serious problem, and perceptual failure

  2. Countermeasures for Development and Present Situation of Chives in Xiaogang Town, Xiaogan City, Hubei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue; CHEN; Chunfu; XIE; Hongping; LIU; Huashu; LIU; Jian; WANG; Ming; ZHENG; Ju; YUE; Changbing; LIU; Dan; LIU; Hanhua; TANG; Yuchao; PENG; Yonggang; NIU; Ke; HU

    2013-01-01

    Through the overview of main problems existing in chives production, its current situation and history, the thesis puts forward countermeasures for developing chives industrialization in Xiaogang Town, Xiaogan City.

  3. High Efficiency, Room Temperature Mid-Infrared Semiconductor Laser Development for IR Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    CONTRACT NUMBER EFFICIENCY, ROOM TEMPERATURE MID-INFRARED SEMICONDUCTOR LASER DEVELOPMENT FOR IR COUNTERMEASURES Sb. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-04-1-0433...04-1-0433 Title: (DEPSCOR FY04) High Efficiency, Room Temperature Mid-Infrared Semiconductor Laser Development for IR Countermeasures Principal...AFOSR Final Performance Report, March 2008 Award No.: FA9550-04-1-0433 Title: High Efficiency, Room Temperature Mid-Infrared Semiconductor Laser

  4. A critical benefit analysis of artificial gravity as a microgravity countermeasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaderka, Justin; Young, Laurence R.; Paloski, William H.

    2010-11-01

    Deconditioning of astronauts during long duration spaceflight, especially with regard to the cardiovascular, musculo-skeletal, and neurological systems, is a well-recognized problem that has stimulated significant investments in countermeasure research over the past five decades. Because of its potential salutary effects on all of these systems, artificial gravity via centrifugation has been one of the most persistently discussed countermeasures; however, to date, few studies have tested its efficacy, particularly in comparison to other, system-specific countermeasures. This paper reports results of a meta-analysis we performed to compare previously published results from artificial gravity studies with those from studies utilizing traditional countermeasures, such as resistive exercise, aerobic exercise, lower body negative pressure (LBNP), or some variation of these countermeasures. Published and non-published literature involving human bed rest and immersion studies, human non-bed rest studies, and flight data were examined. Our analyses were confounded by differences in research design from study to study, including subject selection criteria, deconditioning paradigm, physiological systems assessed, and dependent measures employed. Nevertheless we were able to draw comparisons between studies that had some consistency across these variables. Results indicate that for prolonged spaceflight an artificial gravity-based countermeasure may provide benefits equivalent to traditional countermeasures for the cardiovascular system. Too few comparable studies have been performed to draw any conclusions for the musculo-skeletal system. Gaps in the current knowledge of artificial gravity are identified and provide the basis for a discussion of future topics for ground-based research using this countermeasure.

  5. The Influence and the Countermeasures about Water Resources in Northwest of Climate Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the influences and countermeasures of climate changes on the water resources in northwest.[Method] The influences of climate changes on water resources in northwest part were discussed.Considering to the demand of water,corresponding countermeasures were proposed.[Result] Though there were distinct regional differences about the influences of climate changes on water resources in northwest part,the positive influences were larger than negative influences in general;because o...

  6. Dynamic Foot Pressure as a Countermeasure to Muscle Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyparos, A.; Layne, C. S.; Martinez, D. A.; Clarke, M. S. F.; Feeback, D. L.

    2002-01-01

    Mechanical unloading of skeletal muscle (SKM) as a consequence of space flight or ground-based analogues, such as human bedrest and rodent hindlimb suspension (HLS) models, induces SKM atrophy particularly affecting the anti-gravity musculature of the lower limbs. In the context of manned space flight, the subsequent loss of muscle strength and functionality will pose operational implications jeopardizing mission success. Exercise, currently the primary muscle degradation countermeasure, has not proven completely effective in preventing muscle atrophy. It is therefore imperative that some other forms of in- flight countermeasure be also developed to supplement the prescribed exercise regimen the astronauts follow during spaceflight. Previous work in both humans and rats has shown that mechanical stimulation of the soles of the feet increases neuromuscular activation in the lower limb musculature and that such stimulation results in the limited prevention of atrophy in the soleus muscle of unloaded rats. This study was designed to investigate the effect of cutaneous mechanoreceptor stimulation on hindlimb unloading- induced SKM atrophy in rats. It was hypothesized that mechanical stimulation of the plantar surface of the rat foot during hindlimb suspension (HLS), utilizing a novel stimulation paradigm known as Dynamic Foot Pressure (DFP), would attenuate unloading-induced SKM atrophy. Mature adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups of 10 rats each as follows: sedentary controls (Ctrl), hindlimb suspended only (HLS), hindlimb suspended wearing an inflatable boot (HLS-IFL) and hindlimb suspended rats wearing a non-inflatable boot (HLS-NIFL). The stimulation of mechanoreceptors was achieved by applying pressure to the plantar surface of the foot during the 10-day period of HLS using a custom-built boot. The anti-atrophic effects of DFP application was quantified directly by morphological (muscle wet weight, myofiber cross-sectional area

  7. TU-H-BRB-01: Physics and Dosimetry for Radiation Countermeasure Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourland, J

    2016-06-01

    The US government has substantial research and development activities underway for medical countermeasures that will insure the long-term safety and survival of the country's population after unfortunate large-scale biological, chemical and radiological and nuclear events. Preparedness includes research and development of medical countermeasures to address radiation-induced cutaneous and internal injury from radiation and nuclear events as well as for minimizing radiation risks incurred during and after travel in space. Other important research and development efforts include the repurposing of countermeasures and development of radioprotectors and mitigators to improve the outcome of radiation treatment. Participating agencies include NIAID, BARDA, NCI, and NASA, with examples of research and development funding that includes the Centers for Medical Countermeasures against Radiation (CMCR) consortia (NIAID) and primary and sub-contracts with commercial entities (BARDA). Each of these programs requires substantial medical and health physics effort in collaboration with biology colleagues to provide a range of radiation sources, dosimetry instrumentation and assessment methods, and animal models for specific radiation-induced effects and injuries. Radiation countermeasure activities for government agencies will be reviewed, the importance of model development will be stressed, example radiation countermeasure research projects will be reviewed, and the roles for medical physicists will be discussed.

  8. Factors Influencing Price of Agricultural Products and Stability Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Factors leading to rise of prices of agricultural products mainly include tension of supply-demand relationship,promotion of production cost and circulation cost,and speculation of Refugee Capital(Hot Money).Factors leading to low price and difficult sales of agricultural products mainly include asymmetry of supply-demand information,lack of risk management tools for prices of agricultural products and decentralized and small-scaled operation of farmers.On the basis of these factors,this paper presents following countermeasures and suggestions for stabilizing prices of agricultural products:firstly,building long-effect mechanism for production and sales of agricultural products;secondly,expand the production and increase supply of agricultural products;thirdly,control the rising range of production cost for agricultural products;fourthly,enhance organization level of farmers;fifthly,promote innovation and development of risk management tools for prices of agricultural products.

  9. Augmented Reality as a Countermeasure for Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, James; Dorrlan, Jillian; Banks, Siobhan; Chatburn, Alex; Smith, Ross T; Carskadon, Mary A; Lushington, Kurt; Thomas, Bruce H

    2016-04-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to have serious deleterious effects on executive functioning and job performance. Augmented reality has an ability to place pertinent information at the fore, guiding visual focus and reducing instructional complexity. This paper presents a study to explore how spatial augmented reality instructions impact procedural task performance on sleep deprived users. The user study was conducted to examine performance on a procedural task at six time points over the course of a night of total sleep deprivation. Tasks were provided either by spatial augmented reality-based projections or on an adjacent monitor. The results indicate that participant errors significantly increased with the monitor condition when sleep deprived. The augmented reality condition exhibited a positive influence with participant errors and completion time having no significant increase when sleep deprived. The results of our study show that spatial augmented reality is an effective sleep deprivation countermeasure under laboratory conditions.

  10. Evaluation of an Impedance Threshold Device as a VIIP Countermeasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Douglas; Macias, Brandon; Sargsyan, Ashot; Garcia, Kathleen; Stenger, Michael; Hargens, Alan; Johnston, Smith; Kemp, David; Danielson, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) is a top human spaceflight risk for which NASA does not currently have a proven mitigation strategy. Thigh cuffs (Braslets) and lower body negative pressure (LBNP; Chibis) devices have been or are currently being evaluated as a means to reduce VIIP signs and symptoms, but these methods alone may not provide sufficient relief of cephalic venous congestion and VIIP symptoms. Additionally, current LBNP devices are too large and cumbersome for their systematic use as a countermeasure. Therefore, a novel approach is needed that is easy to implement and provides specific relief of symptoms. This investigation will evaluate an impedance threshold device (ITD) as a VIIP countermeasure. The ITD works by providing up to 7 cm H2O (approximately 5 mmHg) resistance to inspiratory air flow, effectively turning the thorax into a vacuum pump upon each inhalation which lowers the intrathoracic pressure (ITP) and facilitates venous return to the heart. The ITD is FDA-approved and was developed to augment venous return to the central circulation and increase cardiac output during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and in patients with hypotension. While the effect of ITD on CPR survival outcomes is controversial, the ITD's ability to lower ITP with a concomitant decrease in intracranial pressure (ICP) is well documented. A similar concept that creates negative ITP during exhalation (intrathoracic pressure regulator; ITPR) decreased ICP in 16 of 20 patients with elevated ICP in a hospital pilot study. ITP and central venous pressure (CVP) have been shown to decrease in microgravity however ITP drops more than CVP, indicating an increased transmural CVP. This could explain the paradoxical distention of jugular veins (JV) in microgravity despite lower absolute CVP and also suggests that JV transmural pressure is not dramatically elevated. Use of an ITD may lower JV pressure enough to remove or relieve cephalic venous congestion. During

  11. Information leakage through document redaction: attacks and countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopresti, Daniel P.; Spitz, A. Lawrence

    2005-01-01

    It has been recently demonstrated, in dramatic fashion, that sensitive information thought to be obliterated through the process of redaction can be successfully recovered via a combination of manual effort, document image analysis, and natural language processing techniques. In this paper, we examine what might be revealed through redaction, exploring how known methods might be employed to detect vestigial artifacts of the pre-redacted text. We discuss the process of redaction and circumstances under which sensitive information might leak, present an outline for experimental analyses of various approaches that could be used to recover redacted material, and describe a series of increasingly stringent countermeasures to address, and in some cases eliminate, the perceived threat.

  12. Countermeasures Against Blinding Attack on Superconducting Nanowire Detectors for QKD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elezov M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs are used in Quantum Key Distribution (QKD instead of single-photon avalanche photodiodes. Recently bright-light control of the SSPD has been demonstrated. This attack employed a “backdoor” in the detector biasing technique. We developed the autoreset system which returns the SSPD to superconducting state when it is latched. We investigate latched state of the SSPD and define limit conditions for effective blinding attack. Peculiarity of the blinding attack is a long nonsingle photon response of the SSPD. It is much longer than usual single photon response. Besides, we need follow up response duration of the SSPD. These countermeasures allow us to prevent blind attack on SSPDs for Quantum Key Distribution.

  13. Classification,Hazards and Countermeasures of Agricultural Environmental Pollution Emergencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoming; CHUAI; Haixia; ZHOU; Jianping; ZHAO; Shubo; CHENG; Jiang; YU

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural environmental pollution emergencies have become a hot research topic because of the high incidence and influence depth.This paper introduces classification and features of agricultural environmental pollution emergencies:by pollutant type,it falls into organic pollution emergencies and inorganic pollution emergencies;by the approach of entering agricultural environment,it falls into water resource agricultural environmental pollution emergencies and non-water resource agricultural environmental pollution emergencies.Hazards of agricultural environmental pollution emergencies are analyzed from 4 perspectives:personal security,indirect loss,ecological environment and social stability.In view of the hazards,countermeasures are given to deal with the pollution emergencies as(i)establishing a risk evaluation mechanism for agricultural environment;(ii)enhancing the capacity of handling agricultural environmental pollution emergencies;(iii)introducing new management concepts for environmental emergencies,and cultivating keen emergency management consciousness.

  14. Economic Analysis and Countermeasures of Migrant Workers’ Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Generation and development of migrant workers’ problems are analyzed from the perspective of economics. There are economic factors causing migrant workers’ problems: imbalance in the industrial structure brings farmers living pressure; urban modern civilization is attractive to farmers; urban economic development needs a large number of agricultural laborers engaged in manual labor. Moreover, relevant countermeasures are proposed. The dual economic structure is to be broken to gradually eliminate the barrier between urban and rural areas; an unified and standard labor market is to be established to narrow the gap between urban and rural areas; overall considerations should be taken and the reform of matching system should be quickened; the construction of urbanization is to be duly promoted to improve the level of modernization in the countryside.

  15. Long-term effects of microgravity and possible countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, James W.; Rummel, John D.

    It is well known that long-term exposure to microgravity causes a number of physiological and biochemical changes in humans; among the most significant are: 1) negative calcium balance resulting in the loss of bone; 2) atrophy of antigravity muscles; 3) fluid shifts and decreased plasma volume; and 4) cardiovascular deconditioning that leads to orthostatic intolerance. It is estimated that a mission to Mars may require up to 300 days in a microgravity environment; in the case of an aborted mission, the astronauts may have to remain in reduced gravity for up to three years. Although the Soviet Union has shown that exercise countermeasures appear to be adequate for exposures of up to on year in space, it is questionable whether astronauts could or should have to maintain such regimes for extremely prolonged missions. Therefore, the NASA Life Sciences Division has initiated a program designed to evaluate a number of methods for providing an artificial gravity environment.

  16. Impact of Industrialization on Grain Consumption and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of industrialization on grain consumption from growth of residents’ income and change of diet structure,expansion of size of population,and development of new biomass energy industry.The economic growth in the course of industrialization promotes growth of residents’ income,changes residents’ diet structure;industrialization leads to rural urbanization and rise of urban residents;industrial development brings about grain demand of biomass energy.All of these greatly increase demand of grain consumption.On the basis of these situations,it presents following countermeasures to guarantee grain consumption demand in the course of industrialization:heighten awareness to fully realize the significance of rapid development of industrialization to grain security;control population growth and improve grain conversion ratio;strengthen grain-saving construction and advocate moderate consumption;develop non-grain biomass energy in many channels to guarantee grain security.

  17. Joy Leads to Overconfidence, and a Simple Countermeasure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Koellinger

    Full Text Available Overconfidence has been identified as a source of suboptimal decision making in many real-life domains, with often far-reaching consequences. This study identifies a mechanism that can cause overconfidence and demonstrates a simple, effective countermeasure in an incentive-compatible experimental study. We observed that joy induced overconfidence if the reason for joy (an unexpected gift was unrelated to the judgment task and if participants were not made specifically aware of this mood manipulation. In contrast, we observed well-calibrated judgments among participants in a control group who were in their resting mood. Furthermore, we found well-calibrated judgments among participants who received the joyful mood induction together with questions that forced them to reflect on their current mood and the (irrelevance of its cause to our judgment tasks. Our findings suggest that being aware of one's positive mood and the reason for that mood may effectively reduce overconfidence for a short period.

  18. Problems of Family Farms in China and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huamei; LIN; Houjun; WANG

    2014-01-01

    In the Communiqué of the Third Plenary Session of the 18 th Central Committee of the CPC,it proposed the tasks of accelerating the building of a new type of agricultural operation system,endowing farmers with more property rights,promoting equal exchanges of factors of production and balanced allocation of public resources between urban and rural areas,and improving the institutions and mechanisms for promoting the sound development of urbanization. However,as new agricultural operating entities,family farms have problems of land circulation,lack of scientific and technological talents,and backward infrastructure. In line with these problems,this study put forward recommendations and countermeasures,in the hope of promoting increase in farmers’ income,increasing agricultural intensification and large-scale level,and realizing agricultural modernization.

  19. Countermeasures for traffic accidents due to road conditions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Yu-long; MA Ji

    2005-01-01

    Regarding the postulate of traffic infrastmcture and vehicles, much attention should be given to the effect of road conditions on accidents. With large numbers of traffic accidents on Shenda Freeway, Liaoning Province, Harbin City and others in P. R. China, parameters and the effect of accidents caused by horizontal alignment, vertical alignment, cross section and intersection are studied systematically The disciplinary analysis of these effects are presented in this paper. The viewpoint is acknowledged that high sub grade and steep slopes are against traffic safety, which is common and ignored in high-usage highways in China. Design parameters of the current design criteria and the corresponding countermeasures are suggested for safety on our highways.

  20. Attacks and Countermeasures in Social Network Data Publishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Yang

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing prevalence of social networks, more and more social network data are published for many applications, such as social network analysis and data mining. However, this brings privacy problems. For example, adversaries can get sensitive in⁃formation of some individuals easily with little background knowledge. How to publish social network data for analysis purpose while preserving the privacy of individuals has raised many concerns. Many algorithms have been proposed to address this issue. In this paper, we discuss this privacy problem from two aspects: attack models and countermeasures. We analyse privacy con⁃cerns, model the background knowledge that adversary may utilize and review the recently developed attack models. We then sur⁃vey the state⁃of⁃the⁃art privacy preserving methods in two categories: anonymization methods and differential privacy methods. We also provide research directions in this area.

  1. Combining Technical and Financial Impacts for Countermeasure Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Gonzalez-Granadillo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Research in information security has generally focused on providing a comprehensive interpretation of threats, vulnerabilities, and attacks, in particular to evaluate their danger and prioritize responses accordingly. Most of the current approaches propose advanced techniques to detect intrusions and complex attacks but few of these approaches propose well defined methodologies to react against a given attack. In this paper, we propose a novel and systematic method to select security countermeasures from a pool of candidates, by ranking them based on the technical and financial impact associated to each alternative. The method includes industrial evaluation and simulations of the impact associated to a given security measure which allows to compute the return on response investment for different candidates. A simple case study is proposed at the end of the paper to show the applicability of the model.

  2. Artificial Gravity as a Bone Loss Countermeasure in Simulated Weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. M.; Zwart, S. R.; Crawford, G. E.; Gillman, P. L.; LeBlanc, A.; Shackelford, L. C.; Heer, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of microgravity on the human body is a significant concern for space travelers. We report here initial results from a pilot study designed to explore the utility of artificial gravity (AG) as a countermeasure to the effects of microgravity, specifically to bone loss. After an initial phase of adaptation and testing, 15 male subjects underwent 21 days of 6 head-down bed rest to simulate the deconditioning associated with space flight. Eight of the subjects underwent 1 h of centrifugation (AG, 1 gz at the heart, 2.5 gz at the feet) each day for 21 days, while 7 of the subjects served as untreated controls (CN). Blood and urine were collected before, during, and after bed rest for bone marker determinations. At this point, preliminary data are available on the first 8 subjects (6 AG, and 2 CN). Comparing the last week of bed rest to before bed rest, urinary excretion of the bone resorption marker n-telopeptide increased 95 plus or minus 59% (mean plus or minus SD) in CN but only 32 plus or minus 26% in the AG group. Similar results were found for another resorption marker, helical peptide (increased 57 plus or minus 0% and 35 plus or minus 13% in CN and AG respectively). Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation marker, did not change during bed rest. At this point, sample analyses are continuing, including calcium tracer kinetic studies. These initial data demonstrate the potential effectiveness of short-radius, intermittent AG as a countermeasure to the bone deconditioning that occurs during bed rest.

  3. Renal Stone Risk during Spaceflight: Assessment and Countermeasure Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Jones, Jeffery A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Hudson, Ed K.; Nelman-Gonzalez, Mayra

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA's objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre-, in-, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all in-flight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that supplementation

  4. Benefits, Consequences, and Uncertainties of Conventional (Exercise) Countermeasure Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will review the pros, cons, and uncertainties of using exercise countermeasures in hypothetical long duration exploration missions. The use of artificial gravity and exercise will be briefly discussed. One benefit to continued use of exercise is related to our extensive experience with spaceflight exercise hardware and programming. Exercise has been a part of each space mission dating back to the 1960's when simple isometric and bungee exercises were performed in the Gemini capsule. Over the next 50 years, exercise hardware improved cumulating in today's ISS suite of exercise equipment: Cycle Ergometer with Vibration Isolation and Stabilization System (CEVIS), Treadmill (T2) and Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED). Today's exercise equipment is the most robust ever to be flown in space and allows the variety and intensity of exercise that might reasonably be expected to maintain muscle mass and function, bone density and cardiovascular fitness. A second benefit is related to the large body of research literature on exercise training. There is a considerable body of supporting research literature including >40,000 peer reviewed research articles on exercise training in humans. A third benefit of exercise is its effectiveness. With the addition of T2 and ARED to our ISS exercise suite, crew member outcomes on standard medical tests have improved. Additionally exercise has other positive side effects such as stress relief, possible improvement of immune function, improved sleep, etc. Exercise is not without its consequences. The major cons to performance of in-flight exercise are the time and equipment required. Currently crew are scheduled 2.5 hrs/day for exercise and there is considerable cost to develop, fly and maintain exercise hardware. While no major injuries have been reported on ISS, there is always some risk of injury with any form of exercise There are several uncertainties going forward; these relate mostly to the development of

  5. Abductive networks applied to electronic combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Gerard J.; Hess, Paul; Hwang, Jong S.

    1990-08-01

    A practical approach to dealing with combinatorial decision problems and uncertainties associated with electronic combat through the use of networks of high-level functional elements called abductive networks is presented. It describes the application of the Abductory Induction Mechanism (AIMTM) a supervised inductive learning tool for synthesizing polynomial abductive networks to the electronic combat problem domain. From databases of historical expert-generated or simulated combat engagements AIM can often induce compact and robust network models for making effective real-time electronic combat decisions despite significant uncertainties or a combinatorial explosion of possible situations. The feasibility of applying abductive networks to realize advanced combat decision aiding capabilities was demonstrated by applying AIM to a set of electronic combat simulations. The networks synthesized by AIM generated accurate assessments of the intent lethality and overall risk associated with a variety of simulated threats and produced reasonable estimates of the expected effectiveness of a group of electronic countermeasures for a large number of simulated combat scenarios. This paper presents the application of abductive networks to electronic combat summarizes the results of experiments performed using AIM discusses the benefits and limitations of applying abductive networks to electronic combat and indicates why abductive networks can often result in capabilities not attainable using alternative approaches. 1. ELECTRONIC COMBAT. UNCERTAINTY. AND MACHINE LEARNING Electronic combat has become an essential part of the ability to make war and has become increasingly complex since

  6. 高校大类培养模式下学风建设的问题与对策--基于浙江科技学院信息与电子工程学院的实证研究%Problems and countermeasures of learning atmosphere construction in mode of large class enrollment and cultivation-An empirical study at School of Information and Electronic Engineering in Zhejiang University of Science and Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘中祥

    2015-01-01

    Large class enrollment and cultivation mode is a great innovation of higher education’s cultivation mode in China .On the one hand ,it plays a very important role in the cultivation of innovative talents , but on the other hand , it also brings forth problems and challenges of education management .On the basis of empirical study ,this paper aims to conduct an analysis of four major problems in building of learning atmosphere ,including the loss of professional identity ,deficiency of professional sense of belonging , getting lost in the choice of life and interweaving of frustration and pressure .To solve these problems ,countermeasures are raised in the aspects of overview and introduction ,curriculum ,majors ,tutorial system ,and improvement of student management .%大类招生及培养模式是中国高等教育培养模式的一次创新,对培养创新型人才起了重要作用,但也给高等教育的教育管理带来了许多新问题、新挑战。今以浙江科技学院信息与电子工程学院的实践为基础,剖析影响学风建设因素,存在专业认同感丧失、专业班级归属感缺失、人生道路选择的方向感迷失、学生挫折感与压力感交织4个问题,提出从始业教育、课程设置、专业建设、导师制、完善学生管理制度5个方面的解决对策。

  7. Biological effects of space radiation and development of effective countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-04-01

    As part of a program to assess the adverse biological effects expected from astronauts' exposure to space radiation, numerous different biological effects relating to astronauts' health have been evaluated. There has been major focus recently on the assessment of risks related to exposure to solar particle event (SPE) radiation. The effects related to various types of space radiation exposure that have been evaluated are: gene expression changes (primarily associated with programmed cell death and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling), oxidative stress, gastrointestinal tract bacterial translocation and immune system activation, peripheral hematopoietic cell counts, emesis, blood coagulation, skin, behavior/fatigue (including social exploration, submaximal exercise treadmill and spontaneous locomotor activity), heart functions, alterations in biological endpoints related to astronauts' vision problems (lumbar puncture/intracranial pressure, ocular ultrasound and histopathology studies), and survival, as well as long-term effects such as cancer and cataract development. A number of different countermeasures have been identified that can potentially mitigate or prevent the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to space radiation.

  8. SWOT Analysis and Countermeasures of Beijing Rural Infrastructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On the strength of the status quo of Beijing rural infrastructure, I probe into the SWOT analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of rural infrastructure in Beijing municipal. Among them, the strengths of rural infrastructure in Beijing municipal are analyzed from two aspects, namely, the strong financial support and great importance attached to by the government; the weaknesses are analyzed in terms of the serious shortage of funds invested and disparate investment in rural infrastructure; the opportunities faced by the rural infrastructure construction are analyzed in terms of support form the macrocontrol of the state and the threats are analyzed from the aspects of land preservation and environmental protection. Thus in order to further promote the Beijing rural infrastructure construction and increase the investment in rural infrastructure construction, the following countermeasures are put forward. In the first place, the government should adjust the fiscal policies and increase the investment in rural infrastructure construction. In the second place, the laws should be perfected to provide constitutional guarantee for infrastructure construction. In the third place, healthy supervision system of rural infrastructure should be managed well and use well. In the fourth place, the government should attach importance to disparate demands and shift from the unified standard to classified standard. In the fifth place, the government should enforce the supervision on capital and operation so as to improve the service efficiency of capital.

  9. Adaptive Timer-Based Countermeasures against TCP SYN Flood Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Masao; Akaike, Hirofumi; Aida, Masaki; Murata, Masayuki; Imase, Makoto

    As a result of the rapid development of the Internet in recent years, network security has become an urgent issue. Distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks are one of the most serious security issues. In particular, 60 percent of the DDoS attacks found on the Internet are TCP attacks, including SYN flood attacks. In this paper, we propose adaptive timer-based countermeasures against SYN flood attacks. Our proposal utilizes the concept of soft-state protocols that are widely used for resource management on the Internet. In order to avoid deadlock, a server releases resources using a time-out mechanism without any explicit requests from its clients. If we change the value of the timer in accordance with the network conditions, we can add more flexibility to the soft-state protocols. The timer is used to manage the resources assigned to half-open connections in a TCP 3-way handshake mechanism, and its value is determined adaptively according to the network conditions. In addition, we report our simulation results to show the effectiveness of our approach.

  10. Preliminary studies on the optimization of countermeasures for agricultural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Igreja, Eduardo; Barboza, Adriana E., E-mail: elainerochedo@gmail.com, E-mail: eduigreja@gmail.com, E-mail: adrianaebarboza@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Diogo N.G. da; Guimaraes, Jean R.D., E-mail: diogons@gmail.com, E-mail: jeanrdg@biof.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho; Wasserman, Maria Angelica V., E-mail: mwasserman@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Perez, Daniel V. [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos (EMBRAPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The assessment of remediation measures for rural areas is more complex than that for urban ones, due to the influence of large number of variables associated with climate, diet, farming practices and the type of soil. Thus, it is not possible to perform generic studies applicable to all types of area. Specific studies and surveys should be made in the areas most likely to contamination from a nuclear accident. Preliminary studies demonstrated that the different soil types in Brazil is more relevant to the ingestion dose than the regional differences in diets. Other studies have described the prioritization of areas and products for detailed survey on soil types and remediation procedures, for an accident at the NPP in Angra dos Reis, based on radiological and economic aspects. The most relevant product was milk, due to both its relevance to the intake and the loss of income for the counties. The contribution of milk to dose depends on the season of the year when the accident occurs, mainly due to the relative contribution of other items of the diet. The timing of the application of the countermeasure has an important effect on the dose reduction that can be achieved. For I-131, protective measures must be considered within the emergency phase in order to be effective. The main action on reducing ingestion doses is the removal of food items from diet, while providing clean food to the population. (author)

  11. [Problems and countermeasures in the application of constructed wetlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin-Lou; Chen, Qin; Xu, Lian-Huang

    2013-01-01

    Constructed wetlands as a wastewater eco-treatment technology are developed in recent decades. It combines sewage treatment with the eco-environment in an efficient way. It treats the sewage effectively, and meanwhile beautifies the environment, creates ecological landscape, and brings benefits to the environment and economics. The unique advantages of constructed wetlands have attracted intensive attention since developed. Constructed wetlands are widely used in treatment of domestic sewage, industrial wastewater, and wastewater from mining and petroleum production. However, many problems are found in the practical application of constructed wetland, e. g. they are vulnerable to changes in climatic conditions and temperature, their substrates are easily saturated and plugged, they are readily affected by plant species, they often occupy large areas, and there are other problems including irrational management, non-standard design, and a single function of ecological service. These problems to a certain extent influence the efficiency of constructed wetlands in wastewater treatment, shorten the life of the artificial wetland, and hinder the application of artificial wetland. The review presents correlation analysis and countermeasures for these problems, in order to improve the efficiency of constructed wetland in wastewater treatment, and provide reference for the application and promotion of artificial wetland.

  12. Space Nutrition: Effects on Bone and Potential Nutrition Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2008-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and , if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of the US astronauts who participated in the first eight International Space Station (ISS) missions. Bone loss during space flight remains one of the most critical challenges to astronaut health on space exploration missions. An increase in bone resorption of ISS crew members after flight was indicated by several markers. Vitamin D status also remains a challenge for long-duration space travelers, who lack ultraviolet light exposure in the shielded craft. Many nutrients affect bone, including calcium, protein, fatty acids, sodium, and others. Data supporting their potential as countermeasures for space flight, as published in many papers, will be reviewed in this presentation. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health. Please note, this abstract is not required for the meeting. A presentation on the topics described above will be given. This abstract is for travel documentation only.

  13. Game Analysis and Countermeasures Discussion on Green Marketing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of making certain assumption on the game situation of carrying out green marketing, this paper conducts game analysis on the green marketing choice among enterprises, the green marketing choice between enterprises and consumers, and the green marketing choice of consumers. Then this paper expounds the necessity of implementing green marketing as follows: the green marketing is the inevitable requirements of sustainable development of economy; the green marketing is the inevitable choice of green consumption mode; the green marketing is the inevitable results of legalization of environmental problems. The problems faced by the implementation of green marketing are analyzed as follows: first, the concept of green marketing has not yet been established; second, the sociality of green demand has not yet taken shape; third, production characteristic of green products has not yet formed. The countermeasures of implementing green marketing as follows: pay attention to the propaganda and education of modern marketing concept; regulate the competition in the market of green products; strengthen transparency of green market information; reinforce the legislation work of food safety.

  14. Problems and Countermeasures of Logistics in the Marine Fisheries Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the connotation of marine fisheries logistics,the thesis gives a brief account of its features:firstly,it is more susceptible to natural conditions;secondly,the aquatic logistics is with strong specialized assets;thirdly,the aquatic products market has relative greater uncertainties;fourthly,it calls for higher logistics technology;fifthly,it is difficult to conduct supply chain management.Then the thesis analyzes the problems in the marine fisheries industry:the first problem is the imperfect standardization system of the aquatic logistics;the second is the backward development in the cold storage of the marine fisheries;the third is low information-based degree of marine fisheries logistics system;the fourth one is the low level of the value-added services;the fifth problem is the immature participants in logistics.In order to solve these problems,this thesis further proposes some countermeasure to develop the logistics in the marine fisheries industry:at first,to build various forms of logistics organization entities;secondly,to gradually realize the integration of logistics functions and performance;thirdly,to strengthen the information construction of marine fisheries logistics;at last,to reinforce the government roles in developing the logistics industry of aquatic products.

  15. Research on the development and countermeasures for circular economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ecological economics and sustainable development economics are the basic theories to research on circular economy. Through the systemically research on the relationship of the three above, this paper thinks that the reuse and recycle of circular economy ts a way that the stall is mended after a sheep is lost. Although the reduction technically controls the production process, it cannot solve the waste caused by blind production and excess competition. We have experienced variety obstacles when implementing the circular economy, whose main reason ts the conflict between the individual ration and the social ration. Therefore, only when the individual ration and social ration incline to conformity,the cooperating Nash equilibrium will be appeared. In order to realize the harmony of ecology, economy and society, we have to explore effective evaluation theory. This paper cites the "five flows of wealth operation theory"from professor Ma Chuandong to search operation mechanism of circular economy, makes clear the developing thoughts of circular economy based on the realities, and brings forward some countermeasures to develop circular economy based on the above theoretical analysis.

  16. An Interagency Collaboration to Facilitate Development of Filovirus Medical Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin O. Nuzum

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Filovirus Animal Non-Clinical Group (FANG is a US interdepartmental and interagency group established to support and facilitate the advanced development of filovirus Medical Countermeasures (MCM, both vaccines and therapeutics. It is co-led by one representative from the Department of Defense (DoD, the first author, and one from the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS, the second author. The FANG membership includes operational level program staff and Subject Matter Experts (SME from performing organizations as well as scientific staff and program managers from DoD and HHS funding and regulatory agencies. Focus areas include animal models, assays, reagents, product manufacture and characterization, and other interagency product development issues that will support Food and Drug Administration (FDA licensure of safe and effective filovirus MCMs. The FANG continues to develop strategies to address broadly applicable and interagency product development challenges relevant to filovirus MCM development. This paper summarizes FANG structure and accomplishments and is meant to heighten community awareness of this government-led collaborative effort.

  17. CAUSES AND CONTROL COUNTERMEASURES OF EUTROPHICATION IN CHAOHU LAKE, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Guang-ping; SHANG Jin-cheng

    2005-01-01

    Chaohu Lake, located in the central Anhui Province, is one.of the five largest fresh lakes in China. Now it is one of the three most eutrophication lakes in China. The deterioration of its water quality has influenced the sustainable development of society, economy and environment of Hefei City, the capital of Anhui Province. A series of measures have been carried out to control its eutrophication, but it is still serious. On the basis of the lake water quality data from 1984 to 2003, the causes of the eutrophication of Chaohu Lake are analyzed. Studies indicated that the suitable natural conditions and human activities played a crucial role in the process of the eutrophication of Chaohu Lake.A great amount of industrial, agricultural and domestic sewage discharged into the lake is the main cause of eutrophication in the lake. Land use, soil erosion and shoreline collapse destroyed the watershed eco-environment and the terrestrial ecosystem of Chaohu Lake. And the building of Yuxi Gate extends the sluggish of the nutritious substance and speeds up the process of the eutrophication. From the view of systematic engineering and watershed ecology, a series of the countermeasures have been put forward to control the eutrophication.

  18. Functions and Developmental Countermeasures of Rural Professional Economic Association

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of defining rural professional economic association, the advantages of it in terms of non-profitability, low operation cost and good communication skills are pointed out. Functions of rural professional economic association are expounded. It can display the advantages of information; intensify the connections among governments, agriculture and rural areas; display the advantages of organization and strengthen the gaming capability of rural households; play the advantages of association and promote the improvement of quality of agricultural products; play the advantage of association and help government to transfer to limited government;play association and information advantages and intensify international competitiveness. It is pointed out that the defects caused by imperfect non-profit association restrict the function of rural professional economic association. In order to well display the functions of rural professional economic association, the countermeasures are put forward:establishing perfect laws and regulations to let rural economic association have the features of non-profit association;the government establishes new relations with rural economic association to support their development from multiple channels;fully displaying the service functions of rural economic association and finishing self-development; perfecting incentive and restraint mechanisms for rural economic association; intensifying supervision management of rural economic association.

  19. Research on Risks and Forecasting Countermeasures of Hainan Banana Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the overviews of the current conditions of Hainan banana industry,the research makes an analysis of the risks faced by Hainan banana industry.They are respectively marketing risks,natural risks,information risks and production risks.In order to promote a sustainable and rapid development of Hainan banana industry,countermeasures are proposed in the research.The first is to strengthen the leading organization of forecasting mechanisms on banana industry.The second is to establish the forecasting mechanisms on banana industry,including four aspects.They are establishing the subordinate forecasting systems on Hainan banana industry;constructing information collecting and checking mechanisms of banana industry;establishing information analysis and decision-making systems and constructing information distribution and information sharing systems.The third is to promote the construction of urgency dealing abilities of banana industry.The fourth is to further perfect the risk-defending and protecting systems of banana industry in Hainan.The fifth is to accelerate the standard generation of banana to improve marketing competence.The sixth is to accelerate the development of intermediate agents to improve the organization degrees.And the last one is to put emphasis on the tech-training courses on banana planting and production to improve the technical quality of banana industry.

  20. Pleasant music as a countermeasure against visually induced motion sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Behrang; Hecht, Heiko

    2014-05-01

    Visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) is a well-known side-effect in virtual environments or simulators. However, effective behavioral countermeasures against VIMS are still sparse. In this study, we tested whether music can reduce the severity of VIMS. Ninety-three volunteers were immersed in an approximately 14-minute-long video taken during a bicycle ride. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups, either including relaxing music, neutral music, stressful music, or no music. Sickness scores were collected using the Fast Motion Sickness Scale and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire. Results showed an overall trend for relaxing music to reduce the severity of VIMS. When factoring in the subjective pleasantness of the music, a significant reduction of VIMS occurred only when the presented music was perceived as pleasant, regardless of the music type. In addition, we found a gender effect with women reporting more sickness than men. We assume that the presentation of pleasant music can be an effective, low-cost, and easy-to-administer method to reduce VIMS.

  1. Smart grid data integrity attacks: characterizations and countermeasuresπ

    KAUST Repository

    Giani, Annarita

    2011-10-01

    Coordinated cyberattacks of power meter readings can be arranged to be undetectable by any bad data detection algorithm in the power system state estimation process. These unobservable attacks present a potentially serious threat to grid operations. Of particular interest are sparse attacks that involve the compromise of a modest number of meter readings. An efficient algorithm to find all unobservable attacks [under standard DC load flow approximations] involving the compromise of exactly two power injection meters and an arbitrary number of line power meters is presented. This requires O(n 2m) flops for a power system with n buses and m line meters. If all lines are metered, there exist canonical forms that characterize all 3, 4, and 5-sparse unobservable attacks. These can be quickly detected in power systems using standard graph algorithms. Known-secure phasor measurement units [PMUs] can be used as countermeasures against an arbitrary collection of cyberattacks. Finding the minimum number of necessary PMUs is NP-hard. It is shown that p + 1 PMUs at carefully chosen buses are sufficient to neutralize a collection of p cyberattacks. © 2011 IEEE.

  2. Physical countermeasures to sustain acceptable living and working conditions in radioactively contaminated residential areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K.G.; Roed, J.; Eged, K. [and others

    2003-02-01

    The Chernobyl accident highlighted the need in nuclear preparedness for robust, effective and sustainable countermeasure strategies for restoration of radioactively contaminated residential areas. Under the EC-supporter STRATEGY project a series of investigations were made of countermeasures that were deemed potentially applicable for implementation in such events in European Member States. The findings are presented in this report, in a standardised data sheet format to clarify the features of the individual methods and facilitate intercomparison. The aspects of averted doses and management of wastes generated by countermeasures had to be described separately to provide room for the required level of detail. The information is mainly intended as a tool for decision makers and planners and constitutes of basis for the STRATEGY decision framework for remediation of contaminated urban areas. (au)

  3. The Cyber Defense (CyDef) Model for Assessing Countermeasure Capabilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Margot [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); DeVries, Troy Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gordon, Susanna P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Cybersecurity is essential to maintaining operations, and is now a de facto cost of business. Despite this, there is little consensus on how to systematically make decisions about cyber countermeasures investments. Identifying gaps and determining the expected return on investment (ROI) of adding a new cybersecurity countermeasure is frequently a hand-waving exercise at best. Worse, cybersecurity nomenclature is murky and frequently over-loaded, which further complicates issues by inhibiting clear communication. This paper presents a series of foundational models and nomenclature for discussing cybersecurity countermeasures, and then introduces the Cyber Defense (CyDef) model, which provides a systematic and intuitive way for decision-makers to effectively communicate with operations and device experts.

  4. Physical countermeasures to sustain acceptable living and working conditions in radioactively contaminated residential areas

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, K G; Roed, J

    2003-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident highlighted the need in nuclear preparedness for robust, effective and sustainable countermeasure strategies for restoration of radioactively contaminated residential areas. Under the EC-supporter STRATEGY project a series of investigations were made of countermeasures that were deemed potentially applicable for implementation in such events in European Member States. The findings are presented in this report, in a standardised data sheet format to clarify the features of the individual methods and facilitate intercomparison. The aspects of averted doses and management of wastes generated by countermeasures had to be described separately to provide room for the required level of detail. The information is mainly intended as a tool for decision makers and planners and constitutes of basis for the STRATEGY decision framework for remediation of contaminated urban areas. (au)

  5. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In the fields of power conversion devices and broadcasting/communication amplifiers, high power, high frequency and low losses are desirable. Further, for electronic elements in aerospace/aeronautical/geothermal surveys, etc., heat resistance to 500degC is required. Devices which respond to such hard specifications are called hard electronic devices. However, with Si which is at the core of the present electronics, the specifications cannot fully be fulfilled because of the restrictions arising from physical values. Accordingly, taking up new device materials/structures necessary to construct hard electronics, technologies to develop these to a level of IC were examined and studied. They are a technology to make devices/IC of new semiconductors such as SiC, diamond, etc. which can handle higher temperature, higher power and higher frequency than Si and also is possible of reducing losses, a technology to make devices of hard semiconducter materials such as a vacuum microelectronics technology using ultra-micro/high-luminance electronic emitter using negative electron affinity which diamond, etc. have, a technology to make devices of oxides which have various electric properties, etc. 321 refs., 194 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... New FDA Regulations Text Size: A A A Electronic Cigarettes Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated products designed ... more about: The latest news and events about electronic cigarettes on this FDA page Electronic cigarette basics ...

  7. Methodology for assessing the effectiveness of countermeasures in rural settlements in the long term after the Chernobyl accident on the multi-attribute analysis basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panov, A.V.; Alexakhin, R.M. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Fesenko, S.V. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Lab. (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    A methodology has been developed for the assessment of the effectiveness of countermeasures in agriculture based on a multi-attribute analysis of quantitative (radiological, economic, regulatory) and qualitative (social, psychological, technological) indicators characterizing their application. The method makes use of weight coefficients established for the countermeasures parameters with their subsequent comparison adjusted to a single scale. The method is realized with the P.R.I.M.E. Decision support system adapted for the task of countermeasures planning. The multi-attribute analysis of countermeasures effectiveness was made depending on the aspect of rehabilitation works considered: dose, financial or social. Presented are results from the analysis of effectiveness of individual countermeasures and most effective countermeasures and their combinations. Based on the multi attribute analysis data, rating of the most effective countermeasures and their combinations was performed. (authors)

  8. UAV cluster information countermeasure system based on cogni tive cloud%基于认知云的无人机群组信息对抗系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏抗; 朱伟强; 田达; 杨绿溪

    2016-01-01

    The Cognitive‐cloud information countermeasure system consists of a swarm of long‐endurance , low‐cost electronic warfare (EW) Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and a cloud computing network .The electronic support (ES) UAVs are expected to collect the information on threat emitters in a timely manner . The cloud computing network fuses the sensing results ,generates tactical pictures indicating the battlefield sit‐uation ,plans the information operation strategy autonomously ,and directs the electronic attack (EA) UAVs to fulfill the jamming or information access spoofing missions .Finally ,the cloud computing network evaluates effectiveness of the countermeasure according to the information collected by the ES UAVs ,thus closes the observe‐orient‐decide‐act (OODA) loop .Stand‐in operation may ease the UAV payload complexity to a certain extent ,which in turn ,leads to the more efficient ,low power and miniaturized design .%基于认知云的无人机群组信息对抗系统由长航时、低成本的电子战无人机群组和云计算网络构成。侦察无人机负责有限范围内的信息侦收,云计算网络融合无人机群感知结果,生成广域信息态势,动态制定系统层对抗策略,调度攻击无人机实施电磁频谱压制或信息接入攻击,同时评估对抗效能,实现信息攻防闭环。无人机群组抵近工作,可显著降低载荷设计复杂度,实现小型化、低功耗与有效性的统一设计。

  9. Seminar on countermeasures for pipe cracking in BWRs. Volume 2 of 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    Intergranular stress corrosion cracking of welded type 304 stainless steel in the recirculation piping of boiling water reactors has had an impact on plant availability and reliability since the fall of 1974. Investigtions of this problem have resulted in significant progress in understanding the phenomenon and providing an engineering resolution by developing and qualifying countermeasures. A number of these countermeasures including solution heat treatment, corrosion resistant clad, alternate pipe materials, induction heating stress improvement and heat sink welding have been implemented. Separate abstracts are included for each of the papers presented.

  10. Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, S V [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Alexakhin, R M [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Balonov, M I [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Bogdevich, I M [Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Minsk (Belarus); Howard, B J [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom); Kashparov, V A [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Street 7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine); Sanzharova, N I [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Panov, A V [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Voigt, G [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Zhuchenka, Yu M [Research Institute of Radiology, 246000 Gomel (Belarus)

    2006-12-15

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

  11. Seminar on countermeasures for pipe cracking in BWRs. Volume 3 of 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    Intergranular stress corrosion cracking of welded type 304 stainless steel in the recirculation piping of boiling water reactors has had an impact on plant availability and reliability since the fall of 1974. Investigations of this problem have resulted in significant progress in understanding the phenomenon and providing an engineering resolution by developing and qualifying countermeasures. A number of these countermeasures including solution heat treatment, corrosion resistant clad, alternate pipe materials, induction heating stress improvement and heat sink welding have been implemented. Separate abstracts are included for each of the papers presented.

  12. Research on traffic congestion mechanism and countermeasures based on dynamic traffic assignment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Yu-long; LANG Yi-shun

    2005-01-01

    Traffic congestion is widely distributed around a network. Generally, to analyze traffic congestion, static traffic capacity is adopted. But dynamic characteristics must be studied because congestion is a dynamic process. A Dynamic Traffic Assignment modeling fundamental combined with an urban congestion analysis method is studied in this paper. Three methods are based on congestion analysis, and the stochastic user optimal DTA models are especially considered. Correspondingly, a dynamic system optimal model is suggested for responding congestion countermeasures and an ideal user optimal model for predicted congestion countermeasure respectively.

  13. Counter-measure to prevent temperature rise of stand pipe and primary upper shielding in HTTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Tachibana, Yukio; Hontani, Kohji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment] [and others

    1997-09-01

    When primary coolant temperature reached approximately 110degC during a preliminary non-nuclear heat up test in the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), temperatures of stand pipes and a primary upper shielding increased more than expected. The cause of the temperature rise was investigated by tests and analyses, and we determined a counter-measure. We also confirmed that a modified structure due to this counter-measure does not affect flow distribution in the core, and is not in contact with a control rod wire. This paper describes the cause of the temperature rise, the modified structure and evaluation of effect of the modified structure. (author)

  14. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  15. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. Resistance exercise countermeasures for space flight: implications of training specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamman, M. M.; Caruso, J. F.

    2000-01-01

    While resistance exercise should be a logical choice for prevention of strength loss during unloading, the principle of training specificity cannot be overlooked. Our purpose was to explore training specificity in describing the effect of our constant load exercise countermeasure on isokinetic strength performance. Twelve healthy men (mean +/- SD: 28.0 +/- 5.2 years, 179.4 +/- 3.9 cm, 77.5 +/- 13.6 kg) were randomly assigned to no exercise or resistance exercise (REX) during 14 days of bed rest. REX performed five sets of leg press exercise to volitional fatigue (6-10 repetitions) every other day. Unilateral isokinetic concentric-eccentric knee extension testing performed before and on day 15 prior to reambulation included torque-velocity and power-velocity relationships at four velocities (0.52, 1.75, 2.97, and 4.19 rad s-1), torque-position relationship, and contractile work capacity (10 repetitions at 1.05 rad s-1). Two (group) x 2 (time) ANOVA revealed no group x time interactions; thus, groups were combined. Across velocities, angle-specific torque fell 18% and average power fell 20% (p eccentric) x time interactions were noted. Torque x position decreased on average 24% (p < 0.05). Total contractile work dropped 27% (p < 0.05). Results indicate bed rest induces rapid and marked reductions in strength and our constant load resistance training protocol did not prevent isokinetic strength losses. Differences between closed-chain training and open-chain testing may explain the lack of protection.

  17. Stabilized NADH as a Countermeasure for Jet Lag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Gary G.; Viirre, Erik; Clark, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    Current remedies for jet lag (phototherapy, melatonin, stimulant, and sedative medications) are limited in efficacy and practicality. The efficacy of a stabilized, sublingual form of reduced nicotin amide adenine dinucleotide (NADH, ENADAlert, Menuco Corp.) as a countermeasure for jet lag was examined. Because NADH increases cellular production of ATP and facilitates dopamine synthesis, it may counteract the effects of jet lag on cognitive functioning and sleepiness. Thirty-five healthy, employed subjects participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Training and baseline testing were conducted on the West Coast before subjects flew overnight to the East Coast, where they would experience a 3-hour time difference. Upon arrival, individuals were randomly assigned to receive either 20 mg of sublingual stabilized ADH (n=18) or identical placebo tablets (n=17). All participants completed computer-administered tests (including CogScreen7) to assess changes in cognitive functioning, mood, and sleepiness in the morning and afternoon. Jet lag resulted in increased sleepiness for over half the participants and deterioration of cognitive functioning for approximately one third. The morning following the flight, subjects experienced lapses of attention in addition to disruptions in working memory, divided attention, and visual perceptual speed. Individuals who received NADH performed significantly better on 5 of 8 cognitive and psychomotor test measures (P less than or equal to 0.5) and showed a trend for better performance on the other three measures (P less than or equal to .l0). Subjects also reported less sleepiness compared with those who received placebo. No adverse effects were observed with NADH treatment. Stabilized NADH significantly reduced jet lag-induced disruptions of cognitive functioning, was easily administered, and was found to have no adverse side effects.

  18. 网上银行欺诈风险和安全防范措施%The Fraud Risk and Security Countermeasures about cyber-banking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    綦宁

    2013-01-01

    With the development of electronic banking business, the related fraud is more and more serious. This paper analyses the current situations of cyber-banking, introduces the fraud risk types which cyber-banking encounters, and gives the security countermeasures from the perspective of both the customers and banks.%随着网上银行业务的不断发展,欺诈情况越来越严重,一些违法者频繁的进行网上银行欺诈行为。文章分析了网上银行的发展现状,介绍了网上银行的欺诈风险种类,并且从银行和用户两个角度提出了安全防范措施。

  19. 香港食品营养标签修订规例应对研究%Countermeasures for Revised Food Nutrition Labelling Regulation of Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹少彤; 林涛; 黄伟; 杨雪娇

    2011-01-01

    By questionary, regulation training, professional consultation services, label testing and designing, electronic pre-alert, spot checking, a series of scientific and effective countermeasures were discussed for the food manufacturers.%本文在深入研究香港食品营养标签修订规例的基础上,通过问卷调查、法规培训、建立平台、标签检测和设计、电子预警、现场核查等方式,建立一套科学有效的应对机制,帮助出口企业应对修订规例,确保食品贸易健康发展.

  20. Present Situation & Countermeasures of English Applied Ability for Higher Vocational Colleges Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hua

    2013-01-01

    The author in this article dictates the problems affecting English teaching, the problems of students’English learning process and the present situation. Taking Huanggang Polytechnic College as an example, he puts forward some countermeasures in order to improve the English applied ability.

  1. Experiment for Development of Simple Escape Countermeasures for Frogs Falling into Concrete Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Keiji; Mori, Atsushi; Koizumi, Noriyuki; Takemura, Takeshi; Park, Myeong Soo

    Three prototype escape countermeasures for frogs that can be easily installed in U-shaped canals with widths of 30-50 cm and depths of 30-50 cm were experimentally produced because frogs cannot escape from agricultural canals with deep concrete walls after falling into the canal. The differences of effectiveness of the 3 prototypes in places for the countermeasures (1 and 2) and flow conditions (dry and water running) were investigated for 2 frog species (Tokyo Daruma Pond Frog and Japanese Brown Frog). The brown frogs escaped from the canals more easily than the pond frogs. The brown frogs escaped regardless of their body size, but the small pond frogs escaped more easily than the large pond frogs. The prototype with slopes beside both canal walls and a net spread across the center line of the canal enabled frogs to escape from the canal more easily than the prototypes with only slopes or nets beside both canal walls. Increasing the number of places for the countermeasures enhanced frog escape. The differences in frog escape between dry canals and canals with water running were not significant. Therefore, the prototypes were confirmed sufficient as escape countermeasures that is inexpensive and can be easily placed in and removed from agricultural canals.

  2. 40 CFR 112.9 - Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan Requirements for onshore oil production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... signal to the computer where the facility is subject to a computer production control system. (5) Flow... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plan Requirements for onshore oil production facilities (excluding drilling and...

  3. 77 FR 2556 - Ethical and Regulatory Challenges in the Development of Pediatric Medical Countermeasures; Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... workshop will be held at the Rockville Hilton Hotel, 1750 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact...) leveraging new technologies to develop pediatric medical countermeasures; and (4) risk communication related... at the cost of 10 cents per page. A transcript of the public workshop will be available on the...

  4. 76 FR 21652 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Amendments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... manufacturing one or more dairy products (excluding fluid milk products) in the United States. Most of the 65,000 operations with milk cows produce only fluid milk (subject to the PMO or the USDA Recommended... Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule--Amendments for Milk and Milk Product Containers AGENCY: Environmental...

  5. Modelling infrared signatures of ships and decoys for countermeasure effectiveness studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.; Degache, M.A.C.; Veerman, H.E.T.; Sweeden, R. van; Devecchi, B.A.

    2012-01-01

    Infrared guided missiles are a threat for modern naval forces. The vulnerability of ships can be reduced by applying countermeasures such as infrared decoys and infrared signature reduction. This paper presents recent improvements in a simulation toolset which can be used for assessing the

  6. Evaluation tools for the effectiveness of infrared countermeasures and signature reduction for ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, R.M.; Schleijpen, H.M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The protection of ships against infrared guided missiles is a concern for modern naval forces. The vulnerability of ships can be reduced by applying countermeasures such as infrared decoys and infrared signature reduction. This paper will present a set of simulation tools which can be used for

  7. Low-Load Resistance Training with Blood Flow Occlusion as a Countermeasure to Disuse Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Cook, S. B.

    2009-01-01

    Decreases in strength and neuromuscular function are observed following prolonged disuse. Exercise countermeasures to prevent muscle dysfunction during disuse typically involve high intensity resistance training. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of low-load resistance training with a blood flow occlusion to mitigate muscle loss and dysfunction during 30 days of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS).

  8. Design and implementation of a new real-time frequency sensor used as hardware countermeasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Naharro, Raúl; Gómez-Galán, Juan Antonio; Sánchez-Raya, Manuel; Gómez-Bravo, Fernando; Pedro-Carrasco, Manuel

    2013-09-04

    A new digital countermeasure against attacks related to the clock frequency is presented. This countermeasure, known as frequency sensor, consists of a local oscillator, a transition detector, a measurement element and an output block. The countermeasure has been designed using a full-custom technique implemented in an Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), and the implementation has been verified and characterized with an integrated design using a 0.35 mm standard Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology (Very Large Scale Implementation-VLSI implementation). The proposed solution is configurable in resolution time and allowed range of period, achieving a minimum resolution time of only 1.91 ns and an initialization time of 5.84 ns. The proposed VLSI implementation shows better results than other solutions, such as digital ones based on semi-custom techniques and analog ones based on band pass filters, all design parameters considered. Finally, a counter has been used to verify the good performance of the countermeasure in avoiding the success of an attack.

  9. Emission counter-measures in post-combustion CO2 capture: demonstration at pilot plant scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miguel Mercader, F. de; Khakharia, P.M.; Ham, L.V. van der; Huizinga, A.; Kester, L.G.C.; Os, P.J. van; Goetheer. E.L.V.

    2013-01-01

    One of the objectives of the OCTAVIUS project is the demonstration of emission countermeasures for post-combustion CO2 capture. To accomplish it, an acid wash was designed and commissioned at TNO’s CO2 capture pilot plant, which is connected to a coal-fired power plant.

  10. Restrictive Factors of Vocational Education Development in Cultivation of Rural Practical Skilled Personnel and Countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Kunming City is accelerating the process of agricultural modernization, industrialization, informationization and ecological development. In this process, it needs speeding up building new high level and advanced rural practical skilled personnel team suitable for development demand. By empirical analysis method, this paper discussed the factors restricting vocational education in cultivation of rural practical skilled personnel. Then, it came up with countermeasures in cultivation objective ...

  11. Fast evaluation of polynomials over binary finite fields and application to side-channel countermeasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coron, Jean-Sébastien; Roy, Arnab; Vivek, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new technique for evaluating polynomials over binary finite fields. This is useful in the context of anti-DPA countermeasures when an S-box is expressed as a polynomial over a binary finite field. For n-bit S-boxes, our new technique has heuristic complexity O(2n/2/√n) instead of O(...

  12. Publications of the Space Physiology and Countermeasures Program, Neuroscience Discipline: 1980-1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Katherine J.; Wallace-Robinson, Janice; Powers, Janet V.; Hess, Elizabeth

    1992-01-01

    A 10-year cumulative bibliography of publications resulting from research supported by the neuroscience discipline of the space physiology and countermeasures program of NASA's Life Sciences Division is provided. Primary subjects included in this bibliography are space motion sickness; vestibular performance, posture, and motor coordination; vestibular physiology; central and peripheral nervous system physiology; and general performance and methodologies. General physiology references are also included.

  13. 76 FR 64245 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 112 RIN 2050-AG59 Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and...). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is taking direct final action to amend the date by which farms must prepare or amend, and implement their Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure Plans to...

  14. Emission counter-measures in post-combustion CO2 capture: demonstration at pilot plant scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miguel Mercader, F. de; Khakharia, P.M.; Ham, L.V. van der; Huizinga, A.; Kester, L.G.C.; Os, P.J. van; Goetheer. E.L.V.

    2013-01-01

    One of the objectives of the OCTAVIUS project is the demonstration of emission countermeasures for post-combustion CO2 capture. To accomplish it, an acid wash was designed and commissioned at TNO’s CO2 capture pilot plant, which is connected to a coal-fired power plant.

  15. Current Situations of Edible Fungus Production in Lianyungang City and Development Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guan-xi; GE Xiong-can; WEI Liang-zhi

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of characteristics of edible fungus production in Lianyungang City, we analyzed its advantages and disadvantages and put forward suggestions and countermeasures for development of edible fungus industry, mainly including strengthening guidance and leadership of government, introducing professional personnel, and developing the edible fungus industry through science and technology.

  16. Design and Implementation of a New Real-Time Frequency Sensor Used as Hardware Countermeasure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Pedro-Carrasco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A new digital countermeasure against attacks related to the clock frequency is presented. This countermeasure, known as frequency sensor, consists of a local oscillator, a transition detector, a measurement element and an output block. The countermeasure has been designed using a full-custom technique implemented in an Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC, and the implementation has been verified and characterized with an integrated design using a 0.35 mm standard Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS technology (Very Large Scale Implementation—VLSI implementation. The proposed solution is configurable in resolution time and allowed range of period, achieving a minimum resolution time of only 1.91 ns and an initialization time of 5.84 ns. The proposed VLSI implementation shows better results than other solutions, such as digital ones based on semi-custom techniques and analog ones based on band pass filters, all design parameters considered. Finally, a counter has been used to verify the good performance of the countermeasure in avoiding the success of an attack.

  17. Russian system of countermeasures on board of the International Space Station (ISS): the first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovskaya, Inessa B.; Grigoriev, Anatoly I.

    2004-08-01

    The system of countermeasures used by Russian cosmonauts in space flights on board of International Space Station (ISS) was based on the developed and tested in flights on board of Russian space stations. It included as primary components: physical methods aimed to maintain the distribution of fluids at levels close to those experienced on Earth; physical exercises and loading suits aimed to load the musculoskeletal and the cardiovascular systems; measures that prevent the loss of fluids, mainly, water-salt additives which aid to maintain orthostatic tolerance and endurance to gravitational overloads during the return to Earth; well-balanced diet and medications directed to correct possible negative reactions of the body to weightlessness. Fulfillment of countermeasure's protocols inflight was thoroughly controlled. Efficacy of countermeasures used were assessed both in-and postflight. The results of studies showed that degrees of alterations recorded in different physiological systems after ISS space flights in Russian cosmonauts were significantly higher than those recorded after flights on the Russian space stations. This phenomenon was caused by the failure of the ISS crews to execute fully the prescribed countermeasures' protocols which was as a rule excused by technical imperfectness of exercise facilities, treadmill TVIS particularly.

  18. Bed Rest is an Analog to Study the Physiological Changes of Spaceflight and to Evaluate Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannenstiel, P.; Ottenbacher, M.; Inniss, A.; Ware, D.; Anderson, K.; Stranges, S.; Keith, K.; Cromwell, R.; Neigut. J.; Powell, D.

    2012-01-01

    The UTMB/NASA Flight Analog Research Unit is an inpatient unit with a bionutrition kitchen and unique testing areas for studying subjects subjected to 6 degree head-down complete bed rest for prolonged periods as an analog for zero gravity. Bed rest allows study of physiological changes and performance of functional tasks representative of critical interplanetary mission operations and measures of the efficacy of countermeasures designed to protect against the resulting deleterious effects. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Subjects are healthy adults 24-55 years old; 60 75 in tall; body mass index 18.5-30; and bone mineral density normal by DXA scan. Over 100 subjects have been studied in 7 campaigns since 2004. The iRAT countermeasure combines high intensity interval aerobic exercises on alternating days with continuous aerobic exercise. Resistance exercise is performed 3 days per week. Subjects are tested on an integrated suite of functional and interdisciplinary physiological tests before and after 70 days of total bed rest. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: It is anticipated that post-bed rest functional performance will be predicted by a weighted combination of sensorimotor, cardiovascular and muscle physiological factors. Control subjects who do not participate in the exercise countermeasure will have significantly greater decreases in these parameters. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Astronauts experience alterations in multiple physiological systems due to exposure to the microgravity, leading to disruption in the ability to perform functional tasks after reintroduction to a gravitational environment. Current flight exercise countermeasures are not fully protective of cardiovascular, muscle and bone health. There is a need to refine and optimize countermeasures to mitigate health risks associated with long-term space missions.

  19. The Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) for space habitation and exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Kevin R; Vasquez, Rebecca A; Middleton, Akil J; Hansberry, Mitchell L; Newman, Dava J; Jacobs, Shane E; West, John J

    2015-01-01

    The "Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) for Space Habitation and Exploration" is a novel system concept that provides a platform for integrating sensors and actuators with daily astronaut intravehicular activities to improve health and performance, while reducing the mass and volume of the physiologic adaptation countermeasure systems, as well as the required exercise time during long-duration space exploration missions. The V2Suit system leverages wearable kinematic monitoring technology and uses inertial measurement units (IMUs) and control moment gyroscopes (CMGs) within miniaturized modules placed on body segments to provide a "viscous resistance" during movements against a specified direction of "down"-initially as a countermeasure to the sensorimotor adaptation performance decrements that manifest themselves while living and working in microgravity and during gravitational transitions during long-duration spaceflight, including post-flight recovery and rehabilitation. Several aspects of the V2Suit system concept were explored and simulated prior to developing a brassboard prototype for technology demonstration. This included a system architecture for identifying the key components and their interconnects, initial identification of key human-system integration challenges, development of a simulation architecture for CMG selection and parameter sizing, and the detailed mechanical design and fabrication of a module. The brassboard prototype demonstrates closed-loop control from "down" initialization through CMG actuation, and provides a research platform for human performance evaluations to mitigate sensorimotor adaptation, as well as a tool for determining the performance requirements when used as a musculoskeletal deconditioning countermeasure. This type of countermeasure system also has Earth benefits, particularly in gait or movement stabilization and rehabilitation.

  20. The Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit for Space Habitation and Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R Duda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit for Space Habitation and Exploration is a novel system concept that provides a platform for integrating sensors and actuators with daily astronaut intravehicular activities to improve health and performance, while reducing the mass and volume of the physiologic adaptation countermeasure systems, as well as the required exercise time during long-duration space exploration missions. The V2Suit system leverages wearable kinematic monitoring technology and uses inertial measurement units (IMUs and control moment gyroscopes (CMGs within miniaturized modules placed on body segments to provide a viscous resistance during movements against a specified direction of down – initially as a countermeasure to the sensorimotor adaptation performance decrements that manifest themselves while living and working in microgravity and during gravitational transitions during long-duration spaceflight, including post-flight recovery and rehabilitation. Several aspects of the V2Suit system concept were explored and simulated prior to developing a brassboard prototype for technology demonstration. This included a system architecture for identifying the key components and their interconnects, initial identification of key human-system integration challenges, development of a simulation architecture for CMG selection and parameter sizing, and the detailed mechanical design and fabrication of a module. The brassboard prototype demonstrates closed-loop control from down initialization through CMG actuation, and provides a research platform for human performance evaluations to mitigate sensorimotor adaptation, as well as a tool for determining the performance requirements when used as a musculoskeletal deconditioning countermeasure. This type of countermeasure system also has Earth benefits, particularly in gait or movement stabilization and rehabilitation.

  1. Ambient Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Someya, Takao

    2012-10-01

    We report the recent research progress and future prospects of flexible and printed electronics, focusing on molecular electronic material-based thin-film transistors, which are expected to usher in a new era of electronics.

  2. Electron cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkov, I.; Sidorin, A.

    2004-10-01

    The brief review of the most significant and interesting achievements in electron cooling method, which took place during last two years, is presented. The description of the electron cooling facilities-storage rings and traps being in operation or under development-is given. The applications of the electron cooling method are considered. The following modern fields of the method development are discussed: crystalline beam formation, expansion into middle and high energy electron cooling (the Fermilab Recycler Electron Cooler, the BNL cooler-recuperator, cooling with circulating electron beam, the GSI project), electron cooling in traps, antihydrogen generation, electron cooling of positrons (the LEPTA project).

  3. Heat stress and a countermeasure in the Shuttle rescueman's suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, D. F.; Reed, H.; Convertino, V. A.

    1992-01-01

    Rescue of the astronaut flight crew from a contingency landing may risk exposure of the rescue crew to toxic propellants spilling from potentially ruptured tanks in the crew module area. An Aquala dry diver's suit has been in service by the rescue team to preclude exposure, especially in the water rescue scenario. Heat stress has become a factor of concern in recent years when older and less physically-fit team members work in this suit. Methods: Field testing was initiated using fully instrumented rescue men in a simulated scenario to determine the extent of heat stress. Two tests were accomplished, one in the normal (N) configuration and one with a proposed cooling countermeasure, the Steele vest (S). Results: Heat stress was high as indicated by average rectal temperatures (Tre) of 38.28 degrees C(100.9 degrees F) after the 45 minute protocol. Slopes of the regression equations describing the increase in Tre with time were greater (P less than 0.05) with N (0.073 plus or minus .008) compared to S (0.060 plus or minus .007). Projection of time to the 38.89 degree C (102 degree F) limit was increased by 15.3 percent with the vest. Mean skin temperature (Tsk) was higher (P less than 0.05) in N (38.33 plus or minus .11 degrees C) compared to S (34.33 plus or minus .39 degrees C). Average heart rate was higher (P less than 0.05 in N than S. Sweat loss, as measured by weight loss, was more (P less than 0.05) for N (1.09 plus or minus .09 kg versus 0.77 plus or minus .06 kg). Air usage, while slightly less for S, was not statistically different. Conclusion: The use of the cool vest provided significant relief from thermal stress in spite of the addition of 3.4 kg (7.5 pounds) weight and some loss in mobility.

  4. Culture, and a Metrics Methodology for Biological Countermeasure Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Mary J.

    2007-03-15

    Outcome Metrics Methodology defines a way to evaluate outcome metrics associated with scenario analyses related to biological countermeasures. Previous work developed a schema to allow evaluation of common elements of impacts across a wide range of potential threats and scenarios. Classes of metrics were identified that could be used by decision makers to differentiate the common bases among disparate scenarios. Typical impact metrics used in risk calculations include the anticipated number of deaths, casualties, and the direct economic costs should a given event occur. There are less obvious metrics that are often as important and require more intensive initial work to be incorporated. This study defines a methodology for quantifying, evaluating, and ranking metrics other than direct health and economic impacts. As has been observed with the consequences of Hurricane Katrina, impacts to the culture of specific sectors of society are less obvious on an immediate basis but equally important over the ensuing and long term. Culture is used as the example class of metrics within which • requirements for a methodology are explored • likely methodologies are examined • underlying assumptions for the respective methodologies are discussed • the basis for recommending a specific methodology is demonstrated. Culture, as a class of metrics, is shown to consist of political, sociological, and psychological elements that are highly valued by decision makers. In addition, cultural practices, dimensions, and kinds of knowledge offer complementary sets of information that contribute to the context within which experts can provide input. The quantification and evaluation of sociopolitical, socio-economic, and sociotechnical impacts depend predominantly on subjective, expert judgment. Epidemiological data is limited, resulting in samples with statistical limits. Dose response assessments and curves depend on the quality of data and its relevance to human modes of exposure

  5. Locomotor Dysfunction after Spaceflight: Characterization and Countermeasure Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, A. P.; Cohen, H. S.; Peters, B. T.; Miller, C. A.; Brady, R.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2007-01-01

    Astronauts returning from space flight show disturbances in locomotor control manifested by changes in various sub-systems including head-trunk coordination, dynamic visual acuity, lower limb muscle activation patterning and kinematics (Glasauer, et al., 1995; Bloomberg, et al., 1997; McDonald, et al., 1996; 1997; Layne, et al., 1997; 1998, 2001, 2004; Newman, et al., 1997; Bloomberg and Mulavara, 2003). These post flight changes in locomotor performance, due to neural adaptation to the microgravity conditions of space flight, affect the ability of crewmembers especially after a long duration mission to egress their vehicle and perform extravehicular activities soon after landing on Earth or following a landing on the surface of the Moon or Mars. At present, no operational training intervention is available pre- or in- flight to mitigate post flight locomotor disturbances. Our laboratory is currently developing a gait adaptability training program that is designed to facilitate recovery of locomotor function following a return to a gravitational environment. The training program exploits the ability of the sensorimotor system to generalize from exposure to multiple adaptive challenges during training so that the gait control system essentially "learns to learn" and therefore can reorganize more rapidly when faced with a novel adaptive challenge. Ultimately, the functional goal of an adaptive generalization countermeasure is not necessarily to immediately return movement patterns back to "normal". Rather the training regimen should facilitate the reorganization of available sensorimotor sub-systems to achieve safe and effective locomotion as soon as possible after space flight. We have previously confirmed that subjects participating in adaptive generalization training programs, using a variety of visuomotor distortions and different motor tasks from throwing to negotiating an obstacle course as the dependent measure, can learn to enhance their ability to adapt to a

  6. Electron Cloud Studies for the Upgrade of the CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Iadarola, G; Gilardoni, S; Rumolo, G; Sterbini, G; Yin Vallgren, C; Pivi, M; Rioja-Fuentelsaz, S

    2013-01-01

    The observation of a significant dynamic pressure rise as well as measurements with dedicated detectors indicate that an electron cloud develops in the CERN PS during the last stages of the RF manipulations for the production of LHC type beams, especially with 25 ns bunch spacing. Although presently these beams are not degraded by the interaction with the electron cloud, which develops only during few milliseconds before extraction, the question if this effect could degrade the future high intensity and high brightness beams foreseen by the LHC Injectors Upgrade project is still open. Therefore several studies are being carried out employing both simulations and measurements with the electron cloud detectors in the machine. The aim is to develop a reliable electron cloud model of the PS vacuum chambers in order to identify possible future limitations and find suitable countermeasures.

  7. Analysis on the Influencing Factors of Low-carbon Economy and Its Mitigation Countermeasures in Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The study aimed to analyze the influencing factors of low-carbon economy and its mitigation countermeasures in Sichuan Province.[Method]Taking Sichuan Province as an example,an extended STIRPAT model was established firstly,then the impacts of population,economy and technology on carbon emissions from 2000 to 2009 were analyzed econometrically by using the principal component analysis method.Finally,some corresponding countermeasures to reduce carbon dioxide emissions were put forward.[Result]At ...

  8. Study on the Current Situation and Protection Countermeasures of Wild Plant Resources in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the current situation and protection countermeasures of wild plant resources in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve. [Method] The current situation of wild plant resources in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve was researched by means of route survey, sample plot survey and literature survey, and then the main impact factors of wild plant resources were analyzed by using participatory rural appraisal and problem tree analysis, finally protection countermeasures were put ...

  9. Climate Changes and Countermeasures for Meteorological Disasters during Production Period in Vegetable Greenhouse in Northern Shenyang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the climate changes and countermeasures for meteorological disasters during production period in vegetable greenhouse in northern Shenyang. [Method] By dint of local climate data in recent 38 years and using the conventional method of mathematical statistics, the climate changes and countermeasures for meteorological disasters during production period in vegetable greenhouse in northern Shenyang were expounded. [Result] In general, the sunshine condition in new area of Sheny...

  10. Impressive Transmission Mode Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Parameters of Graphene-like Nanocarbon/Polyurethane Nanocomposites for Short Range Tracking Countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Alegaonkar, Prashant S

    2015-07-15

    Shielding the microwave signature (8.2-12.4 GHz, X-band) of a locked in target is a tactically important electronic countermeasure. Herein, we report on mitigation in X-band transmission mode shielding parameters for polyurethane (PU), after incorporating graphene-like nanocarbon sheets (GNCs). Initially, PU and variable weight percent (1-25) GNCs/PU paste samples were subjected to Fourier transform infrared, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. These samples were molded into toroidal shaped specimens by adiabatic hot-pressing technique, for microwave scattering measurements. Parameters, such as complex permittivity (ϵ'-jϵ″), alternating current (ac) conductivity, skin thickness, transmission (S21), effective transmission loss (SET), and shielding effectiveness were determined, in addition to direct current (dc) conductivity. The real and imaginary components are increased, respectively, by ∼5 and ∼30 times, whereas loss tangent, by ∼7, at 25 wt % loading of GNCs. The ac conductivity is enhanced from 0.248 (PU) to 7.288 S/m (25 wt %) by maximizing transmission loss to -26.45 dB (99.9%) and minimizing thickness to 1-2 mm. The dc percolation threshold is found to be low at ∼5 wt %, indicating superior dispersibility of GNCs, thereafter. In analysis, the atomic polarization (at ∼10 GHz) associated with the aromatic urethane amide rings acts as a backbone to engage incident electromagnetic field wiggles. The coupling occurs via charge transfer polarization currents at doubly bonded nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrosorpted sp3 carbon sites in GNCs. The field-matter interaction is dominant at the microvoid skin interface between GNCs and PU. Possible polarization mechanism is explained. The GNCs/PU nanocomposites are realized as an effective electromagnetic interference shielding block in the tracking band. The details are presented.

  11. Development of a Countermeasure to Mitigate Postflight Locomotor Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Cohen, H. S.; Richards, J. T.; Miller, C. A.; Brady, R.; Warren, L. E.; Ruttley, T. M.

    2006-01-01

    Astronauts returning from space flight experience locomotor dysfunction following their return to Earth. Our laboratory is currently developing a gait adaptability training program that is designed to facilitate recovery of locomotor function following a return to a gravitational environment. The training program exploits the ability of the sensorimotor system to generalize from exposure to multiple adaptive challenges during training so that the gait control system essentially learns to learn and therefore can reorganize more rapidly when faced with a novel adaptive challenge. Evidence for the potential efficacy of an adaptive generalization gait training program can be obtained from numerous studies in the motor learning literature which have demonstrated that systematically varying the conditions of training enhances the ability of the performer to learn and retain a novel motor task. These variable practice training approaches have been used in applied contexts to improve motor skills required in a number of different sports. The central nervous system (CNS) can produce voluntary movement in an almost infinite number of ways. For example, locomotion can be achieved with many different combinations of joint angles, muscle activation patterns and forces. The CNS can exploit these degrees of freedom to enhance motor response adaptability during periods of adaptive flux like that encountered during a change in gravitational environment. Ultimately, the functional goal of an adaptive generalization countermeasure is not necessarily to immediately return movement patterns back to normal. Rather the training regimen should facilitate the reorganization of available sensory and motor subsystems to achieve safe and effective locomotion as soon as possible after long duration space flight. Indeed, this approach has been proposed as a basic feature underlying effective neurological rehabilitation. We have previously confirmed that subjects participating in an adaptive

  12. Excercise Within LBNP as an Artificial Gravity Countermeasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, A. R.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Lee, S. M. C.; Meyer, R. S.; Macias, B.; Tanaka, K.; Kimura, S.; Steinbach, G.; Groppo, E.; Khalili, N.; Boda, W. L.; O'Leary, D. D.; Hughson, R. L.; Shoemaker, J. K.; Monga, M.; Rajasekaran, M.; Ziegler, M. G.; Smith, S. M.; Schneider, S. M.

    2003-01-01

    Previous exercise in space has lacked sufficient loads to maintain preflight cardiovascular and musculoskeletal mass and function. Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) produces a static force equivalent to one Earth body weight by each 52 mm Hg of LBNP during supine posture. LBNP also provides transmural blood pressures simulating upright exercise. Thus, this artificial-gravity concept may help maintain cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems of crewmembers during prolonged exposure to microgravity. Currently available, bungee cord assisted, treadmill exercise is limited by harness discomfort, lower than normal loads, abnormal post-flight gait, and the absence of gravitational blood pressures within the vascular system. PURPOSE: This project evaluates a method to create artificial gravity using supine LBNP treadmill exercise to prevent loss of physiologic function in microgravity simulated by 30 days of bed rest. Identical twins were used as volunteers so that statistical power could be maximized. This countermeasure is being transitioned to space flight. CURRENT STATUS OF RESEARCH Methods: Six sets of identical twins (6 females and 14 males, 21-36 years) remained in 6 head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest for 30 days to simulate prolonged microgravity. Six subjects were randomly selected to exercise supine in an LBNP chamber for 40 minutes six days per week (EX group), while their twin brothers served as non-exercise controls (CON). Pressure within the exercise LBNP chamber was adjusted to increase load, hence increasing exercise intensity. During supine treadmill exercise, LBNP (52-63 mmHg) was applied to produce foot ward forces equivalent to those for upright running on Earth at 1.0-1.2 times body weight (BW) and subjects performed an interval exercise protocol (40-80% peak exercise capacity [VO2pk]). Five minutes of resting LBNP immediately followed each exercise session. Results: Orthostatic tolerance time decreased significantly after 30 days bed rest in the CON

  13. Emergency response to nuclear, biological and chemical incidents:challenges and countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Long Li; Wen-Jun Tang; Ya-Kun Ma; Ji-Min Jia; Rong-Li Dang; Er-Chen Qiu

    2015-01-01

    Given the multiple terrorist attacks that have occurred in recent years in China, medical rescue teams and specialized incident assessment teams have been established by the government; however, medical rescue after nuclear, biological, and chemical incidents remains challenging and is often inefficient. In the present article, problems were analyzed regarding the assessment of responder countermeasures, training of professionals and the management of emergency medical incidents related to nuclear, biological and chemical attacks. Countermeasures, the establishment of response coordination, public education, practical training and exercise, and a professional consultant team or system should be the focus of emergency medical response facilities. Moreover, the government was offered professionals who are involved in managing nuclear, biological and chemical incidents.

  14. Designing for Reliability and Robustness in International Space Station Exercise Countermeasures Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Cherice; Svetlik, Randall; Williams, Antony

    2017-01-01

    As spaceflight durations have increased over the last four decades, the effects of microgravity on the human body have become far better understood, as have the exercise countermeasures. Through use of a combination of aerobic and resistive exercise devices, today's astronauts and cosmonauts are able to partially counter the losses in muscle strength, aerobic fitness, and bone strength that otherwise might occur during their missions on the International Space Station (ISS). Since 2000, the ISS has employed a variety of exercise equipment used as countermeasures to these risks. Providing reliable and available exercise systems has presented significant challenges due to the unique environment. In solving these, lessons have been learned that can inform development of future systems.

  15. Countermeasures for electrolytic corrosion - Part II: Implementation of a rapid potential-controlled rectifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Dae-Kyeong; Lee, Hyun-Goo; Ha, Yoon-Cheol; Bae, Jeong-Hyo [Underground Systems Group, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, 28-1 Sungju-dong, Changwon, 641-120 (Korea)

    2004-07-01

    In electrolytic interference circumstances such as underground pipelines in the vicinity of DC electrified railroads, drainage method or impressed current cathodic protection method has been widely used as a countermeasure for the electrolytic corrosion. In the former method, forced or polarized drainage is commonly adopted and in the latter, the phase-controlled rectifier with thyristor is in common use. Both methods, however, does not show as the optimal measure for the integrity of the pipeline, since the pipe-to-soil potential fluctuates highly positive to the cathodic protection criterion. In particular, as the potential of the pipeline near the railroad varies rapidly, a new rapidly responding countermeasure is necessary. In this paper, we introduce a new rapid potential controlled rectifier and report the result in field tests. Comparison with the existing forced drainage method is also made. The pipe-to-soil potential data show the effectiveness of the rapid potential-controlled rectifier. (authors)

  16. Radioactivity and countermeasures like clean feeding of sheep; Radioaktivitet og nedforing av sauer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    It's been 25 years since the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, but there is still radioactivity remaining in the Norwegian nature. The radioactive cesium-137 is taken up by plants and fungi and transferred to animals on rangelands. In the grazing season of 2010 had 20 000 sheep on Countermeasures like clean feeding to reduce radioactivity levels in the meat before slaughter. Oppland had most sheep on Countermeasures like clean feeding with almost 12 000 animals. Total was paid 2.2 million in compensation to livestock owners in 2010. In the period 1986-2010 is about 2.2 million sheep have been suspended with a charge of approximately NOK 227 million. (AG)

  17. Countermeasure against blinding attacks on low-noise detectors with a background-noise-cancellation scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Soo; Park, Byung Kwon; Woo, Min Ki; Park, Chang Hoon; Kim, Yong-Su; Han, Sang-Wook; Moon, Sung

    2016-12-01

    We developed a countermeasure against blinding attacks on low-noise detectors with a background-noise-cancellation scheme in quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. Background-noise cancellation includes self-differencing and balanced avalanche photon diode (APD) schemes and is considered a promising solution for low-noise APDs, which are critical components in high-performance QKD systems. However, its vulnerability to blinding attacks has been recently reported. In this work, we propose a countermeasure that prevents this potential security loophole from being used in detector blinding attacks. An experimental QKD setup is implemented and various tests are conducted to verify the feasibility and performance of the proposed method. The obtained measurement results show that the proposed scheme successfully detects occurring blinding-attack-based hacking attempts.

  18. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON SAND—DUST STORM DISASTER AND COUNTERMEASURES IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGQing-yang; ZHAOXi-you; 等

    2002-01-01

    As a kind of natural disasters,sand-dust storms frequently occur in deserts and their surrounding areas.The occurrence of this disaster in Chinaˊs north west and north china has exerted an extremely adverse effect upon the environ-ment in China.The management of sand-dust storms is of a systematic project closely related with the environment such as agriculture,ecosystem,forestry,water conservancy,meteorology and other aspects.Therefore,studies of the forma-tion,the basic eatures,causes,temporal-spatial distribution,developing-trend and related disasters of sand-dust storms in China are conducted based on satellite data.The experience of sand-dust storms control and countermeasures in the Unit-ed States and some other countries are referred.Meanwhile,preliminary countermeasures relating to sand-dust storms in China are proposed.

  19. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON SAND-DUST STORM DISASTER AND COUNTERMEASURES IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    As a kind of natural disasters, sand-dust storms frequently occur in deserts and their surrounding areas.The occurrence of this disaster in China's northwest and north China has exerted an extremely adverse effect upon the environ-ment in China. The management of sand-dust storms is of a systematic project closely related with the environment suchas agriculture, ecosystem, forestry, water conservancy, meteorology and other aspects. Therefore, studies of the forma-tion, the basic features, causes, temporal-spatial distribution, developing-trend and related disasters of sand-dust stormsin China are conducted based on satellite data. The experience of sand-dust storms control and countermeasures in the Unit-ed States and some other countries are referred. Meanwhile, preliminary countermeasures relating to sand-dust storms inChina are proposed.

  20. A media information analysis for implementing effective countermeasure against harmful rumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Mitsuyoshi; Suto, Kazuhiro; Ohuchi, Azuma

    2010-04-01

    When large scale earthquake occurred, the word of "harmful rumor" came to be frequently heard. The harmful rumor means an economic damage which is caused by the action that people regard actually safe foods or areas as dangerous and then abort consumption or sightseeing. In the case of harmful rumor caused by earthquake, especially, tourism industry receives massive economic damage. Currently, harmful rumor which gives substantial economic damage have become serious social issue which must be solved. In this paper, we propose a countermeasure method for harmful rumor on the basis of media trend in order to implement speedy recovery from harmful rumor. Here, we investigate the amount and content of information which is transmitted to the general public by the media when an earthquake occurred. In addition, the media information in three earthquakes is treated as instance. Finally, we discuss an effective countermeasure method for dispeling harmful rumor through these analysis results.

  1. CONSTRAINING FACTORS TO SUSTAINABLE UTILIZATION OF WATER RESOURCES AND THEIR COUNTERMEASURES IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Jin-liang; FENG Ren-guo; XIA Jun

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the constraining factors to sustainable utilization of water resources in China, and the countermeasures to realize sustainable water utilization. The result of comprehensive analysis shows that constraining factors to sustainable utilization of water resources in China are complicated, including physical geographical factors and socio-economic factors, such as uneven distribution of water resources at temporal and spatial scales,inappropriate institutional arrangement and non-water-saving and non-water-conservation production and life mode.The countermeasures against constraining factors to water resources sustainable development are put forward as follows: 1) using wetlands and forests, and through spatial conversion to realize temporally sustainable supply of water resources; 2) transferring water between basins and areas and developing various water resources in water shortage area; 3) establishing water-saving society; 4) strengthening water pollution control and water resources protection;and 5) establishing unified water resources management mechanism.

  2. The Plights and Countermeasures in the Implementation of Distinctive Agriculture Insurance of Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of implementing distinctive agriculture insurance in Hebei Province is analyzed from the following aspects covering the support of policies and laws;agricultural products and brands with Hebei distinct;the rich experience of insurance companies;farmers’ strong awareness on insurance and farmers’ great demand on agricultural insurance.The plights faced by distinctive agricultural insurance are pointed out.It includes weak awareness of farmers on buying insurance;low enthusiasm of insurance company;poor support from the government and backward laws and regulations and so on.The countermeasures on developing distinctive agricultural insurance are put forward.The countermeasures on improving farmers’ awareness on buying insurance;innovating the insurance products and services;increasing the support from the government;perfecting the legislation on agricultural insurance should be adopted to develop agricultural insurance.

  3. FORECO. Countermeasures applied in forest ecosystems and their secondary effects: a review of literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, B.; Synnot, H. [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, (Ireland)

    1998-12-31

    The present document reports a literature review of the countermeasures applied in forest ecosystems and their secondary effects. The review has been prepared as a deliverable for the FORECO research Project. FORECO (Forest Ecosystems: Classification of Restoration Options, Considering Dose Reduction, Long-Term Ecological Quality and Economic Factors) is a project funded by the European Commission (Research Contract n. ERBIC-CT96-0202) in the frame of the Cooperation with third countries and international organizations (INCO-COPERNICUS) and coordinated by the National Environmental Protection Agency of Italy. The main aim of FORECO activities with respect to forest ecosystems is the classification of countermeasure options in different forest types, considering the balance between dose reduction, long-term ecological quality and economical factors.

  4. The Characteristics of Earthquake Disasters and Countermeasures for Their Mitigation in Metropolitans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Mengtan

    2003-01-01

    Metropolitans are a result of fast economic development in China. Many metropolitans have emerged in the eastern part of China. Earthquake disasters in metropolitans are more complicated and serious than those in a smaller city, and the impact of earthquake disaster on the economy and society is large. The characteristics of earthquake disasters and countermeasures to protect against and mitigate disaster in the metropolitan, as well as some key research fields in the earthquake disaster protection and mitigation, are discussed.

  5. Research and Development of Unmanned Aviation Vehicle System for Disaster Countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The authors developed low cost unmanned helicopter, real time video data transmitting system and a new type flying robots. The effectiveness is confirmed by real field experiment tests. Hazard map for disaster countermeasures is made on the basis of data obtained by the aviation vehicle system. The hazard map is delivered directly to a smart phone and a tablet PC. Therefore residents can keep track of disaster information quickly and accurately.

  6. Scour Mechanics of Aggregate Obstacle Fields With Application to Mine Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Mechanics of Aggregate Obstacle Fields With Application to Mine Countermeasures 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...of the areas of exposure and burial. Our formulation of the bathymetry evolution problem is based on successive equilibrium bottom profiles. We pose...dolphin to neutralize mines in the very shallow water environment (VSW). The model was used to solve for the station keeping time for which the VSW

  7. Assessment of Intraocular and Systemic Vasculature Pressure Parameters in Simulated Microgravity with Thigh Cuff Countermeasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Alex S.; Balasubramanian, Siva; Tepelus, Tudor; Sadda, Jaya; Sadda, Srinivas; Stenger, Michael B.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Laurie, Steve S.; Liu, John; Macias, Brandon R.

    2017-01-01

    Changes in vision have been well documented among astronauts during and after long-duration space flight. One hypothesis is that the space flight induced headward fluid alters posterior ocular pressure and volume and may contribute to visual acuity decrements. Therefore, we evaluated venoconstrictive thigh cuffs as a potential countermeasure to the headward fluid shift-induced effects on intraocular pressure (IOP) and cephalic vascular pressure and volumes.

  8. Problems of Production Management in Agile Manufacturing Environment and their Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Agile manufacturing is a new production mode. This pa per discusses the four problems of production management in the environment of a gile manufacturing, and some countermeasures are advanced: (1) Organization of production. Traditional MTO production or MTS production ca n not meet the requirement of agile manufacturing which request both high produc tivity and the manufacturing flexibility. For this, the paper advances best way is to use the production organization mode of MCP (Mass Customization Pro...

  9. SWOT Analysis and Countermeasures on Development of Sweet Potato Industry in Ziyun County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuang; YU1; Xiaoshan; YANG; Guang; LI

    2013-01-01

    According to the actual situation of sweet potato industry development in Ziyun County, we use SWOT analysis method to conduct strategic analysis on strengths and weaknesses of the internal environment and the opportunities and challenges of the external environment of the sweet potato industry, to explore correct strategic countermeasures suitable for the future development of sweet potato industry in Ziyun County and provide reference for the sweet potato industry to maintain sustainable competitiveness.

  10. Economic Development Mode and Countermeasure Research on the Nansi Lake Drainage Area Based on Circular Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Yong-fei; Peng, Li-min

    2011-01-01

    Firstly, it is pointed out that circular economy should be vigorously developed in the Nansi Lake Drainage Area, and the connotation of circular economy is expounded. Then, problems in developing circular economy in Nansi Lake Drainage Area are analyzed from the aspects of agriculture, industrial enterprises, and waste utilization. Finally, combining with the four modes of peasant household, enterprise, region and society in the development of circular economy, corresponding countermeasures a...

  11. Constraint Analysis and Countermeasures for China s Forestry Scientific and Technological Achievements Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the constraint factors of forestry scientific and technological achievements transformation and explores the countermeasures and measures to promote the transformation. It points out that to achieve maximum return from investment funds in forestry research, it shall improve the transformation of scientific and technological achievements, enhance independent innovation capability, and greatly enhance the supply capacity of scientific and technological achievements, so as to provide endles...

  12. Bottleneck of Farmers’ Quality in New Socialist Countryside Construction and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed problems of farmers’ quality in the new socialist countryside construction,including low educational level,poor specialized skills,and low ideological and ethical quality.These problems become bottleneck of the socialist countryside construction.In view of these problems,we put forward following countermeasures:speeding up urbanization development,consolidating rural basic education,strengthening rural vocational education,and developing new approaches to improve farmers’ ideological and ethical quality.

  13. Air Force Manual 33-214 Volume 2. Communications and Information. Emission Security Countermeasures Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    active devices in them (e.g., computer chips , junctions, registers, etc.); mechanical switches or mechanical relays do all the switching. Active control...to be reflected. The best solution is to use a closed room, keeping the doors closed and covering the windows with drapes . 3.4.7. Cordless...windows with drapes . 3.4.10. Infrared Devices. These countermeasures are required. Infrared devices not covered by any subparagraph of paragraph 3.4

  14. Toxicity and medical countermeasure studies on the organophosphorus nerve agents VM and VX

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Helen; Dalton, Christopher H.; Price, Matthew E.; Stuart J Graham; Green, A. Christopher; Jenner, John; Groombridge, Helen J.; Timperley, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    To support the effort to eliminate the Syrian Arab Republic chemical weapons stockpile safely, there was a requirement to provide scientific advice based on experimentally derived information on both toxicity and medical countermeasures (MedCM) in the event of exposure to VM, VX or VM–VX mixtures. Complementary in vitro and in vivo studies were undertaken to inform that advice. The penetration rate of neat VM was not significantly different from that of neat VX, through either guinea pig or p...

  15. Current Situations and Countermeasures of Development of Kiwifruit Industry in Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wei; WAN Ming-chang; YANG Sheng-jun; ZHANG Xue; QIAO Rong

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of current development situations of planting, scientific research and processing of kiwifruit industry in Guizhou Province, the paper analyzes main factors restricting development of kiwifruit industry, including lack of unified planning, standardized planting specifications, and backward management of kiwifruit orchard. In accordance with current development situations and restricting factors, the paper presents some countermeasures for development of kiwifruit industry in Guizhou Province, including scientific planning, optimizing variety structure, management of cultivation technology, training of kiwifruit farmers, as well as marketing.

  16. Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Michael

    1980-01-01

    Reviews technical aspects of structure determination in biological electron microscopy (EM). Discusses low dose EM, low temperature microscopy, electron energy loss spectra, determination of mass or molecular weight, and EM of labeled systems. Cites 34 references. (CS)

  17. Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Michael

    1980-01-01

    Reviews technical aspects of structure determination in biological electron microscopy (EM). Discusses low dose EM, low temperature microscopy, electron energy loss spectra, determination of mass or molecular weight, and EM of labeled systems. Cites 34 references. (CS)

  18. Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element Management Plan: Human Research Program. Revision B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsk, Peter; Baumann, David

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Human Research Program (HRP) is an applied research and technology program within the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) that addresses human health and performance risk mitigation strategies in support of exploration missions. The HRP research and technology development is focused on the highest priority risks to crew health and safety with the goal of ensuring mission success and maintaining long-term crew health. Crew health and performance standards, defined by the NASA Chief Health and Medical Officer (CHMO), set the acceptable risk level for exploration missions. The HRP conducts research to inform these standards as well as provide deliverables, such as countermeasures, that ensure standards can be met to maximize human performance and mission success. The Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element was formed as part of the HRP to develop a scientifically-based, integrated approach to understanding and mitigating the health risks associated with human spaceflight. These health risks have been organized into four research portfolios that group similar or related risks. A fifth portfolio exists for managing technology developments and infrastructure projects. The HHC Element portfolios consist of: a) Vision and Cardiovascular; b) Exercise and Performance; c) Multisystem; d) Bone; and e) Technology and Infrastructure. The HHC identifies gaps associated with the health risks and plans human physiology research that will result in knowledge required to more fully understand risks and will result in validated countermeasures to mitigate risks.

  19. SHIPIR/NTCS: a naval ship infrared signature countermeasure and threat engagement simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitekunas, David A.; Alexan, Karim; Lawrence, Owen E.; Reid, Francoise

    1996-06-01

    An integrated naval infrared target, countermeasure and threat model is presented. The target modeling capabilities include complex 3-D surface geometries, a thermal system model with auto-generated solar heating, sea/air convection, sea/sky radiation and inter-surface radiation, a surface radiance model which accounts for multiple diffuse reflections, observer-to-target atmospheric absorption and path radiance, and an exhaust gas dispersion and IR emission model. The IR images of any number of targets can be rendered simultaneously within a full-hemispherical sea/sky/sun background relative to an observer at a specified altitude, based on the atmospheric radiance, solar irradiance, path radiance and time-average solar sea-glint. Flare countermeasures are added to the scenario through definition of canisters, submunitions, burn characteristics and deployment tactics. The IR missile model has been constructed from a minimum number of parameters to keep the model generic and provide a reasonable estimate of IR susceptibility. The purpose of the model is to provide the tools necessary to develop and assess the effectiveness of infrared signature suppression and infrared countermeasures. A number of analysis methods are provided, including on- screen image analysis, polar signature plots, polar lock-on range and engagement simulation.

  20. Physiological benefits of exercise in artificial gravity: A broadband countermeasure to space flight related deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Jessica L.; Jarchow, Thomas; Young, Laurence R.

    2008-07-01

    Current countermeasures to space flight related physiological deconditioning have not been sufficiently effective. We believe that a comprehensive countermeasure is the combination of intermittent centrifugation (artificial gravity) and exercise. We aim to test the long-term effectiveness of this combination in terms of fitness benefits. As a first-order determination of effectiveness, subjects participated in an eight-week exercise program. Three times per week, they exercised using a stair-stepper on a short-radius (2 m) centrifuge spinning at 30 RPM, maintaining a target heart rate that was systematically increased over the exercise period. During the sessions, foot forces and stepping cadence, heart rate, and perceived exertion were measured. Before and after the eight-week exercise program, measurements included: body fat percentage, bone mineral content, quadriceps extension strength, push-ups endurance, stepping cadence for a given heart rate, and maximum stepping endurance. We find that stair-stepping on a centrifuge is safe and comfortable. Preliminary fitness results indicate that stair-stepping on a centrifuge may be effective in improving aerobic fitness, body composition, and strength. These results indicate that such a combination may also be effective as a countermeasure to space flight deconditioning.

  1. Countermeasure effectiveness against an intelligent imaging infrared anti-ship missile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Greer J.; Aouf, Nabil; Richardson, Mark; Butters, Brian; Walmsley, Roy

    2013-02-01

    Ship self defense against heat-seeking anti-ship missiles is of great concern to modern naval forces. One way of protecting ships against these threats is to use infrared (IR) offboard countermeasures. These decoys need precise placement to maximize their effectiveness, and simulation is an invaluable tool used in determining optimum deployment strategies. To perform useful simulations, high-fidelity models of missiles are required. We describe the development of an imaging IR anti-ship missile model for use in countermeasure effectiveness simulations. The missile model's tracking algorithm is based on a target recognition system that uses a neural network to discriminate between ships and decoys. The neural network is trained on shape- and intensity-based features extracted from simulated imagery. The missile model is then used within ship-decoy-missile engagement simulations, to determine how susceptible it is to the well-known walk-off seduction countermeasure technique. Finally, ship survivability is improved by adjusting the decoy model to increase its effectiveness against the tracker.

  2. Space physiology VI: exercise, artificial gravity, and countermeasure development for prolonged space flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, Alan R; Bhattacharya, Roshmi; Schneider, Suzanne M

    2013-09-01

    When applied individually, exercise countermeasures employed to date do not fully protect the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems during prolonged spaceflight. Recent ground-based research suggests that it is necessary to perform exercise countermeasures within some form of artificial gravity to prevent microgravity deconditioning. In this regard, it is important to provide normal foot-ward loading and intravascular hydrostatic-pressure gradients to maintain musculoskeletal and cardiovascular function. Aerobic exercise within a centrifuge restores cardiovascular function, while aerobic exercise within lower body negative pressure restores cardiovascular function and helps protect the musculoskeletal system. Resistive exercise with vibration stimulation may increase the effectiveness of resistive exercise by preserving muscle function, allowing lower intensity exercises, and possibly reducing risk of loss of vision during prolonged spaceflight. Inexpensive methods to induce artificial gravity alone (to counteract head-ward fluid shifts) and exercise during artificial gravity (for example, by short-arm centrifuge or exercise within lower body negative pressure) should be developed further and evaluated as multi-system countermeasures.

  3. Practical Applications of Cables and Ropes in the ISS Countermeasures System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlik, Randall G.; Moore, Cherice; Williams, Antony

    2017-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) uses exercise countermeasures on the International Space Station (ISS) to maintain crew health and combat the negative effects of long-duration spaceflight on the human body. Most ISS exercise countermeasures system (CMS) equipment rely heavily on the use of textile and wire ropes to transmit resistive loads and provide stability in a microgravity environment. For a variety of reasons, including challenges in simulating microgravity environments for testing and limits on time available for life cycle testing, the textiles and wire ropes have contributed significantly to on-orbit planned and unplanned maintenance time. As a result, continued ground testing and on-orbit experience since the first expedition on the ISS in 2000 provide valuable data and lessons learned in materials selection, applications, and design techniques to increase service life of these ropes. This paper will present a review of the development and failure history of textile and wire ropes for four exercise countermeasure systems-the Treadmill with Vibration Isolation and Stabilization (TVIS) System, Cycle Ergometer with Vibration Isolation and Stabilization (CEVIS) System, Interim Resistive Exercise Device (IRED), and the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED)-to identify lessons learned in order to improve future systems. These lessons learned, paired with thorough testing on the ground, offer a forward path towards reduced maintenance time and up-mass for future space missions.

  4. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  5. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  6. Hardware Trojans - Prevention, Detection, Countermeasures (A Literature Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    System on Chip TCB trusted Computing Base VHDL VHSIC Hardware Description Language x UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED DSTO–TN–1012 1 Introduction Electronic...The authors introduced modi- fications at the VHDL level and provided both simulation and synthesised results using a 40MHz Leon 3 SPARC target

  7. Electronic Prescribing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do you prescribe electronically?” For more information about electronic prescribing, call 1-800-MEDICARE (1-800-633- ... TTY users should call 1-877-486-2048 . Electronic eRx Prescribing I went to the pharmacy, and ...

  8. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  9. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, E.; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K.; Gascó, M.; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I.; Milano, M.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P.; Sæbø, O.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies. This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information P

  10. The Project for Developing Countermeasures against Landslides in the Abay River Gorge, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guta, H. E.

    2016-12-01

    The Blue Nile Gorge of Ethiopia is characterized by high relief landscape. The stretch of major arterial road that connects Ethiopia to Sudan passes through the Gorge. The Gorge is plagued by swarms of landslides which makes it a tremendous obstacle for travel and communication. Therefore, landside study was carried out from 2010 to 2012 by JICA and Geological survey of Ethiopia to figure out the mechanisms that trigger the swarms of landslides that occur in the area and identify appropriate countermeasures that would be best implemented. The study included geomorphologic and geologic survey, drilling survey, displacement monitoring, ground water and precipitation monitoring, geophysical exploration, and stability analysis. About 42 landslide monitoring instruments namely extensometers (both surface and borehole), inclinometers and ground water level meters were installed in four highly landslide prone areas to detect slip surface, and determine amount and direction of movement. The amount of landslide movement at the four zones is 42.4, 57.6, 294.9 and 136mm during rainy season. Ground water level rising, nature of material and intense rainfall are found to be among the major triggering factors. Stability analysis using Simple Jambu and modified Fellenus methods was conducted resulting in safety factor Fs less than one and reasonably 0.98 by adopting shear parameters of soils by back analysis. By assuming cohesion (c') to be very close to 0 due to landslide blocks active movement when ground water rises during rainy season, Shear resistance angle, ɸ, was obtained to be 10.80, 26.30, 10.20 and 16.30 in the four areas using Modified Fellenius method and 10.70, 26.60, 10.00 and 16.10 using Simple Janbu method. Effect of countermeasures was checked by trial calculation. Accordingly the factory of safety increased from 0.98 to 1.2 when ɸ=60, ground water is lowered by 6m, and steel pipe pile of ɸ500mm x t40mm at an interval of 1.9m are implemented. consequently

  11. Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Malignancies and Acute Biological Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann

    , oral supplementation with antioxidants appears to be an effective approach for the radioprotection of hematopoietic cells against the cell killing effects of radiation, and for improving survival in irradiated animals. Preliminary data suggest similar antioxidant protective effects for animals exposed to potentially lethal doses of proton radiation. Studies were also performed to determine whether dietary antioxidants could affect the incidence rates of malignancies in CBA mice exposed to 300 cGy proton (1 GeV/n) radiation or 50 cGy iron ion (1 GeV/n) radiation [9]. Two antioxidant formulations were utilized in these studies; an AOX formulation containing the mixture of antioxidant agents developed from our previous studies and an antioxidant dietary formulation containing the soybean-derived protease inhibitor known as the Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI). BBI was evaluated in the form of BBI Concentrate (BBIC), which is the form of BBI utilized in human trials. BBIC has been utilized in human trials since 1992, as described [10]. The major finding in the long-term animal studies was that there was a reduced risk of malignant lymphoma in mice exposed to space radiations and maintained on diets containing the antioxidant formulations. In addition, the two different dietary countermeasures also reduced the yields of a variety of different rare tumor types, arising from both epithelial and connective tissue cells, observed in the animals exposed to space radiation. REFERENCES [1] Guan J. et al (2004) Radiation Research 162, 572-579. [2] Wan X.S. et al (2005) Radiation Research 163, 364-368. [3] Wan X.S. et al (2005) Radiation Research 163, 232-240. [4] Guan J. et al (2006) Radiation Research 165, 373-378. [5] Wan X.S. et al (2006) International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics 64, 1475-1481. [6] Kennedy A.R. et al (2006) Radiation Research 166, 327-332. [7] Kennedy A.R. et al (2007) Radiation & Environmental Biophysics 46(2), 201-3. [8]Wambi, C., Sanzari, J

  12. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  13. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  14. Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks, including the Internet. Electronic commerce is not limited just to buying and selling, but it also includes all pre-sales and after-sales ongoing activities along the supply chain. Introducing electronic commerce, using the Internet and Web services in business, realizes the way to a completely new type of economy - internet economy.

  15. Micropower electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Keonjian, Edward

    1964-01-01

    Micropower Electronics deals with the operation of modern electronic equipment at micropower levels and the problems associated with micropower electronics. Topics covered include the relations between minimum required power density and frequency response for semiconductor triode amplifiers; physical realization of digital logic circuits; micropower microelectronic subsystems; and metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect devices for micropower logic circuitry. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with an analysis of fundamental relationships and basic requirements pertinent to the ph

  16. Microfluidic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2012-08-21

    Microfluidics, a field that has been well-established for several decades, has seen extensive applications in the areas of biology, chemistry, and medicine. However, it might be very hard to imagine how such soft microfluidic devices would be used in other areas, such as electronics, in which stiff, solid metals, insulators, and semiconductors have previously dominated. Very recently, things have radically changed. Taking advantage of native properties of microfluidics, advances in microfluidics-based electronics have shown great potential in numerous new appealing applications, e.g. bio-inspired devices, body-worn healthcare and medical sensing systems, and ergonomic units, in which conventional rigid, bulky electronics are facing insurmountable obstacles to fulfil the demand on comfortable user experience. Not only would the birth of microfluidic electronics contribute to both the microfluidics and electronics fields, but it may also shape the future of our daily life. Nevertheless, microfluidic electronics are still at a very early stage, and significant efforts in research and development are needed to advance this emerging field. The intention of this article is to review recent research outcomes in the field of microfluidic electronics, and address current technical challenges and issues. The outlook of future development in microfluidic electronic devices and systems, as well as new fabrication techniques, is also discussed. Moreover, the authors would like to inspire both the microfluidics and electronics communities to further exploit this newly-established field.

  17. Paper electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobjörk, Daniel; Österbacka, Ronald

    2011-05-03

    Paper is ubiquitous in everyday life and a truly low-cost substrate. The use of paper substrates could be extended even further, if electronic applications would be applied next to or below the printed graphics. However, applying electronics on paper is challenging. The paper surface is not only very rough compared to plastics, but is also porous. While this is detrimental for most electronic devices manufactured directly onto paper substrates, there are also approaches that are compatible with the rough and absorptive paper surface. In this review, recent advances and possibilities of these approaches are evaluated and the limitations of paper electronics are discussed.

  18. Electron holography

    CERN Document Server

    Tonomura, Akira

    1993-01-01

    Holography was devised for breaking through the resolution limit of electron microscopes The advent of a "coherent" field emission electron beam has enabled the use of Electron Holography in various areas of magnetic domain structures observation, fluxon observation in superconductors, and fundamental experiments in physics which have been inaccessible using other techniques After examining the fundamentals of electron holography and its applications to the afore mentioned fields, a detailed discussion of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the related experiments is presented Many photographs and illustrations are included to elucidate the text

  19. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hsin-Fei, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Polymer semiconductor is the only semiconductor that can be processed in solution. Electronics made by these flexible materials have many advantages such as large-area solution process, low cost, and high performance. Researchers and companies are increasingly dedicating time and money in polymer electronics. This book focuses on the fundamental materials and device physics of polymer electronics. It describes polymer light-emitting diodes, polymer field-effect transistors, organic vertical transistors, polymer solar cells, and many applications based on polymer electronics. The book also disc

  20. Electronic Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Meredith Lindsay

    1995-01-01

    The main objective was to assist in the production of electronic images in the Electronic Photography Lab (EPL). The EPL is a new facility serving the electronic photographic needs of the Langley community. The purpose of the Electronic Photography lab is to provide Langley with access to digital imaging technology. Although the EPL has been in operation for less than one year, almost 1,000 images have been produced. The decision to establish the lab was made after careful determination of the centers needs for electronic photography. The LaRC community requires electronic photography for the production of electronic printing, Web sites, desktop publications, and its increased enhancement capabilities. In addition to general use, other considerations went into the planning of the EPL. For example, electronic photography is much less of a burden on the environment compared to conventional photography. Also, the possibilities of an on-line database and retrieval system could make locating past work more efficient. Finally, information in an electronic image is quantified, making measurements and calculations easier for the researcher.

  1. Electron Bifurcation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, John W.; Miller, Anne-Frances; Jones, Anne K.; King, Paul W.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2016-04-01

    Electron bifurcation is the recently recognized third mechanism of biological energy conservation. It simultaneously couples exergonic and endergonic oxidation-reduction reactions to circumvent thermodynamic barriers and minimize free energy loss. Little is known about the details of how electron bifurcating enzymes function, but specifics are beginning to emerge for several bifurcating enzymes. To date, those characterized contain a collection of redox cofactors including flavins and iron-sulfur clusters. Here we discuss the current understanding of bifurcating enzymes and the mechanistic features required to reversibly partition multiple electrons from a single redox site into exergonic and endergonic electron transfer paths.

  2. Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, John M. (Inventor); Lettow, John S. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Korkut, Sibel (Inventor); Chiang, Katherine S. (Inventor); Chen, Chuan-Hua (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Printed electronic device comprising a substrate onto at least one surface of which has been applied a layer of an electrically conductive ink comprising functionalized graphene sheets and at least one binder. A method of preparing printed electronic devices is further disclosed.

  3. Air Pollution and Countermeasures in City Air Pollution and Countermeasures in City%城市空气污染及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩永忠

    2001-01-01

    This paper systematically analyzed the problems of air pollution,the variety of pollutants and their harms to mankind and environme nt,pointed out that air pollution was one of main factors to inhibit city's sust ainable development,described the technical and non-technical countermeasures o f preventing air pollution in city.%本文系统分析了城市空气污染的成因、污染物种类和危 害,指出城市空气污染是制约城市可持续发展的关键因素之一,提出了城市空气污染防治的 技术和非技术措施。

  4. Countermeasures to Mitigate the Negative Impact of Sensory Deprivation and Social Isolation in Long-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Katharine Ridgeway OBrien; Otto, Christian; Leveton, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Long-duration space flight presents several challenges to the behavioral health of crew members. The environment that they are likely to experience will be isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) and, as such, crew members will experience extreme sensory deprivation and social isolation. The current paper briefly notes the behavioral, cognitive, and affective consequences of psychological stress induced by ICE environments and proposes nine countermeasures aimed at mitigating the negative effects of sensory deprivation and social isolation. Implementation of countermeasures aims to maintain successful crew performance and psychological well-being in a long-duration space flight mission.

  5. The Gravity-Loading countermeasure Skinsuit (GLCS) and its effect upon aerobic exercise performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attias, Julia; Philip, A. T. Carvil; Waldie, James; Russomano, Thais; Simon, N. Evetts; David, A. Green

    2017-03-01

    The Russian Pingvin suit is employed as a countermeasure to musculoskeletal atrophy in microgravity, though its 2-stage loading regime is poorly tolerated. The Gravity-Loading Countermeasure Skinsuit (GLCS) has been devised to comfortably compress the body via incrementally increasing longitudinal elastic-fibre tensions from the shoulders to the feet. We tested whether the Mk III GLCS was a feasible adjunct to sub-maximal aerobic exercise and resulting VO2Max predictions. Eight healthy subjects (5♂, 28±6 yr) performed cycle ergometry at 75% VO2Max (derived from an Astrand-Rhyming protocol) whilst wearing a GLCS and gym clothing (GYM). Ventilatory parameters, heart rate (HR), core temperature (TC), and blood lactate (BL) were recorded along with subjective perceived exertion, thermal comfort, movement discomfort and body control. Physiological and subjective responses were compared over TIME and between GYM and GLCS (ATTIRE) with 2-way repeated measures ANOVA and Wilcoxon tests respectively. Resultant VO2Max predictions were compared with paired t-tests between ATTIRE. The GLCS induced greater initial exercise ventilatory responses which stabilised by 20 min. HR and TC continued to rise from 5 min irrespective of ATTIRE, whereas BL was greater in the GLCS at 20 min. Predicted V O2Max did not differ with ATTIRE, though some observed differences in HR were noteworthy. All subjective ratings were exacerbated in the GLCS. Despite increased perception of workload and initial ventilatory augmentations, submaximal exercise performance was not impeded. Whilst predicted VO2Max did not differ, determination of actual VO2Max in the GLCS is warranted due to apparent modulation of the linear HR-VO2 relationship. The GLCS may be a feasible adjunct to exercise and potential countermeasure to unloaded-induced physiological deconditioning on Earth or in space.

  6. Nitrosative stress in human skeletal muscle attenuated by exercise countermeasure after chronic disuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Salanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity-induced nitric oxide (NO imbalance and “nitrosative stress” are proposed mechanisms of disrupted Ca2+ homeostasis in atrophic skeletal muscle. We thus mapped S-nitrosylated (SNO functional muscle proteins in healthy male subjects in a long-term bed rest study (BBR2-2 Study without and with exercise as countermeasure in order to assess (i the negative effects of chronic muscle disuse by nitrosative stress, (ii to test for possible attenuation by exercise countermeasure in bed rest and (iii to identify new NO target proteins. Muscle biopsies from calf soleus and hip vastus lateralis were harvested at start (Pre and at end (End from a bed rest disuse control group (CTR, n=9 and two bed rest resistive exercise groups either without (RE, n=7 or with superimposed vibration stimuli (RVE, n=7. At subcellular compartments, strong anti-SNO-Cys immunofluorescence patterns in control muscle fibers after bed rest returned to baseline following vibration exercise. Total SNO-protein levels, Nrf-2 gene expression and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling were changed to varying degrees in all groups. Excess SNO-protein levels of specific calcium release/uptake proteins (SNO-RyR1, –SERCA1 and –PMCA and of contractile myosin heavy chains seen in biopsy samples of chronically disused skeletal muscle were largely reduced by vibration exercise. We also identified NOS1 as a novel NO target in human skeletal muscle controlled by activity driven auto-nitrosylation mechanisms. Our findings suggest that aberrant levels of functional SNO-proteins represent signatures of uncontrolled nitrosative stress management in disused human skeletal muscle that can be offset by exercise as countermeasure.

  7. Review on recent progress in observations, source identifications and countermeasures of PM2.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chun-Sheng; Duan, Feng-Kui; He, Ke-Bin; Ma, Yong-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Recently, PM2.5 (atmospheric fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) have received so much attention that the observations, source appointment and countermeasures of it have been widely studied due to its harmful impacts on visibility, mood (mental health), physical health, traffic safety, construction, economy and nature, as well as its complex interaction with climate. A review on the PM2.5 related research is necessary. We start with summary of chemical composition and characteristics of PM2.5 that contains both macro and micro observation results and analysis, wherein the temporal variability of concentrations of PM2.5 and major components in many recent reports is embraced. This is closely followed by an overview of source appointment, including the composition and sources of PM2.5 in different countries in the six inhabitable continents based on the best available results. Besides summarizing PM2.5 pollution countermeasures by policy, planning, technology and ideology, the World Air Day is proposed to be established to inspire and promote the crucial social action in energy-saving and emission-reduction. Some updated knowledge of the important topics (such as formation and evolution mechanisms of hazes, secondary aerosols, aerosol mass spectrometer, organic tracers, radiocarbon, emissions, solutions for air pollution problems, etc.) is also included in the present review by logically synthesizing the studies. In addition, the key research challenges and future directions are put forward. Despite our efforts, our understanding of the recent reported observations, source identifications and countermeasures of PM2.5 is limited, and subsequent efforts both of the authors and readers are needed.

  8. Research on the Internationalization Trend for the Development of Worldwide Competitive Ball Games and Our Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yixin Ma

    2015-01-01

    With the progress of physical and sports industry in the world, the analysis of sport industry in China is greatly needed. In this paper, we take discussion the internationalization trend for the development of worldwide competitive ball games and our countermeasures. With the acceleration of global economic integration the frequent personnel exchanges between different countries and nations, nationalities has change.. Physical exercise is beneficial for enhancing national constitution and physique in China, and achieving higher level of national constitution and competitive application in China. Through the proposed research, we could obtain positive development of Chinese competitive ball ~ames' development and harvest.

  9. Advances in studies on concrete durability and countermeasures against freezing-thawing effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuJian Yan; FuJun Niu; XianJun Zhang; Jing Luo; GuoAn Yin

    2014-01-01

    This-paper-is-a-meta-analysis-of-recent-domestic-and-foreign-research-on-freezing-thawing-effects-on-concrete-durability.-The-main-theories-on-the-mechanisms-of-freeze-thaw-damage-to-concrete-are-introduced:-the-hydrostatic-pressure-theory,-the-osmotic-pressure-theory,-the-critical-water-saturation-degree-theory,-the-dual-mechanism-theory,-and-the-mi-cro-ice-crystal-lens-model-theory.-The-influence-laws-of-freezing-thawing-on-the-mechanical-properties-of-concrete-are-summarized,-and-countermeasures-to-improve-concrete-durability-in-freezing-thawing-circumstances-are-presented.-This-work-provides-valuable-references-for-future-engineering-constructions-in-cold-regions.

  10. Research on Coordinated Antisumarine Attack Effeciency of Two Helicopters Under Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁红岩; 董晓明; 蹇明裕

    2012-01-01

    The organization of coordinated attack and the selection of aiming point which affect hit probability were analyzed for the countermeasures taken by the hostile submarines at two helicopters' coordinated attack.A computational model of coordinated attack parameters,a model of submarine maneuver,and a model of noise jammer were established.Compared to single helicopter' torpedo attack,the coordinated attack of two helicopters can effectively increase the hit probability of torpedo and achieve the higher target detecting probability under counterwork condition.

  11. Problems and Countermeasures in Oral English Teaching in Senior Middle Schools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周家铭

    2012-01-01

      The English language is widely used now and there is no need for us to talk about its importance. English teaching is aimed to enable students to obtain basic English knowledge and to have the ability to use it in communication by the train⁃ing of listening, speaking, reading and writing. In middle schools, oral English teaching is usually neglected by teachers and stu⁃dents. This article tries to find out the problems and then give us some countermeasures so as to improve oral English teaching.

  12. Countermeasures for Lean Warehouse Management%精益化仓储管理对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文忠

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we explained the importance of promoting lean warehouse management, analyzed the current status of warehouse management and the problems existing therein, and proposed the countermeasures of promotion.%阐述了推进精益化仓储管理的重要意义,分析了当前仓储管理的现状与存在的主要问题,提出了推进精益化仓储管理的对策措施.

  13. Problems and countermeasures on main mineral resource sustainable supply in northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang LIU; Shouyi LI; Jian GUAN; Tingting ZHANG; Ying CHU; Jing ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    northeastern China is an important old industrial base in China. Mineral resources are the foundation of industry development. However, because of long-term exploitation of mineral resources in northeastern China, the mineral resources reserves decrease gradually and some mineral resources are nearly exhausted, which restricts revitalization and sustainable development of the northeast old industrial base. On the basis of the comprehensive analysis of development and utilization status of mineral resources and supply and demand situation of main mineral resources in northeastern China, the authors put forward countermeasures on main mineral resources sustainable supply in northeastern China.

  14. [Study on restriction factors and countermeasures of influence of China medical devices competitiveness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijun

    2012-07-01

    Recent years, China medical devices industry has been a sunrise industry with widely-ranged products, high-tech innovation, and booming market demands. But with the globalization of market economy, China industry is still in the inferior position of competition. How to promote the industrial structure transition, increase scientific and technological level, speed up the updating of products, enhance the international competitiveness is one of the major tasks to maintain the healthy development of industry. This article makes a study on current situation of China medical devices industry, analyses the new opportunities, challenges and restriction factors, provides the countermeasures of strengthening industry competitiveness as well.

  15. High Intensity Exercise Countermeasures does not Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance Following Prolonged Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Lee, Stuart M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 20% of Space Shuttle astronauts became presyncopal during operational stand and 80deg head-up tilt tests, and the prevalence of orthostatic intolerance increases after longer missions. Greater than 60% of the US astronauts participating in Mir and early International Space Station missions experienced presyncope during post-flight tilt tests, perhaps related to limitations of the exercise hardware that prevented high intensity exercise training until later ISS missions. The objective of this study was to determine whether an intense resistive and aerobic exercise countermeasure program designed to prevent cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning during 70 d of bed rest (BR), a space flight analog, would protect against post-BR orthostatic intolerance. METHODS Twenty-six subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: non-exercise controls (n=11) or one of two exercise groups (ExA, n=8; ExB, n=7). Both ExA and ExB groups performed the same resistive and aerobic exercise countermeasures during BR, but one exercise group received testosterone supplementation while the other received a placebo during BR in a double-blinded fashion. On 3 d/wk, subjects performed lower body resistive exercise and 30 min of continuous aerobic exercise (=75% max heart rate). On the other 3 d/wk, subjects performed only highintensity, interval-style aerobic exercise. Orthostatic intolerance was assessed using a 15-min 80? head-up tilt test performed 2 d (BR-2) before and on the last day of BR (BR70). Plasma volume was measured using carbon monoxide rebreathing on BR-3 and before rising on the first recovery day (BR+0). The code for the exercise groups has not been broken, and results are reported here without group identification. RESULTS Only one subject became presyncopal during tilt testing on BR-2, but 7 of 11 (63%) controls, 3 of 8 (38%) ExA, and 4 of 7 (57%) ExB subjects were presyncopal on BR70. Survival analysis of post-BR tilt tests revealed no

  16. A Discussion on the Phenomenon of Non-Dependency of Community Facilities and Its Planning Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The dependency of community facilities is a concept in contrast to concentration and socialization.It is not only a primary principle for the operation of community facilities,but also an important manifestation of the humanistic and social values of a community.In this paper,the authors outline the phenomenon of non-dependency of community facilities in China,analyze its possible causes,and then put forward the primary principles for the construction of dependent community facilities,as well as the supply modes and planning countermeasures.

  17. Russian Countermeasure Systems for Adverse Effects of Microgravity on Long-Duration ISS Flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovskaya, Inessa B; Yarmanova, E N; Yegorov, A D; Stepantsov, V I; Fomina, E V; Tomilovaskaya, E S

    2015-12-01

    The system of countermeasures for the adverse effects of microgravity developed in the USSR supported the successful implementation of long-duration spaceflight (LDS) programs on the Salyut and Mir orbital stations and was subsequently adapted for flights on the International Space Station (ISS). From 2000 through 2010, crews completed 26 ISS flight increments ranging in duration from 140 to 216 d, with the participation of 27 Russian cosmonauts. These flights have made it possible to more precisely determine a crew-member's level of conditioning, better assess the advantages and disadvantages of training processes, and determine prospects for future developments.

  18. Problems of Quality of Migrant Workers and Countermeasures from the Perspective of Iceberg Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    From the perspective of Iceberg Model,we analyze levels and structures of quality of migrant workers from knowledge,skills,social role, self-cognition,traits and motives. On the basis of these situations,we put forward countermeasures: value rural education and enhance skill training; make clear occupational planning and set up correct sense of value; assist migrant workers in facing the reality and adjusting their state of mind in working; coordinate interest relationship and call upon social care; rebuild mental world and construct harmonious society.

  19. [Current quality management situation and administration countermeasure study of enterprises marketing corneal contact lens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yungui; Yao, Ying; Shangguan, Shihao; Gu, Qun; Gao, Wuming; Chen, Yaoshui

    2014-05-01

    Study the current quality management situation of enterprises marketing corneal contact lens via systemic investigations and explore effective administration countermeasures in the future. The quality management indicators of sixty-two corneal contact lens marketing enterprises in Xuhui district of Shanghai were systematically investigated and enterprises of different operation models was compared and analyzed. Wholesale enterprises and retail chain enterprises are apparently better than independent enterprises almost in all facets. Facilitate market accession of corneal contact lens marketing enterprises, encourage the business model of retail chain, enhance supervision of corneal contact lens marketing enterprises, especially independent franchisors.

  20. Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: facts, environmental contamination, possible biological effects, and countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Kazunori; Ban, Nobuhiko; Ozawa, Toshihiko; Tokonami, Shinji

    2012-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, an earthquake led to major problems at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A 14-m high tsunami triggered by the earthquake disabled all AC power to Units 1, 2, and 3 of the Power Plant, and carried off fuel tanks for emergency diesel generators. Despite many efforts, cooling systems did not work and hydrogen explosions damaged the facilities, releasing a large amount of radioactive material into the environment. In this review, we describe the environmental impact of the nuclear accident, and the fundamental biological effects, acute and late, of the radiation. Possible medical countermeasures to radiation exposure are also discussed.

  1. Survey on Resistance Emotion of NCMS in Information Asymmetry and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Through survey on current situation of NCMS construction in Guangxi, we analyze deep reasons for farmers’ resistance to NCMS. Major reasons include inadequate propaganda and training effort; narrow compensation scope influencing institutional functions; unreasonable reimbursement mechanism; low level of informatization management; imperfect supervision mechanism; and imperfect laws and regulations. In these situations, we put forward following countermeasures and suggestions: enhance training to ensure working efficiency; expand compensation scope to raise security level; adjust compensation standard to raise reimbursement proportion; lift level of informatization management to reduce costs for institutional operation; strengthen organizational construction to reinforce fund management; open up fund-raising channels to perfect legal system.

  2. Current Situation,Problems and Countermeasures of World Heritage Protection in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The development of World Heritage protection in China can be characterized by four facts,which are the increasing number,the domination of cultural heritages,the uneven spatial distribution,and the abundant candidate reserve for nomination.Currently,the problems of the dislocation of understanding,the absence of planning,the disorder of management,the lack of relevant institutions still exist in the field of World Heritage protection,aiming at which,the author puts forward some countermeasures,such as completing legislation system,carrying out scientific planning,implementing hierarchical and assorted administration,strengthening supervision,increasing investments,and enhancing propaganda and education.

  3. Artificial Gravity as a Multi-System Countermeasure to Bed Rest Deconditioning: Pilot Study Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloski, William H.; Young, L. R.

    2007-01-01

    Efficient, effective, multi-system countermeasures will likely be required to protect the health, safety, and performance of crews aboard planned exploration-class space flight missions to Mars and beyond. To that end, NASA, DLR, and IMBP initiated a multi-center international project to begin systematically exploring the utility of artificial gravity (AG) as a multi-system countermeasure in ground based venues using test subjects deconditioned by bed rest. The goal of this project is to explore the efficacy of short-radius, intermittent AG as a countermeasure to bone, muscle, cardiovascular, and sensory-motor adaptations to hypogravity. This session reports the results from a pilot study commissioned to validate a standardized protocol to be used by all centers involved in the project. Subject selection criteria, medical monitoring requirements, medical care procedures, experiment control procedures, and standardized dependent measures were established jointly. Testing was performed on 15 rigorously screened male volunteers subjected to 21 days of 6deg HDT bed rest. (All provided written consent to volunteer after the nature of the study and its hazards were clearly explained to them.) Eight were treated with daily 1hr AG exposures (2.5g at the feet decreasing to 1.0g at the heart) aboard a short radius (3m) centrifuge, while the other seven served as controls. Multiple tests of multiple dependent measures were made in each of the primary physiological systems of interest during a 10 day acclimatization period prior to HDT bed rest and again during an 8 day recovery period after the bed rest period was complete. Analyses of these data (presented in other papers in this session) suggest the AG prescription had salutary effects on aspects of the bone, muscle, and cardiovascular systems, with no untoward effects on the vestibular system, the immune system, or cognitive function. Furthermore, treatment subjects were able to tolerate 153/160 centrifuge sessions over

  4. Path Exploration and Countermeasure Innovation for Developing Circular Agriculture in Southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boqi; WENG; Weili; ZHANG; Yixiang; WANG

    2014-01-01

    This paper firstly elaborated current situation of agricultural resources and ecological environment protection of China,and pointed out that circular agriculture is an inevitable choice for sustainable development of agriculture and effective approach for low-carbon economic development. Then,it analyzed mode and benefit of typical circular agriculture,such as ecological orchard in southeast hills,sightseeing ecological agricultural garden,and crop straw use. Finally,it came up with countermeasures for further developing circular agriculture,including integrating building system and establishing suitable mode,formulating production standard and ensuring food safety,strengthening technological innovation,and supporting sustainable development.

  5. The Problems Existing in Building of Rural Community in Jilin Province and Corresponding Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses some problems existing in building of rural community in Jilin Province as follows:the funds for community building are short;the residents show sluggish participation in community;the infrastructure community building is backward;the organizational building of community lags behind;the operating mechanism is in chaos.Finally,corresponding countermeasures and suggestions are put forward as follows:we should strengthen the funds guarantee of government for community building;we should reinforce the quality education for the rural residents;we should speed up the construction of rural infrastructure;we should improve organizational building of rural community.

  6. Trends in sensorimotor research and countermeasures for exploration-class space flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelhamer, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Research in the area of sensorimotor and neurovestibular function has played an important role in enabling human space flight. This role, however, is changing. One of the key aspects of sensorimotor function relevant to this role will build on its widespread connections with other physiological and psychological systems in the body. The firm knowledge base in this area can provide a strong platform to explore these interactions, which can also provide for the development of effective and efficient countermeasures to the deleterious effects of space flight.

  7. Influences and Countermeasures of Green Trade Barrier on Export Trade of Chinese Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    With the worsening of environment, many countries pay more attention to the environmental protection. Green (organic) trade barrier gradually attracts more attention to the non-tariff barrier in the international trade. However, according to the economic levels of different countries, great differences exist in environment standards of these countries which resulted in the appearance of green trade barriers as trade protection. This study classified the connotations and characteristics of green trade barrier, gave the descriptions on the development and type of green trade barrier, and analysed the influences on China's export and put forward some countermeasures which aimed at stimulating the development of our foreign trade.

  8. Disputes over Circulation of Rural Land Contractual Management Right and Control Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deyu; DU

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of current situations of disputes over rural land contractual management right,this paper analyzes causes of disputes from four aspects. It states that controlling disputes,regulating and strengthening land circulation in accordance with laws are core works of new socialist countryside construction and rural reform. Finally,it presents five control countermeasures,including improving laws and regulations on circulation of rural land contractual management right,strengthening popularization and guidance of relevant laws and regulations,government departments administering in accordance with laws,stressing management of land contractual management right circulation contract,and establishing and perfecting land circulation intermediaries to realize market-oriented circulation.

  9. Restrictive Factors of Vocational Education Development in Cultivation of Rural Practical Skilled Personnel and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning; WANG; Fang; LIU

    2014-01-01

    Kunming City is accelerating the process of agricultural modernization,industrialization,informationization and ecological development. In this process,it needs speeding up building new high level and advanced rural practical skilled personnel team suitable for development demand. By empirical analysis method,this paper discussed the factors restricting vocational education in cultivation of rural practical skilled personnel. Then,it came up with countermeasures in cultivation objective of rural vocational education,arrangement of specialized disciplines,key development tasks,and establishment of diversified investment system.

  10. Exercise countermeasures for long-duration spaceflight: muscle- and intensity-specific considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappe, Todd

    2012-07-01

    On-orbit and ground-based microgravity simulation studies have provided a wealth of information regarding the efficacy of exercise countermeasures for protecting skeletal muscle and cardiovascular function during long-duration spaceflights. While it appears that exercise will be the central component to maintaining skeletal muscle and cardiovascular health of astronauts, the current exercise prescription is not completely effective and is time consuming. This lecture will focus on recent exercise physiology studies examining high intensity, low volume exercise in relation to muscle specific and cardiovascular health. These studies provide the basis of the next generation exercise prescription currently being implemented during long-duration space missions on the International Space Station.

  11. An Active Global Attack Model for Sensor Source Location Privacy: Analysis and Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Zhu, Sencun; Cao, Guohong; Laporta, Thomas

    Source locations of events are sensitive contextual information that needs to be protected in sensor networks. Previous work focuses on either an active local attacker that traces back to a real source in a hop-by-hop fashion, or a passive global attacker that eavesdrops/analyzes all network traffic to discover real sources. An active global attack model, which is more realistic and powerful than current ones, has not been studied yet. In this paper, we not only formalize this strong attack model, but also propose countermeasures against it.

  12. Numerical simulation of aerobic exercise as a countermeasure in human spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Poch, Antoni

    The objective of this work is to analyse the efficacy of long-term regular exercise on relevant cardiovascular parameters when the human body is also exposed to microgravity. Computer simulations are an important tool which may be used to predict and analyse these possible effects, and compare them with in-flight experiments. We based our study on a electrical-like computer model (NELME: Numerical Evaluation of Long-term Microgravity Effects) which was developed in our laboratory and validated with the available data, focusing on the cardiovascu-lar parameters affected by changes in gravity exposure. NELME is based on an electrical-like control system model of the physiological changes, that are known to take place when grav-ity changes are applied. The computer implementation has a modular architecture. Hence, different output parameters, potential effects, organs and countermeasures can be easily imple-mented and evaluated. We added to the previous cardiovascular system module a perturbation module to evaluate the effect of regular exercise on the output parameters previously studied. Therefore, we simulated a well-known countermeasure with different protocols of exercising, as a pattern of input electric-like perturbations on the basic module. Different scenarios have been numerically simulated for both men and women, in different patterns of microgravity, reduced gravity and time exposure. Also EVAs were simulated as perturbations to the system. Results show slight differences in gender, with more risk reduction for women than for men after following an aerobic exercise pattern during a simulated mission. Also, risk reduction of a cardiovascular malfunction is evaluated, with a ceiling effect found in all scenarios. A turning point in vascular resistance for a long-term exposure of microgravity below 0.4g has been found of particular interest. In conclusion, we show that computer simulations are a valuable tool to analyse different effects of long

  13. Current Development Situations and Countermeasures for Tobacco Farmers’ Specialized Cooperatives in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinbin; LUO; Jianqiang; XU

    2013-01-01

    This paper firstly introduces development history of China’s farmers’ specialized cooperatives and connotation and mechanism of tobacco farmers’ specialized cooperatives. Then, it analyzes current development situations of tobacco farmers’ specialized cooperatives in Hunan Province. On the basis of analysis, it puts forward development countermeasures, including realizing circulation of tobacco land, strengthening propaganda of laws on tobacco farmers’ specialized cooperatives, increasing operation effect of tobacco farmers’ specialized cooperatives, enhancing guidance and supervision of tobacco farmers’ specialized cooperatives, as well as improving specialized service level.

  14. Dynamic Structural Analysis and Countermeasures of "Three Issues" About Farmers Agriculture and Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuyingWu; XijunHe

    2004-01-01

    "Three Issues" about farmers, agriculture and rural areas are complex. The interdependence among co-related subsystems in the large-scale system is relatively complex.On the other hand, it is interrelated to economic development, national policy and industry structure. It is difficult to get the best solution to the problem about farmers, agriculture and rural areas, because it is the complex system with controllable and uncontrollable elements. We analyze the structure of the large-scale system by dynamics, and we try to find the most important factors among the complex interaction and give countermeasures about the problem.

  15. Ecological Hidden Troubles and Countermeasures under Reform of Collective Forest Tenure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Three stages of reform of collective forest tenure after reform and opening up are reviewed.The reform of forest tenure brings sharp increase of economic benefit.However,due to forest farmers’ subjective pursuit for economic benefit and objective lack of necessary economic,financial and technical support,ecological hidden troubles are created.Based on these,we put forward countermeasures,including strengthening forest farmers’ awareness of ecological protection and solving ecological problems in accordance with actual conditions of the region.

  16. Study on Problems and Countermeasures of Rural Public Goods Supplying System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hua

    2006-01-01

    In current China, the main problem existing in the rural public goods supplying system is the unbalanced condition of public goods supply, and the chief reason for which is unitary system of supply main body.Thus the leading countermeasure for corner of public goods supply is to reform the present unitary rural public goods supplying system, to strengthen functional transfer of rural grass-roots directive organization, to adopt diversified mode and provide public goods on the base of overall planning of urban and rural areas and to implement unitary and diversified supplying strategy. In this way, supplying efficiency of the rural public goods will be improved.

  17. Game Analysis and Countermeasures on Increasing Prices of Agricultural Products under Triple Supply Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    From the perspective of supply chain of agricultural products,by establishing Stackelberg game model based on triple supply chain,this paper researches the price formation and profit distribution mechanism of agricultural products under circumstance of non-cooperation and cooperation.The results show the main factors responsible for the hiking of prices of agricultural products as follows:the cost of agricultural products climbs incessantly;the circulation cost hovers at high level;the factor inputs of agricultural products are short;inflation pressure is incessantly mounting;the profit distribution of supply chain is irrational.Finally,corresponding countermeasures are put forward.

  18. The long-term problems of contaminated land: Sources, impacts and countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, C.F. III

    1986-11-01

    This report examines the various sources of radiological land contamination; its extent; its impacts on man, agriculture, and the environment; countermeasures for mitigating exposures; radiological standards; alternatives for achieving land decontamination and cleanup; and possible alternatives for utilizing the land. The major potential sources of extensive long-term land contamination with radionuclides, in order of decreasing extent, are nuclear war, detonation of a single nuclear weapon (e.g., a terrorist act), serious reactor accidents, and nonfission nuclear weapons accidents that disperse the nuclear fuels (termed ''broken arrows'').

  19. Electron optics

    CERN Document Server

    Grivet, Pierre; Bertein, F; Castaing, R; Gauzit, M; Septier, Albert L

    1972-01-01

    Electron Optics, Second English Edition, Part I: Optics is a 10-chapter book that begins by elucidating the fundamental features and basic techniques of electron optics, as well as the distribution of potential and field in electrostatic lenses. This book then explains the field distribution in magnetic lenses; the optical properties of electrostatic and magnetic lenses; and the similarities and differences between glass optics and electron optics. Subsequent chapters focus on lens defects; some electrostatic lenses and triode guns; and magnetic lens models. The strong focusing lenses and pris

  20. Electronic diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Diagrams is a ready reference and general guide to systems and circuit planning and in the preparation of diagrams for both newcomers and the more experienced. This book presents guidelines and logical procedures that the reader can follow and then be equipped to tackle large complex diagrams by recognition of characteristic 'building blocks' or 'black boxes'. The goal is to break down many of the barriers that often seem to deter students and laymen in learning the art of electronics, especially when they take up electronics as a spare time occupation. This text is comprised of nin

  1. Digital electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, John

    2013-01-01

    An essential companion to John C Morris's 'Analogue Electronics', this clear and accessible text is designed for electronics students, teachers and enthusiasts who already have a basic understanding of electronics, and who wish to develop their knowledge of digital techniques and applications. Employing a discovery-based approach, the author covers fundamental theory before going on to develop an appreciation of logic networks, integrated circuit applications and analogue-digital conversion. A section on digital fault finding and useful ic data sheets completes th

  2. Electronic identity

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Norberto Nuno Gomes; Argles, David

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing availability of electronic services, security and a reliable means by which identity is verified is essential.Written by Norberto Andrade the first chapter of this book provides an overview of the main legal and regulatory aspects regarding electronic identity in Europe and assesses the importance of electronic identity for administration (public), business (private) and, above all, citizens. It also highlights the role of eID as a key enabler of the economy.In the second chapter Lisha Chen-Wilson, David Argles, Michele Schiano di Zenise and Gary Wills discuss the user-cent

  3. Stretchable electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Someya, Takao

    2012-01-01

    With its comprehensive coverage this handbook and ready reference brings together some of the most outstanding scientists in the field to lay down the undisputed knowledge on how to make electronics stretchable.As such, it focuses on gathering and evaluating the materials, designs, models and technologies that enable the fabrication of fully elastic electronic devices which can sustain high strain. Furthermore, it provides a review of those specific applications that directly benefit from highly compliant electronics, including transistors, photonic devices and sensors. In addition to stre

  4. Starting electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Starting Electronics is unrivalled as a highly practical introduction for hobbyists, students and technicians. Keith Brindley introduces readers to the functions of the main component types, their uses, and the basic principles of building and designing electronic circuits. Breadboard layouts make this very much a ready-to-run book for the experimenter; and the use of multimeter, but not oscilloscopes, puts this practical exploration of electronics within reach of every home enthusiast's pocket. The third edition has kept the simplicity and clarity of the original. New material

  5. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Polymer electronics is the science behind many important new developments in technology, such as the flexible electronic display (e-ink) and many new developments in transistor technology. Solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and transistors are all areas where plastic electronics is likely to, or is already having, a serious impact on our daily lives. With polymer transistors and light-emitting diodes now being commercialised, there is a clear need for a pedagogic text thatdiscusses the subject in a clear and concise fashion suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate students. The content

  6. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  7. Electronic Elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Electronic voting technology is a two edged sword. It comes with many risks but brings also many benefits. Instead of flat out rejecting the technology as uncontrollably dangerous, we advocate in this paper a different technological angle that renders electronic elections trustworthy beyond...... the usual levels of doubt. We exploit the trust that voters currently have into the democratic process and model our techniques around that observation accordingly. In particular, we propose a technique of trace emitting computations to record the individual steps of an electronic voting machine...... for a posteriori validation on an acceptably small trusted computing base. Our technology enables us to prove that an electronic elections preserves the voter’s intent, assuming that the voting machine and the trace verifier are independent....

  8. Electronic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T.; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization. PMID:26702448

  9. ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    'electronic signature' means data attached to, incorporated in, or logically ... See Cwele v S 2012 4 All SA 497 (SCA); Mohlabeng v Minister of Safety and Security ... ZAKZPHC 51 (2 September 2010); Delta Finance, a Division of Wesbank, ...

  10. Electron Microprobe

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The JEOL JXA-8600 is a conventional hairpin filament thermal emission electron microprobe that is more than 20 years old. It is capable of performing qualitative and...

  11. Electronic commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Veselková, Zdeňka

    2012-01-01

    The thesis deals with a description of electronic commerce from its beginning up to present situation in this area. It explains basic terms connected with electronic commerce and it summarizes the relevant legislation. Moreover it describes e-contracts and rights and duties of both contractual parties. The main view is the view of Internet retailer, which is reflected in the practical part focused on concrete problems of retailers.

  12. Planning strategies for development of effective exercise and nutrition countermeasures for long-duration space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    2002-01-01

    Exercise and nutrition represent primary countermeasures used during space flight to maintain or restore maximal aerobic capacity, musculoskeletal structure, and orthostatic function. However, no single exercise, dietary regimen, or combination of prescriptions has proven entirely effective in maintaining or restoring cardiovascular and musculoskeletal functions to preflight levels after prolonged space flight. As human space flight exposures increase in duration, identification, assessment, and development of various effective exercise- and nutrition-based protective procedures will become paramount. The application of adequate dietary intake in combination with effective exercise prescription will be based on identification of basic physiologic stimuli that maintain normal function in terrestrial gravity, and understanding how specific combinations of exercise characteristics (e.g., duration, frequency, intensity, and mode) can be combined with minimal nutritional requirements that mimic the stimuli normally produced by living in Earth's gravity environment. This can be accomplished only with greater emphasis of research on ground-based experiments targeted at understanding the interactions between caloric intake and expenditure during space flight. Future strategies for application of nutrition and exercise countermeasures for long-duration space missions must be directed to minimizing crew time and the impact on life-support resources.

  13. Astronaut Biography Project for Countermeasures of Human Behavior and Performance Risks in Long Duration Space Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Akeem

    2012-01-01

    This final report will summarize research that relates to human behavioral health and performance of astronauts and flight controllers. Literature reviews, data archival analyses, and ground-based analog studies that center around the risk of human space flight are being used to help mitigate human behavior and performance risks from long duration space flights. A qualitative analysis of an astronaut autobiography was completed. An analysis was also conducted on exercise countermeasure publications to show the positive affects of exercise on the risks targeted in this study. The three main risks targeted in this study are risks of behavioral and psychiatric disorders, risks of performance errors due to poor team performance, cohesion, and composition, and risks of performance errors due to sleep deprivation, circadian rhythm. These three risks focus on psychological and physiological aspects of astronauts who venture out into space on long duration space missions. The purpose of this research is to target these risks in order to help quantify, identify, and mature countermeasures and technologies required in preventing or mitigating adverse outcomes from exposure to the spaceflight environment

  14. A fuzzy analytic network process for multi-criteria evaluation of contaminated site remedial countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promentilla, Michael Angelo B; Furuichi, T; Ishii, K; Tanikawa, N

    2008-08-01

    The Analytic Network Process (ANP) has been proposed to incorporate interdependence and feedback effect in the prioritization of remedial countermeasures using a hierarchical network decision model, but this approach seems to be incapable of capturing the vagueness and fuzziness during value judgment elicitation. The aim of this paper is to present an evaluation method using a fuzzy ANP (FANP) approach to address this shortcoming. Triangular fuzzy numbers (TFN) and their degree of fuzziness are used in the semantic scale as human judgment expressed in natural language is most often vague and fuzzy. The method employs the alpha-cuts, interval arithmetic and optimism index to transform the fuzzy comparative judgment matrix into set of crisp matrices, and then calculates the desired priorities using the eigenvector method. A numerical example, which was drawn from a real-life case study of an uncontrolled landfill in Japan, is presented to demonstrate the process. Results from the sensitivity analysis describe how the fuzziness in judgment could affect the solution robustness of the prioritization method. The proposed FANP approach therefore could effectively deal with the uncertain judgment inherent in the decision making process and derive the meaningful priorities explicitly from a complex decision structure in the evaluation of contaminated site remedial countermeasures.

  15. Research on countermeasures to global environment change in the field of urban planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawanaka, Takashi [Building Research Inst., Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    There are a lot of research themes in the field of urban planning and related fields as mitigation of global environment change. Main theme is reduction method of CO{sub 2} gas emission as a countermeasure against global warming. Some groups research on estimation of CO{sub 2} emission caused by construction activities both in building engineering and civil engineering and also on evaluation of countermeasures. They investigate reduction of CO{sub 2} emission by fossil fuel combustion and by building materials (cement, steel and so on) production process. But we cannot use data fitted to a spatial scale of urban planning. Many researches are focused on nation wide analysis. We, BRI, make a study of {open_quotes}Research on CO{sub 2} Emission in Urban Development and the Control Technologies{close_quotes} as will be seen later at 2. (2). There are two ways of research to reduce CO{sub 2} emission caused by daily activities to urban planning field. One is research on positive utilizing of natural environment in urban areas without depending to energy consuming artificial facilities. There is a research on mitigation of heat island phenomenon for instance. The other ways are research on improvement of energy consumption effect and on reusing of wasted energy In energy consuming type urban space for instance. There s a research on promoting District Heating and Cooling (DHC) and cogeneration.

  16. Fundamental Experiment to Determine Escape Countermeasures for Frogs Falling into Agricultural Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Keiji; Mori, Atsushi; Koizumi, Noriyuki; Takemura, Takeshi

    Frogs often drown in agricultural canals with deep concrete walls, which are installed commonly in paddy fields after land improvement projects in Japan, because they cannot escape after falling into the canal. Therefore, countermeasures that enable frogs to escape from canals are required in some rural areas. An experimental canal with partially sloped walls was used as an escape countermeasure to investigate the preferable angle of slope for the walls, water depth and flow velocity that enables Tokyo Daruma Pond Frogs (Rana porosa porosa), which have no adhesive discs, to easily escape. Walls with slopes of 30-45 degrees allowed 50-60% of frogs to escape from the experimental canals, frogs especially easily climbed the 30 degree sloped walls. When the water depth was 5 cm or flow velocity was greater than 20 cm/s, approximately 80% of the frogs moved downstream and reached the sloped walls because the frogs' toes did not reach the bottom of the canal. However, if the depth was 2 cm and the flow velocity was 5 cm/s, only 4% of the frogs climbed the sloped walls because they could move freely. The frogs appeared to not be good at long-distance swimming and could not remain a long-time under running water. Therefore, walls sloped less than 30 degrees and control of both water depth and flow velocity appears important for enabling frogs to easily escape from canals.

  17. A Study of Heavy Metal Pollution in China: Current Status, Pollution-Control Policies and Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Hu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past 30 years, China’s economy has experienced rapid development, which led to a vast increase in energy consumption and serious environmental pollution. Among the different types of pollution, heavy metal pollution has become one of the major environmental issues in China. A number of studies show that high level of heavy metal exposure is a frequent cause of permanent intellectual and developmental disabilities. In recent years, some traditional pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide, have been put under control in China. However, heavy metal pollution, which poses even greater risks to public health and sustainable development, has yet to gain policymakers’ attention. The purpose of this paper is to explore effective countermeasures for heavy metal pollution in China. The present study reviews the current status of China’s heavy metal pollution and analyzes related public policies and countermeasures against that pollution. It also presents a few recommendations and measures for prevention of heavy metal pollution.

  18. X1: A Robotic Exoskeleton for In-Space Countermeasures and Dynamometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Rochelle; Beck, Christopher; Rovekamp, Roger; Diftler, Myron; Neuhaus, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Bone density loss and muscle atrophy are among the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) highest concerns for crew health in space. Countless hours are spent maintaining an exercise regimen aboard the International Space Station (ISS) to counteract the effect of zero-gravity. Looking toward the future, NASA researchers are developing new compact and innovative exercise technologies to maintain crew health as missions increase in length and take humans further out into the solar system. The X1 Exoskeleton, initially designed for assisted mobility on Earth, was quickly theorized to have far-reaching potential as both an in-space countermeasures device and a dynamometry device to measure muscle strength. This lower-extremity device has the ability to assist or resist human movement through the use of actuators positioned at the hips and knees. Multiple points of adjustment allow for a wide range of users, all the while maintaining correct joint alignment. This paper discusses how the X1 Exoskeleton may fit NASA's onorbit countermeasures needs.

  19. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element Nutrition Risk Standing Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistrian, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    The Nutrition Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) reviewed and discussed the specific gaps and tasks for the Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element related to nutrition identified in the Human Research Program (HRP) Integrated Research Plan. There was general consensus that the described gaps and proposed tasks were critical to future NASA mission success. The SRP acknowledged the high scientific quality of the work currently being undertaken by the Nutritional Biochemistry group under the direction of Dr. Scott Smith. In review of the entire HRP, four new gaps were identified that complement the Element's existing research activities. Given the limitations of ground-based analogs for many of the unique physiological and metabolic alterations in space, future studies are needed to quantify nutritional factors that change during actual space flight. In addition, future tasks should seek to better evaluate the time course of physiological and metabolic alterations during flight to better predict alterations during longer duration missions. Finally, given the recent data suggesting a potential role for increased inflammatory responses during space flight, the role of inflammation needs to be explored in detail, including the development of potential countermeasures and new ground based analogs, if this possibility is confirmed.

  20. Investigating the formal countermeasures and informal strategies used to mitigate SPAD risk in train driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naweed, Anjum; Rainbird, Sophia; Chapman, Janine

    2015-01-01

    Various countermeasures are used to mitigate signal passed at danger (SPAD) events on railways, yet they continue. While risk factors that destabilise cognitive processes have been identified, less has been published on the relationship between these factors and the informal strategies that drivers themselves adopt to reduce individual SPAD risk. This study aimed to address this gap and used a participative approach to collect and thematically analyse data from 28 drivers across eight rail organisations in Australia and New Zealand. The results showed not all formal countermeasures were considered effective, and identified several informal strategies. These aimed to reduce task disruption, service distortion and maintain connectedness to signals. While some evidenced redundancies in the task and cab, others did not reduce baseline risk. This paper explores the relationship between the established risks and identified strategies towards evaluating the utility of formal and informal mitigations. The research has application to the investigation of collision risk in all transport domains. Practitioner Summary: A participative approach was used to investigate SPAD mitigation techniques in train driving, and to explore risk-strategy relationship dynamics. Several informal strategies designed to reduce task disruption, service distortion and maintain signal connectedness were identified. While some evidenced redundancies in the task and cab, others did not reduce baseline risk.

  1. Incorporation of omics analyses into artificial gravity research for space exploration countermeasure development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael A; Goodwin, Thomas J; Pelligra, Ralph

    The next major steps in human spaceflight include flyby, orbital, and landing missions to the Moon, Mars, and near earth asteroids. The first crewed deep space mission is expected to launch in 2022, which affords less than 7 years to address the complex question of whether and how to apply artificial gravity to counter the effects of prolonged weightlessness. Various phenotypic changes are demonstrated during artificial gravity experiments. However, the molecular dynamics (genotype and molecular phenotypes) that underlie these morphological, physiological, and behavioral phenotypes are far more complex than previously understood. Thus, targeted molecular assessment of subjects under various G conditions can be expected to miss important patterns of molecular variance that inform the more general phenotypes typically being measured. Use of omics methods can help detect changes across broad molecular networks, as various G-loading paradigms are applied. This will be useful in detecting off-target, or unanticipated effects of the different gravity paradigms applied to humans or animals. Insights gained from these approaches may eventually be used to inform countermeasure development or refine the deployment of existing countermeasures. This convergence of the omics and artificial gravity research communities may be critical if we are to develop the proper artificial gravity solutions under the severely compressed timelines currently established. Thus, the omics community may offer a unique ability to accelerate discovery, provide new insights, and benefit deep space missions in ways that have not been previously considered.

  2. Circadian countermeasures for shiftworkers during USMP-2: A report to mission management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Karen T.; Hayes, Julie

    1994-01-01

    People who must work at night experience a number of physiological and psychological difficulties. These include sleepiness and fatigue at work, poor daytime sleep, gastrointestinal distress, impaired concentration and performance, disturbed mood, and increased health complaints and risk of disease. These difficulties arise because nocturnal work and daytime sleep take place at inappropriate phases of the body's circadian rhythms. Intense artificial light can shift the phase of human circadian rhythms, and can thus be used to promote adaptation to shifted work schedules. The first attempts to investigate the efficacy of light treatment for MSFC POCC shiftworkers took place during USML-1 and ATLAS-2. The findings from these studies led to the development of a Circadian Countermeasures Program that was implemented during USMP-2. Light treatment and other circadian countermeasures were employed to promote adjustment to mission shiftwork in POCC cadre volunteers. Treatment protocols were designed and customized for each volunteer's work hours and personal preferences. Treatment protocols included some or all of the following: scheduled self-administration of intense light, scheduled avoidance or attenuation of sunlight at other times, and sleep schedules. Data from post-mission questionnaires indicated that volunteers found the program to be effective, convenient, and beneficial.

  3. 77 FR 18251 - Development of Animal Models of Pregnancy To Address Medical Countermeasures for Influenza in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Development of Animal Models of Pregnancy To Address Medical... Research are announcing a 2-day public workshop entitled ``Development of Animal Models of Pregnancy To... issues related to selecting animal models for use in evaluating medical influenza countermeasures...

  4. Vulnerabilities of Electronics Communication: solution mechanism through script

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar Singh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available World trade and related business ventures are more or less dependent on communication. Information content of communication is to be protected as mis-communication or incorrect information may ruin any business prospect. Communication using Internet or any other electronic communication is having various kinds of threat and vulnerability. Information should be packaged for communication in such a way that these vulnerabilities are reduced to a minimum. With the increased use of networked computers for critical systems, network security is attracting increasing attention. This paper focuses on the most common attacks to paralyze computer and network resources, in order to stop essential communication services. The paper provides methods, ways and means for obtaining network traces of malicious traffic and strategies for providing countermeasures. Analysis of packet captured in a network traffic is a common method of deletion of countermeasure of communication based vulnerabilities. Analysis of http based network traffic allows to intercept sensitive information such as the user's name and password. The ideal approach for secured communication is to remove all security flaws from individual hosts. A tradeoff between overheads (computational and business and efficiency of securing mechanism of communication may be achieved by using the script based solutions. This paper presents the communication based vulnerabilities and their script based solution.

  5. 连锁零售企业发展之困境及其破解%The Problems of Chain Retailers and Its Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周素伟

    2014-01-01

    Chain retailers are good at enlarging their business through standardizing products ,chain operation ,fast copying model and uni-fied management .Recently ,under the influence of electronic commerce ,inflation ,rising cost and demographic dividend lost ,chain retail-ers are facing an unprecedented challenge .However ,chain retailers can change their operation mode by adopting online and offline way , shifting to another business ,withdrawing some chain stores ,enlarging sub-channel and welcoming new partners to share risks and etc . Those countermeasures may help them make a long and sustaining development .%连锁零售企业以其产品标准化,连锁布局经营,快速复制,品牌优势,统一管理而快速实现规模扩张。近年来受金融危机导致的通货膨胀、经营成本上涨、电子商务、人口红利丧失等多重因素影响,连锁零售企业面临前所未有的挑战。连锁零售企业可采取线上线下经营方式改变、转行、收缩战线、拓展分销渠道、争取战略合作伙伴共担风险等举措,从而实现可持续发展。

  6. Analysis on Problems and Countermeasures of the Coal Mine Electromechanical Management%浅析煤矿机电管理存在的问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝玉辉

    2015-01-01

    分析当前煤矿企业机电管理中存在的问题,对降低煤矿企业能源消耗、提高其安全生产能力等都具有重要意义。当前机电管理中存在的突出问题主要集中在采购、施工、维护和改造等四方面,根据煤矿企业机电管理的发展趋势,从电子采购平台、职工追责机制、技术竞赛和改造评价体系等四方面提出了相应对策。%This paper analyzes the current problems existing in the coal mine electromechanical management ,which is of signifi-cance to reduce the energy consumption of coal mine enterprises and to improve the safe production ability .T he current outstand-ing problems existing in the electrical and mechanical management focuses on four aspects ,such as procurement ,construction , maintenance and reconstruction .According to the trend of the development of coal mine electromechanical management ,four as-pects response countermeasures that from the electronic procurement platform ,employee accountability mechanism ,technology competition and reforming evaluation system are put forward .

  7. Characteristics of Telecoms Fraud and Countermeasures in Australia%澳大利亚电信诈骗特点及防控对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙蓓; 秦飞; 梅诗钰

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, with information technology developing, more and more Australians are inclined to get desired physical substances and virtual services through virtual, convenient and paperless electronic transactions. Criminals take advantage of Internet lfaws to commit distant and contactless fraud, which results in Australians’ heavy economic loss. As such, Australian police have taken many countermeasures against telecoms fraud.%近年来,随着信息技术的不断发展,越来越多的澳大利亚人倾向于通过虚拟、便捷、无纸化的电子交易手段获得自己想要的实体物质和虚拟服务。犯罪分子利用电信业、互联网漏洞实施“远程非接触式”诈骗,使一些澳大利亚民众遭受巨大经济损失。为此,澳大利亚警方在应对电信诈骗犯罪方面采取了多方面的防控措施。

  8. Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF......) are chemically merged together to form cruciform-like structures that are an essential part of the thesis. The cruciform molecules were subjected to molecular conductance measurements to explore their capability towards single-crystal field-effect transistors (Part 1), molecular wires, and single electron......, however, was obtained by a study of a single molecular transistor. The investigated OPE5-TTF compound was captured in a three-terminal experiment, whereby manipulation of the molecule’s electronic spin was possible in different charge states. Thus, we demonstrated how the cruciform molecules could...

  9. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    energy at the end-user should also be set up. Deregulation of energy has in the past lowered the investment in larger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources will be high in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One...... is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...

  10. Electron Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegbahn, Kai

    Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen's discovery of X radiation in 1895 in Wörzburg resulted in an immediate break-through not only in physics but also in Society, the latter mainly because of its sensational radiological applications. Within a short time it furthermore indirectly led to the discovery of radioactivity by Henri Becquerel. The discovery of X radiation opened the gate to modern atomic physics, and radioactivity to nuclear physics. Later on, the discovery of X-ray diffraction by Laue, Friedrich and Knipping in 1912 initiated the field of X-ray spectroscopy with its fundamental contributions to atomic and crystal structures. Secondary electrons were early observed in the scattered radiation when X-rays were hitting a sample. The development of the corresponding electron spectroscopy had to wait a much longer time for its maturity. A survey of electron spectroscopy is presented.

  11. Electronic Commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, N. [NRG Information Services Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    The concept of electronic commerce in the gas industry was discussed. It was defined as the integration of communication technology, advanced information processing capability and business standards, to improve effectiveness of the business process. Examples of electronic data interchange from the automotive, airline, and banking industry were given. The objective of using this technology in the gas industry was described as the provision of one electronic facility to make seamless contractual and operational arrangements for moving natural gas across participating pipelines. The benefit of seamless integration - one readily available standard system used by several companies - was highlighted. A list of value-added services such as the free movement of bulletins, directories, nominations,and other documents was provided.

  12. Spin electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Buhrman, Robert; Daughton, James; Molnár, Stephan; Roukes, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This report is a comparative review of spin electronics ("spintronics") research and development activities in the United States, Japan, and Western Europe conducted by a panel of leading U.S. experts in the field. It covers materials, fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanostructures, magnetism and spin control in magnetic nanostructures, magneto-optical properties of semiconductors, and magnetoelectronics and devices. The panel's conclusions are based on a literature review and a series of site visits to leading spin electronics research centers in Japan and Western Europe. The panel found that Japan is clearly the world leader in new material synthesis and characterization; it is also a leader in magneto-optical properties of semiconductor devices. Europe is strong in theory pertaining to spin electronics, including injection device structures such as tunneling devices, and band structure predictions of materials properties, and in development of magnetic semiconductors and semiconductor heterost...

  13. Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    ) are chemically merged together to form cruciform-like structures that are an essential part of the thesis. The cruciform molecules were subjected to molecular conductance measurements to explore their capability towards single-crystal field-effect transistors (Part 1), molecular wires, and single electron......This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF......, however, was obtained by a study of a single molecular transistor. The investigated OPE5-TTF compound was captured in a three-terminal experiment, whereby manipulation of the molecule’s electronic spin was possible in different charge states. Thus, we demonstrated how the cruciform molecules could...

  14. SiGe-based re-engineering of electronic warfare subsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Lambrechts, Wynand

    2017-01-01

    This book equips readers with a thorough understanding of the applicability of new-generation silicon-germanium (SiGe) electronic subsystems for the military purposes of electronic warfare and defensive countermeasures. The theoretical and technical background is extensively explained and all aspects of the integration of SiGe as an enabling technology for maritime, land, and airborne (including space) electronic warfare are addressed, including research, design, development, and implementation. The coverage is supported by mathematical derivations, informative illustrations, practical examples, and case studies. While SiGe technology provides speed, performance, and price advantages in many markets, sharing of information on its use in electronic warfare systems has to date been limited, especially in developing nations. This book will therefore be warmly welcomed as an engineering guideline that focuses especially on the speed and reliability of current-generation SiGe circuits and highlights emerging innov...

  15. 电子图书及其发展对策%Development of electronic books and its countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐彦; 王夏华

    2007-01-01

    通过对电子图书与传统图书进行比较分析,阐述了电子图书的优点及其对图书馆业务的影响;分析了电子图书的发展现状和存在的主要问题,并提出了解决这些问题的相应对策.

  16. The Pros and Cons of Electronic Countermeasures%电子购物的利弊对策探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建军

    2007-01-01

    随着电子商务的发展,网上购物日益盛行,本文主要介绍了网上购物的一些基本知识,分析了网上购物的一些利与弊,并再此基础上介绍了如何保证网上购物的安全性问题.

  17. Greening Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Søes Kokborg, Morten; Thomsen, Marianne

    Based on a literature review with focus on hazardous substances in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) and numbers from a Danish treatment facility a flow analysis for specific substances has been conducted. Further, the accessible knowledge on human and environmental effects due...

  18. Superconducting electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogalla, Horst

    1994-01-01

    During the last decades superconducting electronics has been the most prominent area of research for small scale applications of superconductivity. It has experienced quite a stormy development, from individual low frequency devices to devices with high integration density and pico second switching

  19. Electronic Portfolios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.

    1996-01-01

    Outlines three forms of electronic portfolio based on a student's work, a class project about a specific topic, and a class seminar on a broad topic. Discusses logistical problems of management, access, and cross-referencing; technical problems of input, access, and copying; and theoretical issues of the lack of realia, of ownership and copyright,…

  20. Electronic Money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Tim

    Thirty years ago a cashless society was predicted for the near future; paper currency and checks would be an antiquated symbol of the past. Consumers would embrace a new alternative for making payments: electronic money. But currency is still used for 87% of payments, mainly for "nickel and dime" purchases. And checks are the payment…

  1. Electronic spectroscopies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Schoonheydt, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared region is a versatile spectroscopic technique, as both d-d and charge transfer transitions of supported TMI can be probed. One of the advantages of electronic spectroscopy is that the obtained information is

  2. Electronic Homework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fong-lok; Heyworth, Rex M.

    The Electronic Homework assistant system is composed of two components: the Computer Tutor and the Homework Administrator. The Computer Tutor is an intelligent tutoring system that can provide personal assistance like supplying hints, checking errors, providing remediation and prioritizing problems. The Homework Administrator is a teacher's…

  3. Greening Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Søes Kokborg, Morten; Thomsen, Marianne

    Based on a literature review with focus on hazardous substances in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) and numbers from a Danish treatment facility a flow analysis for specific substances has been conducted. Further, the accessible knowledge on human and environmental effects due to po...

  4. Electronic Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e...

  5. Electronic detectors for electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruqi, A R; McMullan, G

    2011-08-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) is an important tool for high-resolution structure determination in applications ranging from condensed matter to biology. Electronic detectors are now used in most applications in EM as they offer convenience and immediate feedback that is not possible with film or image plates. The earliest forms of electronic detector used routinely in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were charge coupled devices (CCDs) and for many applications these remain perfectly adequate. There are however applications, such as the study of radiation-sensitive biological samples, where film is still used and improved detectors would be of great value. The emphasis in this review is therefore on detectors for use in such applications. Two of the most promising candidates for improved detection are: monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) and hybrid pixel detectors (of which Medipix2 was chosen for this study). From the studies described in this review, a back-thinned MAPS detector appears well suited to replace film in for the study of radiation-sensitive samples at 300 keV, while Medipix2 is suited to use at lower energies and especially in situations with very low count rates. The performance of a detector depends on the energy of electrons to be recorded, which in turn is dependent on the application it is being used for; results are described for a wide range of electron energies ranging from 40 to 300 keV. The basic properties of detectors are discussed in terms of their modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) as a function of spatial frequency.

  6. Back pain in space and post-flight spine injury: Mechanisms and countermeasure development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayson, Jojo V.; Lotz, Jeffrey; Parazynski, Scott; Hargens, Alan R.

    2013-05-01

    During spaceflight many astronauts experience moderate to severe lumbar pain and deconditioning of paraspinal muscles. There is also a significant incidence of herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) in astronauts post-flight being most prevalent in cervical discs. Relief of in-flight lumbar back pain is facilitated by assuming a knee-to-chest position. The pathogenesis of lumbar back pain during spaceflight is most likely discogenic and somatic referred (from the sinuvertebral nerves) due to supra-physiologic swelling of the lumbar intervertebral discs (IVDs) due to removal of gravitational compressive loads in microgravity. The knee-to-chest position may reduce lumbar back pain by redistributing stresses through compressive loading to the IVDs, possibly reducing disc volume by fluid outflow across IVD endplates. IVD stress redistribution may reduce Type IV mechanoreceptor nerve impulse propagation in the annulus fibrosus and vertebral endplate resulting in centrally mediated pain inhibition during spinal flexion. Countermeasures for lumbar back pain may include in-flight use of: (1) an axial compression harness to prevent excessive IVD expansion and spinal column elongation; (2) the use of an adjustable pulley exercise developed to prevent atrophy of spine muscle stabilisers; and (3) other exercises that provide Earth-like annular stress with low-load repetitive active spine rotation movements. The overall objective of these countermeasures is to promote IVD health and to prevent degenerative changes that may lead to HNPs post-flight. In response to "NASA's Critical Path Roadmap Risks and Questions" regarding disc injury and higher incidence of HNPs after space flight (Integrated Research Plan Gap-B4), future studies will incorporate pre- and post-flight imaging of International Space Station long-duration crew members to investigate mechanisms of lumbar back pain as well as degeneration and damage to spinal structures. Quantitative results on morphological, biochemical

  7. The value of the 4-day headdown bedrest model for screening countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikos, J.; Keil, L.; Ertl, A. C.; Wade, C. E.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Ohara, D.; Ludwig, D.

    1992-01-01

    In order to evaluate the benefits of periodic exposure to the +G(z) vector as a countermeasure to the physiological responses to minus 6 degree head down bedrest (HDT), we considered a two-tiered approach: (a) to use 4 days HDT as a quick and inexpensive means of screening countermeasures, (b) to use a 60 day HDT to validate the most promising candidates. The approach and results of a 4 day study are described here. Methods: Nine males were admitted to our Human Research Facility for one ambulatory control day followed by 4 days HDT and were released on the next day after completion of a peak oxygen consumption test (VO(sub 2 peak)). A battery of tests was selected and standardized to evaluate the known early effects of HDT on plasma volume, early bone markers, orthostatic tolerance, physical performance, and fluid and electrolytes and their hormone regulation. Fluid sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake and output in the urine were monitored throughout. Plasma volume was determined with a modified Evans Blue method and orthostatic tolerance with a 60 degree head-up tilt test for 30 minutes - both of which were determined on the ambulatory control day and on day 4 of HDT. Immediately after completion of the tilt test subjects were returned to the minus 6 degree position until the next morning when a VO(sub 2 peak) (horizontal ergometer) was done. This was compared to a similar control test determined on 2 separate occasions before subject admission. Results: Four hours after going HDT produced significant decreases (p less than 0.05) in the circulating concentration of fluid and electrolyte regulating hormones. Plasma volume, orthostatic tolerance and VO(sub 2 peak) changed significantly after 4 days HDT. There was also the expected natriuresis on day 1 of HDT but no significant diuresis. The consistency of the pre-bedrest VO(sub 2 peak) tilt tests and plasma volumes was remarkable. Conclusions: The 4 day HDT model seems highly promising for screening a variety of

  8. Practical Applications of Cables and Ropes in the ISS Countermeasures System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Cherice; Svetlik, Randall; Williams, Antony

    2017-01-01

    As spaceflight durations have increased over the last four decades, the effects of weightlessness on the human body are far better understood, as are the countermeasures. A combination of aerobic and resistive exercise devices contribute to countering the losses in muscle strength, aerobic fitness, and bone strength of today's astronauts and cosmonauts that occur during their missions on the International Space Station. Creation of these systems has been a dynamically educational experience for designers and engineers. The ropes and cables in particular have experienced a wide range of challenges, providing a full set of lessons learned that have already enabled improvements in on-orbit reliability by initiating system design improvements. This paper examines the on-orbit experience of ropes and cables in several exercise devices and discusses the lessons learned from these hardware items, with the goal of informing future system design.

  9. Recommendations and Countermeasures for Building Beautiful Countryside in Jiangsu Province in the New Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongxiang; GUAN; Yonghong; LIANG; Hao; WU; Zichen; WANG

    2014-01-01

    This paper firstly introduced overall condition of agricultural and rural economic development in Jiangsu Province,and analyzed restrictive factors and bottleneck in the process of new socialist countryside construction from policy,fund and understanding. There are many problems in the process of new socialist countryside construction,including no supply and management system for rural public service products,no agricultural ecological compensation mechanism,increasingly prominent rural hollowing and decline of passing on economic culture,lack of funds and technologies for new socialist countryside construction,and inadequate understanding of new socialist countryside construction. In line with these problems,it came up with recommendations and countermeasures for beautiful countryside construction in Jiangsu Province in the new period from government guidance,plan leading,industrial support,environmental improvement,innovation management and cultural cultivation.

  10. Catastrophe mechanism and disaster countermeasure for soft rock roadway surrounding rock in Meihe mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yang⇑; Zhu Caikun; Chong Deyu; Liu Yang; Li Sichao

    2015-01-01

    The soft rock’s heterogeneity and nonlinear mechanical behavior cause extremely difficult maintenance on the soft rock roadway. Aiming at the asymmetric deformation and destruction phenomenon appearing after excavating and supporting the 7101 air return way in Meihe mine, this paper comprehensively adopted a variety of methods to analyze the roadway surrounding rock deformation rule, obtaining the roadway surrounding rock stress and plastic zone distribution rule under no supporting condition and the roadway surrounding rock deformation features under original symmetric supporting condition. Furthermore, this paper revealed the catastrophe mechanism, and proposed the concept of‘weak struc-ture’ and the disaster countermeasure of‘overall stabilizing the roadway and strengthening the support of weak structure’ . The industrial test shows that the disaster control technology can realize the coordination deformation of the supporting structure and roadway surrounding rock, thus significantly controlling the deformation of roadway surrounding rock.

  11. AST-induced bone loss in men with prostate cancer: exercise as a potential countermeasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolam, K A; Galvão, D A; Spry, N; Newton, R U; Taaffe, D R

    2012-12-01

    Androgen suppression treatment (AST) for men with prostate cancer is associated with a number of treatment-related side effects including an accelerated rate of bone loss. This loss of bone is greatest within the first year of AST and increases the risk for fracture. Pharmaceutical treatment in the form of bisphosphonates is currently used to counter the effects of hormone suppression on bone but is costly and associated with potential adverse effects. Recently, exercise has been shown to be an important adjuvant therapy to manage a range of treatment-related toxicities and enhance aspects of quality of life for men receiving AST. We propose that physical exercise may also have an important role in not only attenuating the bone loss associated with AST but in improving bone health and reducing fracture risk. In this review, the rationale underlying exercise as a countermeasure to AST-induced bone loss is provided.

  12. Obstacles to Development of Marketing Channels of Agricultural Products in China and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the connotation of marketing channels of agricultural products, and gives an overall of current modes of marketing channels of agricultural products in China, including the marketing channel of transportation and sale of agricultural products, the marketing channel of intermediary sales agent, and the marketing channel of mutual cooperation. The problems existing in the marketing channel of agricultural products in China as follows: first, the cost is high; second, the technological content is low; third, the upstream main body lacks competitiveness; fourth, the structure of investment is irrational. Corresponding countermeasures are put forward to develop marketing channels of agricultural products as follows: perfect the service function of wholesale market of agricultural products; propel the construction of integration and expansion of wholesale market; develop the circulation cooperatives of agricultural products; develop the integrated organization of production and sales of agricultural products.

  13. Study on a Threat-Countermeasure Model Based on International Standard Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Horacio Ramirez Caceres

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Many international standards exist in the field of IT security. This research is based on the ISO/IEC 15408, 15446, 19791, 13335 and 17799 standards. In this paper, we propose a knowledge base comprising a threat countermeasure model based on international standards for identifying and specifying threats which affect IT environments. In addition, the proposed knowledge base system aims at fusing similar security control policies and objectives in order to create effective security guidelines for specific IT environments. As a result, a knowledge base of security objectives was developed on the basis of the relationships inside the standards as well as the relationships between different standards. In addition, a web application was developed which displays details about the most common threats to information systems, and for each threat presents a set of related security control policies from different international standards, including ISO/IEC 27002.

  14. Eccentric exercise training as a countermeasure to non-weight-bearing soleus muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Christopher R.; Ryan, Mirelle J.; Booth, Frank W.

    1992-01-01

    This investigation tested whether eccentric resistance training could prevent soleus muscle atrophy during non-weight bearing. Adult female rats were randomly assigned to either weight bearing +/- intramuscular electrodes or non-weight bearing +/- intramuscular electrodes groups. Electrically stimulated maximal eccentric contractions were performed on anesthetized animals at 48-h intervals during the 10-day experiment. Non-weight bearing significantly reduced soleus muscle wet weight (28-31 percent) and noncollagenous protein content (30-31 percent) compared with controls. Eccentric exercise training during non-weight bearing attenuated but did not prevent the loss of soleus muscle wet weight and noncollagenous protein by 77 and 44 percent, respectively. The potential of eccentric exercise training as an effective and highly efficient counter-measure to non-weight-bearing atrophy is demonstrated in the 44 percent attenuation of soleus muscle noncollagenous protein loss by eccentric exercise during only 0.035 percent of the total non-weight-bearing time period.

  15. Evaluation and Countermeasures on sustainable development of nickel resources in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhifeng

    2017-08-01

    Nickel is an important strategic resource in China. With the gradual reduction of nickel re-sources and the increasing competition of the global mineral resources market, the safety of nickel resources in China has been seriously threatened. Therefore, it is very important to evaluate the sustainable develop-ment of nickel resources in China and put forward the corresponding countermeasures. In this paper, the concept and research situation of sustainable development are analyzed. Based on the specific development of nickel resources in China, this paper uses AHP to evaluate the safety of nickel resources in china. Finally, it puts forward the concrete measures to implement the sustainable development strategy of nickel resources in China.

  16. Analysis on Function Orientation and Development Countermeasures of New Agricultural Business Entities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yang,; Wang Yan

    2016-01-01

    Along with the rapid advance of industrialization and urbanization process, fostering new agricultural business entities become inevitable for agricultural transformation and the construction of agricultural modernization in China. The status of the new agricultural business entities determines the level of modern agricultural development. In recent years, new agricultural business entities have grew rapidly. However, there are still many problems including the difficulties in financing loans, inadequate agricultural insurance system, bad implementation of agricultural subsidies, jagged agricultural talents and so on. In order to foster new agricultural business entities, countermeasures should be carried out to ensure financial support, perfect the agricultural insurance, strengthen the level of agricultural subsidies, strive to develop the degree of specialization agricultural operators and so on.

  17. Cooperative learning in the teaching course of oral English-problems and countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马培培

    2016-01-01

    Classroom teaching is the fundamental mode for Chinese students to learn English and is also the principal way to conduct teach-ing effectively. For the past years, the new learning mode of coopera-tive learning has been carried out widespread. More group work in class can provide students with more opportunities to practice their oral English. In the process of conducting this new mode, we can see the class climate does liven up and every member "moves". However, when we look into, we find most of the activities become formalized than involved. This paper tries to explore the root causes of this phe-nomenon and then come up with the corresponding countermeasures. It is hoped that through the analysis we can get some ideas to cater the new learning mode to the need of Chinese students.

  18. Exercise as Countermeasure for Decrements of Performance and Mood During Long-Term Confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stefan; Piacentini, Maria F.; Meeusen, Romain; Brummer, Vera; Struder, Heiko K.

    2008-06-01

    In order to prepare for crewed exploratory missions to Moon and Mars, currently ESA is participating in two isolation studies, MARS 500 and on the antarctis station CONCORDIA. The aim of the present study is to identify exercise as a countermeasure to confinement addicted changes in mood. It is planned (1) to look at influences of exercise on the serotonergic system, which is known to have mood regulating effects and (2) to record changes in brain cortical activity due to exercise. Mood and performance tests will be carried out several times during the confinement. We hypothesize that impairments in mood due to the isolated and confined environment together with a lack of physical exercise lead to decreases in mental and perceptual motor performance whereas physical exercise linked with an activation of the serotonergic system will improve mood and therefore performance irrespectively of the environmental restrictions.

  19. Advanced Fade Countermeasures for DVB-S2 Systems in Railway Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Párraga Niebla

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analysis of advanced fade countermeasures for supporting DVB-S2 reception by mobile terminals mounted on high-speed trains. Recent market studies indicate this as a potential profitable market for satellite communications, provided that integration with wireless terrestrial networks can be implemented to bridge the satellite connectivity inside railway tunnels and large train stations. In turn, the satellite can typically offer the coverage of around 80% of the railway path with existing space infrastructure. This piece of work, representing the first step of a wider study, is focusing on the modifications which may be required in the DVB-S2 standard (to be employed in the forward link in order to achieve reliable reception in a challenging environment such as the railway one. Modifications have been devised trying to minimize the impact on the existing air interface, standardized for fixed terminals.

  20. [Degradation of main ecosystems in South China Sea and corresponding conservation countermeasures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Zhuhong; Chen, Guizhu

    2006-10-01

    South China Sea is a significant area of global biological diversity. Due to the long-term unreasonable exploitation and utilization, the habitat there degenerates obviously, and the biodiversity loses seriously. The estimated annual loss of mangrove area ranges from 0.5% to 3.5% , and that of seaweed area is from 20% to 50%. A total of 82% of coral reefs in the Sea display evident degradation. In this paper, a trans-boundary diagnostic analysis of ecosystem degradation in South China Sea was conducted, with the focus on mangrove, seaweed and coral reef. Based on the analysis of the destruction state of the existing ecosystems as well as the main causes of habitat degradation and its trans-boundary impacts, some countermeasures on habitat conservation and management were put forward, aimed to promote the cooperation both at national and at regional levels to implement appropriate approach to reverse the ecosystem degradation trend in South China Sea.

  1. Industrial symbiosis as a countermeasure for resource dependent city: a case study of Guiyang, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hong; Dong, Liang; Ren, Jingzheng

    2015-01-01

    of sustainability and economy transition solutions become more and more important. Under this condition, this study aims to conduct a comprehensive review on the major projects for a more sustainable future in China's national resource dependent cities and propose a countermeasure for the sustainability transition...... based on the industrial symbiosis concept. Firstly, an investigation on the panoramic view, challenges, transiting policies of China's resource dependent cities' project has been carried out. Subsequently, Guiyang city in Guizhou province of China, as a typical resource dependent city, has been chosen...... as example of industrial and regional symbiosis focusing on the integration and symbiosis of coal, electricity, aluminum, phosphor chemical, iron/steel industry and urban. Then, a quantitative assessment on the environmental benefits has been conducted based on material flow analysis approach. Results...

  2. Eccentric exercise training as a countermeasure to non-weight-bearing soleus muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Christopher R.; Ryan, Mirelle J.; Booth, Frank W.

    1992-01-01

    This investigation tested whether eccentric resistance training could prevent soleus muscle atrophy during non-weight bearing. Adult female rats were randomly assigned to either weight bearing +/- intramuscular electrodes or non-weight bearing +/- intramuscular electrodes groups. Electrically stimulated maximal eccentric contractions were performed on anesthetized animals at 48-h intervals during the 10-day experiment. Non-weight bearing significantly reduced soleus muscle wet weight (28-31 percent) and noncollagenous protein content (30-31 percent) compared with controls. Eccentric exercise training during non-weight bearing attenuated but did not prevent the loss of soleus muscle wet weight and noncollagenous protein by 77 and 44 percent, respectively. The potential of eccentric exercise training as an effective and highly efficient counter-measure to non-weight-bearing atrophy is demonstrated in the 44 percent attenuation of soleus muscle noncollagenous protein loss by eccentric exercise during only 0.035 percent of the total non-weight-bearing time period.

  3. Countermeasures for Intensive Use of Land from the Perspective of Urban-Rural Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes problems of excessive emphasis on expansion of urban land,improper village and town construction,and low land utilization efficiency in urban-rural integration construction.In line with characteristics and principle of intensive land use of urban-rural integration,it puts forward integration of urban-rural land layout,practically exploring connotation,and improving land intensification in many ways.Based on these,it presents countermeasures for intensive use of land from the perspective of urban-rural integration,including stressing function of overall planning of land use in integration and control of urban-rural regional development,raising population,ecological and economic bearing capacity of land on the condition of protecting arable land and focusing on intensive use of land,and promoting healthy,sustainable and coordinated development of industrialization,urbanization and urban-rural integration.

  4. Phenytoin as a countermeasure for motion sickness in NASA maritime operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Daniel; Knox, Glenn; Myers, K. J.; Chelen, William; Ferguson, Becki

    1993-01-01

    Seasickness is the most prevalent form of motion sickness and is an operational problem during Space Shuttle Solid-fueled Rocket Booster (SRB) retrieval. Phenytoin has been shown to protect against motion sickness induced by Coriolis stress. We exposed SRB recovery personnel to off-vertical rotation and sea motion after phenytoin or placebo. Phenytoin blood levels of at least 9 micrograms/ml were protective against motion sickness at sea. No change in susceptibility to nitrogen narcosis was seen in divers in chamber tests at 460 KPa. Phenytoin was used during the performance of critical and hazardous tasks during training and actual SRB recovery operations. Phenytoin is an effective operational countermeasure for motion sickness for selected SRB crew members.

  5. Analysis on Present Situation and Countermeasures of Rural Ecotourism in Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiqin; WANG; Yongxiang; GUAN; Zichen; WANG

    2013-01-01

    This article briefly outlines the concept, present situation and form of rural ecotourism. It also preliminarily analyses the existing problems of rural ecotourism. Then countermeasures and suggestions related to the further development of rural ecotourism and promotion of new countryside construction are put forward, which can be summarized as follows: carrying out multichannel financing, in order to strengthen the development dynamics of rural ecotourism; focusing on cultivation of ecological quality consciousness, in order to enhance the protection of resources and the environment; innovating development ideas, in order to create muti-function areas; intensifying the efforts on the training for employee, in order to upgrade comprehensive service level; promoting community participation and intensifying the efforts on the training for farmer, in order to raise farmer’s consciousness about development of ecotourism; strengthening the fusion of ecology and culture.

  6. Advanced Fade Countermeasures for DVB-S2 Systems in Railway Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niebla CristinaPárraga

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analysis of advanced fade countermeasures for supporting DVB-S2 reception by mobile terminals mounted on high-speed trains. Recent market studies indicate this as a potential profitable market for satellite communications, provided that integration with wireless terrestrial networks can be implemented to bridge the satellite connectivity inside railway tunnels and large train stations. In turn, the satellite can typically offer the coverage of around 80% of the railway path with existing space infrastructure. This piece of work, representing the first step of a wider study, is focusing on the modifications which may be required in the DVB-S2 standard (to be employed in the forward link in order to achieve reliable reception in a challenging environment such as the railway one. Modifications have been devised trying to minimize the impact on the existing air interface, standardized for fixed terminals.

  7. Problems and Countermeasures in the Supply Chain Management of Flower Industry in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis the elementary theory of supply chain management,the features and problems in the supply-chain management of flowers in Yunnan Province are analyzed.The problems include poor image of flowers caused by low-end package,imperfect supply-chain structure,and weak processing section after harvesting flowers,hard to launch the cold chain transportation and inadequate awareness of enterprises on consumers.The countermeasures are put forward,which include perfecting various kinds of supply chain structure;intensifying the information system management of flowers in Yunnan Province;developing the cold chain logistics and cultivating and supporting the third-party logistics of flower industry in Yunnan Province.

  8. Countermeasures for Maintenance of Cardiovascular and Muscle Function in Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session FA2, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Effects of Repeated Long Duration +2Gz Load on Man's Cardiovascular Function; Certain Approaches to the Development of On-Board Automated Training System; Cardiac, Arterial, and Venous Adaptation to Og during 6 Month MIR-Spaceflights with and without "Thigh Cuffs" (93-95); Space Cycle(TM) Induced Physiologic Responses; Muscular Deconditioning During Long-term Spaceflight Exercise Recommendations to Optimize Crew Performance; Structure And Function of Knee Extensors After Long-Duration Spaceflight in Man, Effects of Countermeasure Exercise Training; Force and power characteristics of an exercise ergometer designed for use in space; and The simulating of overgravity conditions for astronauts' motor apparatus at the conditions of the training for orbital flights.

  9. Research on Turnover Intention and Countermeasure of Key Employees in Xuzhou Coal Mining Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Lehong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have a research of the turnover intention and countermeasure of key employees in xuzhou coal mining groups. Linear Structural Equation model (LISREL is used for the variable path analysis and a job satisfaction research has been done to reveale which variable is affect the key employee turnover entention significantly. Statistics show that the factors conversion cost, job satisfaction, compensation, opportunity, dull work, the colleague support degree, friends support degree have a significant influence on turnover intention of key employees. The staffs are dissatisfied with salary, welfare, promotion, communication in enterprise. The employee, who work in administer department, with high education background and no more than 5 year’s work experience and lower in administer level, no more than 2000 yuan income, have a stronger turnover intention. According to the results of the survey, the enterprise make a relevant management measures and achieved good effectiveness on prevent the key employees from turnovering.

  10. The Major Recessive Calamities Affecting the Wheat Production in Chuxiong Prefecture and Control Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maochang; YANG

    2014-01-01

    The impact of recessive calamities was analyzed,including seasonal drought,cold injury,dry hot wind and aphid in the wheat production of Chuxiong Prefecture,and the countermeasures that prevented and controlled the recessive calamities in a target-oriented way were proposed,including the improvement of basic farmland,the application of organic manure,the promotion of the breed with high stress resistance,the seedling at suitable date,the improvement of control on fertilizing and watering,the enhancement of management on cultivating and controlling disease in time,and the breeding new variety adaptive to local ecosystem,in order to advance the wheat production in a sustainable way.

  11. Study on a Threat-Countermeasure Model Based on International Standard Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Horacio Ramirez Caceres

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Many international standards exist in the field of IT security. This research is based on the ISO/IEC 15408, 15446, 19791, 13335 and 17799 standards. In this paper, we propose a knowledge base comprising a threat countermeasure model based on international standards for identifying and specifying threats which affect IT environments. In addition, the proposed knowledge base system aims at fusing similar security control policies and objectives in order to create effective security guidelines for specific IT environments. As a result, a knowledge base of security objectives was developed on the basis of the relationships inside the standards as well as the relationships between different standards. In addition, a web application was developed which displays details about the most common threats to information systems, and for each threat presents a set of related security control policies from different international standards, including ISO/IEC 27002.

  12. Modeling and Countermeasures of Combustion Characteristics of Char Particles in CFBC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanJin; QiayuZheng; 等

    1999-01-01

    A mathematical model of single char particle combustion in circulating fluidized bed combustor(CFBC) is developed in this paper in this paper,its numerical solution in operating conditions of CFBC verifies the nature of a phenomenon that the distribution of carbon content of char particles has a peak value versus their diameters.The results show that the temperature of smaller char particle is close to the bed temperature,and there also exits a peak value for the burn-out time of char particles versus their diameters.The countermeasures are presented to improve combustion of fine particles,such as use of the fly-ash recirculation,the hot cyclone,and so on.

  13. Economic Development Mode and Countermeasure Research on the Nansi Lake Drainage Area Based on Circular Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Firstly,it is pointed out that circular economy should be vigorously developed in the Nansi Lake Drainage Area,and the connotation of circular economy is expounded.Then,problems in developing circular economy in Nansi Lake Drainage Area are analyzed from the aspects of agriculture,industrial enterprises,and waste utilization.Finally,combining with the four modes of peasant household,enterprise,region and society in the development of circular economy,corresponding countermeasures are put forward for the circular economy in Nansi Lake Drainage Area,such as establishing the government guidance mechanism for big agriculture circular economy in Nansi Lake Drainage Area,constructing incentive systems for industrial enterprises adopting circular economy in Nansi Lake Drainage Area,adjusting the industrial structure of Nansi Lake Drainage Area,and optimizing the energy consumption structure.

  14. Spatial distribution of urban heat island in Hangzhou and its mitigation countermeasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, W.-W.; Li, G.-L.; Xue, J.

    2009-01-01

    Taking Hangzhou City in summer as a case, the thermal infrared remote sensing image (Landsat 5 TM) was used to extract and inverse the surface land cover types and surface temperature of Hangzhou City. The spatial distribution characteristics of urban heat island was analyzed in the city......-scale through the thermal field analysis and profile analysis method. The corresponding relationship between the spatial distribution characteristics of Hangzhou urban heat island and landuse types were revealed. Then, the generative mechanisms of Hangzhou urban heat island were analyzed in the aspects...... of the evolution of urban landuse types, the changes of urban spatial pattern, the rationality of the urban land layout, and the emission of anthropogenic heat. Finally, in the perspective of urban planning, some mitigation countermeasures including the reasonable control of the expansion of urban landuse...

  15. Study on the Reasons and Countermeasures for Loss of Listed Companies in Manufacturing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong; DU; Jun; DU; Bo; YAN

    2013-01-01

    In combination with the data of loss-making listed companies in manufacturing industry at capital market in 2008-2010,this paper analyzed the characteristics of loss of listed companies.Major reasons include the blind investment of management personnel,low operation and management level,blind pursuit of diversified operation,improper stock right structure,weak supervision of government,and imperfect delisting system.Finally,it came up with some countermeasures,including improving quality of management personnel,management personnel selecting proper investment projects,strengthening internal management of enterprise,implementing effective asset rearrangement,setting up effective incentive and restrictive mechanism,bringing into play regulation function of banks,improving delisting mechanism,reducing centralization of state owned stock right,and establishing and improving market information disclosure system.

  16. Countermeasures for Circular Agricultural Development of Chongqing Based on AHP Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taiyan; YANG; Shuo; BAI; Shunqiang; SUN

    2014-01-01

    With rapid economic development,resource and environment problems become more and more prominent. Chongqing Municipality, as a city focusing on industrial development in the past,has serious problem of environmental pollution and scarce agricultural resources. At present,it is urgent to find out how to develop circular agriculture and coordinate economic,social,environmental development. On the basis of understanding the intension of circular agriculture,this paper built evaluation indicator system for development of circular agriculture from social and economic development,resource reduction input,resource recycling use,and resource and environment safety. Then,it made an evaluation of circular agricultural development of Chongqing Municipality by AHP approach combined with gray correlation analysis. Finally,it came up with countermeasures,including reducing input of agricultural production materials,strengthening land management,promoting scientific and technological progress,and improving policy systems.

  17. Compiler Optimizations as a Countermeasure against Side-Channel Analysis in MSP430-Based Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorana Banković

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ambient Intelligence (AmI requires devices everywhere, dynamic and massively distributed networks of low-cost nodes that, among other data, manage private information or control restricted operations. MSP430, a 16-bit microcontroller, is used in WSN platforms, as the TelosB. Physical access to devices cannot be restricted, so attackers consider them a target of their malicious attacks in order to obtain access to the network. Side-channel analysis (SCA easily exploits leakages from the execution of encryption algorithms that are dependent on critical data to guess the key value. In this paper we present an evaluation framework that facilitates the analysis of the effects of compiler and backend optimizations on the resistance against statistical SCA. We propose an optimization-based software countermeasure that can be used in current low-cost devices to radically increase resistance against statistical SCA, analyzed with the new framework.

  18. Population Characteristics and Future Population Countermeasures for the Studied Counties in Tibet, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian; PENG Chuan-zhong; LI Xiang-mei; ZHONG Xiang-hao

    2005-01-01

    Focusing on the 18 counties along "One River and Two Tributaries" region, and based on the data from China 3rd, 4th and 5th population censuses, this article has analyzed the time and spatial changing patterns of the population in this region. The analyses show that since the 3rd population census, total population, average age and total birth rate have all changed considerably: ① Total population has grown fast, with most counties' annual average growth rate of more than 10. ② In terms of the region's average age, in 2000 the age in the 18 counties is younger than 30 years old. ③ Compared with the 3rd population census, labor force by the 5th census is much younger. ④ Countermeasures are proposed to control population by controlling birth rate as the result of the local resident's quality improvement by education.

  19. Gene-specific countermeasures against Ebola virus based on antisense phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L Warfield

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The filoviruses Marburg virus and Ebola virus (EBOV quickly outpace host immune responses and cause hemorrhagic fever, resulting in case fatality rates as high as 90% in humans and nearly 100% in nonhuman primates. The development of an effective therapeutic for EBOV is a daunting public health challenge and is hampered by a paucity of knowledge regarding filovirus pathogenesis. This report describes a successful strategy for interfering with EBOV infection using antisense phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs. A combination of EBOV-specific PMOs targeting sequences of viral mRNAs for the viral proteins (VPs VP24, VP35, and RNA polymerase L protected rodents in both pre- and post-exposure therapeutic regimens. In a prophylactic proof-of-principal trial, the PMOs also protected 75% of rhesus macaques from lethal EBOV infection. The work described here may contribute to development of designer, "druggable" countermeasures for filoviruses and other microbial pathogens.

  20. Challenges, Progress, and Opportunities: Proceedings of the Filovirus Medical Countermeasures Workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rona Hirschberg

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available On August 22–23, 2013, agencies within the United States Department of Defense (DoD and the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS sponsored the Filovirus Medical Countermeasures (MCMs Workshop as an extension of the activities of the Filovirus Animal Non-clinical Group (FANG. The FANG is a federally-recognized multi-Agency group established in 2011 to coordinate and facilitate U.S. government (USG efforts to develop filovirus MCMs. The workshop brought together government, academic and industry experts to consider the needs for filovirus MCMs and evaluate the status of the product development pipeline. This report summarizes speaker presentations and highlights progress and challenges remaining in the field.

  1. Gene-Specific Countermeasures against Ebola Virus Based on Antisense Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligomers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The filoviruses Marburg virus and Ebola virus (EBOV quickly outpace host immune responses and cause hemorrhagic fever, resulting in case fatality rates as high as 90% in humans and nearly 100% in nonhuman primates. The development of an effective therapeutic for EBOV is a daunting public health challenge and is hampered by a paucity of knowledge regarding filovirus pathogenesis. This report describes a successful strategy for interfering with EBOV infection using antisense phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs. A combination of EBOV-specific PMOs targeting sequences of viral mRNAs for the viral proteins (VPs VP24, VP35, and RNA polymerase L protected rodents in both pre- and post-exposure therapeutic regimens. In a prophylactic proof-of-principal trial, the PMOs also protected 75% of rhesus macaques from lethal EBOV infection. The work described here may contribute to development of designer, "druggable" countermeasures for filoviruses and other microbial pathogens.

  2. Countermeasures of Reclaimed Municipal Wastewater for Safety of Agricultural Use in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Rong-guang; PENG Sheng-wei; WANG Yue-hua; ZHANG Hao; ZHAO Yu-jie; LIU Feng-zhi; ZHOU Qi-xing

    2008-01-01

    China is facing a severe water resource crisis, and the shortage of water for agricultural consumption is a prominent problem. Irrigation with reclaimed municipal wastewater that can reach the agricultural recycling standards is an important way to deal with water shortage in agricultural production. Owing to the complex sources of municipal wastewater, there are multifarious pollutants in municipal wastewater. Improper use of wastewater can cause potential risks to ago-environment, agricultural products safety, and human health. This article deals with the current situation and the development prospects of reclaimed wastewater for agricultural use in China and abroad; the potential risks to human health and environmental pollution from the reclaimed municipal wastewater for agricultural reuse are also discussed. And some countermeasures and advices of reclaimed municipal wastewater for safety of agricultural reuse are provided.

  3. The Current Situation and Development Countermeasures of Creative Agriculture in Miyun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Runlian; MIAO; Tong; LIU; Mei; LI

    2013-01-01

    Creative agriculture,a new agricultural format formed by integrating agriculture,tourism and creative industries,is an important part of the urban modern agriculture. Proceeding from the functional position as an ecological conservation area,Miyun creative agriculture has obtained rapid growth,relying on its ecological resources,agricultural resources,tourist resources and leisure industry advantages. But there are still some problems. On the basis of analyzing the advantages and problems of creative agriculture in Miyun,the paper put forward the basic principles and thought pattern of developing creative agriculture in there. Besides,several countermeasures in terms of resources integration, scientific planning,exploring local cultural resources,developing theme products,constructing industrial chain,carrying out project design and creative planning,creating creative agricultural advantage brand are put forward.

  4. The Problems in Circulation Channel of Dujiangyan Kiwi Fruit and the Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Based on the overview of researches on circulation channel of agricultural products,this article presents the status quo of circulation channel of Dujiangyan kiwi fruit,including the production and circulation pattern of Dujiangyan kiwi fruit. Then it analyzes the problems in the current circulation channel of Dujiangyan kiwi fruit as follows: first,the long circulation channel leads to inefficient circulation and high costs; second,the deep processing capacity is poor,and the added value of fruits is low; third,the application of cold chain logistics technology is insufficient; fourth, blocked information circulation makes the cooperative relations between the subjects in channel fragile. Finally corresponding countermeasures and recommendations are put forward as follows: shortening circulation channel and improving circulation efficiency; improving deep processing capacity,and increasing added value of fruits; strengthening the use of cold chain logistics technology and equipments; establishing rational interest distribution mechanism,and consolidating cooperation between the circulation subjects.

  5. Snow disaster characteristics in Palongzangbu River Basinand mitigation countermeasures for road engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    The Palongzangbu River Basin contains the highest number of maritime province glaciers in China. There are 130 glaciallakes, 64 snow avalanche sites and 28 glacial debris flow gullies distributed within the basin. Snow disasters play a controllingrole in the Sichuan-Tibet Highway construction, due to the terrain's special characteristics of high altitude and largeheight differential. Segmentation mitigation countermeasures for the Sichuan-Tibet Highway are presented based on snowdisaster severity level and damage mode of the road. In the Ranwu to Midui section, snow avalanches are regional disasters,so the line should be placed in sunny slopes. In the Midui Gully to Yupu section, the line should be placed in shadyslopes and at higher elevations to reduce the risk of glacial lake outburst. In the Yupu to Guxiang section, all three snowdisasters are minimal. In the Guxiang to Tongmai section, glacier debris flows are the major threat, thus the road should beplaced in shady slopes.

  6. Current Situation and Developing Countermeasures of Postgraduate Innovation Center in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Can

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is the driving force to promote the development of our nation. Postgraduate education, as an important approach to cultivate high-level talents, is a major part of the national innovation system. The establishment of the Postgraduate Innovation Center has an important significance for the cultivation of innovative talents in colleges and universities. This paper expounds the connotation and characteristics of Postgraduate Innovation Center and analyzes its current situation, operation mode, function orientation, institution settings and the innovative products. The paper also points out the problems in the current situation of the Postgraduate Innovation Center and finds the factors which restrict the development of the center. Finally, the paper puts forward some corresponding countermeasures.

  7. Toxicity and medical countermeasure studies on the organophosphorus nerve agents VM and VX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Helen; Dalton, Christopher H; Price, Matthew E; Graham, Stuart J; Green, A Christopher; Jenner, John; Groombridge, Helen J; Timperley, Christopher M

    2015-04-08

    To support the effort to eliminate the Syrian Arab Republic chemical weapons stockpile safely, there was a requirement to provide scientific advice based on experimentally derived information on both toxicity and medical countermeasures (MedCM) in the event of exposure to VM, VX or VM-VX mixtures. Complementary in vitro and in vivo studies were undertaken to inform that advice. The penetration rate of neat VM was not significantly different from that of neat VX, through either guinea pig or pig skin in vitro. The presence of VX did not affect the penetration rate of VM in mixtures of various proportions. A lethal dose of VM was approximately twice that of VX in guinea pigs poisoned via the percutaneous route. There was no interaction in mixed agent solutions which altered the in vivo toxicity of the agents. Percutaneous poisoning by VM responded to treatment with standard MedCM, although complete protection was not achieved.

  8. SWOT Analysis and Countermeasures of Ecological Agricultural Development of Jianshan Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Can; Wang Da-qing; Wang Hong-yan; Dai Lin

    2015-01-01

    At present, the excessive use of the fertilizers and pesticides in the agricultural production has result in hardening of the soil and decrease of the wild animals and can not maintain the sustainable using of land resources. To develop ecological agriculture is a powerful measure to reduce energy consumption, protect environment, and realize the sustainable development of the agriculture. In order to promote the sustainable development of agriculture in Jianshan Farm, this paper by using SWOT analysis method analyzed the strength, weakness, opportunity and threat in the development of the ecological agriculture in Jianshan Farm, based on the experience from domestic and foreign ecological agricultural development, and put forward the countermeasures for the development of the ecological agriculture in order to develop ecological circular agriculture and non-genetic soybean crop protected areas, and to establish soybean-corn rotation area and healthy aquaculture zone, as well as develop new energy industry.

  9. Toxins as biological weapons for terror-characteristics, challenges and medical countermeasures: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Tamar; Eisenkraft, Arik; Bar-Haim, Erez; Kassirer, Michael; Aran, Adi Avniel; Fogel, Itay

    2016-01-01

    Toxins are hazardous biochemical compounds derived from bacteria, fungi, or plants. Some have mechanisms of action and physical properties that make them amenable for use as potential warfare agents. Currently, some toxins are classified as potential biological weapons, although they have several differences from classic living bio-terror pathogens and some similarities to manmade chemical warfare agents. This review focuses on category A and B bio-terror toxins recognized by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Botulinum neurotoxin, staphylococcal enterotoxin B, Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin, and ricin. Their derivation, pathogenesis, mechanism of action, associated clinical signs and symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment are discussed in detail. Given their expected covert use, the primary diagnostic challenge in toxin exposure is the early detection of morbidity clusters, apart from background morbidity, after a relatively short incubation period. For this reason, it is important that clinicians be familiar with the clinical manifestations of toxins and the appropriate methods of management and countermeasures.

  10. Naming Countermeasures of Administrative Division in Sight of Chinese Naming View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, R. C.

    2015-06-01

    Although some progresses have been made after nearly 30 years of research and practice of administrative division renaming in China, there are still many problems which have not been really resolved. Moreover, with the beginning of the second place name census across China, scientific and standard administrative division naming countermeasures are of even more importance. In this paper, the problems in present administrative division naming were analyzed, and the basic characters and principles of traditional Chinese noun naming as well as five taboos in Chinese place naming were described by analyzing the theory of Chinese naming concept. Based on the characters above, principles of administrative division renaming and naming conceptions of administrative division were further discussed and analyzed.

  11. Electronic Aggression

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur.  Created: 11/20/2007 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention.   Date Released: 11/28/2007.

  12. Interacting Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Richard M.; Reining, Lucia; Ceperley, David M.

    2016-06-01

    Preface; Part I. Interacting Electrons: Beyond the Independent-Particle Picture: 1. The many electron problem: introduction; 2. Signatures of electron correlation; 3. Concepts and models for interacting electrons; Part II. Foundations of Theory for Many-Body Systems: 4. Mean fields and auxiliary systems; 5. Correlation functions; 6. Many-body wavefunctions; 7. Particles and quasi-particles; 8. Functionals in many-particle physics; Part III. Many-Body Green's Function Methods: 9. Many-body perturbation theory: expansion in the interaction; 10. Many-body perturbation theory via functional derivatives; 11. The RPA and the GW approximation for the self-energy; 12. GWA calculations in practice; 13. GWA calculations: illustrative results; 14. RPA and beyond: the Bethe-Salpeter equation; 15. Beyond the GW approximation; 16. Dynamical mean field theory; 17. Beyond the single-site approximation in DMFT; 18. Solvers for embedded systems; 19. Characteristic hamiltonians for solids with d and f states; 20. Examples of calculations for solids with d and f states; 21. Combining Green's functions approaches: an outlook; Part IV. Stochastic Methods: 22. Introduction to stochastic methods; 23. Variational Monte Carlo; 24. Projector quantum Monte Carlo; 25. Path integral Monte Carlo; 26. Concluding remarks; Part V. Appendices: A. Second quantization; B. Pictures; C. Green's functions: general properties; D. Matsubara formulation for Green's functions for T ̸= 0; E. Time-ordering, contours, and non-equilibrium; F. Hedin's equations in a basis; G. Unique solutions in Green's function theory; H. Properties of functionals; I. Auxiliary systems and constrained search; J. Derivation of the Luttinger theorem; K. Gutzwiller and Hubbard approaches; References; Index.

  13. ELECTRON GUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1960-04-01

    A pulsed electron gun capable of delivering pulses at voltages of the order of 1 mv and currents of the order of 100 amperes is described. The principal novelty resides in a transformer construction which is disposed in the same vacuum housing as the electron source and accelerating electrode structure of the gun to supply the accelerating potential thereto. The transformer is provided by a plurality of magnetic cores disposed in circumferentially spaced relation and having a plurality of primary windings each inductively coupled to a different one of the cores, and a helical secondary winding which is disposed coaxially of the cores and passes therethrough in circumferential succession. Additional novelty resides in the disposition of the electron source cathode filament input leads interiorly of the transformer secondary winding which is hollow, as well as in the employment of a half-wave filament supply which is synchronously operated with the transformer supply such that the transformer is pulsed during the zero current portions of the half-wave cycle.

  14. [Management effectiveness of China nature reserves: status quo assessment and countermeasures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Jia; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Xu, Wei-Hua; Miao, Hong

    2009-07-01

    Based on the questionnaire of World Bank/World Wide Fund for Nature (WB/WWF) management effectiveness tracking tool, a survey was conducted in 535 China nature reserves to assess their management effectiveness, with the countermeasures suggested. The 535 nature reserves had an average score of 51.95, and 69.35% of them had a score less than 60, illustrating that the general management level of our nature reserves was relatively low. There was a significant difference (P management effectiveness among the nature reserves of different class and established at different time, i. e., the higher class and the longer establishing time, the higher score of management effectiveness. However, no significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed in the scores among the reserves with different area and type. The average scores of management base, management mechanism, management behavior, and management effectiveness were 1.55, 1.44, 1.52, and 1.90, respectively. The indices (management of protection targets, condition assessment, reserve boundary, resource management, and management agency) had the highest average scores, while equipment use and maintenance, community co-management, budget sources, budget expending and management, and management system and regulations had the lowest ones. The management system for China nature reserves had been generally established, the major targets and their values had been successfully protected, but there were still many problems in the management of China nature reserves, such as management mechanism and management base construction. To improve the management effectiveness, some countermeasures should be taken, e. g., establishing rational distribution and management mechanisms of budgets, strengthening ability construction, and promoting community participation.

  15. γ-Tocotrienol as a Promising Countermeasure for Acute Radiation Syndrome: Current Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay K. Singh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The hazard of ionizing radiation exposure due to nuclear accidents or terrorist attacks is ever increasing. Despite decades of research, still, there is a shortage of non-toxic, safe and effective medical countermeasures for radiological and nuclear emergency. To date, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA has approved only two growth factors, Neupogen (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, filgrastim and Neulasta (PEGylated G-CSF, pegfilgrastim for the treatment of hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS following the Animal Efficacy Rule. Promising radioprotective efficacy results of γ-tocotrienol (GT3; a member of the vitamin E family in the mouse model encouraged its further evaluation in the nonhuman primate (NHP model. These studies demonstrated that GT3 significantly aided the recovery of radiation-induced neutropenia and thrombocytopenia compared to the vehicle controls; these results particularly significant after exposure to 5.8 or 6.5 Gray (Gy whole body γ-irradiation. The stimulatory effect of GT3 on neutrophils and thrombocytes (platelets was directly and positively correlated with dose; a 75 mg/kg dose was more effective compared to 37.5 mg/kg. GT3 was also effective against 6.5 Gy whole body γ-irradiation for improving neutrophils and thrombocytes. Moreover, a single administration of GT3 without any supportive care was equivalent, in terms of improving hematopoietic recovery, to multiple doses of Neupogen and two doses of Neulasta with full supportive care (including blood products in the NHP model. GT3 may serve as an ultimate radioprotector for use in humans, particularly for military personnel and first responders. In brief, GT3 is a promising radiation countermeasure that ought to be further developed for U.S. FDA approval for the ARS indication.

  16. Autonomous, Computer-Based Behavioral Health Countermeasure Evaluation at HI-SEAS Mars Analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Allison P; Fellows, Abigail M; Binsted, Kim A; Hegel, Mark T; Buckey, Jay C

    Living in an isolated, confined environment (ICE) can induce conflict, stress, and depression. Computer-based behavioral health countermeasures are appealing for training and treatment in ICEs because they provide confidentiality and do not require communication with the outside environment. We evaluated the Virtual Space Station (VSS), a suite of interactive computer-delivered psychological training and treatment programs, at the Hawaii Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS) III expedition. Six subjects (3 male, 3 female) spent 8 mo in group-isolation and used the Conflict, Stress, and Depression modules in the VSS. Survey evaluations, data collected within the program, and postdeployment interviews were collected. This crew dealt with behavioral health issues common to ICEs. The VSS proved to be a valuable resource and was used both as intended, and in unanticipated ways, to help maintain behavioral health. The Conflict and Stress Modules were rated as highly acceptable (1.8 on a 7-point Likert scale). The crew identified a total of 13 stressors and worked on 9 problems through the VSS. Opinions about the modules were highly individualized. Crewmembers identified exercises in the VSS that were applicable and not applicable to their needs. Additional content to improve the program was identified. Autonomous, confidential training and treatment for behavioral health issues will need to be a critical component of long duration spaceflight travel. This work provides an evaluation of such a tool in a relevant ICE. Anderson AP, Fellows AM, Binsted KA, Hegel MT, Buckey JC. Autonomous, computer-based behavioral health countermeasure evaluation at HI-SEAS Mars analog. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(11):912-920.

  17. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norfleet, William; Harris, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    The Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) was favorably impressed by the operational risk management approach taken by the Human Research Program (HRP) Integrated Research Plan (IRP) to address the stated life sciences issues. The life sciences community at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) seems to be focused on operational risk management. This approach is more likely to provide risk managers with the information they need at the time they need it. Concerning the information provided to the SRP by the EVA Physiology, Systems, and Performance Project (EPSP), it is obvious that a great deal of productive activity is under way. Evaluation of this information was hampered by the fact that it often was not organized in a fashion that reflects the "Gaps and Tasks" approach of the overall Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) effort, and that a substantial proportion of the briefing concerned subjects that, while interesting, are not part of the HHC Element (e.g., the pressurized rover presentation). Additionally, no information was provided on several of the tasks or how they related to work underway or already accomplished. This situation left the SRP having to guess at the efforts and relationship to other elements, and made it hard to easily map the EVA Project efforts currently underway, and the data collected thus far, to the gaps and tasks in the IRP. It seems that integration of the EPSP project into the HHC Element could be improved. Along these lines, we were concerned that our SRP was split off from the other participating SRPs at an early stage in the overall agenda for the meeting. In reality, the concerns of EPSP and other projects share much common ground. For example, the commonality of the concerns of the EVA and exercise physiology groups is obvious, both in terms of what reduced exercise capacity can do to EVA capability, and how the exercise performed during an EVA could contribute to an overall exercise countermeasure prescription.

  18. Adapting to confined and isolated environment: Emotional effects and countermeasures in LUNAR PALACE 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya; Wu, Ruilin

    Most operations in manned spaceflight originate in mental work, and numerous factors in aerospace can cause psychological problems. Among these problems, negative emotions are the most important and critical. Confined isolated environment, limited communication with outside and unpredictable risks may lead to the aggravation and acceleration of depression, anxiety and monotony, which could deteriorate astronauts’ effectiveness and safety.Therefore, the aim of the study is to identify possible change rules over time of emotional states in 90-day isolation period. The experiment is conducted in an analogue space station in Beihang University called LUNAR PALACE 1, which forms 100 percent of carbon and oxygen cycle closed environment, containing one comprehensive cabin and one plant cabin. Three healthy subjects (so called crews) are selected in the research, and they are assigned to tasks every day to imitate astronaut schedule. In order to monitor their emotional states, all crews will complete a questionnaire named profile of mood states (POMS) every week. Considering the limitation of questionnaire survey, we employ another method of automatic analysis. We set a network camera in the staff room (for meal and entertainment) in comprehensive cabin, and the videos will be analyzed through FaceReader, a facial expressions recognition software, to indicate their emotions. In addition, interviews will also be conducted after the experiment isolation period.Previous researches have shown that mission positive impact on crews, support from outside psychologists and surgeons, or surprise presents and favorite foods act well to against negative effects of the Third quarter phenomenon, displacement and other conflictions. Beyond these countermeasures, in LUNAR PALACE 1 we used open network environment to increase crews’ communication with family or friends and provide them digital camera to record their daily life as a kind of recreation.From all these measures, we will

  19. Development of countermeasure against scale deposition at steam generators of PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domae, M.; Miyajima, K.; Hirano, H. [Surface Science Dept., Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry (Japan); Kushida, H. [Nuclear Power Engineering Dept., Tokyo Electric Power Environmental Engineering Co., Inc. (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Scale deposition has occurred at steam generators of several PWRs. The scale deposition may lead to reduction of flow rate of coolant, deterioration of heat exchanging efficiency and so on. These phenomena affect plant operation performance. Thus, elucidation of the mechanism of the scale deposition and some effective countermeasure are required. In CRIEPI (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry), the scale deposition is studied from two aspects: fluid dynamics and water chemistry. Concerning the water chemistry, we think that electro-kinetic behavior of scale, that is, metal oxides is of great importance. The final goal of the water chemical approach is to evaluate electro-kinetic potential (zeta potential) of metal oxides such as magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) and hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and to develop some countermeasure of the scale deposition based on the electro-kinetic data. As a first step, the zeta potential of 25 {mu}m Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles was measured by the streaming potential method at room temperature, and effect of dispersant addition was studied. The dispersants examined were poly-acrylic acid (PAA, M{sub w} {proportional_to} 25,000) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, M{sub w} {proportional_to} 40,000). It has been found that the addition of PAA of more than 10 ppm lowers the zeta potentials by 5 - 15 mV in whole pH range, and that the addition of PVP of more than 10 ppm reduces absolute value of the zeta potentials. (authors)

  20. Building the strategic national stockpile through the NIAID Radiation Nuclear Countermeasures Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Carmen I; Cassatt, David R; Dicarlo, Andrea L; Macchiarini, Francesca; Ramakrishnan, Narayani; Norman, Mai-Kim; Maidment, Bert W

    2014-02-01

    The possibility of a public health radiological or nuclear emergency in the United States remains a concern. Media attention focused on lost radioactive sources and international nuclear threats, as well as the potential for accidents in nuclear power facilities (e.g., Windscale, Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima) highlight the need to address this critical national security issue. To date, no drugs have been licensed to mitigate/treat the acute and long-term radiation injuries that would result in the event of large-scale, radiation, or nuclear public health emergency. However, recent evaluation of several candidate radiation medical countermeasures (MCMs) has provided initial proof-of-concept of efficacy. The goal of the Radiation Nuclear Countermeasures Program (RNCP) of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (National Institutes of Health) is to help ensure the government stockpiling of safe and efficacious MCMs to treat radiation injuries, including, but not limited to, hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, cutaneous, renal, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems. In addition to supporting research in these areas, the RNCP continues to fund research and development of decorporation agents targeting internal radionuclide contamination, and biodosimetry platforms (e.g., biomarkers and devices) to assess the levels of an individual's radiation exposure, capabilities that would be critical in a mass casualty scenario. New areas of research within the program include a focus on special populations, especially pediatric and geriatric civilians, as well as combination studies, in which drugs are tested within the context of expected medical care management (e.g., antibiotics and growth factors). Moving forward, challenges facing the RNCP, as well as the entire radiation research field, include further advancement and qualification of animal models, dose conversion from animal models to humans, biomarker identification, and

  1. Immobilization of Russian VX skin depots by localized cooling: implications for decontamination and medical countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikler, J; Tenn, C; Worek, F; Reiter, G; Thiermann, H; Garrett, M; Bohnert, S; Sawyer, T W

    2011-09-25

    The chemical weapon nerve agent known as Russian VX (VR) is a potent organophosphorus (OP) compound that is much less studied than its VX analogue with respect to toxicity, as well as to the effectiveness of several known countermeasures against it. An anaesthetized domestic swine model was utilized to assess several approaches in mitigating its toxicity, including the utility of cooling VR treated skin to increase the therapeutic window for treatment. The 6h LD₅₀ for VR topically applied on the ear was 100 μg/kg. Treatment of VR exposed animals (5 × LD₅₀) with pralidoxime (2PAM) very poorly regenerated inhibited blood cholinesterase activity, but was partially effective in preventing signs of OP poisoning and increasing survival. In contrast, treatment with the Hagedorn oxime HI-6 reactivated cholinesterase, eliminated all signs of poisoning and prevented death. Decontamination with the Reactive Skin Decontaminant Lotion (RSDL) 15 min after VR exposure was completely effective in preventing death. Cooling of the VR exposure sites for 2 or 6h prevented signs of OP poisoning and death during the cooling period. However, these animals died very quickly after the cessation of cooling, unless they were treated with oxime or decontaminated with RSDL. Blood analyses showed that cooling of agent exposure sites delayed the entry of VR into the bloodstream. Medical treatment with HI-6 and to a lesser extent 2PAM, or decontamination with RSDL are effective in protecting against the toxic effects of cutaneous exposure to VR. Immobilizing this agent (and related compounds) within the dermal reservoir by cooling the exposure sites, dramatically increases the therapeutic window in which these medical countermeasures are effective.

  2. Virtual Reality as a Medium for Sensorimotor Adaptation Training and Spaceflight Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madansingh, S.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    With the upcoming shift to extra-long duration missions (1 year) aboard the ISS, sensorimotor adaptations during transitory periods in-and-out of microgravity are more important to understand and prepare for. Advances in virtual reality technology enables everyday adoption of these tools for entertainment and use in training. Experiencing virtual environments (VE) allows for the manipulation of visual flow to elicit automatic motor behavior and produce sensorimotor adaptation (SA). Recently, the ability to train individuals using repeatable and varied exposures to SA challenges has shown success by improving performance during exposure to a novel environment (Batson 2011). This capacity to 'learn to learn' is referred to as sensorimotor adaptive generalizability and, through the use of treadmill training, represents an untapped potential for individualized countermeasures. The goal of this study is to determine the feasibility of present head mounted displays (HMDs) to produce compelling visual flow information and the expected adaptations for use in future SA treadmill-based countermeasures. Participants experience infinite hallways providing congruent (baseline) or incongruent visual information (half or double speed) via HMD while walking on an instrumented treadmill at 1.1m/s. As gait performance approaches baseline levels, an adaptation time constant is derived to establish individual time-to-adapt (TTA). It is hypothesized that decreasing the TTA through SA treadmill training will facilitate sensorimotor adaptation during gravitational transitions. In this way, HMD technology represents a novel platform for SA training using off-the-shelf consumer products for greater training flexibility in astronaut and terrestrial applications alike.

  3. The Development of Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Adverse Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann

    The Development of Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Adverse Health Effects Ann R. Kennedy Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 195 John Morgan Building, 3620 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA, United States 19104-6072 The development of countermeasures for radiation induced adverse health effects is a lengthy process, particularly when the countermeasure/drug has not yet been evaluated in human trials. One example of a drug developed from the bench to the clinic is the soybean-derived Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI), which has been developed as a countermeasure for radiation induced cancer. It was originally identified as a compound/drug that could prevent the radiation induced carcinogenic process in an in vitro assay system in 1975. The first observation that BBI could inhibit carcinogenesis in animals was in 1985. BBI received Investigational New Drug (IND) Status with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1992 (after several years of negotiation with the FDA about the potential IND status of the drug), and human trials began at that time. Phase I, II and III human trials utilizing BBI have been performed under several INDs with the FDA, and an ongoing Phase III trial will be ending in the very near future. Thus, the drug has been in development for 35 years at this point, and it is still not a prescription drug on the market which is available for human use. A somewhat less time-consuming process is to evaluate compounds that are on the GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) list. These compounds would include some over-the-counter medications, such as antioxidant vitamins utilized in human trials at the levels for which Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) have been established. To determine whether GRAS substances are able to have beneficial effects on radiation induced adverse health effects, it is still likely to be a lengthy process involving many years to potentially decades of human trial work. The

  4. Modern Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Power Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Robert J.; Luhmann, Neville C.; Booske, John H.; Nusinovich, Gregory S.

    2005-04-01

    A comprehensive study of microwave vacuum electronic devices and their current and future applications While both vacuum and solid-state electronics continue to evolve and provide unique solutions, emerging commercial and military applications that call for higher power and higher frequencies to accommodate massive volumes of transmitted data are the natural domain of vacuum electronics technology. Modern Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Power Electronics provides systems designers, engineers, and researchers-especially those with primarily solid-state training-with a thoroughly up-to-date survey of the rich field of microwave vacuum electronic device (MVED) technology. This book familiarizes the R&D and academic communities with the capabilities and limitations of MVED and highlights the exciting scientific breakthroughs of the past decade that are dramatically increasing the compactness, efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and reliability of this entire class of devices. This comprehensive text explores a wide range of topics: * Traveling-wave tubes, which form the backbone of satellite and airborne communications, as well as of military electronic countermeasures systems * Microfabricated MVEDs and advanced electron beam sources * Klystrons, gyro-amplifiers, and crossed-field devices * "Virtual prototyping" of MVEDs via advanced 3-D computational models * High-Power Microwave (HPM) sources * Next-generation microwave structures and circuits * How to achieve linear amplification * Advanced materials technologies for MVEDs * A Web site appendix providing a step-by-step walk-through of a typical MVED design process Concluding with an in-depth examination of emerging applications and future possibilities for MVEDs, Modern Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Power Electronics ensures that systems designers and engineers understand and utilize the significant potential of this mature, yet continually developing technology. SPECIAL NOTE: All of the editors' royalties realized from

  5. 基于属性组的赛博对抗中人的行为描述方法%Human behavior description method of cyber countermeasure based on properties combination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周芳

    2013-01-01

    In order to analysis the human behavior and function in the process of cyber countermeasure,the connotation and concept of the cyber warfare and the relationship between the cyber warfare and conventional electronic warfare,information warfare are studied.Considering the reconnaissance,attack,defense and control weapon equipment of cyber warfare,the essential characteristics of human behavior in the use of various types of weapons equipment are analyzed.Then the human behavior is described with the diverse properties combination method.And considering the use of the wireless detection tool,malicious code and digital ants equipments on military information system,the human behavior about using the weapon equipment model is established.The human behavior model will provide the support for the capability upgrade of the cyber countermeasure.%为分析赛博对抗过程中人的作用行为,研究了赛博战的概念内涵以及赛博战与传统电子战、信息战之间的联系.针对赛博战中侦察、攻击、防御与控制等武器装备,剖析了人在使用各类武器装备过程中的行为本质特征,采用多元属性组的描述方法对人的行为进行描述,建立了无线探测工具、恶意代码、数字蚂蚁等赛博武器装备在军事信息系统应用过程中人的行为模型.所建立的人的行为模型可为提升赛博对抗能力提供理论指导.

  6. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  7. Electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kwok, H L

    2010-01-01

    The electronic properties of solids have become of increasing importance in the age of information technology. The study of solids and materials, while having originated from the disciplines of physics and chemistry, has evolved independently over the past few decades. The classical treatment of solid-state physics, which emphasized classifications, theories and fundamental physical principles, is no longer able to bridge the gap between materials advances and applications. In particular, the more recent developments in device physics and technology have not necessarily been driven by new conc

  8. On the Risk Countermeasures for Construction Enterprises%论施工企业风险对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奇邦

    2013-01-01

      所有的建筑施工项目都有风险,通过有效的风险管理不仅可以避免不可预见的灾难,还能够获得更多的利润,因此施工企业成功的关键在于风险管理对策。文章分析了风险的概念和特性,提出了施工风险管理对策。%Risks exist in all of the construction project. Through effective risk management can not only avoid unforeseen disaster, also can get more profit. So the risk management countermeasures play a key role in the construction enterprises suc-cess. The paper analyzes the concept and characteristics of risk and puts forward risk management countermeasures for con-struction enterprises.

  9. Countermeasures against lumbar spine deconditioning in prolonged bed rest: resistive exercise with and without whole body vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belavý, Daniel L; Armbrecht, Gabriele; Gast, Ulf; Richardson, Carolyn A; Hides, Julie A; Felsenberg, Dieter

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of short-duration, high-load resistive exercise, with and without whole body vibration on lumbar muscle size, intervertebral disk and spinal morphology changes, and low back pain (LBP) incidence during prolonged bed rest, 24 subjects underwent 60 days of head-down tilt bed rest and performed either resistive vibration exercise (n = 7), resistive exercise only (n = 8), or no exercise (n = 9; 2nd Berlin Bed-Rest Study). Discal and spinal shape was measured from sagittal plane magnetic resonance images. Cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the multifidus, erector spinae, quadratus lumborum, and psoas were measured on para-axial magnetic resonance images. LBP incidence was assessed with questionnaires at regular intervals. The countermeasures reduced CSA loss in the multifidus, lumbar erector spinae and quadratus lumborum muscles, with greater increases in psoas muscle CSA seen in the countermeasure groups (P ≤ 0.004). There was little statistical evidence for an additional effect of whole body vibration above resistive exercise alone on these muscle changes. Exercise subjects reported LBP more frequently in the first week of bed rest, but this was only significant in resistive exercise only (P = 0.011 vs. control, resistive vibration exercise vs. control: P = 0.56). No effect of the countermeasures on changes in spinal morphology was seen (P ≥ 0.22). The results suggest that high-load resistive exercise, with or without whole body vibration, performed 3 days/wk can reduce lumbar muscle atrophy, but further countermeasure optimization is required.

  10. Study on trend analysis of greenhouse gas reduction policy and its countermeasure in Korea: concentrated on transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hwa Jin; Oh, So Young [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    The objective of this study is to recommend a countermeasure to climate change and energy saving. It analyzed reduction policies in domestic and abroad relating to the greenhouse gas reduction especially on automobiles among transportation sector, which shows the highest increase rate of greenhouse gas emission among major greenhouse gas emission sector. Then it estimated a reduction capacity for each reduction scenario concentrated on estimable measures with the potential reduction amount. 26 refs., 23 figs., 39 tabs.

  11. Existing Problems in Energy Exploitation and Eco-environment Sustainable Development and Their Countermeasures in Northern Shaanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The exploitation of coal, petroleum and natural gas in northern Shaanxi not only promoted the rapid development of economy, but also brought about enormous pressure to fragile ecology and resulted to severe water pollution, water and soil loss, vegetation destruction and other ecological environmental problems, so many countermeasures were put forward according to these problems, such as greatly developing circular economy, conducting cleaner production in petroleum enterprises, continuously renewing mining...

  12. Research of hacking techniques and countermeasures%浅谈黑客技术及其对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱波

    2011-01-01

    本文通过对黑客起源及其文化的认识来分析黑客技术的发展,同时也针对当前一些主要的黑客攻击手段提出了防御的对策。%The paper analyses the hacking technology which based on the understanding of hacker culture,and gives the countermeasures for the current major hacker attacks.

  13. Electronic Router

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crusan, Jason

    2005-01-01

    Electronic Router (E-Router) is an application program for routing documents among the cognizant individuals in a government agency or other organization. E-Router supplants a prior 14 NASA Tech Briefs, May 2005 system in which paper documents were routed physically in packages by use of paper slips, packages could be lost, routing times were unacceptably long, tracking of packages was difficult, and there was a need for much photocopying. E-Router enables a user to create a digital package to be routed. Input accepted by E-Router includes the title of the package, the person(s) to whom the package is to be routed, attached files, and comments to reviewers. Electronic mail is used to notify reviewers of needed actions. The creator of the package can, at any time, see the status of the package in the routing structure. At the end of the routing process, E-Router keeps a record of the package and of approvals and/or concurrences of the reviewers. There are commercial programs that perform the general functions of E-Router, but they are more complicated. E-Router is Web-based, easy to use, and does not require the installation or use of client software.

  14. Study of Hard and Soft Countermeasures for Scour Protection of the Jacket-Type Offshore Wind Turbine Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hung Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Physical model tests with the scale of 1:36 are carried out in the Near-Shore Wave Basin (NSWB at Tainan Hydraulics Laboratory (THL with the jacket-type offshore wind turbine foundation (jacket-type foundation and the combination of hard or soft scour protection in the test area. Scouring around the jacket-type foundation exposed to wave and current was conducted in the NSWB with a mobile bed experiment. Two locations (a water depth of 12 m and 16 m of the foundations are separately simulated in this study. Based on the analysis from the former NSWB experimental results, one traditional hard scour protection usually used in Taiwan with four layers around the foundation is proposed for the mitigation of scouring. From the experimental results, a four-layer scour protection is tested and found to be effective in preventing scouring around the jacket-type foundation. Besides the hard scour protection countermeasure, the scour protection effect of an integrated offshore wind turbine and cage net aquaculture facility as a soft countermeasure for scour protection of the jacket-type foundation is further evaluated in this study. Meanwhile, a detailed analysis for stakeholders’ opinions on the integration of offshore wind farms and coastal aquaculture is also considered to obtain important experience and knowledge; and furthermore, to understand the real demand for adjusting the feasibility of this soft countermeasure.

  15. Prediction of renal crystalline size distributions in space using a PBE analytic model. 2. Effect of dietary countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassemi, Mohammad; Thompson, David

    2016-09-01

    An analytic Population Balance Equation model is used to assess the efficacy of citrate, pyrophosphate, and augmented fluid intake as dietary countermeasures aimed at reducing the risk of renal stone formation for astronauts. The model uses the measured biochemical profile of the astronauts as input and predicts the steady-state size distribution of the nucleating, growing, and agglomerating renal calculi subject to biochemical changes brought about by administration of these dietary countermeasures. Numerical predictions indicate that an increase in citrate levels beyond its average normal ground-based urinary values is beneficial but only to a limited extent. Unfortunately, results also indicate that any decline in the citrate levels during space travel below its normal urinary values on Earth can easily move the astronaut into the stone-forming risk category. Pyrophosphate is found to be an effective inhibitor since numerical predictions indicate that even at quite small urinary concentrations, it has the potential of shifting the maximum crystal aggregate size to a much smaller and plausibly safer range. Finally, our numerical results predict a decline in urinary volume below 1.5 liters/day can act as a dangerous promoter of renal stone development in microgravity while urinary volume levels of 2.5-3 liters/day can serve as effective space countermeasures.

  16. The First 50 Years of Electronic Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingemar J. Cox

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Electronic watermarking can be traced back as far as 1954. The last 10 years has seen considerable interest in digital watermarking, due, in large part, to concerns about illegal piracy of copyrighted content. In this paper, we consider the following questions: is the interest warranted? What are the commercial applications of the technology? What scientific progress has been made in the last 10 years? What are the most exciting areas for research? And where might the next 10 years take us? In our opinion, the interest in watermarking is appropriate. However, we expect that copyright applications will be overshadowed by applications such as broadcast monitoring, authentication, and tracking content distributed within corporations. We further see a variety of applications emerging that add value to media, such as annotation and linking content to the Web. These latter applications may turn out to be the most compelling. Considerable progress has been made toward enabling these applications—perceptual modelling, security threats and countermeasures, and the development of a bag of tricks for efficient implementations. Further progress is needed in methods for handling geometric and temporal distortions. We expect other exciting developments to arise from research in informed watermarking.

  17. The First 50 Years of Electronic Watermarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Ingemar J.; Miller, Matt L.

    2002-12-01

    Electronic watermarking can be traced back as far as 1954. The last 10 years has seen considerable interest in digital watermarking, due, in large part, to concerns about illegal piracy of copyrighted content. In this paper, we consider the following questions: is the interest warranted? What are the commercial applications of the technology? What scientific progress has been made in the last 10 years? What are the most exciting areas for research? And where might the next 10 years take us? In our opinion, the interest in watermarking is appropriate. However, we expect that copyright applications will be overshadowed by applications such as broadcast monitoring, authentication, and tracking content distributed within corporations. We further see a variety of applications emerging that add value to media, such as annotation and linking content to the Web. These latter applications may turn out to be the most compelling. Considerable progress has been made toward enabling these applications—perceptual modelling, security threats and countermeasures, and the development of a bag of tricks for efficient implementations. Further progress is needed in methods for handling geometric and temporal distortions. We expect other exciting developments to arise from research in informed watermarking.

  18. Practical electronics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, Ian R

    2013-01-01

    Practical Electronics Handbook, Third Edition provides the frequently used and highly applicable principles of electronics and electronic circuits.The book contains relevant information in electronics. The topics discussed in the text include passive and active discrete components; linear and digital I.C.s; microprocessors and microprocessor systems; digital-analogue conversions; computer aids in electronics design; and electronic hardware components.Electronic circuit constructors, service engineers, electronic design engineers, and anyone with an interest in electronics will find the book ve

  19. 船舶电子签证对规费征稽的影响及对策%The influence of ship electronic Visa to ship charges levying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符干聪

    2014-01-01

    文中分析了施行船舶电子签证后对海事规费征稽工作产生的影响和面临的困难,并提出应对措施,以期为实施电子签证管理后征稽工作提供借鉴。%The paper analyzes the influence of electronic ship endorsement on the collection and inspection of statutory charges as well as the difficulties encountered. It also proposes countermeasures in the hope of providing reference to the charge collection after the implementation of electronic ship endorsement.

  20. WISE-2005 Protective Effect of Exercise within LBNP Countermeasure Detected by Heart Rate Response to Low Levels of LBNP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughson, R. L.; Shoemaker, J. K.; Hargens, A. R.; Mattar, L.; Edgell, H.; Kerbeci, P.; Arbeille, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    Sixteen women were studied before, during and after a 60 day, continu ous 6" head-down bed-rest (HDBR). Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: Control (no countermeasures) and Exercise+LBNP (supine ru nning within an LBNP chamber for 40-min followed by 10-min passive L BNP for 3-4 days/week, plus flywheel resistive training of the legs e very third day). Cardiovascular responses were observed before bed re st, on day 50 of HDBR and R+8 after bed rest. Subjects were supine in the LBNP device with suction applied at 0, -10, -20 and -30 mmHg LBN P for 2-min per stage. In the pre-bed rest testing, there was no diff erence in HR between the groups at rest or at -30 mmHg. On HDBR day 50, HR was elevated at supine rest for the Con not the Ex group, whil e at -30 mmHg HR was elevated above pre-HDBR for both groups, but the magnitude of increase from Pre- to HDBR day 50 was less for the Ex g roup than for the Con group. The change in HR on HDBR day 50 is an im portant indicator as it was less than 24-hours after the Exercise+LBN P countermeasure on day 49. After bed rest, no specific countermeasu res were provided in the first week, so HR responses on day R+8 refle cted the effects of bed rest with or without countermeasure plus any recovery from simply returning to the upright posture. Relative to th e Pre-bed rest responses, HR on day R+8 had recovered in the Ex group but was still elevated in the Con group. These results indicate that the cardiovascular response to LBNP is preserved to a greater degre e during bed rest by the countermeasures, and further that the cardio vascular response returned to pre-bed rest much more rapidly in the E xercise+LBNP group than hi the group that received no cardiovascular countermeasures.

  1. Countermeasures for dairy products in nuclear emergencies; Maitotuotteisiin kohdistuvat vastatoimenpiteet ydinonnettomuustilanteessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinkko, K.; Ammann, M.; Kostiainen, E. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Salo, A. [Tampere, (Finland); Liskola, K. [Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Helsinki (Finland); Haemaelaeinen, R.P.; Mustajoki, J. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Systems Analysis Lab.

    2001-07-01

    This work was performed in order to plan countermeasures that, after an accidental release of radioactivity, could reduce the dose to the public due to the consumption of contaminated milk and milk products. The attention was focused on whether there are justified and optimised actions below the international recommended concentration levels in foodstuffs. The analysis was conducted as a case study, i.e., it was assumed that a hypothetical accident had happened in a nuclear power plant leading to a release of radionuclides which severely contaminated a wide area of Ostrobothnia, one of Finland's most important milk production areas. The dose averted by actions, the' monetary costs and the feasibility of actions were assessed. It was also studied what information is needed by decision-makers and in which form this information should be presented. Finally, it was examined how planning of countermeasures could be enhanced by applying decision analysis in establishing actions strategies and valuing attributes considered in decision making. Preparative meetings and a concluding workshop was arranged and all authorities involved in food-related emergency management were invited to jointly analyse different options. According to the query made the participants considered the decision workshop and decision analysis very practicable in exercises. The exercise as a whole was also evaluated useful or very useful. The presented techniques in a real situation were considered applicable but not as useful as in exercises. Thus it can be deduced that the concluding workshop and decision analysis interviews augment well conventional emergency exercises. Realistic dose assessments proved out to be very difficult. The software used was able to calculate the maximum radionuclide concentrations in foodstuffs processed from local raw materials. Radionuclide concentration in food or feedstuffs may, however, change quickly. Also, the production and processing of foodstuffs is a

  2. MS Non-Pharmacological Countermeasure to Decrease Landing Sickness and Improve Functional Performance While Disorientad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, M. J. F.; Kreutzberg, G. A.; Galvan-Garza, R. C.; Mulavara, A. P.; Reschke, M. F.

    2017-01-01

    Upon return from spaceflight, a majority of crewmembers experience motion sickness (MS) symptoms. The interactions between crewmembers' adaptation to a gravitational transition, the performance decrements resulting from MS and/or use of promethazine (PMZ), and the constraints imposed by mission task demands could significantly challenge and limit an astronaut's ability to perform functional tasks during gravitational transitions. No operational countermeasure currently exists to mitigate the risks associated with these sensorimotor disturbances. Stochastic resonance (SR) can be thought of simply as "noise benefit" or an increase in information transfer by a system when in the presence of a non-zero level of noise. We have shown that low levels of stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) improve balance and locomotor performance due to SR (Goel et al. 2015, Mulavara et al. 2011, 2015). Additionally, a study in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) hemi-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease demonstrated improvements in locomotor activity after low-level SVS delivery possibly due to an increase in nigral gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release in a dopamine independent way (Samoudi et al. 2012). SVS specifically increased GABA release on the lesioned, but not the intact side. These results suggest that SVS can cause targeted alterations of GABA release to affect performance of functional tasks. Activation of the GABA pathway is important in modulating MS and promoting adaptability (Cohen 2008). Magnusson et al. (2000) supported this finding by showing that the administration of a GABAB agonist caused a reversal of the symptoms that is normally seen after unilateral labyrinthectomy. Thus, GABA could play a significant role in reducing MS and promoting adaptability. We have taken advantage of the SR mechanism as a modulator of neurotransmitters to develop a unique SVS countermeasure system to mitigate MS symptoms and improve functional performance after landing. Healthy

  3. Countermeasures for dairy products in nuclear emergencies; Maitotuotteisiin kohdistuvat vastatoimenpiteet ydinonnettomuustilanteessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinkko, K.; Ammann, M.; Kostiainen, E. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Salo, A. [Tampere, (Finland); Liskola, K. [Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Helsinki (Finland); Haemaelaeinen, R.P.; Mustajoki, J. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Systems Analysis Lab.

    2001-07-01

    This work was performed in order to plan countermeasures that, after an accidental release of radioactivity, could reduce the dose to the public due to the consumption of contaminated milk and milk products. The attention was focused on whether there are justified and optimised actions below the international recommended concentration levels in foodstuffs. The analysis was conducted as a case study, i.e., it was assumed that a hypothetical accident had happened in a nuclear power plant leading to a release of radionuclides which severely contaminated a wide area of Ostrobothnia, one of Finland's most important milk production areas. The dose averted by actions, the' monetary costs and the feasibility of actions were assessed. It was also studied what information is needed by decision-makers and in which form this information should be presented. Finally, it was examined how planning of countermeasures could be enhanced by applying decision analysis in establishing actions strategies and valuing attributes considered in decision making. Preparative meetings and a concluding workshop was arranged and all authorities involved in food-related emergency management were invited to jointly analyse different options. According to the query made the participants considered the decision workshop and decision analysis very practicable in exercises. The exercise as a whole was also evaluated useful or very useful. The presented techniques in a real situation were considered applicable but not as useful as in exercises. Thus it can be deduced that the concluding workshop and decision analysis interviews augment well conventional emergency exercises. Realistic dose assessments proved out to be very difficult. The software used was able to calculate the maximum radionuclide concentrations in foodstuffs processed from local raw materials. Radionuclide concentration in food or feedstuffs may, however, change quickly. Also, the production and processing of foodstuffs is a

  4. Strength training as a countermeasure to aging muscle and chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Ben F; Hanson, Erik D; Sheaff, Andrew K

    2011-04-01

    Strength training (ST) has long been considered a promising intervention for reversing the loss of muscle function and the deterioration of muscle structure associated with advanced age but, until recently, the evidence was insufficient to support its role in the prevention or treatment of disease. In recent decades, there has been a long list of quality reviews examining the effects of ST on functional abilities and a few on risk factors for specific diseases, but none have provided a comprehensive assessment of ST as an intervention for a broad range of diseases. This review provides an overview of research addressing the effectiveness of ST as an intervention for the prevention or treatment of the adverse consequences of (i) aging muscle; (ii) the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, i.e. insulin resistance, abdominal obesity, hyperlipidaemia and hypertension; (iii) fibromyalgia; (iv) rheumatoid arthritis; and (v) Alzheimer's disease. Collectively, these studies indicate that ST may serve as an effective countermeasure to some of the adverse consequences of the MetS, fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis. Evidence in support of the hypothesis that ST reduces insulin resistance or improves insulin action comes both from indirect biomarkers, such as glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)), and insulin responses to oral glucose tolerance tests, as well as from more direct procedures such as hyperglycaemic and hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp techniques. The evidence for the use of ST as a countermeasure of abdominal obesity is less convincing. Although some reports show statistically significant reductions in visceral fat, it is unclear if the magnitude of these changes are physiologically meaningful and if they are independent of dietary influences. The efficacy of ST as an intervention for reducing dyslipidaemia is at best inconsistent, particularly when compared with other pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions, such as aerobic exercise

  5. Genomic Measures to Predict Adaptation to Novel Sensorimotor Environments and Improve Personalization of Countermeasure Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzberg, G. A.; Zanello, S.; Seidler, R. D.; Peters, B.; De Dios, Y. E.; Gadd, N. E.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Astronauts experience sensorimotor disturbances during their initial exposure to microgravity and during the re-adaptation phase following a return to an Earth-gravitational environment. These alterations may affect crewmembers' ability to perform mission-critical functional tasks. Interestingly, astronauts have shown significant inter-subject variation in adaptive capability during gravitational transitions. The ability to predict the manner and degree to which individual astronauts would be affected would improve the efficacy of personalized countermeasure training programs designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. The success of such an approach depends on the development of predictive measures of sensorimotor adaptation, which would ascertain each crewmember's adaptive capacity. The goal of this study is to determine whether specific genetic polymorphisms have significant influence on sensorimotor adaptability, which can help inform the design of personalized training countermeasures. Methods. Subjects (n=15) were tested on their ability to negotiate a complex obstacle course for ten test trials while wearing up-down vision-displacing goggles. This presented a visuomotor challenge while doing a full body task. The first test trial time and the recovery rate over the ten trials were used as adaptability performance metrics. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected for their role in neural pathways underlying sensorimotor adaptation and were identified in subjects' DNA extracted from saliva samples: catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT, rs4680), dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2, rs1076560), brain-derived neurotrophic factor genes (BDNF, rs6265), and the DraI polymorphism of the alpha-2 adrenergic receptor. The relationship between the SNPs and test performance was assessed by assigning subjects a rank score based on their adaptability performance metrics and comparing gene expression between the top half and bottom half performers

  6. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element Cardiovascular Risks Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Cardiovascular Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) evaluated several cardiovascular risks associated with space flight along with the ongoing and emerging plans to study these issues and potentially propose and/or develop countermeasures. The areas of focus included: 1) The risk of cardiac rhythm problems during prolonged space flight, and 2) Issues related to the risk of orthostatic intolerance during re-exposure to gravity. An emerging area of concern is radiation associated vascular injury. The risk of cardiac rhythm disturbances has emerged based on case reports only. No systematic study of this risk has been published. However, concerns about this risk are heightened by the age range of astronauts, the structural changes in the heart that occur during space flight, and the potential shifts in fluids and electrolytes. The current plan is to use prolonged Holter monitor EKG records made as part of the "Integrated Cardiovascular SMO" in space to determine more about the frequency and magnitude of this problem and to link this data to complementary data from the nutrition group on electrolytes. The SRP was supportive of this approach. The SRP also felt that any data related to cardiovascular risk in space should be better coordinated with the medical screening data that all astronauts undergo at regular intervals. Additionally, while there are potential privacy issues related to this suggestion, many of the current barriers to better coordination of experimental and clinical data appear to reflect longstanding cultural traditions at NASA that need rethinking. The risk of orthostatic intolerance during re-exposure to gravity was seen by the SRP as an area supported by a wealth of published physiological evidence. The SRP also felt that moving forward with the planned approach to countermeasures was reasonable and that extensive additional hypothesis testing on the physiology of orthostatic intolerance was not needed at this time. There was support for developing

  7. Patent landscape of countermeasures against smallpox and estimation of grant attraction capability through patent landscape data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayburd, Anatoly L; Kedia, Govind; Evans, Haydn W; Kaslival, Pritesh C

    2010-11-01

    The study was concerned with countermeasures against a possible smallpox outbreak. In the process of assessment 18 landscaping sectors were defined and described, the advantages and drawbacks of the corresponding countermeasures being reviewed. The data of the previously published influenza landscape were revisited. The current economic climate of deficit cutting (austerity) also puts emphasis on the optimization of capital investment. We used the materials of the landscape to define and analyze metrics of capital placement optimization. Value score was obtained by fitting patent landscape internals to the sale price of individual patents. Success score was obtained as a product of a-priori parameters that measure likelihood of emergence of a marketable product in a technological sector. Both scores were combined in a qualitative metric. Our methodology defined weight as a product of the sector size by the success score. We hypothesized - based on the material of two landscapes- that a life cycle of a technology begins in IP space with a high patent quality low volume "bud" of low weight, reaches maximum weight and then weight falls again when the technology becomes outdated. The weight and the annual dynamic of weight can serve a measure of investment risk and return. In this report we modeled investment by issue of government grants or purchase of patents by government. In the smallpox landscape the number of patents purchased by government agencies was the highest in the sectors with the highest weight and the trend was confirmed by the count of NIH grants issued in support of the technological sectors. In the influenza landscape only grant issue count was statistically meaningful and the trend was also confirmed. To better fit the grant support levels, the weight expression was optimized by using training coefficients. We propose to use value scores for evaluation of individual patent publications/company portfolios and to use weights for assessment of

  8. Development of an integrated countermeasure device for use in long-duration spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeper, T.; Cavanagh, P. R.; Hanson, A. M.; Carpenter, R. D.; Saeed, I.; Kornak, J.; Frassetto, L.; Grodsinsky, C.; Funk, J.; Lee, S. M. C.; Spiering, B. A.; Bloomberg, J.; Mulavara, A.; Sibonga, J.; Lang, T.

    2011-06-01

    Prolonged weightlessness is associated with declines in musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and sensorimotor health. Consequently, in-flight countermeasures are required to preserve astronaut health. We developed and tested a novel exercise countermeasure device (CCD) for use in spaceflight with the aim of preserving musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health along with an incorporated balance training component. Additionally, the CCD features a compact footprint, and a low power requirement. Methods: After design and development of the CCD, we carried out a training study to test its ability to improve cardiovascular and muscular fitness in healthy volunteers. Fourteen male and female subjects (41.4±9.0 years, 69.5±15.4 kg) completed 12 weeks (3 sessions per week) of concurrent strength and endurance training on the CCD. All training was conducted with the subject in orthostasis. When configured for spaceflight, subjects will be fixed to the device via a vest with loop attachments secured to subject load devices. Subjects were tested at baseline and after 12 weeks for 1-repetition max leg press strength (1RM), peak oxygen consumption (VO 2peak), and isokinetic joint torque (ISO) at the hip, knee, and ankle. Additionally, we evaluated subjects after 6 weeks of training for changes in VO 2peak and 1RM. Results: VO 2peak and 1RM improved after 6 weeks, with additional improvements after 12 weeks (1.95±0.5, 2.28±0.5, 2.47±0.6 L min -1, and 131.2±63.9,182.8±75.0, 207.0±75.0 kg) for baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks, respectively. ISO for hip adduction, adduction, and ankle plantar flexion improved after 12 weeks of training (70.3±39.5, 76.8±39.2, and 55.7±21.7 N m vs. 86.1±37.3, 85.1±34.3, and 62.1±26.4 N m, respectively). No changes were observed for ISO during hip flexion, knee extension, or knee flexion. Conclusions: The CCD is effective at improving cardiovascular fitness and isotonic leg strength in healthy adults. Further, the improvement in hip adductor

  9. Inflight Treadmill Exercise Can Serve as Multi-Disciplinary Countermeasure System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Laurie, S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Phillips, T.; Platts, S. H.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Ryder, J. W.; Stenger, M. B.; Taylor, L. C.; Wood, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    The goals of the Functional Task Test (FTT) study were to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We have previously shown that for Shuttle, ISS and bed rest subjects, functional tasks requiring a greater demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium (i.e. fall recovery, seat egress/obstacle avoidance during walking, object translation, jump down) showed the greatest decrement in performance. Functional tests with reduced requirements for postural stability (i.e. hatch opening, ladder climb, manual manipulation of objects and tool use) showed little reduction in performance. These changes in functional performance were paralleled by similar decrements in sensorimotor tests designed to specifically assess postural equilibrium and dynamic gait control. The bed rest analog allows us to investigate the impact of axial body unloading in isolation on both functional tasks and on the underlying physiological factors that lead to decrements in performance and then compare them with the results obtained in our space flight study. These results indicate that body support unloading experienced during space flight plays a central role in postflight alteration of functional task performance. These data also support the concept that space flight may cause central adaptation of converging body-load somatosensory and vestibular input during gravitational transitions [1]. Therefore, we conclude that providing significant body-support loading during inflight treadmill along with balance training is necessary to mitigate decrements in critical mission tasks that require dynamic postural stability and mobility. Data obtained from space flight and bed rest

  10. The role of pyridoxine as a countermeasure for in-flight loss of lean body mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Joyce A.

    1992-01-01

    Ground based and in flight research has shown that humans, under conditions of microgravity, sustain a loss of lean body tissue (protein) and changes in several biological processes including, reductions in red blood cell mass, and neurotransmitters. The maintenance of muscle mass, the major component of lean body mass, is required to meet the needs of space station EVAs. Central to the biosynthesis of amino acids, the building blocks of protein, is pyridoxine (vitamin B-6). Muscle mass integrity requires the availability of vitamin B-6 for protein metabolism and neurotransmitter synthesis. Furthermore, the formation of red blood cells require pyridoxine as a cofactor in the biosynthesis of hemoglobin, a protein that carries oxygen to tissues. In its active form, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP), vitamin B-6 serves as a link between amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism through intermediates of glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. In addition to its role in energy metabolism, PLP is involved in the biosynthesis of hemoglobin and neurotransmitter which are necessary for neurological functions. Alterations in pyridoxine metabolism may affect countermeasures designed to overcome some of these biochemical changes. The focus of this research is to determine the effects of microgravity on the metabolic utilization of vitamin B-6, integrating nutrition as an integral component of the countermeasure (exercise) to maintain lean body mass and muscle strength. The objectives are: 1) to determine whether microgravity effects the metabolic utilization of pyridoxine and 2) to quantitate changes in B-6 vitamer distribution in tissue and excreta relative to loss of lean body tissue. The rationale for this study encompasses the unique challenge to control biochemical mechanisms effected during space travel and the significance of pyridoxine to maintain and counter muscle integrity for EVA activities. This experiment will begin to elucidate the importance of biochemical

  11. 第三方支付存在的问题及其解决对策%Problems and Countermeasures of the Third Online Payment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马骁; 胡松筠

    2012-01-01

    第三方支付是在电子商务迅速发展的背景下,为解决网上交易中的信用与安全问题,应运而生的。电子商务应用越广泛,对网上交易的安全要求也就越高,第三方支付的出现解决了商家与消费者的不信任,作为商家和消费者之间的中介,作为交易各方与银行之间的接口,这个新兴行业面对着各种机遇与挑战。本文在介绍第三方支付发展现状的基础上,以我国现在主要的第三方支付平台为例,提出了第三方支付存在的问题及其解决对策,并对其广阔发展前景进行了展望。%The Third online Payment produced in the fast development of the electronic commerce, in case to solve the problem about credit and security of trade on the net. The more the e-commerce is used, the higher safety is required to, the appearance of the third online Payment solves the distrust between business and consumers, as the intermediaries between merchants and consumers, as a connection with the bank, the new in- dustry faced all kinds of challenges and opportunities. Based on the developing status of The Third online Payment, take the main third-party plat- form in our country as an example, analyses the problems and countermeasures of The Third online Payment, then further development on it is dis- cussed finally.

  12. Electronic Preprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, R.

    1999-12-01

    Despite the tremendous advances in electronic publications and the increasing rapidity with which papers are now moving from acceptance into ``print,'' preprints continue to be an important mode of communication within the astronomy community. The Los Alamos e-preprint service, astro-ph, provides for rapid and cost-free (to authors and readers) dissemination of manuscripts. As the use of astro-ph has increased the number of paper preprints in circulation to libraries has decreased, and institutional preprint series appear to be waning. It is unfortunate, however, that astro-ph does not function in collaboration with the refereed publications. For example, there is no systematic tracking of manuscripts from preprint to their final, published form, and as a centralized archive it is difficult to distribute the tracking and maintenance functions. It retains documents that have been superseded or have become obsolete. We are currently developing a distributed preprint and document management system which can support both distributed collections of preprints (e.g., traditional institutional preprint series), can link to the LANL collections, can index other documents in the ``grey'' literature (observatory reports, telescope and instrument user's manuals, calls for proposals, etc.), and can function as a manuscript submission tool for the refereed journals. This system is being developed to work cooperatively with the refereed literature so that, for example, links to preprints are updated to links to the final published papers.

  13. Sustainable Management of Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    To provide information on EPAs strategy for electronics stewardship, certified electronics recyclers and the Challenge; as well as where to donate unwanted electronics, how to calculate benefits, and what's going on with electronics mgmt in their states.

  14. EDITORIAL: Synaptic electronics Synaptic electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Gimzewski, James K.; Vuillaume, Dominique

    2013-09-01

    Conventional computers excel in logic and accurate scientific calculations but make hard work of open ended problems that human brains handle easily. Even von Neumann—the mathematician and polymath who first developed the programming architecture that forms the basis of today's computers—was already looking to the brain for future developments before his death in 1957 [1]. Neuromorphic computing uses approaches that better mimic the working of the human brain. Recent developments in nanotechnology are now providing structures with very accommodating properties for neuromorphic approaches. This special issue, with guest editors James K Gimzewski and Dominique Vuillaume, is devoted to research at the serendipitous interface between the two disciplines. 'Synaptic electronics', looks at artificial devices with connections that demonstrate behaviour similar to synapses in the nervous system allowing a new and more powerful approach to computing. Synapses and connecting neurons respond differently to incident signals depending on the history of signals previously experienced, ultimately leading to short term and long term memory behaviour. The basic characteristics of a synapse can be replicated with around ten simple transistors. However with the human brain having around 1011 neurons and 1015 synapses, artificial neurons and synapses from basic transistors are unlikely to accommodate the scalability required. The discovery of nanoscale elements that function as 'memristors' has provided a key tool for the implementation of synaptic connections [2]. Leon Chua first developed the concept of the 'The memristor—the missing circuit element' in 1971 [3]. In this special issue he presents a tutorial describing how memristor research has fed into our understanding of synaptic behaviour and how they can be applied in information processing [4]. He also describes, 'The new principle of local activity, which uncovers a minuscule life-enabling "Goldilocks zone", dubbed the

  15. Electronic Mimosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjay; Datta, Meera S.; Rana, Vivek; Grover, Shailesh

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the design of a low-cost, 2D, electromagnetic tracking device for personal computers. This interface makes use of the well-known principle of electromagnetic induction to locate the position of a transmitter in an x-y plane. This device has a ring which is worn by the user on the index finger. The computer monitor is overlaid with a transparent screen equipped with tuned electromagnetic sensors. These sensors pick up the signals transmitted by the transmitter coil on the finger. The receiver circuit extracts the envelope of the received signal and digitizes it. These digitized values of x and y axis signals are read by the computer through the standard parallel port. The system software running on the computer calculates the x and y co-ordinates of the transmitter coil and displays a cursor at that location. The transmitter also has a button which can be used like a mouse button. This keypress information is also transmitted by the electromagnetic means. The device driver for this tracker replaces the standard mouse driver. Hence most applications which use a mouse can also use this tracker. Its name `Mimosa' indicates that the user need not touch the screen (Mimosa Pudica is the Latin name of a plant whose leaves wilt when touched). Presently work is on to achieve uniform sensitivity over the entire screen and reducing transmitter power consumption. In order to demonstrate its working, a small, 3D game was written. The player has to reach a pre-defined location after traversing through a maze. The paper describes the interface electronics, system software, mechanical design and the sample application.

  16. Environmental Issues of Geothermal Development in Yangbajing, Tibet and the Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiHui-xia; HeXiao-rong; HuXian-cai; DuoJi

    2003-01-01

    The pollution source and pollution state of surface water is respectively assessed with equal-standard-pollution-load index and Nemero index, and the habitans' health is assessed as well by comparison with predevelopment of geothermal field. Results show that:l) Three pollutive factors obviously fail to attain the required standards and their order sorted by impact degree is As>F->S2-. 2) The Nemero index of Donggua cross section of Duilongqu River is 0. 725 and the water quality is at mildly-polluted level. 3) In Lhasa River, the Nemero indexes of cross sections affected by geothermal fields are much higher than that of the unaffected one, which shows the present and potential impacts of geothermal development. 4) Much more inhabitants nearby got trichomadesis sickness after geothermal development, which shows that the surface water pollution in this area has threatened the inhabitants'' health. In addition, other environmental issues caused by Vanghajing geothermal development are analyzed and some countermeasures are oroposed.

  17. The spill prevention, control, and countermeasures (SPCC) plan for the Y-12 Plant. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    This spill prevention, control and countermeasures (SPCC) Plan is divided into two volumes. Volume I addresses Y-12`s compliance with regulations pertinent to the content of SPCC Plans. Volume II is the SPCC Hazardous Material Storage Data Base, a detailed tabulation of facility-specific information and data on potential spill sources at the Y-12 Plant. Volume I follows the basic format and subject sequence specified in 40 CFR 112.7. This sequence is prefaced by three additional chapters, including this introduction and brief discussions of the Y-12 Plant`s background/environmental setting and potential spill source categories. Two additional chapters on containers and container storage areas and PCB and PCB storage for disposal facilities are inserted into the required sequence. The following required subjects are covered in this volume: Spill history, site drainage; secondary containment/diversion structures and equipment; contingency plans; notification and spill response procedures; facility drainage; bulk storage tanks; facility transfer operations, pumping, and in-plant processes; transfer stations (facility tank cars/tank tracks); inspections and records; security, and personnel, training, and spill prevention procedures.

  18. The spill prevention, control, and countermeasures (SPCC) plan for the Y-12 Plant. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    This spill prevention, control and countermeasures (SPCC) Plan is divided into two volumes. Volume I addresses Y-12`s compliance with regulations pertinent to the content of SPCC Plans. Volume II is the SPCC Hazardous Material Storage Data Base, a detailed tabulation of facility-specific information and data on potential spill sources at the Y-12 Plant. Volume I follows the basic format and subject sequence specified in 40 CFR 112.7. This sequence is prefaced by three additional chapters, including this introduction and brief discussions of the Y-12 Plant`s background/environmental setting and potential spill source categories. Two additional chapters on containers and container storage areas and PCB and PCB storage for disposal facilities are inserted into the required sequence. The following required subjects are covered in this volume: Spill history, site drainage; secondary containment/diversion structures and equipment; contingency plans; notification and spill response procedures; facility drainage; bulk storage tanks; facility transfer operations, pumping, and in-plant processes; transfer stations (facility tank cars/tank tracks); inspections and records; security, and personnel, training, and spill prevention procedures.

  19. Disuse bone loss in hindquarter suspended rats: partial weightbearing, exercise and ibandronate treatment as countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheis, L; Ruff, C B; Rastogi, S; Bloomfield, S; Hogan, H A; Fedarko, N; Thierry-Palmer, M; Ruiz, J; Bauss, F; Shapiro, J R

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential countermeasures for bone loss during long-term space missions in the hindquarter suspended rat, including partial weight bearing (surrogate for artificial gravity) episodic full weight bearing (2 hour/day full weight bearing) and treatment with the third generation bisphosphonate ibandronate (Roche). Graded mechanical loading was studied by housing the animals on a novel servo controlled force plate system which permitted the titration of mechanical force at varying frequency and amplitude and different levels of weight bearing. The force plate, which forms the cage floor, is a glass platform supported by an 18" diameter speaker cone filled with expanding polyurethane foam. An infrared optical sensor attached to the speaker cone yields a voltage linearly related to vertical displacement of the glass platform. The dynamic force on the paw was computed as a product of the apparent mass of the animal on the platform at rest and the acceleration of the platform determined from the second derivative of the optical sensor output. The mass of the animal on the platform was varied by adjusting tension on the tether suspending the animal. Mechanical impact loading was titrated with the force plate resonating at different frequencies, including 3 Hz and 16 Hz.

  20. SWOT Analysis and Countermeasures of Industrial Development in Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the introduction of the general situation of the research area,the SWOT analysis is applied to study the strengths,weakness,opportunities and threats of the industrial development in Three Gorges Reservoir area. The strengths are represented by the following four aspects:abundant agricultural resources,rich tourism resources,rich mineral resources and rich hydro energy. The weaknesses are analyzed from the following three aspects:the backward infrastructure,the acute conflict of the emigration of manufactures and the poor exploitation of advantageous resources. The opportunities of industrial development,which cover the opportunities bought by the guidance of national policies and preferential policies,by the improvement of traffic conditions in the reservoir area and by the completion and operation of the Three Gorges Reservoir Project. From the analysis of poor investment environment,irrational industrial structure and serious shortage of capitals,the threats of the industrial development are analyzed. In order to promote further the industrial development of the Three Gorges Reservoir area,the countermeasures are put forward. In the first place,optimizing the industrial structure and developing leading industries;in the second place,strengthening the construction of infrastructure and improving the investment environment;in the third place,optimizing human resources so as to provide intellectual support for industrial development.

  1. β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate as a countermeasure for cancer cachexia: a cellular and molecular rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Su; Khamoui, Andy V; Jo, Edward; Park, Bong-Sup; Lee, Won Jun

    2013-10-01

    Cancer cachexia is a life-threatening condition characterized by involuntary body weight loss and skeletal muscle wasting. In addition to being associated with poor prognosis and reduced survival, patients with cachexia exhibit a critical loss of physical function that impinges upon their ability to perform basic activities of daily living. Consequently, there is a loss of independence and a drastically reduced quality of life. Despite being a major unmet medical need of patients, very few treatment options exist. Maintaining muscle mass represents an important objective in the cancer patient trajectory not only because it relates to one's capacity to perform activities of daily living, but also because muscle preservation may be a critical determinant of survival while in a tumor-bearing state. In this regard, research has been directed towards identifying countermeasures effective in preserving muscle. With respect to nutritional approaches, administration of the leucine metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) could be a viable component in multi-modal therapies targeting cancer cachexia. Evidence suggests that HMB treatment promotes regenerative events (i.e. myogenic program), suppresses protein degradation, and activates signaling pathways preceding protein synthesis and skeletal muscle growth. HMB therefore, could conceivably act on key regulatory events driving cancer cachexia, thereby favoring muscle growth/preservation. In this review, we take a mechanistic approach in making a case for the use of HMB provision as a possible therapeutic strategy for cancer cachexia by highlighting the cellular and molecular aspects of HMB function.

  2. Mixed-Signal Hardware Security: Attacks and Countermeasures for ΔΣ ADC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayan Taheri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mixed-signal integrated circuits (ICs play an eminent and critical role in design and development of the embedded systems leveraged within smart weapons and military systems. These ICs can be a golden target for adversaries to compromise in order to function maliciously. In this work, we study the security aspects of a tunnel field effect transistor (TFET-based first-order one-bit delta-sigma ( Δ Σ analog to digital converter (ADC through proposing four attack and one defense models. The first attack manipulates the input signal to the Δ Σ modulator. The second attack manipulates the analog version of the modulator output bit and is triggered by the noise signal. The third attack manipulates the modulator output bit and has a controllable trigger mechanism. The fourth attack manipulates the analog version of the modulator output bit and is triggered by a victim capacitance within the chip. For the defense, a number of signal processing filters are used in order to purge the analog version of the modulator output bit for elimination of the malicious unwanted features, introduced by the attacks. According to the simulation results, the second threat model displays the strongest attack. Derived from the countermeasure evaluation, the best filter to confront the threat models is the robust regression using the least absolute residual computing method.

  3. Countermeasures and Functional Testing in Head-Down Tilt Bed Rest (CFT 70)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2013-01-01

    This 70-day bed rest campaign was comprised of 6 integrated studies and conducted at the NASA Flight Analogs Research Unit (FARU). The FARU is located at the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas and is a satellite unit of the Institute for Translational Sciences - Clinical Research Center. This presentation will describe the FARU, discuss the utility of the bed rest platform for use in these studies, and introduce the studies that participated in the CFT 70 bed rest campaign. Information in this presentation will serve as the background for subsequent talks from each individual study. Individual study presentations will discuss preliminary results from completed subjects. Studies included in CFT70 were: ? Physiological Factors Contributing to Post Flight Changes in Functional Performance. J. Bloomberg, NASA ? Integrated Resistance and Aerobic Training Study. L. Ploutz-Snyder, USRA ? Testosterone Supplementation as a Countermeasure Against Musculoskeletal losses during Space Exploration. R. Urban, University of Texas Medical Branch ? Effects of Retronasal Smelling, Variety and Choice on Appetite & Satiety. J. Hunter, Cornell University ? AD ASTRA: Automated Detection of Attitudes and States through Transaction Recordings Analysis. C. Miller, Smart Information Flow Technologies, LLC ? Bed Rest as a Spaceflight Analog to Study Neuro-cognitive Changes: Extent, Longevity, and Neural Bases. R. Seidler, University of Michigan

  4. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element: Evidence Report - Artificial Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    The most serious risks of long-duration flight involve radiation, behavioral stresses, and physiological deconditioning. Artificial gravity (AG), by substituting for the missing gravitational cues and loading in space, has the potential to mitigate the last of these risks by preventing the adaptive responses from occurring. The rotation of a Mars-bound spacecraft or an embarked human centrifuge offers significant promise as an effective, efficient multi-system countermeasure against the physiological deconditioning associated with prolonged weightlessness. Virtually all of the identified risks associated with bone loss, muscle weakening, cardiovascular deconditioning, and sensorimotor disturbances might be alleviated by the appropriate application of AG. However, experience with AG in space has been limited and a human-rated centrifuge is currently not available on board the ISS. A complete R&D program aimed at determining the requirements for gravity level, gravity gradient, rotation rate, frequency, and duration of AG exposure is warranted before making a decision for implementing AG in a human spacecraft.

  5. Multiple Effects of Energy Issues and Countermeasures: A Case of Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chengxin; Wang Gefang; Yao Shimou

    2008-01-01

    Energy is now becoming the bottleneck of urban and regional development. The paper takes Shandong Province, one of the most energy consuming provinces in China, as an example, uses quantity methods such as SPSS (Stastics Package for Social Science) cluster sampling and regression analysis, and applies quantity analysis, to analyze the situation of energy is-sues in Shandong province. The conflicts between the quick industrialization and increasing extensive economic development, between urban population and energy consuming per head, between the infinite energy consuming desire and the low level of managing system, and between the unstable world energy supply and the limited energy storage in China are the main factors of energy crisis in Shandong, which not only results in energy shortage, but also becomes the barrier of economic and social development. In order to ensure sufficient energy supply for Shandong province in the 21st century, we should take countermeasures, such as changing the economic development model, pursuing a multiple and high quality energy strategy, improving the intensive urbanization strategy, and building a scientific energy system.

  6. Employment Will of New Generation Migrant Workers in Hubei Province and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The issue concerning new generation migrant workers is an important part of current social management. How to improve employment ability of new generation migrant workers is the central part of improving living of migrant workers and development environment. Based on survey data of 6 counties in Hubei Province,I analyzed employment will and influence factors of new generation migrant workers. Researches have indicated that going out to work,employment opportunity,nature of subordinate service industry,industrial technical level,and financial support play a significant role in employment intention of migrant workers,while their employment ability is influenced by their cultural quality,professional skills, working endurance,degree of policy cognition,and information channel,etc. In view of these five aspects,I put forward following countermeasures: raise educational level,improve skills,strengthen endurance,enhance attention to policies,and expand information channel,to improve employment ability of new generation migrant workers.

  7. Countermeasures for China’s Ecological Environment Construction in Land Reclamation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen; LI; Xinfeng; LIU; Zhe; PENG; Tao; SI; Lingfeng; KONG

    2013-01-01

    Basic situation of the current ecological environment construction in land consolidation and rehabilitation of China is introduced. The related advanced experience abroad is summarized from mainly four aspects, namely policy, system as well as subject development, planning guidance, design method of project planning and engineering study, and practical countermeasures to China’s ecological environment construction in land reclamation are proposed. In terms of policy, system and subject, relevant regulations, policies and system construction should be strengthened and the framework of policy, system and subject development in ecological landscape construction of China’s land reclamation should be proposed, integrating ecological environment construction into land reclamation. At the level of strategic planning, the spatial layout and construction key points of green infrastructure in land reclamation of "urban multi-functional developing region, eastern economic developed region, central modern agricultural region and northwestern ecological fragile region" should be achieved. At the level of project planning design, ecological principles, sustainable landscape design principles and vernacular landscape design methods are to be integrated into the planning procedure to form operable technique regulations or introductions. At the level of engineering design, engineering technique system, standards and regulations of ditches, roads, forests and channels with local distinctions should be formulated according to the characters and strategic demands of urbanization, industrialization, agriculture modernization and ecological environment preservation in different regions.

  8. The Research on Countermeasures of Green Agricultural Development in Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Firstly,the thesis introduces the connotation of green agriculture,indicating that the green agriculture has 4 characteristics,namely openness,continuity,high efficiency and standardization,compared with the traditional agricultural development model.Secondly,the advantages of developing green agriculture in Jiangsu Province are discussed,namely rich agricultural resources,notable technological advantage,solid agricultural foundation,high quality of agricultural products,great market prospect of green consumption,and notable policy advantage.In view of the increasing shortage of natural resources,increasing restriction of rural labor force,increasing deterioration of rural environment,inadequate popularization of green agriculture,and fierce competition at home and abroad,the restricted factors of developing green agriculture in Jiangsu Province are introduced.Finally,in view of the agricultural concept innovation,green agricultural system innovation,agricultural technology innovation,agricultural management innovation,operation system innovation,ecological system innovation,development of tourism agriculture and regional differentiation development strategy,the relevant countermeasures and suggestions are put forward,in order to explore a new agricultural development model for Jiangsu’s modern agricultural development.

  9. Environmental Issues of Geothermal Development in Yangbajing, Tibet and the Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hui-xia; He Xiao-rong; Hu Xian-cai; Duo Ji

    2003-01-01

    The pollution source and pollution state of surface water is respectively assessed with equal-standard-pollution-load index and Nemero index, and the habitans' health is assessed as well by comparison with pre-development of geothermal field. Results show that: 1 ) Three pollutive factors obviously fail to attain the required standards and their order sorted by impact degree is As>F- >S2-. 2) The Nemero index of Donggua cross section of Duilongqu River is 0. 725and the water quality is at mildly-polluted level. 3) In Lhasa River, the Nemero indexes of cross sections affected by geothermal fields are much higher than that of the unaffected one, which shows the present and potential impacts of geothermal development. 4) Much more inhabitants nearby got trichomadesis sickness after geothermal development, which shows that the surface water pollution in this area has threatened the inhabitants' health. In addition, other environmental issues caused by Yangbajing geothermal development are analyzed and some countermeasures are proposed.

  10. [Science in a crisis. Medical countermeasures in Ebola virus disease, 2016: lessons learned and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvy, D

    2016-10-01

    In 2013, the world began to witness an unprecedented Ebola epidemic in West Africa that was smoldering by early 2016. Under this urgent circumstance, the global scientific community organized and made progress in identifying potential preventive countermeasures and therapeutics and accelerated the development of those promising interventions. Trials of experimental interventions soon emerged as a key component of the global response. Hence, an interdisciplinary issue ensued concerning how best to assess clinical safety and effectiveness of potential interventions prior to or concurrent with their broad use in humans. Key issues rely on the close collaboration between research and clinical teams involved in care in the field. Indeed, it is of prime importance to consider cultural dimensions when aiming to build trust within communities and flexibility to adapt trial procedures to field constraints. Trials implemented during the outbreak crisis illustrates challenging inputs for producing scientific and ethical gains for the benefits of vulnerable populations in the context of an international emerging or re-emerging infectious disease event. This includes rapid implementation of clinical research studies from the early phase of the next global outbreak on the basis of practical and ready-to-apply innovative methodological framework built during interepidemic periods.

  11. Medical radiation countermeasures for nuclear and radiological emergencies: Current status and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Arora

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear and radiological emergencies (NREs occurred globally and recent incidences in India are indicating toward the need for comprehensive medical preparedness required both at incident site and hospitals. The enhanced threat attributed toward insurgency is another causative factor of worry. The response capabilities and operational readiness of responders (both health and non-health service providers in contaminated environment need to be supported by advancement in R & D and technological efforts to develop prophylactics and radiation mitigators. It is essential to develop phase 1 alternatives of such drugs for unseen threats as a part of initial preparedness. At the incident site and hospital level, external decontamination procedures need to be standardized and supported by protective clothing and Shudika kits developed by INMAS. The medical management of exposure requires systematic approach to perform triage, resuscitation and curative care. The internal contamination requires decorporation agents to be administered based on procedural diagnostics. Various key issues pertaining to policy decisions, R & D promotion, community awareness, specialized infrastructure for NREs preparedness has been discussed. The present review is an attempt to provide vital information about the current status of various radiation countermeasures and future perspective(s ahead.

  12. The Ecological Service Function Development of Urban Modern Agriculture in Tianjin City and Corresponding Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; QIN; Guoxing; SUN; Jin; LI

    2013-01-01

    Based on the current situation of ecological environment of agriculture in Tianjin City,we divide the ecological service function of urban modern agriculture in Tianjin City into seven types: air regulation,climate regulation,water conservation,soil formation and protection, waste disposal,biodiversity conservation,and ecological entertainment. According to the method for assessing the value of natural ecosystem, coupled with the ecological service value equivalency factor table of China’s ecosystem formulated by domestic scholars,we estimate the ecological value in Tianjin City. The results show that the actual ecological value of agriculture in Tianjin City was 30. 752 billion yuan in 2010,close to the agricultural economic value ( 31. 733 billion yuan) in 2010. Finally we put forth the following countermeasures for the ecological function development of urban modern agriculture in Tianjin City: strictly protecting arable land,and raising the standards of compensation for agricultural land requisition; actively and prudently developing facility agriculture,and preventing the blind scale expansion of facility agriculture to better give play to its ecological function; strengthening the construction of ecological agriculture,and promoting the market conversion of the ecological service value of agriculture; improving the environment,to form relatively complete agro-ecological system.

  13. Development of Two New Types of Retroreflective Materials as Countermeasures to Urban Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hideki; Iyota, Hiroyuki

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the side effects of high-reflective and ordinary retroreflective materials, used as countermeasures to urban heat islands, are discussed. In addition, two retroreflective materials are proposed in order to avoid these adverse effects. These materials could be applied to roads and building exteriors to reduce their heat absorption from solar radiation. The first proposed type is the directional retroreflective material, which reflects light only during summer; therefore, it reduces the cooling load in summer, reduces the heating load in winter, and prevents light pollution at night. However, its structure is complicated and fragile; thus, it is suited for small areas, such as roofs and walls. The second type is the rough-surface retroreflective material, which shows weak retroreflectivity but can withstand distortion; thus, it is suited for roads. These two types require little maintenance, because they have no moving parts. Hence, these materials would not experience any breakdown, which is a great advantage for roads and building materials. Combining high-reflective, ordinary retroreflective, directional retroreflective, and rough-surface retroreflective materials, and assigning each type to the appropriate application would form an advanced mitigation system against urban heat islands.

  14. Countermeasure against insect pests for comfortable life; Gaichu tono tatakai (kaitekina seikatsu kukan wo mezashite)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, M. [Sumitomo Chemical Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    Described herein are the current status and development of insecticides for domestic purposes. For aerosol type cockroach-killing insecticides, oily type is predominant in Japan whereas aqueous type in USA and other countries. They are mixtures of knockdown agents and killing agents, the former being used for their immediate and lethal effects whereas the latter for their lethal effect. In 1996, agents showing high knockdown effects, such as pyrethroids, are registered. Fumigants are used in closed spaces, which are ventilated after they are used. Bait agents contain inducing agents. Recently, ticks become social problems as an allergy source. The insecticides are generally used to remove them, although physical methods, such as cleaning and heat treatment, are effective. They are centered by aerosols and fumigants, but insecticidal sheets are used to some extent. Fleas coming from pets also cause problems. Increased resistance of insects to insecticides has led to development of new types of insecticides, such as those based on organophosphates and those aimed at prevention of their metamorphosis. Commercial insecticides are safe, as long as they are produced in compliance with the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law and used correctly. Nevertheless, however, researches for safer countermeasures against insects are needed. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Dextroamphetamine: a pharmacologic countermeasure for space motion sickness and orthostatic dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, L. Dale

    1996-01-01

    Dextroamphetamine has potential as a pharmacologic agent for the alleviation of two common health effects associated with microgravity. As an adjuvant to Space Motion Sickness (SMS) medication, dextroamphetamine can enhance treatment efficacy by reducing undesirable Central Nervous System (CNS) side effects of SMS medications. Secondly, dextroamphetamine may be useful for the prevention of symptoms of post-mission orthostatic intolerance caused by cardiovascular deconditioning during spaceflight. There is interest in developing an intranasal delivery form of dextroamphetanmine for use as a countermeasure in microgravity conditions. Development of this dosage form will require an analytical detection method with sensitivity in the low ng range (1 to 100 ng/mL). During the 1995 Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, two analytical methods were developed and evaluated for their suitability as quantitative procedures for dextroamphetamine in studies of product stability, bioavailability assessment, and pharmacokinetic evaluation. In developing some of the analytical methods, beta-phenylethylamine, a primary amine structurally similar to dextroamphetamine, was used. The first analytical procedure to be evaluated involved hexane extraction and subsequent fluorescamine labeling of beta-phenylethylamine. The second analytical procedure to be evaluated involved quantitation of dextroamphetamine by an Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA).

  16. Industrial Discretization Mechanism and Agglomeration Counter-measures for Industrial Parks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuangyan; ZHOU

    2013-01-01

    With rapid development of industrial parks in China,it lacks strict control in planning for establishment and land use of industrial parks.The supply is seriously surplus,and cut-throat competition takes place in investment inviting activities,leading to discretized development of industries in industrial parks.Industrial park and enterprise cluster have a common foundation,namely,geographic concentration of industries.Industrial parks with enterprise cluster development show various advantages,so industrial parks should take industrial cluster development as their ultimate direction.From problems in construction of industrial parks,this paper analyzes mechanism of discretized industrial parks,and accordingly puts forward countermeasures for promoting cluster development:(1)Scientifically distributing administrative power of local government,improving supervision and assessment mechanism,and guaranteeing reasonable supply of industrial parks from system;(2)Introducing market-oriented industrial park construction mechanism,to promote market-oriented supply of industrial parks;(3)Strengthening construction of administrative ethics and abilities of local government,to promote coordinated and healthy development of industrial parks;(4)Forming excellent enterprise cluster development expectation and strengthening cluster-based decisions of enterprises entering industrial parks.

  17. Multi-Flow Attacks Against Network Flow Watermarks: Analysis and Countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Kiyavash, Negar; Borisov, Nikita

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze several recent schemes for watermarking network flows that are based on splitting the flow into timing intervals. We show that this approach creates time-dependent correlations that enable an attack that combines multiple watermarked flows. Such an attack can easily be mounted in nearly all applications of network flow watermarking, both in anonymous communication and stepping stone detection. The attack can be used to detect the presence of a watermark, recover the secret parameters, and remove the watermark from a flow. The attack can be effective even if different flows are marked with different values of a watermark. We analyze the efficacy of our attack using a probabilistic model and a Markov-Modulated Poisson Process (MMPP) model of interactive traffic. We also implement our attack and test it using both synthetic and real-world traces, showing that our attack is effective with as few as 10 watermarked flows. Finally, we propose possible countermeasures to defeat the multi-flo...

  18. African schistosomiasis in mainland China: risk of transmission and countermeasures to tackle the risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Liang, You-Sheng; Hong, Qing-Biao; Dai, Jian-Rong

    2013-08-28

    Schistosomiasis is a major disease of public health importance in humans occurring in 76 countries of the tropics and sub-tropics. In China, schistosomiasis japonica is one of the highest priorities in communicable disease control defined by the central government. Since 1970s, the habitats of Biomphalaria straminea, an intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in South America, have been identified in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Shenzhen city, Guangdong province of China. With the sharp growth in the China-aided projects in Africa and labor services export to Africa, a gradual rise in the cases infected with S. haematobium or S. mansoni is reported in those returning from Africa to China. The existence of intermediate snail hosts and import of infectious source of schistosomiasis results in concern about the transmission of African schistosomiasis in mainland China in the context of global climate change. This paper evaluates the risk of transmission of African schistosomiasis in China, and proposes countermeasures and research priorities to tackle the risk.

  19. Analysis of the current situation regarding the aging rural population in China and proposed countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Bo; Li, Xiyuan; Liu, Jie; Mao, Jiawen

    2012-06-01

    China has become a country with an aging population. Compared with the aged in urban areas, the aged in rural areas have low income and are subject to social security deficiencies; the oldest among them are the most vulnerable group. If an effective mechanism for handling health risk is not available, the poor health of the rural elderly will cause an increase in their poverty level, which in turn will cause their health to become worse. Therefore, it is essential to analyze the current situation regarding rural population aging in China and to develop countermeasures. Data from 4 national health services surveys were used to analyze the differences between urban and rural populations. The results of the analysis revealed that the aged population in rural areas has poor health; economic security for the aged population is insufficient; and resources for the aged are lacking in rural areas. The Chinese government should improve medicare for the aged in rural areas, and establish a medical treatment subsidy system and a medical support system for the aged in rural areas.

  20. The Job Burnout Phenomenon of Chinese University Counselors and the Countermeasure to it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Jiang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The harmfulness of the job burnout phenomenon of Chinese university counsellors cannot be neglected. How to relieve counsellors’ job burnout effectively by improving their involvement in work is an important research field. Firstly, to start from three aspects of social roots, organizational roots and personal factors, the writer conducts a preliminary interpretation about the key factors leading to the job burnout of university counsellors which include the workload, role conflict, role ambiguity, a sense of fairness, job characteristics, personality factor, etc. Then, to start from the roots as well as the connotation of job burnout, the writer elaborates that job burnout is a state of body, emotional and spirit exhaustion, especially the wastage and continuous fatigue of body, a sense of hopelessness and desperation, negative self-concept and a negative attitude towards life and work. Finally, from three aspects of mind emancipation, firm faith and clear roles in profession, solution, learning strengthening and self-efficacy enhancing, the writer proposes a countermeasure to solve the job burnout phenomenon of university counsellors, and compares the effect of dealing with job burnout phenomenon according to the data before and after one year practice.

  1. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Therapy to Countermeasure Cancer in Astronauts during Exploration of Deep Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohi, S.; Kindred, R. P.; Roach, A-N.; Edossa, A.; Kim, B. C.; Gonda, S. R.; Emami, K.

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to cosmic radiation can cause chromosomal mutations, which may lead to cancer in astronauts engaged in space exploration. Therefore, our goals are to develop countermeasures to prevent space-induced cancer using hematopoietic stem cell therapy (HSCT) and gene therapy. This presentation focuses on HSCT for cancer. Our previous experiments on a simulated, space-induced immuno-deficiency model (mouse hind limb unloading ) indicated that transplanted hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) could enhance the host's immunity by effectively eliminating bacterial infection (Ohi S, et. al. J Grav Physiol 10, P63-64, 2003; Ohi S, et. al. Proceedings of the Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF) . American Institute of Physics, New York, pp. 938-950, 2004). Hence, we hypothesized that the HSCs might be effective in combating cancer as well. Studies of cocultured mouse HSCs with beta-galactosidase marked rat gliosarcoma spheroids (9L/lacZ), a cancer model, indicated antagonistic interactions , resulting in destruction of the spheroids by HSCs. Trypan Blue dye-exclusion assays were consistent with the conclusion. These results show potential usehlness of HSCT for cancer. Currently, the NASA Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor (HFB), a space analog tissue/cell culture system, is being used to study invasion of the gliosarcoma (GS) spheroids into mouse brain with or without co-cultured HSCs. This may simulate the metastasis of gliosarcoma to brain. There is a tendency for the HSCs to inhibit invasion of GS spheroids into brain, as evidenced by the X-gal staining.

  2. Muscle atrophy associated with microgravity in rat: Basic data for countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falempin, M.; Mounier, Y.

    Morphological, contractile properties and myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition of rat soleus muscles were studied after 2 weeks of unloading (HS) and after 2 weeks of HS associated with selective deafferentation (HS + DEAF) at the level L4 and L5. The same significant reductions in muscle mass and tetanic tension were found after HS and HS + DEAF. However, the transformation of the slow-twitch soleus muscle towards a faster type characterized by a decrease in twitch time parameters and an increase in fast-twitch type MHC isoforms in HS did not appear in HS + DEAF conditions. Our results also showed that a pattern similar to firing rate of motoneurones innervating slow-twitch muscles inhibited the slow to fast fiber changes observed during HS. Nevertheless, neither the loss of mass or force output in the HS muscles were prevented by electrostimulation. Immobilization in a stretched position during HS maintained the muscle wet weight, mechanical and electrophoretical characteristics close to control values. We concluded that the decrease in mechanical strains imposed on the muscle during unloading was the main factor for the development of atrophy, while the kinetic changes might be predominantly modulated by the nervous command. These basic data suggested that some experimental conditions such as electrostimulation or stretching, could participate in countermeasure programmes.

  3. Security of Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems: Standards, Threats Analysis and Cryptographic Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyes Ben Hamida

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the growing number of vehicles on the roads worldwide, road traffic accidents are currently recognized as a major public safety problem. In this context, connected vehicles are considered as the key enabling technology to improve road safety and to foster the emergence of next generation cooperative intelligent transport systems (ITS. Through the use of wireless communication technologies, the deployment of ITS will enable vehicles to autonomously communicate with other nearby vehicles and roadside infrastructures and will open the door for a wide range of novel road safety and driver assistive applications. However, connecting wireless-enabled vehicles to external entities can make ITS applications vulnerable to various security threats, thus impacting the safety of drivers. This article reviews the current research challenges and opportunities related to the development of secure and safe ITS applications. It first explores the architecture and main characteristics of ITS systems and surveys the key enabling standards and projects. Then, various ITS security threats are analyzed and classified, along with their corresponding cryptographic countermeasures. Finally, a detailed ITS safety application case study is analyzed and evaluated in light of the European ETSI TC ITS standard. An experimental test-bed is presented, and several elliptic curve digital signature algorithms (ECDSA are benchmarked for signing and verifying ITS safety messages. To conclude, lessons learned, open research challenges and opportunities are discussed.

  4. Problems in the Development of China’s Dairy Cow Breeding and the Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This article offers an overview of the development of dairy cow breeding in China,and analyzes the problems in the development of dairy cow breeding in China as follows:the breeding scale is small;the pasture grass production cannot meet demand;the proportion of fine breed is not high and the dairy cow yield per unit is low;it lacks epidemic prevention and quarantine mechanism;economic benefits of large-scale breeding are not high.These problems have become bottleneck in the development of the dairy cow breeding.Finally countermeasures are put forward for the development of dairy cow breeding in China as follows:developing large-scale breeding,and increasing subsidies;supporting the development of grass industry,and ensuring the supply of good feed;strengthening cultivation and promotion of fine breed,and promoting the quality of fresh milk;improving the accountability system of dairy products,and giving play to supervisory role of the news media.

  5. Recent extreme rainfall-induced landslides and government countermeasures in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Gon; Hencher, Stephen

    2013-04-01

    During 2011 a large number of landslides occurred in South Korea as a result of heavy rainfall (160~300mm/day) which fell between 19 June and 27 July. Fifty eight people were killed and 200 injured at 11 locations. Almost 80% of the fatal landslides can be attributed at least in part to human activities such as an army camp, pedestrian road, forest road, cemetery, tomb, irrigation for vegetable garden and fruit farm. This paper addresses the anthropogenic influences on recent landslides in Korea. In addition, this paper discusses the Korean government countermeasures related to landslides. Restoration works tends to start immediately without design reports and without investigating the causes of landslides. Restoration works tend to comprise simple erosion control such as hard-covering to failure surfaces and the provision of check dams. These measures are implemented without any input from specialist geotechnical engineers. Persons injured or subject to economic loss as a result of landslides have often taken legal action against the Korean government. The most usual result is that experts appointed by the courts side with Government and simply conclude that the disasters are the natural consequence of heavy rainfall. As a result claimants have generally lost their cases and received no compensation. Furthermore, because of the lack of proper investigations there are no lessons learned from past landslides and no department has been established within the Korean government, tasked with reducing landslide risk.

  6. Whole-body vibration as a potential countermeasure for dynapenia and arterial stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Figueroa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Age-related decreases in muscle mass and strength are associated with decreased mobility, quality of life, and increased cardiovascular risk. Coupled with the prevalence of obesity, the risk of death becomes substantially greater. Resistance training (RT has a well-documented beneficial impact on muscle mass and strength in young and older adults, although the high-intensity needed to elicit these adaptations may have a detrimental or negligible impact on vascular function, specifically on arterial stiffness. Increased arterial stiffness is associated with systolic hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, and myocardial ischemia. Therefore, improvements of muscle strength and arterial function are important in older adults. Recently, whole-body vibration (WBV exercise, a novel modality of strength training, has shown to exhibit similar results on muscle strength as RT in a wide-variety of populations, with the greatest impact in elderly individuals with limited muscle function. Additionally, WBV training has been shown to have beneficial effects on vascular function by reducing arterial stiffness. This article reviews relevant publications reporting the effects of WBV on muscle strength and/or arterial stiffness. Findings from current studies suggest the use of WBV training as an alternative modality to traditional RT to countermeasure the age-related detriments in muscle strength and arterial stiffness in older adults.

  7. Food processing as an agricultural countermeasure after an accidental contamination event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igreja, Eduardo; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Prado, Nadya M.P.D., E-mail: elainerochedo@gmail.com.br, E-mail: eduigreja@gmail.com, E-mail: nadya@ime.ib.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Diogo N.G., E-mail: dneves@biof.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho

    2013-07-01

    Food processing allows significant reduction in the radionuclide contamination of foodstuffs. The effects of processing on contaminated food depend on the radionuclide, the type of foodstuff and the method of processing. The effectiveness of radionuclide removal from raw material during processing can vary widely; however, processing of raw materials of vegetable and animal origin is often considered one of the most effective countermeasures for reducing the radioactive contamination of the foodstuff to or below permissible levels, and can be applied both domestically and in industrial processing of food. The food processing retention factor, Fr, is the fraction of radionuclide activity that is retained in the food after processing; it is obtained by the product of two quantities, the processing efficiency, Pe, that is the ratio of the fresh weight of the processed food to the weight of the original raw material, and the processing factor, Pf, that is the ratio of the radionuclide activity concentrations in the processed and in the raw material. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of the reduction in dose due to food processing after a nuclear or radiological accident. Radionuclides considered were Cs-137, Sr-90 and I-131. The effect on total diet of individuals was investigating for a typical diet of the Southeast region, where the Brazilian Nuclear Power Plants are located. The effect was analyzed considering the use of the processing technologies after contamination events occurring in different seasons of the year. (author)

  8. Typical Geo-Hazards and Countermeasures of Mines in Yunnan Province, Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xianfeng; Qi, Wufu; Huang, Qianrui; Zhao, Xueqiong; Fang, Rong; Xu, Jun

    2016-10-01

    Mining-induced geo-hazards have caused enormous destruction and threat to mines. Known as the "kingdom of nonferrous metals" and located in Southwest China, Yunnan Province developed mining-induced geo-hazards well with characteristics of multiple types, widespread distribution and serious damage. Landslides and debris flows are two common sub-types of geohazards causing most serious damage in Yunnan, and some of them were very representative in the world. Two landslides and two debris flows were chosen to analyze deeply. Both Laojinshan Landslide and Sunjiaqing Landslide possess the characteristic of rock avalanches. The high sliding speed and long distance made the landslides translate into clastic flows with impact force and caused enormous destruction. Rainstorm and mining waste rock were two main factors to induce debris flows in Yunnan mines. Heishan valley debris flow of Dongchuan copper mine was a super large rainstorm type viscose debris flow with very low frequency, which brought a good caution to utilize valleys which looked an unlikely debris flow. Nandagou Valley of Jinding lead-zinc mine in Lanping County was a rainstorm stimulating, gully-type, high frequency and large scale debris flow, which was induced by mining activities. Many countermeasures have been used for Yunnan mines, including engineering treatment technology and ecological remediation, monitoring and forecasting, relocation and public administration.

  9. Obstacles to the Mortgage Financing of Forest Rights and its Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Current status of the mortgage financing of forest rights is introduced.Significance of the development of mortgage financing of rural forest rights is analyzed,indicating that the mortgage financing of rural forest rights is an inevitable trend of rural reform development,Mortgage financing of forest rights in rural China is an effective vector for the farmers’ income increase project with financial support,explores the great potential of forest resources,promotes the coordinated development of forestry and financial services.Major obstacles for the mortgage financing of forest rights at present is pointed out,which are the high assessment fees,the complex mortgage valuation,the unsound element market of forestry,and the lack of risk protection mechanism.Countermeasures for the development of mortgage financing of forest rights is out forward.For instance,both government and Forestry Bureau should strengthen the circulation services,establish smooth evaluation mechanism,establish companies for rural assets platform,increase the interest subsidies for forest right mortgage and the risk compensation,strengthen the team construction and improve the service system.

  10. Restrictions and Countermeasures of Rural Vocational Education in Urban-rural Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Developing rural vocational education is of great significance to urban-rural integration: developing rural vocational education is helpful to cultivating new farmers for construction of new socialist countryside,favorable to improving farmers’ ability of finding jobs and starting undertaking, and beneficial to transfer of rural surplus labor and acceleration of urbanization. Restrictions on development rural vocational education mainly include: low value cognition of society and social assessment of rural vocational education; out of balance of cost and expected return of rural vocational education; the quality of supply of rural vocational education failure to satisfy demand of socio-economic development; imperfect rural vocational education system. In view of these,following countermeasures and suggestions are put forward: strengthen propaganda and guidance to build environment of public opinion for rural vocational education; push forward rural vocational compulsory education system to lay social foundation for rural vocational education; reinforce policy support to assist in building rural vocational education system; improve education system to build overall framework of rural vocational education; perfect laws and regulations to establish system and norm for development of rural vocational education.

  11. Present condition of ESCO business for carrying out climate change countermeasures in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakoshi, Chiharu; Nakagami, Hidetoshi [Jyukankyo Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    The ESCO business in Japan started in 1996. Although there was only one ESCO as of 1996, there are now more than 20 companies and entries from utilities have also performed positively. The market scale of ESCO business was 556 million Euro in 2001, and is expected to grow 50% in 2002. The Japanese government drew up the action plan to cope with COP3 and planned to reduce final energy consumption by 57 million kL-oil equivalent by 2010, of which 1 million kL is expected to be reduced by ESCO business activity. In order to achieve this target, the government contributed the subsidy of 294 million Euro to energy efficiency retrofit for buildings in 2002. In the private sector, the Japan Association of Energy Service Companies (JAESCO) was established in 1999. It has matured into an organization containing 110 members, and a number of new members are currently joining. ESCO business introduction in local authorities has made less progress. However, many local authorities are considering introduction of ESCO schemes. By 2010, when all local authorities will have implemented their climate change countermeasures, it is possible that such programs will grow to be the largest ESCO market. It is expected that the ESCO business in Japan will grow greatly from now on. However, there are also many problems to be solved for introduction. We describe the current situation of the ESCO business in Japan, governmental support for energy efficiency including ESCO business, stance of local authorities, and future market barriers.

  12. The NIH Countermeasures Against Chemical Threats Program: overview and special challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jett, David A

    2016-06-01

    Intentional exposures to toxic chemicals can stem from terrorist attacks, such as the release of sarin in the Tokyo subway system in 1995, as well as from toxic industrial accidents that are much more common. Developing effective medical interventions is a critical component of the overall strategy to overcome the challenges of chemical emergencies. These challenges include the rapid and lethal mode of action of many toxic chemicals that require equally fast-acting therapies, the large number of chemicals that are considered threats, and the diverse demographics and vulnerabilities of those who may be affected. In addition, there may be long-term deleterious effects in survivors of a chemical exposure. Several U.S. federal agencies are invested in efforts to improve preparedness and response capabilities during and after chemical emergencies. For example, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Countermeasures Against Chemical Threats (CounterACT) Program supports investigators who are developing therapeutics to reduce mortality and morbidity from chemical exposures. The program awards grants to individual laboratories and includes contract resource facilities and interagency agreements with Department of Defense laboratories. The range of high-quality research within the NIH CounterACT Program network is discussed.

  13. Trade Barriers and Countermeasures for Export of China’s Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijing; WU

    2013-01-01

    At present,export of China’s agricultural products is faced with many trade barriers,especially technological barriers.Trade barriers include(1)technological barriers(such as quarantine and inspection barrier,identity certification/authentication barrier and labeling rules barrier);(2)trade remedy barrier;(3)other non-tariff barriers(NTB).Through positioning and analysis of trade barriers of China’s agricultural products,it is known that technological barriers should not be deemed unreasonable totally.Some barriers also have certain positive significance.To respond to trade barriers,it comes up with countermeasures and recommendations from the perspective of agricultural producers and government.Agricultural producers should actively improve product quality,abide by requirement of importers,and treat quarantine and inspection in a rational manner;government should supply information and issue early warning,assist domestic producers in responding to lawsuits,and take advantage of WTO platform to solve trade disputes.

  14. SOURCE,FORMATION,POLLUTION AND ITS COUNTERMEASURE OF DIOXIN IN PAPERMAKING INDUSTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Li; Youming Li; Mingli Fu; yanjin Bi

    2004-01-01

    Dioxins are believed the most poisonous compounds in the world. Dioxin pollution is a strategic problem in papermaking industry which must be solved.Dioxin not only exists in pulp, paper products, but also in the volatile of woods, hips or other non-wood fiber material which are treated with PCP, even in the exhaust gas of chemical recovery system. So there are great needs to know what is dioxin, the channel and mechanism of the formation of it in paper making industry. With these understanding, herein those are discussed as follows, the harness measure of dioxin: dioxin in wastewater, in exhaust gas, from raw material. And some countermeasure to decrease the content of dioxin. Furthermore, several novel treatment technologies of dioxin in China and abroad were introduced. The fundamental measure to eliminate the pollution of dioxin is presented with the aim to control the origin, decrease the use of bleacher containing chlorine or without the use of chlorine.Elemental Chlorine Free and Total Chlorine Free bleaching are advocated.

  15. Coastal wetland in South China: Degradation trends,causes and protection countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Qiuying; HUANG Xiaoping; SHI Ping; ZHANG Qiaomin

    2006-01-01

    There are abundant coastal wetlands in South China and their main characters are the tidal flats, mangroves and coral reefs. In this paper, the status quo of coastal wetlands in South China is introduced and their degradation trends in the last decades are analyzed based on the existing literatures and information. Their degradation trends are characterized by reduction of coastal wetlands' area,pollution of seawater environment, degeneration of ecological environment, sharp decrease of biodiversity in the wetlands and so on. At the same time, the causes resulting in the above-mentioned degradations are discussed, mainly concluding imperfect systems of management and legislation, deficient property and assessment systems of the wetlands,weak consciousness of protecting coastal wetlands,shortage of basic study and backward management level and so on. Some countermeasures are put forward for the sake of a sustainable use of the coastal wetlands of South China, mainly including establishing and perfecting administrative and legal systems for the coastal wetlands, developing the study on assessment of coastal wetland, heightening the consciousness of public participation, and strengthening scientific research and establishment of wetland nature reserves.

  16. An Integrated Musculoskeletal Countermeasure Battery for Long-Duration Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, T. F.; Streeper, T. S.; Cavanagh, P. R.; Saeed, I. H.; Carpenter, R. D.; Frassetto, L. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; Grodsinsky, C. M.; Funk, J.; Hanson, A. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Sibonga, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    During extended periods of skeletal unloading, losses in strength and density of the proximal femur will occur. In long-duration spaceflight, resistive exercise is used to replace the normal loads exerted on the spine and hip. At the present time, there is no conclusive evidence that hip bone loss has been prevented in this scenario. Our group has recently developed and clinically evaluated a multifunctional exercise system, the Combined Countermeasure Device (CCD). The CCD comprises a low-footprint Stuart Platform for lower-body resistance exercise and balance training, and a cardiovascular exercise bicycle. A consideration for resistance exercise was targeting of the hip abductor and adductor muscles, which attach directly at the hip and which should subject it to the largest loads. In our training study, we found that CCD exercise increased hip adductor and abductor strength, and modeling results suggest that this exercise exerts forces on the hip of approx. 4-6 body weights at 1g, compared to forces of approx.2.5 body weight y squatting exercise. In our current study, we hypothesize that abductor and adductor exercise will increase the density and strength of the proximal femur.

  17. [Recurrent bleeding following the renal artery embolization treating post-percutaneous nephrolithotomy hemorrhage: causes and countermeasure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Y M; Wu, X M; Wen, Y; Lai, Q; Chen, W Z; Qian, Y X; Liang, R G

    2017-01-03

    Objective: To explore the causes and countermeasure in recurrent bleeding following the selective renal artery embolization treating post-percutaneous nephrolithotomy hemorrhage. Methods: A total of 334 patients of severe renal hemorrhage associated with percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) from March 2011 to April 2015 were analyzed retrospectively.All the patients underwent super selective angiography and renal artery embolization.The causes of recurrent hemorrhage were analyzed and principles for diagnosis and embolization were studied. Results: The initial embolization was performed in 329 cases hospitalized in the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University and 318 cases were successfully stopped bleeding with a hemostatic rate of 96.7 %(318/329). Of total 334 consecutive cases, there were 16 cases of recurrent renal hemorrhage, 11 cases were initially embolized in this hospital, and otherwise the other 5 cases were in other hospitals. Causes of recurrent hemorrhage were missed embolization of tiny pseudoaneurysm (n=12), and two cases of 12, the tiny pseudoaneurysm were feeding by accessory renal arteries, undetected arteriovenous fistula(n=2), recanalization of the embolized arteries (n=2). Conclusion: The causes of recurrent bleeding fallowing the initial selective renal artery embolization treating post-percutaneous nephrolithotomy hemorrhage are varied, and missed embolization of tiny pseudoaneurysm is the major cause of unsuccessful initial renal artery embolization. To strengthen the understanding of tiny pseudoaneurysm is helpful to improve the success rate of hemostasis.

  18. Security threats to automotive CAN networks-Practical examples and selected short-term countermeasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, Tobias, E-mail: tobias.hoppe@iti.cs.uni-magdeburg.d [Otto-von-Guericke University of Magdeburg, ITI Research Group on Multimedia and Security, Universitaetsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany); Kiltz, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.kiltz@iti.cs.uni-magdeburg.d [Otto-von-Guericke University of Magdeburg, ITI Research Group on Multimedia and Security, Universitaetsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany); Dittmann, Jana, E-mail: jana.dittmann@iti.cs.uni-magdeburg.d [Otto-von-Guericke University of Magdeburg, ITI Research Group on Multimedia and Security, Universitaetsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The IT security of automotive systems is an evolving area of research. To analyse the current situation and the potentially growing tendency of arising threats we performed several practical tests on recent automotive technology. With a focus on automotive systems based on CAN bus technology, this article summarises the results of four selected tests performed on the control systems for the window lift, warning light and airbag control system as well as the central gateway. These results are supplemented in this article by a classification of these four attack scenarios using the established CERT taxonomy and an analysis of underlying security vulnerabilities, and especially, potential safety implications. With respect to the results of these tests, in this article we further discuss two selected countermeasures to address basic weaknesses exploited in our tests. These are adaptations of intrusion detection (discussing three exemplary detection patterns) and IT-forensic measures (proposing proactive measures based on a forensic model). This article discusses both looking at the four attack scenarios introduced before, covering their capabilities and restrictions. While these reactive approaches are short-term measures, which could already be added to today's automotive IT architecture, long-term concepts also are shortly introduced, which are mainly preventive but will require a major redesign. Beneath a short overview on respective research approaches, we discuss their individual requirements, potential and restrictions.

  19. Water Environmental Issue in Three Gorges Reservoir Area and Its Protective Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    By single-factor-index evaluation on water of earth's surface, the result shows that the water-quality keep Ⅲ grade on the whole in Yang-tze River, Jia-ling River and Wu River of the Three Gorges reservoir, it occurs no obviously deteriorated tendency in 2005. But some sub-grade rivers are polluted badly, cross-section amount of water-quality Ⅰ , Ⅱ , Ⅲ only has 64 percent, their water-quality is bad. It is clear that the gap between the water environmental state and the object of keeping water- quality Ⅱ in the Three Gorges reservoir is very big. This paper thoroughly analyses the problems and causes of the water environment, points out that the main factors resulting in the water pollution in recent years include the industrial sewage, solid wastes, soil and water loss, domestic rubbish and agricultural non-point source pollution, and finally puts forward the countermeasures for protecting of the water environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir.

  20. Poverty Occurrence Characteristics of Ancient Towns and Villages in Shanxi Province and Poverty Reduction Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Based on the questionnaire of 10 sample ancient towns and villages in Shanxi Province,we analyze the poverty occurrence characteristics of ancient towns and villages in Shanxi Province: the poverty incidence in ancient towns and villages is high,with the slow pace of poverty re- duction; the regional characteristics of poverty is prominent; there are conspicuous differences in income between residents living in old houses and residents not living in old houses; poverty reduction shows vulnerability and instability. Then we put forward countermeasures for poverty reduction of ancient towns and villages in Shanxi Province as follows: first,improving the targeting mechanism of poverty in ancient towns and villages; second,speeding up the development of agricultural industrialization in ancient towns and villages; third,advancing internal " urbanization" of ancient towns and villages and new countryside construction; fourth,strengthening infrastructure building in ancient towns and villages; fifth,providing fair and efficient allocation of resources,and reducing regional differences; sixth,promoting the ability of residents in ancient towns and villages to cope with poverty reduction vulnerability.