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Sample records for counterion identity effects

  1. Counterion identity effects on the self-assembly processes in a series of perfluorinated surfactant-water mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, R

    2003-01-01

    The effects of counterion on the lyotropic liquid crystalline phase behaviour of some quaternary ammonium salts of perfluorodecanoic acid in water have been studied using a combination of optical polarising microscopy (OPM), deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance ( sup 2 H NMR) and cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). The results from the phase diagram studies fall into two groups. Firstly the ammonium (A) and tetramethylammonium (TMA) counterions show a phase behaviour with nematic (N) and random mesh (Mh sub 1 (0)) phase which possess non-uniform interfacial curvature. The second group of surfactants with counterions, butyltrimethylammonium (BTMA), dibutyidimetylammonium (DBDMA), and tetrabutylammonium (TEA), form only a classical lamellar phase (L subalpha). For both DBDMA and TBA lower consolute behaviour has been observed. At fixed concentration in all five systems cryo-TEM visualises isotropic liquid phase structures that vary from sphere / rod micelles for A and TMA to vesicles / bilayer pie...

  2. Counterion effects on nano-confined metal–drug–DNA complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nupur Biswas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have explored morphology of DNA molecules bound with Cu complexes of piroxicam (a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug molecules under one-dimensional confinement of thin films and have studied the effect of counterions present in a buffer. X-ray reflectivity at and away from the Cu K absorption edge and atomic force microscopy studies reveal that confinement segregates the drug molecules preferentially in a top layer of the DNA film, and counterions enhance this segregation.

  3. Protein adsorption to poly(ethylenimine)-modified Sepharose FF: V. Complicated effects of counterions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Yu, Linling; Sun, Yan

    2015-07-24

    In the previous studies on protein adsorption to poly(ethylenimine) (PEI)-grafted Sepharose FF resins, a critical ionic capacity (600mmol/L) of PEI-Sepharose resins was found for the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA), above which both protein capacity and uptake rate increased drastically. In this work, the influence of counterions on the PEI-Sepharose resin with an ionic capacity of 683mmol/L (FF-PEI-L680) was investigated with sodium salts of SCN(-), Cl(-), HPO4(2-) and SO4(2-). Linear gradient elution, batch adsorption and breakthrough experiments showed that counterion preference, effective pore diffusion coefficient (De) and dynamic binding capacity (DBC) values increased in the order of SCN(-), Cl(-), HPO4(2-) and SO4(2-), while static adsorption capacity decreased in this order. It is considered that higher counterion preference of the ion exchange groups resulted in lower protein binding strength and adsorption capacity, while the De value increased due to the enhanced "chain delivery" effect (a kind of surface diffusion). Besides, the DBC value was mainly dependent on De value. In particular, SO4(2-) was the most favorable counterion for the PEI-Sepharose resin, which gave rise to the highest De value (De/D0=1.17, D0 is protein diffusivity in free solution) and DBC value (118mg/mL at a residence time of 2min). Moreover, the effects of counterions on BSA adsorption to DEAE Sepharose FF and Q Sepharose FF, which were non-grafted resins, were also studied for comparisons. It was found that the counterion preferences of the two non-grafted resins were different from each other and also different from that of FF-PEI-L680. The different counterion preferences were attributed to the differences in the ion-exchange ligand chemistries. In addition, the De values for DEAE Sepharose FF and Q Sepharose FF kept unchanged. The low counterion sensitivity of De values could be interpreted as the lack of "chain delivery" effect for the non-grafted resins. The

  4. STM visualisation of counterions and the effect of charges on self-assembled monolayers of macrocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudernac, Tibor; Shabelina, Natalia; Mamdouh, Wael; Höger, Sigurd; De Feyter, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Despite their importance in self-assembly processes, the influence of charged counterions on the geometry of self-assembled organic monolayers and their direct localisation within the monolayers has been given little attention. Recently, various examples of self-assembled monolayers composed of charged molecules on surfaces have been reported, but no effort has been made to prove the presence of counterions within the monolayer. Here we show that visualisation and exact localisation of counterions within self-assembled monolayers can be achieved with scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). The presence of charges on the studied shape-persistent macrocycles is shown to have a profound effect on the self-assembly process at the liquid-solid interface. Furthermore, preferential adsorption was observed for the uncharged analogue of the macrocycle on a surface.

  5. Modeling the construction of polymeric adsorbent media: Effects of counter-ions on ligand immobilization and pore structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardi, Enrico; Wang, Jee-Ching; Liapis, Athanasios I.

    2014-02-01

    Molecular dynamics modeling and simulations are employed to study the effects of counter-ions on the dynamic spatial density distribution and total loading of immobilized ligands as well as on the pore structure of the resultant ion exchange chromatography adsorbent media. The results show that the porous adsorbent media formed by polymeric chain molecules involve transport mechanisms and steric resistances which cause the charged ligands and counter-ions not to follow stoichiometric distributions so that (i) a gradient in the local nonelectroneutrality occurs, (ii) non-uniform spatial density distributions of immobilized ligands and counter-ions are formed, and (iii) clouds of counter-ions outside the porous structure could be formed. The magnitude of these counter-ion effects depends on several characteristics associated with the size, structure, and valence of the counter-ions. Small spherical counter-ions with large valence encounter the least resistance to enter a porous structure and their effects result in the formation of small gradients in the local nonelectroneutrality, higher ligand loadings, and more uniform spatial density distributions of immobilized ligands, while the formation of exterior counter-ion clouds by these types of counter-ions is minimized. Counter-ions with lower valence charges, significantly larger sizes, and elongated shapes, encounter substantially greater steric resistances in entering a porous structure and lead to the formation of larger gradients in the local nonelectroneutrality, lower ligand loadings, and less uniform spatial density distributions of immobilized ligands, as well as substantial in size exterior counter-ion clouds. The effects of lower counter-ion valence on pore structure, local nonelectroneutrality, spatial ligand density distribution, and exterior counter-ion cloud formation are further enhanced by the increased size and structure of the counter-ion. Thus, the design, construction, and functionality of

  6. Effect of Variant Counterions on Stability and Particle Size of Silica Sol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN, Ming-Chu; YANG, Yu-Xiang; YING, Hai-Ping; JIA, Xiang-Chen; CHEN, Ya-Ru; TANG, Yue

    2007-01-01

    The effects of variant counterions with ionic strength of 0.05, 0.10, 0.20 and 0.25 mol·kg-1 on the stability and particle size of silica sols have been studied using the traditional methods of Ubbelohde viscosity measurement, TEM and titration respectively, finding that the stability and particle size of the silica sols are all concerned with the acidic, positively electric properties and the sizes of the counterions, as well as the attraction between the counteri ons and surface silicon hydroxyl groups of the silica sols. The small positively charged counterions lead to the de crease in particle sizes, making the silica sol the most stable. But the larger weakly acidic counterions can restrict the particle sizes of the silica sols and easily make the sols coagulate. It was also found that there existed a linear relationship between log r and log η, which has not ever been reported. The effect of temperature on the stability and particle sizes was also discussed.

  7. Opposite counter-ion effects on condensed bundles of highly charged supramolecular nanotubes in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shenghui; Chen, Mingming; Wei, Chengsha; Huang, Ningdong; Li, Liangbin

    2016-07-20

    Although ion specificity in aqueous solutions is well known, its manifestation in unconventional strong electrostatic interactions remains implicit. Herein, the ionic effects in dense packing of highly charged polyelectrolytes are investigated in supramolecular nanotube prototypes. Distinctive behaviors of the orthorhombic arrays composed of supramolecular nanotubes in various aqueous solutions were observed by Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS), depending on the counter-ions' size and affiliation to the surface -COO(-) groups. Bigger tetra-alkyl ammonium (TAA(+)) cations weakly bonding to -COO(-) will compress the orthorhombic arrays, while expansion is induced by smaller alkaline metal (M(+)) ions with strong affiliation to -COO(-). Careful analysis of the changes in the SAXS peaks with different counter/co-ion combinations indicates dissimilar mechanisms underlying the two explicit types of ionic effects. The pH measurements are in line with the ion specificity by SAXS and reveal the strong electrostatic character of the system. It is proposed that the small distances between the charged surfaces, in addition to the selective adsorption of counter-ions by the surface charge, bring out the observed distinctive ionic effects. Our results manifest the diverse mechanisms and critical roles of counter-ion effects in strong electrostatic interactions.

  8. Effect of counterions on lanthanum biosorption by Sargassum polycystum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Vivian; Volesky, Bohumil

    2005-06-01

    The effect of the presence of different anions on the biosorption of La(3+) (Lanthanum) using Sargassum polycystum Ca-loaded biomass was studied in this work. Different types of metal salts were used, such as nitrate, sulphate and chloride. The presence of the anion sulphate decreased the metal uptake for tested pH values of 3--5 when compared to the nitrate and chloride systems. The presence of chloride ions did not seem to interfere with the lanthanum removal. The speciation of lanthanum in solution could explain the differences obtained for the different systems and the Mineql+ program was used for the calculations. A monovalent complex with sulphate and lanthanum was formed that had lower apparent affinity towards the biomass compared to the free trivalent metal ion. The La uptake varied from 0.6 to 1.0 mmol g(-1). The Langmuir model was used to describe quantitatively the sorption isotherms. The addition of sulphuric acid for pH adjustment decreased the metal uptake from lanthanum sulphate solutions when compared to the nitric acid addition. The effect was more pronounced with sulphuric acid due to the formation of complexes.

  9. Effects of solute-solute interactions on protein stability studied using various counterions and dendrimers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtiss P Schneider

    Full Text Available Much work has been performed on understanding the effects of additives on protein thermodynamics and degradation kinetics, in particular addressing the Hofmeister series and other broad empirical phenomena. Little attention, however, has been paid to the effect of additive-additive interactions on proteins. Our group and others have recently shown that such interactions can actually govern protein events, such as aggregation. Here we use dendrimers, which have the advantage that both size and surface chemical groups can be changed and therein studied independently. Dendrimers are a relatively new and broad class of materials which have been demonstrated useful in biological and therapeutic applications, such as drug delivery, perturbing amyloid formation, etc. Guanidinium modified dendrimers pose an interesting case given that guanidinium can form multiple attractive hydrogen bonds with either a protein surface or other components in solution, such as hydrogen bond accepting counterions. Here we present a study which shows that the behavior of such macromolecule species (modified PAMAM dendrimers is governed by intra-solvent interactions. Attractive guanidinium-anion interactions seem to cause clustering in solution, which inhibits cooperative binding to the protein surface but at the same time, significantly suppresses nonnative aggregation.

  10. Interactions of human hemoglobin with charged ligand-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles and effect of counterions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Goutam, E-mail: ghoshg@yahoo.com [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Mumbai Centre (India); Panicker, Lata [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Solid State Physics Division (India)

    2014-12-15

    Human hemoglobin is an important metalloprotein. It has tetrameric structure with each subunit containing a ‘heme’ group which carries oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood. In this work, we have investigated the interactions of human hemoglobin (Hb) with charged ligand-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles and the effect of counterions, in aqueous medium. Several techniques like DLS and ζ-potential measurements, UV–vis, fluorescence, and CD spectroscopy have been used to characterize the interaction. The nanoparticle size was measured to be in the range of 20–30 nm. Our results indicated the binding of Hb with both positively as well as negatively charged ligand-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles in neutral aqueous medium which was driven by the electrostatic and the hydrophobic interactions. The electrostatic binding interaction was not seen in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. We have also observed that the ‘heme’ groups of Hb remained unaffected on binding with charged nanoparticles, suggesting the utility of the charged ligand-functionalized nanoparticles in biomedical applications.

  11. Counterion effects on fluorescence energy transfer in conjugated polyelectrolyte-based DNA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Okhil Kumar; Kang, Mijeong; Hwang, Sungu; Suh, Hongsuk; Woo, Han Young

    2009-04-30

    Cationic poly[9,9'-bis[6''-(N,N,N-trimethylammonium)hexyl]fluorene-co-alt-phenylene]s with five different counterions (CIs) were synthesized and studied as fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) donors (D) to dye-labeled DNA (FRET acceptor, A). The polymers with different CIs show the same pi-conjugated electronic structure with similar absorption (lambda(abs) = approximately 380 nm) and photoluminescence (lambda(PL) = approximately 420 nm) emission spectra in water. The CIs accompanying the polymer chain are expected to affect the D/A complexation and modify the D-A intermolecular separation by acting as a spacer. Polymers with different CIs function differently as FRET excitation donors to fluorescein (Fl)-labeled single-stranded DNA (ssDNA-Fl). The FRET-induced Fl emission was enhanced significantly by the larger CI-exchanged polymers. The polymers with the CIs of tetrakis(1-imidazolyl)borate (FPQ-IB) and tetraphenylborate (FPQ-PB) showed a 2-4-fold enhancement in the FRET-induced signal compared with the polymer with bromide (FPQ-BR). The delayed FRET signal saturation and low association constants (K(a)) with ssDNA-Fl (3.53 x 10(6) M(-1) for FPQ-BR and 1.80 x 10(6) M(-1) for FPQ-PB) were measured for the polymers with larger CIs. The delayed acceptor saturation strengthens the antenna effect and reduces self-quenching of Fl by increasing the polymer concentration near Fl. The weak polymer/ssDNA-Fl association reduces the amount of energy-wasting charge transfer by increasing D-A intermolecular separation. The combined effects lead to increase the overall FRET-induced signal.

  12. On the correction of calculated vibrational frequencies for the effects of the counterions - α,ω-diamine dihydrochlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiuza, S M; Silva, T M; Marques, M P M; de Carvalho, L A E Batista; Amado, A M

    2015-10-01

    The present work provides sets of correction factors to adjust the calculated vibrational frequencies of a series of α,ω-diamines hydrochloride salts to account for the intermolecular interactions with the counterion. The study was performed using different theory levels for predicting the vibrational data of isolated dicationic α,ω-diamines and their hydrochloride forms, with and without the explicit account of the interactions with the chloride counterions. Different sets of correction factors were determined for each theory level considering the four smallest elements for the α,ω-diamines series, while their transferability and reliability was evaluated considering the larger elements of the series. The theory level simplification was also evaluated and was found to neither compromise the vibrational frequencies estimates nor the magnitude and accuracy of the pre-defined scaling factors. This suggests that transferability of the correction factors is possible not only for different diamines but also between different levels of theory with the averaged group correction factor, ζ g (a) , being the best choice to account for the effects of the N-H · · · Cl interactions. The possibility of simplifying the theory level without compromising efficiency and accuracy is additionally of utmost importance. This computational approach can constitute a valuable tool in the future for studying the hydrochloride forms of larger and more complex diamine systems. Graphical Abstract A computational approach that may constitute a valuable tool for studying the hydrochloride forms of large and complex diamine systems. Correction factors to adjust the vibrational frequencies calculated for isolated dicationic primary diamines for the effects of the interactions with chloride counterions, without their explicit account in the calculations, are presented and evaluated for eficiency.

  13. Effects of counterion valency on the damping of phonons propagating along the axial direction of liquid-crystalline DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Chen, Sow-Hsin; Berti, Debora; Baglioni, Piero; Alatas, Ahmet; Sinn, Harald; Alp, Ercan; Said, Ayman

    2005-12-01

    The phonon propagation and damping along the axial direction of films of aligned 40wt% calf-thymus DNA rods are studied by inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS). The IXS spectra are analyzed with the generalized three effective eigenmode theory, from which we extract the dynamic structure factor S (Q,E) as a function of transferred energy E =ℏω, and the magnitude of the transferred wave vector Q. S (Q,E) of a DNA sample typically consists of three peaks, one central Rayleigh scattering peak, and two symmetric Stokes and anti-Stokes Brillouin side peaks. By analyzing the Brillouin peaks, the phonon excitation energy and damping can be extracted at different Q values from about 4 to 30nm-1. A high-frequency sound speed is obtained from the initial slope of the linear portion of the dispersion relation below Q =4nm-1. The high-frequency sound speed obtained in this Q range is 3100m /s, which is about twice faster than the ultrasound speed of 1800m/s, measured by Brillouin light scattering at Q ˜0.01nm-1 at the similar hydration level. Our observations provide further evidence of the strong coupling between the internal dynamics of a DNA molecule and the dynamics of the solvent. The effect on damping and propagation of phonons along the axial direction of DNA rods due to divalent and trivalent counterions has been studied. It is found that the added multivalent counterions introduce stronger phonon damping. The phonons at the range between ˜12.5 and ˜22.5nm-1 are overdamped by the added counterions according to our model analyses. The intermediate scattering function is extracted and it shows a clear two-step relaxation with the fast relaxation time ranging from 0.1 to 4ps.

  14. A Rigid Nested Metal-Organic Framework Featuring a Thermoresponsive Gating Effect Dominated by Counterions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiang; Xu, Jian; Cao, Dapeng; Chang, Ze; Bu, Xian-He

    2016-11-21

    We herein report a rigid nested metal-organic framework (MOF) featuring a unique thermoresponsive gating adsorption behavior, which, in contrast to any known flexibility modes for stimuli-responsive MOFs, depends on the thermal motion of the extra-framework counterions. In addition, this MOF also exhibits adsorption selectivity of CO2 over N2 , H2 , and Ar at 273 K, thus enabling a strategic separation and encapsulation of CO2 . © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. The effects of counterion composition on the rheological and conductive properties of mono- and diphosphonium ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonekura, Reimi; Grinstaff, Mark W

    2014-10-14

    A series of monocationic and dicationic phosphonium ionic liquids was prepared and their thermal, rheological, and conductive properties were characterized. These phosphonium ionic liquids were paired with seven monoanionic counterions (chloride, hexafluorophosphate, hexafluoroantimonate, octanoate, perfluorooctanoate, dodecyl sulfate, dioctyl sulfosuccinate, and bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide) in order to examine the effects of the counterion size and chemical structure on bulk properties of the phosphonium ionic liquids. The length of the three alkyl chains surrounding the phosphorus atom was also varied from butyl, hexyl to octyl on the cation. All of the samples exhibited initial decomposition temperatures above 150 °C. The octanoate and its fluorinated analog possessed the lowest decomposition temperature and the dicationic hexyl sample bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide possessed the highest (>370 °C). The dicationic butyl and hexyl chloride samples displayed similar G', G″ and viscosity curves, whereas the dicationic octyl chloride sample exhibited significantly lower values. The frequency sweeps of the monocationic phosphonium ionic liquids were all similar and showed minimal side chain dependence. The monocationic phosphonium ionic liquids have higher conductivity than their dicationic analogs at all measured temperatures.

  16. Effects of concentration and temperature on the dynamic behavior of PAA-g-PEO aqueous solutions with different counterion species: a dielectric spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunyan; Zhao, Kongshuang

    2012-01-19

    Dielectric properties of PAA-g-PEO-7% solutions with different counterions were measured as a function of concentration and temperature over a frequency range of 40 Hz to 110 MHz. After the contribution of electrode polarization effects was subtracted, the dielectric spectra of PAA-g-PEO-7% solutions showed three relaxation processes in the experimental frequency range, named low-, mid-, and high-frequency relaxation. The observed three relaxations were strictly analyzed by using the Cole-Cole relaxation function, and the dielectric parameters (dielectric increment Δε and the relaxation time τ) were obtained. The scaling relation of dielectric increment and relaxation time of high frequency with concentration C(p) were obtained and compared with the predictions of scaling theories. The information on the dynamics and microstructure of PAA-g-PEO-7% was obtained. Using different counterion species, the mid- and high-frequency relaxation mechanisms were attributed to the fluctuation of condensed counterions and free counterions, respectively, and the low-frequency relaxation was considered to be caused by the interface polarization of a complex formed by the hydrogen bonding between carboxylic group of PAA and ether oxygen on the side-chain PEO. In addition, by means of Eyring equation, the thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change ΔH and entropy change ΔS, of the three relaxations were calculated from the relaxation time and discussed from the microscopic thermodynamical view.

  17. Charge Inversion Effects in Electrophoresis of Polyelectrolytes in the Presence of Multivalent Counterions and Transversal Electric Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Nedelcu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available By molecular dynamics simulations we investigate the transport of charged polymers in confinement, under externally applied electric fields, in straight cylinders of uniform diameter and in the presence of monovalent or multivalent counterions. The applied electric field has two components; a longitudinal component along the axis of the cylinder and a transversal component perpendicular to the cylinder axis. The direction of electrophoretic velocity depends on the polyelectrolyte length, valency of the counterions present in solution and transversal electric field value. A statistical model is put forward in order to explain these observations.

  18. Preparation of counterion stabilized concentrated silver sols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPlante, Sylas; Halaciuga, Ionel; Goia, Dan V

    2011-07-01

    A strategy for obtaining stable concentrated silver dispersions without dedicated stabilizing agents is presented. This approach consists of rapidly mixing aqueous solutions of silver salicylate and ascorbic acid. By using salicylate as Ag(+) counterion, it is possible to prepare stable sols with metal concentrations up to two orders of magnitude higher than with silver nitrate. The stabilizing effect of the counterion is the result of a decreased ionic strength due to salicylate protonation and its adsorption on the surface of silver. Both effects increase the range of the electrostatic repulsive forces by expanding the electrical double layer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hydrocolloid-based nutraceutical delivery systems: Effect of counter-ions on the encapsulation and release

    OpenAIRE

    Polowsky, Patrick J.; Janaswamy, Srinivas

    2014-01-01

    Nutraceuticals provide health benefits, especially for the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Their incorporation in food supplements, functional foods and medicinal foods is a major technological challenge due to lower water solubility, instability during processing and storage conditions. Carriers that can effectively overcome these predicaments and protect them during product development, consumption and delivery are i...

  20. Effect of Counterion on the Solvatochromic Properties of Heteroleptic Chelate Copper(II Complexes

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    Hamid Golchoubian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of heteroleptic chelate copper(II complexes of the type [Cu(L(acac]X where acac = acetylacetonate; L = N,N′-1,6-bis(2-fluorophenyl-2,5-diazahexane; X=CIO4-, BPh4-, PF6-, and BF4- have been prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, IR and UV-Vis spectroscopies, and molar conductance measurements. The prepared complexes are fairly soluble in a large number of organic solvents and show positive solvatochromism. Among the complexes [Cu(L(acac]ClO4, it is demonstrated the most solvatochromism. A multiparametric equation has been utilized to explain the solvent effect on the d-d transition of the complexes using SPSS/PC software. To explore the mechanism of interaction between solvent molecules and the complexes, different solvent parameters such as DN, AN, α, ET(30, π*, and β using stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR method were employed. The results demonstrated that the donor power of the solvent plays the most important role in the solvatochromism of the compounds.

  1. Non-mean-field screening by multivalent counterions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loth, M S; Shklovskii, B I, E-mail: loth@physics.umn.ed [Department of Physics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2009-10-21

    Screening of a strongly charged macroion by its multivalent counterions cannot be described in the framework of a mean-field Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) theory because multivalent counterions form a strongly correlated liquid (SCL) on the surface of the macroion. It was predicted that a distant counterion polarizes the SCL as if it were a metallic surface and creates an electrostatic image. The attractive potential energy of the image is the reason why the charge density of counterions decreases faster with distance from the charged surface than in PB theory. Using the Monte Carlo method to find the equilibrium distribution of counterions around the macroion, we confirm the existence of the image potential energy. It is also shown that, due to the negative screening length of the SCL, -2xi, the effective metallic surface is actually above the SCL by |xi|.

  2. Salen complexes with dianionic counterions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Job, Gabriel E.; Farmer, Jay J.; Cherian, Anna E.

    2016-08-02

    The present invention describes metal salen complexes having dianionic counterions. Such complexes can be readily precipitated and provide an economical method for the purification and isolation of the complexes, and are useful to prepare novel polymer compositions.

  3. Diclofenac Salts, VIII. Effect of the Counterions on the Permeation through Porcine Membrane from Aqueous Saturated Solutions

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    Cristina Cavallari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The following bases: monoethylamine (EtA, diethylamine (DEtA, triethylamine (TEtA, monoethanolamine (MEA, diethanolamine (DEA, triethanolamine (TEA, pyrrolidine (Py, piperidine (Pp, morpholine (M, piperazine (Pz and their N-2-hydroxyethyl (HE analogs were employed to prepare 14 diclofenac salts. The salts were re-crystallized from water in order to obtain forms that are stable in the presence of water. Vertical Franz-type cells with a diffusional surface area of 9.62 cm2 were used to study the permeation of these diclofenac salts from their saturated solutions through an internal pig ear membrane. The receptor compartments of the cells contained 100 mL of phosphate buffer (pH 7.4; a saturated solution (5 mL of each salt was placed in the donor compartment, thermostated at 37 °C. Aliquots were withdrawn at predetermined time intervals over 8 h and then immediately analyzed by HPLC. Fluxes were determined by plotting the permeated amount, normalized for the membrane surface area versus time. Permeation coefficients were obtained dividing the flux values J by the concentration of the releasing phase—that is, water solubility of each salt. Experimental results show that fluxes could be measured when diclofenac salts with aliphatic amines are released from a saturated aqueous solution. Different chemical species (acid, anion, ion pairs contribute to permeation of the anti-inflammatory agent even though ion-pairs could be hypothesized to operate to a greater extent. Permeation coefficients were found higher when the counterion contains a ring; while hydroxy groups alone do not appear to play an important role, the ring could sustain permeation, disrupting the organized domains of the membrane.

  4. Mobilization of soluble and dispersible lead, arsenic, and antimony in a polluted, organic-rich soil - effects of pH increase and counterion valency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzke, Sondra; Lang, Friederike

    2009-01-01

    Liming is a common technique suggested for the stabilization of shooting range sites. We investigated the effect of an increase in pH on the mobilization of soluble and dispersible (colloidal) Pb, As, and Sb. Our hypothesis was that the addition of divalent cations counteracts the pH-induced mobilization of soluble and colloidal metal(loid)s. We determined soluble (operationally defined as the fraction < 10 nm obtained after centrifugation) and dispersible (filter cut-off 1200 nm) As, Pb, Sb, Fe, and C(org) concentrations in the filtered suspensions of batch extracts of topsoil samples (C(org): 8%) from a former shooting range site following a pH increase to values between 3.5 and 7 by adding a monovalent (KOH) or a divalent (Ca(OH)(2)) base. In the Ca(OH)(2)-treated samples, dissolved metal(loid) concentrations were 62 to 98% lower than those titrated with KOH to similar pH. Similarly, Ca reduced the concentration of dispersible Pb by 95%, but had little or no impact on dispersible As and Sb. We conclude that the counterion valency controls the mobility of metal(loid)s by affecting the mobility and sorption capacity of the sorbents (e.g., colloids, organic matter).

  5. Excluded volume effect of counterions and water dipoles near a highly charged surface due to a rotationally averaged Boltzmann factor for water dipoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongadze, Ekaterina; Iglič, Aleš

    2013-03-01

    Water ordering near a negatively charged electrode is one of the decisive factors determining the interactions of an electrode with the surrounding electrolyte solution or tissue. In this work, the generalized Langevin-Bikerman model (Gongadze-Iglič model) taking into account the cavity field and the excluded volume principle is used to calculate the space dependency of ions and water number densities in the vicinity of a highly charged surface. It is shown that for high enough surface charged densities the usual trend of increasing counterion number density towards the charged surface may be completely reversed, i.e. the drop in the counterions number density near the charged surface is predicted.

  6. Mass Media Effect on Gender Identity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓越

    2012-01-01

      Under the mass media effect, media both enable and constrain the audience to shape their gender identity. The purpose of this article is to review and consider the role media plays in the process of construction of contemporary gendered identities; especially the relationship among men, masculinity and media

  7. Poisson-Boltzmann thermodynamics of counterions confined by curved hard walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šamaj, Ladislav; Trizac, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    We consider a set of identical mobile pointlike charges (counterions) confined to a domain with curved hard walls carrying a uniform fixed surface charge density, the system as a whole being electroneutral. Three domain geometries are considered: a pair of parallel plates, the cylinder, and the sphere. The particle system in thermal equilibrium is assumed to be described by the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann theory. While the effectively one-dimensional plates and the two-dimensional cylinder have already been solved, the three-dimensional sphere problem is not integrable. It is shown that the contact density of particles at the charged surface is determined by a first-order Abel differential equation of the second kind which is a counterpart of Enig's equation in the critical theory of gravitation and combustion or explosion. This equation enables us to construct the exact series solutions of the contact density in the regions of small and large surface charge densities. The formalism provides, within the mean-field Poisson-Boltzmann framework, the complete thermodynamics of counterions inside a charged sphere (salt-free system).

  8. Simulations of counterions at charged plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, A G; Netz, R R

    2002-05-01

    Using Monte Carlo simulations, we study the counterion distribution close to planar charged walls in two geometries: i) when only one charged wall is present and the counterions are confined to one half-space, and ii) when the counterions are confined between two equally charged walls. In both cases the surface charge is smeared out and the dielectric constant is the same everywhere. We obtain the counterion density profile and compare it with both the Poisson-Boltzmann theory (asymptotically exact in the limit of weak coupling, i.e. low surface charge, high temperature and low counterion valence) and the strong-coupling theory (valid in the opposite limit of high surface charge, low temperature and high counterion valence) and with previously calculated correction terms to both theories for different values of the coupling parameter, thereby establishing the domain of validity of the asymptotic limits. Gaussian corrections to the leading Poisson-Boltzmann behavior (obtained via a systematic loop expansion) in general perform quite poorly: At coupling strengths low enough so that the Gaussian (or one-loop) correction does describe the numerical deviations from the Poisson-Boltzmann result correctly, the leading Poisson-Boltzmann term by itself matches the data within high accuracy. This reflects the slow convergence of the loop expansion. For a single charged plane, the counterion pair correlation function indicates a behavioral change from a three-dimensional, weakly correlated counterion distribution (at low coupling) to a two-dimensional, strongly correlated counterion distribution (at high coupling), which is paralleled by the specific-heat capacity which displays a rounded hump at intermediate coupling strengths. For the case of counterions confined between two equally charged walls, we analyze the inter-wall pressure and establish the complete phase diagram, featuring attraction between the walls for large enough coupling strength and at intermediate wall

  9. Shared identity is key to effective communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenaway, Katharine H; Wright, Ruth G; Willingham, Joanne; Reynolds, Katherine J; Haslam, S Alexander

    2015-02-01

    The ability to communicate with others is one of the most important human social functions, yet communication is not always investigated from a social perspective. This research examined the role that shared social identity plays in communication effectiveness using a minimal group paradigm. In two experiments, participants constructed a model using instructions that were said to be created by an ingroup or an outgroup member. Participants made models of objectively better quality when working from communications ostensibly created by an ingroup member (Experiments 1 and 2). However, this effect was attenuated when participants were made aware of a shared superordinate identity that included both the ingroup and the outgroup (Experiment 2). These findings point to the importance of shared social identity for effective communication and provide novel insights into the social psychology of communication. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  10. Effects of counterions of colorful sandwich-type zinc(II) 4‧-phenyl-terpyridine compounds on photoluminescent and thermal properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongqiang; Zhou, Peng; Liang, Baohuan; Huang, Ling; Zhou, Yanling; Ma, Zhen

    2017-10-01

    Reactions between 4‧-phenyl-terpyridine (L) and several Zn(II) salts (p-toluenesulfonate, nitrate, trifluoromethane sulfonate or hexafluoroantimonate) led to the formation of the complexes [ZnL2](p-OSO2PhCH3)2 (1), [ZnL2](NO3)2 (2), [ZnL2](SO3CF3)2 (3) and [ZnL2](SbF6)2 (4), which were characterized by IR, 1H NMR, elemental analysis, UV-vis spectroscopies and single crystal X-ray diffraction, along with their TG-DTA thermal and photoluminescent properties. The four compounds show mononuclear Zn(II) structures with hexacoordinated, irregular ZnN6 octahedron geometries. Their colours and photo-luminescent properties have changed regularly depending on the counterions of the compounds.

  11. Diketonylpyridinium Cations as a Support of New Ionic Liquid Crystals and Ion-Conductive Materials: Analysis of Counter-Ion Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, María Jesús; Cuerva, Cristián; Campo, José A.; Schmidt, Rainer; Torres, María Rosario; Cano, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    Ionic liquid crystals (ILCs) allow the combination of the high ionic conductivity of ionic liquids (ILs) with the supramolecular organization of liquid crystals (LCs). ILCs salts were obtained by the assembly of long-chained diketonylpyridinium cations of the type [HOOR(n)pyH]+ and BF4−, ReO4−, NO3−, CF3SO3−, CuCl42− counter-ions. We have studied the thermal behavior of five series of compounds by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and hot stage polarized light optical microscopy (POM). All materials show thermotropic mesomorphism as well as crystalline polymorphism. X-ray diffraction of the [HOOR(12)pyH][ReO4] crystal reveals a layered structure with alternating polar and apolar sublayers. The mesophases also exhibit a lamellar arrangement detected by variable temperature powder X-ray diffraction. The CuCl42− salts exhibit the best LC properties followed by the ReO4− ones due to low melting temperature and wide range of existence. The conductivity was probed for the mesophases in one species each from the ReO4−, and CuCl42− families, and for the solid phase in one of the non-mesomorphic Cl− salts. The highest ionic conductivity was found for the smectic mesophase of the ReO4− containing salt, whereas the solid phases of all salts were dominated by electronic contributions. The ionic conductivity may be favored by the mesophase lamellar structure. PMID:28773485

  12. Dressed counterions: Polyvalent and monovalent ions at charged dielectric interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanduč, Matej; Naji, Ali; Forsman, Jan; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2011-07-01

    We investigate the ion distribution and overcharging at charged interfaces with dielectric inhomogeneities in the presence of asymmetric electrolytes containing polyvalent and monovalent ions. We formulate an effective “dressed counterion” approach by integrating out the monovalent salt degrees of freedom and show that it agrees with results of explicit Monte Carlo simulations. We then apply the dressed counterion approach within the framework of the generalized strong-coupling theory, valid for polyvalent ions at low concentrations, which enables an analytical description for salt effects as well as dielectric inhomogeneities in the limit of strong Coulomb interactions. Limitations and applicability of this theory are examined by comparing the results with simulations.

  13. Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy shows a sparingly hydrated interface and low counterion mobility in triflate micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Filipe S; Chaimovich, Hernan; Cuccovia, Iolanda M; Buchner, Richard

    2013-08-13

    The properties of ionic micelles are affected by the nature of the counterion. Specific ion effects can be dramatic, inducing even shape and phase changes in micellar solutions, transitions apparently related to micellar hydration and counterion binding at the micellar interface. Thus, determining the hydration and dynamics of ions in micellar systems capable of undergoing such transitions is a crucial step in understanding shape and phase changes. For cationic micelles, such transitions are common with large organic anions as counterions. Interestingly, however, phase separation also occurs for dodecyltrimethylammonium triflate (DTATf) micelles in the presence of sodium triflate (NaTf). Specific ion effects for micellar solutions of dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DTAC), bromide (DTAB), methanesulfonate (DTAMs), and triflate (DTATf) were studied with dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS), a technique capable of monitoring hydration and counterion dynamics of micellar aggregates. In comparison to DTAB, DTAC, and DTAMs, DTATf micelles were found to be considerably less hydrated and showed reduced counterion mobility at the micellar interface. The obtained DTATf and DTAMs data support the reported central role of the anion's -CF3 moiety with respect to the properties of DTATf micelles. The reduced hydration observed for DTATf micelles was rationalized in terms of the higher packing of this surfactant compared to that of other DTA-based systems. The decreased mobility of Tf(-) anions condensed at the DTATf interface strongly suggests the insertion of Tf(-) in the micellar interface, which is apparently driven by the strong hydrophobicity of -CF3.

  14. Engineering the Structure and Properties of DNA-Nanoparticle Superstructures Using Polyvalent Counterions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Leo Y T; Song, Fayi; Chan, Warren C W

    2016-04-06

    DNA assembly of nanoparticles is a powerful approach to control their properties and prototype new materials. However, the structure and properties of DNA-assembled nanoparticles are labile and sensitive to interactions with counterions, which vary with processing and application environment. Here we show that substituting polyamines in place of elemental counterions significantly enhanced the structural rigidity and plasmonic properties of DNA-assembled metal nanoparticles. These effects arose from the ability of polyamines to condense DNA and cross-link DNA-coated nanoparticles. We further used polyamine wrapped DNA nanostructures as structural templates to seed the growth of polymer multilayers via layer-by-layer assembly, and controlled the degree of DNA condensation, plasmon coupling efficiency, and material responsiveness to environmental stimuli by varying polyelectrolyte composition. These results highlight counterion engineering as a versatile strategy to tailor the properties of DNA-nanoparticle assemblies for various applications, and should be applicable to other classes of DNA nanostructures.

  15. Counterion influence on chemical shifts in strychnine salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metaxas, Athena E.; Cort, John R.

    2013-05-01

    The highly toxic plant alkaloid strychnine is often isolated in the form of the anion salt of its protonated tertiary amine. Here we characterize the relative influence of different counterions on 1H and 13C chemical shifts in several strychnine salts in D2O, methanol-d4 (CD3OD) and chloroform-d (CDCl3) solvents. In organic solvents, but not in water, substantial variation in chemical shifts of protons near the tertiary amine was observed among different salts. These secondary shifts reveal differences in the way each anion influences electronic structure within the protonated amine. The distributions of secondary shifts allow salts to be easily distinguished from each other as well as from the free base form. The observed effects are much greater in organic solvents than in water. Slight concentration-dependence in chemical shifts of some protons near the amine was observed for two salts in CDCl3, but this effect is small compared to the influence of the counterion. Distinct chemical shifts in different salt forms of the same compound may be useful as chemical forensic signatures for source attribution and sample matching of alkaloids such as strychnine and possibly other organic acid and base salts.

  16. Mechanistic insights on cooperative asymmetric multicatalysis using chiral counterions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Garima; Sunoj, Raghavan B

    2014-08-15

    Cooperative multicatalytic methods are steadily gaining popularity in asymmetric catalysis. The use of chiral Brønsted acids such as phosphoric acids in conjunction with a range of transition metals has been proven to be effective in asymmetric synthesis. However, the lack of molecular-level understanding and the accompanying ambiguity on the role of the chiral species in stereoinduction continues to remain an unresolved puzzle. Herein, we intend to disclose some novel transition state models obtained through DFT(B3LYP and M06) computations for a quintessential reaction in this family, namely, palladium-catalyzed asymmetric Tsuji-Trost allylation of aldehydes. The aldehyde is activated as an enamine by the action of a secondary amine (organocatalysis), which then adds to an activated Pd-allylic species (transition metal catalysis) generated through the protonation of allyic alcohol by chiral BINOL-phosphoric acid (Brønsted acid catalysis). We aim to decipher the nature of chiral BINOL-phosphates and their role in creating a quaternary chiral carbon atom in this triple catalytic system. The study reports the first transition state model capable of rationalizing chiral counterion-induced enantioselectivity. It is found that the chiral phosphate acts as a counterion in the stereocontrolling event rather than the conventional ligand mode.

  17. Counterion influence on chemical shifts in strychnine salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metaxas, Athena E; Cort, John R

    2013-05-01

    The highly toxic plant alkaloid strychnine is often isolated in the form of the anion salt of its protonated tertiary amine. Here, we characterize the relative influence of different counterions on (1)H and (13)C chemical shifts in several strychnine salts in D2O, methanol-d4 (CD3OD), and chloroform-d (CDCl3) solvents. In organic solvents but not in water, substantial variation in chemical shifts of protons near the tertiary amine was observed among different salts. These secondary shifts reveal differences in the way each anion influences electronic structure within the protonated amine. The distributions of secondary shifts allow salts to be easily distinguished from each other as well as from the free base form. Slight concentration dependence in chemical shifts of some protons near the amine was observed for two salts in CDCl3, but this effect is small compared with the influence of the counterion. Distinct chemical shifts in different salt forms of the same compound may be useful as chemical forensic signatures for source attribution and sample matching of alkaloids such as strychnine and possibly other organic acid and base salts. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Investigating the Effects of Brand Identity on Customer Loyalty from Social Identity Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ali Shirazi; Hanzaleh Zeynvand Lorestani; Ahmadreza Karimi Mazidi

    2013-01-01

    .... The collected data were subject to correlational analysis and path analysis modeling. The results revealed that both brand identity and brand identification have indirect effect on brand loyalty through perceived value, trust, and satisfaction...

  19. Hemifield effects in multiple identity tracking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Hudson

    Full Text Available In everyday life, we often need to attentively track moving objects. A previous study has claimed that this tracking occurs independently in the left and right visual hemifields (Alvarez & Cavanagh, 2005, Psychological Science,16, 637-647. Specifically, it was shown that observers were much more accurate at tracking objects that were spread over both visual hemifields as opposed to when all were confined to a single visual hemifield. In that study, observers were not required to remember the identities of the objects. Conversely, in real life, there is seldom any benefit to tracking an object unless you can also recall its identity. It has been predicted that when observers are required to remember the identities of the tracked objects a bilateral advantage should no longer be observed (Oksama & Hyönä, 2008, Cognitive Psychology, 56, 237-283. We tested this prediction and found that a bilateral advantage still occurred, though it was not as strong as when observers were not required to remember the identities of the targets. Even in the later case we found that tracking was not completely independent in the two visual hemifields. We present a combined model of multiple object tracking and multiple identity tracking that can explain our data.

  20. The effects of smoking self-identity and quitting self-identity on attempts to quit smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Putte, B.; Yzer, M.C.; Willemsen, M.C.; de Bruijn, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of two types of self-identity on attempts to quit smoking: self-identity in terms of smoking and self-identity in terms of quitting. Design: A prospective survey among an initial sample of 3,411 smokers. Smoking history variables and psychosocial variables from the

  1. The effects of smoking self-identity and quitting self-identity on attempts to quit smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van den Putte; M.C. Yzer; M.C. Willemsen; G.J. de Bruijn

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of two types of self-identity on attempts to quit smoking: self-identity in terms of smoking and self-identity in terms of quitting. Design: A prospective survey among an initial sample of 3,411 smokers. Smoking history variables and psychosocial variables from the t

  2. Non-uniform velocity of homogeneous DNA in a uniform electric field: consequence of electric-field-induced slow dissociation of highly stable DNA-counterion complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musheev, Michael U; Kanoatov, Mirzo; Krylov, Sergey N

    2013-05-29

    Identical molecules move with identical velocities when placed in a uniform electric field within a uniform electrolyte. Here we report that homogeneous DNA does not obey this fundamental rule. While most DNA moves with similar velocities, a fraction of DNA moves with velocities that vary within a multiple-fold range. The size of this irregular fraction increases several orders of magnitude when exogenous counterions are added to DNA. The irregular fraction decreases several orders of magnitude when DNA counterions are removed by dialysis against deionized water in the presence of a strong electric field (0.6 kV/cm). Dialysis without the field is ineffective in decreasing the size of irregular fraction. These results suggest that (i) DNA can form very stable complexes with counterions, (ii) these complexes can be dissociated by an electric field, and (iii) the observed non-uniform velocity of DNA is caused by electric-field-induced slow dissociation of these stable complexes. Our findings help to better understand a fundamental property of DNA: its interaction with counterions. In addition, these findings suggest a practical way of making electromigration of DNA more uniform: removal of strongly bound DNA counterions by electro-dialysis against deionized water.

  3. Prediction of (195) Pt NMR chemical shifts of dissolution products of H2 [Pt(OH)6 ] in nitric acid solutions by DFT methods: how important are the counter-ion effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsipis, Athanassios C; Karapetsas, Ioannis N

    2016-08-01

    (195) Pt NMR chemical shifts of octahedral Pt(IV) complexes with general formula [Pt(NO3 )n (OH)6 - n ](2-) , [Pt(NO3 )n (OH2 )6 - n ](4 - n) (n = 1-6), and [Pt(NO3 )6 - n  - m (OH)m (OH2 )n ](-2 + n - m) formed by dissolution of platinic acid, H2 [Pt(OH)6 ], in aqueous nitric acid solutions are calculated employing density functional theory methods. Particularly, the gauge-including atomic orbitals (GIAO)-PBE0/segmented all-electron relativistically contracted-zeroth-order regular approximation (SARC-ZORA)(Pt) ∪ 6-31G(d,p)(E)/Polarizable Continuum Model computational protocol performs the best. Excellent second-order polynomial plots of δcalcd ((195) Pt) versus δexptl ((195) Pt) chemical shifts and δcalcd ((195) Pt) versus the natural atomic charge QPt are obtained. Despite of neglecting relativistic and spin orbit effects the good agreement of the calculated δ (195) Pt chemical shifts with experimental values is probably because of the fact that the contribution of relativistic and spin orbit effects to computed σ(iso) (195) Pt magnetic shielding of Pt(IV) coordination compounds is effectively cancelled in the computed δ (195) Pt chemical shifts, because the relativistic corrections are expected to be similar in the complexes and the proper reference standard used. To probe the counter-ion effects on the (195) Pt NMR chemical shifts of the anionic [Pt(NO3 )n (OH)6 - n ](2-) and cationic [Pt(NO3 )n (OH2 )6 - n ](4 - n) (n = 0-3) complexes we calculated the (195) Pt NMR chemical shifts of the neutral (PyH)2 [Pt(NO3 )n (OH)6 - n ] (n = 1-6; PyH = pyridinium cation, C5 H5 NH(+) ) and [Pt(NO3 )n (H2 O)6 - n ](NO3 )4 - n (n = 0-3) complexes. Counter-anion effects are very important for the accurate prediction of the (195) Pt NMR chemical shifts of the cationic [Pt(NO3 )n (OH2 )6 - n ](4 - n) complexes, while counter-cation effects are less important for the anionic [Pt(NO3 )n (OH)6

  4. Brand Identity and Country of Origin Effect Brand Identity of Ararat Armenian Brandies. COO effect on wine from Armenia

    OpenAIRE

    Eloyan, Gohar

    2015-01-01

    The thesis has two main purposes. First, it provides an understanding on the brand identity theory, the process of its creation and communication. Particularly it discusses the implementation of the brand identity theory on Ararat Armenian brandies. Secondly, the thesis focuses on the Country-of-Origin effect studying Armenia's country image, products' recognizability, the attributes that consumers value while buying wines, and finally their attitudes towards Armenian wine. ...

  5. The role of multipoles in counterion-mediated interactions between charged surfaces: strong and weak coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanduc, M; Podgornik, R [Department of Theoretical Physics, J Stefan Institute, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Naji, A [Department of Physics, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Jho, Y S; Pincus, P A [Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2009-10-21

    We present general arguments for the importance, or lack thereof, of structure in the charge distribution of counterions for counterion-mediated interactions between bounding symmetrically charged surfaces. We show that on the mean field or weak coupling level, the charge quadrupole contributes the lowest order modification to the contact value theorem and thus to the intersurface electrostatic interactions. The image effects are non-existent on the mean field level even with multipoles. On the strong coupling level the quadrupoles and higher order multipoles contribute additional terms to the interaction free energy only in the presence of dielectric inhomogeneities. Without them, the monopole is the only multipole that contributes to the strong coupling electrostatics. We explore the consequences of these statements in all their generality.

  6. Counterion condensation in ionic micelles as studied by a combined use of SANS and SAXS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V K Aswal; P S Goyal; H Amenitsch; S Bernstorff

    2004-08-01

    We report a combined use of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to the study of counterion condensation in ionic micelles. Small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering measurements have been carried out on two surfactants cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTABr) and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTACl), which are similar but having different counterions. SANS measurements show that CTABr surfactant forms much larger micelles than CTACl. This is explained in terms of higher condensation of Br0 counterions than Cl- counterions. SAXS data on these systems suggest that the Br- counterions are condensed around the micelles over smaller thickness than those of Cl- counterions.

  7. Counterion-mediated pattern formation in membranes containing anionic lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slochower, David R; Wang, Yu-Hsiu; Tourdot, Richard W; Radhakrishnan, Ravi; Janmey, Paul A

    2014-06-01

    Most lipid components of cell membranes are either neutral, like cholesterol, or zwitterionic, like phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin. Very few lipids, such as sphingosine, are cationic at physiological pH. These generally interact only transiently with the lipid bilayer, and their synthetic analogs are often designed to destabilize the membrane for drug or DNA delivery. However, anionic lipids are common in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell membranes. The net charge per anionic phospholipid ranges from -1 for the most abundant anionic lipids such as phosphatidylserine, to near -7 for phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5 trisphosphate, although the effective charge depends on many environmental factors. Anionic phospholipids and other negatively charged lipids such as lipopolysaccharides are not randomly distributed in the lipid bilayer, but are highly restricted to specific leaflets of the bilayer and to regions near transmembrane proteins or other organized structures within the plane of the membrane. This review highlights some recent evidence that counterions, in the form of monovalent or divalent metal ions, polyamines, or cationic protein domains, have a large influence on the lateral distribution of anionic lipids within the membrane, and that lateral demixing of anionic lipids has effects on membrane curvature and protein function that are important for biological control. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Intercultural Peers’ effect on Social Identity of Social Media Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khajeheian, Datis

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates the effect of social media peers on the social identity of consumers. The critical perspective of this research is based on the consumer socialization theory research framework. This framework consists of three levels - the global, national and local peers - and their i......This research investigates the effect of social media peers on the social identity of consumers. The critical perspective of this research is based on the consumer socialization theory research framework. This framework consists of three levels - the global, national and local peers...... socialization of peers” on the social identity of consumers is overestimated. Rather, the main influence comes from peers in the real world. The influence of this real world peer on consumption patterns is much higher than social media peers. Though social media is used for communication of real world peers...

  9. The role of counterion on the thermotropic phase behavior of DODAB and DODAC vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Eloi; Alves, Fernanda Rosa

    2008-11-01

    Dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide and chloride surfactants (DODAX, X representing Br(-) or Cl(-) counterions) assemble in water, above their melting temperatures (T(m)), as cationic unilamellar vesicles at the typical surfactant concentration of 1.0mM. The larger T(m) of DODAC (49 degrees C) relative to DODAB (45 degrees C) has been attributed to the differing affinity and binding specificity of the counterions to the vesicle interfaces. In this communication it is reported differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), conductimetry and dynamic light scattering (DLS) data for mixtures of DODAB and DODAC in water at 1.0mM total surfactant concentration and varying surfactant concentration, to investigate the effect of counterion on the pre-, main- and post-transition temperatures (T(s), T(m) and T(p)), and the data compared to the neat surfactants in water. Accordingly, T(m) increases sigmoidally from 45.8 to 48.9 degrees C when DODAC molar fraction (x(DODAC)) is varied from 0 to 1. Neat DODAB exhibits in addition to T(m), T(s) and T(p) that are inhibited by DODAC. The main peak width DeltaT(1/2) does not depend on the surfactant molar fraction but the melting enthalpy change DeltaH is smaller for DODAB-rich dispersions due to the stronger affinity of Br(-). The conductivity and the apparent hydrodynamic diameter as well do not vary much with x(DODAB), indicating that the surface charge density is similar for DODAB and DODAC, evidencing the role of the counterion binding specificity and affinity on the properties of DODAX vesicles.

  10. Effects of Collaborative Activities on Group Identity in Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyungsung; Seo, Sumin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of collaborative activities on group identity in a virtual world such as "Second Life." To achieve this purpose, this study adopted events that promoted participants' interactions using tools inherent in "Second Life." The interactive tools given to the control group in…

  11. Identity's identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    in Academic English and more everyday-based English, identity as a lexeme is definitely worth having a look at. This paper presents a lexicological study of identity in which some of its senses are identified and their behaviors in actual discourse are observed. Drawing on data from the 2011 section...... of the Corpus of Contemporary American English, a behavioral profile of the distributional characteristics of identity is set up. Behavioral profiling is a lexicographical method developed by the corpus linguist Stefan Th. Gries which, by applying semantic ID tagging and statistical analysis, provides a fine......-grained insight into the semantic affinities of one or more lexemes. The main premise is that the semantic properties of a linguistic unit are reflected in its distributional characteristics, and, thus, by observing association patterns of a lexeme we can gain useful insights into its semantic affinities. Thus...

  12. NMR-based conformation and dynamics of a tetrasaccharide-repeating sulfated fucan substituted by different counterions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Paulo A G; Queiroz, Ismael N L; Santos, Gustavo R C; Mourão, Paulo A S; Pomin, Vitor H

    2016-11-01

    The sulfated fucan from the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus is composed of the repetitive sequence [-3)-α-l-Fucp-4( OSO3-)-(1-3)-α-l-Fucp-2,4-di( OSO3-)-(1-3)-α-l-Fucp-2( OSO3-)-(1-3)-α-l-Fucp-2( OSO3-)-(1-]n . Conformation (of rings and chains) and dynamics of this tetrasaccharide-repeating sulfated fucan substituted by Na(+) , Ca(2+) , and Li(+) as counterions have been examined through experiments of liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Scalar coupling and nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE)-based data have confirmed that all composing units occur as (1) C4 chair conformer regardless of the cation type, unit position within the repeating sequence, and sulfation type. Chain conformation determined by NOE signal pattern assisted by molecular modeling for a theoretical octasaccharide has shown a similar linear 3D structure for the three differently substituted forms. Data derived from spin-relaxation measurements have indicated a contribution of counterion type to dynamics. The calcium-based preparation has shown the highest mobility while the sodiated one showed the lowest mobility. The set of results from this work suggests that counterion type can affect the physicochemical properties of the structurally well-defined sulfated fucan. The counterion effect seems to impact more on the structural mobility than on average conformation of the studied sulfated glycan in solution.

  13. Competitive adsorption and ordered packing of counterions near highly charged surfaces: From mean-field theory to Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jiayi; Zhou, Shenggao; Xu, Zhenli; Li, Bo

    2012-04-01

    Competitive adsorption of counterions of multiple species to charged surfaces is studied by a size-effect-included mean-field theory and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The mean-field electrostatic free-energy functional of ionic concentrations, constrained by Poisson's equation, is numerically minimized by an augmented Lagrangian multiplier method. Unrestricted primitive models and canonical ensemble MC simulations with the Metropolis criterion are used to predict the ionic distributions around a charged surface. It is found that, for a low surface charge density, the adsorption of ions with a higher valence is preferable, agreeing with existing studies. For a highly charged surface, both the mean-field theory and the MC simulations demonstrate that the counterions bind tightly around the charged surface, resulting in a stratification of counterions of different species. The competition between mixed entropy and electrostatic energetics leads to a compromise that the ionic species with a higher valence-to-volume ratio has a larger probability to form the first layer of stratification. In particular, the MC simulations confirm the crucial role of ionic valence-to-volume ratios in the competitive adsorption to charged surfaces that had been previously predicted by the mean-field theory. The charge inversion for ionic systems with salt is predicted by the MC simulations but not by the mean-field theory. This work provides a better understanding of competitive adsorption of counterions to charged surfaces and calls for further studies on the ionic size effect with application to large-scale biomolecular modeling.

  14. Influence of higher valent ions on flexible polyelectrolyte stiffness and counter-ion distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chremos, Alexandros; Douglas, Jack F

    2016-04-28

    We investigate the influence of counter-ion valency on the flexibility of highly charged flexible polymer chains using molecular dynamics simulations that include both salt and an explicit solvent. As observed experimentally, we find that divalent counter-ions greatly reduce the chain persistence length, lp, in comparison with monovalent counter-ions. On the other hand, polyelectrolyte chains having trivalent counter-ions adopt a much more compact conformation than polyelectrolytes having monovalent and divalent counter-ions. We demonstrate that the tendency of polyelectrolyte chains to become deformed by proximal high valence counter-ions is due to chain "coiling" around the counter-ions. In particular, we find that the number of contacts that the proximal counter-ions have with the polyelectrolyte dictates the extent of chain coiling. This ion-binding induced coiling mechanism influences not only the conformational properties of the polyelectrolyte, but also the counter-ion distribution around the chain. Specifically, we find that higher valent counter-ions lead both to a counter-ion enrichment in close proximity to the polyelectrolyte and to a significant reduction in the spatial extent of the diffuse counter-ion cloud around the polyelectrolyte.

  15. Distribution of counterions and interaction between two similarly charged dielectric slabs: roles of charge discreteness and dielectric inhomogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezeshkian, Weria; Nikoofard, Narges; Norouzi, Davood; Mohammad-Rafiee, Farshid; Fazli, Hossein

    2012-06-01

    The distribution of counterions and the electrostatic interaction between two similarly charged dielectric slabs is studied in the strong coupling limit. Dielectric inhomogeneities and discreteness of charge on the slabs have been taken into account. It is found that the amount of dielectric constant difference between the slabs and the environment, and the discreteness of charge on the slabs have opposing effects on the equilibrium distribution of the counterions. At small interslab separations, increasing the amount of dielectric constant difference increases the tendency of the counterions toward the middle of the intersurface space between the slabs and the discreteness of charge pushes them to the surfaces of the slabs. In the limit of point charges, independent of the strength of dielectric inhomogeneity, counterions distribute near the surfaces of the slabs. The interaction between the slabs is attractive at low temperatures and its strength increases with the dielectric constant difference. At room temperature, the slabs may completely attract each other, reach to an equilibrium separation, or have two equilibrium separations with a barrier in between, depending on the system parameters.

  16. Role of Counterions in Controlling the Properties of Ultrasonically Generated Chitosan-Stabilized Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Enrico; Cavalieri, Francesca; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2015-06-17

    An oil-in-water emulsion was ultrasonically prepared in aqueous chitosan solutions containing different counterions. Tetradecane was used as the oil phase in order to mimic nonpolar substances used in food processes. Various acids were used to dissolve chitosan, and we found that conjugate bases of the acids used, which act as counterions to neutralize the positive charges of ammonium ions present in the chitosan backbone, played a significant role in controlling the size, size distribution, and stability of chitosan-encapsulated tedradecane emulsion droplets (microspheres). The counterion effect is also found to be strongly dependent upon tetradecane (TD)/chitosan (CS) ratio and ultrasonic power. Key observations are: (i) for a given TD/CS ratio, the size and size distribution decrease when the acid is varied from nitric acid to benzenesulfonic acid at high TD/CS ratio, and the effect becomes less significant at low TD/CS ratio; (ii) for a given acid, the size and size distribution increase with an increase in TD/CS ratio; and (iii) at low TD/CS ratio the size and size distribution are significantly influenced by the viscosity of the system. A possible mechanism for the observed counterion effect is proposed. The role of counterions, solution viscosity, and ultrasonic power in controlling the physical and functional properties of ultrasonically generated chitosan-stabilized tetradecane microspheres is discussed in detail. The key new finding of this study is that it is possible to form stable emulsions without the addition of external emulsifiers and stabilizers, but only using chitosan with different acids to dissolve chitosan. This strategy could be used in the generation of stable food emulsions.

  17. Motives and Contexts of Identity Change: A Case for Network Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Daniel; Pals, Heili

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we interrelate different theories of identity and describe how various social contexts and cognitive motives influence the process of identity change. We consider two competing theories about the linkage of contexts with motives for identity change: the effect of category traits, based on social identity theory, and the effect of…

  18. Dilution effect and identity effect by wildlife in the persistence and recurrence of bovine tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Z.Y.X.; Xu, C.; Langevelde, van F.; Prins, H.H.T.; Jebara, Ben K.; Boer, de W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Current theories on disease-diversity relationships predict a strong influence of host richness on disease transmission. In addition, identity effect, caused by the occurrence of particular species, can also modify disease risk.We tested the richness effect and the identity effects of mammal species

  19. Physics career intentions: The effect of physics identity, math identity, and gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Robynne M.; Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Although nearly half of high school physics students are female, only 21% of physics bachelor's degrees are earned by women. Using data from a national survey of college students in introductory English courses (on science-related experiences, particularly in high school), we examine the influence of students' physics and math identities on their choice to pursue a physics career. Males have higher math and physics identities than females in all three dimensions of our identity framework. These dimensions include: performance/competence (perceptions of ability to perform/understand), recognition (perception of recognition by others), and interest (desire to learn more). A regression model predicting students' intentions to pursue physics careers shows, as expected, that males are significantly more likely to choose physics than females. Surprisingly, however, when physics and math identity are included in the model, females are shown to be equally likely to choose physics careers as compared to males.

  20. Modulation of Tartrates with Various Counterions on the Phases of Calcium Oxalate in Gelatinous Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Ming OUYANG; Xiang Ping LI

    2005-01-01

    Effect of various counterions of tartrate on the crystallization of calcium oxalate in gel system was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Various tartrates with hydrogen (H2tart), sodium (Na2tart), potassium (K2tart), ammonium ((NH4)2tart), and a mixture of sodium and potassium cations (NaKtart) were considered. For H2tart, Na2tart, and (NH4)2tart, calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) was induced. However, for K2tart and NaKtart,calcium oxalate trihydrate (COT) was obtained.

  1. Cation-π Interaction between the Aromatic Organic Counterion and DTAB Micelle in Mixed Solvents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG,Dong-Shun(邓东顺); LI,Hao-Ran(李浩然); LIU,Di-Xia(刘迪霞); HAN,Shi-Jun(韩世钧)

    2004-01-01

    The cation-π interaction between the aromatic organic counterion potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) and DTAB micelle in aqueous mixture of EG was investigated, using the techniques of conductivity measurements, UV absorption spectrum and NMR spectrum. The conductivity and UV spectrum studies were with respect to the effect of KHP on DTAB and that of DTAB micelle on KHP, respectively. According to the chemical shift changes of the aromatic ring and the surfactant methylene protons, it can be assumed that KHP penetrated into DTAB micelle with its carboxylic group protruding out of the micellar surface. And the strength of the interaction became weaker with the content of EG in the mixed solvent increasing.

  2. Interactions of univalent counterions with headgroups of monomers and dimers of an anionic surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowska, Anna

    2015-03-24

    Specific ion effects in solution are related to the hydrated ion size and ion hydration, electrostatic interactions, dispersion forces, ion effects on water structure, and ion modification of surface tension. In this study, we tried to identify which factor determines the ion specificity observed. The preference and energy of metal cations binding with the headgroups of dodecylsulfate (DS) monomers and dimers were determined by mass spectrometry. In the gas phase, cation binding to DS dimer headgroups depends strongly on the cation radius. On the other hand, the interactions between DS monomer headgroups and chaotropic ions depend on the cation polarizability, and the binding of kosmotropic cations to DS monomer headgroups strongly depends on the Gibbs free energies of ion hydration. DS dimers are related to surfactants having doubly charged headgroups, and DS monomers are related to surfactants with singly charged headgroups. Our spectrometric study of the strength of counterion binding to free monomers of a surfactant provides insight into surfactant-counterion interactions at micellar interfaces in bulk solution.

  3. Large counterions boost the solubility and renormalized charge of suspended nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-García, Guillermo Iván; González-Mozuelos, Pedro; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

    2013-11-26

    Colloidal particles are ubiquitous in biology and in everyday products such as milk, cosmetics, lubricants, paints, or drugs. The stability and aggregation of colloidal suspensions are of paramount importance in nature and in diverse nanotechnological applications, including the fabrication of photonic materials and scaffolds for biological assemblies, gene therapy, diagnostics, targeted drug delivery, and molecular labeling. Electrolyte solutions have been extensively used to stabilize and direct the assembly of colloidal particles. In electrolytes, the effective electrostatic interactions among the suspended colloids can be changed over various length scales by tuning the ionic concentration. However, a major limitation is gelation or flocculation at high salt concentrations. This is explained by classical theories, which show that the electrostatic repulsion among charged colloids is significantly reduced at high electrolyte concentrations. As a result, these screened colloidal particles are expected to aggregate due to short-range attractive interactions or dispersion forces as the salt concentration increases. We discuss here a robust, tunable mechanism for colloidal stability by which large counterions prevent highly charged nanoparticles from aggregating in salt solutions with concentrations up to 1 M. Large counterions are shown to generate a thicker ionic cloud in the proximity of each charged colloid, which strengthens short-range repulsions among colloidal particles and also increases the corresponding renormalized colloidal charge perceived at larger separation distances. These effects thus provide a reliable stabilization mechanism in a broad range of biological and synthetic colloidal suspensions.

  4. Dynamics of flexible counter-ions in conducting polyaniline a quasielastic neutron-scattering study

    CERN Document Server

    Bee, M; Djurado, D; Marque, D; Combet, J; Rannou, P; Dufour, B

    2002-01-01

    Conducting polyaniline protonated with sulphonic flexible counter-ions was investigated by quasielastic incoherent neutron scattering. In addition to their role in electrical properties, the flexible counter-ions also increase the elasticity of the samples. As in the case of more rigid counter-ions, polymer chains appear as very stiff objects whose dynamics is completely outside the investigated time scale. Conversely, the counter-ion dynamics was proved to be of major importance in charge transport since a dynamical transition is observed precisely in the temperature range where the electronic properties change from a metallic to a semiconducting regime. (orig.)

  5. Multivalent co-ions reduce DNA$-$DNA like-charge attraction and enhance DNA overcharging by mutivalent counterions

    CERN Document Server

    Duc, Nguyen Viet; Duc, Nguyen Huu

    2016-01-01

    Strongly correlated electrostatics of DNA systems has drawn the interest of many groups, especially the condensation and overcharging of DNA by multivalent counterions. By adding counterions of different valencies and shapes, one can enhance or reduce DNA overcharging. In this letter, we focus on the effect of multivalent co-ions, specifically divalent coion such as SO$_4^{2-}$, on the strongly correlated electrostatics of DNA condensation problem. A computational experiment of DNA condensation using Monte$-$Carlo simulation in grand canonical ensemble is carried out where DNA system is in equilibirium with a bulk solution containing a mixture of salt of different valency of co-ions. Compared to system with purely monovalent co-ions, the influence of divalent co-ions shows up in multiple aspects. Divalent co-ions lead to an increase of monovalent salt in the DNA condensate. Because monovalent salts mostly participate in linear screening of electrostatic interactions in the system, more monovalent salt molecul...

  6. The Effect of Gender Identity on Job Satisfaction of Employers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Ghasemi

    2014-05-01

    So the results show that the employers with stronger masculine gender identity dimension , pay more attention to satisfaction factors associated with situation development (e.g. increasing salary , trade development , having leadership role and guiding a great company with rapid growth , compared to employers with stronger feminine gender identity dimension. Moreover, employers with stronger feminine gender identity dimension prefer satisfaction factors based on having good relations with employees, participation in society and association with others to situation factors. Totally, the results show that gender identity is a proper anticipator for determining the priorities of job satisfaction factors of the employers, because masculine gender identity is related to satisfaction factors based on situation and feminine gender identity is related to satisfaction factors based on relationship with employees and participation in society.

  7. Effective attractive potential between identical dielectric molecules via Lifshitz theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈来文; 李椿萱

    2001-01-01

    A general theory of Van der Waals forces developed by Lifshitz based on quantum electrodynamics theory is applied in the range Rλ0 (where the Casimir effects may be neglected) to construct Van der Waals attractive potential between identical dielectric molecules in rarefied media in order that the effective attractive potential between the like-molecules (including the repeat units) is offered. A closed form solution for the integral formulation of the attractive potential between like-particles is first obtained based on certain assumptions made in this work. On the basis of the theory of electric polarization, the derived expression in terms of bulk properties is then compared with the well-known London formula, the former differs from the latter only by the factor (4)/(π)or (4)/(π)(ε∞+2)/(3)2. The validity of the effective potential can be verified by testing cases composed of several types of dielectric materials. The computed results are presented in this paper, and comparisons with the results computed by London dispersion formula, as well as the recommended values in virtue of the experimental and theoretical techniques, are also presented. The effective potential of polyethylene is also computed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed model, and it is found that the computed well depth fall within a reasonable range of accuracy.

  8. Discrete Effects of Religiosity and Spirituality on Gay Identity and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Suzanne; Wright, A Jordan

    2017-08-25

    Previous research has indicated that although spirituality may bolster development of a positive gay identity, religiosity may prove detrimental. Because the majority of this research confounds these constructs, there is little evidence as to the discrete roles religiosity and spirituality may play in LGB identity development. The present study endeavored to tease apart the unique effects of religion and spirituality on positive and negative gay identity and self-esteem. A sample of 376 self-identified sexual minority adults were given measures of religiosity, spirituality, LGB identity, and self-esteem. Models were built to evaluate the effects of religiosity (independent of spirituality) and spirituality (independent of religiosity), understanding that the constructs are greatly overlapped, on identity and self-esteem. Results included a positive association between spirituality and identity affirmation, identity superiority, and self-esteem. Religiosity was negatively associated with identity affirmation and self-esteem and positively associated with internalized homonegativity and heteronormativity. Limitations and implications are discussed.

  9. ISFET pH Sensitivity: Counter-Ions Play a Key Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizi, Kokab B.; Xu, Xiaoqing; Pal, Ashish; Hu, Xiaolin; Wong, H. S. Philip

    2017-02-01

    The Field Effect sensors are broadly used for detecting various target analytes in chemical and biological solutions. We report the conditions under which the pH sensitivity of an Ion Sensitive Field Effect transistor (ISFET) sensor can be significantly enhanced. Our theory and simulations show that by using pH buffer solutions containing counter-ions that are beyond a specific size, the sensor shows significantly higher sensitivity which can exceed the Nernst limit. We validate the theory by measuring the pH response of an extended gate ISFET pH sensor. The consistency and reproducibility of the measurement results have been recorded in hysteresis free and stable operations. Different conditions have been tested to confirm the accuracy and validity of our experiment results such as using different solutions, various oxide dielectrics as the sensing layer and off-the-shelf versus IC fabricated transistors as the basis of the ISFET sensor.

  10. Counterion-induced reversibly switchable transparency in smart windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Hwan; Lim, Ho Sun; Kim, Jooyong; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2011-09-27

    Smart windows that can reversibly alternate between extreme optical characteristics via clicking counteranions of different hydration energies were developed on glass substrates through the facile spray-casting of poly[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyltrimethylammonium chloride-co-3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate]. The optical transmittance was either 90.9% or 0% over the whole spectral range when alternately immersed in solutions containing thiocyanate (SCN(-)) or bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide (TFSI(-)) ions, respectively. The extreme optical transitions were attributed to formation of microporous structures via the molecular aggregation of polyelectrolyte chains bearing TFSI(-) ions in methanol. Because the smart windows were either highly transparent toward or completely blocking of incident light upon direct counterion exchange, this kind of nanotechnology may provide a new platform for efficiently conserving on energy usage in the interior of buildings.

  11. The Effects of Virtual Communities on Group Identity in Classroom Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tu-Kuang; Lin, Yu-Tzeng

    2016-01-01

    Group identity is a critical component in developing effective classroom management. While there have been numerous studies on group identity, they have primarily focused on its effects on the physical classroom entity. Advances in information technology, however, have enabled the creation of virtual communities, which have become a vital channel…

  12. The Effects of Virtual Communities on Group Identity in Classroom Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tu-Kuang; Lin, Yu-Tzeng

    2016-01-01

    Group identity is a critical component in developing effective classroom management. While there have been numerous studies on group identity, they have primarily focused on its effects on the physical classroom entity. Advances in information technology, however, have enabled the creation of virtual communities, which have become a vital channel…

  13. Examining the Effects of Field Trips on Science Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Leila A.; Katzman, William

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work-in-progress study is to examine science identity of elementary school students in relation to participation in science. The questions asked in this initial analysis were: How will a field trip to a science research and learning center affect students' desires to learn and participate in science and does interviewing…

  14. Effect of social identity salience on healthy eating intentions and behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Banas, Katarzyna Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Background. Self-categorisation theory and the identity-based motivation perspective suggest that people’s motivation to engage in a particular behaviour is stronger when that behaviour is congruent with their salient social identity. In situations where a certain social identity is made salient, or where people identify strongly with a particular group, the social norm associated with that group may have a strong effect on individual behaviour. This perspective can be used to ...

  15. Osmolality of antisense oligonucleotide parenteral formulations: Implications on counterion dissociation and recommended osmometry techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Marc; Dibble, Andrew

    2016-12-30

    The intrinsic osmolality of aqueous solutions of sodium salt antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) has been studied to inform formulation practices, understand the molecular basis underlying the difference between theoretical and empirical results, and determine suitable measurement methods. It was found that regardless of nucleotide sequence, ASO concentration of ∼140mg/mL has isotonic osmolality of ∼290mOsm/kg water (SI unit: mmol osmotically-active particles/kg water), such that lower concentration formulations require excipients for tonicity adjustment. The range of osmolality values at a given active ingredient concentration can be ascribed to drug substance lot-to-lot purity differences impacting total oligonucleotide content (i.e., including oligonucleotide-related impurities). Empirical osmolality measurements were found to be ∼70% of theoretical values, which corresponds to an osmotic coefficient value of ∼0.7, thus inferring incomplete counterion dissociation. When comparing theoretical (ideal) osmolality of multiple sequences with various nucleotide compositions and chemistries at the same w/v concentration, the "average osmolar mass" (molar mass of the oligonucleotide, including the sodium counterions, divided by the ideal Van't Hoff factor, i(id)) appears to be the strongest factor governing theoretical osmolality values. Other factors examined were the sequence length, backbone chemistry, 2' sugar chemistry, and nucleotide composition. A head-to-head comparison between two osmolality techniques showed that vapor pressure osmometry is generally more suitable than freezing point osmometry for oligonucleotide solutions greater than ∼150mg/mL due to viscosity effects, but the two techniques are comparable otherwise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of similarity of ego identity status on interpersonal attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, J A; Rosenzweig, C M; Lutter, A D

    1980-04-01

    Similarity of ego identity status, assessed by Marcia's four-category classification system, was related to interpersonal attraction. Using male and female college students as subjects, this study found that (1) while all judges preferred targets who had or who are undergoing a crisis to those who have not had a crisis, (2) diffuse judges preferred targets with no commitments to those with commitments, and (3) judges with commitments preferred a foreclosure target more than judges without commitments. Differential evaluations of the targets' intelligence, knowledge of current events, adjustment, and morality were also found. Results are discussed both in terms of previous research positively relating personality similarity to attraction and Erikson's theory of the relationship between ego identity development and intimacy in interpersonal relations.

  17. The trace identity and the planar Casimir effect

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S G Kamath

    2006-02-01

    The familiar trace identity associated with the scale transformation → ′ = - on the Lagrangian density for a noninteracting massive real scalar field in 2 + 1 dimensions is shown to be violated on a single plate on which the Dirichlet boundary condition (, 1, 2 = -) = 0 is imposed. It is however respected in: (i) 1 + 1 dimensions in both free space and on a single plate on which the Dirichlet boundary condition (, 1 = -) = 0 holds and (ii) in 2 + 1 dimensions in free space, i.e. the unconstrained configuration. On the plate where (, 1, 2 = -) = 0, the modified trace identity is shown to be anomalous with a numerical coe±cient for the anomalous term equal to the canonical scale dimension, viz.$\\dfrac{1}{2}$.The technique of Bordag et al [Ann. Phys. (N.Y.), 165, 162 (1985)] is used to incorporate the said boundary condition into the generating functional for the connected Green's functions.

  18. Two faces of anonymity : Paradoxical effects of cues to identity in CMC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, M; Postmes, T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents two experimental studies investigating the effects of presenting cues that provide information about the interactors - called cues to identity - in computer mediated communications (CMCs). Study I shows that even though cues to identity affected interpersonal evaluations, in maki

  19. Self-assembly of lamellar lipid-DNA complexes simulated by explicit solvent counterion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lianghui; Cao, Jun; Fang, Weihai

    2010-06-03

    The dissipative particle dynamics simulations with explicit solvent and counterions are used to mimic the self-assembly of lamellar cationic lipid-DNA (CL-DNA)complexes. We found that the formation of the complexes is associated with the releasing of 70% DNA counterions and 90% lipid counterions. The trapped DNA and CL charges together with their counterions inside the complex still keep the interior neutral, which stabilized the structure. Simulations in constant pressure ensemble following the self-assembly show that the DNA interaxial spacing as a function of the inversed CL concentrations 1/phi(c) is linear at low phi(c) and nonlinear at high phi(c). The attraction between the DNA and the CLs as well as the repulsion between the DNA strands impose stretching stress on the membrane so that the averaged area per lipid is dependent on the CL concentration, which in turn determines the behavior of the DNA spacing.

  20. Corporate rebranding: effects of corporate visual identity changes on employees and consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, W.; Jong, de Menno D.T.; Bosch, van den Annette L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Many organizations invest periodically in a new corporate visual identity (CVI). This study investigates the main effects of CVI changes in four organizations, taking into account three independent variables: stakeholder type (employees vs. consumers), the specific organization, and communication ab

  1. Corporate rebranding: effects of corporate visual identity changes on employees and consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, W.; de Jong, Menno D.T.; van den Bosch, A.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Many organizations invest periodically in a new corporate visual identity (CVI). This study investigates the main effects of CVI changes in four organizations, taking into account three independent variables: stakeholder type (employees vs. consumers), the specific organization, and communication

  2. The roles of counterion and water in a stereoselective cysteine-catalyzed Rauhut-Currier reaction: a challenge for computational chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuna, Sílvia; Dermenci, Alpay; Miller, Scott J; Houk, K N

    2013-10-11

    The stereoselective Rauhut-Currier (RC) reaction catalyzed by a cysteine derivative has been explored computationally with density functional theory (M06-2X). Both methanethiol and a chiral cysteine derivative were studied as nucleophiles. The complete reaction pathway involves rate-determining elimination of the thiol catalyst from the Michael addition product. The stereoselective Rauhut-Currier reaction, catalyzed by a cysteine derivative as a nucleophile, has also been studied in detail. This reaction was experimentally found to be extremely sensitive to the reaction conditions, such as the number of water equivalents and the effect of potassium counterion. The E1cB process for catalyst elimination has been explored computationally for the eight possible stereoisomers. The effect of explicit water solvation and the presence of counterion (either K(+) or Na(+) ) has been studied for the lowest energy enantiomer pair (1S, 2R, 3S)/(1R, 2S, 3R).

  3. Antimicrobial polymers prepared by ring-opening metathesis polymerization: manipulating antimicrobial properties by organic counterion and charge density variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienkamp, Karen; Madkour, Ahmad E; Kumar, Kushi-Nidhi; Nüsslein, Klaus; Tew, Gregory N

    2009-11-02

    The synthesis and characterization of a series of poly(oxanorbornene)-based synthetic mimics of antimicrobial peptides (SMAMPs) is presented. In the first part, the effect of different organic counterions on the antimicrobial properties of the SMAMPs was investigated. Unexpectedly, adding hydrophobicity by complete anion exchange did not increase the SMAMPs' antimicrobial activity. It was found by dye-leakage studies that this was due to the loss of membrane activity of these polymers caused by the formation of tight ion pairs between the organic counterions and the polymer backbone. In the second part, the effect of molecular charge density on the biological properties of a SMAMP was investigated. The results suggest that, above a certain charge threshold, neither minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC90) nor hemolytic activity (HC50) is greatly affected by adding more cationic groups to the molecule. A SMAMP with an MIC90 of 4 microg mL(-1) against Staphylococcus aureus and a selectivity (=HC50/MIC90) of 650 was discovered, the most selective SMAMP to date.

  4. Positive and negative facial emotional expressions: the effect on infants' and children's facial identity recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Brenna,

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to investigate the origin and the development of the interdipendence between identity recognition and facial emotional expression processing, suggested by recent models on face processing (Calder & Young, 2005) and supported by outcomes on adults (e.g. Baudouin, Gilibert, Sansone, & Tiberghien, 2000; Schweinberger & Soukup, 1998). Particularly the effect of facial emotional expressions on infants’ and children’s ability to recognize identity of a face was explored...

  5. Excessive Counterion Condensation on Immobilized ssDNA in Solutions of High Ionic Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rant, Ulrich; Arinaga, Kenji; Fujiwara, Tsuyoshi; Fujita, Shozo; Tornow, Marc; Yokoyama, Naoki; Abstreiter, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    We present experiments on the bias-induced release of immobilized, single-stranded (ss) 24-mer oligonucleotides from Au-surfaces into electrolyte solutions of varying ionic strength. Desorption is evidenced by fluorescence measurements of dye-labeled ssDNA. Electrostatic interactions between adsorbed ssDNA and the Au-surface are investigated with respect to 1), a variation of the bias potential applied to the Au-electrode; and 2), the screening effect of the electrolyte solution. For the latter, the concentration of monovalent salt in solution is varied from 3 to 1600 mM. We find that the strength of electric interaction is predominantly determined by the effective charge of the ssDNA itself and that the release of DNA mainly occurs before the electrochemical double layer has been established at the electrolyte/Au interface. In agreement with Manning's condensation theory, the measured desorption efficiency (ηrel) stays constant over a wide range of salt concentrations; however, as the Debye length is reduced below a value comparable to the axial charge spacing of the DNA, ηrel decreases substantially. We assign this effect to excessive counterion condensation on the DNA in solutions of high ionic strength. In addition, the relative translational diffusion coefficient of ssDNA in solution is evaluated for different salt concentrations. PMID:14645075

  6. Determination of inorganic pharmaceutical counterions using hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled with a Corona CAD detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z; Richards, M A; Zha, Y; Francis, R; Lozano, R; Ruan, J

    2009-12-05

    A simple generic approach was investigated for the determination of inorganic pharmaceutical counterions in drug substances using conventional high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) instruments. An intuitive approach combined Corona charged aerosol detection (CAD) with a polymer-based zwitterionic stationary phase in the hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) mode. Two generic methods based on this HILIC/CAD technique were developed to quantitate counterions such as Cl-, Br-, SO(4)(2-), K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ in different pharmaceutical compounds. The development and capability of this HILIC/CAD technique analysis were examined. HILIC/CAD was compared to ion chromatography (IC), the most commonly used methodology for pharmaceutical counterion analysis. HILIC/CAD was found to have significant advantages in terms of: (1) being able to quantitate both anions and cations simultaneously without a need to change column/eluent or detection mode; (2) imposing much less restriction on the allowable organic percentage of the eluents than IC, and therefore being more appropriate for analysis of counterions of poorly water-soluble drugs; (3) requiring minimal training of the operating analysts. The precision and accuracy of counterion analysis using HILIC/CAD was not compromised. A typical precision of <2.0% was observed for all tested inorganic counterions; the determinations were within 2.0% relative to the theoretical counterion amount in the drug substance. Additionally, better accuracy was shown for Cl- in several drug substances as compared to IC. The main drawback of HILIC/CAD is its unsuitability for many of the current silica-based HILIC columns, because slight dissolution of silica leads to high baseline noise in the CAD detector. As a result of the universal detection characteristics of Corona CAD and the unique separation capabilities of a zwitterionic stationary phase, an intuitive and robust HPLC method was developed for the generic determination of

  7. Knowing me, knowing you : Anonymity effects on social identity processes within groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lea, M; Spears, R; de Groot, D

    The Social Identity Model of Deindividuation Effects (SIDE) proposes that depersonalization of self and others is responsible for the effects of visual anonymity on group behavior The authors investigated these mediating processes by assessing the effects of group-based self-categorization and

  8. Knowing me, knowing you : Anonymity effects on social identity processes within groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lea, M; Spears, R; de Groot, D

    2001-01-01

    The Social Identity Model of Deindividuation Effects (SIDE) proposes that depersonalization of self and others is responsible for the effects of visual anonymity on group behavior The authors investigated these mediating processes by assessing the effects of group-based self-categorization and stere

  9. Knowing me, knowing you : Anonymity effects on social identity processes within groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lea, M; Spears, R; de Groot, D

    2001-01-01

    The Social Identity Model of Deindividuation Effects (SIDE) proposes that depersonalization of self and others is responsible for the effects of visual anonymity on group behavior The authors investigated these mediating processes by assessing the effects of group-based self-categorization and stere

  10. Plant Identity Exerts Stronger Effect than Fertilization on Soil Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in a Sown Pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yong; Chen, Liang; Luo, Cai-Yun; Zhang, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Shi-Ping; Guo, Liang-Dong

    2016-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi play key roles in plant nutrition and plant productivity. AM fungal responses to either plant identity or fertilization have been investigated. However, the interactive effects of different plant species and fertilizer types on these symbiotic fungi remain poorly understood. We evaluated the effects of the factorial combinations of plant identity (grasses Avena sativa and Elymus nutans and legume Vicia sativa) and fertilization (urea and sheep manure) on AM fungi following 2-year monocultures in a sown pasture field study. AM fungal extraradical hyphal density was significantly higher in E. nutans than that in A. sativa and V. sativa in the unfertilized control and was significantly increased by urea and manure in A. sativa and by manure only in E. nutans, but not by either fertilizers in V. sativa. AM fungal spore density was not significantly affected by plant identity or fertilization. Forty-eight operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of AM fungi were obtained through 454 pyrosequencing of 18S rDNA. The OTU richness and Shannon diversity index of AM fungi were significantly higher in E. nutans than those in V. sativa and/or A. sativa, but not significantly affected by any fertilizer in all of the three plant species. AM fungal community composition was significantly structured directly by plant identity only and indirectly by both urea addition and plant identity through soil total nitrogen content. Our findings highlight that plant identity has stronger influence than fertilization on belowground AM fungal community in this converted pastureland from an alpine meadow.

  11. [Black sheep effect and ingroup favoritism in social identity perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Chitose; Yoshida, Fujio

    2002-12-01

    Black sheep effect (Marques, Yzerbyt, & Leyens, 1988) and ingroup favoritism (Tajfel, Billig, Bundy, & Flament, 1971) appear to contradict each other with respect to the evaluation of inferior ingroup members. In addition to examining the relationship between the two phenomena, this study also examined the effect of ingroup identification on them. Sixty-one female student-nurses participated in the study. To measure black sheep effect, superior and inferior ingroup and outgroup members were rated on 20 adjectives. Distribution matrices (Tajfel et al., 1971) were used to measure ingroup favoritism. The participants were median split according to their level of group identification. Black sheep effect was found only among high-identification participants, who also showed ingroup favoritism. Ingroup identification had a positive correlation with both ingroup favoritism and black sheep effect. Overall, ingroup favoritism had a positive correlation with the evaluation of superior members, while it had a negative correlation with that of inferior ingroup members.

  12. Counterions release from electrostatic complexes of polyelectrolytes and proteins of opposite charge : a direct measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Gummel, Jérémie; Boué, François

    2009-01-01

    Though often considered as one of the main driving process of the complexation of species of opposite charges, the release of counterions has never been experimentally directly measured on polyelectrolyte/proteins complexes. We present here the first structural determination of such a release by Small Angle Neutron Scattering in complexes made of lysozyme, a positively charged protein and of PSS, a negatively charged polyelectrolyte. Both components have the same neutron density length, so their scattering can be switched off simultaneously in an appropriate "matching" solvent; this enables determination of the spatial distribution of the single counterions within the complexes. The counterions (including the one subjected to Manning condensation) are expelled from the cores where the species are at electrostatic stoichiometry.

  13. Counterion exchange to achieve reversibly switchable hydrophobicity and oleophobicity on fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Zhang, Zhaozhu; Men, Xuehu; Xu, Xianghui; Zhu, Xiaotao; Zhou, Xiaoyan

    2011-06-21

    We describe a simple layer-by-layer (LbL) technology and counterion exchange procedure to tune the liquid wettability of commercially available cotton fabrics. A polyelectrolyte multilayer is deposited on the fabric surface by the LbL technology, and counterion exchange is used to control the surface composition and thereby to modulate the solid surface energy. The tunability of the solid surface energy, along with the inherent re-entrant texture of the cotton fabric, results in simultaneously switchable wettability between a nonwetting state and a fully wetted state for water and hexadecane. This switchable hydrophobicity and oleophobicity can be explained within a robustness factor, which is a quantitative criterion for the transition between the two states. The counterion exchange can be confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis.

  14. Identity as a Moderator and Mediator of Communication Effects: Evidence and Implications for Message Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comello, Maria Leonora G; Farman, Lisa

    2016-10-02

    Advertisements, movies, and other forms of media content have potential to change behaviors and antecedent psychological states by appealing to identity. However, the mechanisms that are responsible for persuasive effects of such content have not been adequately specified. A recently proposed model of communication effects (the prism model) advances the study of mechanisms and argues that identity can serve as both a moderator and mediator of communication effects on behavior-relevant outcomes. These intervening roles are made possible by the complex nature of identity (including multiple self-concepts and sensitivity to cues) and messages that cue the importance of and activate particular self-concepts. This article builds on development of the model by presenting empirical support based on re-analysis of an experiment in which participants viewed either a more-stigmatizing or less-stigmatizing portrayal of a recovering drug addict. In line with the model's propositions, exposure to the less-stigmatizing condition led to increases in perspective taking which then led to more acceptance (mediation by identity), while level of perspective taking also changed the effect of condition on acceptance (moderation by identity). These results provide support for the model's proposition of simultaneous intervening roles. The authors discuss implications for strategic communication research and practice.

  15. Effects of group identity on resource use in a simulated commons dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, R M; Brewer, M B

    1984-05-01

    In a review of research on in-group categorization and group identity, Brewer (1979) proposed that cooperative solutions to social dilemmas, such as Hardin 's (1968) "tragedy of the commons ", may be achieved by exploiting the positive consequences arising from a common social-group identity. Three laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the effects of making salient either a superordinate (collective) or subordinate (differentiating) group identity in heterogeneous groups. In the first two experiments, naturally occurring social categories were used as a basis for group differentiation. In the third, the level of social-group identity was manipulated by varying the common fate of the group members. It was predicted that individual restraint would be most likely when a superordinate group identity was made salient and under conditions in which feedback indicated that the common resource was being depleted. Results from all three experiments provide support for this general hypothesis, indicating that cooperative responding is enhanced even when the basis for superordinate group identity is minimal.

  16. Macro-detritivore identity drives leaf litter diversity effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, V.C.A.; Ruijven, van J.; Berg, M.P.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Berendse, F.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of leaf litter diversity for decomposition, an important process in terrestrial ecosystems, is much debated. Previous leaf litter-mixing studies have shown that non-additive leaf litter diversity effects can occur, but it is not clear why they occurred in only half of the studies and

  17. Effective attractive potential between identical dielectric molecules via Lifshitz theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Laiwen

    2001-01-01

    . Phys. Lett., 99, 84: 4.[26]Cársky, P., Selzle, H. L., Schlag, E. W., Ab initio calculations on the structure of the benzene dimer, Chem. Phys., 988, 25: 65.[27]Aggarwal, S. L., Physical constants of poly (ethylen), in Polymer Handbook (eds. Brandrup, J., Lmmergut, E. H.), 2nd., New York: John Wiley & Sons. 97V3—V22.[28]Suhai Sánder, Calculation of the mechanical and optical properties of polyethylene including electron correlation effects, in Quantum Chemistry of Polymers-Solid State Aspects (ed. Ladik, J.), Dordrechit: D. Redel Publishing Company, 984, 0—0.[29]Maitland, G. C., Rigby, M., Smith, E. B. Et al., Intermolecular Forces: Their Origin and Determination, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 98, 437—484.[30]Sumpter, B. G., Noid, D. W., Wunderlich, B., Computer experiments on the internal dynamics of crystalline polyethylene: mechanistic details of conformational disorder, J. Chem. Phys., 990, 93: 6875.[31]Martoňák, R., Paul, W., Binder, K., Orthorhombic phase of crystalline polyethylene: a constant pressure path-integral Monte Carlo study, Phys. Rev., 998, 57: 2425.

  18. Effects of the professional identity development programme on the professional identity, job satisfaction and burnout levels of nurses: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabancıogullari, Selma; Dogan, Selma

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the Professional Identity Development Program on the professional identity, job satisfaction and burnout levels of registered nurses. This study was conducted as a quasi-experimental one with 63 nurses working in a university hospital. Data were gathered using the Personal Information Questionnaire, the Professional Self Concept Inventory, Minnesota Job Satisfaction Inventory and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The Professional Identity Development Program which consists of ten sessions was implemented to the study group once a week. The Program significantly improved the professional identity of the nurses in the study group compared to that of the control group. During the research period, burnout levels significantly decreased in the study group while those of the control group increased. The programme did not create any significant differences in the job satisfaction levels of the nurses. The programme had a positive impact on the professional identity of the nurses. It is recommended that the programme should be implemented in different hospitals with different samples of nurses, and that its effectiveness should be evaluated.

  19. Effects of gay identity, gender and explicitness of advertising imagery on gay responses to advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakenfull, Gillian

    2007-01-01

    The present research draws from literature relating to gay identity in psychology and sociology and feminist theory to consider the effect of gay identity and gender on gays' and lesbians' attitudes toward various types of advertising content that are most commonly used to target gay consumers. As such, this study empirically tests whether gay males' and lesbians' responses to gay-oriented advertising content are moderated by individual characteristics: (1) the degree to which they identify as gay, and (2) their gender, and by the explicitness and gender of the gay-oriented advertising imagery.

  20. Intergroup norms and intergroup discrimination : Distinctive self-categorization and social identity effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jetten, Jolanda; Spears, R; Manstead, Antony S. R.

    1996-01-01

    Manipulation of in-group and out-group norms of discrimination and fairness allowed for the operation of competing social identity principles concerning in-group bias, conformity, and group distinctiveness. The combined effects of these principles on in-group bias were first examined in a modified m

  1. Genomic sharing surrounding alleles identical by descent : Effects of genetic drift and population growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Meerman, G J; Van der Meulen, M A

    1997-01-01

    The number of identical deleterious mutations present in a population may become very large, depending on the combined effect of genetic drift, population growth and limited negative selection. The distribution of the length of the shared area between two random chromosomes carrying the mutations ha

  2. Effect of Vowel Identity and Onset Asynchrony on Concurrent Vowel Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Mark S.; Madix, Steven G.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of vowel identity and temporal onset asynchrony on identification of vowels overlapped in time. Method: Fourteen listeners with normal hearing, with a mean age of 24 years, participated. The listeners were asked to identify both of a pair of 200-ms vowels (referred to as…

  3. Genomic sharing surrounding alleles identical by descent : Effects of genetic drift and population growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Meerman, G J; Meulen ,van der Martin

    1997-01-01

    The number of identical deleterious mutations present in a population may become very large, depending on the combined effect of genetic drift, population growth and limited negative selection. The distribution of the length of the shared area between two random chromosomes carrying the mutations ha

  4. Molecular size distribution of compost-derived humates as a function of concentration and different counterions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Claudia M B F; Piccolo, Alessandro; Mangrich, Antonio S

    2008-11-01

    Conformational changes in the structures of humic acids (HA) extracted from compost with varying degrees of maturity were monitored by high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). The molecular size distribution of HA was compared in solutions containing sodium or ammonium counterions at pH 7 and pH 4.5. These findings indicate that the humates' molecular size depended not only on the nature of the counterions but also on their concentration in the solution. The physicochemical nature of sodium counterions determined smaller molecular sizes than those of the more hydrated ammonium counterions, at low concentrations of humates. Conversely, at higher humate concentrations, the more compact conformation of sodium humates produced larger molecular sizes than those of ammonium humates due to the aggregation of more hydrophobic surfaces in the sodium humates. Composting led to the degradation of labile microbial components with accumulation of hydrophobic constituents. This caused self-association of hydrophobic compounds into humic superstructures of larger molecular size over composting time. At lower pH, changes in conformational stability by the addition of acetic acid to humate solutions were explained by the supramolecular model of humified organic matter.

  5. Counter-ion complexes for enhanced drug loading in nanocarriers: Proof-of-concept and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günday Türeli, Nazende; Türeli, Akif E; Schneider, Marc

    2016-09-25

    Enhanced drug loading is an important prerequisite of nanomedicines, to reach administration dose while reducing the amount of excipient. Considering biocompatible and biodegradable polymers such as PLGA, pH dependent solubility characteristics along with limited organic solvent solubility of the drug hampers nanoparticle (NP) preparation. To improve loading of such molecules, a method based on using counter ions for complex formation is proposed. Formed complex alters the intrinsic solubility of active substance via electrostatic interaction without chemical modification. A proof-of-concept study was conducted with sodium dodecyl sulfate as counter-ion to fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin. Complex formation resulted in suppressed pH dependent solubility over pH 1.2-9.0 and an additional -80 fold increase in organic solubility was achieved. In consequence, NPs prepared by microjet reactor technology have shown enhanced drug loading efficiencies (-78%) and drug loading of 14%. Moreover, the counter-ion concept was also demonstrated with another class of antibiotics, water soluble aminoglycosides gentamycin and tobramycin. In addition, the counter ion was substituted by degradable excipients such as phosphatidic acid derivatives. Successful implementation has proven the counter-ion concept to be a platform concept that can be successfully implemented for a variety of active substances and counter-ions to enhance drug loading in nanocarriers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychodermatologic Effects of Atopic Dermatitis and Acne: A Review on Self-Esteem and Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Catherine M; Koo, John; Cordoro, Kelly M

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and acne vulgaris are among the most-prevalent skin diseases in children. Both have been well documented in the literature to have significant negative effects on quality of life. Herein, we discuss the results of a comprehensive literature review aimed at assessing the impact of acne and AD on self-esteem and identity. We highlight clinical tools for their assessment and offer coping strategies for patients and families. Multiple factors including relationships with parents and classmates, sports participation, and the sex of the patient contribute to the development of self-esteem and identity in individuals with AD and acne. Atopic dermatitis was found to have significant behavioral effects on children, ultimately resulting in a lack of opportunity to develop proper coping. AD had a more-prominent role in identity formation and gender roles in girls. Acne vulgaris was found to have a more direct effect on self-esteem, self-confidence and identity, especially in girls. The Cutaneous Body Image Scale is reviewed and offered as an easy and reliable tool to evaluate a patient's mental perception of the appearance of their skin. Coping strategies that may be offered to patients and families include empowerment and cognitive adaptation.

  7. Specific interactions versus counterion condensation. 1. Nongelling ions/polyuronate systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Ivan; Cesàro, Attilio; Paoletti, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    The characteristics of the interaction between nongelling divalent cations (typically Mg(2+)) and polyuronates have been explored by means of isothermal calorimetry. In particular, three polyuronates mimicking separately guluronan (polyguluronate, polyG), mannuronan (polymannuronate, polyM), and polyalternating (polyMG), the three block-components of natural alginate samples, have been treated with divalent ions, and the enthalpy of mixing was determined for different values of the [M(2+)]/[Polym](rep.unit) ratio. Despite the absence of a site-specific chemical bonding between the two, as confirmed by circular dichroism spectroscopy, a substantial deviation of the experimental enthalpy of mixing from the theoretical behavior, as predicted by the classical counterion condensation (CC) theory, was observed. Such deviation has been interpreted in terms of a "generic" nonbonding affinity of the condensed divalent counterion for the polyelectrolytes. The mathematical formalism of the CC theory was extended to include a contribution to the (reduced) free energy and enthalpy arising from the counterion affinity, g(aff,0) and h(aff,0), and allowed the parametrical calculation of the fraction of divalent counterions condensed as function of the reduced thermodynamic quantity g(aff,0). A best fit procedure of the experimental enthalpy of mixing allowed the g(aff,0) and h(aff,0) pair to be estimated for each of the different polyuronates considered, revealing differences in the three samples. In qualitative terms, the results obtained seem to suggest a notable contribution of the desolvation process (i.e., release of structured water as a consequence of the interaction between the divalent counterion and the uronate group) to the enthalpy of affinity for polyM which is counterbalanced and overcome by an ion pairing term (i.e., partial formation of ion-ion and/or ion-dipole bonds) for polyG and polyMG, respectively.

  8. Electrochemical charging of CdSe quantum dot films: dependence on void size and counterion proximity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehme, Simon C; Wang, Hai; Siebbeles, Laurens D A; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniel; Houtepen, Arjan J

    2013-03-26

    Films of colloidal quantum dots (QDs) show great promise for application in optoelectronic devices. Great advances have been made in recent years in designing efficient QD solar cells and LEDs. A very important aspect in the design of devices based on QD films is the knowledge of their absolute energy levels. Unfortunately, reported energy levels vary markedly depending on the employed measurement technique and the environment of the sample. In this report, we determine absolute energy levels of QD films by electrochemical charge injection. The concomitant change in optical absorption of the film allows quantification of the number of charges in quantum-confined levels and thereby their energetic position. We show here that the size of voids in the QD films (i.e., the space between the quantum dots) determines the amount of charges that may be injected into the films. This effect is attributed to size exclusion of countercharges from the electrolyte solution. Further, the energy of the QD levels depends on subtle changes in the QD film and the supporting electrolyte: the size of the cation and the QD ligand length. These nontrivial effects can be explained by the proximity of the cation to the QD surface and a concomitant lowering of the electrochemical potential. Our findings help explain the wide range of reported values for QD energy levels and redefine the limit of applicability of electrochemical measurements on QD films. Finally, the finding that the energy of QD levels depends on ligand length and counterion size may be exploited in optimized designs of QD sensitized solar cells.

  9. Facial Cosmetics and Attractiveness: Comparing the Effect Sizes of Professionally-Applied Cosmetics and Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alex L; Kramer, Robin S S

    2016-01-01

    Forms of body decoration exist in all human cultures. However, in Western societies, women are more likely to engage in appearance modification, especially through the use of facial cosmetics. How effective are cosmetics at altering attractiveness? Previous research has hinted that the effect is not large, especially when compared to the variation in attractiveness observed between individuals due to differences in identity. In order to build a fuller understanding of how cosmetics and identity affect attractiveness, here we examine how professionally-applied cosmetics alter attractiveness and compare this effect with the variation in attractiveness observed between individuals. In Study 1, 33 YouTube models were rated for attractiveness before and after the application of professionally-applied cosmetics. Cosmetics explained a larger proportion of the variation in attractiveness compared with previous studies, but this effect remained smaller than variation caused by differences in attractiveness between individuals. Study 2 replicated the results of the first study with a sample of 45 supermodels, with the aim of examining the effect of cosmetics in a sample of faces with low variation in attractiveness between individuals. While the effect size of cosmetics was generally large, between-person variability due to identity remained larger. Both studies also found interactions between cosmetics and identity-more attractive models received smaller increases when cosmetics were worn. Overall, we show that professionally-applied cosmetics produce a larger effect than self-applied cosmetics, an important theoretical consideration for the field. However, the effect of individual differences in facial appearance is ultimately more important in perceptions of attractiveness.

  10. Biocontrol of fouling pests: Effect of diversity, identity and density of control agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalah, Javier; Newcombe, Emma M; Zaiko, Anastasija

    2016-04-01

    Augmentative biocontrol, using native natural enemies, has been suggested as a promising tool to control marine biofouling pests on artificial structures. However, there are still important knowledge gaps to be addressed before biocontrol can be considered as a management tool. In a field experiment on floating marine structures we examined intra- and interspecific consumer interactions among biocontrol agents on different surface orientations. We tested the effect of identity, density and diversity of three invertebrates (the 11-arm seastar Coscinasterias muricata, the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus and the gastropod Cook's turban Cookia sulcata) to reduce established biofouling and to prevent fouling growth on defouled surfaces. High densities of biocontrol agents were not more effective at fouling control (cover and biomass) than low densities. Nor did multi-species treatments function more effectively than mono-specific ones. However, biocontrol agent identity was important, with the 11-arm seastar and Cook's turban being the most effective at fouling reduction and prevention, respectively. Surface orientation had a strong effect on the effectiveness of control agents, with the best results obtained on vertical compared to diagonal and underside surfaces. This study confirmed the potential of biocontrol as a management tool for marine pest, indicating that identity is more important than richness and density of control agents. It also highlighted the limitations of this approach on diagonal and underside surfaces, where control agents have limited retention ability.

  11. Facial cosmetics have little effect on attractiveness judgments compared with identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alex L; Kramer, S S

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of women in modern societies use facial cosmetics, which modify facial cues to attractiveness. However, the size of this increase remains unclear--how much more attractive are individuals after an application of cosmetics? Here, we utilised a 'new statistics' approach, calculating the effect size of cosmetics on attractiveness using a within-subjects design, and compared this with the effect size due to identity--that is, the inherent differences in attractiveness between people. Women were photographed with and without cosmetics, and these images were rated for attractiveness by a second group of participants. The proportion of variance in attractiveness explained by identity was much greater than the variance within models due to cosmetics. This result was unchanged after statistically controlling for the perceived amount of cosmetics that each model used. Although cosmetics increase attractiveness, the effect is small, and the benefits of cosmetics may be inflated in everyday thinking.

  12. Effect of orthographic processes on letter-identity and letter-position encoding in dyslexic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eReilhac

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to identify letters and encode their position is a crucial step of the word recognition process. However and despite their word identification problem, the ability of dyslexic children to encode letter-identity and letter-position within strings was not systematically investigated. This study aimed at filling this gap and further explored how letter identity and letter position encoding is modulated by letter context in developmental dyslexia. For this purpose, a letter-string comparison task was administered to French dyslexic children and two chronological-age (CA and reading-age (RA-matched control groups. Children had to judge whether two successively and briefly presented 4-letter-strings were identical or different. Letter-position and letter-identity were manipulated through the transposition (e.g., RTGM vs. RMGT or substitution of two letters (e.g., TSHF vs. TGHD. Non-words, pseudo-words and words were used as stimuli to investigate sub-lexical and lexical effects on letter encoding. Dyslexic children showed both substitution and transposition detection problems relative to CA controls. A substitution advantage over transpositions was only found for words in dyslexic children whereas it extended to pseudo-words in RA controls and to all type of items in CA controls. Letters were better identified in the dyslexic group when belonging to orthographically familiar strings. Letter position encoding was very impaired in dyslexic children who did not show any word context effect in contrast to CA controls. Overall, the current findings point to a strong letter identity and letter position encoding disorder in developmental dyslexia.

  13. Effects of self-concept differentiation on sense of identity: The divided self revisited again

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilarska Aleksandra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes research on the associations between self-concept structure and sense of personal identity. Particular emphasis was given to the feature of self-concept differentiation (SCD. Notably, it was examined whether the effects of SCD on such aspects of self-experience as sense of having inner contents, sense of uniqueness, sense of one’s own boundaries, sense of coherence, sense of continuity in time, and sense of self-worth depend on individuals’ epistemic motivation, and more specifically their joint need for cognition, reflection, and integrative self-knowledge scores. Cluster analysis revealed three distinct profiles of epistemic motivation: disengaged, engaged and struggling, and engaged and integrating group. Subsequent analysis showed, first, that the three groups differed in SCD and sense of identity, with the epistemically disengaged group having the highest levels of SCD, and the epistemically engaged and integrating group having consistently the strongest sense of identity. Second, and more importantly, it showed that SCD was negatively related to overall sense of identity, and, in particular, senses of having inner contents, coherence and continuity in time, but only among individuals in the epistemically engaged and struggling group.

  14. Predicting Nurses' Turnover: The Aversive Effects of Decreased Identity, Poor Interpersonal Communication, and Learned Helplessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, Jennifer J; Ewoldsen, David R; Albert, Nancy M; Kosicki, Gerald M; Clayton, Margaret F

    2015-01-01

    Through a social identity theoretical lens, this study examines how nurses' identification with their working small group, unit, or floor, nursing role (e.g., staff ER nurse, nurse practitioner), and nursing profession relate to nurses' interaction involvement, willingness to confront conflict, feelings of learned helplessness, and tenure (employment turnover) intentions. A cross-sectional survey (N = 466) was conducted at a large, quaternary care hospital system. Structural equation modeling uncovered direct and indirect effects between the five primary variables. Findings demonstrate direct relationships between nurse identity (as a latent variable) and interaction involvement, willingness to confront conflict, and tenure intentions. Feelings of learned helplessness are attenuated by increased nurse identity through interaction involvement and willingness to confront conflict. In addition, willingness to confront conflict and learned helplessness mediate the relationship between interaction involvement and nurses' tenure intentions. Theoretical extensions include indirect links between nurse identity and learned helplessness via interaction involvement and willingness to confront conflict. Implications for interpersonal communication theory development, health communication, and the nursing profession are discussed.

  15. Mediating Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Annemette Leonhardt; Morsing, Mette; Ravasi, Davide

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a longitudinal field study on the effects of positive media coverage on the reconstruction of organizational identity. The study highlights how intense positive coverage – to the point of turning an organization into a ‘celebrity’– influences both the way members understand the...

  16. Studying the Identity of Iranian Classical Effective Literature and Contemporary Impressible Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolmajid Mohaqeqi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available After the advent of Islam in Iran, Persian Literature has always been considered as one of the major characteristics of Iranian culture and identity to the extent that some people believe whatever western has achieved in terms of literature – especially English literature – and honors to them originate from rich Persian literature. However, Persian literature has severely been influenced by works of western writers in contemporary era so that even modern Persian story and poem is divided based on western styles. Unfortunately, this situation – that a part of identity of Iranian culture has been drastically affected by alien culture – offends each educated Iranian. Today, a flashback to Iranian classical styles does not meet the need for a development created in literary works. However, it is necessary that tasteful and patriotic people create novel works in Iran’s contemporary literature against the decades-old literary identity of the west through adaptation of past-targeted literature and under the effect of conditions of today modern society in order to recover the lost identity of Iranian literature which other fields are considered as its subset. Therefore, this paper is going to present solutions for modeling the identity of Iranian literature for the next two decades in line with Islamization of universities in order to divide the pure academic literature into pure and applied sub-branches and develop academic literary activities. As a result, the international works would be established based on the columns of Persian literature whose kernel will not to be damaged in the rain and wind of alien cultures.

  17. Examining effects of anticipated stigma, centrality, salience, internalization, and outness on psychological distress for people with concealable stigmatized identities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane M Quinn

    Full Text Available Understanding how stigmatized identities contribute to increased rates of depression and anxiety is critical to stigma reduction and mental health treatment. There has been little research testing multiple aspects of stigmatized identities simultaneously. In the current study, we collected data from a diverse, urban, adult community sample of people with a concealed stigmatized identity (CSI. We targeted 5 specific CSIs--mental illness, substance abuse, experience of domestic violence, experience of sexual assault, and experience of childhood abuse--that have been shown to put people at risk for increased psychological distress. We collected measures of the anticipation of being devalued by others if the identity became known (anticipated stigma, the level of defining oneself by the stigmatized identity (centrality, the frequency of thinking about the identity (salience, the extent of agreement with negative stereotypes about the identity (internalized stigma, and extent to which other people currently know about the identity (outness. Results showed that greater anticipated stigma, greater identity salience, and lower levels of outness each uniquely and significantly predicted variance in increased psychological distress (a composite of depression and anxiety. In examining communalities and differences across the five identities, we found that mean levels of the stigma variables differed across the identities, with people with substance abuse and mental illness reporting greater anticipated and internalized stigma. However, the prediction pattern of the variables for psychological distress was similar across the substance abuse, mental illness, domestic violence, and childhood abuse identities (but not sexual assault. Understanding which components of stigmatized identities predict distress can lead to more effective treatment for people experiencing psychological distress.

  18. Examining Effects of Anticipated Stigma, Centrality, Salience, Internalization, and Outness on Psychological Distress for People with Concealable Stigmatized Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Diane M.; Williams, Michelle K.; Quintana, Francisco; Gaskins, Jennifer L.; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Pishori, Alefiyah; Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Perez, Giselle; Chaudoir, Stephenie R.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how stigmatized identities contribute to increased rates of depression and anxiety is critical to stigma reduction and mental health treatment. There has been little research testing multiple aspects of stigmatized identities simultaneously. In the current study, we collected data from a diverse, urban, adult community sample of people with a concealed stigmatized identity (CSI). We targeted 5 specific CSIs – mental illness, substance abuse, experience of domestic violence, experience of sexual assault, and experience of childhood abuse – that have been shown to put people at risk for increased psychological distress. We collected measures of the anticipation of being devalued by others if the identity became known (anticipated stigma), the level of defining oneself by the stigmatized identity (centrality), the frequency of thinking about the identity (salience), the extent of agreement with negative stereotypes about the identity (internalized stigma), and extent to which other people currently know about the identity (outness). Results showed that greater anticipated stigma, greater identity salience, and lower levels of outness each uniquely and significantly predicted variance in increased psychological distress (a composite of depression and anxiety). In examining communalities and differences across the five identities, we found that mean levels of the stigma variables differed across the identities, with people with substance abuse and mental illness reporting greater anticipated and internalized stigma. However, the prediction pattern of the variables for psychological distress was similar across the substance abuse, mental illness, domestic violence, and childhood abuse identities (but not sexual assault). Understanding which components of stigmatized identities predict distress can lead to more effective treatment for people experiencing psychological distress. PMID:24817189

  19. Discrete solvent effects on the effective interaction between charged colloids

    CERN Document Server

    Allahyarov, E

    2000-01-01

    Using computer simulations of two charged colloidal spheres with their counterions in a hard sphere solvent, we show that the granular nature of the solvent significantly influences the effective colloidal interaction. For divalent counterions, the total effective force can become attractive generated by counterion hydration, while for monovalent counterions the forces are repulsive and well-described by a solvent-induced colloidal charge renormalization. Both effects are not contained in the traditional "primitive" approaches but can be accounted for in a solvent-averaged primitive model.

  20. Rapid and reversible switching between superoleophobicity and superoleophilicity in response to counterion exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Zhang, Zhaozhu; Men, Xuehu; Xu, Xianghui; Zhu, Xiaotao; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Xue, Qunji

    2012-01-15

    We use a simple layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly and counterion exchange technology to rapidly and reversibly manipulate the oleophobicity of the textured aluminum surfaces. Such textured surfaces can be produced by the HCl etching and boiling water treatment of the flat aluminum plates. The LbL deposition of polyelectrolytes is performed on these surfaces to generate the polyelectrolyte multilayer films. The films are able to coordinate with perfluorooctanoate anions, leading to the surfaces with different oleophobicity. The resulting surface produced by 1.5 cycles of polyelectrolyte deposition exhibits superoleophobicity by displaying contact angles greater than 150° with low surface tension liquids. Counterion exchange in this polyelectrolyte multilayer emerged easily to control the surface composition, which leads to tunable wettability that can be rapidly and reversibly switched between superoleophobicity and superoleophilicity.

  1. Own- and Other-Race Face Identity Recognition in Children: The Effects of Pose and Feature Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzures, Gizelle; Kelly, David J.; Pascalis, Olivier; Quinn, Paul C.; Slater, Alan M.; de Viviés, Xavier; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-01

    We used a matching-to-sample task and manipulated facial pose and feature composition to examine the other-race effect (ORE) in face identity recognition between 5 and 10 years of age. Overall, the present findings provide a genuine measure of own- and other-race face identity recognition in children that is independent of photographic and image…

  2. Own- and Other-Race Face Identity Recognition in Children: The Effects of Pose and Feature Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzures, Gizelle; Kelly, David J.; Pascalis, Olivier; Quinn, Paul C.; Slater, Alan M.; de Viviés, Xavier; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-01

    We used a matching-to-sample task and manipulated facial pose and feature composition to examine the other-race effect (ORE) in face identity recognition between 5 and 10 years of age. Overall, the present findings provide a genuine measure of own- and other-race face identity recognition in children that is independent of photographic and image…

  3. Cross-Cultural Comparison of the Effects of Optimism, Intrinsic Motivation, and Family Relations on Vocational Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yun-Jeong; Kelly, Kevin R.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the effects of optimism, intrinsic motivation, and family relations on vocational identity in college students in the United States and South Korea. The results yielded support for the hypothesized multivariate model. Across both cultures, optimism was an important contributing factor to vocational identity, and intrinsic…

  4. The Effects of Changes in Racial Identity and Self-Esteem on Changes in African American Adolescents' Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandara, Jelani; Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Richards, Maryse H.; Ragsdale, Brian L.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the unique effects of racial identity and self-esteem on 259 African American adolescents' depressive and anxiety symptoms as they transitioned from the 7th to 8th grades (ages 12-14). Racial identity and self-esteem were strongly correlated with each other for males but not for females. For both males and females, an increase…

  5. Cross-Cultural Comparison of the Effects of Optimism, Intrinsic Motivation, and Family Relations on Vocational Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yun-Jeong; Kelly, Kevin R.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the effects of optimism, intrinsic motivation, and family relations on vocational identity in college students in the United States and South Korea. The results yielded support for the hypothesized multivariate model. Across both cultures, optimism was an important contributing factor to vocational identity, and intrinsic…

  6. The Effects of Changes in Racial Identity and Self-Esteem on Changes in African American Adolescents' Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandara, Jelani; Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Richards, Maryse H.; Ragsdale, Brian L.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the unique effects of racial identity and self-esteem on 259 African American adolescents' depressive and anxiety symptoms as they transitioned from the 7th to 8th grades (ages 12-14). Racial identity and self-esteem were strongly correlated with each other for males but not for females. For both males and females, an increase…

  7. Scaling and Universality in the Counterion-Condensation Transition at Charged Cylinders

    OpenAIRE

    Naji, Ali; Netz, Roland R.

    2005-01-01

    We address the critical and universal aspects of counterion-condensation transition at a single charged cylinder in both two and three spatial dimensions using numerical and analytical methods. By introducing a novel Monte-Carlo sampling method in logarithmic radial scale, we are able to numerically simulate the critical limit of infinite system size (corresponding to infinite-dilution limit) within tractable equilibration times. The critical exponents are determined for the inverse moments o...

  8. Intergroup norms and intergroup discrimination: distinctive self-categorization and social identity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetten, J; Spears, R; Manstead, A S

    1996-12-01

    Manipulation of in-group and out-group norms of discrimination and fairness allowed for the operation of competing social identity principles concerning in-group bias, conformity, and group distinctiveness. The combined effects of these principles on in-group bias were first examined in a modified minimal-group setting (Study 1). Results demonstrated that participants' allocation strategies were in accord with the in-group norm. Furthermore, dissimilar norms resulted in greater use of positive differentiation allocation strategies. However, in natural groups (Study 2), more in-group bias was found when both group norms were similar and discriminatory. The results confirm the importance of in-group norms and demonstrate differences between experimental and natural groups in the applicability of competing social identity and self-categorization principles.

  9. Counterion condensation of differently flexible polyelectrolytes in aqueous solutions in the dilute and semidilute regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truzzolillo, D; Bordi, F; Cametti, C; Sennato, S

    2009-01-01

    The low-frequency limit of the electrical conductivity (dc conductivity) of differently flexible polyions in aqueous solutions has been measured over an extended polyion concentration range, covering both the dilute and semidilute (entangled and unentangled) regime, up to the concentrated regime. The data have been analyzed taking into account the different flexibility of the polymer chains according to the scaling theory of polyion solutions, in the case of flexible polyions, and according to the Manning model, in the case of rigid polyions. In both cases, the fraction f of free counterions, released into the aqueous phase from the ionizable polyion groups, has been evaluated and its dependence on the polyion concentration determined. Our results show that the counterion condensation follows at least three different regimes in dependence on the polyion concentration. The fraction f of free counterions remains constant only in the semidilute regime (a region that we have named the Manning regime), while there is a marked dependence on the polyion concentration both in the dilute and in the concentrated regime. These results are briefly discussed in the light of the scaling theory of polyelectrolyte aqueous solutions.

  10. Functional identity is the main driver of diversity effects in young tree communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobner, Cornelia M; Paquette, Alain; Gravel, Dominique; Reich, Peter B; Williams, Laura J; Messier, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Two main effects are proposed to explain biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships: niche complementarity and selection effects. Both can be functionally defined using the functional diversity (FD) and functional identity (FI) of the community respectively. Herein, we present results from the first tree diversity experiment that separated the effect of selection from that of complementarity by varying community composition in high-density plots along a gradient of FD, independent of species richness and testing for the effects of FD and community weighted means of traits (a proxy for FI) on stem biomass increment (a proxy for productivity). After 4 years of growth, most mixtures did not differ in productivity from the averages of their respective monocultures, but some did overyield significantly. Those positive diversity effects resulted mostly from selection effects, primarily driven by fast-growing deciduous species and associated traits. Net diversity effect did not increase with time over 4 years.

  11. Working to Reduce the Effects of Discrimination: Identity Management Strategies in Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Margaret; Young, Maia J.; Bucher, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Despite efforts to dispel discrimination, workplace discrimination still occurs. We introduce two classes of identity management strategies individuals use to mitigate the negative consequences of discrimination: identity switching (i.e., deemphasizing target identities and recategorizing to a more positively valued identity) and identity…

  12. Working to Reduce the Effects of Discrimination: Identity Management Strategies in Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Margaret; Young, Maia J.; Bucher, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Despite efforts to dispel discrimination, workplace discrimination still occurs. We introduce two classes of identity management strategies individuals use to mitigate the negative consequences of discrimination: identity switching (i.e., deemphasizing target identities and recategorizing to a more positively valued identity) and identity…

  13. Binding structure and kinetics of surfactin monolayer formed at the air/water interface to counterions: A molecular dynamics simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Hongze; Liu, Jinfeng; Mu, Bozhong

    2015-10-01

    The binding structure and kinetics of ionized surfactin monolayer formed at the air/water interface to five counterions, Li+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Ba2+ (molar ratios of surfactin to monovalent and divalent counterions are 1:2 and 1:1 respectively), have been studied using molecular dynamics simulation. The results show that surfactin exhibits higher binding affinity to divalent counterions, Ca2+, and Ba2+, and smaller monovalent counterion, Li+, than Na+ and K+. Both carboxyl groups in surfactin are accessible for counterions, but the carboxyl group in Glu1 is easier to access by counterions than Asp5. Salt bridges are widely built between carboxyl groups by counterions, and the probability of the formation of intermolecular salt bridge is markedly larger than that of intramolecular salt bridge. Divalent counterions perform well in forming salt bridges between carboxyl groups. The salt bridges mediated by Ca2+ are so rigid that the lifetimes are about 0.13 ns, and the break rates of these salt bridges are 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than those mediated by K+ which is about 5 ps in duration. The positions of the hydration layer of carboxyl groups are independent of counterions, but the bound counterions induce the dehydration of carboxyl groups and disturb the hydrogen bonds built between carboxyl group and hydration water.

  14. The referral backfire effect: The identity-threatening nature of referral failure

    OpenAIRE

    Claus, Bart; Geyskens, Kelly; Millet, Kobe; Dewitte, Siegfried

    2012-01-01

    The present paper shows that when a person has the experience of giving advice but that advice is not acted upon, there is a reduced openness to external information. We call this the “referral backfire effect”. We argue that this referral backfire effect is due to the identity threatening nature of referral failure: the referral backfire effect is attenuated (1) when the sender perceives oneself as having low expertise in the particular domain of referral and (2) upon self-affirmation. Accor...

  15. The lagged effects of racial discrimination on depressive symptomology and interactions with racial identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggard, Lori S; Byrd, Christy M; Sellers, Robert M

    2015-04-01

    Scholars agree on the negative impacts of racial discrimination on the mental health of African Americans (Brondolo et al., 2008). Yet research is needed to explore the impacts of everyday discrimination over time, especially compared to nonracial daily hassles, in an ecologically valid manner. It is also widely accepted that racial identity can moderate the impact of racial hassles (Sellers, Copeland-Linder, Martin, & Lewis 2006), but few studies have examined this moderating effect over time. The current study addresses gaps in the current literature by analyzing the relationship between reported racial and nonracial stressors over the course of four days. Participants were 225 college students at three institutions who participated in a 20-day daily diary study. Each day, participants reported whether they had experienced a stressful event and their depressive symptoms. We compared reports of depressive symptoms the day an event occurred and two days after for racial and nonracial stressors and examined whether racial identity served as a moderator. The results showed that individuals experienced similar increases for racial and nonracial stressors when events occur and similar decreases in the following two days. Additionally, symptom trajectories varied by racial identity. Implications for the understanding of racial discrimination's role in the well-being of African Americans are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Getting along or ahead: Effects of gender identity threat on communal and agentic self-presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Samantha; Carlsson, Rickard; Björklund, Fredrik

    2016-10-01

    When faced with a threat to gender identity, people may try to restore their gender status by acting in a more gender-typical manner. The present research investigated effects of gender identity threat on self-presentations of agentic and communal traits in a Swedish and an Argentine sample (N = 242). Under threat (vs. affirmation), Swedish women deemphasized agentic traits (d [95% CI] = -0.41 [-0.93, 0.11]), Argentine women increased their emphasis on communal traits (d = 0.44 [-0.08, 0.97]), and Argentine men increased their emphasis on agentic traits (d = 0.49 [-0.03, 1.01]). However, Swedish men did not appear to be affected by the threat regarding agentic (d = 0.04 [-0.47, 0.55]) or communal traits (d = 0.23 [-0.29, 0.74]). The findings are to be considered tentative. Implications for identity threat research are discussed. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The effects of ayahuasca ritual participation on gay and lesbian identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavnar, Clancy

    2014-01-01

    The practice of drinking ayahuasca-a psychoactive brew indigenous to the Amazon-has been investigated in several studies and shown to have positive long-term effects on mental states, and a particularly strong positive effect on perceptions of identity. This article discusses if these previous findings can be found in the experience of gay people, who are often taught by their culture and religion that their lifestyles, values, and sexual orientation are unacceptable. The qualitative study examined the interview responses of 17 self-identified gay and lesbian participants who had drunk ayahuasca in a ceremonial context within the past three years, regarding their self-perceptions and integration of group beliefs. Participants drank either in shamanic or Santo Daime ceremonies or, in the case of one participant, with an Afro-Brazilian group that used ayahuasca. Participants reported affirmation of their sexual orientation, and no participants reported negative effects on perception of identity. Additional positive effects in other areas of their lives, which they attributed to ayahuasca sessions, contributed to the overall positive outcomes that were reported by this group as a result of their ritual participation.

  18. Identity Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    This research examines two mechanisms by which persons' identities change over time. First, on the basis of identity control theory (ICT), I hypothesize that while identities influence the way in which a role is played out, discrepancies between the meanings of the identity standard and the meanings of the role performance will result in change.…

  19. Horror’s Effect on Identity in Life of Pi and Arthur Gordon Pym

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyx Steensma

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Both Life of Pi by Yann Martel and The Narative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket by Edgar Allen Poe provide climatic moments of horror that lead to a change of motivation. Specifically, I will be taking a look at one important scene from each novel: the arrival and departure of the ‘death ship’ when Arthur Gordon Pym is stranded on a slightly sunk ship and the materialization of the mystical green island that Pi comes across. With the entrance of horror, both scenes portray a change in the narrator, a renewal then subsequent loss of hope, a moment of self-assessment that changes the young boys’ lives. I will be evaluating the effect of horror through the lens of Julia Kristeva’s “The Powers of Horror: an Essay on Abjection”. According to Kristeva, the abject refers to the human reaction (which is horror to a threatened breakdown in meaning caused by the loss of the distinction between subject and object or between self and other. The primary example for what causes such a reaction is the corpse (which traumatically reminds us of our own materiality which is the object of horror that changes the identities of Pi and Pym. The questions I will pursue are: Why does horror change the identities or conscious motivations of these boys? Are their reactions universal or individualized? What previous notions do they project on the horror they face?   Keywords: Abjection, Identity, Universality, Isolation, Survival.

  20. Social Identity and Preferences*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Daniel J.; Choi, James J.; Strickland, A. Joshua

    2009-01-01

    Social identities prescribe behaviors for people. We identify the marginal behavioral effect of these norms on discount rates and risk aversion by measuring how laboratory subjects’ choices change when an aspect of social identity is made salient. When we make ethnic identity salient to Asian-American subjects, they make more patient choices. When we make racial identity salient to black subjects, non-immigrant blacks (but not immigrant blacks) make more patient choices. Making gender identity salient has no effect on intertemporal or risk choices. PMID:20871741

  1. Viscoelasticity Enhancement of Surfactant Solutions Depends on Molecular Conformation: Influence of Surfactant Headgroup Structure and Its Counterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz-Bueno, Viviane; Pasquino, Rossana; Liebi, Marianne; Kohlbrecher, Joachim; Fischer, Peter

    2016-05-03

    During the anisotropic growth from globular to wormlike micelles, the basic interactions among distinct parts of the surfactant monomer, its counterion, and additives are fundamental to tune molecular self-assembly. We investigate the addition of sodium salicylate (NaSal) to hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride and bromide (CTAC and CTAB), 1-hexadecylpyridinium chloride and bromide (CPyCl and CPyBr), and benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium chloride (BDMC), which have the same hydrophobic tail. Their potential to enhance viscoelasticity by anisotropic micellar growth upon salt addition was compared in terms of (i) the influence of the headgroup structure, and (ii) the influence of surfactant counterion type. Employing proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), we focused on the molecular conformation of surfactant monomers in the core and polar shell regions of the micelles and their interactions with increasing concentration of NaSal. The viscoelastic response was investigated by rotational and oscillatory rheology. We show that micellar growth rates can be tuned by varying the flexibility and size of the surfactant headgroup as well as the dissociation degree of the surfactant counterion, which directly influences the strength of headgroup-counterion pairing. As a consequence, the morphological transitions depend directly on charge neutralization by electrostatic screening. For example, the amount of salt necessary to start the rodlike-to-wormlike micelle growth depends directly on the number of dissociated counterions in the polar shell.

  2. N-heterocyclic carbene catalyzed asymmetric intermolecular Stetter reaction: origin of enantioselectivity and role of counterions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniyil, Rositha; Sunoj, Raghavan B

    2013-10-04

    The mechanism and the role of KOtBu in an enantioselective NHC-catalyzed Stetter reaction between p-chlorobenzaldehyde and N-acylamido acrylate is established using DFT(M06-2X) methods. The Gibbs free energies are found to be significantly lower for transition states with explicit bound KOtBu as compared to the conventional pathways without the counterions. An intermolecular proton transfer from HOtBu to the prochiral carbon is identified as the stereocontrolling step. The computed enantioselectivities are in excellent agreement with the experimental results.

  3. Protein Adsorption into Mesopores: A Combination of Electrostatic Interaction, Counterion Release and van der Waals Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Moerz, Sebastian T

    2015-01-01

    Bovine heart cytochrome c has been immobilized into the mesoporous silica host material SBA-15 in both its native folded and urea-unfolded state. The comparison of the two folding states' behavior casts doubt on the commonly used explanation of cytochrome c adsorption, i.e. the electrostatic interaction model. A detailed investigation of the protein binding as a function of pH and ionic strength of the buffer solution reveals the complex nature of the protein-silica interaction. Electrostatic interaction, van der Waals forces and entropic contributions by counterion release each contribute to adsorption on the silica pore walls.

  4. Exploring the Counterion Atmosphere around DNA: What Can Be Learned from Molecular Dynamics Simulations?

    OpenAIRE

    Rueda, Manuel; Cubero, Elena; Laughton, Charles A.; Orozco, Modesto

    2004-01-01

    The counterion distribution around a DNA dodecamer (5′-CGCGAATTCGCG-3′) is analyzed using both standard and novel techniques based on state of the art molecular dynamics simulations. Specifically, we have explored the population of Na+ in the minor groove of DNA duplex, and whether or not a string of Na+ can replace the spine of hydration in the narrow AATT minor groove. The results suggest that the insertion of Na+ in the minor groove is a very rare event, but that when once the ion finds sp...

  5. Intercultural Peers’ effect on Social Identity of Social Media Users:A Critical Study of Consumer Socialization Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Khajeheian, Datis

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates the effect of social media peers on the social identity of consumers. The critical perspective of this research is based on the consumer socialization theory research framework. This framework consists of three levels - the global, national and local peers - and their impact on two constructs, namely the global and local social identity. Adopting the ethnographic approach and a complementary phase of interviews, this study explores the influence of social media peer...

  6. Effects of plant species identity, diversity and soil fertility on biodegradation of phenanthrene in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyelami, Ayodeji O; Okere, Uchechukwu V; Orwin, Kate H; De Deyn, Gerlinde B; Jones, Kevin C; Semple, Kirk T

    2013-02-01

    The work presented in this paper investigated the effects of plant species composition, species diversity and soil fertility on biodegradation of (14)C-phenanthrene in soil. The two soils used were of contrasting fertility, taken from long term unfertilised and fertilised grassland, showing differences in total nitrogen content (%N). Plant communities consisted of six different plant species: two grasses, two forbs, and two legume species, and ranged in species richness from 1 to 6. The degradation of (14)C-phenanthrene was evaluated by measuring indigenous catabolic activity following the addition of the contaminant to soil using respirometry. Soil fertility was a driving factor in all aspects of (14)C-phenanthrene degradation; lag phase, maximum rates and total extents of (14)C-phenanthrene mineralisation were higher in improved soils compared to unimproved soils. Plant identity had a significant effect on the lag phase and extents of mineralisation. Soil fertility was the major influence also on abundance of microbial communities.

  7. Non-thermal effects of acceleration in the resonance interaction between two uniformly accelerated identical atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Rizzuto, Lucia; Marino, Jamir; Noto, Antonio; Spagnolo, Salvatore; Passante, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We study the resonance interaction between two uniformly accelerated identical atoms, one excited and the other in the ground state, prepared in a correlated (symmetric or antisymmetric) state and interacting with the scalar field in the vacuum state. Because the two atoms are in a correlated state, the interaction is a second-order effect in the atom-field coupling. We separate the contributions of vacuum fluctuations and radiation reaction to the resonance energy shift of the system, and show that only radiation reaction contributes, while Unruh thermal fluctuations do not affect the resonant interatomic interaction. We also find that beyond a characteristic length scale associated to the breakdown of a local inertial description of the two-atom system, non-thermal effects in the radiation reaction correction change the distance-dependence of the resonance interaction. Finally, we generalize our model to the case of atoms interacting with the electromagnetic field, and shown that new features appear in the ...

  8. Hard Identity and Soft Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Rachik

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Often collective identities are classified depending on their contents and rarely depending on their forms. Differentiation between soft identity and hard identity is applied to diverse collective identities: religious, political, national, tribal ones, etc. This classification is made following the principal dimensions of collective identities: type of classification (univocal and exclusive or relative and contextual, the absence or presence of conflictsof loyalty, selective or totalitarian, objective or subjective conception, among others. The different characteristics analysed contribute to outlining an increasingly frequent type of identity: the authoritarian identity.

  9. Facile colorimetric method for simple and rapid detection of endotoxin based on counterion-mediated gold nanorods aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yashan; Zhang, Daohong; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Xiao; Yu, Shaoxuan; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Wentao; Zhu, Wenxin; Wang, Jianlong

    2014-05-15

    Existence of endotoxin in food and injection products indicates bacterial contaminations and therefore poses threat to human health. Herein, a simple and rapid colorimetric method for the effective detection of endotoxin in food and injections based on counterion-mediated gold nanorods aggregation is first proposed. By taking advantage of the color change of unmodified gold nanorods resulted from endotoxin mediated gold nanorods aggregation, endotoxin could be detected in the concentration range of 0.01-0.6 μM. Further, we studied the performance of gold nanorods with different aspect ratios (2.7 and 3.3) in determination of endotoxin and found that gold nanorods with higher aspect ratio (AR) showed superiority in the sensing sensitivity of endotoxin. A good specificity for endotoxin, a detection limit of 0.0084 μM and recoveries ranging from 84% to 109% in spiked food and injection samples are obtained with the colorimetric method. Results demonstrate that the present method provides a novel and effective approach for on-site screening of endotoxin in common products, which is beneficial for monitoring and reducing the risk of bacterial contaminations in food and injections production.

  10. Ethnic Identity and Substance Use Among Mexican-Heritage Preadolescents: Moderator Effects of Gender and Time in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulis, Stephen S; Marsiglia, Flavio F; Kopak, Albert M; Olmsted, Maureen E; Crossman, Ashley

    2012-04-01

    This study examined interactive relationships among ethnic identity, gender, time in the US, and changes in substance use outcomes among a school-based sample of 1,731 Mexican-heritage preadolescents (ages 9-13). Residual change multilevel models adjusting for school clustering and using multiply imputed data assessed changes from beginning to end of fifth grade in use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana and inhalants, and four substance use antecedents. Effects of ethnic identity were conditional on time in the US, and in opposite directions by gender. Among males living longer in the US, stronger ethnic identity predicted desirable changes in all but one outcome (substance offers). Among females living longer in the US, stronger ethnic identity predicted undesirable changes in alcohol use, pro-drug norms, and peer substance use. Interpretations focus on differential exposure to substance use opportunities and the erosion of traditional gender role socialization among Mexican-heritage youth having lived longer in the US.

  11. The effects of changes in racial identity and self-esteem on changes in african american adolescents' mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandara, Jelani; Gaylord-Harden, Noni K; Richards, Maryse H; Ragsdale, Brian L

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the unique effects of racial identity and self-esteem on 259 African American adolescents' depressive and anxiety symptoms as they transitioned from the 7th to 8th grades (ages 12-14). Racial identity and self-esteem were strongly correlated with each other for males but not for females. For both males and females, an increase in racial identity over the 1 year was associated with a decrease in the prevalence of depressive symptoms over the same period, even with self-esteem controlled. It was concluded that racial identity may be as important as self-esteem to the mental health of African American adolescents, and it explains variance in their mental health not associated with feelings of oneself as an individual.

  12. Slavnov-Taylor Identity for the Effective Field Theory of the Color Glass Condensate

    CERN Document Server

    Binosi, D; Triantafyllopoulos, D N

    2013-01-01

    We show that a powerful Slavnov-Taylor (ST) identity exists for the Effective Field Theory (EFT) of the Color Glass Condensate (CGC), allowing to control by purely algebraic means the full dependence on the background fields of the fast gluon modes, as well as the correlators of the quantum fluctuations of the classical gluon source. We use this formalism to study the change of the background fast modes (in the Coulomb gauge), induced by the quantum corrections of the semi-fast gluons. We establish the evolution equation for the EFT of the CGC, which points towards an algebraic derivation of the JIMWLK equation. Being based on symmetry-arguments only, the approach can be used to extend the analysis to arbitrary gauges and to higher orders in the perturbation expansion of the EFT.

  13. Blocking Effect and Underlying Physics of Identical Bands of Normally Deformed Nuclei at Low Spin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金太浩; 赵正姬; 曾谨言

    1994-01-01

    In the particle-number-conserving treatment of the cranked shell model Hamiltonian (blocking effect being taken into account exactly), the calculated even-odd differences in moments of inertia show large variation and depend sensitively on the location and Coriolis response of the blocked levels. The moments of inertia of the 170Yb, 171Lu [404] 7/2, [402] 5/2, [514] 9/2 and 171Yb [512] 5/2, [633] 7/2 bands at low spin are calculated and the experimental data are reproduced very well. No free parameter was involved in the calculation. The reason of the discrepancy between the observed "identical bands" at low spin and the BCS prediction is discussed.

  14. Organizational identification and the communication of identity: effects of message characteristics on cognitive and affective identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanis, Martin; Beukeboom, Camiel J

    2011-12-01

    This paper reports an experimental study (N= 321) that tests how the cognitive and affective component of organizational identification (OI) can be affected by peripheral characteristics of organizational communication. Results show that adding cues in emails that signal organizational identity, such as the company logo, font, and colour of text, positively affect the cognitive component of OI, but not the affective component. In contrast, a personal focus in the message had a positive effect on the affective, but not on the cognitive component of OI. This study supports the idea that OI is a multi-faceted construct comprising a cognitive and affective component, and that these different components can be affected by different characteristics of organizational email messages.

  15. Curvature effects upon interactions of polymer-grafted nanoparticles in chemically identical polymer matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombly, David M; Ganesan, Venkat

    2010-10-21

    We study the interactions between polymer-grafted nanoparticles immersed in a chemically identical polymer melt using a numerical implementation of polymer mean-field theory. We focus on the interpenetration width between the grafted and free chains and its relationship to the polymer-mediated interparticle interactions. To this end, we quantify the interpenetration width as a function of particle curvature, grafting density, and the relative molecular weights of the grafted and free chains. We show the onset of wetting and dewetting as a function of these quantities and explain our results through simple scaling arguments to include the effects of curvature. Subsequently, we show that the interparticle potentials correlate quantitatively with the trends displayed by the interpenetration widths.

  16. Collective fluorescence switching of counterion-assembled dyes in polymer nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisch, Andreas; Didier, Pascal; Richert, Ludovic; Oncul, Sule; Arntz, Youri; Mély, Yves; Klymchenko, Andrey S.

    2014-06-01

    The current challenge in the field of fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs) for bioimaging is to achieve extreme brightness and external control of their emission using biodegradable materials. Here we propose a new concept of fluorescent polymer NPs, doped with ionic liquid-like salts of a cationic dye (octadecyl rhodamine B) with a bulky hydrophobic counterion (fluorinated tetraphenylborate) that serves as spacer minimizing dye aggregation and self-quenching. The obtained 40-nm poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) NPs containing up to 500 dyes are brighter than quantum dots and exhibit photo-induced reversible on/off fluorescence switching, never reported for dye-doped NPs. We show that this collective switching of hundreds of dyes is due to ultrafast excitation energy transfer and can be used for super-resolution imaging. These NPs, being spontaneously endocytosed by living cells, feature high signal-to-noise ratio and absence of toxicity. The counterion-based concept opens the way to a new class of nanomaterials for sensing, imaging and light harvesting.

  17. Experimental evidence of counterion affinity in alginates: the case of nongelling ion Mg2+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Ivan; Asaro, Fioretta; Paoletti, Sergio

    2009-10-01

    The present contribution aims at testing experimentally the theoretical model previously devised (Donati, I.; Cesaro, A.; Paoletti, S.; Biomacromolecules 2006, 7, 281-287) for the description of the interaction between alginate and nongelling Mg(2+) ions. The model, based on an extension of the counterion condensation theory, introduces a contribution of free energy of affinity, DeltaG(aff,0), which depends on the monomer composition of the polyuronate. In the present work, three different alginates separately mimicking the mannuronan (polyM), the guluronan (polyG), and the polyalternating (polyMG) components of alginate, together with a natural alginate isolated from Laminaria hyperborea ( L. hyperborea ), were examined. They were treated with Mg(2+) ions, and relative variations in scattered light intensity, isothermal calorimetry (DeltaH(mix)), specific viscosity, and (23)Na NMR longitudinal relaxation rates were monitored with respect to samples at the same ionic strength but containing only Na(+) ions. The fraction of condensed magnesium counterions was found to be strongly dependent on alginate composition, increasing along the series mannuronan < polyalternating approximately L. hyperborea < guluronan, thus in good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  18. Re-entrant phase behavior of a concentrated anionic surfactant system with strongly binding counterions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sajal Kumar; Rathee, Vikram; Krishnaswamy, Rema; Raghunathan, V A; Sood, A K

    2009-08-04

    The phase behavior of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in the presence of the strongly binding counterion p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC) has been examined using small-angle X-ray diffraction and polarizing microscopy. A hexagonal-to-lamellar transition on varying the PTHC to SDS molar ratio (alpha) occurs through a nematic phase of rodlike micelles (Nc) --> isotropic (I) --> nematic of disklike micelles (N(D)) at a fixed surfactant concentration (phi). The lamellar phase is found to coexist with an isotropic phase (I') over a large region of the phase diagram. Deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance investigations of the phase behavior at phi = 0.4 confirm the transition from N(C) to N(D) on varying alpha. The viscoelastic and flow behaviors of the different phases were examined. A decrease in the steady shear viscosity across the different phases with increasing alpha suggests a decrease in the aspect ratio of the micellar aggregates. From the transient shear stress response of the N() and N(D) nematic phases in step shear experiments, they were characterized to be tumbling and flow aligning, respectively. Our studies reveal that by tuning the morphology of the surfactant micelles strongly binding counterions modify the phase behavior and rheological properties of concentrated surfactant solutions.

  19. Discriminability effect on Garner interference: evidence from recognition of facial identity and expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamin eWang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Using Garner’s speeded classification task existing studies demonstrated an asymmetric interference in the recognition of facial identity and facial expression. It seems that expression is hard to interfere with identity recognition. However, discriminability of identity and expression, a potential confounding variable, had not been carefully examined in existing studies. In current work, we manipulated discriminability of identity and expression by matching facial shape (long or round in identity and matching mouth (opened or closed in facial expression. Garner interference was found either from identity to expression (Experiment 1 or from expression to identity (Experiment 2. Interference was also found in both directions (Experiment 3 or in neither direction (Experiment 4. The results support that Garner interference tends to occur under condition of low discriminability of relevant dimension regardless of facial property. Our findings indicate that Garner interference is not necessarily related to interdependent processing in recognition of facial identity and expression. The findings also suggest that discriminability as a mediating factor should be carefully controlled in future research.

  20. Identity Processes and Personality Traits and Types in Adolescence: Directionality of Effects and Developmental Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyckx, Koen; Teppers, Eveline; Klimstra, Theo A.; Rassart, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Personality traits are hypothesized to be among the most important factors contributing to individual differences in identity development. However, longitudinal studies linking Big Five personality traits to contemporary identity models (in which multiple exploration and commitment processes are distinguished) are largely lacking. To gain more…

  1. Protective Effects of Ethnic Identity on Mexican American College Students' Psychological Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturbide, Maria I.; Raffaelli, Marcela; Carlo, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    The current study investigated whether different ethnic identity components moderate the associations between acculturative stress and psychological adjustment among Mexican American college students (N = 148; 67% female) who completed self-report surveys. For women, ethnic affirmation/belonging and ethnic identity achievement moderated the…

  2. Cues to identity in online dyads : Effects of interpersonal versus intragroup perceptions on performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, Martin; Postmes, Tom

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the impact of cues to personal identity on the quality of dyadic collaboration via computer-mediated communication systems. Study 1 (N = 180) shows that an absence of cues to personal identity resulted in more work satisfaction and better subjective performance. Analyses sugges

  3. Stress and nurses' horizontal mobbing: moderating effects of group identity and group support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topa, Gabriela; Moriano, Juan A

    2013-01-01

    Horizontal mobbing is a process of systematic and repeated aggression towards a worker by coworkers. Among others, stress has been pointed out as one of the antecedents that favors the onset of horizontal mobbing, whereas group support to the target could act as a buffer. Moreover, the social identity approach emphasizes that group identity is an antecedent of group support. This study explores the interaction of group support and group identity in the explanation of horizontal mobbing in a sample (N = 388) of registered nurses and licensed practical nurses employed at two large hospitals in Madrid and Navarre (Spain). The results show that stress is positively associated to horizontal mobbing, whereas group support and group identity were negative predictors of horizontal mobbing. Furthermore, the combination of low group identity and low group support precipitated HM among nurses.

  4. American and Swedish children's acquisition of vowel duration: Effects of vowel identity and final stop voicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buder, Eugene H.; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

    2002-04-01

    Vowel durations typically vary according to both intrinsic (segment-specific) and extrinsic (contextual) specifications. It can be argued that such variations are due to both predisposition and cognitive learning. The present report utilizes acoustic phonetic measurements from Swedish and American children aged 24 and 30 months to investigate the hypothesis that default behaviors may precede language-specific learning effects. The predicted pattern is the presence of final consonant voicing effects in both languages as a default, and subsequent learning of intrinsic effects most notably in the Swedish children. The data, from 443 monosyllabic tokens containing high-front vowels and final stop consonants, are analyzed in statistical frameworks at group and individual levels. The results confirm that Swedish children show an early tendency to vary vowel durations according to final consonant voicing, followed only six months later by a stage at which the intrinsic influence of vowel identity grows relatively more robust. Measures of vowel formant structure from selected 30-month-old children also revealed a tendency for children of this age to focus on particular acoustic contrasts. In conclusion, the results indicate that early acquisition of vowel specifications involves an interaction between language-specific features and articulatory predispositions associated with phonetic context.

  5. Joint Effect of Habitat Identity and Spatial Distance on Spiders’ Community Similarity in a Fragmented Transition Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Yaron

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the main processes that affect community similarity have been the focus of much ecological research. However, the relative effects of environmental and spatial aspects in structuring ecological communities is still unresolved and is probably scale-dependent. Here, we examine the effect of habitat identity and spatial distance on fine-grained community similarity within a biogeographic transition zone. We compared four hypotheses: i) habitat identity alone, ii) spatial proximity alone, iii) non-interactive effects of both habitat identity and spatial proximity, and iv) interactive effect of habitat identity and spatial proximity. We explored these hypotheses for spiders in three fragmented landscapes located along the sharp climatic gradient of Southern Judea Lowlands (SJL), Israel. We sampled 14,854 spiders (from 199 species or morphospecies) in 644 samples, taken in 35 patches and stratified to nine different habitats. We calculated the Bray-Curtis similarity between all samples-pairs. We divided the pairwise values to four functional distance categories (same patch, different patches from the same landscape, adjacent landscapes and distant landscapes) and two habitat categories (same or different habitats) and compared them using non-parametric MANOVA. A significant interaction between habitat identity and spatial distance was found, such that the difference in mean similarity between same-habitat pairs and different-habitat pairs decreases with spatial distance. Additionally, community similarity decayed with spatial distance. Furthermore, at all distances, same-habitat pairs had higher similarity than different-habitats pairs. Our results support the fourth hypothesis of interactive effect of habitat identity and spatial proximity. We suggest that the environmental complexity of habitats or increased habitat specificity of species near the edge of their distribution range may explain this pattern. Thus, in transitions zones care should be taken

  6. Identity paradoxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers paradoxical nature of identity that emerges from: 1 the very concept of identity whose abstract generality unites various and even opposite features; 2 the processual nature of reality that is easier to express in the poetical metaphors or abstract principles than in unambiguous conceptual networks; 3 the oppose relationship between being and knowledge, mind and matter, subject and object, self and personality. Entangled in the labyrinth which evade efforts to be conceptually defined, the modern thinking of identity moves towards abandoning the idea of “self” on behalf of the “ego” and towards the misapprehension of identity as being identical. This corresponds to the “time of the lost spirit” stretched between the simultaneous need to find an identity and to give it up.

  7. Medical Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine philosophical stances underpinning medical identity and assess the conceptual relationship between physician, medical practice and culture. Argument: Medical identity is about the ideals and moral positions that physicians take when justifying themselves. Medical identity...... hedonistic versus sentimentalist approaches to medical identity. The sociocultural philosophical analysis of medical identity can shed light on what it means conceptually for a physician to harbor beliefs associated with him/her being taken to be an autonomous professional. It is important because it touches...... on the meaning of being a compassionate, good and skilled physician, making its relevance to person-centered medicine self-evident. Conclusion: Medical identity should be analyzed with reference to literature, philosophy and medical practice in order for the physician to exercise a reflective position...

  8. Molecular Dynamics Simulations Illuminate the Role of Counterion Condensation in the Electrophoretic Transport of Homogalacturonans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Amir H; Owen, Jessie L; Mercadante, Davide; Williams, Martin A K

    2017-02-13

    Homogalacturonans (HGs) are polysaccharide copolymers of galacturonic acid and its methylesterified counterpart. The inter- and intramolecular distributions of the methylesterifed residues are vital behavior-determining characteristics of a sample's structure, and much experimental effort has been directed to their measurement. While many techniques are able to measure the sample-averaged degree of methylesterification (DM), the measurement of inter- and intramolecular charge distributions are challenging. Here, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to calculate the electrophoretic mobilities of HGs that have different amounts and distributions of charges placed along the backbone. The simulations are shown to capture experimental results well, even for low-DM samples that possess high charge densities. In addition, they illuminate the role that local counterion condensation can play in the determination of the electrophoretic mobility of heterogeneous blocky polyelectrolytes that cannot be adequately described by a single chain-averaged charge spacing.

  9. Time-resolved spectroscopy of the early photolysis intermediates of rhodopsin Schiff base counterion mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, S; Lewis, J W; Zvyaga, T A; Szundi, I; Sakmar, T P; Kliger, D S

    1997-02-25

    Time-resolved absorption difference spectra of COS-cell expressed rhodopsin and rhodopsin mutants (E113D, E113A/A117E, and G90D), solubilized in detergent, were collected from 20 ns to 510 ms after laser photolysis with 7 ns pulses (lambda(max) = 477 nm). The data were analyzed using a global exponential fitting procedure following singular value decomposition (SVD). Over the entire time range excellent agreement was achieved between results for COS-cell and rod outer segment rhodopsin both in kinetics and in the lambda(max) values of the intermediates. The Schiff base counterion mutant E113D showed strong similarities to rhodopsin up to lumi, following the established scheme: batho bsi --> lumi. Including late delay times (past 1 micros), the mutant E113D lumi decayed to metarhodopsin II (MII), showing that the detergent strongly favors MII over metarhodopsin I (MI). However, a back-reaction from MII to lumi was observed that was not seen for rhodopsin. The kinetic schemes for the mutants E113A/A117E and G90D were significantly different from that of rhodopsin. In both mutants batho decay into an equilibrium with bsi was too fast to resolve ( lumi MI-like MII-like. However, the back-reaction from MI-like to lumi was not seen in G90D. MI-like spectral intermediates absorbing around 460 nm appeared in both mutants. They have been shown to be the transducin-activating species (R*). These data, interpreted in the context of previous NMR, FTIR, and Raman data, are consistent with a picture in which the kinetics of batho decay is dependent on a protein-induced perturbation near C12-C13 of the retinal chromophore. The lambda(max) values of the bsi and lumi intermediates in the mutant pigments are interpreted in terms of movement of the Schiff base relative to its counterion.

  10. Identity Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Provides information for identity management services on the creation, modification and eventual deletion of accounts and entitlements based on user relationships on...

  11. Does Ethnic Identity Buffer or Exacerbate the Effects of Frequent Racial Discrimination on Situational Well-Being of Asian Americans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyung Chol; Lee, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    A quasi-experimental vignette study was conducted to test whether ethnic identity moderated the effects of frequent racial discrimination on situational positive and negative affect of Asian American college students. Results showed that imagining multiple incidents of racial discrimination was related to higher negative affect than imagining a…

  12. Does Ethnic Identity Buffer or Exacerbate the Effects of Frequent Racial Discrimination on Situational Well-Being of Asian Americans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyung Chol; Lee, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    A quasi-experimental vignette study was conducted to test whether ethnic identity moderated the effects of frequent racial discrimination on situational positive and negative affect of Asian American college students. Results showed that imagining multiple incidents of racial discrimination was related to higher negative affect than imagining a…

  13. Escalation of Commitment to an Ineffective Course of Action: The Effect of Feedback Having Negative Implications for Self-Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockner, Joel; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examines entrapment, the process by which organizational decision makers escalate commitment to an ineffective course of action to justify allocation of previous resources. Two laboratory experiments exploring individuals' perceptions of entrapment and its effect on their self identity are described. Also discusses practical theoretical…

  14. The Overlapping Worlds View: Analvzing Identity Transformation in Real and Virtual Worlds and the Effects on Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael A.; Wang, Feihong

    2008-01-01

    Of late, digital game-based learning has attracted game designers, researchers and educators alike. Immersion in the virtual 3D environment of a game may have positive effects on K-12 students' cultivation of self (Dodge et al., 2006). Currently, two opposing views related to game-based identity formation are presented in the literature: the…

  15. Bridging Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaux, Kay; Burke, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Sociology and psychology are no strangers in the theoretical world of self and identity. Early works by William James (1890), a psychologist, and George Herbert Mead (1934), a sociologist, are often taken as a starting point by investigators in both fields. In more recent years, with the development of a number of identity theories in both fields,…

  16. Brand Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, John

    1998-01-01

    Instead of differentiating themselves by building "brand identities," colleges and universities often focus on competing with price. As a result, fewer and fewer institutions base their identities on value, the combination of quality and price. Methods of building two concepts to influence customers' brand image and brand loyalty are…

  17. Brand Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, John

    1998-01-01

    Instead of differentiating themselves by building "brand identities," colleges and universities often focus on competing with price. As a result, fewer and fewer institutions base their identities on value, the combination of quality and price. Methods of building two concepts to influence customers' brand image and brand loyalty are…

  18. Organizational Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo; Schultz, Majken

    This text presents the classic works on organizational identity alongside more current thinking on the issues. Ranging from theoretical contributions to empirical studies, the readings in this volume address the key issues of organizational identity, and show how these issues have developed through...

  19. Identity Assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Line Helverskov

    2017-01-01

    , and theoretical foundation of the dissertation. Philosophically, the research rests on the central ANT concepts of symmetry, associations, and enactment with an inherent value of multiplicity. The philosophical position implies that the study of identity must be understood as the study of practices. This, in turn......Research in identity in general and professional identity specifically has seen an immense increase in recent years (Bauman 2004, Lawler 2014). Due to societal and technological developments, notions of what constitutes ‘the professional’ are subject to change. Thus, this dissertation rests...... on an understanding of professional identity as a moving concept that must be understood through its spatial and temporal contexts (Scanlon 2011). Accepting this position necessitates a reconsideration of the role that formal education plays in the development of professional identity of students. Researchers within...

  20. The Effects of Study Abroad on Second Language Identities and Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoka Sato

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous studies on the improvement of language proficiency and adaptability to different cultures through study abroad. However, there is a paucity of research on study abroad of Japanese students per se, not to mention the fact that there are even fewer studies on identities that are formed through one’s second language use, which is called second language identity and language learning in study abroad contexts. Based on a narrative inquiry of three Japanese students who participated in three or four-week study-abroad programs, this paper examines the construction of second language identity and language learning. A narrative approach has shown to be an ideal tool for revealing the complexity of human behavior since it is human-centered, and it analyses participants’ identity construction through oral accounts of their experiences. Data was collected through one-on-one and semi-structured interviews, in which the participants were asked to describe their study abroad experience. After collecting their statements, content analysis was conducted. The findings reveal that all participants constructed their second language identities. They become active in learning and using English by the interaction with local people and through self-enlightenment that was generated by finding a person they admire, and this impact has lasted well since they returned home. Moreover, the study shows that when there are no inequitable relations of power in social interaction, language learners can favorably construct their second language identities that they want to project. As a result, they become aware of linguistic analysis or pragmatics at the same time

  1. Bridging Identities through Identity Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell, Allison M.; Martiny, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    As indicated by Deaux and Burke (this volume), sociology and psychology have shared a tradition of discourse allowing social psychologists to build upon each other's ideas. A conversation between social identity theory and identity theory was initiated fifteen years ago and addressed the similarities and differences between these theories. This…

  2. Electronic identity

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Norberto Nuno Gomes; Argles, David

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing availability of electronic services, security and a reliable means by which identity is verified is essential.Written by Norberto Andrade the first chapter of this book provides an overview of the main legal and regulatory aspects regarding electronic identity in Europe and assesses the importance of electronic identity for administration (public), business (private) and, above all, citizens. It also highlights the role of eID as a key enabler of the economy.In the second chapter Lisha Chen-Wilson, David Argles, Michele Schiano di Zenise and Gary Wills discuss the user-cent

  3. Aggregation number-based degrees of counterion dissociation in sodium n-alkyl sulfate micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva, Nataly V; Shahine, Antoine; Bales, Barney L

    2005-10-27

    Values of the degree of counterion dissociation, alpha, for sodium n-alkyl sulfate micelles, denoted by SN(c)S, where N(c) is the number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain, are defined by asserting that the aggregation number, N, is dependent only on the concentration, C(aq), of counterions in the aqueous pseudophase. By using different combinations of surfactant and added salt concentrations to yield the same value of N, alpha can be determined, independent of the experimental method. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements of the hyperfine spacings of two nitroxide spin probes, 16- and 5-doxylstearic acid methyl ester (16DSE and 5DSE, respectively), are employed to determine whether micelles from two samples have the same value of N to high precision. The EPR spectra are different for the two spin probes, but the values of alpha are the same, within experimental error, as they must be. In agreement with recent work on S12S and with prevailing thought in the literature, values of alpha are constant as a function of N. This implies that the value of alpha is constant whether the surfactant or added electrolyte concentrations are varied. Interestingly, alpha varies with chain length as follows: N(c) = 8, alpha = 0.42 +/- 0.03; N(c) = 9, alpha = 0.41 +/- 0.03; N(c) = 10, alpha = 0.35 +/- 0.02; N(c) = 11, alpha = 0.30 +/- 0.02 at 25 degrees C and N(c) = 13, alpha = 0.22 +/- 0.02; and N(c) = 14, alpha = 0.19 +/- 0.01 at 40 degrees C. A simple electrostatic theoretical description, based on the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation for the ion distribution around a charged sphere, was compared with the experimental results. The theory predicts values of alpha that are in reasonable agreement with experiment, nicely predicting the decrease of alpha as N(c) increases. However, the theory also predicts that, for a given value of N(c), alpha decreases as N increases. Moreover, this decrease is predicted to be different if N is increased by adding salt or by increasing

  4. Mainstream Teacher Candidates' Perspectives on ESL Writing: The Effects of Writer Identity and Rater Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Sook; Veitch, Hillary

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which the ethnic identity of a writer and the background (gender and area of teaching) of a rater can influence mainstream teacher candidates' evaluation of English as a second language (ESL) writing, using a matched-guise method. A one-page essay was elicited from an ESL learner enrolled in an intensive English…

  5. The Representation and Processing of Identical Cognates by Late Bilinguals: RT and ERP Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, David; Dijkstra, Ton; Grainger, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Across the languages of a bilingual, translation equivalents can have the same orthographic form and shared meaning (e.g., TABLE in French and English). How such words, called orthographically identical cognates, are processed and represented in the bilingual brain is not well understood. In the present study, late French-English bilinguals…

  6. Bullying and Social Identity: The Effects of Group Norms and Distinctiveness Threat on Attitudes towards Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojala, Kris; Nesdale, Drew

    2004-01-01

    Drawing from social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), an experiment was carried out to determine the extent to which children's attitudes towards bullying could be moderated by in-group norms and perceived threat to group distinctiveness. The study investigated the responses of 120 male primary school students aged 10-13 years from five…

  7. Effects of Achievement Motivation, Social Identity, and Peer Group Norms on Academic Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masland, Lindsay C.; Lease, A. Michele

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether academic achievement motivation and social identity explain variation in children's conformity to positive academic behaviors (n = 455 children in grades three through five). Structural equation modeling suggested that academic value and peer group academic norms were positively related to academic conformity.…

  8. The Perceived Effect of the Sociocultural Context on HIV/AIDS Identity Incorporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Contexts influence the experience of disease. In this study, I examined how the sociocultural context (e.g., race, class, gender, and sexual orientation) affected the experience of living with HIV/AIDS and the incorporation of the HIV/AIDS identity into the self. I interviewed 36 individuals living with HIV/AIDS. Findings indicate that race,…

  9. Effective Factors on Social Identity Among Girls Student of Ahwaz Shahid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alihossein Hossein Zadeh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe Iran’s recent society due to social changes and its particular problems of transitional period has beenchallenges in various ways especially in the dimension of socio – cultural values. One of the importantobjects of this change in the transitional period is social identity debates. In this study attempt has beenmade to analyses the social identity through modern and traditional concepts, with the view of changeswhich occur in the attitude and social values of the people. This study performed by using survey method,Research universe consists of all girls’ students of shahid Chamran University, and 254 cases were selectedthrough random sampling method. The statistical analysis of data is based on, correlation and multi variableregression, in this research impact of socio – economic status, educational level of parents, social awarenessabout rights and duties, religions practice and occupational perspective are studied with social identity.Result indicated that, the above mentioned in depended variables could explain 56% of the variations of thedependent variable (social identity.

  10. Effects of Achievement Motivation, Social Identity, and Peer Group Norms on Academic Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masland, Lindsay C.; Lease, A. Michele

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether academic achievement motivation and social identity explain variation in children's conformity to positive academic behaviors (n = 455 children in grades three through five). Structural equation modeling suggested that academic value and peer group academic norms were positively related to academic conformity.…

  11. Professional Role and Identity of Icelandic Preschool Teachers: Effects of Stakeholders' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónsdóttir, Arna H.; Coleman, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we explore the reality of Icelandic preschool teachers who are, as in most other countries, predominantly female. The gendered nature of the role and the current identity adopted by preschool teachers appear to impact on their perceived status and professionalism. In this process, stakeholders in early childhood education (ECE),…

  12. Monoracial and Biracial Children: Effects of Racial Identity Saliency on Social Learning and Social Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, Sarah E.; Chen, Eva E.; Corriveau, Kathleen H.; Harris, Paul L.; Ambady, Nalini; Sommers, Samuel R.

    2014-01-01

    Children prefer learning from, and affiliating with, their racial in-group but those preferences may vary for biracial children. Monoracial (White, Black, Asian) and biracial (Black/White, Asian/White) children (N = 246, 3-8 years) had their racial identity primed. In a learning preferences task, participants determined the function of a novel…

  13. Investigating of the effect of entrepreneurial orientations on formation of entrepreneurial identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoochehr Parsian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In today’s changing world, success belongs to the communities and organizations that make a significant relationship between scarce resources and capabilities of management and entrepreneurship of their human resource. In other words, societies and the organizations can move forward in the development path that, with creating the necessary conditions, equip their human resources to productive entrepreneurial knowledge and skills to conduct other organizations and community resources to create value and achieve the development, management. Formation of entrepreneurial identity plays an important role for the development of the entrepreneurial spirit in society. In this paper, given the importance of entrepreneurial identity, the role of entrepreneurial orientations based on Lampkin and Dess (1996 [Lumpkin, G. T., & Dess, G. G. (1996. Clarifying the entrepreneurial orientation construct and linking it to performance. Academy of Management Review, 21(1, 135-172.] is investigated on entrepreneurial identity of the municipality of Qom using a questionnaire consists of 18 items. The results show entrepreneurial orientation influences significantly on entrepreneurial identity.

  14. Identity, identity politics, and neoliberalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrenn Mary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the intensification of neoliberalism, it is useful to examine how some individuals might cope with the irrationality of the system. Neoliberalism cloaks the execution of the corporate agenda behind rhetorical manipulation that advocates for limited government. The corollary absence of government involvement on behalf of the citizenry writ large disarms the means of social redress for the individual. Democracy funded and fueled by corporate power thereby disenfranchises the individual, provoking some to search for empowerment through identity politics. The argument set forth suggests that individuals construct, reinforce, or escalate allegiance to identities as a coping mechanism, some of which manifest in violent identity politics.

  15. Pride and Patronage - The effect of identity on pay-what-you-want prices at a charitable bookstore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravert, Christina Annette

    I conduct a field experiment at a charitable bookstore to provide evidence for the role of identity under "pay-what-you-want pricing". When subtly reminded of their participation in the store's membership program members paid significantly more per book then without a reminder, while this nudge h...... no effect on non-members. Making an individual aware of its close social connection to the seller can thus, in a charitable setting, increase voluntarily paid prices....

  16. The Influence of Identity Solves the Problems of Management of the Communities in the Network Societies More Effectively

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benas Brunalas

    2015-02-01

    assigns’ which identities of the knots in the network are suitable and which ones contradict the structure. In this sense, identities of the network structure’s knots (units are political and active components of the regulations of the network structure.Because of the two-sided structure and the relationship between structure and unit, the social space is both dynamic (it is being constructed socially and on some level (at a certain time point in time permanent. Accordingly, this leads to the proposition that different qualities of the structures will dictate international practices and that in different kinds (types of logic of structures, subjects that sustain different practices will gain distinct success. Hence, the identity of the unit can directly relate to the power of the nation and to the possibilities of increasing the competition in the system.Hereby, ‘collective identity’ in this context becomes the guarantor of stability and organization of the network and the units (knots of the network. Consequently, ‘the identity’ can be perceived not only philosophically (in a passive form, just as ‘what I am’, but also ‘managerially’ (in an active form – ‘what I should be’, while striving to optimize a specific activity. In other words, in the network society, identity obtains not a passive expression, but an active function.After coming to these conclusions, the article presents the conception of social technologies that act as interventional tools. It is stated that applying social technologies, while controlling and disciplining identity, is an effective mean of monitoring identity masses in network societies. Because of the particularity of a network society, which does not allow using traditional levers of the government optimally, social technologies should be accepted as one of the most meaningful powers of the network and tools of the network society’s organization. They should ensure continuous and progressive growth of the structure, the

  17. Role of counterion condensation in the self-assembly of SDS surfactants at the water-graphite interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala, Naga Rajesh; Striolo, Alberto

    2008-02-21

    The aggregate structure of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) adsorbed at the graphite-water interface has been studied with the aid of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. As expected, our results show that adsorbed SDS yields hemi-cylindrical micelles. The hemi-cylindrical aggregates in our simulations closely resemble all structural and morphological details provided by previous solution atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments. More interestingly, our data indicate that SDS head groups do not provide a complete shield to the hydrophobic tails. Instead, we found regions in which the hydrophobic tails are exposed to the aqueous solution. By conducting a parametric study for SDS-like nonionic surfactants we show that electrostatic interactions between SDS head groups and counterions are responsible for the unexpected result. Our interpretation is corroborated by density profiles, analysis of the coordination states, and mean square displacement data for both the adsorbed SDS surfactants and the counterions in solution. Counterion condensation appears to be a physical phenomenon that could be exploited to direct the assembly of advanced nanostructured materials.

  18. Counter-ion dynamics in crosslinked poly(styrene sulfonate) systems studied by NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp, R H; van der Maarel, J R; de Bleijser, J; Leyte, J C

    1991-10-01

    The field dependence of the longitudinal and transverse nuclear magnetic relaxation rates of 23Na+ in aqueous crosslinked Na-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) systems (ion exchange resins) has been obtained as a function of the degree of crosslinking. The relaxation is considerably enhanced relative to solutions of non-crosslinked NaPSS at equal ionizable group concentration. This is due to the dynamic constraints of the polymer chains, which render the averaging of the counter-ion chain interaction less efficient. The field dependence of the relaxation rates in the crosslinked NaPSS systems reveals two processes that are out of the extreme narrowing limit. This is in contrast to the relaxation behavior found in non-crosslinked NaPSS systems. To characterize these processes their correlation times were combined with constants of selfdiffusion to estimate the distances diffused by an ion in order to average the electric field gradient at its nucleus. These two distances are interpreted as characteristic length scales in the network. At all degrees of crosslinking it was found that the smallest of these length scales is roughly equal to the distance between two neighbouring crosslinks. The largest characteristic distance extends over several crosslinks and reflects inhomogeneities in the crosslink concentration. These conclusions were also reached from similar experiments on 7Li+ in LiPSS systems.

  19. Single chains of strong polyelectrolytes in aqueous solutions at extreme dilution: Conformation and counterion distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guofeng; Luo, Shuangjiang; Yang, Qingbo; Yang, Jingfa; Zhao, Jiang

    2016-10-01

    The molecular conformation of two typical polyelectrolytes, sodium polystyrene sulfonate (NaPSS) and quarternized poly-4-vinylpyridine (QP4VP), was studied in aqueous solutions without salt addition at the single molecular level. By fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, the hydrodynamic radius (Rh) of NaPSS and QP4VP with the molecular weight ranging more than one order of magnitude was measured. The scaling analysis of Rh exhibits scaling exponent of 0.70 and 0.86 for NaPSS and QP4VP in solutions without added salts, respectively, showing the conformation is much more expanded than random coil. Numerical fittings using the model of diffusion of a rod molecule agree with the data well, indicating that the polyelectrolyte chains take the rod-like conformation under the condition without salt addition. Further investigations by determining the electric potential of single PSS- chains using the photon counting histogram technique demonstrate the enhanced counterion adsorption to the charged chain at higher molecular weight.

  20. Children's reasoning about disclosing adult transgressions: effects of maltreatment, child age, and adult identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Thomas D; Ahern, Elizabeth C; Malloy, Lindsay C; Quas, Jodi A

    2010-01-01

    A total of two hundred ninety-nine 4- to 9-year-old maltreated and nonmaltreated children of comparable socioeconomic status and ethnicity judged whether children should or would disclose unspecified transgressions of adults (instigators) to other adults (recipients) in scenarios varying the identity of the instigator (stranger or parent), the identity of the recipient (parent, police, or teacher), and the severity of the transgression ("something really bad" or "something just a little bad"). Children endorsed more disclosure against stranger than parent instigators and less disclosure to teacher than parent and police recipients. The youngest maltreated children endorsed less disclosure than nonmaltreated children, but the opposite was true among the oldest children. Older maltreated children distinguished less than nonmaltreated children between parents and other types of instigators and recipients.

  1. The effect of political generation on identity and social change: Age cohort consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robyn Lewis; Rohlinger, Deana A

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explore how political generation affects the ways in which diverse individuals come together and change their social and personal identities. Drawing on 52 in-depth interviews with members of the Red Hat Society, we show that women draw on their political generation, and the gains of the women's movement specifically, to oppose cultural constructions of aging. The Red Hat Society provides a "free space" for women to foster a collective identity that both visibly challenges aging norms and provides its members new standards for self-approval. We conclude by highlighting the importance of focusing on political generation to understand collective action over the life course and call for more scholarship on the function of political generation in social change.

  2. The effect of immigration status on physics identity and physical science career intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Florin; Potvin, Geoff; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.

    2012-02-01

    Using data collected from a nationally-representative sample of first-year college students, we examine how students' identity development as physics persons and their likelihood to pursue a career in physical science is predicted by differing immigrant experiences. We consider broad factors having a social, economic, or cultural nature as covariates in a propensity score model that assesses differences due to immigrant generation. Our results show that, when controlling for such factors as race/ethnicity, socio-economic status, and gender, students' physics identities and the likelihood of choosing a career in physical science are significantly higher amongst first generation students than second generation (or later) students. We conclude that physical science as a career option can be influenced by the experiences of being an immigrant and through the relationship between origin and host culture.

  3. Effects of gender identity on experiences of healthcare for sexual minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiestand, K R; Horne, S G; Levitt, H M

    2007-01-01

    While research examining healthcare experiences of sexual minority individuals is growing, thus far research has been limited on lesbian gender identity and its relationship to physical and mental health. This study explores access to and experiences of healthcare with a sample of 516 butch and femme identified lesbian and bisexual women. In comparison to femme-identified women, it was found that butch women had routine gynecological examinations significantly less frequently, perceived poorer treatment in healthcare settings, were more likely to be out within healthcare settings, placed more importance on securing LGBT-positive healthcare practitioners, and had more difficulty finding LGBT-positive medical doctors. No differences were found for mental health. The results suggest that butch women may be more at risk for physical health concerns than femme women, in particular those illnesses that can be prevented or treated with regular gynecological care (e.g., uterine or cervical cancer). Implications of the study include greater awareness among healthcare professionals of sexual minority gender identity in addition to sexual identity, and more support for butch-identified women to access vital healthcare services.

  4. A cultural side effect: Learning to read interferes with identity processing of familiar objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regine eKolinsky

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the neuronal recycling hypothesis (Dehaene & Cohen, 2007, we examined whether reading acquisition has a cost for the recognition of nonlinguistic visual materials. More specifically, we checked whether the ability to discriminate between mirror images, which develops through literacy acquisition, interferes with object identity judgments, and whether interference strength varies as a function of the nature of the nonlinguistic material. To these aims we presented illiterate, late literate (who learned to read at adult age, and early literate adults with an orientation-independent, identity-based same-different comparison task in which they had to respond same to both physically identical and mirrored or plane-rotated images of pictures of familiar objects (Experiment 1 or of geometric shapes (Experiment 2. Interference from irrelevant orientation variations was stronger with plane rotations than with mirror images, and stronger with geometric shapes than with objects. Illiterates were the only participants almost immune to mirror variations, but only for familiar objects. Thus, the process of unlearning mirror-image generalization, necessary to acquire literacy in the Latin alphabet, has a cost for a basic function of the visual ventral object recognition stream, i.e., identification of familiar objects. This demonstrates that neural recycling is not just an adaptation to multi-use but a process of at least partial exaptation.

  5. Identity Processes and Intrinsic and Extrinsic Goal Pursuits: Directionality of Effects in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyckx, Koen; Duriez, Bart; Green, Lindsey M; Negru-Subtirica, Oana

    2017-08-01

    Identity research has mainly focused on the degree to which adolescents and emerging adults engage in exploration and commitment to identity goals and strivings. Somewhat lacking from this research tradition is an explicit focus on the content of the identity goals that individuals deem important and pursue. The present manuscript describes two longitudinal studies sampling college students in which we examine how exploration and commitment processes relate to intrinsic and extrinsic goal pursuits as defined in Self-Determination Theory. Study 1 was a two-wave longitudinal study spanning 6 months (N = 370; 77.4% women; mean age 18.24 years); Study 2 was a three-wave longitudinal study spanning 6 months (N = 458 students; 84.9% women; mean age 18.25 years). Using cross-lagged path analyses, hypotheses were supported to various degrees of convergence between studies, pointing to the extent of which results were replicated across our two independent longitudinal samples. Whereas an intrinsic goal orientation positively predicted commitment making (Study 1) and identification with commitment over time (Studies 1 and 2), an extrinsic goal orientation positively predicted ruminative exploration over time, which led to decreases in intrinsic orientation over time (Study 2). Further, an intrinsic goal orientation negatively predicted ruminative exploration over time (Study 1). The findings in for pro-active exploration processes were inconsistent across both studies, being prospectively related to both intrinsic (Study 2) and extrinsic goal orientations (Study 1). Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  6. Sexual Minority Health and Health Risk Factors: Intersection Effects of Gender, Race, and Sexual Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ning; Ruther, Matt

    2016-06-01

    Although population studies have documented the poorer health outcomes of sexual minorities, few have taken an intersectionality approach to examine how sexual orientation, gender, and race jointly affect these outcomes. Moreover, little is known about how behavioral risks and healthcare access contribute to health disparities by sexual, gender, and racial identities. Using ordered and binary logistic regression models in 2015, data from the 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Surveys (n=62,302) were analyzed to study disparities in self-rated health and functional limitation. This study examined how gender and race interact with sexual identity to create health disparities, and how these disparities are attributable to differential exposure to behavioral risks and access to care. Conditional on sociodemographic factors, all sexual, gender, and racial minority groups, except straight white women, gay white men, and bisexual non-white men, reported worse self-rated health than straight white men (pnon-white men, were more likely to report a functional limitation than straight white men (pgender, and racial minority groups. Sexual, gender, and racial identities interact with one another in a complex way to affect health experiences. Efforts to improve sexual minority health should consider heterogeneity in health risks and health outcomes among sexual minorities. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Gender-, Race-, and Income-Based Stereotype Threat: The Effects of Multiple Stigmatized Aspects of Identity on Math Performance and Working Memory Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tine, Michele; Gotlieb, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the relative impact of gender-, race-, and income-based stereotype threat and examined if individuals with multiple stigmatized aspects of identity experience a larger stereotype threat effect on math performance and working memory function than people with one stigmatized aspect of identity. Seventy-one college students of the…

  8. Gender-, Race-, and Income-Based Stereotype Threat: The Effects of Multiple Stigmatized Aspects of Identity on Math Performance and Working Memory Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tine, Michele; Gotlieb, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the relative impact of gender-, race-, and income-based stereotype threat and examined if individuals with multiple stigmatized aspects of identity experience a larger stereotype threat effect on math performance and working memory function than people with one stigmatized aspect of identity. Seventy-one college students of the…

  9. Challenging Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Identity is a keyword in a number of academic fields as well as in public debate and in politics. During the last decades, references to identity have proliferated, yet there is no simple definition available that corresponds to the use of the notion in all contexts. The significance of the notio...... Christian Lammers, Saxo-Instituttet - Arkæologi, Etnologi, Historie og Græsk og Latin; Gert Sørensen, Institut for Engelsk, Germansk og Romansk ; Anne Ring Petersen, Institut for Kunst- og Kulturvidenskab...

  10. The energy-momentum tensor, the trace identity and the Casimir effect

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S G Kamath

    2006-02-01

    The trace identity associated with the scale transformation → ′ = -ρ on the Lagrangian density for the noninteracting electromagnetic field in the covariant gauge is shown to be violated on a single plate on which the Dirichlet boundary condition (; 1, 2, 3 = -) = 0 is imposed. It is however respected in free space, i.e. in the absence of the plate. These results reinforce our assertions in an earlier paper where the same exercise was carried out using the Lagrangian density for the free, massive, real scalar field in 2 + 1 dimensions.

  11. Designer's Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunrath, Kamila; Cash, Philip; Li-Ying, Jason

    2016-01-01

    A designer’s professional identity (DPI) develops through both education and professional experience, building on core personality traits and innate skills. In this paper a systematic literature review and a secondary narrative review were developed in order to map personal attributes and design...

  12. [Identity theft

    CERN Multimedia

    Wolinksy, H

    2003-01-01

    "A new survey by the Federal Trade Commission indicates that over the last five years one in four American households has been hit by identity theft, which can result in thieves tapping their victims' credit cards or bank accounts" (1 page).

  13. Perceived ethnic discrimination and depressive symptoms: the buffering effects of ethnic identity, religion and ethnic social network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, Umar Z; Snijder, Marieke B; de Wit, Matty A S; Schene, Aart H; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2016-05-01

    Perceived ethnic discrimination (PED) is positively associated with depressive symptoms in ethnic minority groups in Western countries. Psychosocial factors may buffer against the health impact of PED, but evidence is lacking from Europe. We assessed whether ethnic identity, religion, and ethnic social network act as buffers in different ethnic minority groups in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Baseline data were used from the HEalthy Living In a Urban Setting study collected from January 2011 to June 2014. The random sample included 2501 South-Asian Surinamese, 2292 African Surinamese, 1877 Ghanaians, 2626 Turks, and 2484 Moroccans aged 18-70 years. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. PED was measured with the Everyday Discrimination Scale. Ethnic identity was assessed using the Psychological Acculturation Scale. Practicing religion was determined. Ethnic social network was assessed with the number of same-ethnic friends and amount of leisure time spent with same-ethnic people. PED was positively associated with depressive symptoms in all groups. The association was weaker among (a) those with strong ethnic identity in African Surinamese and Ghanaians, (b) those practicing religion among African Surinamese and Moroccans, (c) those with many same-ethnic friends in South-Asian Surinamese, Ghanaians, and Turks, and (d) those who spend leisure time with same-ethnic people among African Surinamese and Turks. Ethnic identity, religion, and ethnic social network weakened the association between PED and depressive symptoms, but the effects differed by ethnic minority group. These findings suggest that ethnic minority groups employ different resources to cope with PED.

  14. Civil Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Axel

    scanning, etc., to discussions of Shari'a law versus common civil law in India; from the study of religious cult in ancient city states to the processes of constitutional reconstruction in former Communist countries; and from attempts at conflict resolution and prevention between Jewish and Arab citizens......In this paper I will go through a catalogue of examples of contexts in which the term civil identity is currently used, ranging from the formal and technical process of linking a set of administrative and other events to an individual biological person by means of identity cards, fingerprints, iris...... of technology and of law. If such a field can be established, the answers to those questions might be relevant to such contemporary issues as inter-ethnic, religious, and -cultural conflict or reconciliation, migration and nationality, civil rights and surveillance, security and privacy, bureaucracy and inter...

  15. Civil Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Axel

    scanning, etc., to discussions of Shari'a law versus common civil law in India; from the study of religious cult in ancient city states to the processes of constitutional reconstruction in former Communist countries; and from attempts at conflict resolution and prevention between Jewish and Arab citizens...... of Israel to Luce Irigaray's Feminist agenda of elaborating gender specific civil identities. My intention is to investigate whether these different employments of 'civil identity' point towards a common, and fairly well defined object field asking questions of contemporary relevance to the philosophy...... of technology and of law. If such a field can be established, the answers to those questions might be relevant to such contemporary issues as inter-ethnic, religious, and -cultural conflict or reconciliation, migration and nationality, civil rights and surveillance, security and privacy, bureaucracy and inter...

  16. Resonance interaction energy between two accelerated identical atoms in a coaccelerated frame and the Unruh effect

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Wenting; Rizzuto, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the resonance interaction energy between two uniformly accelerated identical atoms, interacting with the scalar field or the electromagnetic field in the vacuum state, in the reference frame coaccelerating with the atoms. We assume that one atom is excited and the other in the ground state, and that they are prepared in their correlated symmetric or antisymmetric state. Using perturbation theory, we separate, at the second order in the atom-field coupling, the contributions of vacuum fluctuations and radiation reaction field to the energy shift of the interacting system. We show that only the radiation reaction term contributes to the resonance interaction between the two atoms, while Unruh thermal fluctuations, related to the vacuum fluctuations contribution, do not affect the resonance interatomic interaction. We also show that the resonance interaction between two uniformly accelerated atoms, recently investigated in the comoving (locally inertial) frame, can be recovered in the coaccelerate...

  17. Consumer Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Melissa Marie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to prove that despite consumers' impression that they are alone in deciding their consumption decision they are wrong. Consumers are manipulated on various levels by marketers. It is the marketer who decides what consumer identities should be created. Consumers are persuaded by marketers on different levels beginning with consumers' needs. Marketers begin by appealing to consumer drives, motivations and emotions to persuade their consumers to purchase their brand...

  18. Trigonometric identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvina Baica

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author obtains new trigonometric identities of the form 2(p−1(p−22∏k=1p−2(1−cos2πkpp−1−k=pp−2 which are derived as a result of relations in a cyclotomic field ℛ(ρ, where ℛ is the field of rationals and ρ is a root of unity.

  19. Power lines, roads, and avian nest survival: effects on predator identity and predation intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGregorio, Brett A; Weatherhead, Patrick J; Sperry, Jinelle H

    2014-05-01

    1 Anthropogenic alteration of landscapes can affect avian nest success by influencing the abundance, distribution, and behavior of predators. Understanding avian nest predation risk necessitates understanding how landscapes affect predator distribution and behavior. 2 From a sample of 463 nests of 17 songbird species, we evaluated how landscape features (distance to forest edge, unpaved roads, and power lines) influenced daily nest survival. We also used video cameras to identify nest predators at 137 nest predation events and evaluated how landscape features influenced predator identity. Finally, we determined the abundance and distribution of several of the principal predators using surveys and radiotelemetry. 3 Distance to power lines was the best predictor of predator identity: predation by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), corvids (Corvus sp. and Cyanocitta cristata), racers (Coluber constrictor), and coachwhips (Masticophis flagellum) increased with proximity to power lines, whereas predation by rat snakes (Elaphe obsoleta) and raptors decreased. In some cases, predator density may reliably indicate nest predation risk because racers, corvids, and cowbirds frequently used power line right-of-ways. 4 Of five bird species with enough nests to analyze individually, daily nest survival of only indigo buntings (Passerina cyanea) decreased with proximity to power lines, despite predation by most predators at our site being positively associated with power lines. For all nesting species combined, distance to unpaved road was the model that most influenced daily nest survival. This pattern is likely a consequence of rat snakes, the locally dominant nest predator (28% of predation events), rarely using power lines and associated areas. Instead, rat snakes were frequently associated with road edges, indicating that not all edges are functionally similar. 5 Our results suggest that interactions between predators and landscape features are likely to be specific to

  20. Effects of perpetrator identity on suicidality and nonsuicidal self-injury in sexually victimized female adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlu, Gulsen; Cakaloz, Burcu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Child sexual abuse and sexual dating violence victimization are common problems that are known to have long-term negative consequences. This study aimed to compare the sociodemographic, abuse-related, and clinical features of female adolescents who were sexually abused by different perpetrators, and identify the factors associated with suicidality and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in these cases. Patients and methods Data of 254 sexually abused female adolescents between the ages of 12–18 years were evaluated. The cases were classified into three groups, namely “sexual dating violence”, “incest”, and “other child sexual abuse”, according to the identity of the perpetrator. The three groups were compared in terms of sociodemographic, abuse-related, and clinical features. Results Major depressive disorder was the most common psychiatric diagnosis, which was present in 44.9% of the cases. Among all victims, 25.6% had attempted suicide, 52.0% had suicidal ideation, and 23.6% had NSSI during the postabuse period. A logistic regression analysis revealed that attempted suicide was predicted by dating violence victimization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =3.053; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.473, 6.330) and depression (AOR =2.238; 95% CI =1.226, 4.086). Dating violence victimization was also the strongest predictor of subsequent suicidal ideation (AOR =3.500; 95% CI =1.817, 6.741). In addition, revictimization was determined to be an important risk factor for both suicidal ideation (AOR =2.897; 95% CI =1.276, 6.574) and NSSI (AOR =3.847; 95% CI =1.899, 7.794). Conclusion Perpetrator identity and revictimization are associated with negative mental health outcomes in sexually victimized female adolescents. Increased risk of suicidality and NSSI should be borne in mind while assessing cases with dating violence and revictimization histories, in particular. PMID:27382291

  1. Identity transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Robinson, Sarah; Jones, Sally

    This paper develops the concept of ‘pedagogical nudging’ and examines four interventions in an entrepreneurship classroom and the potential it has for student identity transformation. Pedagogical nudging is positioned as a tool, which in the hands of a reflective, professional, with an understand......This paper develops the concept of ‘pedagogical nudging’ and examines four interventions in an entrepreneurship classroom and the potential it has for student identity transformation. Pedagogical nudging is positioned as a tool, which in the hands of a reflective, professional......, as well as the resources they have when they come to the classroom. It also incorporates perspectives from (ii) transformational learning and explores the concept of (iii) nudging from a pedagogical viewpoint, proposing it as an important tool in entrepreneurship education. The study incorporates......) assists students in straddling the divide between identities, the emotions and tensions this elicits, and (iv) transform student understanding. We extend nudging theory into a new territory. Pedagogical nudging techniques may be able to unlock doors and bring our students beyond the unacknowledged...

  2. Do the rich get richer? Varying effects of tree species identity and diversity on the richness of understory taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Juilette; Paine, C. E. Timothy; Schoolmaster, Donald; Stejskal, Robert; Volařík, Daniel; Šebesta, Jan; Trnka, Filip; Koutecký, Tomáš; Švarc, Petr; Svátek, Martin; Hector, Andy; Matula, Radim

    2016-01-01

    Understory herbs and soil invertebrates play key roles in soil formation and nutrient cycling in forests. Studies suggest that diversity in the canopy and in the understory are positively associated, but these studies often confound the effects of tree species diversity with those of tree species identity and abiotic conditions. We combined extensive field sampling with structural equation modeling to evaluate the simultaneous effects of tree diversity on the species diversity of understory herbs, beetles, and earthworms. The diversity of earthworms and saproxylic beetles was directly and positively associated with tree diversity, presumably because species of both these taxa specialize on certain species of trees. Tree identity also strongly affected diversity in the understory, especially for herbs, likely as a result of interspecific differences in canopy light transmittance or litter decomposition rates. Our results suggest that changes in forest management will disproportionately affect certain understory taxa. For instance, changes in canopy diversity will affect the diversity of earthworms and saproxylic beetles more than changes in tree species composition, whereas the converse would be expected for understory herbs and detritivorous beetles. We conclude that the effects of tree diversity on understory taxa can vary from positive to negative and may affect biogeochemical cycling in temperate forests. Thus, maintaining high diversity in temperate forests can promote the diversity of multiple taxa in the understory.

  3. Splitting Ward identity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, Mahmoud [Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Within the background-field framework we present a path integral derivation of the splitting Ward identity for the one-particle irreducible effective action in the presence of an infrared regulator, and make connection with earlier works on the subject. The approach is general in the sense that it does not rely on how the splitting is performed. This identity is then used to address the problem of background dependence of the effective action at an arbitrary energy scale. We next introduce the modified master equation and emphasize its role in constraining the effective action. Finally, application to general gauge theories within the geometric approach is discussed. (orig.)

  4. Contribution of counterions and degree of ionization for birefringence creation and relaxation kinetics parameters of PAH/PAZO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raposo, Maria, E-mail: mfr@fct.unl.pt; Monteiro Timóteo, Ana Rita; Ribeiro, Paulo A. [CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, UNL, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Ferreira, Quirina [CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, UNL, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Instituto de Telecomunicações, Instituto Superior Técnico, University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Botelho do Rego, Ana Maria [Centro de Química-Física Molecular and IN, Complexo Interdisciplinar, Instituto Superior Técnico, University of Lisbon, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-09-21

    Photo induced birefringent materials can be used to develop optical and conversion energy devices, and consequently, the study of the variables that influences the creation and relaxation of birefringence should be carefully analyzed. In this work, the parameters of birefringence creation and relaxation kinetics curves obtained on layer-by-layer (LBL) films, prepared from azo-polyectrolyte poly[1-[4-(3-carboxy-4 hydroxyphenylazo) benzene sulfonamido]-1,2-ethanediyl, sodium salt] (PAZO) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride)(PAH), are related with the presence of counterions and the degree of ionization of the polyelectrolytes. Those kinetics curves obtained on PAH/PAZO LBL films, prepared from PAH solutions with different pHs and maintaining the pH of PAZO solution constant at pH = 9, were analyzed taking into account the films composition which was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The creation and relaxation birefringence curves are justified by two processes: one associated to local mobility of the azobenzene with a characteristic time 30 s and intensity constant and other associated with polymeric chains mobility with the characteristic time and intensity decreasing with pH. These results allow us to conclude that the birefringence creation process, associated to local mobility of azobenzenes is independent of the degree of ionization and of number of counterions or co-ions present while the birefringence creation process associated to mobility of chains have its characteristic time and intensity dependent of both degree of ionization and number of counterions. The birefringence relaxation processes are dependent of the degree of ionization. The analysis of the films composition revealed, in addition, the presence of a protonated secondary or tertiary amine revealing that PAZO may have positive charges and consequently a zwitterionic behavior.

  5. The model of a polyelectrolyte solution with explicit account of counterions within a self-consistent field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budkov, Yu. A.; Nogovitsyn, E. A.; Kiselev, M. G.

    2013-04-01

    A theoretical approach to calculating the thermodynamic and structural functions of solutions of polyelectrolytes based on Gaussian equivalent representation for the calculation of functional integrals is proposed. It is noted that a new analytical result of this work is the direct assumption of counterions, along with an equation for the gyration radius of a polymer chain as a function of the concentrations of monomers and added low-molecular salt. An equation of state is obtained within the proposed model. Our theoretical results are used to describe the thermodynamic and structural properties of an aqueous solution of sodium polystyrene sulfonate with additions of NaCl.

  6. Effects of perpetrator identity on suicidality and nonsuicidal self-injury in sexually victimized female adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unlu G

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gulsen Unlu, Burcu Cakaloz Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey Purpose: Child sexual abuse and sexual dating violence victimization are common problems that are known to have long-term negative consequences. This study aimed to compare the sociodemographic, abuse-related, and clinical features of female adolescents who were sexually abused by different perpetrators, and identify the factors associated with suicidality and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI in these cases. Patients and methods: Data of 254 sexually abused female adolescents between the ages of 12–18 years were evaluated. The cases were classified into three groups, namely “sexual dating violence”, “incest”, and “other child sexual abuse”, according to the identity of the perpetrator. The three groups were compared in terms of sociodemographic, abuse-related, and clinical features. Results: Major depressive disorder was the most common psychiatric diagnosis, which was present in 44.9% of the cases. Among all victims, 25.6% had attempted suicide, 52.0% had suicidal ideation, and 23.6% had NSSI during the postabuse period. A logistic regression analysis revealed that attempted suicide was predicted by dating violence victimization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =3.053; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.473, 6.330 and depression (AOR =2.238; 95% CI =1.226, 4.086. Dating violence victimization was also the strongest predictor of subsequent suicidal ideation (AOR =3.500; 95% CI =1.817, 6.741. In addition, revictimization was determined to be an important risk factor for both suicidal ideation (AOR =2.897; 95% CI =1.276, 6.574 and NSSI (AOR =3.847; 95% CI =1.899, 7.794. Conclusion: Perpetrator identity and revictimization are associated with negative mental health outcomes in sexually victimized female adolescents. Increased risk of suicidality and NSSI should be borne in mind while assessing cases with dating

  7. Through the looking glass of a chemistry video game: Evaluating the effects of different MLEs presenting identical content material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Dustin S.

    The primary goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of different media-based learning environments (MLEs) that present identical chemistry content material. This is done with four different MLEs that utilize some or all components of a chemistry-based media-based prototype video game. Examination of general chemistry student volunteers purposefully randomized to one of four different MLEs did not provide evidence that the higher the level of interactivity resulted in a more effective MLE for the chemistry content. Data suggested that the cognitive load to play the chemistry-based video game may impaired the chemistry content being presented and recalled by the students while the students watching the movie of the chemistry-based video game were able to recall the chemistry content more efficiently. Further studies in this area need to address the overall cognitive load of the different MLEs to potentially better determine what the most effective MLE may be for this chemistry content.

  8. Home free? The (AfterEffects of Imprisonment on Women's Bodies, Physical and Mental Health and Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURA AHANTZ & SYLVIE FRIGON

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As women's prison populations grow in Canada and around the world, more women are exposed to carceral practices which use disciplinary techniques to shape them into 'docile bodies.' Although intended to shape women's minds, these processes also have marked effects on female bodies. Using a Foucauldian perspective, we examine how women adapt to and resist the prison's disciplinary routines and its intrusions into their lives and bodies. Interviews with female ex-prisoners reveal how everyday degradations, health practices, self-injury and body modification shape their bodies and identities. These women's accounts are interpreted through the lens of the body to explore the long-term effects of the prison's rationalities and technologies on their bodies, minds and identities. We document how women negotiate these forces during their imprisonments, as well as after their releases when they are living in the community. Even though women are released from prison, they are not home free; the prison's technologies and rationalities permeate the prison walls and follow the women as they negotiate community life.

  9. Effects of transition metal ion identity and π-cation interactions in metal-bis(peptide) complexes containing phenylalanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utley, Brandon; Angel, Laurence A

    2010-01-01

    Electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry was used to study the effects of the metal ion identity and π-cation interactions on the dissociation pathways of metal-bis(peptide) complexes, where the metal is either Mn(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), or Zn(2+); and the peptide is either FGGF, GGGG, GF, or GG, where G is glycine and F is phenylalanine. The [(FGGF)(FGGF-H) + M(2+)](+) and [(GGGG)(GGGG-H) + M(2+)](+) complexes dissociated by losing one FGGF or GGGG, respectively. Relative binding affinities were measured using the crossover points, where the parent and product ions were equal in ion abundance and a normalized-collision energy scale. The results indicate the relative binding affinities for FGGF and GGGG follow the same order with respect to the transition metal ion identity: Cu(2+) < Ni(2+) < Mn(2+) ≈ Zn(2+) < Co(2+), and the π-cation interactions in the FGGF complex have a measureable stabilizing effect. In contrast, the main fragmentation channels of [(GF)(GF-H) + M(2+)]+ and [(GG)(GG-H) + M(2+)](+) are loss of CO(2) and 2CO(2) with the [(GF)(GF-H) + M(2+)](+) complex also exhibiting cinnamic acid ,GF, residual glycine, cinnamate and styrene loss.

  10. Antiproliferative and genotoxic effects of nature identical and artificial synthetic food additives of aroma and flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. M. Nunes

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to analyze the antiproliferative and genotoxic potential of synthetic food flavorings, nature identical passion fruit and artificial vanilla. This assessment used root meristem cells of Allium cepa L., in exposure times of 24 and 48 hours and using doses of 0.2; 0.4 and 0.6 mL. Roots were fixed in Carnoy’s solution, hydrolyzed in hydrochloric acid, stained with acetic orcein and analyzed with optical microscope at 400× magnification, 5,000 cells for each treatment. For data analysis, it was used Chi-square test at 5%. Doses of 0.2 mL at ET 48 h; 0.4 and 0.6 mL at ET 24 and 48 h of passion fruit flavor, and the three doses of the vanilla flavor at ET 24 and 48 h significantly reduced the cell division rate in the meristems of roots, proving to be cytotoxic. Doses of 0.2; 0.4 and 0.6 mL of the passion fruit additive, and the three doses of vanilla tested, in the two exposure times, induced mitotic spindle changes and micronuclei formation in the cells of the test organism used, proving to be genotoxic. Therefore, under the studied conditions, flavoring solutions of vanilla and passion fruit, marketed nationally and internationally, significantly altered the functioning of the cell cycle in root meristem cells of A. cepa.

  11. Antiproliferative and genotoxic effects of nature identical and artificial synthetic food additives of aroma and flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, R D M; Sales, I M S; Silva, S I O; Sousa, J M C; Peron, A P

    2016-07-25

    This study aimed to analyze the antiproliferative and genotoxic potential of synthetic food flavorings, nature identical passion fruit and artificial vanilla. This assessment used root meristem cells of Allium cepa L., in exposure times of 24 and 48 hours and using doses of 0.2; 0.4 and 0.6 mL. Roots were fixed in Carnoy's solution, hydrolyzed in hydrochloric acid, stained with acetic orcein and analyzed with optical microscope at 400× magnification, 5,000 cells for each treatment. For data analysis, it was used Chi-square test at 5%. Doses of 0.2 mL at ET 48 h; 0.4 and 0.6 mL at ET 24 and 48 h of passion fruit flavor, and the three doses of the vanilla flavor at ET 24 and 48 h significantly reduced the cell division rate in the meristems of roots, proving to be cytotoxic. Doses of 0.2; 0.4 and 0.6 mL of the passion fruit additive, and the three doses of vanilla tested, in the two exposure times, induced mitotic spindle changes and micronuclei formation in the cells of the test organism used, proving to be genotoxic. Therefore, under the studied conditions, flavoring solutions of vanilla and passion fruit, marketed nationally and internationally, significantly altered the functioning of the cell cycle in root meristem cells of A. cepa.

  12. the effect of intergroup threat and social identity salience on the belief in conspiracy theories over terrorism in indonesia: collective angst as a mediator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mashuri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study tested how intergroup threat (high versus low and social identity as a Muslim (salient versus non-salient affected belief in conspiracy theories. Data among Indonesian Muslim students (N = 139 from this study demonstrated that intergroup threat and social identity salience interacted to influence belief in conspiracy theories. High intergroup threat triggered greater belief in conspiracy theories than low intergroup threat, more prominently in the condition in which participants’ Muslim identity was made salient. Collective angst also proved to mediate the effect of intergroup threat on the belief. However, in line with the prediction, evidence of this mediation effect of collective angst was only on the salient social identity condition. Discussions on these research findings build on both theoretical and practical implications.

  13. The effects of religious socialization and religious identity on psychosocial functioning in Korean American adolescents from immigrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Kyoung Ok; Lee, Richard M

    2012-06-01

    This study examined religious identity as a mediator and moderator between religious socialization by parents, peers, and religious mentors and psychosocial functioning (i.e., social competence, internalizing and externalizing behavior problems) among 155 Korean American adolescents. Religious socialization by parents and peers were positively associated with adolescents' religious identity and social competence. Religious identity fully mediated the relationship between religious socialization by parents and social competence, and partially mediated the relationship between religious socialization by peers and social competence. A competing model with religious identity as a moderator found adolescents with low religious identity showed significantly more externalizing behavior problems when they received more religious socialization from parents.

  14. Group identity and leading-by-example

    OpenAIRE

    Drouvelis, Michalis; Nosenzo, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    We study the interplay between leading-by-example and group identity in a public goods game experiment. A common identity between the leader and her followers is beneficial for cooperation: average contributions are more than 30% higher than in a treatment where no identity was induced. In two further treatments we study the effects of heterogeneous identities. We find no effect on cooperation when only part of the followers share the leader’s identity, or when followers share a common identi...

  15. The Effect of Counterions on the Blend Miscibility of Polystyrene with Sulfonated Polystyrene Ionomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nancy C.; Burghardt, Wesley R.; Composto, Russell J.; Winey, Karen I.

    2006-03-01

    Our previous study probed the miscibility of polystyrene (PS) and sulfonated polystyrene (P(S-SSx)) of differing sulfonation levels (x) and found a narrow window of miscibility. Specifically, the PS:P(S-SSx) blend system becomes completely immiscible at unexpectedly low sulfonation level, x = 2.7 mol% . Here we extend the study of blend miscibility of PS with P(S-SS0.007) to include materials neutralized with sodium, barium and zinc cations. These ionomer blends exhibit an upper critical solution temperature (UCST) behavior with an increase in critical temperature as compared to the blend with unneutralized P(S-SS0.007). Forward recoil spectrometry (FRES) results indicate that Zn^++ and Ba^++ neutralized ionomers are less miscible than Na^+ when fully neutralized, while the blend miscibility for Na^+ and Zn^++ neutralized ionomers behave similarly when partially neutralized. Rheological studies are underway to compliment the blend miscibility studies. These miscibility information gained from PS/P(S-SSx) ionomers blends will serve as a foundation for future ionomer morphology studies.

  16. pH-dependent absorption spectra of rhodopsin mutant E113Q: On the role of counterions and protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Peng; Zhou, Panwang; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Zhang, Yan

    2017-03-01

    The absorption spectra of bovine rhodopsin mutant E113Q in solutions were investigated at the molecular level by using a hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method. The calculations suggest the mechanism of the absorption variations of E113Q at different pH values. The results indicate that the polarizations of the counterions in the vicinity of Schiff base under protonation and unprotonation states of the mutant E113Q would be a crucial factor to change the energy gap of the retinal to tune the absorption spectra. Glu-181 residue, which is close to the chromophore, cannot serve as the counterion of the protonated Schiff base of E113Q in dark state. Moreover, the results of the absorption maximum in mutant E113Q with the various anions (Cl-, Br-, I- and NO3-) manifested that the mutant E113Q could have the potential for use as a template of anion biosensors at visible wavelength.

  17. Self-reference effect on memory in healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: Influence of identity valence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, Mona; Laisney, Mickaël; Lamidey, Virginie; Egret, Stéphanie; de La Sayette, Vincent; Chételat, Gaël; Piolino, Pascale; Rauchs, Géraldine; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis

    2016-01-01

    The self-reference effect (SRE) has been shown to benefit episodic memory in healthy individuals. In healthy aging, its preservation is acknowledged, but in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the jury is still out. Furthermore, there has yet to be a study of the SRE in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). As self-reference implies subjective self-representations, and positive information enhance memory performance, we set out to examine the effects of 1) material and 2) identity valence on the SRE across the early stages of AD. Twenty healthy older individuals and 40 patients (20 diagnosed with aMCI and 20 diagnosed with mild AD) performed a memory task. Participants had to judge positive and negative personality trait adjectives with reference to themselves or to another person, or else process these adjectives semantically. We then administered a recognition task. Participants also completed a questionnaire on identity valence. Among healthy older individuals, the SRE benefited episodic memory independently of material and identity valence. By contrast, among aMCI patients, we only observed the SRE when the material was positive. When self-referential material was negative, patients' performance depended on the valence of their self-representations: negative self-representations correlated with poor recognition of negative self-referential adjectives. Finally, performance of patients with mild AD by condition and material valence were too low and inappropriate to be subjected to relevant analyses. The persistence of an SRE for positive adjectives in aMCI suggests the existence of a positivity effect for self-related information, which contributes to wellbeing. The absence of an SRE for negative adjectives, which led aMCI patients to dismiss negative self-related information, could be due to low self-esteem. These results corroborate the mnenic neglect model and point out the importance of the psychoaffective dimension in patients with aMCI, which could constitute a

  18. The Cultural Identity of Translator and Its Effect on Translation:The case of Two English version of Analects%The Cultural Identity of Translator and Its Effect on Translation: The case of Two English version of Analects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    恩浩

    2016-01-01

    This paper will focus on how the identity of translators affect the translation based on the analysis of the two translation versions of the Analects translated by James Legge and Ku Hungming respectively. The thesis will analyze the identity types the translators have, and then offers in-depth analyses and discussion of how the cultural identity affects translation strategy which can provide us with a special angle on the ways we see translation. Through analyzing, it can be easily found that cultural identity has a great impact on translator and translation which cannot be neglected.

  19. Family support in the transition to adulthood in Portugal--its effects on identity capital development, uncertainty management and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, José Egídio; Mendonça, Marina; Coimbra, Susana; Fontaine, Anne Marie

    2014-12-01

    In a familistic southern European society such as the Portuguese, the family has historically played a prominent role in supporting the negotiation of transition pathways into adulthood. The present study aimed at capturing (1) the relative weight of parental financial support and autonomy support in contributing to the youngsters' psychological well-being (PWB), and (2) the mediating role of identity capital and uncertainty management in this relationship. A total of 620 participants completed measures of parental support, identity capital, uncertainty management and PWB. Autonomy support was found to be the strongest predictor of PWB, both directly and indirectly through its effects on identity capital and the use of target focused uncertainty management strategies. Conversely, financial support evidenced only a minor indirect impact through the mediation of tangible identity capital. Autonomy stimulation may constitute one of the most developmentally determinant family challenges in assisting the process of coming of age in Portugal.

  20. Identity Style, Parental Authority, and Identity Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzonsky, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    The role that parental authority patterns and social-cognitive identity styles may play in establishing identity commitments was investigated. The results indicated that family authority and identity style variables combined accounted for 50% of the variation in strength of identity commitment. As hypothesized, the relationship between parental…

  1. Identity Style, Parental Authority, and Identity Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzonsky, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    The role that parental authority patterns and social-cognitive identity styles may play in establishing identity commitments was investigated. The results indicated that family authority and identity style variables combined accounted for 50% of the variation in strength of identity commitment. As hypothesized, the relationship between parental…

  2. Finite Range Effects in Energies and Recombination Rates of Three Identical Bosons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peder Klokmose; V. Fedorov, D.; S. Jensen, A.;

    2013-01-01

    is large. The models are built on contact potentials which take into account finite range effects; one is a two-channel model and the other is an effective range expansion model implemented through the boundary condition on the three-body wave function when two of the particles are at the same point...... in space. We compare the results with the results of the ubiquitous single-parameter zero-range model where only the scattering length is taken into account. Both finite range models predict variations of the well-known geometric scaling factor 22.7 that arises in Efimov physics. The threshold value...... at negative scattering length for creation of a bound trimer moves to higher or lower values depending on the sign of the effective range compared to the location of the threshold for the single-parameter zero-range model. Large effective ranges, corresponding to narrow resonances, are needed...

  3. Tree diversity and species identity effects on soil fungi, protists and animals are context dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedersoo, Leho; Bahram, Mohammad; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Põlme, Sergei; Hiiesalu, Indrek; Anslan, Sten; Harend, Helery; Buegger, Franz; Pritsch, Karin; Koricheva, Julia; Abarenkov, Kessy

    2016-02-01

    Plant species richness and the presence of certain influential species (sampling effect) drive the stability and functionality of ecosystems as well as primary production and biomass of consumers. However, little is known about these floristic effects on richness and community composition of soil biota in forest habitats owing to methodological constraints. We developed a DNA metabarcoding approach to identify the major eukaryote groups directly from soil with roughly species-level resolution. Using this method, we examined the effects of tree diversity and individual tree species on soil microbial biomass and taxonomic richness of soil biota in two experimental study systems in Finland and Estonia and accounted for edaphic variables and spatial autocorrelation. Our analyses revealed that the effects of tree diversity and individual species on soil biota are largely context dependent. Multiple regression and structural equation modelling suggested that biomass, soil pH, nutrients and tree species directly affect richness of different taxonomic groups. The community composition of most soil organisms was strongly correlated due to similar response to environmental predictors rather than causal relationships. On a local scale, soil resources and tree species have stronger effect on diversity of soil biota than tree species richness per se.

  4. MODELING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE CORPORATE IDENTITY MIX IN PERCEIVED QUALITY AND CUSTOMER- RELATED BRAND EQUITY WITH INTERPRETIVE STRUCTURAL EQUATIONS AND MICMAC ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Pishdar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the relation between corporate identity mix, perceived quality on customers’ behalf and customer-centric brand equity. A review of the available literature within this scope resulted in making a primary model which represents that the corporate identity mix has an effect upon the perceived quality and brand equity by some variables such as corporate image and corporate reputation. Statistical analysis of the formulated hypotheses leads us to the conclusion that the influence of identity mix on corporate image and other correlations showed in the primary model could not be denied. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA was executed and, as a result, established that all fitting indexes are in an immaculate condition and factor loadings are significant when the confidence level is 95%. So, the primary model of the survey will be supplemented with some new relations. It appears that the corporate identity mix can directly affect the brand equity, corporate reputation and perceived identity, besides, corporate image and corporate reputation directly affect the brand equity. The upshot of the MICMAC analysis on corporate identity mix variables shows that corporate characteristic and culture play a key role in this system.

  5. Effects of Korean National Identity of Korean Teenagers%韩剧对朝鲜族青少年民族认同感的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔美玉; 朱猜猜

    2015-01-01

    Korean TV drama has a influence on the national identity of Korean nationality. Through studying the influence of Korean national identity of Korean teenagers, the paper concludes:the relation between Korean attitudes and ethnic identity, behavior dimensions and the dimensions of ethnic identity have a significant negative correlation. Korean cognitive dimension of national identity have a significant positive effect;the behavior of the national identity dimension significantly negatively predicted.%韩剧对朝鲜族青少年民族认同感有影响。本文通过韩剧对朝鲜族青少年民族认同感的影响研究,得出结论:韩剧的态度与民族认同存在正相关关系,行为维度与民族认同的各维度有显著的负相关关系。韩剧的认知维度对民族认同有显著的正向预测作用;行为维度对民族认同有显著的负向预测作用。

  6. Effects of Physical Atypicality on Children's Social Identities and Intergroup Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Meagan M.; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2007-01-01

    Individuals vary in the degree to which they are representative, or typical, of their social groups. To investigate the effects of atypicality on intergroup attitudes, elementary-school-age children (N = 97) attending a summer school program were assigned to novel color groups that included typical (blue or green) and atypical (light blue or light…

  7. Effects of plant species identity, diversity and soil fertility on biodegradation of phenanthrene in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oyelami, A.O.; Okere, U.V.; Orwin, K.; Deyn, de G.B.; Jones, K.C.; Semple, K.T.

    2013-01-01

    The work presented in this paper investigated the effects of plant species composition, species diversity and soil fertility on biodegradation of 14C-phenanthrene in soil. The two soils used were of contrasting fertility, taken from long term unfertilised and fertilised grassland, showing

  8. Identity and Epistemic Emotions during Knowledge Revision: A Potential Account for the Backfire Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevors, Gregory J.; Muis, Krista R.; Pekrun, Reinhard; Sinatra, Gale M.; Winne, Philip H.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has shown that for some topics, messages to refute and revise misconceptions may backfire. The current research offers one possible account for this backfire effect (i.e., the ironic strengthening of belief in erroneous information after an attempted refutation) from an educational psychology perspective and examines whether…

  9. Identity-Specific Face Adaptation Effects: Evidence for Abstractive Face Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hole, Graham

    2011-01-01

    The effects of selective adaptation on familiar face perception were examined. After prolonged exposure to photographs of a celebrity, participants saw a series of ambiguous morphs that were varying mixtures between the face of that person and a different celebrity. Participants judged fewer of the morphs to resemble the celebrity to which they…

  10. Questioning Ethnic Identity : Interviewer Effects in Research About Immigrants' Self-Definition and Feelings of Belonging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bochove, Marianne; Burgers, Jack; Geurts, Amber; de Koster, Willem; van der Waal, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    Although studies on ethnicity-of-interviewer effects demonstrate that the interviewer's ethnic background influences respondents' answers, they often do not take the multifaceted nature and context-dependency of ethnic identifications into account. We aim to contribute to the literature in two respe

  11. Effective depth-of-penetration range due to hardness variation for different lots of nominally identical target material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patrick FRUEH; Andreas HEINE; Karl Ernst WEBER; Matthias WICKERT

    2016-01-01

    The effect of small variations of target hardness on the depth of penetration for nominally identical target material has not been addressed systematically in publications yet and is often neglected. An investigation of this issue for laboratory-scale long rod projectiles penetrating into semi-infinite rolled-homogeneous-armor steel targets was conducted. The tungsten-heavy-alloy penetrators were of length 90 mm and diameter 6 mm. Five lots of armor steel with a nominal hardness range of 280–330 BHN provided material for the targets. The pursued approach consisted of hardness testing of the targets, in total 17 ballistic experiments at velocities in between 1250 m/s and 1780 m/s and data analysis. A linear regression analysis of penetration vs. hardness shows that a target hardness increase within the given range of 280–330 BHN may result in a reduction of penetration depth of about 5.8 mm at constant velocity. This is equal to a change of−12%at an impact velocity of 1250 m/s. A multiple linear regression analysis included also the influence of yaw angle and impact velocity. It shows that small yaw angles and slight variations of impact velocities provide a smaller variation of the semi-infinite penetration depths than a variation of target hardness within a typical specification span of 50 BHN. For such a span a change in penetration of approximately−4.8 mm due to hardness variation is found, whereas 1° of yaw angle or−10 m/s of velocity variation gives a change of about−1.0 mm respectively−0.9 mm. For the given example, the overwhelming part of the variation is to be attributed to hardness effects–4.8 mm out of 5.8 mm (83%). For nominally identical target material the target hardness thus influences the ballistic test results more severely than the typical scatter in impact conditions.

  12. Religious Identity Development of Adolescents in Christian Secondary Schools: Effects of School and Religious Backgrounds of Adolescents and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram-Troost, Gerdien D.; de Roos, Simone A.; Miedema, Siebren

    2007-01-01

    This study examines religious identity development of pupils at Dutch schools for secondary education (mean age 16.4). With the help of a theoretical conceptualization of "religious identity development" empirical research is carried out. Main question is whether differences in terms of religious commitment and exploration between pupils…

  13. Trajectory Perception and Object Continuity: Effects of Shape and Color Change on 4-Month-Olds' Perception of Object Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, J. Gavin; Slater, Alan M.; Mason, Uschi C.; Spring, Jo; Johnson, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that infants use object trajectory continuity as a cue to the constant identity of an object, but results are equivocal regarding the role of object features, with some work suggesting that a change in the appearance of an object does not cue a change in identity. In an experiment involving 72 participants, we…

  14. Managing corporate visual identity: Use and effects of organizational measures to support a consistent self-presentation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, A.L.M.; de Jong, Menno D.T.; Elving, W.J.L.

    2004-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that corporate visual identity (CVI) is an important element of identity, reputation, and relationship management. Academic research has focused strongly on the strategic and design aspects of CVI, and neglected the operational level. This article addresses one of the ma

  15. Managing corporate visual identity: Use and effects of organizational measures to support a consistent self-presentation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, A.L.M.; de Jong, Menno D.T.; Elving, W.J.L.

    2004-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that corporate visual identity (CVI) is an important element of identity, reputation, and relationship management. Academic research has focused strongly on the strategic and design aspects of CVI, and neglected the operational level. This article addresses one of the

  16. Swiss identity smells like chocolate: Social identity shapes olfactory judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Géraldine; Pool, Eva; Delplanque, Sylvain; Oud, Bastiaan; Margot, Christian; Sander, David; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2016-10-11

    There is extensive evidence that social identities can shape people's attitudes and behavior, but what about sensory judgments? We examined the possibility that social identity concerns may also shape the judgment of non-social properties-namely, olfactory judgment. In two experiments, we presented Swiss and non-Swiss participants with the odor of chocolate, for which Switzerland is world-famous, and a control odor (popcorn). Swiss participants primed with Swiss identity reported the odor of chocolate (but not popcorn) as more intense than non-Swiss participants (Experiments 1 and 2) and than Swiss participants primed with individual identity or not primed (Experiment 2). The self-reported intensity of chocolate smell tended to increase as identity accessibility increased-but only among Swiss participants (Experiment 1). These results suggest that identity priming can counter-act classic sensory habituation effects, allowing identity-relevant smells to maintain their intensity after repeated presentations. This suggests that social identity dynamically influences sensory judgment. We discuss the potential implications for models of social identity and chemosensory perception.

  17. The role of the counter-ions present in syntheses on the thermal stabilization of strontium and/or calcium apatites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo da Silva, Leila; Santos Menezes, Daniela dos; Almeida, Luis Eduardo [Laboratório de Biomateriais – P" 2CEM, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Av. Marechal Rondon, s/n, São Cristóvão, 49100-000 Sergipe (Brazil); Anselme, Karine; Dentzer, Joseph [Institut de Science des Matériaux de Mulhouse (IS2M), CNRS UMR7361, Université de Haute-Alsace, 15, rue Jean Starcky, BP 2488, 68057 Mulhouse (France); Araujo dos Santos, Euler, E-mail: euler@ufs.br [Laboratório de Biomateriais – P" 2CEM, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Av. Marechal Rondon, s/n, São Cristóvão, 49100-000 Sergipe (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Counter-ions present in syntheses can affect thermal stabilization of apatites. • Ions with different charges and sizes can stabilize the apatite structure. • Co-substitution is an important way to design biomimetic hydroxyapatites. - Abstract: The goal of this work was to study the thermal stabilization of calcium apatites in which the Ca{sup 2+} ions were substituted for Sr{sup 2+} in increasing concentrations via ionic co-substitutions. Two distinct standard syntheses were proposed for comparative purposes: one using counter-ions that were not easily incorporated into the apatite structure (NH{sub 4}{sup +}/NO{sub 3}{sup −}) and one using counter-ions that can be easily incorporated into the structure (Na{sup +}/Cl{sup −}). After calcination, only the apatites synthesized in the presence of NH{sub 4}{sup +}/NO{sub 3}{sup −} presented phase transformation. In contrast, the apatites synthesized in the presence of Na{sup +}/Cl{sup −} formed a solid solution after calcination, with Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+} and Cl{sup −} sharing the same apatite lattice. Wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (WDXRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) techniques showed that the counter-ions present during the syntheses that are associated with CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} play an important role in the thermal stabilization of the apatites.

  18. The relative effect of sterols and hopanoids on lipid bilayers: when comparable is not identical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poger, David; Mark, Alan E

    2013-12-19

    Sterols are the hallmarks of eukaryotic membranes where they are often found in specialized functional microdomains of the plasma membrane called lipid rafts. Despite some notable exceptions, prokaryotes lack sterols. However, growing evidence has suggested the existence of raft-like domains in the plasma membrane of bacteria. A structurally related family of triterpenoids found in some bacteria called hopanoids has long been assumed to be bacterial surrogates for sterols in membranes. Although the effect of sterols, in particular cholesterol, on lipid bilayers has been extensively characterized through experimental and simulation studies, those of hopanoids have hardly been investigated. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations are used to examine the effect of two hopanoids, diploptene (hop-22(29)-ene) and bacteriohopanetetrol ((32R,33S,34S)-bacteriohopane-32,33,34,35-tetrol), on a model bilayer. The results are compared with those obtained for cholesterol and a pure phosphatidylcholine bilayer. It is shown that diploptene and bacteriohopanetetrol behave very differently under the conditions simulated. Whereas bacteriohopanetetrol adopted a cholesterol-like upright orientation in the bilayer, diploptene partitioned between the two leaflets inside the bilayer. Analysis of various structural properties (area per lipid, electron density profile, tilt angle of the lipids, and conformation and order parameters of the phosphatidylcholine tails) in bacteriohopanetetrol- and cholesterol-containing bilayers indicates that the condensing and ordering effect of bacteriohopanetetrol is weaker than that of cholesterol. The simulations suggest that the chemical diversity of hopanoids may lead to a broader range of functional roles in bacterial membranes than sterols in eukaryotic membranes.

  19. Identity and effects of quorum sensing inhibitors produced by Penicillium species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg; Skindersø, Mette Elena; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    active immune systems, so instead rely on chemical defence mechanisms. It was speculated that some of these secondary metabolites could interfere with bacterial QS communication. During a screening of 100 extracts from 50 Penicillium species, 33 were found to produce QS inhibitory (QSI) compounds. In two...... cases, patulin and penicillic acid were identified as being biologically active QSI compounds. Their effect on QS-controlled gene expression in Ps. aeruginosa was verified by DNA microarray transcriptomics. Similar to previously investigated QSI compounds, patulin was found to enhance biofilm...

  20. Incorporation of quaternary ammonium salts containing different counterions to improve the performance of inverted perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Po-Ruei; Huang, Wei-Jie; Yang, Sheng-Hsiung

    2017-02-01

    In this research, three quaternary ammonium salts containing different counterions, including tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBABr), tetrabutylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TBABF4), and tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate (TBAPF6), were incorporated into [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as electron transporting layer (ETL). These salts-doped PCBM films revealed higher electron mobility and Fermi levels compared with the un-doped one. Better charge transfer at the interface between perovskite and salts-doped PCBM was also obtained from PL quenching experiments. Inverted perovskite solar cells with the configuration of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbI3/PCBM + salts/Ag were fabricated, and the JSC and FF of devices were significantly enhanced using salts-doped PCBM as ETL. The best device based on TBABF4-doped PCBM delivered a power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 13.41%, which was superior to the one with undoped PCBM layer (PCE = 8.77%).

  1. Ingroup identity as an obstacle to effective multiprofessional and interprofessional teamwork: findings from an ethnographic study of healthcare assistants in dementia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    V Lloyd, Joanne; Schneider, Justine; Scales, Kezia; Bailey, Simon; Jones, Rob

    2011-09-01

    Rising dementia incidence is likely to increase pressures on healthcare services, making effective well coordinated care imperative. Yet, barriers to this care approach exist which, we argue, might be understood by focussing on identity dynamics at the frontlines of care. In this article, we draw upon findings from an ethnographic study of healthcare assistants (HCAs) from three dementia wards across one National Health Service mental health trust. Data revealed that the HCAs are a close-knit 'in-group' who share low group status and norms and, often highlight their own expertise in order to promote self worth. HCAs' social identity is considered as a barrier to effective teamwork with strong ingroup behaviour suggested as a consequence of their marginalisation. We explore these findings with reference to social identity theory (Tajfel, 1974; Turner, 1978 ) and discuss implications for delivering multiprofessional and interprofessional care.

  2. The Effects of Consumer Identity on Brand Purchase Intention%消费认同对品牌购买意愿的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖灏; 张茁

    2013-01-01

    Consumers are often attracted by the products and brands associated with social identity , so this paper intro-duces the concept of consumer identity to try to reveal the mechanism between consumer identity and brand purchase in -tention.Research shows that: consumer identity, positive affect and denial attitude serve as positive effects on brand purchase intention; both positive affect and denial attitude act as intermediary between consumer identity and brand pur -chase intention; brand self-consistency has a significant moderating effect between denial attitude and brand purchase intention .%消费者经常被与其社会身份相关联的产品和品牌所吸引,本文引入消费认同概念,试图揭示消费认同对品牌购买的影响机制。研究结果表明:消费认同、积极情感、否认态度对品牌选择意愿有显著正向影响,积极情感、否认态度在消费认同与品牌购买意愿之间起显著中介作用,品牌自我一致性在否认态度与品牌购买意愿之间起显著调节效应。

  3. Language and Identity Explored

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Rozanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between language and identity is widely discussed in applied linguistics, sociology, communications and other related scholarly fields. Furthermore, many researchers have focused on the post-Soviet region, which given its unique historical context allows for testing of this relationship. The widespread bilingualism as a result of historical russification and the linguistic transformations that occurred after the collapse of the Soviet Union make the region a ‘sociolinguistic playground’. Recent events in Ukraine have given grounds to further explore this relationship, now in attempt to link language and identity as potential forces for geopolitical change in the region. This paper presents an overview of existing research, theories, and opposing perspectives related to the relationship between language and identity, and considers complications such as historical russification, religious influence, socioeconomic factors, and education with regards to the Ukrainian and post-Soviet context.  I aim to illustrate the significance of language and its effects on socio-political change in the case of Ukraine, by presenting arguments and complications in support of the relationship between language and identity.

  4. Experimental demonstration of a trophic cascade in the Galápagos rocky subtidal: Effects of consumer identity and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witman, Jon D; Smith, Franz; Novak, Mark

    2017-01-01

    In diverse tropical webs, trophic cascades are presumed to be rare, as species interactions may dampen top-down control and reduce their prevalence. To test this hypothesis, we used an open experimental design in the Galápagos rocky subtidal that enabled a diverse guild of fish species, in the presence of each other and top predators (sea lions and sharks), to attack two species of sea urchins grazing on benthic algae. Time-lapse photography of experiments on natural and experimental substrates revealed strong species identity effects: only two predator species-blunthead triggerfish (Pseudobalistes naufragium) and finescale triggerfish (Balistes polylepis)-drove a diurnal trophic cascade extending to algae, and they preferred large pencil urchins (Eucidaris galapagensis) over green urchins (Lytechinus semituberculatus). Triggerfish predation effects were strong, causing a 24-fold reduction of pencil urchin densities during the initial 21 hours of a trophic cascade experiment. A trophic cascade was demonstrated for pencil urchins, but not for green urchins, by significantly higher percent cover of urchin-grazed algae in cages that excluded predatory fish than in predator access (fence) treatments. Pencil urchins were more abundant at night when triggerfish were absent, suggesting that this species persists by exploiting a nocturnal predation refuge. Time-series of pencil urchin survivorship further demonstrated per capita interference effects of hogfish and top predators. These interference effects respectively weakened and extended the trophic cascade to a fourth trophic level through behavioral modifications of the triggerfish-urchin interaction. We conclude that interference behaviors capable of modifying interaction strength warrant greater attention as mechanisms for altering top-down control, particularly in speciose food webs.

  5. An investigation of the social identity model of collective action and the 'sedative' effect of intergroup contact among Black and White students in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakal, Huseyin; Hewstone, Miles; Schwär, Gerhard; Heath, Anthony

    2011-12-01

    Two studies investigated the role of intergroup contact in predicting collective action tendencies along with three key predictors proposed by the social identity model of collective action (SIMCA; Van Zomeren, Postmes, & Spears, 2008). Study 1 (N= 488 Black South African students) tested whether social identity would positively, whereas intergroup contact would negatively predict collective action and support for policies benefiting the ingroup. Study 2 (N= 244 White South African students) predicted whether social identity would positively predict collective action benefiting the ingroup, and intergroup contact would positively predict support for policies to benefit the Black outgroup. Both studies yielded evidence in support of the predictive power of social identity and contact on collective action and policy support. Additionally, Study 1 confirmed that intergroup contact moderated the effects of social identity on relative deprivation, and relative deprivation on collective action. Overall findings support an integration of SIMCA and intergroup contact theory, and provide a fuller understanding of the social psychological processes leading to collective action.

  6. Considering effect of organizational identity and commitment on job performance of staff of Guilan University of medical science regarding mediating role of organizational citizenship behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Ebrahimzadeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this research is studying the effect of organizational commitment and identity on job performance of staff of Guilan University of medical science regarding mediating role of organizational citizenship behavior. Current research is descriptive and its goal is applied and method of data collection is field and its tool is questionnaire. In current research considering statistical society are staff of Guilan University of medical science about 540 people. Regarding the whole number of statistical society and Morgan table number of sample volume are 224 people that 550 questionnaires were distributed by using simple random sampling. Finally 226 questionnaires were collected from staff and information wereanalyzed. Result showed that organizational commitment, organizational identity an organizational citizenship behavior has positive and direct effect on job performance of staff. Also occurrence of organizational citizenship behavior cansincrease severity of effect of identity and commitment of organization on job performance of staff. Organizations can increase job performance of staff by using result of this research and seeming positive effect of organizational commitment and identity and citizenship behavior and strengthening each one and lead in the direction of organizational goals.

  7. Effect of an Experiential and Work-Based Learning Program on Vocational Identity, Career Decision Self-Efficacy, and Career Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esters, Levon T.; Retallick, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the effect of an agriculturally-based experiential and work-based learning program, Science With Practice (SWP), on the vocational identity, career decision self-efficacy, and career maturity of undergraduate agriculture and life sciences students. The SWP experience helped clarify students' career interests and…

  8. Does Racial/Ethnic Identity Influence the Effectiveness of a Community Health Worker Intervention for African American and Latino Adults with Type 2 Diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Spencer, Michael S.; Sinco, Brandy R.; Palmisano, Gloria; Kieffer, Edith C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Community health worker (CHW) interventions are known to be an effective strategy to improve health behaviors and outcomes in relation to diabetes, particularly for racial/ethnic communities. Although understanding the function of identity with same race/ethnicity among clients of CHW interventions could contribute to more effective…

  9. The Effects of General and Homophobic Victimization on Adolescents' Psychosocial and Educational Concerns: The Importance of Intersecting Identities and Parent Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; Mereish, Ethan H.; DiGiovanni, Craig D.; Koenig, Brian W.

    2011-01-01

    Many adolescents experience peer victimization, which often can be homophobic. Applying the minority stress model with attention to intersecting social identities, this study tested the effects of general and homophobic victimization on several educational outcomes through suicidality and school belonging among 15,923 adolescents in Grades 7…

  10. Effective depth-of-penetration range due to hardness variation for different lots of nominally identical target material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Frueh

    2016-04-01

    A linear regression analysis of penetration vs. hardness shows that a target hardness increase within the given range of 280–330 BHN may result in a reduction of penetration depth of about 5.8 mm at constant velocity. This is equal to a change of −12% at an impact velocity of 1250 m/s. A multiple linear regression analysis included also the influence of yaw angle and impact velocity. It shows that small yaw angles and slight variations of impact velocities provide a smaller variation of the semi-infinite penetration depths than a variation of target hardness within a typical specification span of 50 BHN. For such a span a change in penetration of approximately −4.8 mm due to hardness variation is found, whereas 1° of yaw angle or −10 m/s of velocity variation gives a change of about −1.0 mm respectively −0.9 mm. For the given example, the overwhelming part of the variation is to be attributed to hardness effects – 4.8 mm out of 5.8 mm (83%. For nominally identical target material the target hardness thus influences the ballistic test results more severely than the typical scatter in impact conditions.

  11. Effects on gender identity of prenatal androgens and genital appearance: evidence from girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbaum, Sheri A; Bailey, J Michael

    2003-03-01

    To address questions about sex assignment in children with ambiguous genitalia, we studied gender identity in girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) in relation to characteristics of the disease and treatment, particularly genital appearance and surgery. A 9-item gender identity interview was administered to 43 girls with classical CAH ranging in age from 3-18 yr, 7 tomboys, and 29 sister control girls. Groups were compared on total score and on individual items. Results showed that, on the total gender identity score, 88% of girls with CAH had scores overlapping those of control girls, but the average score was intermediate between control girls and tomboys. On individual items of gender identity (discomfort as a girl, wish to be a boy), girls with CAH were similar to control girls. Gender identity in girls with CAH was not related to degree of genital virilization or age at which genital reconstructive surgery was done. Thus, moderate androgen excess early in development appears to produce a small increase in the risk of atypical gender identity, but this risk cannot be predicted from genital virilization.

  12. Digital Identity Management Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhar, Marko

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is a review of existing systems and technologies for managing digital identities. After the selection of the two most promising systems there will be a detailed comparison for a typical environment. In the first part of my thesis, the theory for understanding issues of identity management is introduced. Furthermore, the difference between identity and digital identity is explained and identity management itself is interpreted. An example of identity management solut...

  13. National Development Generates National Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to test the relationship between national identities and modernisation. We test the hypotheses that not all forms of identity are equally compatible with modernisation as measured by Human Development Index. The less developed societies are characterised by strong ascribed national identities based on birth, territory and religion, but also by strong voluntarist identities based on civic features selected and/or achieved by an individual. While the former decreases with further modernisation, the latter may either decrease or remain at high levels and coexist with instrumental supranational identifications, typical for the most developed countries. The results, which are also confirmed by multilevel regression models, thus demonstrate that increasing modernisation in terms of development contributes to the shifts from classical, especially ascribed, identities towards instrumental identifications. These findings are particularly relevant in the turbulent times increasingly dominated by the hardly predictable effects of the recent mass migrations. PMID:26841050

  14. Gender identity development in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensma, Thomas D; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; de Vries, Annelou L C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence".This article aims to provide an outline of what is currently known on trajectories, and contributing factors to gender identity development in adolescence. We give a historical overview of the concept of gender identity, and describe general identity development in adolescence, gender identity development in the general population and in gender variant youth. Possible psychosocial (such as child and parental characteristics) and biological factors (such as the effects of prenatal exposure to gonadal hormones and the role of genetics) contributing to a gender variant identity are discussed. Studies focusing on a number of psychosocial and biological factors separately, indicate that each of these factors influence gender identity formation, but little is known about the complex interplay between the factors, nor about the way individuals themselves contribute to the process. Research into normative and gender variant identity development of adolescents is clearly lagging behind. However, studies on persons with gender dysphoria and disorders of sex development, show that the period of adolescence, with its changing social environment and the onset of physical puberty, seems to be crucial for the development of a non-normative gender identity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Did you or I say pretty, rude or brief? An ERP study of the effects of speaker's identity on emotional word processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Ana P; Rezaii, Neguine; Nestor, Paul G; Rauber, Andréia; Spencer, Kevin M; Niznikiewicz, Margaret

    2016-02-01

    During speech comprehension, multiple cues need to be integrated at a millisecond speed, including semantic information, as well as voice identity and affect cues. A processing advantage has been demonstrated for self-related stimuli when compared with non-self stimuli, and for emotional relative to neutral stimuli. However, very few studies investigated self-other speech discrimination and, in particular, how emotional valence and voice identity interactively modulate speech processing. In the present study we probed how the processing of words' semantic valence is modulated by speaker's identity (self vs. non-self voice). Sixteen healthy subjects listened to 420 prerecorded adjectives differing in voice identity (self vs. non-self) and semantic valence (neutral, positive and negative), while electroencephalographic data were recorded. Participants were instructed to decide whether the speech they heard was their own (self-speech condition), someone else's (non-self speech), or if they were unsure. The ERP results demonstrated interactive effects of speaker's identity and emotional valence on both early (N1, P2) and late (Late Positive Potential - LPP) processing stages: compared with non-self speech, self-speech with neutral valence elicited more negative N1 amplitude, self-speech with positive valence elicited more positive P2 amplitude, and self-speech with both positive and negative valence elicited more positive LPP. ERP differences between self and non-self speech occurred in spite of similar accuracy in the recognition of both types of stimuli. Together, these findings suggest that emotion and speaker's identity interact during speech processing, in line with observations of partially dependent processing of speech and speaker information.

  16. Personal Identity in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Sica, Luigia Simona

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses specifics of identity formation in Italian adolescents and emerging adults. We review consistent evidence illustrating that, in Italy, a progressive deferral of transition to adulthood strongly impacts youth identity development by stimulating identity exploration and postponement of identity commitments. We also consider…

  17. Personal Identity in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Sica, Luigia Simona

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses specifics of identity formation in Italian adolescents and emerging adults. We review consistent evidence illustrating that, in Italy, a progressive deferral of transition to adulthood strongly impacts youth identity development by stimulating identity exploration and postponement of identity commitments. We also consider…

  18. Aspartate-histidine interaction in the retinal schiff base counterion of the light-driven proton pump of Exiguobacterium sibiricum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashov, S P; Petrovskaya, L E; Lukashev, E P; Imasheva, E S; Dioumaev, A K; Wang, J M; Sychev, S V; Dolgikh, D A; Rubin, A B; Kirpichnikov, M P; Lanyi, J K

    2012-07-24

    One of the distinctive features of eubacterial retinal-based proton pumps, proteorhodopsins, xanthorhodopsin, and others, is hydrogen bonding of the key aspartate residue, the counterion to the retinal Schiff base, to a histidine. We describe properties of the recently found eubacterium proton pump from Exiguobacterium sibiricum (named ESR) expressed in Escherichia coli, especially features that depend on Asp-His interaction, the protonation state of the key aspartate, Asp85, and its ability to accept a proton from the Schiff base during the photocycle. Proton pumping by liposomes and E. coli cells containing ESR occurs in a broad pH range above pH 4.5. Large light-induced pH changes indicate that ESR is a potent proton pump. Replacement of His57 with methionine or asparagine strongly affects the pH-dependent properties of ESR. In the H57M mutant, a dramatic decrease in the quantum yield of chromophore fluorescence emission and a 45 nm blue shift of the absorption maximum with an increase in the pH from 5 to 8 indicate deprotonation of the counterion with a pK(a) of 6.3, which is also the pK(a) at which the M intermediate is observed in the photocycle of the protein solubilized in detergent [dodecyl maltoside (DDM)]. This is in contrast with the case for the wild-type protein, for which the same experiments show that the major fraction of Asp85 is deprotonated at pH >3 and that it protonates only at low pH, with a pK(a) of 2.3. The M intermediate in the wild-type photocycle accumulates only at high pH, with an apparent pK(a) of 9, via deprotonation of a residue interacting with Asp85, presumably His57. In liposomes reconstituted with ESR, the pK(a) values for M formation and spectral shifts are 2-3 pH units lower than in DDM. The distinctively different pH dependencies of the protonation of Asp85 and the accumulation of the M intermediate in the wild-type protein versus the H57M mutant indicate that there is strong Asp-His interaction, which substantially lowers

  19. Aspartate-Histidine Interaction in the Retinal Schiff Base Counterion of the Light-Driven Proton Pump of Exiguobacterium sibiricum†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashov, S.P.; Petrovskaya, L.E.; Lukashev, E.P.; Imasheva, E.S.; Dioumaev, A.K.; Wang, J.M.; Sychev, S.V.; Dolgikh, D.A.; Rubin, A.B.; Kirpichnikov, M.P.; Lanyi, J.K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the distinctive features of eubacterial retinal based proton pumps, proteorhodopsins, xanthorhodopsin and others, is hydrogen bonding of the key aspartate residue, the counterion to the retinal Schiff base, to a histidine. We describe properties of the recently found eubacterium proton pump from Exiguobacterium sibiricum (named ESR) expressed in E. coli, especially features that depend on Asp-His interaction, the protonation state of the key aspartate, Asp85, and its ability to accept proton from the Schiff base during the photocycle. Proton pumping by liposomes and E. coli cells containing ESR occurs in a broad pH range above pH 4.5. Large light-induced pH changes indicate that ESR is a potent proton pump. Replacement of His57 with methionine or asparagine strongly affects the pH dependent properties of ESR. In the H57M mutant a dramatic decrease in the quantum yield of chromophore fluorescence emission and a 45 nm blue shift of the absorption maximum upon raising the pH from 5 to 8 indicates deprotonation of the counterion with a pKa of 6.3, which is also the pKa at which the M intermediate is observed in the photocycle of the protein solubilized in detergent (DDM). This is in contrast with the wild type protein, in which the same experiments show that the major fraction of Asp85 is deprotonated at pH > 3 and that it protonates only at low pH, with a pKa of 2.3. The M intermediate in the wild type photocycle accumulates only at high pH, with an apparent pKa of 9 from deprotonation of a residue interacting with Asp85, presumably His57. In liposomes reconstituted with ESR the pKas for M formation and spectral shifts are 2–3 pH units lower than in DDM. The distinctively different pH dependencies of the protonation of Asp85 and the accumulation of the M intermediate in the wild type protein vs. the H57M mutant indicate that there is strong Asp-His interaction, which substantially lowers the pKa of Asp85 by stabilizing its deprotonated state. PMID:22738070

  20. Effective leadership in salient groups: revisiting leader-member exchange theory from the perspective of the social identity theory of leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Michael A; Martin, Robin; Epitropaki, Olga; Mankad, Aditi; Svensson, Alicia; Weeden, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Two studies compared leader-member exchange (LMX) theory and the social identity theory of leadership. Study 1 surveyed 439 employees of organizations in Wales, measuring work group salience, leader-member relations, and perceived leadership effectiveness. Study 2 surveyed 128 members of organizations in India, measuring identification not salience and also individualism/collectivism. Both studies provided good support for social identity predictions. Depersonalized leader-member relations were associated with greater leadership effectiveness among high-than low-salient groups (Study 1) and among high than low identifiers (Study 2). Personalized leadership effectiveness was less affected by salience (Study 1) and unaffected by identification (Study 2). Low-salience groups preferred personalized leadership more than did high-salience groups (Study 1). Low identifiers showed no preference but high identifiers preferred depersonalized leadership (Study 2). In Study 2, collectivists did not prefer depersonalized as opposed to personalized leadership, whereas individualists did, probably because collectivists focus more on the relational self.

  1. Modeling of ion-pairing effect in peptide reversed-phase chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gétaz, David; Hariharan, Subrahmaniam B; Butté, Alessandro; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2012-08-03

    The modeling of counterion and organic modifier concentration effects in peptide APIs reversed-phase preparative chromatography is discussed in this manuscript. A stoichiometric retention model based on the counterion binding to the charged functional groups of the peptide is proposed. The model parameters were evaluated using a rather large set of retention data measured in mobile phases with various counterions and acetonitrile concentrations. The model parameters were experimentally validated by a new counterion binding measurement technique. The n(max) model parameter value was found to be equal to the peptide net charge, whereas the K model parameter value was found to be specific to the counterion type (i.e. AcO(-)counterion types and concentrations. On the other hand, at intermediate acetonitrile concentration, the peptide saturation capacity was significantly lower and with a tendency to increase with the counterion concentration. On the whole, the developed model provides a reliable a reliable tool for the design and development of peptide purification processes at the preparative and industrial scale.

  2. Counterions control whether self-assembly leads to formation of stable and well-defined unilamellar nanotubes or nanoribbons and nanorods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Dong; Schwall, Christian; Sfintes, George

    2014-01-01

    Self-assembly of the amphiphilic π-conjugated carbenium ion ATOTA-1(+) in aqueous solution selectively leads to discrete and highly stable nanotubes or nanoribbons and nanorods, depending on the nature of the counterion (Cl(-) vs. PF6(-), respectively). The nanotubes formed by the Cl(-) salt...... illustrate an exceptional example of a structural well-defined (29±2 nm in outer diameter) unilamellar tubular morphology featuring π-conjugated functionality and high stability and flexibility, in aqueous solution....

  3. Scrutiny of brand social identity perspective and its effect in brand loyalty development (case of study: Kaleh Dairy Products Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre shahrokh dehdashti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, discussion and scrutiny about brand has found especial place in science and university assembly and place in a realm of trade too. Many of searchers and companies managers has conclude that certainly, brand and branding science is worthest asset for a company for improvement of marketing process. Yet, brand identity which is an intra-organizational factor and one of the most important discussions on marketing and brand is considered in a few studies. On this basis, present study with the purpose of studying the impact of brand identity impact on brand loyalty development is conducted in food industry (dairy products. In present study, Kaleh brand (Kaleh Dairy Products Company as a well – recognized brand in Iran is selected for studying. All customers of the company in Tehran Metropolitan are selected as research statistical population and a sample of 475 customers was chosen. This is a survey – type research in which questionnaire is used to collect data. To analyze and confirm model, Structural Equations Modeling (SEM and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA techniques are utilized. According to research findings, the impact of brand identity on brand loyalty in food industry was confirmed. Brand with strong identity is the origin of forming long term relationships between customer and company, and it is result will be loyalty.

  4. When and how groups utilize dissenting newcomer knowledge : Newcomers' future prospects condition the effect of language-based identity strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kane, Aimee A.; Rink, Floor

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments suggest that newcomers' structural role (permanent vs. temporary appointment) in the groups they enter conditions the extent to which their use of language-based identity strategies (integrating vs. differentiating) influences groups' willingness to accept them and utilize their diss

  5. African American Male Adolescents' Preferences in Responding to Racial Discrimination: Effects of Ethnic Identity and Situational Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, William D.; Hudley, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated male African American adolescents' thinking about responses to racial discrimination. Participants (N = 67) were recruited from an urban public high school in southern California. Students completed paper and pencil measures assessing their ethnic identity status and their preferred responses to racial discrimination.…

  6. The Effects of Sex and Gender Role Identity on Perceived Stress and Coping among Traditional and Nontraditional Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kayla; Mendenhall, Sarah; Myers, Charlsie A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study examined differences in perceived stress and coping strategies based on gender role identity (GRI) and sex among traditional and nontraditional college students. Participants and Methods: Online surveys that assessed demographic information, GRI, and perceived stress were completed between October 2013 and March 2014 by 197…

  7. The Effects of Sex and Gender Role Identity on Perceived Stress and Coping among Traditional and Nontraditional Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kayla; Mendenhall, Sarah; Myers, Charlsie A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study examined differences in perceived stress and coping strategies based on gender role identity (GRI) and sex among traditional and nontraditional college students. Participants and Methods: Online surveys that assessed demographic information, GRI, and perceived stress were completed between October 2013 and March 2014 by 197…

  8. When and how groups utilize dissenting newcomer knowledge : Newcomers' future prospects condition the effect of language-based identity strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kane, Aimee A.; Rink, Floor

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments suggest that newcomers' structural role (permanent vs. temporary appointment) in the groups they enter conditions the extent to which their use of language-based identity strategies (integrating vs. differentiating) influences groups' willingness to accept them and utilize their diss

  9. A riot on campus: The effects of social identity complexity on emotions and reparative attitudes after ingroup-perpetrated violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costabile, Kristi A; Austin, Adrienne B

    2017-08-02

    When a group commits a transgression, members who identify closely with the group often engage in defensive strategies in which they are less likely to experience guilt and shame in response to the transgression than are less identified group members. Subsequently, highly identified group members are often less willing to offer reparations to the injured parties. Because appropriate emotional responses and reparations are critical to community reconciliation, the present investigation examined whether social identity complexity-the degree to which individuals perceive their multiple social identities as interrelated-reduced these defensive responses. In the aftermath of a campus riot, emotional responses and reparative attitudes of undergraduate students were assessed. Results indicated that individuals who closely identified with the university were in fact capable of experiencing guilt and shame, but only if they also had complex social identities. A path model indicated that emotional responses, in turn, predicted willingness to provide reparations to the campus community. Accordingly, social identity complexity provides a new approach to understanding responses to ingroup-perpetrated violence. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Ethnic Identity and Substance Use among Mexican-Heritage Preadolescents: Moderator Effects of Gender and Time in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulis, Stephen S.; Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Kopak, Albert M.; Olmsted, Maureen E.; Crossman, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    This study examined interactive relationships among ethnic identity, gender, time in the US, and changes in substance use outcomes among a school-based sample of 1,731 Mexican-heritage preadolescents (ages 9-13). Residual change multilevel models adjusting for school clustering and using multiply imputed data assessed changes from beginning to end…

  11. Scrutiny of brand social identity perspective and its effect in brand loyalty development (case of study: Kaleh Dairy Products Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Dehdashti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, discussion and investigation on the subject of brand has found especial place in science and trade. Many of researchers and managers have conclude that certainly, brand and branding science are the worthiest asset of a company necessary for improvement of marketing process. Yet, brand identity which is an intra-organizational factor and one of the most important discussing subjects of marketing and brand has been considered in a few studies. Therefore, this study with the purpose of studying the impact of brand identity on brand loyalty development has been conducted in the food industry and as a sample in a dairy company. For this purpose, Kaleh brand as a representative of the Kaleh Dairy Company as a well known brand in Iran is selected for study. Statistical population includes all customers of the company in Tehran metropolitan and 475 customers have been chosen as the sample of research. This study is typically survey based in which, a questionnaire is developed for data collection. In order to examine the proposed model, Structural Equations Modeling (SEM and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA techniques have been utilized. According to the findings, the impact of brand identity on brand loyalty in the selected company of the food industry is confirmed. In addition, findings indicate that the brand with strong identity is the origin of forming long term relationships between customer and company, which in turn leads to customer loyalty.

  12. Highly conserved glutamic acid in the extracellular IV–V loop in rhodopsins acts as the counterion in retinochrome, a member of the rhodopsin family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terakita, Akihisa; Yamashita, Takahiro; Shichida, Yoshinori

    2000-01-01

    Retinochrome is a member of the rhodopsin family having a chromophore retinal and functioning as a retinal photoisomerase in squid photoreceptor cells. Unlike vertebrate rhodopsins, but like many invertebrate rhodopsins, retinochrome does not have a glutamic acid at position 113 to serve as a counterion for the protonated retinylidene Schiff base. Here we investigated possible counterions in retinochrome by site-specific mutagenesis. Our results showed that the counterion is the glutamic acid at position 181, at which almost all the pigments in the rhodopsin family, including vertebrate and invertebrate rhodopsins, have a glutamic or aspartic acid. The remarkable exceptions are the long-wavelength visual pigments that have a histidine that, together with a nearby lysine, serves as a chloride-binding site. Replacement of Glu-181 of bovine rhodopsin with Gln caused a 10-nm red-shift of absorption maximum. Because the position at 181 is in the extracellular loop connecting the transmembrane helices VI and V, these results demonstrate the importance of this loop to function for spectral tuning in the rhodopsin family. PMID:11106382

  13. Distribution and Adsorption of Ionic Species into a Liposome Membrane and Their Dependence upon the Species and Concentration of a Coexisting Counterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Koji; Hori, Kisho; Maeda, Kohji; Fukuyama, Mao; Yoshida, Yumi

    2016-10-10

    The distribution of ions into a bilayer lipid membrane (BLM) and their adsorption on the BLM are investigated by extracting a hydrophobic cation, rhodamine 6G (R6G(+)), into a liposome through the dialysis membrane method. R6G(+) distribution mainly depends upon the concentration of the coexisting anion and its species (Cl(-), Br(-), BF4(-), ClO4(-), and picrate). On the other hand, R6G(+) adsorption on the BLM surface follows the Langmuir adsorption model and is independent of the coexisting anion in the aqueous phase. We propose an extraction model of ionic species into the BLM, to explain the dependence of extraction of ionic species upon the coexisting anion. In this model, an ion is distributed with a coexisting counterion into the BLM and then forms an ion pair in the BLM. Here, the ion adsorption equilibrium on the BLM surface is independent of the species and concentration of the coexisting counterion under the same ionic strength. On the basis of this model, we estimate the distribution constant of R6G(+) and anion (KD), the ion-pair formation constant in the BLM (Kip), and the R6G(+) adsorption constant on the BLM surface (Kad). Even for an ultrathin membrane system, such as a BLM, R6G(+) is distributed with a coexisting counterion and the distribution equilibrium of the ionic species at the water-BLM interface is analyzable similar to that at the water-organic solvent interface.

  14. Controlling the thermodynamic stability of intermediate phases in a cationic-amphiphile-water system with strongly binding counterions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Santosh Prasad; Raghunathan, V A

    2013-07-01

    We have studied the influence of two structurally isomeric organic salts, namely, 2-sodium-3-hydroxy naphthoate (SHN) and 1-sodium-2-hydroxy naphthoate (SHN1), on the phase behavior of concentrated aqueous solutions of the cationic surfactant cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC). Partial phase diagrams of the two systems have been constructed using polarizing optical microscopy and x-ray diffraction techniques. A variety of intermediate phases is seen in both systems for a range of salt concentrations. The CPC-SHN-water system exhibits the rhombohedral and tetragonal mesh phases in addition to the random mesh phase, whereas the CPC-SHN1-water system shows only the tetragonal and random mesh phases. The CPC-SHN-water system also exhibits two nematic phases consisting of cylindrical and disk-like micelles at relatively low and high salt concentrations, respectively. These results show that the concentration of the strongly bound counterion provided by the organic salt can be used as a control parameter to tune the stability of different intermediate phases in amphiphile-water systems.

  15. Direct measurement of the intermolecular forces between counterion-condensed DNA double helices. Evidence for long range attractive hydration forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, D C; Parsegian, V A

    1992-01-01

    Rather than acting by modifying van der Waals or electrostatic double layer interactions or by directly bridging neighboring molecules, polyvalent ligands bound to DNA double helices appear to act by reconfiguring the water between macromolecular surfaces to create attractive long range hydration forces. We have reached this conclusion by directly measuring the repulsive forces between parallel B-form DNA double helices pushed together from the separations at which they have self organized into hexagonal arrays of parallel rods. For all of the wide variety of "condensing agents" from divalent Mn to polymeric protamines, the resulting intermolecular force varies exponentially with a decay rate of 1.4-1.5 A, exactly one-half that seen previously for hydration repulsion. Such behavior qualitatively contradicts the predictions of all electrostatic double layer and van der Waals force potentials previously suggested. It fits remarkably well with the idea, developed and tested here, that multivalent counterion adsorption reorganizes the water at discrete sites complementary to unadsorbed sites on the apposing surface. The measured strength and range of these attractive forces together with their apparent specificity suggest the presence of a previously unexpected force in molecular organization.

  16. Identity and identity conflict in the workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.E. Horton (Kate); P.S. Bayerl (Saskia); G. Belschak-Jacobs (Gabriele)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractAs individuals, we define ourselves according to various characteristics that include our values and beliefs. This gives us our identity. As organisations become increasingly complex, understanding the concept of identity conflict may mean the difference between success and failure.

  17. Identities as organizational practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oshima, Sae; Asmuß, Birte

    Identity has been widely acknowledged as playing a central role in various organizational processes, yet there is still a need to better understand the dynamics and functions of identity work in modern organizations. The present paper is centered within this concern, and examines identity as inte......) reveal the intersubjective, multimodal and embodied nature of identity work; 2) demonstrate identity work as organizational practices, used in order to accomplish specific actions; and 3) pose a question on the view on identity as a layered/leveled phenomenon.......Identity has been widely acknowledged as playing a central role in various organizational processes, yet there is still a need to better understand the dynamics and functions of identity work in modern organizations. The present paper is centered within this concern, and examines identity...

  18. Romidepsin-induced HIV-1 viremia during effective antiretroviral therapy contains identical viral sequences with few deleterious mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winckelmann, Anni; Barton, Kirston; Hiener, Bonnie; Schlub, Timothy E.; Shao, Wei; Rasmussen, Thomas A.; Østergaard, Lars; Søgaard, Ole S.; Tolstrup, Martin; Palmer, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the origin of the HIV-1 viremia induced by the latency-reversing agent romidepsin. Design: Six individuals on suppressive antiretroviral therapy received romidepsin administered intravenously once weekly for 3 consecutive weeks. CD4+ T cells were obtained at baseline, following the second and third romidepsin infusion, and 10 weeks after the final romidepsin treatment. Plasma samples were collected 24 and 72 h after romidepsin infusions. Methods: Single-genome sequencing of the env and p24-RT region was used to genetically characterize the virus from proviral DNA, the transcribed cell-associated RNA and the plasma RNA pool. Results: In three of six participants with available plasma samples we identified plasma HIV-1 RNA sequences that were identical to DNA and/or cell-associated RNA sequences from peripheral blood CD4+ T cells. In two participants, plasma RNA sequences contained expansions of identical sequences, corresponding to 62 and 100% of the total sequences, respectively. Plasma HIV-1 RNA had very low amounts of defective viruses compared to cell-associated RNA (odds ratio 20.85, P < 0.001) and to DNA (odds ratio 7.07, P = 0.011) during romidepsin therapy. Conclusions: Romidepsin induced transcription from proviruses in peripheral blood cells, which contributed to viremia in patients on suppressive therapy. The intermingling of these cell-associated HIV-1 RNA with DNA sequences indicates transcription from a diverse range of proviruses, but the expansions of identical viral plasma sequences with few defects indicate that the romidepsin-induced viremia arises from intact proviruses with highly similar or identical genetic backgrounds. PMID:28272134

  19. Competing gas-phase substitution and elimination reactions of gemini surfactants with anionic counterions by mass spectrometry. Density functional theory correlations with their bolaform halide salt models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimé, Carole; Plet, Benoit; Manet, Sabine; Schmitter, Jean-Marie; Huc, Ivan; Oda, Reiko; Sauers, Ronald R; Romsted, Laurence S

    2008-11-20

    Understanding ion specific effects on the solution properties of association colloids is a major unsolved problem, and we are studying the chemistry of gemini surfactants in the gas-phase by mass spectrometry and density functional theory (DFT) to probe ion specific effects in the absence of water. Products from gas-phase fragmentation chemistry of dication-monoanion pairs, M2+X(-), of C16H33(CH3)2N+-(CH2)(n-) +N(CH3)2C16H33.2X(-) gemini surfactants were determined by using sequential collision induced dissociation mass spectrometry. The spacer length "n" was systematically varied (n = 2, 3, 4, and 6) for each counterion investigated (X(-) = F(-), Br(-), Cl(-), I(-), NO3(-), CF3CO2(-), and PF6(-)). The M2+X(-) pairs fragment into monocationic products from competing E2 and S N2 pathways that are readily quantified by tandem MS. The dominant reaction pathway depends on dication and anion structure because it switches from E2 to S N2 with decreasing anion basicity and increasing spacer length. For spacer lengths n = 4 and 6, the major S N2 product shifts from attack at methylene to methyl on the quaternary ammonium group. DFT calculations of gemini headgroup model bolaform salts, CH3(CH3)2N+-(CH2)(n-)+N(CH3)2CH3.2X(-) (X(-) = F(-), Cl(-), Br(-), and I(-), n = 2-4), primarily of activation enthalpies, DeltaH, but also of free energies and entropies for the dication-monoanion pairs, M2+X(-), provide qualitative explanations for the MS structure-reactivity patterns. DeltaH values for S N2 reactions are independent of X(-) type and spacer length, while E2 reactions show a significant increase in DeltaH with decreasing anion basicity and a modest increase with spacer length. Comparisons with the DeltaH values of model CH3CH2(CH3)3N+X(-) halides show that the second charge on the dicationic ion pairs does not significantly affect DeltaH and that the change in distance between the nucleophile and leaving group in the ground and transition states structures in S N2 reactions

  20. Negotiating work identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamsen Saayman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The study explored the dynamics of work identity negotiation and construction.Research purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate identity tensions and demands that mobilise identity work in the work environment.Motivation for the study: The study hoped to improve the understanding of the dynamics of identity construction and negotiation.Research design, approach and method: Using grounded theory methodology in the context of qualitative field research, the researchers conducted two unstructured interviews with 28 employees of a South African manufacturing company.Main findings: The five primary dimensions the data yielded were personal identity, individual agency, social identity, social practice and job.Practical/managerial implications: This study has implications for organisations that want to improve productivity through understanding work identity.Contribution/value-add: The article presents a conceptual model of the demands and tensions that influence work identity.

  1. Researching Identity and Interculturality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønsmann, Dorte

    2016-01-01

    Review of: Researching Identity and Interculturality / by F. Dervin and K. Risager (eds.). Routledge 2015, 245 pp.......Review of: Researching Identity and Interculturality / by F. Dervin and K. Risager (eds.). Routledge 2015, 245 pp....

  2. Diversity of deaf identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bat-Chava, Y

    2000-12-01

    Social Identity Theory (Tajfel, 1981) posits that members of minority groups achieve positive social identity by (a) attempting to gain access to the mainstream through individual mobility or (b) working with other group members to bring about social change. Some people may use a combination of both strategies. Through the use of cluster analysis, the existence of three identities associated with these strategies was discerned in a sample of 267 deaf adults: culturally hearing identity, culturally deaf identity, and bicultural identity, each comprising about a third of the sample. A subset of 56 people were interviewed in depth; excerpts are presented to illustrate the identity types. Qualified support was found for the prediction that people with culturally deaf and bicultural identities would have higher self-esteem.

  3. Professional entrepreneurial identity construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard, Michael Breum

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the construction of a professional identity as an entrepreneur in a sample of people with educational background in nutrition and health. The study examines the connection between professional identity construction and entrepreneurial business emergence using...

  4. Language, Power and Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodak, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    How are identities constructed in discourse? How are national and European identities tied to language and communication? And what role does power have--power in discourse, over discourse and of discourse? This paper seeks to identify and analyse processes of identity construction within Europe and at its boundaries, particularly the diversity of…

  5. Experiencing with Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Justine Grønbæk

    2012-01-01

    This article studies how a political organization begins to experiment with its identity. By use of an empirical case of the Danish Ministry of Education, I examine how a political organization supplements its identity of a legislating power with identities of a supervisor, beacon and facilitator...

  6. Identity Security Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Philipsen, Nayna C.

    2004-01-01

    Identity theft is an increasing concern when organizations, businesses, and even childbirth educators ask for a client's Social Security number for identification purposes. In this column, the author suggests ways to protect one's identity and, more importantly, decrease the opportunities for identity theft.

  7. Teachers' Interpersonal Role Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Want, Anna C.; den Brok, Perry; Beijaard, Douwe; Brekelmans, Mieke; Claessens, Luce C. A.; Pennings, Helena J. M.

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the link between teachers' appraisal of specific interpersonal situations in classrooms and their more general interpersonal identity standard, which together form their interpersonal role identity. Using semi-structured and video-stimulated interviews, data on teachers' appraisals and interpersonal identity standards…

  8. Mobile Identity Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoepman, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Identity management consists of the processes and all underlying technologies for the creation, management, and usage of digital identities. Business rely on identity management systems to simplify the management of access rights to their systems and services for both their employees and their custo

  9. Differential effects of spaced vs. massed training in long-term object-identity and object-location recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Medina, Paola C; Sánchez-Carrasco, Livia; González-Ornelas, Nadia R; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Ramírez-Amaya, Víctor

    2013-08-01

    Here we tested whether the well-known superiority of spaced training over massed training is equally evident in both object identity and object location recognition memory. We trained animals with objects placed in a variable or in a fixed location to produce a location-independent object identity memory or a location-dependent object representation. The training consisted of 5 trials that occurred either on one day (Massed) or over the course of 5 consecutive days (Spaced). The memory test was done in independent groups of animals either 24h or 7 days after the last training trial. In each test the animals were exposed to either a novel object, when trained with the objects in variable locations, or to a familiar object in a novel location, when trained with objects in fixed locations. The difference in time spent exploring the changed versus the familiar objects was used as a measure of recognition memory. For the object-identity-trained animals, spaced training produced clear evidence of recognition memory after both 24h and 7 days, but massed-training animals showed it only after 24h. In contrast, for the object-location-trained animals, recognition memory was evident after both retention intervals and with both training procedures. When objects were placed in variable locations for the two types of training and the test was done with a brand-new location, only the spaced-training animals showed recognition at 24h, but surprisingly, after 7 days, animals trained using both procedures were able to recognize the change, suggesting a post-training consolidation process. We suggest that the two training procedures trigger different neural mechanisms that may differ in the two segregated streams that process object information and that may consolidate differently.

  10. Identity and Professional Networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Medha; Fast, Nathanael J; Fisher, Oliver

    2017-06-01

    Despite evidence that large professional networks afford a host of financial and professional benefits, people vary in how motivated they are to build such networks. To help explain this variance, the present article moves beyond a rational self-interest account to examine the possibility that identity shapes individuals' intentions to network. Study 1 established a positive association between viewing professional networking as identity-congruent and the tendency to prioritize strengthening and expanding one's professional network. Study 2 revealed that manipulating the salience of the self affects networking intentions, but only among those high in networking identity-congruence. Study 3 further established causality by experimentally manipulating identity-congruence to increase networking intentions. Study 4 examined whether identity or self-interest is a better predictor of networking intentions, providing support for the former. These findings indicate that identity influences the networks people develop. Implications for research on the self, identity-based motivation, and professional networking are discussed.

  11. The Supermalt identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2007-01-01

    -Caribbean informants. The food and beverage consumption of informants reflects their mixed cultural identity. The brand identity Supermalt appears to be malleable, with ample room for consumer co-construction. Perceptions of brand identity differ markedly among informants, who are all able to construct Supermalt...... on consumers' self-identities. The second part explored the role of food and beverage products in the construction of self-identities. The final part focused on the construction of brand identity for Supermalt. Findings - The article provides information on the self-identities constructed by Afro...... aiming to develop strong brands with a limited marketing budget. Based on the Supermalt case, suggestions are made regarding branding in relation to ethnic minorities. Originality/value - This article provides a study of a brand that has become strong within a narrowly defined group of consumers....

  12. Contextuality of identical particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzyński, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    There exist quantum phenomena that cannot be explained by noncontextual hidden-variable theories, yet the majority of them requires measurements that are performed on a single quantum system at a time. This fact constrains the phenomenon of contextuality to the microscopic domain. It is therefore natural to ask if quantum contextuality can be observed in measurements on collections of particles. Since particles in nature are identical, one can expect that such contextuality would be linked to bosonic and fermionic properties. Analysis of quantum contextuality in such scenarios would broaden our understanding of nonclassical effects in composite systems and perhaps would give us a hint on how to observe quantum phenomena in the macroscopic world. In this work I propose a generalization of quantum contextuality to the case of many identical particles. I show that a type of contextuality exhibited by a collection of particles (state dependent, state independent, or noncontextual) depends on their type and their number. I also discuss further properties of this generalization and identify major open questions.

  13. Effects of Habitat-Forming Species Richness, Evenness, Identity, and Abundance on Benthic Intertidal Community Establishment and Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Julie; Cusson, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    In a context of reduced global biodiversity, the potential impacts from the loss of habitat-forming species (HFS) on ecosystem structure and functioning must be established. These species are often the main community primary producers and have a major role in the establishment of organisms through facilitation processes. This study focuses on macroalgae and mussels as HFS within an intertidal zone along the St. Lawrence estuary (Quebec, Canada). Over a 16-week period, we manipulated the in situ diversity profile (richness, evenness, identity, and abundance) of the dominant HFS (Fucus distichus edentatus, F. vesiculosus, and Mytilus spp.) in order to define their role in both the establishment of associated species and community primary production. Contrary to expectation, no general change in HFS richness, evenness, abundance, or identity on associated species community establishment was observed. However, over the study period, the HFS diversity profile modified the structure within the trophic guilds, which may potentially affect further community functions. Also, our results showed that the low abundance of HFS had a negative impact on the primary productivity of the community. Our results suggest that HFS diversity profiles have a limited short-term role in our study habitat and may indicate that biological forcing in these intertidal communities is less important than environmental conditions. As such, there was an opportunistic establishment of species that ensured rapid colonization regardless of the absence, or the diversity profile, of facilitators such as HFS. PMID:25313459

  14. Effects of habitat-forming species richness, evenness, identity, and abundance on benthic intertidal community establishment and productivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Lemieux

    Full Text Available In a context of reduced global biodiversity, the potential impacts from the loss of habitat-forming species (HFS on ecosystem structure and functioning must be established. These species are often the main community primary producers and have a major role in the establishment of organisms through facilitation processes. This study focuses on macroalgae and mussels as HFS within an intertidal zone along the St. Lawrence estuary (Quebec, Canada. Over a 16-week period, we manipulated the in situ diversity profile (richness, evenness, identity, and abundance of the dominant HFS (Fucus distichus edentatus, F. vesiculosus, and Mytilus spp. in order to define their role in both the establishment of associated species and community primary production. Contrary to expectation, no general change in HFS richness, evenness, abundance, or identity on associated species community establishment was observed. However, over the study period, the HFS diversity profile modified the structure within the trophic guilds, which may potentially affect further community functions. Also, our results showed that the low abundance of HFS had a negative impact on the primary productivity of the community. Our results suggest that HFS diversity profiles have a limited short-term role in our study habitat and may indicate that biological forcing in these intertidal communities is less important than environmental conditions. As such, there was an opportunistic establishment of species that ensured rapid colonization regardless of the absence, or the diversity profile, of facilitators such as HFS.

  15. Effects of Engineering Design-Based Science on Elementary School Science Students' Engineering Identity Development across Gender and Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobianco, Brenda M.; Yu, Ji H.; French, Brian F.

    2015-04-01

    The integration of engineering concepts and practices into elementary science education has become an emerging concern for science educators and practitioners, alike. Moreover, how children, specifically preadolescents (grades 1-5), engage in engineering design-based learning activities may help science educators and researchers learn more about children's earliest identification with engineering. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which engineering identity differed among preadolescents across gender and grade, when exposing students to engineering design-based science learning activities. Five hundred fifty preadolescent participants completed the Engineering Identity Development Scale (EIDS), a recently developed measure with validity evidence that characterizes children's conceptions of engineering and potential career aspirations. Data analyses of variance among four factors (i.e., gender, grade, and group) indicated that elementary school students who engaged in the engineering design-based science learning activities demonstrated greater improvements on the EIDS subscales compared to those in the comparison group. Specifically, students in the lower grade levels showed substantial increases, while students in the higher grade levels showed decreases. Girls, regardless of grade level and participation in the engineering learning activities, showed higher scores in the academic subscale compared to boys. These findings suggest that the integration of engineering practices in the science classroom as early as grade one shows potential in fostering and sustaining student interest, participation, and self-concept in engineering and science.

  16. Signal function drives phenotypic and genetic diversity: the effects of signalling individual identity, quality or behavioural strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbetts, Elizabeth A; Mullen, Sean P; Dale, James

    2017-07-05

    Animal coloration is influenced by selection pressures associated with communication. During communication, signallers display traits that inform receivers and modify receiver behaviour in ways that benefit signallers. Here, we discuss how selection on signallers to convey different kinds of information influences animal phenotypes and genotypes. Specifically, we address the phenotypic and genetic consequences of communicating three different kinds of information: individual identity, behavioural strategy and quality. Previous work has shown signals that convey different kinds of information differ in terms of the (i) type of selection acting on signallers (e.g. directional, stabilizing, or negative frequency dependent), and (ii) developmental basis of signals (i.e. heritability, genetic architecture). These differences result in signals that convey different information having consistently different phenotypic properties, including the amount, modality and continuity of intraspecific variation. Understanding how communication influences animal phenotypes may allow researchers to quickly identify putative functions of colour variation prior to experimentation. Signals that convey different information will also have divergent evolutionary consequences. For example, signalling individual identity can increase genetic diversity, signalling quality may decrease diversity, and signalling strategy can constrain adaptation and contribute to speciation. Considering recent advances in genomic resources, our framework highlights new opportunities to resolve the evolutionary consequences of selection on communication across diverse taxa and signal types.This article is part of the themed issue 'Animal coloration: production, perception, function and application'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. Social identity performance : Extending the strategic side of SIDE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, Olivier; Spears, Russell; Reicher, Stephen

    This article extends the social identity model of deindividuation effects (SIDE) by considering the various ways in which relations of visibility to an audience can affect the public expression of identity-relevant norms (identity performance). It is suggested that social identity performance can

  18. Commons of Identity: Sherpa Identity Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Rune Loland

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent history of Sherpas demonstrates how identities can be scarce goods. While ‘Sherpa’ refers to an ethnic identity, ‘Sherpa’ refers to a crucial occupation in the trekking industry.i Their privileged position in Nepal’s international tourist industry is related to their common reputation. Their collective use of identity seems to help them getting access to an economic niche, and work in tourism seems to be an aspect of being Sherpa. Thus, an individual that operates in the tourist market does not only manage material assets but also identity assets to maintain the Sherpa reputation. Consequently, one can expect it to be a collective concern to husband their image, ie to control each member’s behaviour which could affect the Sherpa image. This article on Sherpa identity in encounters with outsiders analyses Sherpaness as a manageable resource that constitutes a collectively sanctioned commons. My point of departure is Barth’s analysis of ethnic boundary dynamics (1969, 1994 combined with Bourdieu’s concept of ‘capital’ and Hardin’s perspective on commons.DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v1i0.288Dhaulagiri Vol.1 (2005 pp.176-192

  19. The effect of organizational commitment on nurses' occupation identity%组织承诺对护士职业认同感的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑方萍; 徐带弟; 王林俊

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨组织承诺对护士职业认同感的影响。方法:采用中国职工组织承诺量表和护士职业认同评价量表对203名护士进行问卷调查,采用Pearson相关分析法和分层回归分析法探讨组织承诺对护士职业认同感的影响。结果:①护士组织承诺和职业认同总均分分别为(2.15±0.44)分和(3.47±0.83)分;②Pearson相关分析显示,组织承诺各维度得分与职业认知评价、职业社交技巧、职业挫折应对、职业社会支持呈显著正相关(P<0.05);③分层回归分析显示,组织承诺各维度可联合解释护士职业认同28.3%的变异。结论:护士组织承诺和职业认同水平不高,组织承诺是其职业认同的重要影响因素。%Objective:To explore the effect of organizational commitment on nurses' occupation identity. Methods:Totally 203 nurses were recruited and investigated by the Chinese Employees' Organizational Commitment Scale and the Nurse Occupation Approval Rating Scale. Pearson correlation analysis and hierarchical regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Results:①The mean scores of organizational commitment and nurses' occupation identity were (2.15±0.44) and (3.47±0.83), respectively; ② Pearson correlation analysis showed that each dimension of organizational commitment was significantly correlated to occupation cognition and evaluation, occupation social skills, occupation frustration coping, and occupation social support (P<0.05); ③ Hierarchical regression analysis showed that all the dimensions of organizational commitment could explain 28.3%of the variance of nurses' occupation identity. Conclusions:The levels of organizational commitment and nurses' occupation identity were not high. The organizational commitment was an important inlfuencing factor of occupation identity.

  20. The Influence of the Anionic Counter-Ion on the Activity of Ammonium Substituted Hoveyda-Type Olefin Metathesis Catalysts in Aqueous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gułajski, Łukasz; Grela, Karol

    Polar olefin metathesis catalysts, bearing an ammonium group are presented. The electron withdrawing ammonium group not only activates the catalysts electronically, but at the same time makes the catalysts more hydrophilic. Catalysts can be therefore efficiently used not only in traditional media, such as methylene chloride and toluene, but also in technical-grade alcohols, alcohol— water mixtures and in neat water. Finally, in this overview the influence of the anionic counter-ion on the activity of ammonium substituted Hoveyda-type olefin metathesis catalysts in aqueous media is presented.

  1. Identities in Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dorte Jagetic

    2015-01-01

    the national public school system. The main hypothesis is, that parts of the dysfunction stems from the national lack of semantics and competence to understand and discuss experience with warzone extremes, children and spouses of Danish Soldiers and Veterans miss the language to talk and be silent. I propose......, that systems theory is both able and competent to analyze the missing gaps and empty spaces of the competing identities inside and outside the forms of peace and war. Through the use of Luhmannian systems theory and form analysis, the children and partners of war veterans give us the chance to observe...... 'inbetween'. In public education, those Soldier-kids often show abnormal behaviour and dysfunctional social integration and mental regulation. Health Care Systems and social workers turn to diagnoses of secondary traumatization, attachment disorder and develop therapies to calm the effects of exposure to War...

  2. Genetics and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Anders

    2008-01-01

    For the last 20 years the concepts of identity and identification have been subject to much interest in the humanities and social sciences. However, the implications of genetics for identity and identification have been largely neglected. In this paper, I distinguish various conceptions of identity (as continuity over time, as basic kind of being, as unique set of properties, and as social role) and identification (as subjective experience of identity in various senses and as social ascription of identity in various senses), and investigate systematically genetic perspectives on each of these conceptions. I stress the importance of taking the genetic perspectives seriously but also their limitations. In particular, I pinpoint conceptual problems that arise when a genetic approach to identity is adopted.

  3. Identity and total institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubičić Milana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses a psychiatric institution resident’s identity (self- construction processes. Our quest was grounded on constructivist theoretical paradigm that sees identity as a manner a person defines oneself in accordance with offered social repertoire. In other words, the total institution milieu offers limited range of identities to its residents. On the other hand, the latter are not just passive subjects that identity is imposed upon. They are able to use a number of adjustment mechanisms to the knowledge about themselves - ranging from symbolic escape to open resistance against the imposed image about them; to obedience, and we were interested to understand the (supposed complex dynamic of identity (re-building in, so-called, special or forensic patients. In order to understand this process and attempting to discover, besides the manifest also the latent layer of the story about self, the local, or personal, identity understanding was examined.

  4. Exploring medical identity theft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla, Desla; Moczygemba, Jackie

    2009-09-16

    The crime of medical identity theft is a growing concern in healthcare institutions. A mixed-method study design including a two-stage electronic survey, telephone survey follow-up, and on-site observations was used to evaluate current practices in admitting and registration departments to reduce the occurrence of medical identity theft. Survey participants were chief compliance officers in acute healthcare organizations and members of the Health Care Compliance Association. Study results indicate variance in whether or how patient identity is confirmed in healthcare settings. The findings of this study suggest that information systems need to be designed for more efficient identity management. Admitting and registration staff must be trained, and compliance with medical identity theft policies and procedures must be monitored. Finally, biometric identity management solutions should be considered for stronger patient identification verification.

  5. Guernsey French, identity and language endangerment

    OpenAIRE

    Sallabank, Julia

    2006-01-01

    This chapter looks examines the effects of identity on revitalization efforts in the context of a small and dwindling language community. It discusses the nature and inter-relationship of identity, ethnicity and culture, and their roles in language choice and attitudes, relating these to the ethnolinguistic vitality of the indigenous language in Guernsey.\\ud \\ud It is often assumed in discourse on language endangerment that language plays an significant part in identity, but this view is not ...

  6. Predicting psychological ripple effects: the role of cultural identity, in-group/out-group identification, and attributions of blame in crisis communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagondahalli, Deepa; Turner, Monique Mitchell

    2012-04-01

    Incidents of intentional food contamination can produce ripple effects in consumers such as reduced trust and increased anxiety. In their postcrisis communication, food companies often direct the blame at the perpetrator in an effort to mitigate potential losses and regain consumer trust. The attempt to placate consumers may, in itself, potentially create psychological ripple effects in message readers. This study examined the interacting influence of two message characteristics: identity of the perpetrator of the crime (in-group/out-group membership), and the attribution of blame (reason why the perpetrator committed the crime), with message receiver characteristic (cultural identity) on psychological ripple effects such as blame, trust, anxiety, and future purchase intention. Results indicated that although group membership of the perpetrator was not significant in predicting outcomes for the organization, the attribution communicated in the message was. American message receivers blamed the organization more and trusted it less when personal dispositional attributions were made about the perpetrator. Asian message receivers blamed the organization more and trusted it less when situational attributions were made about the perpetrator. Lowered trust in the company and increased anxiety correlated with lower purchase intent for both American and Asian message receivers. Implications for crisis message design are discussed.

  7. Athletic identity foreclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Britton W; Petitpas, Albert J

    2017-08-01

    Athletic identity foreclosure refers to commitment to the athlete role in the absence of exploration of occupational or ideological alternatives. This article traces the theoretical underpinnings of the construct, examines the role of sport participation in identity development, and provides an overview of the course, correlates, and consequences of athletic identity foreclosure. Implications for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. RFID identity theft and countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrigel, Alexander; Zhao, Jian

    2006-02-01

    This paper reviews the ICAO security architecture for biometric passports. An attack enabling RFID identity theft for a later misuse is presented. Specific countermeasures against this attack are described. Furthermore, it is shown that robust high capacity digital watermarking for the embedding and retrieving of binary digital signature data can be applied as an effective mean against RFID identity theft. This approach requires only minimal modifications of the passport manufacturing process and is an enhancement of already proposed solutions. The approach may also be applied in combination with a RFID as a backup solution (damaged RFID chip) to verify with asymmetric cryptographic techniques the authenticity and the integrity of the passport data.

  9. Preventing Identity Theft

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Christine

    2004-01-01

    Identity theft is becoming more common and is a very serious crime. Victims of identity theft can spend months or years and a lot of hard earned money cleaning up the mess thieves have made of their good name and credit record. Identity thieves can use your personal information to take over your credit accounts and open new ones. They may even use your good credit to get a job, take out a car loan, or rent an apartment. Identity theft victims may lose job opportunities, be refused loans for e...

  10. Personal Identity in Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Podroužková

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of human enhancement, its methods and its relation to personal identity. Also several approaches to personal identity will be described. Transhumanism is a special think tank supporting human enhancement through modern technologies and some of its representatives claim, that even great changes to human organisms will not affect their personal identity. I will briefly describe the most important means of human enhancment and consider the problem of personal identity for each of them separately.

  11. Identity/Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy J. Knauer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper engages the unspoken fourth dimension of intersectionality—time. Using the construction of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT identities as an example, it establishes that identity, as it is lived and experienced, is not only multivalent, but also historically contingent. It then raises a number of points regarding the temporal locality of identity—the influence of time on issues of identity and understanding, its implications for legal interventions, social movement building, and paradigms of progressive change. As the title suggests, the paper asks us to consider the frame of identity over time.

  12. Elective Identities, (Culture, Identization and Integration)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Magala (Slawomir)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractMost of contemporary individual and social identities (constructed with societal, cultural and technological resources) are radically autonomous, nomadic and virtual - i.e. they are de-traditionalized, open to negotiation and not based on a single interpretation of a tradition.

  13. Illusionary delusions. Willingness to exercise self-control can mask effects of glucose on self-control performance in experimental paradigms that use identical self-control tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D; Hagger, Martin S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is to highlight limitations of Lange and Eggert's methodology of using identical self-control tasks in testing effects of glucose on depletion of self-control resources and self-control performance. We suggest that when participants engage in two identical self-control tasks, cognitions developed during initial act of self-control may mask the effects of glucose on self-control performance by undermining willingness to exert effort during the second act of self-control. As a consequence, glucose may increase ability to exercise self-control but participants may not want to capitalize on this "ability advantage" because they are unwilling to exercise self-control. The present article concludes that researchers who test the glucose hypothesis in the context of a depletion paradigm should employ dissimilar acts of self-control and ensure that depleted participants are sufficiently motivated to exercise self-control. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Identity of psychology, identity and psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Nastran Ule

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with epistemic issues of modern psychology with the starting hypothesis being that scientific psychology must satisfy three main interests: scientific, practical and emancipatory interest. Particularly important is the emancipatory interest, which is based on the social reflection of scientific work and conclusions. Psychological knowledge involves not only neutral descriptions of facts, but also implicit rules, expectations regarding values or norms, and criticism of undesirable behavior. The traditional psychological model attempts to satisfy the scientific interest and partly practical interest, while avoiding emancipatory interest. But I believe modern socio-historical models of psychology to be significant precisely owing to the inclusion of emancipatory interest. The difference between these two models of psychology is most obvious in their perception of identity i.e. individuality. Conventional perceptions follow the logic of "possessive individualism" in which the individual is seen as an autonomous bearer and owner of his/her psychological states and processes. The conventional model of identity supports the modernist concept of the individual as being focused on his/her self or personal identity. Socio-historical models, on the other hand, see the individual as a being embedded in social relations and social interactions, and one who builds and expresses his/her individuality through the reflection on social interactions, discursive practices, and response to the hierarchy of power and social mechanisms of control. According to this model, identity evolves through a series of social constructions which are embodied in the individual and represent him/her in society. Identity thus becomes a notion that combines individuality and social context, subjectivation and objectivation of the individual, and historical and biographical time.

  15. Signaling of noncomprehension by children and adolescents with mental retardation: effects of problem type and speaker identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbeduto, L; Short-Meyerson, K; Benson, G; Dolish, J

    1997-02-01

    Previous research has demonstrated considerable within-individual and within-group variability in the signaling of noncomprehension by persons with mental retardation. The first purpose of this study was to determine whether within-individual variability in such signaling was related to differences in the nature of the inadequate message and the identity of the speaker. The second purpose was to evaluate the relationship between within-group variability in noncomprehension signaling and measures of cognition, receptive and excessive language ability, speech intelligibility, and social cognition. Participants were school-age individuals with mild mental retardation and typically developing children matched to them on nonverbal MA. Noncomprehension signaling was examined in a direction-following task in which inadequate message type and speaker were manipulated. It was found that message type, but not speaker, influenced noncomprehension signaling, with no difference between the two groups. We also found that performance on a test of receptive language ability was the best predictor of noncomprehension signaling for persons with mental retardation.

  16. The mutation p.E113K in the Schiff base counterion of rhodopsin is associated with two distinct retinal phenotypes within the same family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiff, Charlotte; Owczarek-Lipska, Marta; Spital, Georg; Röger, Carsten; Hinz, Hebke; Jüschke, Christoph; Thiele, Holger; Altmüller, Janine; Nürnberg, Peter; Da Costa, Romain; Neidhardt, John

    2016-01-01

    The diagnoses of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and stationary night blindness (CSNB) are two distinct clinical entities belonging to a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous retinal diseases. The current study focused on the identification of causative mutations in the RP-affected index patient and in several members of the same family that reported a phenotype resembling CSNB. Ophthalmological examinations of the index patient confirmed a typical form of RP. In contrast, clinical characterizations and ERGs of another affected family member showed the Riggs-type CSNB lacking signs of RP. Applying whole exome sequencing we detected the non-synonymous substitution c.337G > A, p.E113 K in the rhodopsin (RHO) gene. The mutation co-segregated with the diseases. The identification of the pathogenic variant p.E113 K is the first description of a naturally-occurring mutation in the Schiff base counterion of RHO in human patients. The heterozygous mutation c.337G > A in exon 1 was confirmed in the index patient as well as in five CSNB-affected relatives. This pathogenic sequence change was excluded in a healthy family member and in 199 ethnically matched controls. Our findings suggest that a mutation in the biochemically well-characterized counterion p.E113 in RHO can be associated with RP or Riggs-type CSNB, even within the same family. PMID:27812022

  17. Identity without Membership?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobusch, Leonhard; Schoeneborn, Dennis

    the formation of organizational identity in more fluid organizational settings. Drawing on an empirical study of the hacker collective Anonymous, we show that organizational identity is formed through public communicative events that are subject to meaning negotiation whether or not actions can be attributed...

  18. Corporate identity. Brand designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Steve

    2004-02-19

    The past two years have seen a steadily more consistent brand identity for the NHS. Branding will become more important as foundation status and PCT commissioning makes acute hospitals more competitive. This has put pressure on some trusts that have their own strong identities.

  19. Capturing Chemical Identity Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Courtney; Sevian, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    Chemical identity, the idea that every substance has at least one property that makes it unique and able to be differentiated from other substances, is core to the practice of chemistry. Such practice requires using properties to classify as well as to differentiate. Learning which substance properties are productive in chemical identity thinking…

  20. Personal Identity in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Kazumi; Mizokami, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    This chapter explores characteristics of identity formation among Japanese adolescents and young adults living in a cultural context where individualism has been increasingly emphasized even while maintaining collectivism. We argue that, to develop a sense of identity in Japanese culture, adolescents and young adults carefully consider others'…

  1. Identities-in-action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stentoft, Diana; Valero, Paola

    2009-01-01

    The notion of identity is often used in mathematics education research in an attempt to link individual and social understandings of mathematical learning. In this paper we review existing research making use of the notion of identity, and we point to some of the strengths and weaknesses in the w...

  2. Teachers' interpersonal role identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Want, Anna C.; den Brok, Perry; Beijaard, Douwe; Brekelmans, Mieke; Claessens, Luce C A; Pennings, Helena J M

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the link between teachers' appraisal of specific interpersonal situations in classrooms and their more general interpersonal identity standard, which together form their interpersonal role identity. Using semi-structured and video-stimulated interviews, data on teachers' ap

  3. Teachers' Interpersonal Role Identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Want, Anna C.; den Brok, Perry; Beijaard, Douwe; Brekelmans, Mieke; Claessens, Luce C A; Pennings, Helena J M

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the link between teachers' appraisal of specific interpersonal situations in classrooms and their more general interpersonal identity standard, which together form their interpersonal role identity. Using semi-structured and video-stimulated interviews, data on teachers' ap

  4. Cultural Identity Through CLIL

    OpenAIRE

    Oprescu Monica

    2015-01-01

    The CLIL approach is a modern manner of teaching English, which has been adapted in Romanian schools and universities. An interesting aspect of learning a foreign language is the contact with its culture/s and the changes it produces in terms of identity. Therefore, a challenging question to be answered is whether a CLIL approach focusing on culture influences students' cultural identity.

  5. Value Conditionality of Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M M Yusupov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers theoretical approaches to the study of values and identity, and reveals the role of values in the formation of the ethnic, regional and Russian identity on the example of Chechnya and the North Caucasus, with the sociological indicators characterizing value orientations and self-identification.

  6. Identity And Privacy Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Katzan, Jr.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Personal identity and privacy are important topics in information systems in general and data analytics in particular.  Normally associated with digital security, the scope of identity and privacy is much greater and affects most aspects of everyday life.  Related subjects are behavioral tracking, personal-identifiable information (PII, privacy data relevance, data repurposing, identity theft, and homeland security.  Identity and Privacy Services is an admixture of the major issues in the area of personal identity and privacy and the security of individual rights in a complex societal environment.  This is a general paper on this important subject, intended to give exposure to the constituent topics.

  7. Identity as wrapping up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an understanding of cross-professional collaboration and to develop a notion of professional identity based in practice. The background of the paper is science and technology studies and more precisely actor network theory. The method used: The empirical analysis...... in close relation to the making of a report concerning the cross-professional collaboration. Findings are that “Identity as wrapping up” points to the way in which certain actors, by other actors, are maneuvered into certain pockets in a network. Identity as wrapping up is emphasized as a way...... of participating, which is closely connected to the intention to control the relation towards the other. Thus identity as wrapping up is argued to be a strategy to optimize the situation of one’s own profession. Conclusion: This articulation of identity contributes to the actor network literature as well...

  8. Visual identity and rebranding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Wrona

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to highlight the essence of visual identification and rebranding, as well as to discuss elements of corporate identity, which are subject to revitalization in the process of refreshing the image of a brand. In the first part the article the analysis of the term visual identification is conducted. In the analysis special attention is drawn to the role of visual identification in creating a coherent identity of an organization. In the subsequent chapters further components of corporate identity are presented in detail – starting with logotype, through business forms, advertisements, accompanying materials and Internet websites to signs on buildings. Moreover, corporate identity book as a collection of standards and guidelines for application of corporate identity rules is discussed. The deliberations are based on the study of literature. The last chapter presented the transformation of the brand of Institute of Aviation.

  9. Density-functional theory for fluid mixtures of charged chain particles and spherical counterions in contact with charged hard wall: Adsorption, double layer capacitance, and the point of zero charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizio, O; Bucior, K; Patrykiejew, A; Sokołowski, S

    2005-12-01

    We consider a density-functional theory to describe nonuniform fluids composed of chain molecules, containing a charged segment each, and spherical counterions. The chain molecules are modeled as freely jointed chains of hard spheres, the counterions are oppositely charged spheres of the same diameter as all segments of chain molecules. The theory is applied to study the structure of adsorbed layers, the excess adsorption isotherms, the capacitance of the double layer, and the potential of the zero charge. We show that all electric properties are strongly dependent on the length of the chain molecules. Moreover, these properties are also dependent on the position of the charged segment in the chain.

  10. Identity and collective action among European Kurds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ufkes, Elze Gooitzen; Dovidio, John F.; Tel, Gulizar

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the role of group-based anger and efficacy in explaining the effects of subgroup (ethnic) and common (European) identity on collective action among Kurds in Europe responding to different types of disadvantage. Whereas stronger Kurdish identity positively predicted intenti

  11. Preservice History Teachers' Attitudes towards Identity Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Fatih

    2017-01-01

    The ongoing changes in history education in support of diversity have an effect on Turkey even if on a limited scale. Although the current history curriculum in Turkey promotes the identity transmission instead of respecting different identities, it also has some goals such as "teaching the students about basic values including peace,…

  12. A Study on the Quality and Identity of Brazilian Pampa Biome Honey: Evidences for Its Beneficial Effects against Oxidative Stress and Hyperglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We characterized, for the first time, the quality and identity of Brazilian Pampa biome honey and its antioxidant properties in vitro (FRAP, DDPH and ABTS. The potential protective effect of honey against oxidative stress induced by iron (Fe and paraquat, (PQ in a Drosophila melanogaster model (in vivo was also tested. The results indicated that all honey samples tested showed antioxidant activity in vitro. Flies treated with honey showed increased lifespan and were protected against oxidative stress induced by Fe and PQ. Despite the high concentration of sugars in honey (approximately 70–80%, our results demonstrate a hypoglycemic-like effect of honey in Drosophila. Thus, this study demonstrates the high quality of Brazilian Pampa biome honey as well as its significant antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo, pointing to the potential use of this natural product as an alternative in the therapy of oxidative stress-associated diseases.

  13. Political Impediments and Opportunities that Facilitated the Fro-and-back Shift of Indigenous Language in Wolaita and Its Effects on overall Identities of the Nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshesha Make Jobo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate both negative political obstacles and fertile political situations that hampered or facilitated the growth of Wolaita language and its effects on overall identities of the Nation. The subjects used for the current study were 8 elders for interview selected by purposive sampling and other 1000 people selected by availability sampling from four selected Woredas of Wolaita Zone for filling questinnaire and 40 of them for focused group dicussion (FGD. The descriptive survey research design was used to conduct this study by using both quantitative and qualitative methods of data analysis. The result indicated that there were various political factors that facilitated the fro-shift of Wolaita language (from Wolaita to Amharic in the three successive regimes (Menellik, Hailesilassie and Dergue which highly threatened the overall identity (history, culture, heritage and indigenous wisdom of Wolaita Nation. Before conquest of Independent Wolaita by Menelillik and after downfall of Dergue; Wolaita language has got fertile political landscape for growth. However, the practical language growth in the mentioned periods has been too limited. Based on these findings, therefore, different projects of revitalization are recommended for the maintenance of Wolaita language: awareness training on the use of Wolaita language, development of a (creative writing culture, establishment of school-based language revitalization project, planning of family-based language revitalization project and establishment of series, deep and multifaceted training and research projects that involve linguists and language experts.

  14. Soil nutritional status, not inoculum identity, primarily determines the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth of Knautia arvensis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubková, Pavla; Kohout, Petr; Sudová, Radka

    2013-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is among the factors contributing to plant survival in serpentine soils characterised by unfavourable physicochemical properties. However, AM fungi show a considerable functional diversity, which is further modified by host plant identity and edaphic conditions. To determine the variability among serpentine AM fungal isolates in their effects on plant growth and nutrition, a greenhouse experiment was conducted involving two serpentine and two non-serpentine populations of Knautia arvensis plants grown in their native substrates. The plants were inoculated with one of the four serpentine AM fungal isolates or with a complex AM fungal community native to the respective plant population. At harvest after 6-month cultivation, intraradical fungal development was assessed, AM fungal taxa established from native fungal communities were determined and plant growth and element uptake evaluated. AM symbiosis significantly improved the performance of all the K. arvensis populations. The extent of mycorrhizal growth promotion was mainly governed by nutritional status of the substrate, while the effect of AM fungal identity was negligible. Inoculation with the native AM fungal communities was not more efficient than inoculation with single AM fungal isolates in any plant population. Contrary to the growth effects, a certain variation among AM fungal isolates was revealed in terms of their effects on plant nutrient uptake, especially P, Mg and Ca, with none of the AM fungi being generally superior in this respect. Regardless of AM symbiosis, K. arvensis populations significantly differed in their relative nutrient accumulation ratios, clearly showing the plant's ability to adapt to nutrient deficiency/excess.

  15. [Diagnosing gender identity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Mattila, Aino; Kärnä, Teemu; Joutsenneimi, Kaisla

    2015-01-01

    Transsexualism and other variations of gender identity are based on a stable sense of identity. The aetiology of this phenomenon is not fully known. Suffering caused by gender dysphoria is alleviated with sex reassignment. The psychiatric assessment of both adolescents and adults has been centralized in Finland to two university hospitals, the Helsinki University Hospital and Tampere University Hospital. In both hospitals, multidisciplinary teams aim at differential diagnosis by using well-known psychiatric and psychological instruments. Wishes for sex reassignment that are caused by a mental health disorder are excluded. Assessment in adolescence is challenging because the identity in youth is still forming.

  16. Linguistic identity matching

    CERN Document Server

    Lisbach, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Regulation, risk awareness and technological advances are increasingly drawing identity search functionality into business, security and data management processes, as well as fraud investigations and counter-terrorist measures.Over the years, a number of techniques have been developed for searching identity data, traditionally focusing on logical algorithms. These techniques often failed to take into account the complexities of language and culture that provide the rich variations  seen in names used around the world. A new paradigm has now emerged for understanding the way that identity data

  17. Credit and identity theft

    OpenAIRE

    Charles M. Kahn; Roberds, William

    2005-01-01

    The quintessential crime of the information age is identity theft, the malicious use of personal identifying data. In this paper we model “identity” and its use in credit transactions. Various types of identity theft occur in equilibrium, including “new account fraud,” “existing account fraud,” and “friendly fraud.” The equilibrium incidence of identity theft represents a tradeoff between a desire to avoid costly or invasive monitoring of individuals on the one hand and the need to control tr...

  18. Two structurally identical mannose-specific jacalin-related lectins display different effects on human T lymphocyte activation and cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoist, Hervé; Culerrier, Raphaël; Poiroux, Guillaume; Ségui, Bruno; Jauneau, Alain; Van Damme, Els J M; Peumans, Willy J; Barre, Annick; Rougé, Pierre

    2009-07-01

    Plant lectins displaying similar single sugar-binding specificity and identical molecular structure might present various biological effects. To explore this possibility, the effects on human lymphocytes of two mannose-specific and structurally closely related lectins, Morniga M from Morus nigra and artocarpin from Artocarpus integrifolia were investigated. In silico analysis revealed that Morniga M presents a more largely open carbohydrate-binding cavity than artocarpin, probably allowing interactions with a broader spectrum of carbohydrate moieties. In vitro, Morniga M interacted strongly with the lymphocyte surface and was uptaken quickly by cells. Morniga M and artocarpin triggered the proliferation and activation of human T and NK lymphocytes. A minority of B lymphocytes was activated in artocarpin-treated culture, whereas Morniga M favored the emergence of CD4+ CD8+ T lymphocytes. Moreover, cell death occurred in activated PBMC, activated T lymphocytes, and Jurkat T leukemia cells incubated with Morniga M only. The biological effects of both lectins were dependent on carbohydrate recognition. The Morniga M-induced cell death resulted, at least in part, from caspase-dependent apoptosis and FADD-dependent receptor-mediated cell death. Finally, Morniga M, but not artocarpin, triggered AICD of T lymphocytes. In conclusion, both lectins trigger lymphocyte activation, but only Morniga M induces cell death. In spite of similar in vitro mannose-binding specificities and virtually identical structure, only Morniga M probably interacts with carbohydrate moieties bound to molecules able to induce cell death. The present data suggest that subtle alterations in N-glycans can distinguish activation and cell death molecules at the lymphocyte surface.

  19. SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS OF HEMILABILE COORDINATION AND COUNTERIONS IN HOMOGENEOUS CATALYSIS: NEW TUNABLE MONOPHOSPHINE LIGANDS FOR HYDROVINYLATION REACTIONS. (R826120)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  20. Thermo Stability of Highly Sulfonated Poly(Styrene-Isobutylene-Styrene) Block Copolymers: Effects of Sulfonation and Counter-Ion Substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    poly(styrene-isobutylene- styrene) (SIBS) tri-block co-polymer (2, 3). The major component of the tri-block co-polymer is polyisobutylene ( PIB ...which comprises 70% by weight of the base polymer. The PIB gives the material low temperature flexibility as well as excellent barrier properties. The... PIB matrix (4). The fraction of PS controls the resultant morphology, which can be for example cylinders, lamellae, spheres, or a complex mixture

  1. Adolescence: Search for an Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasinath, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    James Marcia (1991, 1994, 1999, 2002) expanded on Erikson's theory of identity formation. Specifically, he focused on two essential processes in achieving a mature identity: exploration and commitment. Erikson's observations about identity were extended by Marcia, who described four identity statuses: identity diffusion, foreclosure, moratorium…

  2. Vocational Identity and Ego Identity Status in Korean Nursing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Young Koo, PhD, RN

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: These findings show that nursing students in identity achievement status have secure and clear vocational identities. Further longitudinal and qualitative studies are needed to find out if identity formation among nursing students changes with age.

  3. Gender Identity: Intersex Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhame Khabar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available According to past beliefs and social norms, society has been taught that their has only been two types of biological structures regarding the ideal male and female. The majority of society has also believed that gender identity was specific only to those structures, as most have had a very fixed perspective of men and women and the sexual organs that are associated. In today's society, there has been an observed increase of many variations in sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression, and sex anatomy. Awareness has been subtle, yet growing on gender identity and intersex individuals; however, some studies and popular media stories have also shown that many of these individuals have experienced trauma and hardship due to their ambiguous genitalia and how it has affected their gender identity.

  4. Identity after Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstrøm, Anna

    2015-01-01

    of the financial industry. Findings: The paper finds that members of a dead organization construct a bankruptcy narrative that is also a legacy organizational identity narrative including a legacy organizational identity transformation and several identities that have positive and negative aspects...... evidence on ways that legacy organizational identity from a dead organization play a substantial role in a living organization. Research limitations/implications: Because of the chosen research approach, the research results may lack generalizability. Practical implications: The paper holds insight...... that can help practitioners understand members of a dying organization -- including the ways they come to form and perform in a new organizational context; an understanding that is a prerequisite for helping and supporting these members in coming to perform satisfyingly in the new organization. Originality/value...

  5. Researcher Identities in Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castelló, Montserrat; Wisker, Gina; Kobayashi, Sofie

    as other emergent ‘signals’, the latent or clear indications from institutions and academic communities regarding career directions and necessary professional skills and attitudes should be identified and interpreted for researchers to adequately develop their new identities. The aim of this paper...... is twofold: a) to present a comprehensive framework of the notion of researcher identity by means of analysing those spheres of activity related to researcher and career development; and b) to relate researcher identities to the experiences of early career researchers with issues concerning signals......Researchers are now embarked upon what we define as a ‘risk career’, rather than, as previously, a relatively more predictable academic career. In this changing context, traditional milestones that enabled early career researchers to build their identities are disappearing. Instead, what we define...

  6. Autoethnography: Inquiry into Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppes, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides guidelines and suggestions for assessing student development using autoethnography, a qualitative research method. Autoethnography guides students in examining the nexus between personal and professional identities, including skills, challenges, values, histories, and hopes for the future.

  7. Personal Identity Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2012-01-01

    Philosophers concerned with the question of personal identity have typically been asking the so-called re-identification question: what are the conditions under which a person at one point in time is properly re-identified at another point in time? This is a rather technical question. In our...... everyday interactions, however, we do raise a number of personal identity questions that are quite distinct from it. In order to explore the variety of ways in which the Internet may affect personal identity, I propose in this study to broaden the typical philosophical horizon to other more mundane senses...... of the question. In Section 2, I describe a number of possible meanings of personal identity observed in everyday contexts and more philosophical ones. With some caveats, I argue that it is the specific context in which the question arises that disambiguates the meaning of the question. Online contexts are novel...

  8. The Supermalt identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2007-01-01

    aiming to develop strong brands with a limited marketing budget. Based on the Supermalt case, suggestions are made regarding branding in relation to ethnic minorities. Originality/value - This article provides a study of a brand that has become strong within a narrowly defined group of consumers.......Purpose - The objective of this article is to conduct a case study of the Supermalt brand of malt beer, which has become the preferred beverage of Afro-Caribbean consumers in Brixton on a very limited marketing budget. Design/methodology/approach - The article uses the concepts of personal identity...... and brand identity in a qualitative study to explore how Brixtonbased Afro-Caribbean consumers construct their self-identities and the brand identity of Supermalt. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 Afro-Caribbean consumers. Each interview was divided into three parts. The first part focused...

  9. Personal Identity Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2012-01-01

    Philosophers concerned with the question of personal identity have typically been asking the so-called re-identification question: what are the conditions under which a person at one point in time is properly re-identified at another point in time? This is a rather technical question. In our...... everyday interactions, however, we do raise a number of personal identity questions that are quite distinct from it. In order to explore the variety of ways in which the Internet may affect personal identity, I propose in this study to broaden the typical philosophical horizon to other more mundane senses...... of the question. In Section 2, I describe a number of possible meanings of personal identity observed in everyday contexts and more philosophical ones. With some caveats, I argue that it is the specific context in which the question arises that disambiguates the meaning of the question. Online contexts are novel...

  10. In the moral eye of the beholder: The interactive effects of leader and follower moral identity on perceptions of ethical leadership and LMX quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Robert Giessner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research indicated that leader moral identity (i.e., leaders’ self-definition in terms of moral attributes predicts to what extent followers perceive their leader as ethical (i.e., demonstrating and promoting ethical conduct in the organization. Leadership, however, is a relational process that involves leaders and followers. Building on this understanding, we hypothesized that follower and leader moral identity (a interact in predicting whether followers will perceive their leaders as ethical and, as a result, (b influence followers’ perceptions of leader–follower relationship quality. A dyadic field study (N = 101 shows that leader moral identity is a stronger predictor of followers’ perceptions of ethical leadership for followers who are high (vs. low in moral identity. Perceptions of ethical leadership in turn predict how the quality of the relationship will be perceived. Hence, whether leader moral identity translates to perceptions of ethical leadership and of better relationship quality depends on the moral identity of followers.

  11. The Examination of the Effects of Biological Gender and Gender Identity Roles on Attitude of the Consumers to Advertisements Applied by Accomodation Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren Güçer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, especially focused on the concept of psychological-based gender identity and researched if there is a differentiation characteristic of consumers’ sex and gender identity roles (masculinity, femininity, androgynous and neutral on consumers’ attitude toward advertisements of accomodation establishments.According to the results,there is a general accordance between biological sex and gender identity roles of individuals and alsothe results of the previous studies were made in different areas in the same subject was supported with determination ofit is possible to participants have gender identity roles different from their biological sex to some extent.Otherwise; determination of theadvertisements ofaccomodationestablishments, contain feminine messages, are more preferred by people who have feminine and androgynous identity than the others; and advertisements ofaccomodationestablishments, contain masculinemessages, are preferred by all gender identity roles are ones of the results

  12. Esperanto & cultural identity

    OpenAIRE

    Lehrmann, Ask; Christensen, Julie Hellesøe; Dzieza, Malgorzata; Hansen, Nathalie Gylling

    2007-01-01

    The topic of this project is the relationship between culture, cultural identity and language, and their relationship to the ambiguous concept of neutrality. Taking a case study of Esperanto, an artificial language designed with the specific intention of being a completely neutral and nationless language, we will explore how languages relate to the world. By comparing the thoughts on culture and group identity of various authors, we will then try to explore the concept of neutrality – for can...

  13. Visual identity and rebranding

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Wrona

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this article is to highlight the essence of visual identification and rebranding, as well as to discuss elements of corporate identity, which are subject to revitalization in the process of refreshing the image of a brand. In the first part the article the analysis of the term visual identification is conducted. In the analysis special attention is drawn to the role of visual identification in creating a coherent identity of an organization. In the subsequent chapters further comp...

  14. Cultural Identity Through CLIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oprescu Monica

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The CLIL approach is a modern manner of teaching English, which has been adapted in Romanian schools and universities. An interesting aspect of learning a foreign language is the contact with its culture/s and the changes it produces in terms of identity. Therefore, a challenging question to be answered is whether a CLIL approach focusing on culture influences students' cultural identity.

  15. IMMIGRATION, IDENTITY AND LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semran CENGİZ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The leading problems incidental to the globalization are the immigration, the poverty, the adaptation problems of the immigrants, the identity and the cultural conflicts. The globalization actors that are transforming the whole world to a huge market, consider to commercialize the product even to the people at the other end of the world. Therefore they lay emphasis on its local identity and remark its variety as its richness. In this way the limits are easily exceeded and the consumption culture becomes available to be instilled upon even the people at the back of the beyond. However one party always wins; the more some people consume, the more some people make profit. The people who does not have any power to consume anymore, becomes the guest of the ones who get them adopt this habit and desires to receive a share from this profit.The modern world people who are not pleased with this situation, have made every effort to alienate the immigrants from the center but they could not succeed. The situation that gave rise to a conflict between parties, have also led the identity problems to occur. In the present situation, the immigrants are trying to take place in the modern world as people with hybrid identities. The music produced by the children of the immigrants with double identities, attracts attention of the world where the immigrant identity, changing its shell, promises hope as the conciliation area of the new century.

  16. Names and Collective Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Krogseth

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The preceding two decades have displayed a remarkable awareness for a connection between the concepts "identity" and "cultural memory". David Lowenthal speaks of a "current craze for heritage"! Cultural heritage has become extremely popular, especially in combination with tourism, and has accordingly been converted into a modern system of meaning a type of "secular religion". With reference to collective identity and cultural memory, it is important to ask the cul- tural analytical questions: "Why identity now? Why heritage now?" My reply is that we experience a critical identity crisis. Three central aspects signify individual and collective identity: Continuity, coherence and individuality. The three aspects, constituting the concept of identity, are exposed to serious threats in the post-modern era: The danger of changeability, fragmentation and standardisation. This ten- dency has, however, met various compensating counter reactions like for instance "re-traditionalisation". In my presentation, I will examine the phenomenon cultural memory through examples from the German tradition -- principally from the works of Aleida and Jan Assmann.

  17. Note on an Identity Between Two Unbiased Variance Estimators for the Grand Mean in a Simple Random Effects Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Bruce; Leu, Cheng-Shiun

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the algebraic equivalence of two unbiased variance estimators for the sample grand mean in a random sample of subjects from an infinite population where subjects provide repeated observations following a homoscedastic random effects model.

  18. On a New Trigonometric Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongwei

    2002-01-01

    A new trigonometric identity derived from factorizations and partial fractions is given. This identity is used to evaluate the Poisson integral via Riemann sum and to establish some trigonometric summation identities.

  19. Effects of racialized tracking on racial gaps in science self-efficacy, identity, engagement, and aspirations: Connection to science and school segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Briana L.

    Given the concentration of economic growth and power in science fields and the current levels of racial stratification in schooling, this study examined (1) the effects of race on students' connectedness to science and career aspirations, (2) the extent to which these effects were moderated by school racial composition and racialized tracking, and (3) the differences in modeling effects using separate variables for race and gender (i.e., White, Black, Hispanic, female) versus race/gender (e.g., White female, Black male, etc.). Using the lens of racial formation theory, this study situated access to science knowledge as a racial project, conferring and denying access to resources along racial lines. Reviews of the literature on science self-efficacy, identity, engagement, and career aspirations revealed an under-emphasis on school institutional factors, such as racial composition and racialized tracking (which are important in sociological literature), as shaping student outcomes. The study analyzed data from the nationally representative High School Longitudinal Study that surveyed students in 2009 during their freshman year in high school and again in 2012 during most students' junior year (n = 6,998). Affective ratings (in self-efficacy, identity, engagement) and career aspirations for students measured in 2012 were examined as dependent variables and a variable for racialized tracking was estimated given schools' placement of students in advanced science coursework in 2012. Although school racial composition was not found to moderate race on outcome effects, primary analyses demonstrated that the presence of racialized tracking in the students' schools did moderate these effects. Overall these results suggested that the student subgroups most often at a disadvantage compared to White students for the science outcomes studied were Hispanic males and females; Black students' ratings and aspirations were largely on par or exceeded those of their White counterparts

  20. Tools for Understanding Identity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creese, Sadie; Gibson-Robinson, Thomas; Goldsmith, Michael; Hodges, Duncan; Kim, Dee DH; Love, Oriana J.; Nurse, Jason R.; Pike, William A.; Scholtz, Jean

    2013-12-28

    Identity attribution and enrichment is critical to many aspects of law-enforcement and intelligence gathering; this identity typically spans a number of domains in the natural-world such as biographic information (factual information – e.g. names, addresses), biometric information (e.g. fingerprints) and psychological information. In addition to these natural-world projections of identity, identity elements are projected in the cyber-world. Conversely, undesirable elements may use similar techniques to target individuals for spear-phishing attacks (or worse), and potential targets or their organizations may want to determine how to minimize the attack surface exposed. Our research has been exploring the construction of a mathematical model for identity that supports such holistic identities. The model captures the ways in which an identity is constructed through a combination of data elements (e.g. a username on a forum, an address, a telephone number). Some of these elements may allow new characteristics to be inferred, hence enriching the holistic view of the identity. An example use-case would be the inference of real names from usernames, the ‘path’ created by inferring new elements of identity is highlighted in the ‘critical information’ panel. Individual attribution exercises can be understood as paths through a number of elements. Intuitively the entire realizable ‘capability’ can be modeled as a directed graph, where the elements are nodes and the inferences are represented by links connecting one or more antecedents with a conclusion. The model can be operationalized with two levels of tool support described in this paper, the first is a working prototype, the second is expected to reach prototype by July 2013: Understanding the Model The tool allows a user to easily determine, given a particular set of inferences and attributes, which elements or inferences are of most value to an investigator (or an attacker). The tool is also able to take

  1. Multisensory memory for object identity and location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Philippi, T.G.; Werkhoven, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have reported that audiovisual object presentation improves memory encoding of object identity in comparison to either auditory or visual object presentation. However, multisensory memory effects on retrieval, on object location, and of other multisensory combinations are yet unknown. We

  2. Intergroup structure and identity management among ethnic minority and majority groups : The interactive effects of perceived stability, legitimacy, and permeability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Reijerse, Arjan

    2008-01-01

    This paper is an examination, in a natural setting, of the interactive effects of perceived stability, legitimacy, and group permeability on group identification, stereotypes, and group feelings among Turkish-Dutch and ethnically Dutch participants. The findings strongly support predictions derived

  3. The Effect of Athletic Identity and Locus of Control on the Stress Perceptions of Community College Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Joshua C.

    2016-01-01

    Over 72,000 student-athletes compete annually in athletic programs at the community college level. However, research addressing the effect of athletic participation on the psychological well-being of the community college student-athlete is sparse. This study represents an attempt to address this gap by examining the relationship among perceived…

  4. The Effect of Athletic Identity and Locus of Control on the Stress Perceptions of Community College Student-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Joshua C.

    2016-01-01

    Over 72,000 student-athletes compete annually in athletic programs at the community college level. However, research addressing the effect of athletic participation on the psychological well-being of the community college student-athlete is sparse. This study represents an attempt to address this gap by examining the relationship among perceived…

  5. Moral identity and emotion in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavussanu, Maria; Willoughby, Adrian; Ring, Christopher

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of moral identity on physiological responses to affective pictures, namely, the startle blink reflex and pain-related evoked potential. Male (n = 48) and female (n = 46) athletes participating in contact team sports were randomly assigned to either a moral identity group or a non-moral identity group and viewed a series of unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant sport-specific pictures. During picture viewing, a noxious electrocutaneous stimulus was delivered as the startle probe and the startle blink and pain-related evoked potential were measured. Upon completion of physiological measures, participants reviewed the pictures and rated them for valence and arousal. ANOVAs revealed that participants in the moral identity group displayed larger startle blinks and smaller pain-related potentials than did those in the non-moral identity group across all picture valence categories. However, the difference in the magnitude of startle blinks between the moral and non-moral identity groups was larger in response to unpleasant than pleasant and neutral pictures. Our findings suggest that moral identity affects physiological responses to sport-specific affective pictures, thereby providing objective evidence for the link between moral identity and emotion in athletes.

  6. When Gender Identity Doesn't Equal Sex Recorded at Birth: The Role of the Laboratory in Providing Effective Healthcare to the Transgender Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Zil; Corneil, Trevor A; Greene, Dina N

    2017-08-01

    Transgender is an umbrella term used to describe individuals who identify with a gender incongruent to or variant from their sex recorded at birth. Affirming gender identity through a variety of social, medical, and surgical interventions is critical to the mental health of transgender individuals. In recent years, awareness surrounding transgender identities has increased, which has highlighted the health disparities that parallel this demographic. These disparities are reflected in the experience of transgender patients and their providers when seeking clinical laboratory services. Little is known about the effect of gender-affirming hormone therapy and surgery on optimal laboratory test interpretation. Efforts to diminish health disparities encountered by transgender individuals and their providers can be accomplished by increasing social and clinical awareness regarding sex/gender incongruence and gaining insight into the physiological manifestations and laboratory interpretations of gender-affirming strategies. This review summarizes knowledge required to understand transgender healthcare including current clinical interventions for gender dysphoria. Particular attention is paid to the subsequent impact of these interventions on laboratory test utilization and interpretation. Common nomenclature and system barriers are also discussed. Understanding gender incongruence, the clinical changes associated with gender transition, and systemic barriers that maintain a gender/sex binary are key to providing adequate healthcare to transgender community. Transgender appropriate reference interval studies are virtually absent within the medical literature and should be explored. The laboratory has an important role in improving the physiological understanding, electronic medical system recognition, and overall social awareness of the transgender community. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  7. Simultaneous Counter-Ion Co-Deposition a Technique Enabling Matrix Isolation Spectroscopy Studies Using Low-Energy Beams of Mass-Selected Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Ryan M.; Moore, David T.

    2014-06-01

    Matrix isolation spectroscopy was first developed in Pimentel's group during the 1950's to facilitate spectroscopic studies of transient species. Cryogenic matrices of condensed rare gases provide an inert chemical environment with facile energy dissipation and are transparent at all wavelengths longer than vacuum UV, making them ideal for studying labile and reactive species such as radicals, weakly bound complexes, and ions. Since frozen rare gases are poor electrolytes, studies of ions require near-equal populations of anions and cations in order to stabilize the number densities required for spectroscopic experiments. Many techniques for generation of ions for using in matrix isolation studies satisfy this criterion intrinsically, however when ion beams generated in external sources are deposited, the counter-ions typically arise via secondary processes that are at best loosely controlled. It has long been recognized that it would be desirable to stabilize deposition of mass-selected ions generated in an external source using simultaneous co-deposition of a beam of counter-ions, however previous attempts to achieve this have been reported as unsuccessful. The Moore group at Lehigh has demonstrated successful experiments of this type, using mass-selected anions generated from a metal cluster source, co-deposited with a balanced current of cations generated in a separate electron ionization source. This talk will focus on the details of the technique, and present some results from proof-of-concept studies on anionic copper carbonyl complexes formed in argon matrices following co-deposition of Cu- with Ar+ or Kr+. Funding support from NSF CAREER Award CHE-0955637 is gratefully acknowledged. Whittle et al., J. Chem. Phys. 22, p.1943 (1954); Becker et al., J. Chem. Phys. 25, p.224 (1956). Godbout et al., J. Chem. Phys. 96, p.2892 (1996). Sabo et al., Appl. Spectrosc. 45, p. 535 (1991).

  8. A case study of the effects of social experiences on the science identity formation of Mexican American females in high school chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeton, Renee P.

    Mexican Americans are a rapidly growing ethnic group in the United States. However, they are noticeably absent from physical science fields. Little research has explored the experiences of Mexican American girls in high school chemistry. The theories of identity based on communities of practice and multicultural feminism framed this year-long case study of nine Mexican American girls in a high school chemistry course. This study explored the social encounters and experiences that shaped the participants' identities and how their views of themselves affected their attitudes towards high school chemistry and future science careers. Data collection included a focus group and in-depth interviews with the participants, classroom observations, and teacher interviews. Five main identities influenced the participants' potential to become a scientist: ethnic, gender, science, student, and college. Mexican ethnic identity was the overarching identity; however gender also influenced the participants' other identities. The participants were aware of ethnic gender stereotypes that might hinder them from being successful in science. Also, ethnic factors, such as citizenship and abilities to receive financial aid limited their views of themselves as chemists. Participatory science, student, and school identities were all needed in order for the participants to be potential scientists. Family expectations, authentic relationships with teachers, and personal connections were important factors in the development of these participatory identities.

  9. Moral identity in psychopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Glenn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Several scholars have recognized the limitations of theories of moral reasoning in explaining moral behavior. They have argued that moral behavior may also be influenced by moral identity, or how central morality is to one's sense of self. This idea has been supported by findings that people who exemplify moral behavior tend to place more importance on moral traits when defining their self-concepts (Colby and Damon, 1995. This paper takes the next step of examining individual variation in a construct highly associated with IMMORAL behavior --- psychopathy. In Study 1, we test the hypothesis that individuals with a greater degree of psychopathic traits have a weaker moral identity. Within a large online sample, we found that individuals who scored higher on a measure of psychopathic traits were less likely to base their self-concepts on moral traits. In Study 2, we test whether this reduced sense of moral identity can be attributed to differences in moral judgment, which is another factor that could influence immoral behavior. Our results indicated that the reduced sense of moral identity among more psychopathic individuals was independent of variation in moral judgment. These results suggest that individuals with psychopathic traits may display immoral behavior partially because they do not construe their personal identities in moral terms.

  10. Narrating Career, Positioning Identity: Career Identity as a Narrative Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPointe, Kirsi

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to traditional definitions of career identity as an individual construct, this article argues for a discursive approach to career identity as a narrative practice. Career identity is conceptualized as a practice of articulating, performing and negotiating identity positions in narrating career experiences. By using the concept of…

  11. Facing social identity change: interactive effects of current and projected collective identification on expectations regarding future self-esteem and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Dominic J; Chasteen, Alison L; Kang, Sonia K

    2011-09-01

    We hypothesized that prospective changes in social identity that involve transitioning out of a currently valued group would be associated with negative expectations regarding future states, but that this effect would be mitigated among individuals who expect to belong to a future in-group of similar importance. Consistent with predictions, strongly identified young adults in two studies projected significantly lower self-esteem/psychological well-being in old age than weakly identified young adults. Critically, however, this effect was fully attenuated if they expected to identify with their future aged in-group when they were old. Study 2 showed that the capacity for projected identification to buffer projected well-being among strongly identified young adults was contingent on their membership in the future in-group being highly salient. Analyses of participants' written descriptions of old age (Study 1) and a valence manipulation (Study 2) indicated that these effects were not attributable to the anticipated valence of future selves/states, but rather to the value placed on current and future group memberships.

  12. If Stigmatized, Self-Esteem Is not Enough: Effects of Sexism, Self-Esteem and Social Identity on Leadership Aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedi, Angela; Rollero, Chiara

    2016-11-01

    Ambivalent sexism has many pernicious consequences. Since gender stereotypes also affect leadership roles, the present research investigated the effects of ambivalent sexism on envisioning oneself as a leader. Our studies tested the influence of sexist attitudes (toward women - Study 1 - and men - Study 2) on leadership aspiration, taking into account the interaction among ambivalent attitudes, personal characteristics (e.g. self-esteem), and group processes (e.g. level of identification with gender). Specifically, the current study used a 3 (sexism: hostile, benevolent, control) x 2 (social identification: high, low) x 2 (self-esteem: high, low) factorial design. 178 women participated in Study 1. Results showed that, although sexism was not recognised as a form of prejudice and did not trigger negative emotions, in sexist conditions high-identified women increase their leadership aspiration. In Study 2 men (N = 184) showed to recognise hostility as a form of prejudice, to experience more negative emotions, but to be not influenced in leadership aspiration. For both men and women self-esteem had a significant main effect on leadership aspiration.

  13. Researcher Identity in Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castelló, Montserrat; Kobayashi, Sofie; McGinn, Michelle K.

    2015-01-01

    Within the current higher education context, early career researchers (ECRs) face a ‘risk-career’ in which predictable, stable academic careers have become increasingly rare. Traditional milestones to signal progress toward a sustainable research career are disappearing or subject...... to reinterpretation, and ECRs need to attend to new or reimagined signals in their efforts to develop a researcher identity in this current context. In this article, we present a comprehensive framework for researcher identity in relation to the ways ECRs recognise and respond to divergent signals across spheres...... comprehensive framework allows for the analysis of researcher identity development through the complex and intertwined activities in which ECRs are involved. We advance this approach as a foundation for a sustained research agenda to understand how ECRs identify and respond to relevant signals, and...

  14. Learning as Negotiating Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kenneth Mølbjerg; Keller, Hanne Dauer

    of time - caught in the notion of trajectories of learning - that integrate past, present and future. Working with the learners' notion of time is significant because it is here that new learning possibilities become visible and meaningful for individuals. Further, we argue that the concept of identity......The paper explores the contribution of Communities of Practice (COP) to Human Resource Development (HRD). Learning as negotiating identities captures the contribution of COP to HRD. In COP the development of practice happens through negotiation of meaning. The learning process also involves modes...... of belonging constitutive of our identities. We suggest that COP makes a significant contribution by linking learning and identification. This means that learning becomes much less instrumental and much more linked to fundamental questions of being. We argue that the COP-framework links learning with the issue...

  15. Identity work and identity regulation in managers' personal development training

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the role of personal development training in managers’ identity processes. Personal development training constitutes a local management discourse, which can influence both identity work and identity regulation processes. The study emphasizes the importance of personal life stories in understanding how managers are influenced by personal development training. The training provokes different processes of identity work and identity regulation, and managers actively work wi...

  16. Identity gaps and level of depression among Korean immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eura; Hecht, Michael L

    2008-07-01

    Identity gaps are a new theoretical construct that provide a framework for integrating communication into the study of identity and understanding the relationship between identity and health outcomes, such as depression. Derived from the communication theory of identity, identity gaps emerge when elements of identity are inconsistent with each other. This article focuses on 2 types of identity gaps, personal-enacted and personal-relational, examining their relationships with situational variables and depression. A questionnaire was administered to a community sample of 377 Korean immigrants to test a hypothesized path model predicting that 3 situational variables (intercultural communication competence, middleperson status, and perception of racial hierarchy) would influence the identity gaps that, in turn, influence Korean immigrants' levels of depression. Results showed that all 3 situational variables predicted Korean immigrants' personal-relational identity gaps, whereas only intercultural communication competence predicted their personal-enacted identity gaps. Both types of identity gaps predicted the level of depression. The personal-relational identity gap significantly mediated the effects of all 3 situational variables on levels of depression. However, the personal-enacted identity gap mediated only the effects of intercultural communication competence on the levels of depression.

  17. Ego Identity Status: A Step in the Differentiation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Patrick; Buboltz, Walter C., Jr.; Seemann, Eric

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relationship between identity development and differentiation levels in young adults. A total of 259 participants completed the Extended Version of the Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status, the Differentiation of Self Inventory, and demographic questions. Results showed that each identity status had a unique effect on the various…

  18. Professions and their Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsler, John

    2005-01-01

    PROFESSIONS AND THEIR IDENTITIES: HOW TO EXPLORE PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT AMONG (SEMI-)PROFESSIONS This article explores conditions for discussing what it means to be professional among teachers, pre-school teachers, nurses and social workers. From an epistemological point of view it explores how...... analytical strategies can frame in sufficiently complex ways what it means to be a professional today. It is assumed that at least four main issues must be dealt with in order to conduct a satisfactory analysis of professions and their identities. Firstly, it is of fundamental strategic importance that one...

  19. National and Transnational Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    is that the opportunity and incentive structures clearly affect collective identities and the organising processes of the Turkish minority groups within in the three countries. The analysis shows that the immigrant organisations adapt to the structural limitations and claims and identities are negotiated within...... in terms of career paths. In Germany the integration activities are increasingly being pushed over to the immigrant organisations which now share the role of being service providers together with the welfare organisations, which also stipulates increased competition. The analysis also shows...

  20. Identity-based encryption

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Sanjit

    2011-01-01

    Identity Based Encryption (IBE) is a type of public key encryption and has been intensely researched in the past decade. Identity-Based Encryption summarizes the available research for IBE and the main ideas that would enable users to pursue further work in this area. This book will also cover a brief background on Elliptic Curves and Pairings, security against chosen Cipher text Attacks, standards and more. Advanced-level students in computer science and mathematics who specialize in cryptology, and the general community of researchers in the area of cryptology and data security will find Ide

  1. Solvation effects on like-charge attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarian, Shahzad; Rottler, Jörg

    2013-02-28

    We present results of molecular dynamics simulations of the electrostatic interaction between two parallel charged rods in the presence of divalent counterions. Such polyelectrolytes have been considered as a simple model for understanding electrostatic interactions in highly charged biomolecules such as DNA. Since there are correlations between the free charge carriers, the phenomenon of like charge attraction appears for specific parameters. We explore the role of solvation effects and the resulting deviations from Coulomb's law on the nanoscale on this peculiar phenomenon. The behavior of the force between the charged rods in a simulation with atomistic representation of water molecules is completely different from a model in which water is modeled as a continuum dielectric. By calculating counterion-rodion pair correlation functions, we find that the presence of water molecules changes the structure of the counterion cloud and results in both qualitative and quantitative changes of the force between highly charged polyelectrolytes.

  2. On the fundamentals of identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gaag, Mandy

    2016-01-01

    Various new perspectives on identity have been introduced or have increased in popularity over the past two decades. These include identity as dynamic system (Kunnen & Bosma, 2001), a narrative approach to identity (McAdams, 2001), multi-dimensional models of identity formation (Luyckx et al., 2006;

  3. On the fundamentals of identity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gaag, Mandy

    2016-01-01

    Various new perspectives on identity have been introduced or have increased in popularity over the past two decades. These include identity as dynamic system (Kunnen & Bosma, 2001), a narrative approach to identity (McAdams, 2001), multi-dimensional models of identity formation (Luyckx et al., 2006;

  4. Corporate Brand Identity in SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäläskä, Minna; Jones, Richard Ian

    studies. The research is important since it suggests an iterative and co-creative approach to brand identity. A typology of brand identity formation for SMEs is presented: entrepreneur driven, market driven, stakeholder driven. Practical implications: The three paths to creating a strong brand identity......Purpose: To study the emergence of corporate brand identity in SMEs and to develop a typology of brand identity drivers that reflects a co-creative approach to the emergence of brand identity. Design / Methodology / Approach : Existing approaches to brand identity are summarised. A narrative...... approach to understanding the emergence of brand identity is employed in case studies of 10 case companies reflecting both B-to-B and B-to-C companies. Findings: In all cases we see that brand identity is not a clear, enduring identity as suggested in the literature but is formed in a co-creative process...

  5. IDENTITY THEFT COMMITTED THROUGH INTERNET

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Cristian MOISE

    2015-01-01

    In this study, starting with the presentation of some aspects regarding management of identity in cyberspace, it is carried out the analysis of the offence of identity theft committed through Internet. The term “identity theft” describes the criminal acts through which the offender obtains and uses in a fraudulent manner the identity of other person. These criminal acts may be carried out through the use of information and communication technology, too. The cases of identity theft committed t...

  6. Identity-based consumer behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Americus; Forehand, Mark; Puntoni, Stefano; Warlop, Luk

    2012-01-01

    Although the influence of identity on consumer behavior has been documented in many streams of literature, the absence of a consistent definition of identity and of generally accepted principles regarding the drivers of identity-based behavior complicates comparisons across these literatures. To resolve that problem, we propose a simple but inclusive definition of identity. Identity can be defined as any category label with which a consumer self-associates that is amenable to a clear picture ...

  7. Fluidity, Identity, and Organizationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobusch, Leonhard; Schoeneborn, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    that the organizationality of a social collective is accomplished through “identity claims”—i.e., speech acts that concern what the social collective is or does—and negotiations on whether or not these claims have been made on the collective's behalf. We empirically examine the case of the hacker collective Anonymous...

  8. Gendered Avatar Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolums, Viola

    2011-01-01

    Gendered appearance in "World of Warcraft" is of particular interest because it seems to infiltrate interactions between individuals without serving a functional purpose within the game itself. It provides an opportunity to look at avatar choice in environments that have a primary purpose aside from existing as an arena for creating identity, and…

  9. Dissociative Identity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Few psychological disorders in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual have generated as much controversy as Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID). For the past 35 years diagnoses of DID, previously referred to as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), have increased exponentially, causing various psychological researchers and clinicians to question the…

  10. The Visual Identity Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant-Gadd, Laurie; Sansone, Kristina Lamour

    2008-01-01

    Identity is the focus of the middle-school visual arts program at Cambridge Friends School (CFS) in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Sixth graders enter the middle school and design a personal logo as their first major project in the art studio. The logo becomes a way for students to introduce themselves to their teachers and to represent who they are…

  11. Bilingualism versus identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Jesper

    1988-01-01

    During the last hundred years psychologists, philosophers and theologians have developed two different conceptions of personal identity. One of them insists that each person is a unique and transcendental being, whereas the other finds the personality deriving from interaction with other persons........ (This is the prevailing view today.) These theories are placed in relation to the difficulties an immigrant encounters....

  12. Gender, Identity and CMC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Simeon J.

    1997-01-01

    Some research and popularized accounts have claimed computer-mediated communication (CMC) based interactions are free of gender inequality though a growing body of research has documented gender differences in access and practice. This article examines both positions and cultural aspects of gender identities to make clear the centrality of gender…

  13. What about Linguistic Identity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Micah

    2010-01-01

    The recent influx of Latino immigrants in the Mid-West U.S. has also increased the number of Mexican students in schools. As recent immigrants, one of the challenges Mexican students face besides learning a different language is the construction of new identities in unfamiliar environments. Learning a language involves acquiring another identity…

  14. Teaching European Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raento, Pauliina

    2008-01-01

    The political, cultural and social make-up of Europe is changing fast. A new European identity is under construction, but old contradictions and diversity challenge its contents, forms and boundaries. Migration, the changing role of the nation-state and Europe's regions, the reshaping of politico-administrative and perceptional boundaries, the…

  15. Spatial Identity in Gagauzia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Salavatova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically the gagauz developed a self-perception based on their difference from Moldova as well as the ‘Turkish world’. The article argues that this fact has determined their pro-Russian political orientation as the only possible way of maintaining their identity

  16. Graduate Identity and Employability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliffe, Geoffrey William; Jolly, Adrienne

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops the concept of graduate identity as a way of deepening the understanding of graduate employability. It does this through presenting research in which over 100 employers in East Anglia were asked to record their perceptions of graduates in respect of their employability. The findings suggest a composite and complex graduate…

  17. Language and Social Identity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    A person' s language and social identity are in fact an inseparable entity. When I was in Australia, as I can recall, my neighbour practised his speaking every morning, making it both pleasant and a privilege to hear, for the purpose of getting into parliament.

  18. Migration, Narration, Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leese, Peter

    three consecutive summers from 2010 to 2012. The articles focus on various aspects of the migrant experience and try to answer questions about migrant identity and its representations in literature and the media. The book closes with an original play by Carlos Morton, the Chicano playwright working...

  19. Discourses of Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, Theo

    2009-01-01

    This lecture discusses the concept of lifestyle, which emerged in the field of marketing in the 1970s, as a new, and increasingly pervasive, discourse of identity cutting through older "demographic" discourses. Distributed by mediated experts and role models, and realized through the semiotics of "composites of connotation", it redraws the…

  20. WORK AND LEARNER IDENTITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrup, Sissel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to suggest a theoretical framework than can assess to how people’s engagement in specific historical and social work practices are significant to their development, maintenance or transformation of a learner identity. Such a framework is crucial in order to grasp how...

  1. Story Telling: Crafting Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Mary; Watson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Career guidance clients are seeking to craft new identities that better position them in their careers. The focus of the present article is on narrative career counselling's potential contribution in providing a meaningful and useful experience for career guidance clients. To illustrate the potential of narrative career counselling, the story…

  2. Imagining Geographies, Mapping Identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Graves

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The ambition of this issue of Portal is to reach across the methodological boundaries of history, politics, literature and geography to apply their complementary perspectives to the study of identity and its relation to space and place, an aim that involves attempting to identify the many different ways the notoriously slippery concepts of identity and geography may intersect. For this issue we have selected articles that cast a fresh perspective on two areas where identity and geography intersect: the construction of identity through the imaginative recreation of place in literature: Mapping Literary Spaces; and the study of the shifting relationships of centre and periphery, exclusion and inclusion in urban settings and geopolitical confrontations: Social and Political Peripheries. Gerard Toal has written that geography is not a noun but a verb: it does not describe what space is but studies what we do with space, imaginatively and politically. The articles in this issue illustrate the exercise of the literary and political imagination and the role of materiality and memory in the creation of geographic representation. They show too a new awareness of the centrality of space in the constitution of identities, and the need for a new geocritical reading of its discourse, as the interrelations of place and community are played out on the many scales of social and political life, from the local to the global.   The special issue is organised thus: Introduction Matthew Graves (Aix-Marseille University & Liz Rechniewski (Sydney University: “Imagining Geographies, Mapping Identities.” I. Mapping Literary Spaces - Isabelle Avila (University of Paris XIII, "Les Cartes de l'Afrique au XIXe siècle et Joseph Conrad : Perceptions d'une Révolution Cartographique." - Daniela Rogobete (University of Craiova, "Global vs Glocal: Dimensions of the post-1981 Indian English Novel." II. Social and Political Peripheries - Elizabeth Rechniewski (Sydney

  3. Music and collective identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Biljana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some introductory observations on the ways in which the opposition between the modern and post-modern understanding of social identities can be overcome in the context of musicology. It is based on the consideration of identities as dynamic and changeable categories, as well as on the importance of the relation between individual and collective positionings, on the complexities of the multiple identifications and on the understanding of music as a social construction of identity. Due attention is paid to basic theoretical and methodological aspects in the interdisciplinary analysis of ′self′ and ′other′. In music, the problems of self-presentation appropriation, difference, power, control, authenticity, hybridity, as well as other issues that blur the boundaries between musicology, ethnomusicology and the studies of popular music, are made relevant by these interdisciplinary terms. Both the modern and post-modern understanding of identity can first be placed in the context of the binary questions: ′How to construct the identity and maintain it?′ and ′How to avoid the construction of the fixed identity and thus leave the door open for the possibility of change?′. It seems that the deconstruction of these opposite approaches has now grown in importance. This paper focuses especially on that kind of theorizing about music and socio-cultural identities. The views of Georgina Born and David Hesmondhalgh, that older and recent models of music representation are not ′either/or′ categories but rather complement each other, are especially singled out. These authors show by numerous examples that music can invariably both reflect existing identities and construct new ones. They conclude that possible shortcomings, such as the danger of essentialism in the earlier approach, and of later reductionism, could be avoided by carefully using the homology and process models of music representation. Their typology of music

  4. Family correlates of female adolescents' ego-identity development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, G R

    1985-03-01

    Past research has suggested that parents may contribute to the positive development of their daughter's identity formation. Theoretical notions from both social learning and symbolic interaction indicate that parents can either facilitate or hinder positive growth. Therefore, to test the predictions that (a) more mature (moratorium and achieved) identity status parents would have daughters with more mature identities, and (b) that both positive and negative parenting styles can be detected to differentiate between less (diffused and foreclosed) and more mature identity status youths, 45 families (145 subjects) were assessed on parent-child relations and identity status formation. In contrast to much past research, parent-child relations were assessed from both the adolescents' and the parents' perspectives. The findings indicate that parental identity status formation may have an effect on the adolescent's identity formation and that parent-child relations differentiate between less and more mature female adolescent identities.

  5. Sinorhizobium meliloti strains TII7 and A5 by Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) have chromsomes identical with Rm1021 and form an effective and ineffective symbiosis with Medicago truncatula line Jemalong A17, respectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    The strains TII7 and A5 formed an effective and ineffective symbiosis with Medicago truncatula Jemalong A17, respectively. Both were shown to have identical chromsomes with strains Rm1021 and RCR2011 using a Multilocus Sequence Typing method. The 2260 bp segments of DNA stretching from the 3’ end ...

  6. Solving a supply chain scheduling problem with non-identical job sizes and release times by applying a novel effective heuristic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Jun; Liu, Xinbao; Pardalos, Panos M.; Fan, Wenjuan; Wang, Ling; Yang, Shanlin

    2016-03-01

    Motivated by applications in manufacturing industry, we consider a supply chain scheduling problem, where each job is characterised by non-identical sizes, different release times and unequal processing times. The objective is to minimise the makespan by making batching and sequencing decisions. The problem is formalised as a mixed integer programming model and proved to be strongly NP-hard. Some structural properties are presented for both the general case and a special case. Based on these properties, a lower bound is derived, and a novel two-phase heuristic (TP-H) is developed to solve the problem, which guarantees to obtain a worst case performance ratio of ?. Computational experiments with a set of different sizes of random instances are conducted to evaluate the proposed approach TP-H, which is superior to another two heuristics proposed in the literature. Furthermore, the experimental results indicate that TP-H can effectively and efficiently solve large-size problems in a reasonable time.

  7. RFID system for newborn identity reconfirmation in hospital: exposure assessment of a realistic newborn model and effects of the change of the dielectric properties with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocchi, Serena; Parazzini, Marta; Ravazzani, Paolo

    2011-12-01

    This paper addresses the exposure assessment of RFID devices for newborn identity reconfirmation. To that purpose, a realistic newborn model ("Baby") is used to evaluate by a computational approach the levels of exposure due to these devices. Considering the average technical specifications currently in use, the exposure matrix in Baby shows that the systems comply with the ICNIRP exposure guidelines. As second aim, the effects of the change of the tissue dielectric properties with age on the so called "exposure matrix" (set of induced magnetic and electric field together with the derived values of SAR) is addressed. Specifically, three different approaches proposed in literature for the age variation of the dielectric properties at 13.56 MHz (the working frequency of the RFID systems for these applications) have been implemented using the Baby geometrical model. The related exposure matrices were then compared with the results obtained using the adult properties. No clear trend can be identified on the exposure matrices obtained varying the dielectric properties at 13.56 MHz, although the results could suggest a trend toward the underestimation of the exposure using adult properties.

  8. Eviprostat has an identical effect compared to pollen extract (Cernilton) in patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a randomized, prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamura, Hiromichi; Koie, Takuya; Soma, Osamu; Matsumoto, Teppei; Imai, Atsushi; Hatakeyama, Shingo; Yoneyama, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Ohyama, Chikara

    2015-12-07

    Previously reported results of a prospective, randomized placebo-controlled study showed that the pollen extract (Cernilton) significantly improved total symptoms, pain, and quality of life in patients with inflammatory prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) without severe side effects. A phytotherapeutic agent, Eviprostat, is reportedly effective in a rat model of nonbacterial prostatitis. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy and safety of Eviprostat to that of the pollen extract in the management of CP/CPPS. The patients with category III CP/CPPS were randomized to receive either oral capsules of Eviprostat (two capsules, q 8 h) or the pollen extract (two capsules, q 8 h) for 8 weeks. The primary endpoint of the study was symptomatic improvement in the NIH Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI). Participants were evaluated using the NIH-CPSI and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) at baseline and after 4 and 8 weeks. In the intention-to-treat analysis, 100 men were randomly allocated to Eviprostat (n = 50) or the pollen extract (n = 50). Response (defined as a decrease in the NIH-CPSI total score by at least 25 %) in the Eviprostat group and the pollen extract group was 88.2 and 78.1 %, respectively. There was no significant difference in the total, pain, urinary, and quality of life (QOL) scores of the NIH-CPSI between the two groups at 8 weeks. This was also the case with the total, voiding, and storage symptoms of the IPSS. There were no severe adverse events observed in any patients in this study. Both the pollen extract and Eviprostat significantly reduced the symptoms of category III CP/CPPS without any adverse events. Eviprostat may have an identical effect on category III CP/CPPS compared the pollen extract. The study was registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry in Japan (UMIN000019618); registration date: 3 November 2015.

  9. Identity Development and Identity Formation: A Theoretical Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Atak

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Basic function of adolescence -one of the human life periods when physical and mental changes are experienced most heavily- is suggested to be identity development. Recent developmental psychology studies hypothesized that identity development starts during adolescence but intensifies during transi-tion to adulthood. This study addresses identity concept, in detail, from a theoretical point of view and in the scope of empirical studies. Literature offers quite different explanations and models as well as a few basic theories in this framework. The number of studies on identity subject is higher than the number of studies on other psycho-social study subjects. This study presents the theories offering basic explanations about identity (such as the works of Erikson, Marcia, Berzonsky, Waterman and the theories referring to identity (such as the works of Blos, Arnett, Kegan. Theories related to identity are addressed under the titles of identity exploration, identity status and identity styles. Almost all of the identity studies conducted in Turkey focused on identity status. In this context, new theories and tendencies may be taken into consideration in the studies to be made in Turkey on identity development.

  10. Transformation from Identity Stone Age to Digital Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Kohli

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Technological conversion, political interests and Business drivers has triggered a means, to establish individual characterization and personalization.People started raising concerns on multiple identities managed across various zones and hence various solutions were designed. Technological advancement has brought various issues and concerns around Identity assurance, privacy and policy enabled common Authentication framework. A compressive framework is needed to established common identity model to address national needs like standards, regulation and laws, minimum risk, interoperability and to provide user with a consistent context or user experience.This document focuses on Transformation path of identity stone age to Identity as in state. It defines a digital identity zone model (DIZM to showcase the Global Identity defined across the ecosystem. Also, provide insight of emerging Technology trend to enable Identity assurance, privacy and policy enabled common Authentication framework.

  11. Transformation from Identity Stone Age to Digital Identity

    CERN Document Server

    Kohli, Mohit

    2011-01-01

    Technological conversion, political interests and Business drivers has triggered a means, to establish individual characterization and personalization. People started raising concerns on multiple identities managed across various zones and hence various solutions were designed. Technological advancement has brought various issues and concerns around Identity assurance, privacy and policy enabled common Authentication framework. A compressive framework is needed to established common identity model to address national needs like standards, regulation and laws, minimum risk, interoperability and to provide user with a consistent context or user experience. This document focuses on Transformation path of identity stone age to Identity as in state. It defines a digital identity zone model (DIZM) to showcase the Global Identity defined across the ecosystem. Also, provide insight of emerging Technology trend to enable Identity assurance, privacy and policy enabled common Authentication framework.

  12. Social identities and risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders; Jensen, Mette; Kaltoft, Pernille

    2008-01-01

    Expert-based environmental and health risk regulation is widely believed to suffer from a lack of public understanding and legitimacy. On controversial issues such as genetically modified organisms and food-related chemicals, a "lay-expert discrepancy" in the assessment of risks is clearly visible...... of social identities. On the basis of qualitative interviews with citizens and experts, respectively, we focus on the multiple ways in which identities come to be employed in actors' risk accounts. Empirically, we identify salient characteristics of "typical" imagined experts and lay-people, while arguing...... that these conceptions vary identifiably in-between four groups of citizens and experts. On the basis of our findings, some implications for bridging the lay-expert discrepancy on risk issues are sketched out....

  13. Novell Identity Manager 4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志超

    2010-01-01

    本刊讯 5月27日,Novell推出Identity Manager 4解决方案系列,它可在跨物理、虚拟和云环境中安全地进行身份和访问管理。Novell Identity Manager4是业界首个在企业整体IT生态系统中,可确保身份、安全和合规策略连贯一致的解决方案,并在云环境中提供与数据中心环境相同水平的高安全性和稳定性。

  14. Holy Nations. Global Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Along with the processes of globalisation and the end of the cold war we have seen an upsurge in religious nationalism and an increasing focus on the role of religion as a legitimising force in democratic secular states. Holy Nations & Global Identities draws on the combined theoretical and histo......Along with the processes of globalisation and the end of the cold war we have seen an upsurge in religious nationalism and an increasing focus on the role of religion as a legitimising force in democratic secular states. Holy Nations & Global Identities draws on the combined theoretical...... and historical insight of historians, political scientists and social scientists on the question of nationalism and globalisation with the methodological knowledge of religion presented by sociologists of religion. The book brings genuine theoretical explorations and original case studies on civil religion...

  15. Identity in craft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agneta Knutas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to efficiency, a bakery on the countryside in Norway is known for its slow pace of work. The slow pace allows the product, as well as the craftsperson, time in production and quality in relation to market. Therefore, the emphasis is on the importance of the aesthetic in craft, the building of identity as well as the association of tradition as part of the craft. Furthermore, allowing the time to understand both craft and tradition is what makes knowledge meaningful (Arendt, 1998/1958. Closely following craftsmen at a bakery in Norway, for two days, allowed the collection of observations and interviews. This paper is presented in narrative format. The study utilises support from Sennett (2009 and Arendt (1998/1958 in the analysis of the collected empirical data. The results regarding identity and enhancing vocational education in craft point towards the importance of concentration, judgement, an unhurried education process and a sociable master.

  16. Inquiry identity and science teacher professional development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, Nadine; Wilmes, Sara E. D.; Bellino, Marissa

    2016-06-01

    An effective inquiry-oriented science teacher possesses more than the skills of teaching through investigation. They must address philosophies, and ways of interacting as a member of a group of educators who value and practice science through inquiry. Professional development opportunities can support inquiry identity development, but most often they address teaching practices from limited cognitive perspectives, leaving unexplored the shifts in identity that may accompany teachers along their journey in becoming skilled in inquiry-oriented instruction. In this forum article, we envision Victoria Deneroff's argument that "professional development could be designed to facilitate reflexive transformation of identity within professional learning environments" (2013, p. 33). Instructional coaching, cogenerative dialogues, and online professional communities are discussed as ways to promote inquiry identity formation and collaboration in ways that empower and deepen science teachers' conversations related to personal and professional efficacy in the service of improved science teaching and learning.

  17. Keeping identity private

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjei, Joseph K.; Olesen, Henning

    2011-01-01

    Privacy has become a major issue for policy makers. This has been impelled by the rapid development of technologies that facilitate collection, distribution, storage, and manipulation of personal information. Business organizations are finding new ways of leveraging the value derived from consumer...... is an attempt to understand the relationship between individuals’ intentions to disclose personal information, their actual personal information disclosure behaviours, and how these can be leveraged to develop privacy-enhancing identity management systems (IDMS) that users can trust. Legal, regu...

  18. Ligand and counterion control of Ag(I) architectures: assembly of a {Ag8} ring cluster mediated by hydrophobic and Ag...Ag interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielden, John; Long, De-liang; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Kögerler, Paul; Cronin, Leroy

    2007-10-29

    A strategy combining ligand design and counterion variation has been used to investigate the assembly of silver(I) complexes. As a result, dinuclear, octanuclear, and polymeric silver(I) species have been synthesized by complexation of the rigid aliphatic amino ligands cis-3,5-diamino-trans-hydroxycyclohexane (DAHC), cis-3,5-diamino-trans-methoxycyclohexane (DAMC), and cis-3,5-diamino-trans-tert-butyldimethylsilylanyloxycyclohexane (DATC) with silver(I) triflate, nitrate, and perchlorate. The compositions of these aggregates, established by X-ray crystallography and elemental analysis, are [{Ag(DAHC)}2](CF3SO3)2 (1), [{Ag(DAMC)}2](CF3SO3)2 (2), [{Ag(DAMC)}2](NO3)2 (3), [{Ag(DATC)}6{Ag(DAHC)}2](NO3)8 (4), and [{Ag(DATC}n](NO3)n (5), where the DAHC present in 4 is formed by in situ hydrolysis of the acid labile silyl ether group. The type of aggregate formed depends both upon the noncoordinating O-substituent of the ligand and the (also noncoordinating) counterion, with the normal preference of the ligand topology for forming Ag2L2 structures being broken by introduction of the bulky, lipophilic O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS) group. Of particular note is the octanuclear silver ring structure 4, which is isolated only when both the O-TBDMS group and the nitrate counteranion are present and is formed from four Ag2L2 dimers connected by Ag...Ag and hydrogen-bonding interactions. Diffusion rate measurement of this {Ag8} complex by 1H NMR (DOSY) indicates dissociation in CD3OD and CD3CN, showing that this supramolecular ring structure is formed upon crystallization, and establishing a qualitative limit to the strength of Ag...Ag interactions in solution. When solutions of the {Ag8} cluster in methanol are kept for several days though, a new UV-vis absorption is observed at around 430 nm, consistent with the formation of silver nanoparticles.

  19. Identity Construction, Negotiation, and Resistance: Reconsideration of "Japanese" Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Chie

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation explores identity construction, mainly focusing on the ethnonational identity of "Japanese," in contrast to that of "non-Japanese" from ethnomethodological and social constructionist perspectives. Within these approaches, identity is not given "a priori" but emerges through sociohistorical contexts…

  20. Identity Styles and Religiosity: Examining the Role of Identity Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajales, Tevni E.; Sommers, Brittany

    2016-01-01

    This study observed the role of identity styles, identity commitment, and identity statuses in predicting religiosity in a sample of undergraduate students attending a Seventh-day Adventist university (N = 138). Two structural models were evaluated via path analysis. Results revealed two strong models for the prediction of religiosity. Identity…

  1. Does Everyone Have a Musical Identity?: Reflections on "Musical Identities"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracyk, Theodore

    2004-01-01

    The book, "Musical Identities" (Raymond MacDonald, David Hargreaves, Dorothy Miell, eds.; Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2002) consists of 11 essays on the psychology of music. The editors divided the essays into two groups: those on developing musical identities ("identities in music" involving recognizable social and cultural…

  2. Identity Styles and Religiosity: Examining the Role of Identity Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajales, Tevni E.; Sommers, Brittany

    2016-01-01

    This study observed the role of identity styles, identity commitment, and identity statuses in predicting religiosity in a sample of undergraduate students attending a Seventh-day Adventist university (N = 138). Two structural models were evaluated via path analysis. Results revealed two strong models for the prediction of religiosity. Identity…

  3. Personal identities and disordered eating behaviors in Mexican American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Karen Farchaus; Corte, Colleen; Ronis, David L

    2010-08-01

    Eating disorder behaviors are prevalent in Latina populations. This study tested Schwartz's (2006) theoretical view that a broad array of personal identities serves as an internal resource during acculturation and prevents internalization of dysfunctional weight related beliefs. Sixty-six Mexican American women completed measures of personal identities, fat self-definition, eating disorder symptoms and acculturation. Results show that few positive and many negative personal identities predict higher eating disorder scores and effects are mediated through the fat self-definition. Characteristics of personal identities may influence internalization of cultural values related to weight. Interventions focused on overall identity may prevent eating disorders in Latinas.

  4. Effects of aggressive behaviour and group size on collective escape in an emergency: a test between a social identity model and deindividuation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugihara, N

    2001-12-01

    This study models escape behaviour in emergency situations and compares the ability of deindividuation and social identity-based explanations in particular to account for responses. According to deindividuation theory, the larger the group, the higher the degree of anonymity and the stronger antisocial responses such as competitiveness will be. Moreover, the competition for escape should be more severe, and the escape rate lowered, in a large group, regardless of whether participants have an aggressive option. A social identity model predicts that when group members have an option of aggressive behaviour, the salience of the aggressive norm in a larger group will be stronger than that in a smaller group. In contrast, when participants only have concessive option, the salience of the non-aggressive norm in a large group is expected to be stronger than that in a small group. The results of Study 1 supported the social identity model. Study 2 tested how participants responded to their norm. The social identity model suggests a more conscious and socially regulated process whereas deindividuation theory implies an unconscious or unregulated process. The results showed that what directly affects norm formation is the density of stimulus, that is, the amount of aggression received from others and of others' escape activity divided by group size. The results suggest the conscious process of the norm formation and support the social identity model.

  5. Entrepreneurship Education as Identity Workspace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Signe Hedeboe

    2016-01-01

    and identities. Exposed to identity work practices in class, learners experienced conflicting demands participating as succesful students and participating as potential entrepreneurs. The study draws attention to how an education setting contextualises identity work as a social practice. It critisises......Entrepreneurship education theory and practice show increasing interest in identity work as an important part of entrepreneurial learning. Entrepreneurship programs become identity workspaces where pedagogical designs stimulate entrepreneurial identity work and support individuals’ discovery...... of themselves as entrepreneurs. This article investigates how entrepreneurship education is practiced as an identity workspace, when reflective identity work is turned into a pedagogical strategy for entrepreneurial learning. I present empirical data from a qualitative fieldstudy in an eleven week mandatory...

  6. Object Identity in Database Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李天柱

    1995-01-01

    The concept of object identity and implementation of object identity in some systems have been explained in literature.Based on an analysis on the idea of data scheme in ANSI/X3/SPARC,this paper presents the concept of full-identity,which includes entity identity,conceptual object identity,and internal object identity,In addition,the equality of objects,which is richer and more practical,is discussed based on the full identity of objects.Therefore,the semantics and constructions of the identity for the complex objects are fully observed,and some appliactions in object management,version management,and user interface are found.Also,it could support the combination of O-O model with V-O model.

  7. John locke on personal identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimbalkar, Namita

    2011-01-01

    John Locke speaks of personal identity and survival of consciousness after death. A criterion of personal identity through time is given. Such a criterion specifies, insofar as that is possible, the necessary and sufficient conditions for the survival of persons. John Locke holds that personal identity is a matter of psychological continuity. He considered personal identity (or the self) to be founded on consciousness (viz. memory), and not on the substance of either the soul or the body.

  8. John locke on personal identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimbalkar Namita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available John Locke speaks of personal identity and survival of consciousness after death. A criterion of personal identity through time is given. Such a criterion specifies, insofar as that is possible, the necessary and sufficient conditions for the survival of persons. John Locke holds that personal identity is a matter of psychological continuity. He considered personal identity (or the self to be founded on consciousness (viz. memory, and not on the substance of either the soul or the body.

  9. John locke on personal identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namita Nimbalkar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available John Locke speaks of personal identity and survival of consciousness after death. A criterion of personal identity through time is given. Such a criterion specifies, insofar as that is possible, the necessary and sufficient conditions for the survival of persons. John Locke holds that personal identity is a matter of psychological continuity. He considered personal identity (or the self to be founded on consciousness (viz. memory, and not on the substance of either the soul or the body.

  10. Social Identity Simulation System (SISTEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-31

    number of people G = identity group (e.g. gender, ethnicity, etc.) D = identity (e.g. male/ female , White/Black/Spanish/… etc.) R = real resources for an...actions as part of a collective. The collective actions are driven by social identity entrepreneurs (SIDs) (Haslam & Reicher, 2007; Lal, 1997). These...social identity entrepreneurs only advocate a collective action on behalf of the group when they perceive benefits of advocating being greater than

  11. The moral ties that bind . . . Even to out-groups: the interactive effect of moral identity and the binding moral foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Isaac H; Aquino, Karl; Koleva, Spassena; Graham, Jesse

    2014-08-01

    Throughout history, principles such as obedience, loyalty, and purity have been instrumental in binding people together and helping them thrive as groups, tribes, and nations. However, these same principles have also led to in-group favoritism, war, and even genocide. Does adhering to the binding moral foundations that underlie such principles unavoidably lead to the derogation of out-group members? We demonstrated that for people with a strong moral identity, the answer is "no," because they are more likely than those with a weak moral identity to extend moral concern to people belonging to a perceived out-group. Across three studies, strongly endorsing the binding moral foundations indeed predicted support for the torture of out-group members (Studies 1a and 1b) and withholding of necessary help from out-group members (Study 2), but this relationship was attenuated among participants who also had a strong moral identity.

  12. The Change of Expression Configuration Affects Identity-Dependent Expression Aftereffect but Not Identity-Independent Expression Aftereffect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Miao; Shinomori, Keizo; Qian, Qian; Yin, Jun; Zeng, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of expression configuration on cross-identity expression aftereffect. The expression configuration refers to the spatial arrangement of facial features in a face for conveying an emotion, e.g., an open-mouth smile vs. a closed-mouth smile. In the first of two experiments, the expression aftereffect is measured using a cross-identity/cross-expression configuration factorial design. The facial identities of test faces were the same or different from the adaptor, while orthogonally, the expression configurations of those facial identities were also the same or different. The results show that the change of expression configuration impaired the expression aftereffect when the facial identities of adaptor and tests were the same; however, the impairment effect disappears when facial identities were different, indicating the identity-independent expression representation is more robust to the change of the expression configuration in comparison with the identity-dependent expression representation. In the second experiment, we used schematic line faces as adaptors and real faces as tests to minimize the similarity between the adaptor and tests, which is expected to exclude the contribution from the identity-dependent expression representation to expression aftereffect. The second experiment yields a similar result as the identity-independent expression aftereffect observed in Experiment 1. The findings indicate the different neural sensitivities to expression configuration for identity-dependent and identity-independent expression systems.

  13. Identity formation in multiparty negotiations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaab, R; Postmes, T.; Spears, R.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the recently proposed Interactive Model of Identity Formation, we examine how top-down deductive and bottom-up inductive identity formations influence intentions and behaviour in multiparty negotiations. Results show that a shared identity can be deduced from the social context through reco

  14. Identity Development in Deaf Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnen, E. Saskia

    2014-01-01

    We studied identity development during 5 years in seven deaf adolescents who attended a school for deaf children in the highest level of regular secondary education (age between 14 and 18 years), administering identity interviews every year. Identity development is conceptualized as the processes of exploration and commitment formation (Bosma,…

  15. New identities for sessile drops

    CERN Document Server

    Hajirahimi, Maryam; Fatollahi, Amir H

    2014-01-01

    A new set of mathematical identities is presented for axi-symmetric sessile drops on flat and curved substrates. The geometrical parameters, including the apex curvature and height, and the contact radius, are related by the identities. The validity of the identities are checked by various numerical solutions both for flat and curved substrates.

  16. Identity theft and your practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbell, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Medical identity theft is a growing problem in America. The federal government has passed laws to help "prevent" identity theft. However, several powerful medical associations are fighting the legislation. Americans need to know what is happening with these laws and why these laws are important to protect providers from lawsuits and consumers of healthcare from medical identity theft.

  17. Ethnic Identity: Crisis and Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Aureliano Sandoval

    1990-01-01

    Presents Chicano/Latino ethnic identity development model that fosters understanding of ethnic identity conflicts particular to Chicano and Latino clients. Presents five stages (causal, cognitive, consequence, working through, and successful resolution) in relationship to ethnic identity conflicts, interventions, and resolution. Combines several…

  18. Capillary electrophoresis procedure for the simultaneous analysis and stoichiometry determination of a drug and its counter-ion by using dual-opposite end injection and contactless conductivity detection: application to labetalol hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehmé, Reine; Lascaux, Adrien; Delépée, Raphaël; Claude, Bérengère; Morin, Philippe

    2010-03-24

    In this work, a capillary electrophoresis (CE) procedure was developed for the simultaneous determination of a pharmaceutical drug and its counter-ion, namely labetalol hydrochloride. For this purpose, an uncoated fused-silica capillary, a low conductivity background electrolyte (BGE) and a capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4)D) were employed. This detection system is highly sensitive and enables detection of inorganic as well as organic ions unlike with direct UV detection. Moreover, to be able to simultaneously analyze the cationic drug (labetalol(+)) and its anionic counter-ion (Cl(-)) in the same electrophoretic run without the need of a coated capillary, a dual-opposite end injection was performed. In this technique, the sample is hydrodynamically injected into both ends of the capillary. This method is simple and easy to perform since the different injection steps are automated by the CE software. This novel CE-C(4)D procedure with dual-opposite end injection has been successfully validated and applied for the analysis of chloride content in an adrenergic antagonist (labetalol hydrochloride). Thus, the hereby developed method has been shown to enable fast (analysis time<10 min), precise (repeatability of migration times<0.7% and of corrected-peak areas < 3.3%; n=6) and rugged analyses for the simultaneous determination of a pharmaceutical drug and its counter-ion. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A Density Functional Theory Based Protocol to Compute the Redox Potential of Transition Metal Complex with the Correction of Pseudo-Counterion: General Theory and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Toru; Kitagawa, Yasutaka; Shigeta, Yasuteru; Okumura, Mitsutaka

    2013-07-09

    We propose an accurate scheme to evaluate the redox potential of a wide variety of transition metal complexes by adding a charge-dependent correction term for a counterion around the charged complexes, which is based on Generalized Born theory, to the solvation energy. The mean absolute error (MAE) toward experimental redox potentials of charged complexes is considerably reduced from 0.81 V (maximum error 1.22 V) to 0.22 V (maximum error 0.50 V). We found a remarkable exchange-correlation functional dependence on the results rather than the basis set ones. The combination of Wachters+f (for metal) and 6-31++G(d,p) (for other atoms) with the B3LYP functional gives the least MAE 0.15 V for the test complexes. This scheme is applicable to other solvents, and heavier transition metal complexes such as M1(CO)5(pycn) (M1 = Cr, Mo, W), M2(mnt)2 (M2 = Ni, Pd, Pt), and M3(bpy)3 (M3 = Fe, Ru, Os) with the same quality.

  20. Synchronization of two identical and non-identical Rulkov models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huijing; Cao, Hongjun

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, the synchronization of two chaotic Rulkov map-based neurons is taken into account. Firstly, based on the master stability function (MSF) analysis, the complete synchronization of two electrical coupled chaotic Rulkov neurons is investigated in detail. The two-dimensional parameter-space plot that displays directly the values of the MSF in different colors is numerically obtained. The numerical values of the MSF show that the two electrical coupled Rulkov neurons are likely to achieve the complete synchronization when each single neuron is in a silent state or a period-1 bursting state, while are unable to reach the complete synchronous state when each single neuron is in a chaotic bursting state or a spiking state. Secondly, Pearson's correlation coefficient is employed to measure the synchronization degree, which demonstrates the nonexistence of the complete synchronization for non-identical electrical coupled Rulkov neurons. Importantly, the complete synchronization can not be reached with the increase of the electrical coupling strength, which is different from the continuous-time neuronal models. Finally, based on the active control method, a synchronization scheme is presented to study the complete synchronization for two Rulkov neurons no matter whether they are identical or not. The scheme is also applied to investigate the anticipated synchronization and the lag synchronization for any two Rulkov neurons. Numerical simulations verify the correctness of our analytical results and the effectiveness of our methods.

  1. Effects of Spatial Frequencies on Recognition of Facial Identity and Facial Expression%空间频率信息对面孔身份与表情识别的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪亚珉; 王志贤; 黄雅梅; 蒋静; 丁锦红

    2011-01-01

    participants, with each 32 participants. In experiment 1,we measured Garner effect between facial identity and expression with full spatial face photos. In experiments 2, we complete the measurement on low spatial frequency filtered photos, and in experiment 3 the same measurement were made on high spatial frequency filtered face photos.32 participants were recruited for each experiment.Results of experiment 1 indicated that obvious Gamer effects were observed in either identity or expression recognition. In experiment 2, high spatial frequency enhanced facial expression recognition by lowering Garner effect, but it had no influence on facial identity recognition. In experiment 3, low spatial frequency exerted no obvious influence on either identity or expression recognition. Analysis of dissociability (measurement of Garner effect) and difficulty (measurement of selective reaction time in base line) showed that high spatial frequency selectively affected expression detection.In conclusion, high spatial frequencies were possibly used by us to distinguish facial expression information from identity information in hard-detected recognition task. Low spatial frequencies were easy to interact with both processing level and experimental task.

  2. Primary Identity in Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Brian Russell

    viewing the characters in literature in terms of these political identities. Literature is consequently discussed in relation to political causes. Literary criticism is animated by the same causes, and is viewed as having a direct intervention in society in relation to them. In this paper, I will discuss...... in opposite directions towards the fulfillment of desire at one end of experience and a world of fear and despair at the other, and in relation to its notion of a better society, what interests literature is a society of contented families joined through the marriage of their adult children....

  3. Digital identity management

    CERN Document Server

    Laurent, Maryline

    2015-01-01

    In the past four decades, information technology has altered chains of value production, distribution, and information access at a significant rate. These changes, although they have shaken up numerous economic models, have so far not radically challenged the bases of our society.This book addresses our current progress and viewpoints on digital identity management in different fields (social networks, cloud computing, Internet of Things (IoT)), with input from experts in computer science, law, economics and sociology. Within this multidisciplinary and scientific context, having crossed analys

  4. FINDING MY IDENTITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keith Farnish

    2010-01-01

    @@ I have found an identity. Is that really such a big deal? The thing is,I didn't realize I was missing one.There are so many things I could call myself: a human,male,a father,a husband,a writer,a thinker,a gardener,a campaigner...so many things that I feel pretty comfortable with,yet until a couple of weeks ago I didn't realize there was something missing; something that yawned inside me,empty and lacking substance.

  5. Shifting Design Consultancy Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henry; Huijboom, Nina; Holm Nielsen, Anne

    2014-01-01

    and identities that resonate more with freelancing and portfolio careers than with the intention of creating firms that are intended to expand. We recognized a pattern where freelancers build up their work as a portfolio by moving from one engagement to another, a process that we will call sequential freelancing...... on design for innovation as a strategy for growth might well benefit if they understand that other companies in their municipality can grow if they actively support designers and help them develop their networking capabilities....

  6. What is digital identity?

    OpenAIRE

    Ertzscheid, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The question of digital identity and e-reputation is central in today’s Internet ecosystem, both in terms of individual and collective use. This book is an accessible guide to cutting-edge research on the subject and provides an overview of the fundamental issues that individuals need to master in order to retain control over their or their organization’s online presence. This is a book for readers who wish to discover more about this rich and complex issue, as well as for businesses, organi...

  7. Understanding your digital identity

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Shirley Ann; Fleming, Sarah Christine; Lundqvist, Karsten Oster; Parslow, Patrick Neil

    2010-01-01

    The term “Digital Identity” is used here to describe the persona a person projects across the internet. Your Digital Identity as perceived by other people is made up of material that you post yourself (for example photographs on Flickr and your own web page) but it also is made up of material other people put there about you (blog posts that mention you, photographs in which you are tagged). The “This is Me” project has developed resources that can be used by students and others to appreci...

  8. Identity Management A Primer

    CERN Document Server

    Sharoni, Ilan; Williamson, Graham; Yip, David

    2009-01-01

    In an age in which the boundaries between the real and the virtual are becoming increasingly blurred, this timely guide teaches both the key issues of identity management as well as appropriate strategies and preventative measures for ensuring personal safety in the virtual world. In a corporate setting, it is essential to identify and control the way in which the organization deals with customers, suppliers, employees, and other users who may interact with the information systems of the company. Providing strategies for overcoming this task in real-world terms as well as questions that assist

  9. The Effect of Locus of Control, Self-Efficacy, and Gender-Role Identity on Academic Performance Outcomes of Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Jade Simone

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated the predictive worthiness of the predictor variable indices--locus of control, self-efficacy, and gender identity--to ascertain if elevated levels of the predictors influence academic performance outcomes (individually as well as interactionally). The study theorized that students with increased levels of locus…

  10. The Effect of Identity Development, Self-Esteem, Low Self-Control and Gender on Aggression in Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsunbul, Ümit

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: Aggression seems to be an extensive and serious problem among adolescents and emerging adults, negatively affecting both the victims and the offenders. In adolescence and emerging adulthood, a lot of factors affect aggression. In this study, five factors were examined: gender, life periods, identity formation, low self-control…

  11. The Effect of Locus of Control, Self-Efficacy, and Gender-Role Identity on Academic Performance Outcomes of Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Jade Simone

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated the predictive worthiness of the predictor variable indices--locus of control, self-efficacy, and gender identity--to ascertain if elevated levels of the predictors influence academic performance outcomes (individually as well as interactionally). The study theorized that students with increased levels of locus…

  12. In the moral eye of the beholder: the interactive effects of leader and follower moral identity on perceptions of ethical leadership and LMX quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessner, S.R.; Van Van Quaquebeke, N.; van Gils, S.; van Knippenberg, D.; Kollée, J.A.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research indicated that leader moral identity (MI; i.e., leaders' self-definition in terms of moral attributes) predicts to what extent followers perceive their leader as ethical (i.e., demonstrating and promoting ethical conduct in the organization). Leadership, however, is a relational pr

  13. Effects of Desktop Virtual Reality Environment Training on State Anxiety and Vocational Identity Scores among Persons with Disabilities during Job Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Andre Lamont

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how desktop virtual reality environment training (DVRET) affected state anxiety and vocational identity of vocational rehabilitation services consumers during job placement/job readiness activities. It utilized a quantitative research model with a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design plus some qualitative descriptive…

  14. Online Identities and Social Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswaran, Muthucumaru; Ali, Bader; Ozguven, Hatice; Lord, Julien

    Online identities play a critical role in the social web that is taking shape on the Internet. Despite many technical proposals for creating and managing online identities, none has received widespread acceptance. Design and implementation of online identities that are socially acceptable on the Internet remains an open problem. This chapter discusses the interplay between online identities and social networking. Online social networks (OSNs) are growing at a rapid pace and has millions of members in them. While the recent trend is to create explicit OSNs such as Facebook and MySpace, we also have implicit OSNs such as interaction graphs created by email and instant messaging services. Explicit OSNs allow users to create profiles and use them to project their identities on the web. There are many interesting identity related issues in the context of social networking including how OSNs help and hinder the definition of online identities.

  15. Gender Socialization and Identity Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Carter

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Gender socialization is examined through a social psychological lens by applying identity theory and identity control theory. Current research from the fields of family and sociological social psychology are surveyed to provide a better conception of how the family operates as agents of socialization, and how identities that are cultivated and fostered in youth provide meaning throughout the life course and maintain the social order. The application of identity theory shows how gender is a diffuse status characteristic, which is salient in person, role, and social (group identities, and also across social situations. Identity control theory is applied to show how emotions operate within an internal control system to stabilize gendered identities and perpetuate the social structure. Both theories are specifically applied to understand socialization dynamics that exist for children and families.

  16. Fractured Identity in the Context of Intimate Partner Violence: Barriers to and Opportunities for Seeking Help in Health Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Doherty, Lorna Jane; Taft, Angela; McNair, Ruth; Hegarty, Kelsey

    2016-02-01

    Intimate partner violence has profound effects on women's identities. However, detailed examination of how abuse affects identity is lacking. We interviewed 14 diverse women (Australia), applying social identity theory to analyze their experiences of identity and help-seeking in health settings. The destabilizing effect of violence on social identities was strongly supported. Women concealed abuse to preserve a public identity. However, when the violence threatened the most integrated identities, women unveiled an abuse identity, receiving mixed responses from health providers. A healing context where a woman can display an abuse identity safely is crucial to enable her to rebuild an integrated self-concept.

  17. Mobile-Customer Identity Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhan; XU Ji-sheng; XU Min; SUN Hong

    2005-01-01

    By utilizing artificial intelligence and pattern recognition techniques, we propose an integrated mobile-customer identity recognition approach in this paper, based on customer's behavior characteristics extracted from the customer information database. To verify the effectiveness of this approach, a test has been run on the dataset consisting of 1 000 customers in 3 consecutive months. The result is compared with the real dataset in the fourth month consisting of 162 customers, which has been set as the customers for recognition. The high correct rate of the test (96.30%), together with 1.87% of the judge-by-mistake rate and 7.82% of the leaving-out rate, demonstrates the effectiveness of this approach.

  18. Identity as a major issue in an information society: the case for a chain approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijpink, J.H.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Two new developments in information technology will have a profound effect on the identity issue in our society: multifunctional smartcards and biometrics. The wide-spread use of chipcards will in the future facilitate electronic identities and identity documents. This places identity fraud in a new

  19. Implicit and explicit drinker identities interactively predict in-the-moment alcohol placebo consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Frings

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: These results suggest that explicit identities may be associated more with those beliefs about drinking that one is aware of than behavioral intention. In addition, explicit identities may not predict behavioral enactment well. Implicit identity shows effects on actual behavior and not behavioral intention. Together this highlights the differential influence of reflective (explicit and impulsive (implicit identity in-the-moment behavior.

  20. Shades of American Identity: Implicit Relations between Ethnic and National Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Thierry; Mohamed, Hafsa

    2015-01-01

    The issue of ethnic diversity and national identity in an immigrant nation such as the USA is a recurrent topic of debate. We review and integrate research examining the extent to which the American identity is implicitly granted or denied to members of different ethnic groups. Consistently, European Americans are implicitly conceived of as being more American than African, Asian, Latino, and even Native Americans. This implicit American = White effect emerges when explicit knowledge or perceptions point in the opposite direction. The propensity to deny the American identity to members of ethnic minorities is particularly pronounced when targets (individuals or groups) are construed through the lenses of ethnic identities. Implicit ethnic–national associations fluctuate as a function of perceivers’ ethnic identity and political orientation, but also contextual or situational factors. The tendency to equate being American with being White accounts for the strength of national identification (among European Americans) and behavioral responses including hiring recommendations and voting intentions. The robust propensity to deny the American identity to ethnic minority groups reflects an exclusionary national identity. PMID:27011765

  1. Opposing Effects of Multivalent Ions on the Flexibility of DNA and RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdetski, Aleksander V.; Tolokh, Igor S.; Pollack, Lois; Baker, Nathan; Onufriev, Alexey V.

    2016-07-01

    Increasing the concentration of counterions (salt) is known to reduce the bending persistence length of DNA. Here we use atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to predict that multivalent counterions have the opposite effect on double-stranded RNA, increasing its bending rigidity by at least 30%. This counterintuitive effect is observed for various tri- and tetravalent ions alike, and is robust to methodological details and the RNA sequence. In contrast to DNA, multivalent counterions bind inside the RNA major groove, causing significant contraction of the molecule along its helical axis—as a result, its further deformation due to bending becomes energetically more expensive compared to bending without bound multivalent ions. Thus, the relationship between mechanical properties of a charged polymer and its ionic atmosphere may be richer than previously thought.

  2. Keeping identity private

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjei, Joseph K.; Olesen, Henning

    2011-01-01

    Privacy has become a major issue for policy makers. This has been impelled by the rapid development of technologies that facilitate collection, distribution, storage, and manipulation of personal information. Business organizations are finding new ways of leveraging the value derived from consumer...... is an attempt to understand the relationship between individuals’ intentions to disclose personal information, their actual personal information disclosure behaviours, and how these can be leveraged to develop privacy-enhancing identity management systems (IDMS) that users can trust. Legal, regu...... information. On the other hand, consumers have expressed concerns that their rights and ability to control their personal information are violated. Paradoxically, it appears that users provide personal data freely and willingly, as it has been observed on Facebook and other social networks. This study...

  3. When design meets identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present result from the first period of implementing models of blended learning in two Danish educations centers at a University College. The question addressed is how activation of blended learning models in undergraduate education for teacher and radiography affects...... knowledge development and which are the constraints or challenges to take into consideration in the process of implementation. The research takes its departure in the two different models of blended learning designed by teachers in undergraduate education centers. This is an investigation of the first...... through a critical hermeneutical process of prefiguration, configuration and refiguration. The results illustrate a significant impact of students identities as a part of the referential whole, since it is both prerequisite and an obstruction in the activation of blended learning environments...

  4. Identities at Odds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    2015-01-01

    This study offers an interaction analytic account of how linguistic identities in internationalized workplaces in Denmark are indexed against members’ institutional positions in particular interactional settings. Where language policy may not be explicitly articulated between members, it is still...... embedded in how participants micro-manage their interactions, and implicit in how member’s display orientations to deviance, in the case of encountering others in the workplace whose language repertoires or preferences do not meet with expectation pertaining to the institutional position they hold....... The study uses recordings of naturally occurring interaction in different international workplace settings, and argues for greater attention to be paid to the actual language-policy practices in international workplace settings, as a entry point into developing a more nuanced understanding of the practices...

  5. Biometrics and Identity Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    security and border control scenarios it is now apparent that the widespread availability of biometrics in everyday life will also spin out an ever increasing number of (private) applications in other domains. Crucial to this vision is the management of the user's identity, which does not only imply...... management. BIOID 2008. The papers are categorized in four classes. These classes represent the 4 working groups of the COST Action 2101. For more information, see http://www.cost2101.org/.   Biometric data quality and multimodal biometric templates, Unsupervised interactive interfaces for multimodal...... of the Workshop are: The European Biometrics Forum, The Danish Biometrics Research Project Consortium, the UK Biometrics Institute and the Institution of Engineering and Technology. The BIOID workshop was jointly organized and held at the Roskilde University in Denmark from May 7 — May 9, 2008....

  6. Scripting Professional Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bévort, Frans; Suddaby, Roy

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how individual accountants subjectively interpret competing logics of professionalism as they transform from practicing accountants to managerial roles and as their organizations transform from traditional professional partnerships to more corporate organizational forms. Based...... on a longitudinal ethnography of professionals in a Big Four accounting firm we analyse the process by which individual professionals make sense of their new roles and integrate the conflicting demands of professional and managerial logics. We find that individuals are active authors of their own identity scripts...... logics is based less of inter-subjective interactions, as prior literature has assumed, and is, instead, based on individual cognition and interpretive subjectivity. We also contribute to research in professional service firms by offering a conceptual model of the individual micro-processes required...

  7. Nostalgia and lost identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourtova, Elena

    2013-02-01

    Nostalgia for the Soviet Union is a major social phenomenon in Russia today due to the irrevocable losses of the recent past in which Soviet citizens involuntarily became immigrants in their own country. With reference to discussions of nostalgia in philosophical and psychoanalytic literature, I suggest that nostalgia may represent either a defensive regression to the past or a progressive striving for wholeness through re-connecting with what has been lost in the service of a greater integration. I compare this with the processes of adaptation seen in immigrants and provide a clinical illustration of a young man coming to terms with loss and change in the post-Soviet era. When nostalgia is recognized as a legitimate emotional experience it may facilitate mourning and enable the integration of the past with the present and the development of a new identity.

  8. When design meets identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present result from the first period of implementing models of blended learning in two Danish educations centers at a University College. The question addressed is how activation of blended learning models in undergraduate education for teacher and radiography affects...... through a critical hermeneutical process of prefiguration, configuration and refiguration. The results illustrate a significant impact of students identities as a part of the referential whole, since it is both prerequisite and an obstruction in the activation of blended learning environments...... knowledge development and which are the constraints or challenges to take into consideration in the process of implementation. The research takes its departure in the two different models of blended learning designed by teachers in undergraduate education centers. This is an investigation of the first...

  9. Creation, Identity and Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Beatrice Cheşcă

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper “Creation, Identity and Reflection” approaches the identification in the “mirror” of reality with creation, in other words seeking the authors’ identity in the reflected images. Reflection means attempting to find oneself, the mirror being the main principle of creation. Many characters become interesting only when they step into the world beyond the mirror, when their faces are doubled by the other self or when their selves are returned by other characters. The narcissistic concept of the mirror, i.e. the reflection in the mirror and the representation of the mirror itself, is a recurrent one in literature, but the reflection of the self which is not the self (as it is a reflection does not necessarily appear in a mirror or in a photograph or portrait. Sometimes, the not-self is returned to the self by another person or character. As far as Oscar Wilde’s theories are concerned, the main idea is that people are interesting for their masks, not for their inner nature. What Wilde calls “inner nature” is the characters’ un-reflected self and the mask is the reflection, the self in the mirror. Some characters’ relationships develop within a fiction that they dramatically try to preserve and protect with the risk of suffering. They refuse to take off the masks which define them in the others’ minds and hearts; the narcissistic individuals (both artists and characters seek and love their own image which they project upon facts, thus creating a fictive realm.

  10. Identity at work: Exploring strategies for Identity Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron G. Adams

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This study explored strategies for identity work that are central to the negotiation and regulation of employee work identity.Research purpose: The main aim of this study was to explore employee narratives and identify the strategies available to them in the process of identity work, as they defined themselves at work.Motivation for the study: As there is a scarcity of research on identity work in South Africa, this study wanted to advance knowledge about identity work and the strategies used for regulating and negotiating an identity at work by exploring these constructs in this context.Research design, approach and method: A qualitative research process formed the basis for this study. Nineteen employees from a global manufacturing company participated in two semi-structured in-depth interviews. Grounded theory was applied to analyse and interpret the data.Main findings: Nine strategies for identity work were identified and categorised into four broad themes (personal philosophies; relationships; career management and negotiating balance.Practical/managerial implications: Employees followed various strategies for defining themselves at work and this may have some implications for employee work engagement and productivity.Contribution/value-add: This study expands on current theoretical knowledge of identity work, and provides insights into the strategies people use to regulate and negotiate their identities at work. 

  11. Rise of Health Consumerism in China and Its Effects on Physicians' Professional Identity and the Physician-Patient Relationship and Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lu; Guan, Mengfei

    2017-03-10

    The physician-patient relationship in China is highly strained. This study examined the professional identity of physicians and their perceptions of the physician-patient relationship against the backdrop of the rise of health consumerism in China. Structured interviews with 29 physicians found that the marketization of medical care and the rise of health consumerism caused physicians to have a conflicted professional identity. The traditional bureaucratic relationship between physicians and patients based on implicit trust was gradually replaced by an arm's length relationship characterized by self-interest, opportunism, and mistrust. In addition, the transition from physician-centered communication to patient-centered communication in China was tenacious. Theoretical and practical implications of the current study are discussed.

  12. An Empirical Study on the Effect of Interpersonal Communication on Organizational Identity of College Student Cadre%人际交往对学生干部组织认同影响的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓宁

    2015-01-01

    T he study ,285 college student cadres w ere its objects ,investigates the effect of interper-sonal communication upon organizational identity by hierarchical regression method .The results are as fol-lows:communication opportunity has significantly effect on the organizational identity(β=0 .38 ,p <0 .01);The communication range has a significant moderation effect between communication opportunity and organiza-tional identity .Accordingly ,the study suggests that we should improve the organizational identity of col-lege students by promoting their communication opportunity and communication range .%以285名高职院校学生干部为研究对象,运用分层回归分析方法考察了学生干部的人际交往(交往机会、交往范围、交往频率)对其组织认同的影响;研究发现:个体在组织内的交往机会对其组织认同具有正向影响(β=0.38,p <0.01);个体的在组织内的交往范围在其交往机会和组织认同之间起到调节作用,应通过增加和提高学生干部之间的交往机会和交往范围来提高学生干部的组织认同。

  13. Drug-Related Identity Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ferydoon Seyed Rabiee

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Our study is concentrating on understanding drug-related identity process which may enter important sociological visions into drug abuse pathology. It is in the framework of symbolic proactivity، cultural studies and the existing model for analyzing drug-related identity (Anderson – 1994. In this study، we have used a qualitative survey and a model test in a statistical sample cosisting white/black males and females who are under drug abuse treatment in Middle Michigan. Our data shows that identity change occures during childihood or early adolescence and is accompanied with experiences of isolationism before drug abuse which facilitates the creation of an afflicted identity as well as the loss of the ability to control the personal identity. Assimilation and drug abuse subculture have represented altenative identities for resolving such an unsuitable situation.

  14. Personal identity and eastern thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correia Carlos João

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to show that the problem of personal identity is a fundamental question of the classical Indian thought. Usually we tend to think that personal identity is a Western philosophical subject, and so we tend to forget the significance of the Self (Atman in Hinduism and even in Buddhism. The author shows how the Indian thought approached the question of personal identity and which was the singular solution outlined in the work consensually attributed to Gotama, the Buddha.

  15. An 'open source' networked identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Malene Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    , but also an important part of their self-presentation online. It is discussed why these emotional statements are almost always publically available – or even strategically, intentionally placed on the young people's profiles. In relation to this, it is argued that young people – through their emotional...... communicative actions – are not only performing their own identity, but are becoming co-constructors of each other's identities, which the author characterizes as an 'open source' networked identity....

  16. Globalization and Identity Development: A Chinese Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Min; Berman, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter begins with a discussion of the unique experience of adolescents and emerging adults who grew up with globalization in China and how it has affected their sense of self. We then discuss the effects of globalization on identity development in general, with a special focus on the sociohistorical context of China. We also review and…

  17. Globalization and Identity Development: A Chinese Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Min; Berman, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter begins with a discussion of the unique experience of adolescents and emerging adults who grew up with globalization in China and how it has affected their sense of self. We then discuss the effects of globalization on identity development in general, with a special focus on the sociohistorical context of China. We also review and…

  18. Threading "Stitches" to Approach Gender Identity, Sexual Identity, and Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Connie E.

    2010-01-01

    As LGBTQI (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning, and intersex) issues become increasingly integrated into multicultural education discourses, we as educators need to examine the implications of our pedagogies for teaching about gender and sexual identities. This article explores my teaching of non-conforming gender identities in…

  19. High School Identity Climate and Student Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Yisrael; Schachter, Elli P.

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated whether schools characterized by high school students as being rich in identity promoting features contribute to student identity development. A theoretical model posited that student perceptions of teachers as caring role models and their school as cultivating the whole student will foster student exploration and…

  20. Networked identity: how immigrant youth employ online identity resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinsen, Fleur; de Haan, Mariette; Leander, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, practices of online social networking and their implications for migrant youth identity development have been heavily debated. The nature of access to resources for identification is changing, and by using a social network perspective, this research conceptualizes identity as a netw