WorldWideScience

Sample records for countering bioterrorism questions

  1. Countering the livestock-targeted bioterrorism threat and responding with an animal health safeguarding system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, J-Y; Lee, J-H; Park, J-Y; Cho, Y S; Cho, I-S

    2013-08-01

    Attacks against livestock and poultry using biological agents constitute a subtype of agroterrorism. These attacks are defined as the intentional introduction of an animal infectious disease to strike fear in people, damage a nation's economy and/or threaten social stability. Livestock bioterrorism is considered attractive to terrorists because biological agents for use against livestock or poultry are more readily available and difficult to monitor than biological agents for use against humans. In addition, an attack on animal husbandry can have enormous economic consequences, even without human casualties. Animal husbandry is vulnerable to livestock-targeted bioterrorism because it is nearly impossible to secure all livestock animals, and compared with humans, livestock are less well-guarded targets. Furthermore, anti-livestock biological weapons are relatively easy to employ, and a significant effect can be produced with only a small amount of infectious material. The livestock sector is presently very vulnerable to bioterrorism as a result of large-scale husbandry methods and weaknesses in the systems used to detect disease outbreaks, which could aggravate the consequences of livestock-targeted bioterrorism. Thus, terrorism against livestock and poultry cannot be thought of as either a 'low-probability' or 'low-consequence' incident. This review provides an overview of methods to prevent livestock-targeted bioterrorism and respond to terrorism involving the deliberate introduction of a pathogen-targeting livestock and poultry.

  2. Biowarfare and bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Michael D

    2013-07-01

    Bioterrorism is not only a reality of the times in which we live but bioweapons have been used for centuries. Critical care physicians play a major role in the recognition of and response to a bioterrorism attack. Critical care clinicians must be familiar with the diagnosis and management of the most likely bioterrorism agents, and also be adequately prepared to manage a mass casualty situation. This article reviews the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the most likely agents of biowarfare and bioterrorism.

  3. Hawaii veterinarians' bioterrorism preparedness needs assessment survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Alan R; Nekorchuk, Dawn M; Holck, Peter S; Hendrickson, Lisa A; Imrie, Allison A; Effler, Paul V

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the objective bioterrorism-related knowledge base and the perceived response readiness of veterinarians in Hawaii to a bioterrorism event, and also to identify variables associated with knowledge-based test performance. An anonymous survey instrument was mailed to all licensed veterinarians residing in Hawaii (N = 229) up to three times during June and July 2004, using numeric identifiers to track non-respondents. The response rate for deliverable surveys was 59% (125 of 212). Only 12% (15 of 123) of respondents reported having had prior training on bioterrorism. Forty-four percent (55 of 125) reported being able to identify a bioterrorism event in animal populations; however, only 17% (21 of 125) felt able to recognize a bioterrorism event in human populations. Only 16% (20 of 123) felt they were able to respond effectively to a bioterrorist attack. Over 90% (106 of 116) expressed their willingness to provide assistance to the state in its response to a bioterrorist event. Veterinarians scored a mean of 70% correct (5.6 out of 8 questions) on the objective knowledge-based questions. Additional bioterrorism preparedness training should be made available, both in the form of continuing educational offerings for practicing veterinarians and as a component of the curriculum in veterinary schools.

  4. Missouri nurses' bioterrorism preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebmann, Terri; Mohr, Lisa Buettner

    2008-09-01

    Nurses are the largest group of healthcare providers and will be at the forefront during a response to a bioterrorism attack in the U.S. However, nurses' bioterrorism risk perceptions and their participation in bioterrorism preparedness activities, such as bioterrorism-related exercises or drills, have not been evaluated. We mailed a survey to all members of the Missouri Nurses Association in July 2006, consisting of 1,528 registered nurses. The instrument measured risk perception, perceived susceptibility, perceived seriousness, bioterrorism education received, participation in exercises/drills, and personal response plan thoroughness. The response rate was 31% (474/1,528). Most respondents believe that a bioterrorism attack will occur in the U.S. (82.3%; n = 390), but few (21.3%; n = 101) believe that one will occur in their community. The majority of nurses reported that they believe that a bioterrorism attack would have serious consequences (96.1%, n = 448), including having a serious impact on U.S. citizens' safety (90.7%, n = 446) and on their own safety (84.3%, n = 379). Most (60%, n = 284) reported that they had not received any bioterrorism-related education nor participated in any drills/exercises (82.7%, n = 392). Of those who had received education, most had participated in 3 or fewer programs and in only 1 drill. Few nurses (3.6%, n = 15) reported having all aspects of a personal bioterrorism response plan; approximately 20% (19.4%, n = 81) did not have any components of a plan. Most of the registered nurses in Missouri who were surveyed are not receiving bioterrorism education, participating in bioterrorism exercises, or developing thorough personal response plans. Nurses need to be aware of and encouraged to participate in the many education and training opportunities on bioterrorism and infectious disease disasters.

  5. Counter-Stereotypes and Images: An Exploratory Research and Some Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin-Messabel, Christine; Ferrière, Séverine; Martinez, Frederic; Devif, Julie; Reeb, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of the construction and perpetuation of gender stereotypes are classic research subjects in social psychology and in the field of educational guidelines in France. The most recent government decree aims to counter stereotypes in schools, by exposing pupils to counter-stereotypes. This study examines the effects of activating…

  6. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education What's New Emergency Preparedness and You Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... or can be used as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min ...

  7. Bioterrorism: pathogens as weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter D; Bokor, Gyula

    2012-10-01

    Biowarfare has been used for centuries. The use of biological weapons in terrorism remains a threat. Biological weapons include infectious agents (pathogens) and toxins. The most devastating bioterrorism scenario would be the airborne dispersal of pathogens over a concentrated population area. Characteristics that make a specific pathogen a high-risk for bioterrorism include a low infective dose, ability to be aerosolized, high contagiousness, and survival in a variety of environmental conditions. The most dangerous potential bioterrorism agents include the microorganisms that produce anthrax, plague, tularemia, and smallpox. Other diseases of interest to bioterrorism include brucellosis, glanders, melioidosis, Q fever, and viral encephalitis. Food safety and water safety threats are another area of concern.

  8. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Reaching At-Risk Populations MedCon Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min 38 sec) Watch Specific ...

  9. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emergency Preparedness and You Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This video ... Note: Parts of this video were adapted from "Biological Warfare and Terrorism: The Military and Public Health ...

  10. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What's New Emergency Preparedness and You Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min 38 sec) Watch Specific ...

  11. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education What's New Emergency Preparedness and You Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... or can be used as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min ...

  12. Radiation Technology Against Bioterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-25

    application of radiation processing: radiation crosslinking of polymers and radiation sterilization of health care products have developed into substantial...municipal waste water, • radiation inactivation of bioterrorism agents, • electron beam processing of flue gases, • radiation crosslinking , • radiation...Electron beam processing of flue gases 6. Radiation crosslinking 7. Radiation curing 3 Radiation Technology Against Bioterrorism L.G. Gazsó and G

  13. Bioterrorism and invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomel, B B; Sun, B

    2010-08-01

    The risk of dispersing invasive species, especially human pathogens, through acts of bioterrorism, cannot be neglected. However, that risk appears quite low in comparison with the risk of dispersing animal pathogens that could dramatically burden the agricultural economy of food animal producing countries, such as Australia and countries in Europe and North and South America. Although it is not directly related to bioterrorism, the intentional release of non-native species, particularly undesired companion animals or wildlife, may also have a major economic impact on the environment and, possibly, on animal and human health, in the case of accidental release of zoonotic agents.

  14. Bureaucracy versus Bioterrorism: Countering a Globalized Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    biology (fig. 2) appear to be following similarly explosive growth patterns. The Institute of Medicine 10 and National Research Council states...David M. Burube, Nano-Hype: The Truth Behind The Nanotechnology Buzz (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2006), 17. 3. John Sulston and Georgina Ferry...62. 9. Institute of Medicine and National Research Council of the National Academies, Globalization, Biosecurity, and the Future of Life Sciences

  15. Bureaucracy vs. Bioterrorism: Countering a Globalized Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    Batteries, Food Grade Agar  Pipettor  Coffee Stirrer Electroporator  Ultrasonic Jewelry  Cleaner Centrifuge  Dremel‐Fuge, Coffee Grinder  Temperature Bath...Pot of Warm Water PCR Thermocycler  3 Pots of Warm Water Autoclave  Pressure Cooker CO2 Cell Incubator  CO2 from Vinegar and Baking Soda  Enzymes  and

  16. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... page: About CDC.gov . Emergency Preparedness and Response Natural Disasters and Severe Weather Bioterrorism Chemical Emergencies Recent ... No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO (800-232- ...

  17. [Bioterrorism, parasites as potential bioterrorism agents and biosecurity studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Umit

    2006-01-01

    A variety of agents have a potential risk for being use as weapons of biological terrorism. However, the use of parasites as bioterrorism agents has not received so much attention. Parasites could contribute to the installation of fear in human population upon intentional addition to their food and water supplies. On the other hand, vector-borne parasites can also constitute risk of bioterrorism. Biosecurity issues are gaining importance as a consequence of globalization. Surveillance is critical in maintaining biosecurity and early detection of infectious disease agents is essential. In this review article, bioterrorism, the role of parasites as potential bioterrorism agents, studies on biosecurity and laboratory design for biosafety have been discussed under the light of recent literature.

  18. Bioterrorism: toxins as weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter D

    2012-04-01

    The potential for biological weapons to be used in terrorism is a real possibility. Biological weapons include infectious agents and toxins. Toxins are poisons produced by living organisms. Toxins relevant to bioterrorism include ricin, botulinum, Clostridium perfrigens epsilson toxin, conotoxins, shigatoxins, saxitoxins, tetrodotoxins, mycotoxins, and nicotine. Toxins have properties of biological and chemical weapons. Unlike pathogens, toxins do not produce an infection. Ricin causes multiorgan toxicity by blocking protein synthesis. Botulinum blocks acetylcholine in the peripheral nervous system leading to muscle paralysis. Epsilon toxin damages cell membranes. Conotoxins block potassium and sodium channels in neurons. Shigatoxins inhibit protein synthesis and induce apoptosis. Saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin inhibit sodium channels in neurons. Mycotoxins include aflatoxins and trichothecenes. Aflatoxins are carcinogens. Trichothecenes inhibit protein and nucleic acid synthesis. Nicotine produces numerous nicotinic effects in the nervous system.

  19. John Bartlett and bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, D A

    2014-09-15

    Until 1997, the subject of bioterrorism was not discussed within the medical community and deliberately ignored in national planning efforts. Biological weapons were regarded as "morally repulsive." This complacency stemmed from a 1972 Biological Weapons Convention where all countries agreed to cease offensive biological weapons research. In the 1990s, however, the Soviet Union was discovered to have an extensive bioweapons program and a Japanese religious cult sought to launch an anthrax attack on Tokyo. Biological weapons such as smallpox and anthrax had the potential to cause a national catastrophe. However, little was done until John Bartlett in 1997 led a symposium and program to educate the medical community and the country of the need for definitive bioweapons programs. It was highly persuasive and received a final stimulus when the anthrax attack occurred in the United States in 2001.

  20. Antimicrobials for bacterial bioterrorism agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar-Tyson, Mitali; Atkins, Helen S

    2011-06-01

    The limitations of current antimicrobials for highly virulent pathogens considered as potential bioterrorism agents drives the requirement for new antimicrobials that are suitable for use in populations in the event of a deliberate release. Strategies targeting bacterial virulence offer the potential for new countermeasures to combat bacterial bioterrorism agents, including those active against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Although early in the development of antivirulence approaches, inhibitors of bacterial type III secretion systems and cell division mechanisms show promise for the future.

  1. BIRS - Bioterrorism Information Retrieval System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Ashish Kumar; Rashi; Wadhwa, Gulshan; Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Jain, Chakresh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Bioterrorism is the intended use of pathogenic strains of microbes to widen terror in a population. There is a definite need to promote research for development of vaccines, therapeutics and diagnostic methods as a part of preparedness to any bioterror attack in the future. BIRS is an open-access database of collective information on the organisms related to bioterrorism. The architecture of database utilizes the current open-source technology viz PHP ver 5.3.19, MySQL and IIS server under windows platform for database designing. Database stores information on literature, generic- information and unique pathways of about 10 microorganisms involved in bioterrorism. This may serve as a collective repository to accelerate the drug discovery and vaccines designing process against such bioterrorist agents (microbes). The available data has been validated from various online resources and literature mining in order to provide the user with a comprehensive information system. The database is freely available at http://www.bioterrorism.biowaves.org.

  2. Bioterrorism Agents/Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tularemia Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) Diagnosis & Evaluation Treatment & PEP Lab Testing Surveillance & Investigation Infection Control Other Resources Glanders ( Burkholderia mallei ) Lassa fever Marburg ...

  3. Integrating the Agents of Bioterrorism into the General Biology Curriculum: 1. A Primer on Bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommerville, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the history of and describes what biology educators should know about the topic of bioterrorism. Suggests materials that can be used to communicate more effectively with students and the community and prepare a classroom discussion on bioterrorism. (KHR)

  4. Metabolic network analysis-based identification of antimicrobial drug targets in category A bioterrorism agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Yong-Yeol; Lee, Deok-Sun; Burd, Henry; Blank, William; Kapatral, Vinayak

    2014-01-01

    The 2001 anthrax mail attacks in the United States demonstrated the potential threat of bioterrorism, hence driving the need to develop sophisticated treatment and diagnostic protocols to counter biological warfare. Here, by performing flux balance analyses on the fully-annotated metabolic networks of multiple, whole genome-sequenced bacterial strains, we have identified a large number of metabolic enzymes as potential drug targets for each of the three Category A-designated bioterrorism agents including Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis. Nine metabolic enzymes- belonging to the coenzyme A, folate, phosphatidyl-ethanolamine and nucleic acid pathways common to all strains across the three distinct genera were identified as targets. Antimicrobial agents against some of these enzymes are available. Thus, a combination of cross species-specific antibiotics and common antimicrobials against shared targets may represent a useful combinatorial therapeutic approach against all Category A bioterrorism agents.

  5. Metabolic network analysis-based identification of antimicrobial drug targets in category A bioterrorism agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Yeol Ahn

    Full Text Available The 2001 anthrax mail attacks in the United States demonstrated the potential threat of bioterrorism, hence driving the need to develop sophisticated treatment and diagnostic protocols to counter biological warfare. Here, by performing flux balance analyses on the fully-annotated metabolic networks of multiple, whole genome-sequenced bacterial strains, we have identified a large number of metabolic enzymes as potential drug targets for each of the three Category A-designated bioterrorism agents including Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis. Nine metabolic enzymes- belonging to the coenzyme A, folate, phosphatidyl-ethanolamine and nucleic acid pathways common to all strains across the three distinct genera were identified as targets. Antimicrobial agents against some of these enzymes are available. Thus, a combination of cross species-specific antibiotics and common antimicrobials against shared targets may represent a useful combinatorial therapeutic approach against all Category A bioterrorism agents.

  6. Bioterrorism and the Fermi Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Joshua

    2013-04-01

    We proffer a contemporary solution to the so-called Fermi Paradox, which is concerned with conflict between Copernicanism and the apparent paucity of evidence for intelligent alien civilizations. In particular, we argue that every community of organisms that reaches its space-faring age will (1) almost immediately use its rocket-building computers to reverse-engineer its genetic chemistry and (2) self-destruct when some individual uses said technology to design an omnicidal pathogen. We discuss some of the possible approaches to prevention with regard to Homo sapiens' vulnerability to bioterrorism, particularly on a short-term basis.

  7. Biological warfare, bioterrorism, and biocrime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, H J; Breeveld, F J; Stijnis, C; Grobusch, M P

    2014-06-01

    Biological weapons achieve their intended target effects through the infectivity of disease-causing infectious agents. The ability to use biological agents in warfare is prohibited by the Biological and Toxin Weapon Convention. Bioterrorism is defined as the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria or other agents used to cause illness or death in people, but also in animals or plants. It is aimed at creating casualties, terror, societal disruption, or economic loss, inspired by ideological, religious or political beliefs. The success of bioterroristic attempts is defined by the measure of societal disruption and panic, and not necessarily by the sheer number of casualties. Thus, making only a few individuals ill by the use of crude methods may be sufficient, as long as it creates the impact that is aimed for. The assessment of bioterrorism threats and motives have been described before. Biocrime implies the use of a biological agent to kill or make ill a single individual or small group of individuals, motivated by revenge or the desire for monetary gain by extortion, rather than by political, ideological, religious or other beliefs. The likelihood of a successful bioterrorist attack is not very large, given the technical difficulties and constraints. However, even if the number of casualties is likely to be limited, the impact of a bioterrorist attack can still be high. Measures aimed at enhancing diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities and capacities alongside training and education will improve the ability of society to combat 'regular' infectious diseases outbreaks, as well as mitigating the effects of bioterrorist attacks.

  8. Frequently Asked Questions on Potassium Iodide (KI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bioterrorism and Drug Preparedness Frequently Asked Questions on Potassium Iodide (KI) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Drug Administration (FDA) issued a final Guidance on Potassium Iodide as a Thyroid Blocking Agent in Radiation Emergencies) ( ...

  9. A decade of countering bioterrorism: incremental progress, fundamental failings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzig, Richard

    2012-03-01

    The fear and disruption caused by the 2001 anthrax attacks understandably led Americans to seek enhanced biodefenses. However, the path followed since those attacks has left the country inadequately prepared to face further risks from biological attacks. Why has security against these threats been only partially achieved? This article suggests that our responses over the past decade can be sorted into 4 levels in order of increasing difficulty. First, we rapidly appropriated funds, augmented personnel, and mandated reorganization of agencies. Though not easy to accomplish, these steps were easily conceptualized and, whatever their imperfections, could rather assuredly be achieved. A second level was more demanding, but also quite achievable. It involved the amplification of ongoing efforts. These efforts sometimes suffered as they scaled up, but, though they were qualified by delays and uncertainties, we can point to real achievements at this level. A third level was more difficult: It required evolving new strategies to deal with this largely unprecedented problem. In this regard, we have so far had only glimmers of possibility. At a fourth level, our performance and our prospects are worse still. At this level, our problems stem from resistances inherent in our country's cultural and political framework. This article identifies some of these problems and suggests, regrettably, that they are not likely to be resolved until change is catalyzed by further, and more dramatically traumatic, attacks or natural disasters. If this situational assessment is correct, what remedial strategies should we pursue? The article distinguishes 3 strategic approaches: an evolutionary one in which the U.S. continues advancing along its present path; a radical approach that attempts to address the fourth-level issues; and a third approach that prepares for punctuated evolution. This third approach accepts the improbability of level 4 change either by gradual evolution or by radical argument, but asserts that it is possible to lay the conceptual groundwork now for the radical changes that will be possible, even demanded, after a catastrophic incident. This approach, neglected at present, would be a valuable addition to our present efforts.

  10. Animals as sentinels of bioterrorism agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Peter; Gordon, Zimra; Chudnov, Daniel; Wilcox, Matthew; Odofin, Lynda; Liu, Ann; Dein, Joshua

    2006-04-01

    We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature from 1966 to 2005 to determine whether animals could provide early warning of a bioterrorism attack, serve as markers for ongoing exposure risk, and amplify or propagate a bioterrorism outbreak. We found evidence that, for certain bioterrorism agents, pets, wildlife, or livestock could provide early warning and that for other agents, humans would likely manifest symptoms before illness could be detected in animals. After an acute attack, active surveillance of wild or domestic animal populations could help identify many ongoing exposure risks. If certain bioterrorism agents found their way into animal populations, they could spread widely through animal-to-animal transmission and prove difficult to control. The public health infrastructure must look beyond passive surveillance of acute animal disease events to build capacity for active surveillance and intervention efforts to detect and control ongoing outbreaks of disease in domestic and wild animal populations.

  11. LABORATORY GUIDELINES FOR ANALYSIS OF BIOTERRORISM SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    With advent of deaths associated with Bacillus anthracis spore contaminated mail, a worldwide need was apparent for increased laboratory capacity to safely analyze bioterrorism samples. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has furnished guidelines for microbiological...

  12. Bioterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... caused by bacteria. Anthrax most commonly occurs in cattle and sheep. It is rare in humans. It ... anthrax exposure.Fortunately, anthrax can be treated with antibiotics. The treatment and its success depend on the ...

  13. Bio-terrorism, human security and public health: can international law bring them together in an age of globalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aginam, Obijiofor

    2005-09-01

    Bio-terrorism, the use of a microorganism with the deliberate intent of causing infection, before and since the anthrax attacks in the United States in October 2001, has emerged as a real medical and public health threat. The link between bio-terrorism, human security and public health raises complex questions on the normative trajectories of international law, the mandates of international organizations, and global health governance. In May 2001, the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO) passed a resolution entitled "Global Health Security: Epidemic Alert and Response" which inter alia, urged WHO member states to participate actively in the verification and validation of surveillance data and information concerning health emergencies of international concern. This article explores the links between bio-terrorism, human security and public health, and investigates the effectiveness of international legal mechanisms that link them in an age of globalization of public health. The article explores the interaction of WHO's 'soft-law' approaches to global health security, and the 'moribund' negotiations of the verification and monitoring protocol to the Biological Weapons Convention 1972. Can international law link bio-terrorism, public health and human security? Does the WHO collaborate with other international organizations within and outside the United Nations system to develop effective legal and governance approaches to bio-terrorism and global health security? The article concludes that the globalization of public health threats like bio-terrorism requires globalized legal approaches.

  14. Bioterrorism Preparedness: What School Counselors Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggerly, Jennifer N.; Rank, Michael G.

    2005-01-01

    To ensure the safety of school-aged children and adolescents, school counselors must not ignore or deny the public health threat of bioterrorism (Henderson, 1998). Rather, school counselors must be prepared with knowledge about bioterrorism and intervention skills. Bioterrorism within the United States is a continuing threat. Because children and…

  15. Preparedness and response to bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, R C; Lightfoot, N F

    2001-08-01

    As we enter the 21st century the threats of biological warfare and bioterrorism (so called asymmetric threats) appear to be more real than ever before. Historical evidence suggests that biological weapons have been used, with varying degrees of success, for many centuries. Despite the international agreements to ban such weapons, namely the 1925 Geneva Protocol and the 1975 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, there is no effective international mechanism for challenging either the development of biological weapons or their use. Advances in technology and the rise of fundamentalist terror groups combine to present a significant threat to western democracies. A timely and definitive response to this threat will require co-operation between governments on a scale never seen before. There is a need for proper planning, good communication between various health, home office, defence and intelligence agencies and sufficient financial support for a realistic state of preparedness. The Department of Health has produced guidelines for responding to real or suspected incidents and the Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS) has produced detailed protocols to inform the actions required by microbiologists and consultants in communicable disease control. These protocols will be published on the Department of Health and PHLS web sites.

  16. THE BIOTERRORISM THREAT: TECHNOLOGICAL AND POLITICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. F. PILAT

    2000-03-01

    Bioterrorism--along with biowarfare, from which it may not always be distinguishable in practice--will be a feature of the strategic landscape in the 21st century and is high on the US national security agenda. Bioterrorism poses a potential threat to the US population, agriculture, interests, friends and allies, and military forces (asymmetric threats). Yet these possibilities have not been widely pursued or realized by terrorists. The perceived threat is far worse than anything experienced to date, and is largely technologically driven.

  17. The Nature of the Bioterrorism Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regens, J. L.

    2003-02-25

    This analysis provides an overview of the nature of the bioterrorism threat. It identifies potential CDC Class A biological agents that are likely candidates for use in a terrorist incident and describes the known sources of vulnerability. The paper also summarizes S&T resources/needs and assesses response options for achieving effective biodefense against terrorist threats.

  18. Risk of Disease Spread through Bioterrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, Richard E.

    2006-08-01

    Bioterrorism is seen as a clear and present danger, although historically, acts of bioterrorism have been relatively unpredictable, rare and, thus far, small-scale events. The risk of an event is elevated by increasing contact among species and a global connectivity that provides rapid dissemination of infectious diseases regardless of origin. Virtually any pathogenic microbe could be used by bioterrorists. An attack may be difficult to distinguish from a naturally occurring infectious disease outbreak; however, consequences are likely to be similar. The U.S. agricultural sector is extremely vulnerable to bioterrorist attacks because our animals and plants have little or no innate resistance to foreign pathogens and are not vaccinated or otherwise protected against these diseases. It is also important to note that weapons or delivery systems are not an issue because the animals and plants themselves are the primary vector for transferring agents. Most bioterrorism agents are zoonotic in origin, thus an attack on animal populations could pose a health risk to humans. Additionally, disease outbreaks resulting from bioterrorism could jump to wildlife species, persist in the environment, replace locally adapted enzootic strains, expand their range, or emerge as a new zoonotic disease in naïve human and animal populations.

  19. Agricultural Warfare and Bioterrorism using Invasive Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chapter on Agricultural Warfare and Bioterrorism using Invasive Species is part of the book titled Pest Management and Phytosanitary Trade Barriers authored by Neil Heather (Australia) and Guy Hallman. The chapter attempts to briefly put the topic into context with phytosanitation. It presents...

  20. Bioterrorism and Real-World Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Carla

    2003-01-01

    Recent events, such as the anthrax scares and the SARS outbreak, have forced teachers to focus on issues such as disease control and bioterrorism in their own backyards. Students are aware of the current biological issues in the news and are curious about infectious diseases and the issues relating to biological warfare. In order to address the…

  1. Science Publishing in the Age of Bioterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent anthrax bioterrorism mailings, the science community and others worried that technical articles might inadvertently aid those planning acts of terrorism. Some authors asked the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) for permission to withhold critical information from…

  2. [Bioterrorism: data of a recent history of risks and uncertainties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Dora Rambauske; Cardoso, Telma Abdalla de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Today, bioterrorism is a real threat in the whole world. Considering the actions of bioterrorism by using biological agents capable of promoting great epidemics and overload in the health systems of any city, state or country, the bioterrorism is not only a health professional concern, but government and military also. This article discusses a bibliographical review done in the LILACS, MEDLINE, SciELO and REPIDISCA databases, during the period of 1997 the 2007, the characteristics of related national publications to the bioterrorism, the type of biological agents studied, and the existing knowledge in the country to face a bioterrorism event, in order to feed with information the professionals who will act in first reply to the bioterrorism events and that are essential to reduce the number of victims.

  3. Bioterrorism in 2001: How Ready Are We?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Lynn Johnston

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available On January 30, 2001, the federal Immigration Department's headquarters in Ottawa were evacuated and shut down following a bioterrorism scare, which turned out to be a hoax. The building reopened 48 h later, after it was determined that the substance found was not anthrax (1. In the same week, a similar hoax forced the evacuation of an Ontario provincial government building in Toronto (1.

  4. Rodents as potential couriers for bioterrorism agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lõhmus, Mare; Janse, Ingmar; van de Goot, Frank; van Rotterdam, Bart J

    2013-09-01

    Many pathogens that can cause major public health, economic, and social damage are relatively easily accessible and could be used as biological weapons. Wildlife is a natural reservoir for many potential bioterrorism agents, and, as history has shown, eliminating a pathogen that has dispersed among wild fauna can be extremely challenging. Since a number of wild rodent species live close to humans, rodents constitute a vector for pathogens to circulate among wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. This article reviews the possible consequences of a deliberate spread of rodentborne pathogens. It is relatively easy to infect wild rodents with certain pathogens or to release infected rodents, and the action would be difficult to trace. Rodents can also function as reservoirs for diseases that have been spread during a bioterrorism attack and cause recurring disease outbreaks. As rats and mice are common in both urban and rural settlements, deliberately released rodentborne infections have the capacity to spread very rapidly. The majority of pathogens that are listed as potential agents of bioterrorism by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases exploit rodents as vectors or reservoirs. In addition to zoonotic diseases, deliberately released rodentborne epizootics can have serious economic consequences for society, for example, in the area of international trade restrictions. The ability to rapidly detect introduced diseases and effectively communicate with the public in crisis situations enables a quick response and is essential for successful and cost-effective disease control.

  5. Bioterrorism and Smallpox: Policies, Practices, and Implications for Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackelprang, Romel W.; Mackelprang, Romel D.; Thirkill, Ashley D.

    2005-01-01

    Terrorist acts and the fear of terrorism have become a part of everyday life in the early 21st century. Among the threats most feared is bioterrorism, including the intentional release of smallpox. With the invasion of Iraq and toppling of the Saddam Hussein regime, acute bioterrorism fears have abated; however, an ongoing threat remains. This…

  6. Bioterrorism and Smallpox: Policies, Practices, and Implications for Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackelprang, Romel W.; Mackelprang, Romel D.; Thirkill, Ashley D.

    2005-01-01

    Terrorist acts and the fear of terrorism have become a part of everyday life in the early 21st century. Among the threats most feared is bioterrorism, including the intentional release of smallpox. With the invasion of Iraq and toppling of the Saddam Hussein regime, acute bioterrorism fears have abated; however, an ongoing threat remains. This…

  7. Infectious agents of bioterrorism: a review for emergency physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kman, Nicholas E; Nelson, Richard N

    2008-05-01

    The terrorist attacks on the United States in 2001 and the anthrax release soon after brought the issue of bioterrorism to the forefront in the medical community. Bioterrorism is the use of a biologic weapon to create terror and panic. Biologic weapons, or bioweapons, can be bacteria, fungi, viruses, or biologic toxins. Because the emergency department represents the front line of defense for the recognition of agents of bioterrorism, it is essential that emergency physicians have the ability to quickly diagnose victims of bioterrorism. This review examines the most deadly and virulent category A agents of bioterrorism, that is, anthrax, smallpox, plague, botulism, hemorrhagic fever viruses, and tularemia. The focus is on epidemiology, transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.

  8. Incorporating bioterrorism content in the nursing curriculum: a creative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Melondie R; Gaskins, Susan W

    2010-07-01

    The community health faculty has developed a creative and comprehensive approach with community agencies to present bioterrorism content that could be useful to community health faculty in other schools of nursing. Since September 11, 2001, the United States has recognized that the threat of bioterrorism is real. Nurses are recognized by the American Association of Colleges of Nursing as key players in disaster response efforts. However, bioterrorism knowledge among nurses and nursing students has been reported to be low, and textbooks do not include comprehensive information about bioterrorism preparedness. Our college of nursing has collaborated with the U.S. Public Health Department to design a creative educational experience for community health students on bioterrorism and disaster preparedness. Content areas include the National Stockpile, the Planned Response to Pandemic Influenza provided by the U.S. Public Health Department, recognition and treatment of biological threats, and the care of patients with smallpox.

  9. Effect of Education on Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Bioterrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Hamzeh pour

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bioterrorism, as a major health problem, has received lots of attention in recent years. To date, the effect of education on knowledge and attitude of students regarding bioterrorism has not been evaluated in Iran. Therefore, this study aimed to determine how education affects knowledge and attitude of biological sciences students about bioterrorism. Methods: The present interventional before-after study was carried out on the students of different branches of biological sciences. The students’ level of knowledge on nature of bioterrorism and its causatives, diagnosing bioterrorism agents, management at the time of biological and bioterrorist attacks, and tendency to participate in relief at these events were evaluated before and after training using a pre-designed checklist. Then the effect of education on the students’ knowledge and attitude was evaluated based on their sex. Results: 120 students were included (60% female; mean age 21 ± 3.2 years. The knowledge score was not significantly different between female and male students before educational intervention (p > 0.05. After education, the knowledge score raised significantly in the 4 areas of bioterrorism nature (p < 0.0001, causative factors (p < 0.0001, diagnosing bioterrorism agents (p < 0.0001, and management at the time of bioterrorist attacks (p < 0.0001 in female participants, but not in male students (p > 0.05. In addition, after education both male and female participants showed greater tendency to work and do research in the field of bioterrorism (p < 0.0001 but the increase was more significant in females (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: Educational intervention led to an improvement in female participants’ knowledge regarding bioterrorism nature, causative factors, diagnosing bioterrorism agents, and management at the time of bioterrorist attacks. Yet, the low level of knowledge and tendency of the students indicates the need for more education in this field.

  10. Bioterrorism: a laboratory who does it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, David W; Lee, Philip A; Rowlinson, Marie-Claire

    2014-07-01

    In October 2001, the first disseminated biological warfare attack was perpetrated on American soil. Initially, a few clinical microbiology laboratories were testing specimens from acutely ill patients and also being asked to test nasal swabs from the potentially exposed. Soon after, a significant number of clinical microbiology and public health laboratories received similar requests to test the worried well or evaluate potentially contaminated mail or environmental materials, sometimes from their own break rooms. The role of the clinical and public health microbiology laboratory in response to a select agent event or act of bioterrorism is reviewed.

  11. Bio-Terrorism Threat and Casualty Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NOEL,WILLIAM P.

    2000-01-01

    The bio-terrorism threat has become the ''poor man's'' nuclear weapon. The ease of manufacture and dissemination has allowed an organization with only rudimentary skills and equipment to pose a significant threat with high consequences. This report will analyze some of the most likely agents that would be used, the ease of manufacture, the ease of dissemination and what characteristics of the public health response that are particularly important to the successful characterization of a high consequence event to prevent excessive causalities.

  12. Nurses' intentions to respond to bioterrorism and other infectious disease emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Deanna E; Mendias, Elnora P

    2010-01-01

    Although nurses historically have responded to natural disasters, little is known about nurses' intentions to respond during bioterrorism and other infectious disease emergencies where they and their families may be at risk. To investigate that question, we surveyed nurses following their participation in a class on bioterrorism. Participants (N = 292) completed a Personal/Professional Profile (PPP), Test of Bioterrorism Knowledge (BT Knowledge), and an Intention to Respond (IR) instrument. IR was measured by participants' scores on their likelihood to care for patients (0 = extremely unlikely, 10 = extremely likely) for each of 10 infectious disease scenarios reflecting different infection risk. We calculated scores for each scenario, totaled them, and examined the total IR related to the participant's PPP and scores on BT Knowledge. Additionally, we examined participants' written comments explaining the reasons for their IR. Total IR scores ranged from 8-100 (mean and median of 70). The IR was higher in scenarios where the infection risk was lower. Overall IR scores were positively related to BT Knowledge and having had previous emergency and disaster experience. Those less likely to respond had dependent children and more years in nursing. Results indicate that nurses differentiated risks associated with different infectious disease situations and may decide to respond during a real emergency based on such information. Implications for nursing administrators and nursing educators are discussed.

  13. Brucella as a potential agent of bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganay, Gizem D; Doganay, Mehmet

    2013-04-01

    Perception on bioterrorism has changed after the deliberate release of anthrax by the postal system in the United States of America in 2001. Potential bioterrorism agents have been reclassified based on their dissemination, expected rate of mortality, availability, stability, and ability to lead a public panic. Brucella species can be easily cultured from infected animals and human materials. Also, it can be transferred, stored and disseminated easily. An intentional contamination of food with Brucella species could pose a threat with low mortality rate. Brucella spp. is highly infectious through aerosol route, making it an attractive pathogen to be used as a potential agent for biological warfare purposes. Recently, many studies have been concentrated on appropriate sampling of Brucella spp. from environment including finding ways for its early detection and development of new decontamination procedures such as new drugs and vaccines. There are many ongoing vaccine development studies; some of which recently received patents for detection and therapy of Brucella spp. However, there is still no available vaccine for humans. In this paper, recent developments and recent patents on brucellosis are reviewed and discussed.

  14. History of biological warfare and bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barras, V; Greub, G

    2014-06-01

    Bioterrorism literally means using microorganisms or infected samples to cause terror and panic in populations. Bioterrorism had already started 14 centuries before Christ, when the Hittites sent infected rams to their enemies. However, apart from some rare well-documented events, it is often very difficult for historians and microbiologists to differentiate natural epidemics from alleged biological attacks, because: (i) little information is available for times before the advent of modern microbiology; (ii) truth may be manipulated for political reasons, especially for a hot topic such as a biological attack; and (iii) the passage of time may also have distorted the reality of the past. Nevertheless, we have tried to provide to clinical microbiologists an overview of some likely biological warfare that occurred before the 18th century and that included the intentional spread of epidemic diseases such as tularaemia, plague, malaria, smallpox, yellow fever, and leprosy. We also summarize the main events that occurred during the modern microbiology era, from World War I to the recent 'anthrax letters' that followed the World Trade Center attack of September 2001. Again, the political polemic surrounding the use of infectious agents as a weapon may distort the truth. This is nicely exemplified by the Sverdlovsk accident, which was initially attributed by the authorities to a natural foodborne outbreak, and was officially recognized as having a military cause only 13 years later.

  15. Hospital bioterrorism planning and burn surge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Randy D; Myers, Brent; Cairns, Charles B; Rich, Preston B; Hultman, C Scott; Charles, Anthony G; Jones, Samuel W; Schmits, Grace L; Skarote, Mary Beth; Holmes, James H; Cairns, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    On the morning of June 9, 2009, an explosion occurred at a manufacturing plant in Garner, North Carolina. By the end of the day, 68 injured patients had been evaluated at the 3 Level I trauma centers and 3 community hospitals in the Raleigh/Durham metro area (3 people who were buried in the structural collapse died at the scene). Approximately 300 employees were present at the time of the explosion, when natural gas being vented during the repair of a hot water heater ignited. The concussion from the explosion led to structural failure in multiple locations and breached additional natural gas, electrical, and ammonia lines that ran overhead in the 1-story concrete industrial plant. Intent is the major difference between this type of accident and a terrorist using an incendiary device to terrorize a targeted population. But while this disaster lacked intent, the response, rescue, and outcomes were improved as a result of bioterrorism preparedness. This article discusses how bioterrorism hospital preparedness planning, with an all-hazards approach, became the basis for coordinated burn surge disaster preparedness. This real-world disaster challenged a variety of systems, hospitals, and healthcare providers to work efficiently and effectively to manage multiple survivors. Burn-injured patients served as a focus for this work. We describe the response, rescue, and resuscitation provided by first responders and first receivers as well as efforts made to develop burn care capabilities and surge capacity.

  16. Treatment of Anthrax Disease Frequently Asked Questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Young, Joan E.; Lesperance, Ann M.; Malone, John D.

    2010-05-14

    This document provides a summary of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the treatment of anthrax disease caused by a wide-area release of Bacillus anthracis spores as an act bioterrorism. These FAQs are intended to provide the public health and medical community, as well as others, with guidance and communications to support the response and long-term recovery from an anthrax event.

  17. Assessment of Knowledge and Attitude of Dentists Toward Bioterrorism Awareness in Dhule (Maharashtra, India: A Cross-sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minal M Kshirsagar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bioterrorism, as a major health problem, has received lots of attention in the recent years. It is the intentional use of microorganisms and toxins to produce disease and death in humans, livestock, and crops; their attraction in war and their use in terrorist attacks are attributed to various unique features. Aim: To assess the knowledge and attitude of graduate dentists and postgraduate dentists toward bioterrorism in Dhule city, Maharashtra (India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study included graduate dentists and postgraduate dentists in Dhule, Maharashtra, India. The list of dentists of Dhule city was obtained from the Indian Dental Association office, Dhule branch. Among 110 dentists practicing in Dhule city, 97 responded. A structured, self-administered questionnaire consisting of 15 closed-ended questions was employed. The information regarding age, gender, and profession (specialty branch was collected. The data were tabulated and subjected to analysis using Pearson’s chi-square test. Results: Statistically significant difference was seen when knowledge and attitude of dentists and dentists with postgraduate qualification toward bioterrorism were compared (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Dentists with postgraduate qualification have better knowledge and attitude toward bioterrorism as compared to graduate dentists. Most of the dentists felt the need to educate the public regarding suspected bioterrorist attack, and they were willing to do so and had the confidence that it was preventable.

  18. Bioterrorism: intentional introduction of animal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, N P; Rinderknecht, J L

    2011-04-01

    The possibility of the intentional introduction of animal disease as an act of bioterrorism adds a new dimension to the development of strategies for assessment, prevention, response and recovery from exotic diseases, including the zoonoses. The vulnerability of livestock operations, the likelihood of success, the possibility of the use of genetically engineered organisms and limited resources to handle multiple outbreaks place new pressures on policy-makers and emergency responders to make best use of limited resources. The methods for managing a natural occurrence or accidental introduction of high-consequence diseases are generally applicable to containment and recovery from outbreaks of intentionally introduced animal diseases. Zoonotic agents increase the complexity at both international and national levels. Modern biology provides both increased threat of new disease entities and methods for earlier and more effective detection and intervention. Improved methods are emerging for defining trade restrictions and animal movement and for determining when it is safe to resume normal trade.

  19. Biosensors for security and bioterrorism applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nikoleli, Georgia-Paraskevi

    2016-01-01

    This book offers comprehensive coverage of biomarker/biosensor interactions for the rapid detection of weapons of bioterrorism, as well as current research trends and future developments and applications. It will be useful to researchers in this field who are interested in new developments in the early detection of such. The authors have collected very valuable and, in some aspects indispensable experience in the area i.e. in the development and application of portable biosensors for the detection of potential hazards. Most efforts are centered on the development of immunochemical assays including flow-lateral systems and engineered antibodies and their fragments. In addition, new approaches to the detection of enzyme inhibitors, direct enzymatic and microbial detection of metabolites and nutrients are elaborated. Some realized prototypes and concept devices applicable for the further use as a basis for the cooperation programs are also discussed. There is a particular focus on electrochemical and optical det...

  20. Challenges of Detecting Bioterrorism Agents in Complex Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Erica M.; Halden, Rolf U.

    This chapter offers an overview of the shift from the use of mass ­spectrometry for studying purified bioterrorism agents to the development of methods for rapid detection thereof in environmental and clinical samples. We discuss the difficulties of working with such complex matrices and present methods for quickly and effectively reducing complexity through sample preparation. Finally, we examine a success story wherein the common pathogen and potential bioterrorism agent norovirus is detected at clinically relevant levels in human stool.

  1. 75 FR 44724 - Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the Select...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ...-AD09 Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the Select... accordance with the Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002, we are soliciting public comment... and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 provides for the regulation of...

  2. Planning the bioterrorism response supply chain: learn and live.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandeau, Margaret L; Hutton, David W; Owens, Douglas K; Bravata, Dena M

    2007-01-01

    Responses to bioterrorism require rapid procurement and distribution of medical and pharmaceutical supplies, trained personnel, and information. Thus, they present significant logistical challenges. On the basis of a review of the manufacturing and service supply chain literature, the authors identified five supply chain strategies that can potentially increase the speed of response to a bioterrorism attack, reduce inventories, and save money: effective supply chain network design; effective inventory management; postponement of product customization and modularization of component parts; coordination of supply chain stakeholders and appropriate use of incentives; and effective information management. The authors describe how concepts learned from published evaluations of manufacturing and service supply chains, as well as lessons learned from responses to natural disasters, naturally occurring outbreaks, and the 2001 US anthrax attacks, can be applied to design, evaluate, and improve the bioterrorism response supply chain. Such lessons could also be applied to the response supply chains for disease outbreaks and natural and manmade disasters.

  3. Francisella tularensis as a potential agent of bioterrorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurin, Max

    2015-02-01

    Francisella tularensis is a category A bioterrorism agent. It is the etiological agent of tularemia, a zoonotic disease found throughout the northern hemisphere. The intentional spread of F. tularensis aerosols would probably lead to severe and often fatal pneumonia cases, but also secondary cases from contaminated animals and environments. We are not ready to face such a situation. No vaccine is currently available. A few antibiotics are active against F. tularensis, but strains resistant to these antibiotics could be used in the context of bioterrorism. We need new therapeutic strategies to fight against category A bioterrorism agents, including development of new drugs inhibiting F. tularensis growth and/or virulence, or enhancing the host response to infection by this pathogen.

  4. Evaluation of an online bioterrorism continuing medical education course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casebeer, Linda; Andolsek, Kathryn; Abdolrasulnia, Maziar; Green, Joseph; Weissman, Norman; Pryor, Erica; Zheng, Shimin; Terndrup, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Much of the international community has an increased awareness of potential biologic, chemical, and nuclear threats and the need for physicians to rapidly acquire new knowledge and skills in order to protect the public's health. The present study evaluated the educational effectiveness of an online bioterrorism continuing medical education (CME) activity designed to address clinical issues involving suspected bioterrorism and reporting procedures in the United States. This was a retrospective survey of physicians who had completed an online CME activity on bioterrorism compared with a nonparticipant group who had completed at least 1 unrelated online CME course from the same medical school Web site and were matched on similar characteristics. An online survey instrument was developed to assess clinical and systems knowledge and confidence in recognition of illnesses associated with a potential bioterrorism attack. A power calculation indicated that a sample size of 100 (50 in each group) would achieve 90% power to detect a 10% to 15% difference in test scores between the two groups. Compared with nonparticipant physicians, participants correctly diagnosed anthrax (p = .01) and viral exanthem (p = .01), but not smallpox, more frequently than nonparticipants. Participants knew more frequently than nonparticipants who to contact regarding a potential bioterrorism event (p = .03) Participants were more confident than nonparticipants about finding information to guide diagnoses of patients with biologic exposure (p = .01), chemical exposure (p = .02), and radiation exposure (p = .04). An online bioterrorism course shows promise as an educational intervention in preparing physicians to better diagnose emerging rare infections, including those that may be associated with a bioterrorist event, in increasing confidence in diagnosing these infections, and in reporting of such infections for practicing physicians.

  5. Identification and analysis of obstacles in bioterrorism preparedness and response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sincavage, Suzanne Michele

    The focus of this study was to identify and analyze the obstacles to bioterrorism preparedness and response facing emergency management agencies and public authorities. In order to establish the limits of this discussion, the obstacles will examine a combined conceptual framework of public health, environmental security and social response. The interdisciplinary characteristics of this framework are ideal for addressing the issue of bioterrorism because of its simultaneous impact, which encompasses the complex interrelationships that pertain to public health and national security and social response. Based on a review of literature, the obstacles presented range from the absence of an effective surveillance system for biological terrorism related diseases to the inadequate training of first responders in bioterrorism preparedness and the difficult challenges of a mass casualty situation and the intense pressures associated with the crisis response. Furthermore, the impending reality of bioterrorism will further illustrate a close examination of the characteristics and management of three major biowarfare agents---anthrax, plague and smallpox. Finally, to provide a realistic understanding of the impact of bioterrorism, three case studies of actual events and two hypothetical scenarios will be discussed. Specifically, the discussion will provide the following three unconventional terrorist attacks: the recent anthrax attacks of 2001, the Aum Shinrikyo's attack of the Tokyo subway in 1995, and the Rajneeshees' use of salmonella poisoning in 1994. The inclusion of the hypothetical scenarios of two massive outbreaks of smallpox and anthrax will be presented to illuminate the seriousness and magnitude of the threat of bioterrorism and the probable consequences of failing to overcome the obstacles presented in this study. The importance of this research cannot be overemphasized, the threat is undeniably serious, and the potential for biological agents to cause devastating

  6. Agricultural Bioterrorism: A Federal Strategy to Meet the Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    infection in the host can then be transmitted rapidly to nearby members of the population. An infection may go undetected or undiag- nosed for days; thus...Information National Mastitis Council Poultry Science Association 66 AGRICULTURAL BIOTERRORISM Society of Nematologists United States Animal Health

  7. The Delivery: A Case Study in Bioterrorism Preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosh, Judith; Davis, Kim; Fullwood, Angela; Lippek, Maryann; Middleton, Jill

    This paper describes a bioterrorism incident at a Connecticut elementary school. Flowers sent to a teacher were permeated with anthrax spores that infected the teacher, 12 of her students, 3 office staff members, and an administrator. The teacher subsequently died. The Connecticut Department of Public Health confirmed that the students and staff…

  8. Evaluation of an Online Bioterrorism Continuing Medical Education Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casebeer, Linda; Andolsek, Kathryn; Abdolrasulnia, Maziar; Green, Joseph; Weissman, Norman; Pryor, Erica; Zheng, Shimin; Terndrup, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Much of the international community has an increased awareness of potential biologic, chemical, and nuclear threats and the need for physicians to rapidly acquire new knowledge and skills in order to protect the public's health. The present study evaluated the educational effectiveness of an online bioterrorism continuing medical…

  9. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF LABORATORY GUIDELINES FOR ANALYSIS OF BIOTERRORISM SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    After the attack on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2002, and the subsequent deaths associated with Bacillus anthracis spore contaminated mail, a worldwide need was apparent for increased laboratory capacity to safely analyze bioterrorism samples. The U.S. Department of ...

  10. Quantum counter automata

    CERN Document Server

    Say, A C Cem

    2011-01-01

    The question of whether quantum real-time one-counter automata (rtQ1CAs) can outperform their probabilistic counterparts has been open for more than a decade. We provide an affirmative answer to this question, by demonstrating a non-context-free language that can be recognized with perfect soundness by a rtQ1CA. This is the first demonstration of the superiority of a quantum model to the corresponding classical one in the real-time case with an error bound less than 1. We also introduce a generalization of the rtQ1CA, the quantum one-way one-counter automaton (1Q1CA), and show that they too are superior to the corresponding family of probabilistic machines. For this purpose, we provide general definitions of these models that reflect the modern approach to the definition of quantum finite automata, and point out some problems with previous results. We identify several remaining open problems.

  11. Remote Gas Detection Using Millimeter-Wave Spectroscopy for Counter Bio-Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlazak, Matthew; Yam, Seng Yiep; Majstorovic, Dejan; Hansen, Hedley J.; Abbott, Derek

    2002-11-01

    The mm-wave (10-110 GHz) frequency band contains the fundamental rotational resonance frequencies of many molecular gases composed of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur. The high specificity of the rotational spectra to organic molecules affords mm-wave spectroscopy having potential use in remotely sensing atmospheric pollutants and the detection of airborne chemicals is gaining importance for arms control treaty verification, intelligence collection and environmental monitoring. This paper considers RF receiver systems for remote chemical detection measurements based on mm-wave spectral line emissions. It discusses the design, performance and operation of specific receiving systems for detecting the presence of ammonia in laboratory based transmit-and-receive experiments.

  12. Distributed performance counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kristan D; Evans, Kahn C; Gara, Alan; Satterfield, David L

    2013-11-26

    A plurality of first performance counter modules is coupled to a plurality of processing cores. The plurality of first performance counter modules is operable to collect performance data associated with the plurality of processing cores respectively. A plurality of second performance counter modules are coupled to a plurality of L2 cache units, and the plurality of second performance counter modules are operable to collect performance data associated with the plurality of L2 cache units respectively. A central performance counter module may be operable to coordinate counter data from the plurality of first performance counter modules and the plurality of second performance modules, the a central performance counter module, the plurality of first performance counter modules, and the plurality of second performance counter modules connected by a daisy chain connection.

  13. A Bioterrorism Prevention Strategy for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    organisms include smallpox, anthrax, plague, botulinum toxin, tularemia, Ebola and Marburg virus , and Lassa and Junin virus . However, this list...this topic. “Bioterrorism is the intentional use of any microorganism, virus , infectious substance, or biological product that may be engineered as a...result of biotechnology, or any naturally occurring or bioengineered component of any such microorganism, virus , infectious substance, or biologic

  14. Bioterrorism, embryonic stem cells, and Frankenstein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    The stem cell controversy raises a fundamental question for humankind. Does science have a right to pursue knowledge whatever the cost? Our Enlightenment culture says yes. However, human history and literature are sending warning signals. Ethical issues impact the "knowledge for its own sake" imperative, and must be addressed.

  15. Bioterrorism and Emergency Preparedness in Aging (BTEPA): HRSA-Funded GEC Collaboration for Curricula and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Arleen; Roush, Robert E., Jr.; Howe, Judith L.; Sanders, Margaret; McBride, Melen R.; Sherman, Andrea; Palmisano, Barbara; Tumosa, Nina; Perweiler, Elyse A.; Weiss, Joan

    2006-01-01

    Frail elders living alone or in long-term care settings are particularly vulnerable to bioterrorism and other emergencies due to their complex physical, social and psychological needs. This paper provides an overview of the recent literature on bioterrorism and emergency preparedness in aging (BTEPA); discusses federal initiatives by the health…

  16. Use of medical simulation to teach bioterrorism preparedness: the anthrax example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Martin E

    2013-01-01

    The 2001 anthrax bioterrorism attacks demonstrated vulnerability for future similar attacks. This article describes mechanisms that can be used to prepare the medical community and healthcare facilities for the diagnosis and management of a subsequent bioterrorism attack should such an event occur and the fundamentals of medical simulation and its use in teaching learners about the diagnosis of management of anthrax exposure.

  17. Counter-cryptanalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, M.M.J.; Canetti, R.; Garay, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce \\emph{counter-cryptanalysis} as a new paradigm for strengthening weak cryptographic primitives against cryptanalytic attacks. Redesigning a weak primitive to more strongly resist cryptanalytic techniques will unavoidably break backwards compatibility. Instead, counter-cryptanalysis expl

  18. CEDAR counter (internal part)

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    Here on the mounting bench. The counter is a differential Cerenkov, corrected for chromaticity, able to differentiate pions from kaons up to 350 GeV. Counters of this type were used in all SPS hadron beams.

  19. The Effect of Anthrax Bioterrorism on Emergency Department Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez, Robert M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Objective: From September through December 2001, 22 Americans were diagnosed with anthrax, prompting widespread national media attention and public concern over bioterrorism. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the threat of anthrax bioterrorism on patient presentation to a West Coast emergency department (ED. Methods: This survey was conducted at an urban county ED in Oakland, CA between December 15, 2001 and February 15, 2002. During random 8-hour blocks, all adult patients presenting for flu or upper respiratory infection (URI symptoms were surveyed using a structured survey instrument that included standard visual numerical and Likert scales. Results: Eighty-nine patients were interviewed. Eleven patients (12% reported potential exposure risk factors. Eighty percent of patients watched television, read the newspaper, or listened to the radio daily, and 83% of patients had heard about anthrax bioterrorism. Fifty-five percent received a chest x-ray, 10% received either throat or blood cultures, and 28% received antibiotics. Twenty-one percent of patients surveyed were admitted to the hospital. Most patients were minimally concerned that they may have contracted anthrax (mean=3.3±3.3 where 0=no concern and 10=extremely concerned. Patient concern about anthrax had little influence on their decision to visit the ED (mean=2.8±3.0 where 0=no influence and 10=greatly influenced. Had they experienced their same flu or URI symptoms one year prior to the anthrax outbreak, 91% of patients stated they would have sought medical attention. Conclusions: After considerable exposure to media reports about anthrax, most patients in this urban West Coast ED population were not concerned about anthrax infection. Fear of anthrax had little effect on decisions to come to the ED, and most would have sought medical help prior to the anthrax outbreak.

  20. The plague of Athens: an ancient act of bioterrorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagrigorakis, Manolis J; Synodinos, Philippos N; Stathi, Angeliki; Skevaki, Chrysanthi L; Zachariadou, Levantia

    2013-09-01

    Recent data implicate Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi as a causative pathogen of the Plague of Athens during the Peloponnesian War (430-426 bc). According to Thucydides, the sudden outbreak of the disease may link to poisoning of the water reservoirs by the Spartans. The siege of a city was aimed at exhausting the supplies of a population, which often led to the outbreak and spread of epidemics. Poisoning of the water reservoirs of a besieged city as an act of bioterrorism would probably shorten the necessary time for such conditions to appear.

  1. Bioterrorism and the Role of the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagar, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Regular review of the management of bioterrorism is essential for maintaining readiness for these sporadically occurring events. This review provides an overview of the history of biological disasters and bioterrorism. I also discuss the recent recategorization of tier 1 agents by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Laboratory Response Network (LRN), and specific training and readiness processes and programs, such as the College of American Pathologists (CAP) Laboratory Preparedness Exercise (LPX). LPX examined the management of cultivable bacterial vaccine and attenuated strains of tier 1 agents or close mimics. In the LPX program, participating laboratories showed improvement in the level of diagnosis required and referral of isolates to an appropriate reference laboratory. Agents which proved difficult to manage in sentinel laboratories included the more fastidious Gram-negative organisms, especially Francisella tularensis and Burkholderia spp. The recent Ebola hemorrhagic fever epidemic provided a check on LRN safety processes. Specific guidelines and recommendations for laboratory safety and risk assessment in the clinical microbiology are explored so that sentinel laboratories can better prepare for the next biological disaster.

  2. Bioterrorism versus radiological terrorism: notes from a bio/nuclear epidemiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Thomas E

    2009-01-01

    The antiterrorism and disaster planning communities often speak of the high potential for bioterrorism and possible potential for radioterrorism, specifically the explosion of a fission device on US soil. Information gained from an epidemiologist's work in the national and international scene, which inevitably involves Intel regarding the cultures and subcultures being studied, suggest that bioterrorism is far less likely to be a major threat, that has been over-emphasized at the state level due to warnings from Homeland Security, and that Homeland Security itself appears biased toward bioterrorism of late with very little available rational basis.

  3. FLEXIBLE GEIGER COUNTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, H.G.; Gillespie, A.S. Jr.

    1963-11-12

    A flexible Geiger counter constructed from materials composed of vinyl chloride polymerized with plasticizers or co-polymers is presented. The counter can be made either by attaching short segments of corrugated plastic sleeving together, or by starting with a length of vacuum cleaner hose composed of the above materials. The anode is maintained substantially axial Within the sleeving or hose during tube flexing by means of polystyrene spacer disks or an easily assembled polyethylene flexible cage assembly. The cathode is a wire spiraled on the outside of the counter. The sleeving or hose is fitted with glass end-pieces or any other good insulator to maintain the anode wire taut and to admit a counting gas mixture into the counter. Having the cathode wire on the outside of the counter substantially eliminates the objectional sheath effect of prior counters and permits counting rates up to 300,000 counts per minute. (AEC)

  4. Countering Internet Extremism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    literally examine hundreds of books and speeches. Since the purpose of this work is examining ways to counter an extremist’s Internet use of the...provide differing perspectives on how to counter extremist Internet use . A 2008 New York Times article indirectly offers some methods. Writers Eric...or scholars have the most potential to effectively counter extremist Internet use . Such efforts could help to stifle some of the issues that

  5. [Analysis of policies in activating the Infectious Disease Specialist Network (IDSN) for bioterrorism events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yang Soo

    2008-07-01

    Bioterrorism events have worldwide impacts, not only in terms of security and public health policy, but also in other related sectors. Many countries, including Korea, have set up new administrative and operational structures and adapted their preparedness and response plans in order to deal with new kinds of threats. Korea has dual surveillance systems for the early detection of bioterrorism. The first is syndromic surveillance that typically monitors non-specific clinical information that may indicate possible bioterrorism-associated diseases before specific diagnoses are made. The other is infectious disease specialist network that diagnoses and responds to specific illnesses caused by intentional release of biologic agents. Infectious disease physicians, clinical microbiologists, and infection control professionals play critical and complementary roles in these networks. Infectious disease specialists should develop practical and realistic response plans for their institutions in partnership with local and state health departments, in preparation for a real or suspected bioterrorism attack.

  6. [The strategic plan for preparedness and response to bioterrorism in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hyun Soon

    2008-07-01

    Following the Anthrax bioterrorism attacks in the US in 2001, the Korean government established comprehensive countermeasures against bioterrorism. These measures included the government assuming management of all infectious agents that cause diseases, including smallpox, anthrax, plaque, botulism, and the causative agents of viral hemorrhagic fevers (ebola fever, marburg fever, and lassa fever) for national security. In addition, the Korean government is reinforcing the ability to prepare and respond to bioterrorism. Some of the measures being implemented include revising the laws and guidelines that apply to the use of infectious agents, the construction and operation of dual surveillance systems for bioterrorism, stockpiling and managing products necessary to respond to an emergency (smallpox vaccine, antibiotics, etc.) and vigorously training emergency room staff and heath workers to ensure they can respond appropriately. In addition, the government's measures include improved public relations, building and maintaining international cooperation, and developing new vaccines and drugs for treatments of infectious agents used to create bioweapons.

  7. Being prepared: bioterrorism and mass prophylaxis: part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weant, Kyle A; Bailey, Abby M; Fleishaker, Elise L; Justice, Stephanie B

    2014-01-01

    Bioterrorism presents a real and omnipresent risk to public health throughout the world. More than 30 biological agents have been identified as possessing the potential to be deployed in a bioterrorist attack. Those that have been determined to be of the greatest concern and possess the greatest potential of use in this arena are known as the Category A agents: Bacillus anthracis (anthrax); Variola major (smallpox); Yersinia pestis (plague); Francisella tularensis (tularemia); viral hemorrhagic fevers; and Clostridium botulinum toxin (botulism toxin). Although the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention utilizes surveillance systems to identify illnesses, the weight of diagnosing, effectively treating, and notifying the appropriate public health officials lies squarely on the shoulders of emergency care personnel. Part I of this two-part review will focus on the clinical presentation and treatment of anthrax, plague, and tularemia. The subsequent Part II of this review will discuss smallpox, viral hemorrhagic fevers, botulism toxin, and the provision of mass prophylaxis.

  8. Simulation modeling of anthrax spore dispersion in a bioterrorism incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetin, Vladimir P; Regens, James L

    2003-12-01

    Recent events have increased awareness of the risk posed by terrorist attacks. Bacillus anthracis has resurfaced in the 21st century as a deadly agent of bioterrorism because of its potential for causing massive civilian casualties. This analysis presents the results of a computer simulation of the dispersion of anthrax spores in a typical 50-story, high-rise building after an intentional release during a bioterrorist incident. The model simulates aerosol dispersion in the case of intensive, small-scale convection, which equalizes the concentration of anthrax spores over the building volume. The model can be used to predict the time interval required for spore dispersion throughout a building after a terrorist attack in a high-rise building. The analysis reveals that an aerosol release of even a relatively small volume of anthrax spores during a terrorist incident has the potential to quickly distribute concentrations that are infectious throughout the building.

  9. Anticoincidence scintillation counter

    CERN Multimedia

    1966-01-01

    This anticoincidence scintillation counter will be mounted in a hydrogen target vessel to be used in a measurement of the .beta. parameter in the .LAMBDA0. decay. The geometry of the counter optimizes light collection in the central part where a scintillation disk of variable thickness can be fitted.

  10. Proportional counter radiation camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, C.J.; Kopp, M.K.

    1974-01-15

    A gas-filled proportional counter camera that images photon emitting sources is described. A two-dimensional, positionsensitive proportional multiwire counter is provided as the detector. The counter consists of a high- voltage anode screen sandwiched between orthogonally disposed planar arrays of multiple parallel strung, resistively coupled cathode wires. Two terminals from each of the cathode arrays are connected to separate timing circuitry to obtain separate X and Y coordinate signal values from pulse shape measurements to define the position of an event within the counter arrays which may be recorded by various means for data display. The counter is further provided with a linear drift field which effectively enlarges the active gas volume of the counter and constrains the recoil electrons produced from ionizing radiation entering the counter to drift perpendicularly toward the planar detection arrays. A collimator is interposed between a subject to be imaged and the counter to transmit only the radiation from the subject which has a perpendicular trajectory with respect to the planar cathode arrays of the detector. (Official Gazette)

  11. The first CEDAR counter

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    The first differential Cerenkov counter with chromatic corrections (called CEDAR) successfully tested at the PS in July 75. These counters were used in the SPS hadronic beams for particle identification. Some of the eight photomultipliers can be seen: they receive the light reflected back through the annular diaphragm. René Maleyran stands on the left.

  12. Sinus Pain: Can Over-the-Counter Medications Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... requests or policy questions to our media and public relations staff at newsroom@entnet.org . Why Do We ... over-the-counter (OTC) medications. What Is The Role Of OTC Medication For Sinus Pain? There are ...

  13. A large Cerenkov counter

    CERN Multimedia

    1981-01-01

    The photo shows the vertex Cerenkov counter C0 back side (with 12 mirrors) of the NA9 experiment. On foreground are members of the team (CERN and Wuppertal Uni), Salvo .., Manfred Poetsch, ..., Jocelyn Thadome, Helmut Braun, Heiner Brueck.

  14. Counter-cryptanalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.J. Stevens (Marc); R. Canetti; J.A. Garay

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe introduce \\emph{counter-cryptanalysis} as a new paradigm for strengthening weak cryptographic primitives against cryptanalytic attacks. Redesigning a weak primitive to more strongly resist cryptanalytic techniques will unavoidably break backwards compatibility. Instead,

  15. Questioning Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michelle

    1999-01-01

    Questions are so much a part of the classroom routine and they should stimulate learning and thinking. Introduces the Questioning and Understanding to Improve Learning and Thinking (QUILT) method which incorporates Bloom's Taxonomy and wait time. (ASK)

  16. Comparison of a designed virtual counter with a real counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tektas, G.; Celiktas, C.

    2017-02-01

    A counter is a device which counts the incident pulses within a fixed time. In this work, a virtual counter was designed by developing a code by LabVIEW software. Generator signals were sent to the virtual counter via a National Instruments multifunction data acquisition device. Analog and PFI (Programmable Function Interface) inputs of the device was used for the process. A real counter was also used for comparison. Counts acquired from both counters in different time intervals were compared with each other. It was concluded from the obtained results that the developed virtual counter could be used as a real counter.

  17. Are we preparing health services administration students to respond to bioterrorism and mass casualty management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Shannon H; Houser, Howard W

    2006-01-01

    Bioterrorism/natural disaster events add significant specialized demands and disrupt normal operation of the health system, often for an indefinite period of time. Health administration leaders should be educationally prepared for and informed about these potential events, but few receive this knowledge via their academic preparation in health administration. This study examined the existence of coverage of bioterrorism topics in health administration curricula and characteristics of bioterrorism coverage in current health administration programs through a self-completed survey among AUPHA graduate and undergraduate program members. Of the total survey respondents, only 32% of programs have current coverage of bioterrorism. The main reasons for nothavingbioterrorism coverage were not having enough resources; not having enough time to develop course/materials; and not thinking it is necessary to add these courses/materials. To prepare better and to inform future health administrators regarding major disruptive circumstances, advocacy and documentation are important to develop and implement bioterrorism awareness. Possibly, suggested minimum curricular requirements, content, and mechanisms for inclusion can be developed in the near future. Health administration educators should address the new reality and demonstrate that their graduates can function and lead in crises and situations disruptive to normal commerce.

  18. The Role of Practical Advice in Bioterrorism News Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Kristen Alley

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role of crisis advice appearing in US news coverage of the 2001 anthrax attacks. Coverage of any crisis can spark public outrage, including fear, speculation, and contradictory or confusing evidence, especially when the stories do not contain practical advice. Five coders analyzed 833 news stories from 272 major US newspapers, the Associated Press, National Public Radio, and 4 major US television networks. Practical advice appeared in only a quarter of the stories, even though practical advice for self-protection was mentioned 3 times more often than the vague advice that simply advised people not to panic. Public health officials provided the most practical advice, while scientists provided the least practical advice. Stories containing practical advice also provided more elucidating information, explaining why the threat was low, reducible, treatable, and detectable. Over the 3 phases of the anthrax crisis, an inverse relationship appeared between the amount of news coverage containing practical advice compared to "outrage rhetoric." Stories mentioned practical advice more often during the post-impact phase than earlier in the crisis. Elucidating, explanatory advice emphasized actions, risk comparisons, and tradeoffs. The findings indicate that when journalists use credible sources to provide practical advice and avoid speculation, their coverage can prevent the spread of misinformation and confusion during a bioterror attack. Also, journalists should provide context and sourcing when discussing advice during the outbreak and impact phases of the crisis, because these explanations could counteract outrage and threat distortion.

  19. Bio-terrorism: still interesting or concerning nowadays?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu E. Sbârcea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bio-terrorism involves using biological agents/toxins with the intent to intimidate or coerce a government or civilian population to further political or social objectives, usually leading to deaths or illnesses of humans but also of plants/animals. Their use would probably initially be considered as a natural or unintentional event, especially in case of live biological agents. Moreover, a natural occurring disease outbreak could have the same destructive outcome as an efficient biological weapon. There is a need for proper differentiation between natural and intentional events although in the first stages the medical response should be similar; however, the course of incident management would take different paths later on. Biological agents’ investigation of dangerous pathogens, from natural unusual outbreaks or bioterrorist attacks/other intentional use, imply the collaboration of different institutions with responsibilities in public health but also in national security and defense. The National Security and the Defense System institutions think mainly in security terms while national health care system institutions think principally` in medical care/prevention terms. These two ways of acting have to be combined in order to deal properly with hazardous biological agents.

  20. Training Future Physicians about Weapons of Mass Destruction: Report of the Expert Panel on Bioterrorism Education for Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, DC.

    The Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) convened a multidisciplinary group of experts to share their insights about the learning objectives and educational experiences that they would recommend for the training of future physicians about bioterrorism. The expert panel broadened the scope of their discussion beyond bioterrorism to…

  1. Assessing bioterrorism preparedness and response of rural veterinarians: experiences and training needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chiehwen Ed; Jacobson, Holly; Feldman, Katherine; Miller, Jerry A; Rodriguez, Lori; Soto Mas, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Veterinarians play a unique role in emergency preparedness and response, and federal agencies and academic institutions therefore allocate considerable resources to provide training to enhance their readiness. However, the level of preparedness of veterinarians in many rural regions is yet to be improved. This article reports an assessment of the bioterrorism preparedness, specifically the experience and training needs, of rural veterinarians in North Texas. The study employed a cross-sectional design with a study population that included all veterinarians (N = 352) in the 37 counties within Texas Department of State Health Services Regions 2 and 3. Data on veterinarians practicing or residing in the target region were obtained from the Texas State Board of Veterinary Medical Examiners. The response rate was 35% (n = 121). Results indicate that chemical exposure was the condition most frequently seen and treated, followed by botulism and anthrax. The majority (80%) of respondents indicated that they had not previously participated in training related to bioterrorism preparedness, and many (41%) also indicated a willingness to participate in a state health department-initiated bioterrorism response plan. However, only 18% were confident in their ability to diagnose and treat bioterrorism cases. These results suggest that many North Texas veterinarians practicing in rural regions could benefit from additional training in bioterrorism preparedness and response. An area in particular need of further training is the diagnosis and treatment of Category A agents. Federal, state, and local health agencies are urged to increase training opportunities and to make additional efforts to involve veterinarians in bioterrorism preparedness and response.

  2. Curiosity Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, Jane; DeLorenzo, Chip

    2010-01-01

    Have you ever found yourself lecturing a child, with the best of intentions, in an attempt to help him or her learn a lesson or process a situation in a manner that you feel will be productive? Curiosity questions, which the authors also call What and How questions, help children process an experience, event, or natural consequence so that they…

  3. An efficient anticoincidence counter

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    This scintillation counter (about 25 cm diameter) was prepared at CERN for an experiment at the Saclay 600 MeV electron linac studying molecular processes originated in liquid hydrogen by muons. The counter is meant to surround the target and detect charged particles emerging from the hydrogen. The experiment was a CERN-Saclay collaboration which used the linac so as to take advantage of the time structure of the electron beam(see CERN Courier Sep 1977 and J. Bardin et al. Phys. Lett. B104 (1981) 320)

  4. Public health and bioterrorism: renewed threat of anthrax and smallpox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Arūne; Luksiene, Zivile; Zagminas, Kestutis; Surkiene, Gene

    2007-01-01

    Bioterrorism is one of the main public health categorical domains. According to sociological analytics, in postmodern society terrorism is one of the real threats of the 21st century. While rare, the use of biological weapons has a long history. Recently, anthrax has been evaluated as one of the most dangerous biological weapons. Naturally occurring anthrax in humans is a disease acquired from contact with anthrax-infected animals or anthrax-contaminated animal products. Usually anthrax infection occurs in humans by three major routes: inhalational, cutaneous, and gastrointestinal. Inhalational anthrax is expected to account for most serious morbidity and most mortality. The clinical presentation of inhalation anthrax has been described as a two-stage illness. Many factors contribute to the pathogenesis of Bacillus anthracis. Antibiotics, anthrax globulin, corticosteroids, mechanical ventilation, vaccine are possible tools of therapy. Smallpox existed in two forms: variola major, which accounted for most morbidity and mortality, and a milder form, variola minor. Smallpox spreads from person to person primarily by droplet nuclei or aerosols expelled from the oropharynx of infected persons and by direct contact. In the event of limited outbreak with few cases, patients should be admitted to the hospital and confined to rooms that are under negative pressure and equipped with high-efficiency particulate air filtration. In larger outbreaks, home isolation and care should be the objective for most patients. Progress in detection, suitable vaccines, postexposure prophylaxis, infection control, and decontamination might be serious tools in fight against the most powerful biological weapon. To assure that the public health and healthcare system can respond to emergencies, the government should direct resources to strengthen the emergency-response system, create medication stockpiles, and improve the public health infrastructure.

  5. Geiger Counter Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    1942-01-01

    is a Genco HIyvac and is backed by a single stage oil diffusion punp. The mercury well is emnloyed as a pump and mixing chamber, providing a means of...system, after first being puaped down, is filled to ovar-priees-e with Argan . re counter is then pullet off the ribber tubing a few dorps of ether are

  6. Kairos as Indeterminate Risk Management: The Pharmaceutical Industry's Response to Bioterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J. Blake

    2006-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry's response to the threat of bioterrorism following 9-11 invoked the rhetorical notion of kairos as an urgent and ongoing opportunity not only to protect the nation but also to improve the industry's reputation and fortify its political power. Yet the notion of kairos as seizing an advantage--grounded in modernist…

  7. 75 FR 50730 - Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002: Biennial Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 73 RIN 0920-AA34 Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and...: Extension of public comment period. SUMMARY: On July 21, 2010, the Department of Health and Human...

  8. 75 FR 42363 - Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002; Biennial Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 73 RIN 0920-AA34 Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and...: Advance notice of proposed rulemaking and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Public Health Security and... potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety. In determining whether to include an agent...

  9. A Comprehensive Evaluation System for Military Hospitals' Response Capability to Bio-terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Jiang, Nan; Shao, Sicong; Zheng, Tao; Sun, Jianzhong

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study is to establish a comprehensive evaluation system for military hospitals' response capacity to bio-terrorism. Literature research and Delphi method were utilized to establish the comprehensive evaluation system for military hospitals' response capacity to bio-terrorism. Questionnaires were designed and used to survey the status quo of 134 military hospitals' response capability to bio-terrorism. Survey indicated that factor analysis method was suitable to for analyzing the comprehensive evaluation system for military hospitals' response capacity to bio-terrorism. The constructed evaluation system was consisted of five first-class and 16 second-class indexes. Among them, medical response factor was considered as the most important factor with weight coefficient of 0.660, followed in turn by the emergency management factor with weight coefficient of 0.109, emergency management consciousness factor with weight coefficient of 0.093, hardware support factor with weight coefficient of 0.078, and improvement factor with weight coefficient of 0.059. The constructed comprehensive assessment model and system are scientific and practical.

  10. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Rural Primary Care: Improving Care for Mental Health Following Bioterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Jennie C. I.; Dobalian, Aram; Wiens, Brenda A.; Gylys, Julius A.; Evans, Garret D.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Recent bioterrorist attacks have highlighted the critical need for health care organizations to prepare for future threats. Yet, relatively little attention has been paid to the mental health needs of rural communities in the wake of such events. A critical aspect of bioterrorism is emphasis on generating fear and uncertainty, thereby…

  11. 76 FR 77914 - Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the Select...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... submit comments. DATES: The comment period for the proposed rule published October 3, 2011 (76 FR 61228... INFORMATION: On October 3, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 61228-61244, Docket No. APHIS...-AD09 Agricultural Bioterrorism Protection Act of 2002; Biennial Review and Republication of the...

  12. Kairos as Indeterminate Risk Management: The Pharmaceutical Industry's Response to Bioterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J. Blake

    2006-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry's response to the threat of bioterrorism following 9-11 invoked the rhetorical notion of kairos as an urgent and ongoing opportunity not only to protect the nation but also to improve the industry's reputation and fortify its political power. Yet the notion of kairos as seizing an advantage--grounded in modernist…

  13. Thousand Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie; Pritchard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    In this work the network asks “If I wrote you a love letter would you write back?” Like the love letters which appeared mysteriously on the noticeboards of Manchester University’s Computer Department in the 1950s, thousands of texts circulate as computational processes perform the questions...... (perhaps as an expanded Turing test) on its listeners. These questions are extracted in real-time from Twitter with the keyword search of the ‘?’ symbol to create a spatio-temporal experience. The computerized voice the audience hears is a collective one, an entanglement of humans and non...

  14. Countering rumors about contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosario, M L

    1976-01-01

    Rumors are among the serious problems of the National Population Program today. The principles related to the origin of rumors, who starts rumors pertaining to family planning, and how they spread are outlined. The basic approach in countering rumors for the pill and IUD is diagrammed so that each potential rumor is countered by a medical or nonmedical/technical explanation. Strategies used by information-education-communication programs to prevent rumors such as the small group discussion, selection and training of motivators, and use of mass media are discussed. Rumors about family planning are counteracted not with the use of elaborate techniques but with clear and fairly simple reassurances supported by medical evidence and case histories.

  15. Critical Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Jo; Hoffman, James V.

    1998-01-01

    Offers responses from four readers of this journal, all reading and/or classroom teachers, to a question posed by another teacher: whether children who have had limited literacy experiences should start reading in whole-language readers and/or trade books or whether they should start in controlled-vocabulary preprimers. (SR)

  16. Thousand Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    (perhaps as an expanded Turing test) on its listeners. These questions are extracted in real-time from Twitter with the keyword search of the ‘?’ symbol to create a spatio-temporal experience. The computerized voice the audience hears is a collective one, an entanglement of humans and non...

  17. My Questions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    I have many questions.I think hard and cannot find the answers.I wonder what the world is in reality.Is there any answer to the mystery of the world?I ask what it is like to be outside the earth.Are there any people on other planets1?How many planets are there in the universe?I wonder a lot about this and that.

  18. Electromagnetic shower counter

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The octogonal block of lead glass is observed by eight photomultiplier tubes. Four or five such counters, arranged in succession, are used on each arm of the bispectrometer in order to detect heavy particles of the same family as those recently observed at Brookhaven and SLAC. They provide a means of identifying electrons. The arrangement of eight lateral photomultiplier tubes offers an efficient means of collecting the photons produced in the showers and determining, with a high resolution, the energy of the incident electrons. The total width at half-height is less than 6.9% for electrons having an energy of 1 GeV.

  19. Counter-Rotating Accretion Discs

    OpenAIRE

    Dyda, Sergei; Lovelace, Richard V. E.; Ustyugova, Galina V.; Romanova, Marina M.; Koldoba, Alexander V.

    2014-01-01

    Counter-rotating discs can arise from the accretion of a counter-rotating gas cloud onto the surface of an existing co-rotating disc or from the counter-rotating gas moving radially inward to the outer edge of an existing disc. At the interface, the two components mix to produce gas or plasma with zero net angular momentum which tends to free-fall towards the disc center. We discuss high-resolution axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of a viscous counter-rotating disc for cases where the tw...

  20. Analysis of research publications that relate to bioterrorism and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Gary C

    2013-09-01

    Research relating to bioterrorism and its associated risks is interdisciplinary and is performed with a wide variety of objectives. Although published reports of this research have appeared only in the past decade, there has been a steady increase in their number and a continuous diversification of sources, content, and document types. In this analysis, we explored a large set of published reports, identified from accessible indices using simple search techniques, and tried to rationalize the patterns and connectivity of the research subjects rather than the detailed content. The analysis is based on a connectivity network representation built from author-assigned keywords. Network analysis reveals a strong relationship between research aimed at bioterrorism risks and research identified with public health. Additionally, the network identifies clusters of keywords centered on emergency preparedness and food safety issues. The network structure includes a large amount of meta-information that can be used for assessment and planning of research activity and for framing specific research interests.

  1. Community response grids: using information technology to help communities respond to bioterror emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Paul T; Fleischmann, Kenneth R; Preece, Jennifer; Shneiderman, Ben; Wu, Philip Fei; Qu, Yan

    2007-12-01

    Access to accurate and trusted information is vital in preparing for, responding to, and recovering from an emergency. To facilitate response in large-scale emergency situations, Community Response Grids (CRGs) integrate Internet and mobile technologies to enable residents to report information, professional emergency responders to disseminate instructions, and residents to assist one another. CRGs use technology to help residents and professional emergency responders to work together in community response to emergencies, including bioterrorism events. In a time of increased danger from bioterrorist threats, the application of advanced information and communication technologies to community response is vital in confronting such threats. This article describes CRGs, their underlying concepts, development efforts, their relevance to biosecurity and bioterrorism, and future research issues in the use of technology to facilitate community response.

  2. The Bioethicist Who Cried "Synthetic Biology": An Analysis of the Function of Bioterrorism Predictions in Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Søren

    2017-04-01

    This article analyzes a specter that has haunted bioethics almost since its inception, namely the specter of the misuse of biotechnology by maleficent agents bent on mass destruction, or the complete eradication of human kind and life as we know it. The article provides a general account of why bioethicists cry "catastrophic bioterrorism potential" when new biotechnologies emerge, and an analysis of the arguments that flow from the prediction, especially in relation to synthetic biology.

  3. Space and power efficient hybrid counters array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G.; Salapura, Valentina

    2009-05-12

    A hybrid counter array device for counting events. The hybrid counter array includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each counter device for receiving signals representing occurrences of events from an event source and providing a first count value corresponding to a lower order bits of the hybrid counter array. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits of the hybrid counter array. A control device monitors each of the N counter devices of the first counter portion and initiates updating a value of a corresponding second count value stored at the corresponding addressable memory location in the second counter portion. Thus, a combination of the first and second count values provide an instantaneous measure of number of events received.

  4. Dental professionals' knowledge and perceived need for education in bioterrorism preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoopathi, Vinodh; Mashabi, Samar Omar; Scott, Thayer E; Mascarenhas, Ana Karina

    2010-12-01

    Dental professionals should be well prepared to provide care during bioterrorist events. In this study, we assessed the knowledge, opinions about playing various roles during a bioterrorist event, and perceived need for education of dental professionals (dentists and dental hygienists) from one region (Oregon) that had been exposed to bioterrorism and from another region (New England) not exposed. This cross-sectional study used an eighteen-item pretested, self-administered questionnaire distributed at the 2005 Oregon Dental Conference (n=156) and 2005 Yankee Dental Conference (n=297). Dental professionals' knowledge and perceived need for education on bioterrorist preparedness were quantified by multivariate linear and logistic modeling. More than 90 percent of the dental professionals were willing to provide care during bioterrorist events. Perceived knowledge was high; however, actual knowledge was low. Dental professionals who wanted to attend a continuing education course and who thought dental professionals should play more roles during a bioterrorist attack had higher actual knowledge. Willingness to provide care was not supported by adequate knowledge. No significant differences between New England and Oregon dental professionals were observed in terms of actual knowledge or perceived need for bioterrorism education. Integrating training and education into the predoctoral dental and dental hygiene curricula and developing continuing education courses would improve knowledge and better prepare dental professionals to effectively perform American Dental Association-recommended roles during any future bioterrorism events.

  5. The microstrip proportional counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, B. D.

    1992-01-01

    Microstrip detectors in which the usual discrete anode and cathode wires are replaced by conducting strips on an insulating or partially insulating substrate are fabricated using integrated circuit-type photolithographic techniques and hence offer very high spatial accuracy and uniformity, together with the capability of producing extremely fine electrode structures. Microstrip proportional counters have now been variously reported having an energy resolution of better than 11 percent FWHM at 5.9 keV. They have been fabricated with anode bars down to 2 microns and on a variety of substrate materials including thin films which can be molded to different shapes. This review will examine the development of the microstrip detector with emphasis on the qualities which make this detector particularly interesting for use in astronomy.

  6. Counter-Learning under Oppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukaydin, Ilhan

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study utilized the method of narrative analysis to explore the counter-learning process of an oppressed Kurdish woman from Turkey. Critical constructivism was utilized to analyze counter-learning; Frankfurt School-based Marcusian critical theory was used to analyze the sociopolitical context and its impact on the oppressed. Key…

  7. Counter-driver shock tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamba, T.; Nguyen, T. M.; Takeya, K.; Harasaki, T.; Iwakawa, A.; Sasoh, A.

    2015-11-01

    A "counter-driver" shock tube was developed. In this device, two counter drivers are actuated with an appropriate delay time to generate the interaction between a shock wave and a flow in the opposite direction which is induced by another shock wave. The conditions for the counter drivers can be set independently. Each driver is activated by a separate electrically controlled diaphragm rupture device, in which a pneumatic piston drives a rupture needle with a temporal jitter of better than 1.1 ms. Operation demonstrations were conducted to evaluate the practical performance.

  8. Value for Money? Problems of Impact Assessment of Counter-radicalization Policies on End Target Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindekilde, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    of this is that assessments of the effectiveness of counter-radicalisation measures and policy responses are either lacking or often methodologically questionable, impairing our understanding of the impacts of counter-radicalisation interventions on targeted communities. The article investigates problems of assessing...... the impact of counter-radicalisation measures using Denmark as case study. It shows how the model of radicalisation underlying the Danish counter-radicalisation efforts translate into multilayered policy objectives and diversified policy solutions, and how the initial academic and official assessments...... of the impact of Danish counter-radicalisation policies on end target groups following is impaired and weakened by common methodological problems and challenges. The article concludes by suggesting some ways ahead for more systematic and valid assessments of the impact of counter-radicalisation policies...

  9. Over-the-Counter Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines are drugs you can buy without a prescription. Some OTC medicines relieve aches, pains ... Others help manage recurring problems, like migraines. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration decides ...

  10. Pre-PCR processing in bioterrorism preparedness: improved diagnostic capabilities for laboratory response networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Johannes; Knutsson, Rickard; Ansell, Ricky; Rådström, Peter; Rasmusson, Birgitta

    2013-09-01

    Diagnostic DNA analysis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become a valuable tool for rapid detection of biothreat agents. However, analysis is often challenging because of the limited size, quality, and purity of the biological target. Pre-PCR processing is an integrated concept in which the issues of analytical limit of detection and simplicity for automation are addressed in all steps leading up to PCR amplification--that is, sampling, sample treatment, and the chemical composition of PCR. The sampling method should maximize target uptake and minimize uptake of extraneous substances that could impair the analysis--so-called PCR inhibitors. In sample treatment, there is a trade-off between yield and purity, as extensive purification leads to DNA loss. A cornerstone of pre-PCR processing is to apply DNA polymerase-buffer systems that are tolerant to specific sample impurities, thereby lowering the need for expensive purification steps and maximizing DNA recovery. Improved awareness among Laboratory Response Networks (LRNs) regarding pre-PCR processing is important, as ineffective sample processing leads to increased cost and possibly false-negative or ambiguous results, hindering the decision-making process in a bioterrorism crisis. This article covers the nature and mechanisms of PCR-inhibitory substances relevant for agroterrorism and bioterrorism preparedness, methods for quality control of PCR reactions, and applications of pre-PCR processing to optimize and simplify the analysis of various biothreat agents. Knowledge about pre-PCR processing will improve diagnostic capabilities of LRNs involved in the response to bioterrorism incidents.

  11. Health system preparedness for bioterrorism: bringing the tabletop to the hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Kelly J; Brennan, Patrick J; Hoegg, Cindy; O'Rourke, Eileen; Dyer, Bernard D; Grace, Thomas L

    2004-02-01

    To evaluate the acceptance and usefulness of a hospital-based tabletop bioterrorism exercise. A descriptive study of responses to a smallpox scenario delivered as a tabletop exercise in three modules. A large, multi-institutional urban health system. Healthcare workers representing 16 hospital departments. Thirty-nine (78%) of 50 invited employees from 4 hospitals participated. Key responses highlighted the importance of pre-event planning in intra-departmental communication, identification of resources for the dependents of healthcare workers, clarification of the chain of command within the hospital, establishment of a link to key governmental agencies, and advanced identification of negative pressure rooms for cohorting large numbers of patients. Almost one-fourth of the participants described their hospital department as poorly prepared for a bioterrorism event of moderate size. At the conclusion of the tabletop, 79% of the participants stated that the exercise had increased their knowledge of preplanning activities. Seventy-nine percent of all participants, 94% of physicians and nurses, and 95% of participants from non-university hospitals ranked the exercise as extremely or very useful. The exercise was completed in 3 1/2 hours and its total direct cost (excluding lost time from work) was 225 dollars (U.S.). Tabletop exercises are a feasible, well-accepted modality for hospital bioterrorism preparedness training. Hospital employees, including physicians and nurses, rank this method as highly useful for guiding preplanning activities. Infection control staff and hospital epidemiologists should play a lead role in hospital preparedness activities. Further assessment of the optimal duration, type, and frequency of tabletop exercises is needed.

  12. Biological weapons and bioterrorism in the first years of the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitenberg, Milton

    2002-09-01

    This paper evaluates four recent developments in biological-weapons politics and bioterrorism. First is American opposition to finalization of a verification protocol for the Biological Weapons Convention; second, a successful attempt at mass-casualty terrorism; third, an ongoing investigation into the bioterrorist capabilities of the al Qaeda network; and, fourth, a series of fatal anthrax attacks in the United States. The first of these evaluations is informed by interviews conducted between 2000 and 2002 with policy principals in the United States and elsewhere.

  13. The consequences of Israel's counter terrorism policy

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Pia Therese

    2008-01-01

    The main focus of this thesis is to examine Israel's counter terrorism methods and their consequences and to debate the effectiveness of Israel's counter terrorism policy. By stimulating a debate on these issues it is possible to identify a more effective counter terrorism policy. In order to examine Israel's counter terrorism methods, their consequences and effectiveness, it is necessary to first explore the overall concepts of terrorism and counter terrorism. Then, because...

  14. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) about Plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Specific Hazards Bioterrorism A-Z Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) Arenaviruses Treatment & Infection Control Specimen Submission & Lab Testing Education & ... hemorrhagic fevers (filoviruses [e.g., Ebola, Marburg] and arenaviruses [e.g., Lassa, Machupo]) Yersinia pestis (plague) Fact ...

  15. [Chickenpox case estimation in acyclovir pharmacy survey and early bioterrorism detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Tamie; Ohkusa, Yasushi; Kawanohara, Hirokazu; Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Okabe, Nobuhiko

    2011-11-01

    Early potential health hazards and bioterrorism threats require early detection. Smallpox cases caused by terrorist could, for example, be treated by prescribing acyclovir to those having fever and vesicle exanthema diagnosed as chicken pox. We have constructed real-time pharmacy surveillance scenarios using information technology (IT) to monitor acyclovir prescription. We collected the number of acyclovir prescriptions from 5138 pharmacies using the Application Server Provider System (ASP) to estimate the number of cases. We then compared the number of those given acyclovir under 15 years old from pharmacy surveillance and sentinel surveillance for chickenpox under the Infection Disease Control Law. The estimated number of under 15 years old prescribed acyclovir in pharmacy surveillance resembled sentinel surveillance results and showed a similar seasonal chickenpox pattern. The correlation coefficient was 0.8575. The estimated numbers of adults, older than 15 but under 65 years old, and elderly, older than 65, prescribed acyclovir showed no clear seasonal pattern. Pharmacy surveillance for acyclovir identified the baseline and can be used to detect unusual chickenpox outbreak. Bioterrorism attack could potentially be detected using smallpox virus when acyclovir prescription for adults suddenly increases without outbreaks in children or the elderly. This acyclovir prescription monitoring such as an application is, to our knowledge, the first of its kind anywhre.

  16. Review of a new molecular virus pathotyping method in the context of bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijon, Mikael; Belák, Sándor

    2013-09-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infect various avian species including domestic poultry. Clinical manifestations vary from subclinical or mild to severe multiorgan systemic disease with a near 100% mortality rate. Severe disease is caused by highly virulent specific virus strains, termed highly pathogenic AIV and velogenic NDV. Recent controversial influenza H5 adaptation studies in ferrets have highlighted the importance of preparedness against AIV as a bioterrorism agent. Furthermore, NDV also has zoonotic potential, although symptoms in humans are mild and self-limiting for naturally occurring viruses. Thus, both of these viruses pose a direct biothreat to domestic poultry but also indirectly to humans via zoonotic transmission. For diagnosis and rapid containment of disease, it is crucial to differentiate highly pathogenic AIVs and NDVs from frequently occurring low pathogenic variants. Recently, we developed a novel strategy for pathotyping of AIV and NDV that we review here. The method should be ideal for rapid testing and surveillance in food safety, for wild bird monitoring, and for combating acts of bioterrorism.

  17. A program against bacterial bioterrorism: improved patient management and acquisition of new knowledge on infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Michael; Dargis, Rimtas; Andresen, Keld; Christensen, Jens Jørgen E

    2012-06-01

    In 2002 it was decided to establish laboratory facilities in Denmark for diagnosing agents associated with bioterrorism in order to make an immediate appropriate response to the release of such agents possible. Molecular assays for detection of specific agents and molecular and proteomic techniques for identification of bacteria were introduced as part of the program. All assays and techniques were made accessible for use in diagnosing patients, even when an intentional release was not suspected. Medical expertise on different diseases was established at the department as an integrated part of the program. The analyses included PCR assays for specific bacteria, identification of isolated bacteria by DNA sequencing, detection and identification of bacteria in clinical sample material by universal bacterial PCR and DNA sequencing, and identification of bacteria by mass spectrometry. The established analyses formed a basis on which a series of further developments was built. In addition to reducing the time for obtaining diagnoses and improving the accuracy of diagnosis of individual infected patients, the analyses provided new knowledge on the frequency and distribution of some bacterial infections, including Q fever, tularemia, trench fever, brucellosis, and melioidosis. The implementation of an antibioterrorism program in a clinical diagnostic setting improved the diagnostic possibilities for patients in Denmark and provided new epidemiologic information. It also introduced a number of diagnostic assays for bacterial infections not associated with bioterrorism that are difficult to culture or identify.

  18. Accidental and deliberate microbiological contamination in the feed and food chains — How biotraceability may improve the response to bioterrorism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knutsson, Rickard; van Rotterdam, Bart; Fach, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    A next frontier of the global food safety agenda has to consider a broad spectrum of bio-risks, such as accidental and intentional contaminations in the food and feed chain. In this article, the background for the research needs related to biotraceability and response to bioterrorism incidents ar...

  19. Integrating the Agents of Bioterrorism into the General Biology Curriculum: II. Mode of Action of the Biological Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommerville, Jeffrey C.

    2003-01-01

    Integrates bioterrorism into the science curriculum and explains actions against serious agents such as anthrax, plague, smallpox, botulinum toxin, and ricin toxin. Uses the learning cycle as the instructional tool which is student-centered and has three phases that include exploring, explaining, and extending. (Contains 24 references.) (YDS)

  20. Turbulent mixing condensation nucleus counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavliev, Rashid

    The construction and operating principles of the Turbulent Mixing Condensation Nucleus Counter (TM CNC) are described. Estimations based on the semiempirical theory of turbulent jets and the classical theory of nucleation and growth show the possibility of detecting particles as small as 2.5 nm without the interference of homogeneous nucleation. This conclusion was confirmed experimentally during the International Workshop on Intercomparison of Condensation Nuclei and Aerosol Particle Counters (Vienna, Austria). Number concentration, measured by the Turbulent Mixing CNC and other participating instruments, is found to be essentially equal.

  1. Countering 21st Century Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharling Pedersen, Peter; Pillai, Chad M.; Hun, Lee Jae

    2015-01-01

    ), Counter-Terrorism (CT), and Security and Stability Operations (SSO). • Establishing a construct that allows a strategic Whole-of-Government capacity for operations coordinated by joint interagency task forces. • Continue to developing the Global SOF network. • Increased intelligence sharing in areas...... to be addressed in order to successfully conduct IW. As result of researching the issues associated with developing a JIIM approach to IW, the paper makes the following recommendations: • Establishing universally accepted concepts and doctrines for IW, UW, Foreign Internal Defense (FID), Counter Insurgency (COIN...

  2. Counter-Rotating Accretion Discs

    CERN Document Server

    Dyda, Sergei; Ustyugova, Galina V; Romanova, Marina M; Koldoba, Alexander V

    2014-01-01

    Counter-rotating discs can arise from the accretion of a counter-rotating gas cloud onto the surface of an existing co-rotating disc or from the counter-rotating gas moving radially inward to the outer edge of an existing disc. At the interface, the two components mix to produce gas or plasma with zero net angular momentum which tends to free-fall towards the disc center. We discuss high-resolution axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of a viscous counter-rotating disc for cases where the two components are vertically separated and radially separated. The viscosity is described by an isotropic $\\alpha-$viscosity including all terms in the viscous stress tensor. For the vertically separated components a shear layer forms between them. The middle of this layer free-falls to the disk center. The accretion rates are increased by factors $\\sim 10^2-10^4$ over that of a conventional disc rotating in one direction with the same viscosity. The vertical width of the shear layer and the accretion rate are strongly dep...

  3. The Eros of Counter Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzon, Pinhas

    2016-01-01

    Erotic Counter Education (ECE) is the educational position of the late Ilan Gur-Ze'ev. In ECE Gur-Ze'ev combines two opposing positions in the philosophy of education, one teleological and anti-utopian, the other teleological and utopian. In light of this unique combination, I ask what mediates between these two poles and suggest that the answer…

  4. Basic Research Needs for Countering Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, W.; Michalske, T.; Trewhella, J.; Makowski, L.; Swanson, B.; Colson, S.; Hazen, T.; Roberto, F.; Franz, D.; Resnick, G.; Jacobson, S.; Valdez, J.; Gourley, P.; Tadros, M.; Sigman, M.; Sailor, M.; Ramsey, M.; Smith, B.; Shea, K.; Hrbek, J.; Rodacy, P.; Tevault, D.; Edelstein, N.; Beitz, J.; Burns, C.; Choppin, G.; Clark, S.; Dietz, M.; Rogers, R.; Traina, S.; Baldwin, D.; Thurnauer, M.; Hall, G.; Newman, L.; Miller, D.; Kung, H.; Parkin, D.; Shuh, D.; Shaw, H.; Terminello, L.; Meisel, D.; Blake, D.; Buchanan, M.; Roberto, J.; Colson, S.; Carling, R.; Samara, G.; Sasaki, D.; Pianetta, P.; Faison, B.; Thomassen, D.; Fryberger, T.; Kiernan, G.; Kreisler, M.; Morgan, L.; Hicks, J.; Dehmer, J.; Kerr, L.; Smith, B.; Mays, J.; Clark, S.

    2002-03-01

    To identify connections between technology needs for countering terrorism and underlying science issues and to recommend investment strategies to increase the impact of basic research on efforts to counter terrorism.

  5. Bioterrorism and biological threats dominate federal health security research; other priorities get scant attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Shoshana R; Connor, Kathryn; Uscher-Pines, Lori; Pillemer, Francesca Matthews; Mullikin, James M; Kellermann, Arthur L

    2012-12-01

    The federal government plays a critical role in achieving national health security by providing strategic guidance and funding research to help prevent, respond to, mitigate, and recover from disasters, epidemics, and acts of terrorism. In this article we describe the first-ever inventory of nonclassified national health security-related research funded by civilian agencies of the federal government. Our analysis revealed that the US government's portfolio of health security research is currently weighted toward bioterrorism and emerging biological threats, laboratory methods, and development of biological countermeasures. Eight of ten other priorities identified in the Department of Health and Human Services' National Health Security Strategy-such as developing and maintaining a national health security workforce or incorporating recovery into planning and response-receive scant attention. We offer recommendations to better align federal spending with health security research priorities, including the creation of an interagency working group charged with minimizing research redundancy and filling persistent gaps in knowledge.

  6. From bioterrorism exercise to real-life public health crisis: lessons for emergency hotline operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uscher-Pines, Lori; Bookbinder, Sylvia H; Miro, Suzanne; Burke, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Although public health agencies routinely operate hotlines to communicate key messages to the public, they are rarely evaluated to improve hotline management. Since its creation in 2003, the New Jersey Department of Health & Senior Services' Emergency Communications Center has confronted two large-scale incidents that have tested its capabilities in this area. The influenza vaccine shortage of 2004 and the April 2005 TOPOFF 3 full-scale bioterrorism exercise provided both real-life and simulated crisis situations from which to derive general insights into the strengths and weaknesses of hotline administration. This article identifies problems in the areas of staff and message management by analyzing call volume data and the qualitative observations of group feedback sessions and semistructured interviews with hotline staff. It also makes recommendations based on lessons learned to improve future hotline operations in public health emergencies.

  7. Counter-discourse in Zimbabwean literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangena, Tendai

    2015-01-01

    Counter-Discourse in Zimbabwean Literature is a study of specific aspects of counter-discursive Zimbabwean narratives in English. In discussing the selected texts, my thesis is based on Terdiman’s (1989) the postcolonial concept of counter-discourse. In Zimbabwean literature challenges to a dominant

  8. Lossy Counter Machines Decidability Cheat Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnoebelen, Philippe

    Lossy counter machines (LCM's) are a variant of Minsky counter machines based on weak (or unreliable) counters in the sense that they can decrease nondeterministically and without notification. This model, introduced by R. Mayr [TCS 297:337-354 (2003)], is not yet very well known, even though it has already proven useful for establishing hardness results.

  9. Science Experimenter: Experimenting with a Geiger Counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mims, Forrest M., III

    1992-01-01

    Describes the use of geiger counters for scientific investigations and experiments. Presents information about background radiation, its sources and detection. Describes how geiger counters work and other methods of radiation detection. Provides purchasing information for geiger counters, related computer software and equipment. (MCO)

  10. Counter-discourse in Zimbabwean literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangena, Tendai

    2015-01-01

    Counter-Discourse in Zimbabwean Literature is a study of specific aspects of counter-discursive Zimbabwean narratives in English. In discussing the selected texts, my thesis is based on Terdiman’s (1989) the postcolonial concept of counter-discourse. In Zimbabwean literature challenges to a dominant

  11. Counter-Rotation in Disk Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Corsini, E M

    2014-01-01

    Counter-rotating galaxies host two components rotating in opposite directions with respect to each other. The kinematic and morphological properties of lenticulars and spirals hosting counter-rotating components are reviewed. Statistics of the counter-rotating galaxies and analysis of their stellar populations provide constraints on the formation scenarios which include both environmental and internal processes.

  12. Responding to bioterror concerns by increasing milk pasteurization temperature would increase estimated annual deaths from listeriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiewicz, Matthew J; Martin, Nicole; Laue, Shelley; Gröhn, Yrjo T; Boor, Kathryn J; Wiedmann, Martin

    2014-05-01

    In a 2005 analysis of a potential bioterror attack on the food supply involving a botulinum toxin release into the milk supply, the authors recommended adopting a toxin inactivation step during milk processing. In response, some dairy processors increased the times and temperatures of pasteurization well above the legal minimum for high temperature, short time pasteurization (72 °C for 15 s), with unknown implications for public health. The present study was conducted to determine whether an increase in high temperature, short time pasteurization temperature would affect the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, a potentially lethal foodborne pathogen normally eliminated with proper pasteurization but of concern when milk is contaminated postpasteurization. L. monocytogenes growth during refrigerated storage was higher in milk pasteurized at 82 °C than in milk pasteurized at 72 °C. Specifically, the time lag before exponential growth was decreased and the maximum population density was increased. The public health impact of this change in pasteurization was evaluated using a quantitative microbial risk assessment of deaths from listeriosis attributable to consumption of pasteurized fluid milk that was contaminated postprocessing. Conservative estimates of the effect of pasteurizing all fluid milk at 82 °C rather than 72 °C are that annual listeriosis deaths from consumption of this milk would increase from 18 to 670, a 38-fold increase (8.7- to 96-fold increase, 5th and 95th percentiles). These results exemplify a situation in which response to a rare bioterror threat may have the unintended consequence of putting the public at increased risk of a known, yet severe harm and illustrate the need for a paradigm shift toward multioutcome risk benefit analyses when proposing changes to established food safety practices.

  13. Summary and results of the joint WMD-DAC/Alameda County bioterrorism response plan exercise.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manley, Dawn Kataoka; Lipkin, Joel; West, Todd H.; Tam, Ricky; Hirano, Howard H.; Ammerlahn, Heidi R.

    2003-11-01

    On June 12,2003, the Alameda County Public Health Department and Sandia National Laboratories/CA jointly conducted an exercise that used a Weapons of Mass Destruction-Decision Analysis Center (WMD-DAC) bioterrorism attack simulation to test the effectiveness of the county's emergency response plan. The exercise was driven by an assumed release (in the vicinity of the Berkeley Marina), and subsequent spread, of a small quantity of aerosolized, weapons-grade anthrax spores. The simulation used several key WMD-DAC capabilities, namely: (1) integration with an atmospheric dispersion model to calculate expected dose levels in the affected areas, (2) a individual-tracking capability for both infected and non-infected persons as they made decisions, sought treatment, and received prophylaxis drugs, and (3) a user interface that allows exercise participants to affect the scenario evolution and outcome. The analysis of the county's response plan included documenting and reviewing the decisions made by participants during the exercise. Twenty-six local and regional officials representing the health care system, emergency medical services and law enforcement were involved in responding to the simulated attack. The results of this joint effort include lessons learned both by the Alameda County officials regarding implementation of their bioterrorism response plan and by the Sandia representatives about conducting exercises of this type. These observations are reviewed in this report, and they form a basis for providing a better understanding of group/individual decision processes and for identifying effective communication options among decision makers.

  14. 生物恐怖袭击的救援策略%Rescue strategy against bioterrorism attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常留栓; 李蓉; 张婷婷; 赵艳梅

    2015-01-01

    随着国际恐怖主义势力的抬头和生物科学技术的快速发展,生物恐怖袭击因其低廉的成本、巨大的破坏力、特殊的战斗性能等多种独特的优点逐渐成为恐怖分子实施恐吓或袭击的重要手段。当前,我国所面临的生物恐怖威胁非常不容乐观,防范和处置生物恐怖袭击事件仍是我国反恐工作中不可忽视的内容。防范和应对生物恐怖袭击,需整合卫生行政部门、疾病预防控制中心(CDC)、部队、医院、消防、交通等多个部门的力量,组建应急救援工作队。一旦发生疑似生物恐怖事件,应根据事件性质立即设立临时现场指挥部,并调配应急救援工作队,负责生物恐怖事件的现场处置。加强生物安全与反生物恐怖的基础和应用研究,针对未来可能遇到的生物恐怖袭击,强化统筹谋划,建立一支拉得出、打得赢的应急反应队伍,提高生物恐怖袭击突发事件处置能力,有效保护公众的生命和财产安全,仍是我国面临的重大问题。%Bioterrorism attack has been gradually becoming an important threat in the world and in China asa well. To prevent and dispose bioterrorist attack, an emergency rescue team that integrates multiple departments including administrative department of public health, Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), army, hospital, fire department, traffic department, etc. should be established now. Once suspected bioterrorist incidents occurr a temporary headquarter at the scene should be set up and emergency rescue teams should be mobilized immediately. It is necessary to strengthen biosafety and conduct basic and applied counter-bioterrorist research , develop an overall project, establish an emergency response team so as to protect the life and property of the public effectively.

  15. Counter support for WA35

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    This assembly was equipped with 78 counters, each consisting of a lucite cone, to produce Cerenkov light, and a CsI scintillator plate of 3 mm thickness glued on the face of the cone. The experiment WA35 was set-up in the s1 beam (West Hall) by the Darmstadt-Heidelberg-Virginia-Warsaw Collaboration to measure angular distributions and multiplicities of pions and recoil protons produced by hadrons interacting in nuclei. (See Annual Report 1976 p. 39)

  16. Science role in countering terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Geoscience expertise figures as a component of a new report on harnessing the U.S. science and technology community in the fight against terrorism.The National Research Council report, "Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism," proposes research agendas in a number of areas perceived to be vulnerable to terrorism. These areas include nuclear and radiological threats, toxic chemicals and explosive materials, information technology, energy systems, and cities and fixed infrastructure.

  17. HOW THE WAR WAS ‘ONE’: COUNTERING VIOLENT EXTREMISM AND THE SOCIAL DIMENSIONS OF COUNTER-TERRORISM IN CANADA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tami Amanda Jacoby

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current global “war on terror” highlights a fundamental quandary for all liberal democracies seeking to counter the violent extremism of their own citizens while maintaining civic rights and freedoms. This challenge accompanies a transformation in international conflict from inter-state war and superpower rivalry, to homegrown terrorism, radicalization-to-violence, Internet propaganda, and targeting and recruitment of vulnerable persons. These new threats shift the battlefield, as traditionally defined, to the home front, as extremist violence is nurtured by and perpetrated within public spaces, such as schools, places of religious worship, civil society and the home. Today, violence emanates from within liberal democratic society and its extremist motivations bypass the very institutions that would otherwise support civic rights, freedoms and multiculturalism. As such, attempts to counter extremist violence must appeal to the political, social, cultural, religious and familial aspects of human behavior alongside a parallel shift in efforts to keep citizens safe within their own social spaces. In recent years, Canada has been introduced to home grown and lone individual terrorism with the cases of attack against armed forces personnel in Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu and Ottawa in 2014. This article identifies the social dimensions of counter-terrorism in the Canadian context, a propitious case by which to evaluate different approaches to countering violent extremism. Canadian initiatives - simultaneously proliferating and in their infancy – raise a host of questions about counter-terrorism in liberal democratic countries. For example, why do individuals radicalize-to-violence in rights-based and multicultural societies? How and when can the liberal democratic state best temper the radicalization process in ways that are effective and procedurally just? What state-society balance works best to counter radicalized viewpoints? Who are the

  18. An integrated and dynamic optimisation model for the multi-level emergency logistics network in anti-bioterrorism system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Zhao, Lindu

    2012-08-01

    Demand for emergency resources is usually uncertain and varies quickly in anti-bioterrorism system. Besides, emergency resources which had been allocated to the epidemic areas in the early rescue cycle will affect the demand later. In this article, an integrated and dynamic optimisation model with time-varying demand based on the epidemic diffusion rule is constructed. The heuristic algorithm coupled with the MATLAB mathematical programming solver is adopted to solve the optimisation model. In what follows, the application of the optimisation model as well as a short sensitivity analysis of the key parameters in the time-varying demand forecast model is presented. The results show that both the model and the solution algorithm are useful in practice, and both objectives of inventory level and emergency rescue cost can be controlled effectively. Thus, it can provide some guidelines for decision makers when coping with emergency rescue problem with uncertain demand, and offers an excellent reference when issues pertain to bioterrorism.

  19. A Bivalent Anthrax–Plague Vaccine That Can Protect against Two Tier-1 Bioterror Pathogens, Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis

    OpenAIRE

    Pan Tao; Marthandan Mahalingam; Jingen Zhu; Mahtab Moayeri; Kirtley, Michelle L.; Fitts, Eric C.; Andersson, Jourdan A.; Lawrence, William S.; Leppla, Stephen H.; Chopra, Ashok K.; Rao, Venigalla B.

    2017-01-01

    Bioterrorism remains as one of the biggest challenges to global security and public health. Since the deadly anthrax attacks of 2001 in the United States, Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis, the causative agents of anthrax and plague, respectively, gained notoriety and were listed by the CDC as Tier-1 biothreat agents. Currently, there is no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccine against either of these threats for mass vaccination to protect general public, let alone a bivalent va...

  20. Revisiting Routine Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Rebecca; Monaghan, John; Shingadia, Eisha; Vaughan, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    What is a routine question? The focus of this paper is routine questions and time (in years) since a hitherto routine question was last attempted by the solver. The data comes from undergraduate students' work on solving two calculus questions. The data was selected for reporting purposes because it is well documented and because it threw up…

  1. Question analysis for Indonesian comparative question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saelan, A.; Purwarianti, A.; Widyantoro, D. H.

    2017-01-01

    Information seeking is one of human needs today. Comparing things using search engine surely take more times than search only one thing. In this paper, we analyzed comparative questions for comparative question answering system. Comparative question is a question that comparing two or more entities. We grouped comparative questions into 5 types: selection between mentioned entities, selection between unmentioned entities, selection between any entity, comparison, and yes or no question. Then we extracted 4 types of information from comparative questions: entity, aspect, comparison, and constraint. We built classifiers for classification task and information extraction task. Features used for classification task are bag of words, whether for information extraction, we used lexical, 2 previous and following words lexical, and previous label as features. We tried 2 scenarios: classification first and extraction first. For classification first, we used classification result as a feature for extraction. Otherwise, for extraction first, we used extraction result as features for classification. We found that the result would be better if we do extraction first before classification. For the extraction task, classification using SMO gave the best result (88.78%), while for classification, it is better to use naïve bayes (82.35%).

  2. Enfrentando el bioterrorismo: aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos y preventivos de la viruela Confronting bioterrorism: epidemiologic, clinical, and preventive aspects of smallpox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Franco-Paredes

    2003-08-01

    Organization has dramatically switched to the preservation of the remaining virus after the September 2001 terrorist events in the U.S. along with the intentional release of Bacillus anthracis in the U.S. The risk of intentional release of Variola virus constitutes a minimal, yet possible risk. A smallpox epidemic could have a devastating impact due to its elevated morbidity and mortality that would inflict in non-immune human population, in addition to the ensuing panic and social unrest. Therefore, the development of national preparedness and response plans along with the availability of smallpox vaccine to be used in the post-exposure phase represent a fundamental part of the preventive efforts to cope with bioterrorism. Reestablishing a preventive vaccination program was recently recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP. However, the vaccine currently available has historically been associated with serious adverse reactions, even death. Thus, this recommendation has not been universally accepted. To counter an epidemic of smallpox, medical personnel in the frontline need to be prepared with updated smallpox infor mation to identify, diagnose, isolate, and treat cases if a bioterrorist attack should occur. Herein we present an in-depth review for health care personnel with relevant epidemiologic, clinical, and preventive information on smallpox.

  3. Social media and its dual use in biopreparedness: communication and visualization tools in an animal bioterrorism incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöberg, Elisabeth; Barker, Gary C; Landgren, Jonas; Griberg, Isaac; Skiby, Jeffrey E; Tubbin, Anna; von Stapelmohr, Anne; Härenstam, Malin; Jansson, Mikael; Knutsson, Rickard

    2013-09-01

    This article focuses on social media and interactive challenges for emergency organizations during a bioterrorism or agroterrorism incident, and it outlines the dual-use dilemma of social media. Attackers or terrorists can use social media as their modus operandi, and defenders, including emergency organizations in law enforcement and public and animal health, can use it for peaceful purposes. To get a better understanding of the uses of social media in these situations, a workshop was arranged in Stockholm, Sweden, to raise awareness about social media and animal bioterrorism threats. Fifty-six experts and crisis communicators from international and national organizations participated. As a result of the workshop, it was concluded that emergency organizations can collect valuable information and monitor social media before, during, and after an outbreak. In order to make use of interactive communication to obtain collective intelligence from the public, emergency organizations must adapt to social networking technologies, requiring multidisciplinary knowledge in the fields of information, communication, IT, and biopreparedness. Social network messaging during a disease outbreak can be visualized in stream graphs and networks showing clusters of Twitter and Facebook users. The visualization of social media can be an important preparedness tool in the response to bioterrorism and agroterrorism.

  4. Patients' request for and emergency physicians' prescription of antimicrobial prophylaxis for anthrax during the 2001 bioterrorism-related outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aber Robert C

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inappropriate use of antibiotics by individuals worried about biological agent exposures during bioterrorism events is an important public health concern. However, little is documented about the extent to which individuals with self-identified risk of anthrax exposure approached physicians for antimicrobial prophylaxis during the 2001 bioterrorism attacks in the United States. Methods We conducted a telephone survey of randomly selected members of the Pennsylvania Chapter of the American College of Emergency Physicians to assess patients' request for and emergency physicians' prescription of antimicrobial agents during the 2001 anthrax attacks. Results Ninety-seven physicians completed the survey. Sixty-four (66% respondents had received requests from patients for anthrax prophylaxis; 16 (25% of these physicians prescribed antibiotics to a total of 23 patients. Ten physicians prescribed ciprofloxacin while 8 physicians prescribed doxycycline. Conclusion During the 2001 bioterrorist attacks, the majority of the emergency physicians we surveyed encountered patients who requested anthrax prophylaxis. Public fears may lead to a high demand for antibiotic prophylaxis during bioterrorism events. Elucidation of the relationship between public health response to outbreaks and outcomes would yield insights to ease burden on frontline clinicians and guide strategies to control inappropriate antibiotic allocation during bioterrorist events.

  5. Agriculture bioterrorism:risk and management%农业生物恐怖的风险及其防范

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱联辉; 田德桥; 郑涛

    2014-01-01

    In recent years , a series of agriculture biosecurity accidents have occurred ,such as mad cow disease , foot-and-mouth disease and avian influenza , which has aroused worldwide , concern over agriculture bioterrorist attacks .This paper comprehensively analyzes the history and impact of agriculture bioterrorism , the current status of international agricul-ture bioterrorism research , and important issues to be taken into account in future efforts to deal with agriculture bioterrorism .%近年来,疯牛病、口蹄疫和禽流感等重大农业安全事件不断发生,引起了国际社会的强烈关注,也更加引发了人们对农业生物恐怖袭击的担忧,如何应对农业生物恐怖威胁已成为国际社会无法回避的安全问题之一。该文通过综合分析农业生物恐怖的“历史”、实施后的危害效果以及国际上对农业生物恐怖的研究现状,提出加强农业生物恐怖防范的对策建议。

  6. Optimal swab processing recovery method for detection of bioterrorism-related Francisella tularensis by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Roblena E; Petersen, Jeannine M; Stephens, Kenyatta W; Dauphin, Leslie A

    2010-10-01

    Francisella tularensis, the etiological agent of tularemia, is regarded as a potential bioterrorism agent. The advent of bioterrorism has heightened awareness of the need for validated methods for processing environmental samples. In this study we determined the optimal method for processing environmental swabs for the recovery and subsequent detection of F. tularensis by the use of real-time PCR assays. Four swab processing recovery methods were compared: heat, sonication, vortexing, and the Swab Extraction Tube System (SETS). These methods were evaluated using cotton, foam, polyester and rayon swabs spiked with six pathogenic strains of F. tularensis. Real-time PCR analysis using a multi-target 5'nuclease assay for F. tularensis showed that the use of the SETS method resulted in the best limit of detection when evaluated using multiple strains of F. tularensis. We demonstrated also that the efficiency of F. tularensis recovery from swab specimens was not equivalent for all swab processing methodologies and, thus, that this variable can affect real-time PCR assay sensitivity. The effectiveness of the SETS method was independent of the automated DNA extraction method and real-time PCR platforms used. In conclusion, diagnostic laboratories can now potentially incorporate the SETS method into specimen processing protocols for the rapid and efficient detection of F. tularensis by real-time PCR during laboratory bioterrorism-related investigations.

  7. Guidelines to implement medical examiner/coroner-based surveillance for fatal infectious diseases and bioterrorism ("Med-X").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Kurt B; Fischer, Marc; Reagan, Sarah; Lynfield, Ruth

    2010-12-01

    Medical examiners and coroners investigate deaths that are sudden, unexplained, and violent. Oftentimes these deaths are a consequence of infections, many of which have public health consequences. Additionally, because deaths from bioterrorism are homicides, they fall under the jurisdiction of medical examiners and coroners. Surveillance for infectious disease-related deaths can enhance the opportunities to recognize these deaths. Beginning in 2000, the New Mexico Office of the Medical Investigator developed and tested a medical examiner surveillance model for bioterrorism and infectious disease mortality ("Med-X") using a set of symptoms to determine which cases should receive an autopsy and a set of pathology-based syndromes for early reporting of cases to public health authorities. This model demonstrated that many of the symptoms had a high predictive value for infections and were useful criteria for autopsy performance. The causative organism was identified for 81% of infections of which 58% were notifiable conditions by public health standards. Uniform criteria for performing autopsies and reporting cases to public health authorities enhance surveillance for notifiable infectious diseases and increase the probability of recognizing fatalities related to bioterrorism. We have developed guidelines for medical examiners, coroners and their public health partners to use in implementing Med-X surveillance in their jurisdictions. These guidelines encompass definitions of symptoms and syndromes, specimen collection and storage procedures, laboratory diagnostic approaches, and processes for case flow, case reporting, and data collection. We also suggest resources for autopsy biosafety information and funding.

  8. Accidental and deliberate microbiological contamination in the feed and food chains--how biotraceability may improve the response to bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsson, Rickard; van Rotterdam, Bart; Fach, Patrick; De Medici, Dario; Fricker, Martina; Löfström, Charlotta; Agren, Joakim; Segerman, Bo; Andersson, Gunnar; Wielinga, Peter; Fenicia, Lucia; Skiby, Jeffrey; Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2011-03-01

    A next frontier of the global food safety agenda has to consider a broad spectrum of bio-risks, such as accidental and intentional contaminations in the food and feed chain. In this article, the background for the research needs related to biotraceability and response to bioterrorism incidents are outlined. Given the current scale of international trade any response need to be considered in an international context. Biotraceability (e.g. the ability to use downstream information to point to processes or within a particular food chain that can be identified as the source of undesirable agents) is crucial in any food-born outbreak and particular in the response to bioterrorism events. In the later case, tested and proven biotraceability improves the following: (i) international collaboration of validated tracing tools and detection methods, (ii) multi-disciplinary expertise and collaboration in the field of food microbiology and conceptual modeling of the food chain, (iii) sampling as a key step in biotracing (iv) optimized sample preparation procedures, including laboratory work in Biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) laboratories, (v) biomarker discovery for relevant tracing and tracking applications, and (vi) high-throughput sequencing using bio-informatic platforms to speed up the characterization of the biological agent. By applying biotraceability, the response phase during a bioterrorism event may be shortened and is facilitated for tracing the origin of biological agent contamination.

  9. Prior notice of imported food under the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-07

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final regulation that requires the submission to FDA of prior notice of food, including animal feed, that is imported or offered for import into the United States. The final rule implements the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 (the Bioterrorism Act), which required prior notification of imported food to begin on December 12, 2003. The final rule requires that the prior notice be submitted to FDA electronically via either the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP or Customs) Automated Broker Interface (ABI) of the Automated Commercial System (ACS) or the FDA Prior Notice System Interface (FDA PNSI). The information must be submitted and confirmed electronically as facially complete by FDA for review no less than 8 hours (for food arriving by water), 4 hours (for food arriving by air or land/rail), and 2 hours (for food arriving by land/road) before the food arrives at the port of arrival. Food imported or offered for import without adequate prior notice is subject to refusal and, if refused, must be held. Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, FDA is announcing the availability of a draft compliance policy guide (CPG) entitled "Sec. 110.310 Prior Notice of Imported Food Under the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002."

  10. Managing bioterrorism mass casualties in an emergency department: lessons learned from a rural community hospital disaster drill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Bioterrorism represents a threat for which most emergency departments (EDs) are ill prepared. In order to develop an evidence-based plan for ED and hospital management of contaminated patients, a review was conducted of the most effective strategies developed during the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic, as well as Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and military guidelines on biowarfare. Six basic steps were identified: 1) lock down the hospital and control access to the ED; 2) protect emergency care personnel with appropriate personal protective equipment; 3) decontaminate and triage patients; 4) isolate patients; 5) treat patients with appropriate medications or measures, including decontamination of wounds; and 6) use restrictive admission and transfer guidelines. By emphasizing these six basic concepts, a rural ED passed an annual state-run bioterrorism mass-casualty drill. The drill provided health care personnel with the knowledge and skills necessary to prepare for future bioterrorism casualties. These same concepts could also be used to manage highly virulent viral or bacterial outbreaks.

  11. A Bivalent Anthrax–Plague Vaccine That Can Protect against Two Tier-1 Bioterror Pathogens, Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Pan; Mahalingam, Marthandan; Zhu, Jingen; Moayeri, Mahtab; Kirtley, Michelle L.; Fitts, Eric C.; Andersson, Jourdan A.; Lawrence, William S.; Leppla, Stephen H.; Chopra, Ashok K.; Rao, Venigalla B.

    2017-01-01

    Bioterrorism remains as one of the biggest challenges to global security and public health. Since the deadly anthrax attacks of 2001 in the United States, Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis, the causative agents of anthrax and plague, respectively, gained notoriety and were listed by the CDC as Tier-1 biothreat agents. Currently, there is no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccine against either of these threats for mass vaccination to protect general public, let alone a bivalent vaccine. Here, we report the development of a single recombinant vaccine, a triple antigen consisting of all three target antigens, F1 and V from Y. pestis and PA from B. anthracis, in a structurally stable context. Properly folded and soluble, the triple antigen retained the functional and immunogenicity properties of all three antigens. Remarkably, two doses of this immunogen adjuvanted with Alhydrogel® elicited robust antibody responses in mice, rats, and rabbits and conferred complete protection against inhalational anthrax and pneumonic plague. No significant antigenic interference was observed. Furthermore, we report, for the first time, complete protection of animals against simultaneous challenge with Y. pestis and the lethal toxin of B. anthracis, demonstrating that a single biodefense vaccine can protect against a bioterror attack with weaponized B. anthracis and/or Y. pestis. This bivalent anthrax–plague vaccine is, therefore, a strong candidate for stockpiling, after demonstration of its safety and immunogenicity in human clinical trials, as part of national preparedness against two of the deadliest bioterror threats. PMID:28694806

  12. A Bivalent Anthrax–Plague Vaccine That Can Protect against Two Tier-1 Bioterror Pathogens, Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Tao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioterrorism remains as one of the biggest challenges to global security and public health. Since the deadly anthrax attacks of 2001 in the United States, Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis, the causative agents of anthrax and plague, respectively, gained notoriety and were listed by the CDC as Tier-1 biothreat agents. Currently, there is no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccine against either of these threats for mass vaccination to protect general public, let alone a bivalent vaccine. Here, we report the development of a single recombinant vaccine, a triple antigen consisting of all three target antigens, F1 and V from Y. pestis and PA from B. anthracis, in a structurally stable context. Properly folded and soluble, the triple antigen retained the functional and immunogenicity properties of all three antigens. Remarkably, two doses of this immunogen adjuvanted with Alhydrogel® elicited robust antibody responses in mice, rats, and rabbits and conferred complete protection against inhalational anthrax and pneumonic plague. No significant antigenic interference was observed. Furthermore, we report, for the first time, complete protection of animals against simultaneous challenge with Y. pestis and the lethal toxin of B. anthracis, demonstrating that a single biodefense vaccine can protect against a bioterror attack with weaponized B. anthracis and/or Y. pestis. This bivalent anthrax–plague vaccine is, therefore, a strong candidate for stockpiling, after demonstration of its safety and immunogenicity in human clinical trials, as part of national preparedness against two of the deadliest bioterror threats.

  13. A Bivalent Anthrax-Plague Vaccine That Can Protect against Two Tier-1 Bioterror Pathogens, Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Pan; Mahalingam, Marthandan; Zhu, Jingen; Moayeri, Mahtab; Kirtley, Michelle L; Fitts, Eric C; Andersson, Jourdan A; Lawrence, William S; Leppla, Stephen H; Chopra, Ashok K; Rao, Venigalla B

    2017-01-01

    Bioterrorism remains as one of the biggest challenges to global security and public health. Since the deadly anthrax attacks of 2001 in the United States, Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis, the causative agents of anthrax and plague, respectively, gained notoriety and were listed by the CDC as Tier-1 biothreat agents. Currently, there is no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccine against either of these threats for mass vaccination to protect general public, let alone a bivalent vaccine. Here, we report the development of a single recombinant vaccine, a triple antigen consisting of all three target antigens, F1 and V from Y. pestis and PA from B. anthracis, in a structurally stable context. Properly folded and soluble, the triple antigen retained the functional and immunogenicity properties of all three antigens. Remarkably, two doses of this immunogen adjuvanted with Alhydrogel(®) elicited robust antibody responses in mice, rats, and rabbits and conferred complete protection against inhalational anthrax and pneumonic plague. No significant antigenic interference was observed. Furthermore, we report, for the first time, complete protection of animals against simultaneous challenge with Y. pestis and the lethal toxin of B. anthracis, demonstrating that a single biodefense vaccine can protect against a bioterror attack with weaponized B. anthracis and/or Y. pestis. This bivalent anthrax-plague vaccine is, therefore, a strong candidate for stockpiling, after demonstration of its safety and immunogenicity in human clinical trials, as part of national preparedness against two of the deadliest bioterror threats.

  14. Social Appropriateness in EU Counter-Terrorism Law and Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bruno Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    institutions such as the European Parliament or the Court of Justice of the EU. In this chapter it is argued that the constitutional foundations of the EU play a decisive role in granting legitimacy to EU counter-terrorism law and policy and to ensuring its social acceptability. Combining sociological...... institutionalist theory with insights from the New Haven school, namely its societal and process-oriented conceptions of law, it crosses legal and political science traditions to explore the ways in which EU counter-terrorism law and policy acquire and maintain social appropriateness....... versus justice equation, on the issues of privacy and data protection, and on the broader respect for fundamental rights more generally. In this process, the legitimacy and the social appropriateness of some of these measures have been questioned, both at the societal level and before or by European...

  15. The question of questions in Malaysian English

    OpenAIRE

    Asniah Alias; Radina Mohamad Deli

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined the forms that interrogatives and tag questions can take when used by young Malaysian speakers of English language in oral communication. It offers a description of the features for both question forms as produced by the respondents compared to those of Singapore English (SE) and Standard British English (SBE). The influence of domains and the issue of mother tongue interference in relation to the subjects’ usage of such features will also be investigated. Data were obtain...

  16. The transparent microstrip gas counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Hiroyuki, E-mail: leo@q.t.u-tokyo.ac.j [University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Fujita, Kaoru; Fujiwara, Takeshi [University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Niko, Hisako; Guerard, Bruno [Institute of Max von Laue and Paul Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Fraga, Francisco [Departamento de Fisica, LIP-Coimbra, Universidade de Coimbra, 3000 Coimbra (Portugal); Iyomoto, Naoko [University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    Conventional MSGCs are made of metal electrodes that might absorb or reflect optical photons. If the electrodes are made of transparent material like ITO, we could take advantage of optical readout. A gas scintillation proportional counter made of ITO MSGC is fabricated and tested where both optical and charge signals are obtained. We have selected a multi-grid structure that can avoid charge-up problem with normal transparent glass substrate. Test results with Ar and CF{sub 4} gas mixture showed a stable gas gain of {approx}2800 and {approx}110 optical photons for 6 keV X-rays. Position sensing with PSPMT has successfully been demonstrated.

  17. COUNTER-TERRORISM IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Sebastian Meliala

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the incident of World Trade Center (WTC in USA, Indonesia has become an easy target for the next terrorism. Counterterrorist campaigns can be undertaken by military and paramilitary forces. Counterterrorism refers to proactive policies that specifically seek to eliminate terrorist environments and groups, Regardless of which policy is selected, the ultimate goal of counterterrorism is clear: to save lives by proactively preventing or decreasing the number of terrorist attacks. But, so far the Government of Indonesia is only able to capture the terrorists but is unable to eradicate terrorism. Therefore, the government of Indonesia still needs a comprehensive ways to counter terrorism in Indonesia

  18. Condensation Particle Counter Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The Model 3772 CPC is a compact, rugged, and full-featured instrument that detects airborne particles down to 10 nm in diameter, at an aerosol flow rate of 1.0 lpm, over a concentration range from 0 to 1x104 #/cc. This CPC is ideally suited for applications without high concentration measurements, such as basic aerosol research, filter and air-cleaner testing, particle counter calibrations, environmental monitoring, mobile aerosol studies, particle shedding and component testing, and atmospheric and climate studies.

  19. Bioterrorism in New Century and Counter Plan of Its Prevention%新世纪生物恐怖的成因及其防治对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万德年

    2003-01-01

    生物恐怖因其巨大的杀伤威力而备受国际恐怖组织的青睐,是恐怖袭击活动新的发展趋势,它将给人类社会带来灾难.本文对生物恐怖的历史和现状进行了回顾和分析,描述了生物武器的实质及其优势,指出了防反生物恐怖的对策.

  20. Management of the Extreme Events: Countering International Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Cristian Barna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available After the terrorism attacks of September 11, 2001, there is recognition by both the public and private sectors that one needs to rethink our strategy for dealing with these low probability but extreme consequence events. September 11, 2001 attacks against the United States raised numerous questions related to counter-terrorism, foreign policy, as well as national security in the United States and abroad. They also raised the fundamental question of who should pay for losses due to terrorism.The question of who should pay for terrorism risk prevention and sustainable coverage within a country is likely to be seen first as a matter of collective responsibility that each country has to consider – a societal choice

  1. Classroom Questioning Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小林

    2013-01-01

      Interaction has been playing a more and more important role in language research since the early 1970s,when the communicative teaching method was widely applied in language teaching. Questioning is the most common classroom interaction. This thesis analyzed the influence on students' immediate oral production by applying different teacher questioning strategies including teacher's question types,teacher question modification and teacher feedback.

  2. Asking Questions in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2014-01-01

    Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers.......Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers....

  3. Exam Question Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Acceptable answers are provided for two chemistry questions. The first question is related to the prediction of the appearance of non-first-order proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The second question is related to extraterrestrial kinetic theory of gases. (JN)

  4. Interfacing with questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses an artistic project entitled If I wrote you a love letter would you write back (and thousands of other questions): a piece of software that utilizes Twitter web API to query questions, drawing unpredictable questions in real-time from the distributed database of Twitter...

  5. Improving Student Question Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

  6. The germs of terror – Bioterrorism and science communication after September 11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Montani

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The attacks of September 11 2001 and in particular, the sending of letters containing anthrax spores the following October had a profound effect on society, and at the same time on science and its communicative mechanisms. Through a quanto-qualitative analysis of articles taken from four publications: two daily newspapers, the Corriere della Sera from Italy and the New York Times from the United States and two science magazines, Science and Nature, we have shown how the aforementioned events provoked the emergence of media attention regarding bioterrorism. A closer reading of the articles shows that today, science – including that found in science magazines – is closely related to politics, economics and the debate over the freedom to practice communicate. The very mechanisms of communication between scientists were changed as a result of this debate, as can be seen from the signing of the Denver Declaration in February 2003, which brought about the preventative self-censorship of publication of biomedical research findings.

  7. The germs of terror – Bioterrorism and science communication after September 11 (Italian original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Montani

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The attacks of September 11 2001 and in particular, the sending of letters containing anthrax spores the following October had a profound effect on society, and at the same time on science and its communicative mechanisms. Through a quanto-qualitative analysis of articles taken from four publications: two daily newspapers, the Corriere della Sera from Italy and the New York Times from the United States and two science magazines, Science and Nature, we have shown how the aforementioned events provoked the emergence of media attention regarding bioterrorism. A closer reading of the articles shows that today, science – including that found in science magazines – is closely related to politics, economics and the debate over the freedom to practice communicate. The very mechanisms of communication between scientists were changed as a result of this debate, as can be seen from the signing of the Denver Declaration in February 2003, which brought about the preventative self-censorship of publication of biomedical research findings.

  8. Addressing bioterrorism concerns: options for investigating the mechanism of action of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, C D; Griffiths, G D

    2013-06-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is of concern to military and civilian populations as a bioterrorism threat agent. It is a highly potent toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus and is stable in storage and under aerosolisation; it is able to produce prolonged highly incapacitating illness at very low-inhaled doses and death at elevated doses. Concerns regarding SEB are compounded by the lack of effective medical countermeasures for mass treatment of affected populations. This article considers the mechanism of action of SEB, the availability of appropriate experimental models for evaluating the efficacy of candidate medical countermeasures with particular reference to the need to realistically model SEB responses in man and the availability of candidate countermeasures (with an emphasis on commercial off-the-shelf options). The proposed in vitro approaches would be in keeping with Dstl’s commitment to reduction, refinement and replacement of animal models in biomedical research, particularly in relation to identifying valid alternatives to the use of nonhuman primates in experimental studies.

  9. Unfinished business: efforts to define dual-use research of bioterrorism concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmorzynska, Anna; Suk, Jonathan E; Biederbick, Walter; Maidhof, Heinrich; Sasse, Julia; Semenza, Jan C; Hunger, Iris

    2011-12-01

    Biotechnological research poses a special security problem because of the duality between beneficial use and misuse. In order to find a balance between regulating potentially dangerous research and assuring scientific advancement, a number of assessments have tried to define which types of research are especially open to misuse and should therefore be considered dual-use research of special concern requiring rigorous oversight. So far, there has been no common understanding of what such activities are. Here we present a review of 27 assessments focusing on biological dual-use issues published between 1997 and 2008. Dual-use research activities identified by these assessments as being of special concern were compiled and compared. Moreover, from these 27 assessments, the primary research publications explicitly identified as examples of concerning research activities were extracted and analyzed. We extracted a core list of 11 activities of special concern and show that this list does not match with the reasons why primary research publications were identified as being of special concern. Additionally, we note that the 11 activities identified are not easily conducted or replicated, and therefore the likelihood of their being used in a high-tech mass casualty bioterrorism event should be reevaluated.

  10. Game theory of pre-emptive vaccination before bioterrorism or accidental release of smallpox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Chai; Earn, David J D

    2015-06-06

    Smallpox was eradicated in the 1970s, but new outbreaks could be seeded by bioterrorism or accidental release. Substantial vaccine-induced morbidity and mortality make pre-emptive mass vaccination controversial, and if vaccination is voluntary, then there is a conflict between self- and group interests. This conflict can be framed as a tragedy of the commons, in which herd immunity plays the role of the commons, and free-riding (i.e. not vaccinating pre-emptively) is analogous to exploiting the commons. This game has been analysed previously for a particular post-outbreak vaccination scenario. We consider several post-outbreak vaccination scenarios and compare the expected increase in mortality that results from voluntary versus imposed vaccination. Below a threshold level of post-outbreak vaccination effort, expected mortality is independent of the level of response effort. A lag between an outbreak starting and a response being initiated increases the post-outbreak vaccination effort necessary to reduce mortality. For some post-outbreak vaccination scenarios, even modest response lags make it impractical to reduce mortality by increasing post-outbreak vaccination effort. In such situations, if decreasing the response lag is impossible, the only practical way to reduce mortality is to make the vaccine safer (greater post-outbreak vaccination effort leads only to fewer people vaccinating pre-emptively).

  11. Question-Asking and Question-Exploring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Lorraine; Carr, Margaret; Lee, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    The Centre of Innovation Research at Greerton Early Childhood Centre was characterised as a dispositional milieu where working theories were explored through a narrative research methodology. As the research progressed, the teachers at Greerton strengthened the way we were listening to, and watching out for young children's questions to enable…

  12. On generating counter-rotating streamwise vortices

    KAUST Repository

    Winoto, S H

    2015-09-23

    Counter-rotating streamwise vortices are known to enhance the heat transfer rate from a surface and also to improve the aerodynamic performance of an aerofoil. In this paper, some methods to generate such counter-rotating vortices using different methods or physical conditions will be briefly considered and discussed.

  13. Possible Use of Bacteriophages Active against Bacillus anthracis and Other B. cereus Group Members in the Face of a Bioterrorism Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Borysowski, Jan; Górski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Anthrax is an infectious fatal disease with epidemic potential. Nowadays, bioterrorism using Bacillus anthracis is a real possibility, and thus society needs an effective weapon to neutralize this threat. The pathogen may be easily transmitted to human populations. It is easy to store, transport, and disseminate and may survive for many decades. Recent data strongly support the effectiveness of bacteriophage in treating bacterial diseases. Moreover, it is clear that bacteriophages should be considered a potential incapacitative agent against bioterrorism using bacteria belonging to B. cereus group, especially B. anthracis. Therefore, we have reviewed the possibility of using bacteriophages active against Bacillus anthracis and other species of the B. cereus group in the face of a bioterrorism threat. PMID:25247187

  14. Possible Use of Bacteriophages Active against Bacillus anthracis and Other B. cereus Group Members in the Face of a Bioterrorism Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jończyk-Matysiak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax is an infectious fatal disease with epidemic potential. Nowadays, bioterrorism using Bacillus anthracis is a real possibility, and thus society needs an effective weapon to neutralize this threat. The pathogen may be easily transmitted to human populations. It is easy to store, transport, and disseminate and may survive for many decades. Recent data strongly support the effectiveness of bacteriophage in treating bacterial diseases. Moreover, it is clear that bacteriophages should be considered a potential incapacitative agent against bioterrorism using bacteria belonging to B. cereus group, especially B. anthracis. Therefore, we have reviewed the possibility of using bacteriophages active against Bacillus anthracis and other species of the B. cereus group in the face of a bioterrorism threat.

  15. Possible use of bacteriophages active against Bacillus anthracis and other B. cereus group members in the face of a bioterrorism threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jończyk-Matysiak, Ewa; Kłak, Marlena; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Borysowski, Jan; Górski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Anthrax is an infectious fatal disease with epidemic potential. Nowadays, bioterrorism using Bacillus anthracis is a real possibility, and thus society needs an effective weapon to neutralize this threat. The pathogen may be easily transmitted to human populations. It is easy to store, transport, and disseminate and may survive for many decades. Recent data strongly support the effectiveness of bacteriophage in treating bacterial diseases. Moreover, it is clear that bacteriophages should be considered a potential incapacitative agent against bioterrorism using bacteria belonging to B. cereus group, especially B. anthracis. Therefore, we have reviewed the possibility of using bacteriophages active against Bacillus anthracis and other species of the B. cereus group in the face of a bioterrorism threat.

  16. Counter traction makes endoscopic submucosal dissection easier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Tsuneo

    2012-11-01

    Poor counter traction and poor field of vision make endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) difficult. Good counter traction allows dissections to be performed more quickly and safely. Position change, which utilizes gravity, is the simplest method to create a clear field of vision. It is useful especially for esophageal and colon ESD. The second easiest method is clip with line method. Counter traction made by clip with line accomplishes the creation of a clear field of vision and suitable counter traction thereby making ESD more efficient and safe. The author published this method in 2002. The name ESD was not established in those days; the name cutting endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) or EMR with hook knife was used. The other traction methods such as external grasping forceps, internal traction, double channel scope, and double scopes method are introduced in this paper. A good strategy for creating counter traction makes ESD easier.

  17. Undergraduate teaching on biological weapons and bioterrorism at medical schools in the UK and the Republic of Ireland: results of a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Stephen T; Cladi, Lorenzo; Morris, Paul; Forde, Donall

    2013-06-20

    To determine if individual undergraduate schools of medicine in the UK and the Republic of Ireland provide any teaching to medical students about biological weapons, bioterrorism, chemical weapons and weaponised radiation, if they perceive them to be relevant issues and if they figure them in their future plans. A cross-sectional study utilising an internet-based questionnaire sent to key figures responsible for leading on the planning and delivery of undergraduate medical teaching at all schools of medicine in the UK and Ireland. All identified undergraduate schools of medicine in the UK and Ireland between August 2012 and December 2012. Numerical data and free text feedback about relevant aspects of undergraduate teaching. Of the 38 medical schools approached, 34 (28 in UK, 6 in Ireland) completed the questionnaire (89.47%). 4 (all in UK) chose not to complete it. 6/34 (17.65%) included some specific teaching on biological weapons and bioterrorism. 7/34 (20.59%) had staff with bioterrorism expertise (mainly in microbiological and syndromic aspects). 4/34 (11.76%) had plans to introduce some specific teaching on bioterrorism. Free text responses revealed that some felt that because key bodies (eg, UK's General Medical Council) did not request teaching on bioterrorism, then it should not be included, while others regarded this field of study as a postgraduate subject and not appropriate for undergraduates, or argued that the curriculum was too congested already. 4/34 (11.76%) included some specific teaching on chemical weapons, and 3/34 (8.82%) on weaponised radiation. This study provides evidence that at the present time there is little teaching at the undergraduate level in the UK and Ireland on the subjects of biological weapons and bioterrorism, chemical weapons and weaponised radiation and signals that this situation is unlikely to change unless there were to be high-level policy guidance.

  18. The Omega Counter, a Frequency Counter Based on the Linear Regression

    CERN Document Server

    Rubiola, E; Bourgeois, P -Y; Vernotte, F

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the {\\Omega} counter, a frequency counter -- or a frequency-to-digital converter, in a different jargon -- based on the Linear Regression (LR) algorithm on time stamps. We discuss the noise of the electronics. We derive the statistical properties of the {\\Omega} counter on rigorous mathematical basis, including the weighted measure and the frequency response. We describe an implementation based on a SoC, under test in our laboratory, and we compare the {\\Omega} counter to the traditional {\\Pi} and {\\Lambda} counters. The LR exhibits optimum rejection of white phase noise, superior to that of the {\\Pi} and {\\Lambda} counters. White noise is the major practical problem of wideband digital electronics, both in the instrument internal circuits and in the fast processes which we may want to measure. The {\\Omega} counter finds a natural application in the measurement of the Parabolic Variance, described in the companion article arXiv:1506.00687 [physics.data-an].

  19. Questions and information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lauer, Thomas W; Graesser, Arthur C

    2013-01-01

    The design and functioning of an information system improve to the extent that the system can handle the questions people ask. Surprisingly, however, researchers in the cognitive, computer, and information sciences have not thoroughly examined the multitude of relationships between information systems and questions -- both question asking and answering. The purpose of this book is to explicitly examine these relationships. Chapter contributors believe that questions play a central role in the analysis, design, and use of different kinds of natural or artificial information systems such as huma

  20. Framing violence: the effect of survey context and question framing on reported rates of partner violence

    OpenAIRE

    Regan, Katherine V.

    2008-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigated two explanations for the variability in levels of partner violence found by large community surveys. In Study 1, I examined the effect of how questions about partner violence are introduced (question framing: conflict, violence-in-relationships, or attacks) on reports of partner violence. Although there was not a reliable effect of question framing, the pattern of findings was consistent across 3 of 4 analyses. Counter to predictions, an attacks question f...

  1. From Question Answering to Visual Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2006-08-11

    Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

  2. Bioterrorism and Biological Warfare, from Past to the Present: A classic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Zare Bidaki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioterrorism is defined as any terrorist action of intentional release or dissemination of highly pathogenic biological agents, including a variety of microorganisms or biological toxins. With the growing threat of terrorism, is necessary that the potential danger of various microorganisms – as a powerful tool of aggression and threat- to be taken seriously. This review tries to explain the concept of biological weapons and their historical development process with an emphasis on efforts to control the proliferation of these types of weapons over the last century. Potential impact of infectious diseases on people and armed forces was known from since 600 BC. Using the victims of the plague as a weapon in medieval warfare and spread of smallpox as a weapon during the war against the Indians when initially America was discovered, the development of biological weapons during the World War I, World War II and the Cold War, and even since the beginning of the third millennium, all show the strategic importance of pathogenic microorganisms as a deterrent power for the superiority of some governments and cults. Historical attempts to use infectious diseases as biological weapons reveal that the distinction between a natural outbreak of an infectious disease and that of a deliberate biological attack is very difficult. Abusing this characteristic of infectious diseases has made it possible for the purposes of superiority. International agreements to control the development of biological weapons, such as “the 1925 Geneva Protocol” and “the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Biological and Toxic Weapons” have not been able to control the development and using of biological warfare.  The current paper is a classic review (Overview article aiming at increasing the knowledge and awareness of people especially of health authorities and government officials.

  3. Instability of counter-rotating stellar disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohlfeld, R. G.; Lovelace, R. V. E.

    2015-09-01

    We use an N-body simulation, constructed using GADGET-2, to investigate an accretion flow onto an astrophysical disk that is in the opposite sense to the disk's rotation. In order to separate dynamics intrinsic to the counter-rotating flow from the impact of the flow onto the disk, we consider an initial condition in which the counter-rotating flow is in an annular region immediately exterior the main portion of the astrophysical disk. Such counter-rotating flows are seen in systems such as NGC 4826 (known as the "Evil Eye Galaxy"). Interaction between the rotating and counter-rotating components is due to two-stream instability in the boundary region. A multi-armed spiral density wave is excited in the astrophysical disk and a density distribution with high azimuthal mode number is excited in the counter-rotating flow. Density fluctuations in the counter-rotating flow aggregate into larger clumps and some of the material in the counter-rotating flow is scattered to large radii. Accretion flow processes such as this are increasingly seen to be of importance in the evolution of multi-component galactic disks.

  4. Asking the Right Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Ruth Mehrtens

    1990-01-01

    Like good researchers, writers about research need to be able to tell whether scientific findings are valid. Six questions, to be asked of the researcher, can help the writer explain to others. A healthy skepticism is also important; there may be signals that more questions should be asked. (MSE)

  5. Epistemology: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in epistemology. We hear their views on epistemology with particular emphasis on the intersection between mainstream and formal approaches to the field......; the aim, scope, the future direction of epistemology and how their work fits in these respects...

  6. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  7. Let's Switch Questioning Around

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovani, Cris

    2015-01-01

    English teacher Cris Tovani knows from her experiences teaching elementary school that students are naturally curious. But, too often, students are so trained to be question answerers that by the time they reach high school, they no longer form questions of their own and instead focus on trying to figure out what answer the teacher wants. Tovani…

  8. 21 CFR 866.2170 - Automated colony counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2170 Automated colony counter. (a) Identification. An automated colony counter is a mechanical device intended for...

  9. Taming Past LTL and Flat Counter Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Demri, Stéphane; sangnier, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    Reachability and LTL model-checking problems for flat counter systems are known to be decidable but whereas the reachability problem can be shown in NP, the best known complexity upper bound for the latter problem is made of a tower of several exponentials. Herein, we show that the problem is only NP-complete even if LTL admits past-time operators and arithmetical constraints on counters. Actually, the NP upper bound is shown by adequately combining a new stuttering theorem for Past LTL and the property of small integer solutions for quantifier-free Presburger formulae. Other complexity results are proved, for instance for restricted classes of flat counter systems.

  10. GEIGER-MULLER TYPE COUNTER TUBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, I.L.; Watt, L.A.K.

    1959-12-15

    A single counter tube capable of responding to a wide range of intensities is described. The counter tube comprises a tubular cathode and an anode extending centrally of the cathode. The spacing between the outer surface of the anode and the inner surface of the cathode is varied along the length of the tube to provide different counting volumes in adjacent portions of the tube. A large counting volume in one portion adjacent to a low-energy absorption window gives adequate sensitivity for measuring lowintensity radiation, while a smaller volume with close electrode spacing is provided in the counter to make possible measurement of intense garnma radiation fields.

  11. Time interleaved counter analog to digital converters

    OpenAIRE

    Danesh, Seyed Amir Ali

    2011-01-01

    The work explores extending time interleaving in A/D converters, by applying a high-level of parallelism to one of the slowest and simplest types of data-converters, the counter ADC. The motivation for the work is to realise high-performance re-configurable A/D converters for use in multi-standard and multi-PHY communication receivers with signal bandwidths in the 10s to 100s of MHz. The counter ADC requires only a comparator, a ramp signal, and a digital counter, where the ...

  12. What is a Question?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Kevin H.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A given question can be defined in terms of the set of statements or assertions that answer it. Application of the logic of inference to this set of assertions allows one to derive the logic of inquiry among questions. There are interesting symmetries between the logics of inference and inquiry; where probability describes the degree to which a premise implies an assertion, there exists an analogous quantity that describes the bearing or relevance that a question has on an outstanding issue. These have been extended to suggest that the logic of inquiry results in functional relationships analogous to, although more general than, those found in information theory. Employing lattice theory, I examine in greater detail the structure of the space of assertions and questions demonstrating that the symmetries between the logical relations in each of the spaces derive directly from the lattice structure. Furthermore, I show that while symmetries between the spaces exist, the two lattices are not isomorphic. The lattice of assertions is described by a Boolean lattice 2(sup N) whereas the lattice of real questions is shown to be a sublattice of the free distributive lattice FD(N) = 2(sup 2(sup N)). Thus there does not exist a one-to-one mapping of assertions to questions, there is no reflection symmetry between the two spaces, and questions in general do not possess unique complements. Last, with these lattice structures in mind, I discuss the relationship between probability, relevance and entropy.

  13. LAMP using a disposable pocket warmer for anthrax detection, a highly mobile and reliable method for anti-bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Ben; Maki, Takayuki; Obara, Takeyuki; Fukumoto, Hitomi; Hagisawa, Kohsuke; Matsushita, Yoshitaro; Okutani, Akiko; Bazartseren, Boldbaastar; Inoue, Satoshi; Sata, Tetsutaro; Katano, Harutaka

    2010-01-01

    A quick, reliable detection system is necessary to deal with bioterrorism. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a DNA amplification method that can amplify specific DNA fragments in isothermal conditions. We developed a new highly mobile and practical LAMP anthrax detection system that uses a disposable pocket warmer without the need for electricity (pocket-warmer LAMP). In our tests, the detection limit of the pocket-warmer LAMP was 1,000 copies of Bacillus anthracis pag and capB gene fragments per tube. The pocket-warmer LAMP also detected B. anthracis genes from DNA extracted from 0.1 volume of a B. anthracis colony. The lower detection limit of the pocket-warmer LAMP was not significantly different from that of a conventional LAMP using a heat block, and was not changed under cold (4 degrees C) or warm (37 degrees C) conditions in a Styrofoam box. The pocket-warmer LAMP could be useful against bioterrorism, and as a sensitive, reliable detection tool in areas with undependable electricity infrastructures.

  14. Permanent traffic counters maintained by the NMDOT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — A point dataset representing the permanent traffic counters maintained by the NMDOT. Event mapped dataset by LRS info provided by Traffic group.

  15. The Role of the Royal Navy in Counter-Insurgency Campaigns since 1945

    OpenAIRE

    Guoth, Maroš

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to prove that a navy can play an important role during a counter-insurgency campaign and be involved in many different tasks both at sea and from sea, particularly due to its flexibility, mobility and versatility. The main research question of the thesis is: what role can a navy play in a counter-insurgency campaign? The decision to focus on the role of the Royal Navy is based on the fact, that the Royal Navy is probably the most experienced navy in the world in the fi...

  16. Development of a Mobile Ice Nucleus Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, Gregory [Droplet Measurement Technologies, Boulder, CO (United States); Kulkarni, Gourihar [Droplet Measurement Technologies, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-07-10

    An ice nucleus counter has been constructed. The instrument uses built-in refrigeration systems for wall cooling. A cascade refrigeration system will allow the cold wall to operate as low as -70°C, and a single stage system can operate the warm wall at -45C. A unique optical particle counter has been constructed using polarization detection of the scattered light. This allows differentiation of the particles exiting the chamber to determine if they are ice or liquid.

  17. Development of a Mobile Ice Nucleus Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, Gregory; Kulkarni, Gourihar

    2014-07-10

    An ice nucleus counter has been constructed. The instrument uses built-in refrigeration systems for wall cooling. A cascade refrigeration system will allow the cold wall to operate as low as -70 deg C, and a single stage system can operate the warm wall at -45 deg C. A unique optical particle counter has been constructed using polarization detection of the scattered light. This allows differentiation of the particles exiting the chamber to determine if they are ice or liquid.

  18. Lifetime characteristics of Gaiger-Muller counters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartalović Nenad M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the process of functional aging of Geiger-Muller counters. Two types of Geiger-Muller counter chambers were characterized in an experiment using a combined constant voltage. Chamber A had a coaxial geometry and chamber B had a plan-parallel geometry. The experimental results indicate that the aging process was faster in the case of chambers with a coaxial geometry. The results are explained based on the process of electrical discharges in gasses.

  19. ON REICH'S OPEN QUESTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张石生

    2003-01-01

    Under more general form and more general conditions an affirmative answer to Reich's open question is given. The results presented also extend and improve some recent results of Reich, Shioji, Takahashi and Wittmann.

  20. Novel Designs of Quantum Reversible Counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xuemei; Zhu, Haihong; Chen, Fulong; Zhu, Junru; Zhang, Ziyang

    2016-11-01

    Reversible logic, as an interesting and important issue, has been widely used in designing combinational and sequential circuits for low-power and high-speed computation. Though a significant number of works have been done on reversible combinational logic, the realization of reversible sequential circuit is still at premature stage. Reversible counter is not only an important part of the sequential circuit but also an essential part of the quantum circuit system. In this paper, we designed two kinds of novel reversible counters. In order to construct counter, the innovative reversible T Flip-flop Gate (TFG), T Flip-flop block (T_FF) and JK flip-flop block (JK_FF) are proposed. Based on the above blocks and some existing reversible gates, the 4-bit binary-coded decimal (BCD) counter and controlled Up/Down synchronous counter are designed. With the help of Verilog hardware description language (Verilog HDL), these counters above have been modeled and confirmed. According to the simulation results, our circuits' logic structures are validated. Compared to the existing ones in terms of quantum cost (QC), delay (DL) and garbage outputs (GBO), it can be concluded that our designs perform better than the others. There is no doubt that they can be used as a kind of important storage components to be applied in future low-power computing systems.

  1. 生物恐怖对公众心理健康的影响及应对%Effects and Response of a Bioterrorism to Public Mental Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅霓

    2012-01-01

    In this article,the effects and response of a bioterrorism emergency to public mental health has introduced.Based on the characteristics of the bioterrorism,reviewed the effects to public mental health,the strategies for preparation and response to bioterrorism were suggested.Bioterrorism presents special challenges with psychological disorders or physical illnesses for the society.Initial psychosocial interventions also include effective psycho-education and the delivery of authoritative information,may release their fear of infection.So it was concluded that the effective response will reduce even eliminate the bioterrorism's effects to public mental health.%[目的]探讨生物恐怖突发公共卫生事件对公众心理健康的影响及应对。[方法]通过分析生物恐怖事件的特点,探讨其对公众心理健康的影响,并提出应对措施。[结果]生物恐怖事件的发生,必然会给社会公众带来不同程度的心理影响。通过健康教育的普及,权威信息的及时发布以及切实的心理干预,可以有效降低公众的恐惧心理。[结论]生物恐怖事件对公众心理健康的影响,可通过有效的应对措施予以减轻或消除。

  2. Asking the Right Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Line

    are part of everyday life, children are often the most vulnerable. The project was carried out to shed light on mainly two types of diseases - malaria and diarrheal diseases - that strike children. In practice the academic backgrounds of the researchers played a role in the methodological approach...... to the field. By emphasizing the logos in methodology this paper wishes to underscore that where anthropology sets itself apart from public health is, among other, in the way anthropologists think about method and how this affects fieldwork practices as well as analyses. By tracing two concepts, hygiene......, is the ability to move beyond even the best hidden assumptions and question our own questions, thereby enabling us to ask the right questions....

  3. The Question Concerning Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Martin Heidegger's thought-provoking essay "The Question Concerning Technology" (1977a) placed technology at the heart of philosophy. Heidegger tried to show that the essence of technology provokes humans to think about the world in a very dangerous way. Yet if we follow Heidegger's analysis......, by doing so, we will in the end realize two important things. First, that Heidegger's declaration of the end of philosophy in fact also means the end of anything we can meaningfully call thinking. Second, that Heidegger's own thinking is completely different from his own ideal of thinking. Our question...

  4. The social question revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenneth, Petersson; Olsson, Ulf; Krejsler, John B.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is the re-installation of the social question as a historical practice. The purpose is to investigate how historic figures return and are applied in contemporary political discourses, more precisely in the context of education, education policy and teacher education...... the diversity of relevant populations “without obstacles related to their social and economic background”. In the 19th century the social question was raised in a context of industrialization of societies. It dealt with suggestions about disintegration of predominant social structures and the management...

  5. Swot analysis of using aerostats for surveillance in counter terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ćetin, Hüseyin

    2013-06-01

    In today's conjuncture, the terrorist activities are the most compelling issue for the defence forces in maintaining homeland security. Especially, the terrorist elements that penetrate the homeland may give harm. This harm can be minimized by preventing the terrorist penetrations from homeland borders. In counter terrorism, having Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) capability and using this capability by twenty four hours is deterrence for the terrorist groups. Aerostats emerge as the ideal platform which can provide this capability. Aerostats are unmanned and aerodynamically shaped balloons that are stayed in the air, fixed to the ground by steel cable(s). The aerostat is made of a large fabric envelope that is filled with nonflammable helium gas, which provides the lifting force. The cables also serve to supply the electrical power to the aerostat systems, and for data relay between the aerostat and the ground station. Aerostats are different from the other manned and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) because of aerostats' capabilities such as cost effectiveness, long endurance and high resolution image transmission. Especially having uninterrupted image transmission and surveillance capabilities is important to be advantageous in counter terrorism. In this article, a short definition of terrorism has been given and then the importance of ensuring the homeland border security has been emphasized in counter terrorism. In addition, the questions of "what are the technical capabilities, the usage areas and the purposes of aerostats?" will be introduced as a result of literature review. Finally the strengths and weaknesses of aerostats, opportunities and threats for the near future will be introduced by using "SWOT" analysis method.

  6. Detecting the Elusive Blazar Counter-Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Liodakis, I; Angelakis, E

    2016-01-01

    Detection of blazar pc scale counter-jets is difficult, but it can provide invaluable insight into the relativistic effects, radiative processes and the complex mechanisms of jet production, collimation and accelation in blazars. We build on recent populations models (optimized using the MOJAVE apparent velocity and redshift distributions) in order to derive the distribution of jet-to-counter-jet ratios and the flux densities of the counter-jet at different frequencies, in an effort to set minimum sensitivity limits required for existing and future telescope arrays in order to detect these elusive counter-jets. We find that: for the BL Lacs $5\\%$ of their counter-jets have a flux-density higher than 100mJy, $15\\%$ are higher than 10 mJy, and $32\\%$ have higher flux-density than 1 mJy, whereas for the FSRQs $8\\%$ have a flux-density higher than 10mJy, $17\\%$ are higher than 1 mJy, and $32\\%$ are higher than 0.1 mJy (at 15 GHz). Future telescopes like the SKA and newly operating like e-MERLIN and JVLA may detec...

  7. What questions can a placebo answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Spencer Phillips; Weijer, Charles

    2016-03-01

    The concept of clinical equipoise restricts the use of placebo controls in clinical trials when there already exists a proven effective treatment. Several critics of clinical equipoise have put forward alleged counter-examples to this restriction-describing instances of ethical placebo-controlled trials that apparently violate clinical equipoise. In this essay, we respond to these examples and show that clinical equipoise is not as restrictive of placebos as these authors assume. We argue that a subtler appreciation for clinical equipoise-in particular the distinction between de facto and de jure interpretations of the concept-allows the concept to explain when and why a placebo control may be necessary to answer a question of clinical importance.

  8. Questioning Danish Cartoon Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Heidi

    2007-01-01

    Danes today when it is considered demeaning and racist in most other countries. The conclusion does emphatically not plead in favour of law enforced limitations of the freedom of expression, but does question the prevalent "freedom of ignorance" concerning black identities which means...

  9. Questions English Teachers Ask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, R. Baird

    This volume is based on the responses of 374 English teachers at the secondary and college levels to a letter asking them to describe the questions that most perplex them professionally. Answers are provided by 88 leaders in English education, including James R. Squire, Walter H. MacGinitie, R. Baird Shuman, Sheila Schwartz, and Ken Macrorie. The…

  10. Game Theory: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent F.

    Game Theory is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in game theory. We hear their views on game theory, its aim, scope, use, the future direction of game theory and how their work fits in these respects....

  11. Question: Who Can Vote?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeheaver, Misty D.; Haas, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    This year's rollercoaster primary elections and the pending national election, with an anticipated record voter turnout, provide the perfect backdrop for an examination of the questions: (1) Who can vote?; and (2) Who will vote? Historically, the American government refused voting rights to various groups based on race, gender, age, and even…

  12. Future Research Questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walpoth, B.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Immersion hypothermia in humans is described in about 500 scientific papers during a Pubmed search in medical literature with keywords ‘Immersion’, ‘Hypothermia’ and ‘Human’ as of 2014. Many questions still remain, the most important of which are described in this chapter.

  13. Game Theory: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent F.

    Game Theory is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in game theory. We hear their views on game theory, its aim, scope, use, the future direction of game theory and how their work fits in these respects....

  14. Enhanced pharmacy training for counter-terrorism and disaster response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitstead, John A; Burton, Deborah C

    2006-01-01

    State and federal authorities in the USA have identified pharmacists as important in terrorism detection activities. However few pharmacists are trained for disaster response planning, or providing services at disaster sites. A distance training programme was created by the College of Pharmacy at the University of Kentucky, Chandler Medical Center (UKCMC) in collaboration with an academic Medical Center, urban and rural community pharmacists, experts in pharmacy and infectious disease, and two state pharmacy associations. There was a substantial improvement in bioterrorism training knowledge as judged by pre- and post-test results. During two years of training, a total of 142 licensed pharmacists received certification (approximately 4.7% of all those in Kentucky). In addition, a network of bioterrorism-trained pharmacists was created for the state.

  15. Neutron spectroscopy with the Spherical Proportional Counter

    CERN Document Server

    Bougamont, E; Derre, J; Galan, J; Gerbier, G; Giomataris, I; Gros, M; Katsioulas, I; Jourde, D; Magnier, P; Navick, X F; Papaevangelou, T; Savvidis, I; Tsiledakis, G

    2015-01-01

    A novel large volume spherical proportional counter, recently developed, is used for neutron measurements. Gas mixtures of $N_{2}$ with $C_{2}H_{6}$ and pure $N_{2}$ are studied for thermal and fast neutron detection, providing a new way for the neutron spectroscopy. The neutrons are detected via the ${}^{14}N(n, p)C^{14}$ and ${}^{14}N(n, \\alpha)B^{11}$ reactions. Here we provide studies of the optimum gas mixture, the gas pressure and the most appropriate high voltage supply on the sensor of the detector in order to achieve the maximum amplification and better resolution. The detector is tested for thermal and fast neutrons detection with a ${}^{252}Cf$ and a ${}^{241}Am-{}^{9}Be$ neutron source. The atmospheric neutrons are successfully measured from thermal up to several MeV, well separated from the cosmic ray background. A comparison of the spherical proportional counter with the current available neutron counters is also given.

  16. Retroviruses and other latent viruses: the deadliest of pathogens are not necessarily the best candidates for bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Cassandra D; Kilby, J Michael

    2009-06-01

    HIV-1 (and other viral causes of latent, chronic infections) is not a likely candidate for bioterrorism. Scenarios resulting in the introduction of retroviral infections into a large population generally seem impractical and unpredictable as bioterrorist plots, especially relative to the frightening simplicity of deadly anthrax spores or smallpox virions. As evidenced in the above discussion, contaminating the blood supply would require a highly sophisticated plan resulting in effects of rather limited ultimate scope, and would have to evade an extremely effective screening process already in full force. Contaminating other agents given parenterally is also a potential concern, but again the virus has rather fastidious growth characteristics outside of the human host, and even if this could be accomplished it would presumably affect only a very limited number of targeted individuals. Finally, the idea of a kind of"sexual suicide bomber", an individual deliberately introduced into the community to spread a deadly infectious disease might be proposed. However, as discussed in this commentary, the impact of this rather implausible scenario would be substantially delayed, unreliable, and ultimately could be controlled through a heightened response of already existing public health mechanisms. Whereas HIV has resulted in the "perfect storm" of a devastating pandemic, a major cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality that is tremendously challenging to control, it does not match up very effectively with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Category A definition of an ideal agent of bioterrorism. It is not easily spread through casual or incidental contact and does not cause a substantial immediate death toll. Instead it is spread only through sexual, parenteral, or maternal/fetal transmission, and generally requires a prolonged and variable clinical latency period prior to disease progression and death. The U.S. public health system is already reasonably

  17. Social Media and Its Dual Use in Biopreparedness: Communication and Visualization Tools in an Animal Bioterrorism Incident

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöberg, Elisabeth; Barker, Gary C.; Landgren, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    emergency organizations in law enforcement and public and animal health, can use it for peaceful purposes. To get a better understanding of the uses of social media in these situations, a workshop was arranged in Stockholm, Sweden, to raise awareness about social media and animal bioterrorism threats. Fifty......-six experts and crisis communicators from international and national organizations participated. As a result of the workshop, it was concluded that emergency organizations can collect valuable information and monitor social media before, during, and after an outbreak. In order to make use of interactive...... communication to obtain collective intelligence from the public, emergency organizations must adapt to social networking technologies, requiring multidisciplinary knowledge in the fields of information, communication, IT, and biopreparedness. Social network messaging during a disease outbreak can be visualized...

  18. Biowarfare, bioterrorism, and animal diseases as bioweapons: Chapter 6 in Disease emergence and resurgence: The wildlife-human connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton

    2006-01-01

    Linkages between disease in humans and the maladies of animals continue to be a focus for those concerned with disease effects on human health. References to animal diseases, particularly zoonoses such as rabies and glanders, are found in the writings of Greek (Hippocrates, Democritus, Aristotle, Galen, Dioscorides), Byzantine (Oribasius, Actius of Amida), and Roman (Pliny the Elder, Celsus) physicians and naturalists.3 Also, early advances in disease knowledge were closely associated with the study of contagions in animals to the extent that “The most complete ancient accounts of the concepts of contagion and contamination are found in treatises on veterinary medicine.”4,5Opportunities for disease transfer between animals and humans have increased during modern times, partly because of advances in animal husbandry and intensive agriculture that result in increased contacts among humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Infectious pathogens exploit these contacts, and must be considered in this era of increased world tensions and international terrorism (Fig. 6.1).Disease emergence and resurgence are generally associated with natural processes and unanticipated outcomes related to human behavior and actions. That perspective has been broadened by recent acts of bioterrorism. A new category of deliberately emerging diseases contains emerging microbes that are developed by humans, usually for nefarious use.211 Included are naturally occurring microbial agents and those altered by bioengineering.This chapter highlights the wildlife component of the pathogen-host-environment triad to focus attention on the potential for bioterrorists to use wildlife as a means for infectious disease attacks against society. The value of this focus is that the underlying causes of disease emergence and the optimal prevention or control response frequently differ for disease emergence, resurgence, and deliberately emerging diseases.211 Differences also exist relative to the potential

  19. Predicting response to reassurances and uncertainties in bioterrorism communications for urban populations in New York and California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Elaine; Tinker, Tim L; Truman, Benedict I; Edelson, Paul; Morse, Stephen S

    2012-06-01

    Recent national plans for recovery from bioterrorism acts perpetrated in densely populated urban areas acknowledge the formidable technical and social challenges of consequence management. Effective risk and crisis communication is one priority to strengthen the U.S.'s response and resilience. However, several notable risk events since September 11, 2001, have revealed vulnerabilities in risk/crisis communication strategies and infrastructure of agencies responsible for protecting civilian populations. During recovery from a significant biocontamination event, 2 goals are essential: (1) effective communication of changing risk circumstances and uncertainties related to cleanup, restoration, and reoccupancy; and (2) adequate responsiveness to emerging information needs and priorities of diverse populations in high-threat, vulnerable locations. This telephone survey study explored predictors of public reactions to uncertainty communications and reassurances from leaders related to the remediation stage of an urban-based bioterrorism incident. African American and Hispanic adults (N=320) were randomly sampled from 2 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse geographic areas in New York and California assessed as high threat, high vulnerability for terrorism and other public health emergencies. Results suggest that considerable heterogeneity exists in risk perspectives and information needs within certain sociodemographic groups; that success of risk/crisis communication during recovery is likely to be uneven; that common assumptions about public responsiveness to particular risk communications need further consideration; and that communication effectiveness depends partly on preexisting values and risk perceptions and prior trust in leaders. Needed improvements in communication strategies are possible with recognition of where individuals start as a reference point for reasoning about risk information, and comprehension of how this influences subsequent interpretation

  20. The AMS-01 Aerogel Threshold Cherenkov counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barancourt, D.; Barao, F.; Barbier, G.; Barreira, G.; Buenerd, M.; Castellini, G.; Choumilov, E.; Favier, J.; Fouque, N.; Gougas, A.; Hermel, V.; Kossakowski, R.; Laborie, G.; Laurenti, G.; Lee, S.-C.; Mayet, F. E-mail: frederic.mayet@isn.in2p3.fr; Meillon, B.; Oyang, Y.-T.; Plyaskin, V.; Pojidaev, V.; Rossin, C.; Santos, D.; Vezzu, F.; Vialle, J.P

    2001-06-11

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer in a precursor version (AMS-01), was flown in June 1998 on a 51.6 deg. orbit and at altitudes ranging between 320 and 390 km, on board of the space shuttle Discovery (flight STS-91). AMS-01 included an Aerogel Threshold Cherenkov counter (ATC) to separate p-bar from e{sup -} and e{sup +} from p, for momenta below 3.5 GeV/c. This paper presents a description of the ATC counter and reports on its performances during the flight STS-91.

  1. The AMS-01 Aerogel Threshold Cherenkov counter

    CERN Document Server

    Barancourt, D; Barbier, G; Barreira, G; Buénerd, M; Castellini, G; Choumilov, E; Favier, Jean; Fouque, N; Gougas, Andreas; Hermel, V; Kossakowski, R; Laborie, G; Laurenti, G; Lee, S C; Mayet, F; Meillon, B; Oyang, J Y T; Plyaskin, V; Pozhidaev, V; Rossin, C; Santos, D; Vezzu, F; Vialle, J P

    2001-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer in a precursor version (AMS-01), was flown in June 1998 on a 51.6 degrees orbit and at altitudes ranging between 320 and 390 km, on board of the space shuttle Discovery (flight STS-91). AMS-01 included an Aerogel Threshold Cherenkov counter (ATC) to separate antiprotons from electrons and positrons from protons, for momenta below 3.5 GeV/c. This paper presents a description of the ATC counter and reports on its performances during the flight STS-91.

  2. Analysis of counter-rotating wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Zakkam, Vinod Arun Kumar; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the performance of a wind turbine with two counter-rotating (CRWT) rotors. The characteristics of the two counter-rotating rotors are on a 3-bladed Nordtank 500 kW rotor. The analysis has been carried out by using an Actuator Line technique implemented in the Navier......-Stokes code EllipSys3D. The analysis shows that the Annual Energy Production can be increased to about 43.5 %, as compared to a wind turbine with a single rotor. In order to determine the optimal settings of the CRWT turbine, parameters such as distance between two rotors and rotational speed have been...

  3. Development of DUPIC safeguards neutron counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Gil; Cha, Hong Ryul; Kim, Ho Dong; Hong, Jong Sook; Kang, Hee Young

    1999-08-01

    KAERI, in cooperation with LANL, developed DSNC (DUPIC Safeguards Neutron Counter) for safeguards implementing on DUPIC process which is under development by KAERI for direct use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. DSNC is a well-type neutron coincidence counter with substantial shielding to protect system from high gamma radiation of spent fuel. General development procedures in terms of design, manufacturing, fabrication, cold and hot test, performance test for DSNC authentication by KAERI-IAEA-LANL are described in this report. It is expected that the techniques related DSNC development and associated neutron detection and evaluation method could be applied for safeguards improvement. (Author). 20 refs., 16 tabs. 98 figs.

  4. Development of DUPIC safeguards neutron counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Gil; Cha, Hong Ryul; Kim, Ho Dong; Hong, Jong Sook; Kang, Hee Young

    1999-08-01

    KAERI, in cooperation with LANL, developed DSNC (DUPIC Safeguards Neutron Counter) for safeguards implementing on DUPIC process which is under development by KAERI for direct use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. DSNC is a well-type neutron coincidence counter with substantial shielding to protect system from high gamma radiation of spent fuel. General development procedures in terms of design, manufacturing, fabrication, cold and hot test, performance test for DSNC authentication by KAERI-IAEA-LANL are described in this report. It is expected that the techniques related DSNC development and associated neutron detection and evaluation method could be applied for safeguards improvement. (Author). 20 refs., 16 tabs. 98 figs.

  5. Why Counter-terrorism Breeds Yet More Terrorism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Jiru

    2006-01-01

    @@ The global campaign against terror has achieved considerable success over the past five years since the events of 9/11. The Taliban forces in Afghanistan have been destroyed and Al-Qeda has received a devastating blow. In Russia, Chechen secessionist terrorist forces have also suffered heavy losses. Nevertheless, the major terrorist attacks that took place in the UK, Spain, Russia, Iraq, India and Indonesia clearly demonstrate that terrorism has not yet disappeared.Terrorist attacks are on the increase, the targets are becoming more varied, and the methods more covert and more violent. Terrorist groups and organizations have become better organized in their activities and there is a trend towards the use of high-tech in the attacks.Some world public media refers to these phenomena as "counter-terrorism leading to yet more terrorism". Therefore, two fundamental questions may be posed to all countries throughout the world: What are the roots of terrorism? How can terrorism be eradicated?

  6. Questions about elastic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the modelling of mechanical waves by asking the right questions about them and trying to find suitable answers. The questions follow the analytical sequence from elementary understandings to complicated cases, following a step-by-step path towards increased knowledge. The focus is on waves in elastic solids, although some examples also concern non-conservative cases for the sake of completeness. Special attention is paid to the understanding of the influence of microstructure, nonlinearity and internal variables in continua. With the help of many mathematical models for describing waves, physical phenomena concerning wave dispersion, nonlinear effects, emergence of solitary waves, scales and hierarchies of waves as well as the governing physical parameters are analysed. Also, the energy balance in waves and non-conservative models with energy influx are discussed. Finally, all answers are interwoven into the canvas of complexity.

  7. Regenerative Endodontics: Burning Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anthony J; Cooper, Paul R

    2017-09-01

    Pulp regeneration and its clinical translation into regenerative endodontic procedures are receiving increasing research attention, leading to significant growth of the published scientific and clinical literature within these areas. Development of research strategies, which consider patient-, clinician-, and scientist-based outcomes, will allow greater focus on key research questions driving more rapid clinical translation. Three key areas of focus for these research questions should include cells, signaling, and infection/inflammation. A translational pathway is envisaged in which clinical approaches are increasingly refined to provide regenerative endodontic protocols that are based on a robust understanding of the physiological processes and events responsible for the normal secretion, structure, and biological behavior of pulpal tissue. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantum theory from questions

    CERN Document Server

    Hoehn, Philipp A

    2016-01-01

    We reconstruct the explicit formalism of qubit quantum theory from elementary rules on an observer's information acquisition. Our approach is purely operational: we consider an observer O interrogating a system S with binary questions and define S's state as O's `catalogue of knowledge' about S; no ontic assumptions are necessary. From the rules we derive the state spaces for N qubits and show that (a) they coincide with the set of density matrices over N qubit Hilbert spaces; (b) states evolve unitarily under the group $\\rm{PSU}(2^N)$ according to the von Neumann evolution equation; and (c) the binary questions by means of which O interrogates the systems corresponds to projective measurements on Pauli operators with outcome probabilities given by the Born rule. Besides offering a novel conceptual perspective on qubit quantum theory, the reconstruction also unravels new structural insights. Namely, we show that, in a quadratic information measure, (d) qubits satisfy informational complementarity inequalities...

  9. Questions to Luce Irigaray

    OpenAIRE

    Ince, Kate

    1996-01-01

    This article traces the "dialogue" between the work of the philosophers Luce Irigaray and Emmanuel Levinas. It attempts to construct a more nuanced discussion than has been given to date of Irigaray's critique of Levinas, particularly as formulated in 'Questions to Emmanuel Levinas' (Irigaray 1991). It suggests that the concepts of the feminine and of voluptuosity articulated by Levinas have more to contribute to Irigaray's project of an ethics of sexual difference than she herself sometimes ...

  10. 501 reading comprehension questions

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition offers the most extensive and varied practice for all types of questions students might face on standardized and in-class tests. With this guide, students will learn to develop expert reading strategies, understand how to read faster and with greater comprehension, overcome reading anxiety, and increase appreciation of reading for pleasure. This book's step-by-step approach provides graduated coverage that moves from the basics to more advanced reading.

  11. Eight Questions about Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob Svensson

    2005-01-01

    This paper will discuss eight frequently asked questions about public corruption: (1) What is corruption? (2) Which countries are the most corrupt? (3) What are the common characteristics of countries with high corruption? (4) What is the magnitude of corruption? (5) Do higher wages for bureaucrats reduce corruption? (6) Can competition reduce corruption? (7) Why have there been so few (recent) successful attempts to fight corruption? (8) Does corruption adversely affect growth?

  12. Questioning Many Mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sara F.

    2015-04-01

    The first section of this memoir queries my formative years. Indirectly I address the question, did my childhood and early years make a difference in my choice of career? Why and how did I begin my journey to becoming a scientist? Did I choose the field of solar astronomy or did circumstances dictate it for me? In the second section, I travel through my work environments and experiences, talking about interactions and aspects of being a scientist that do not appear in our research papers. What parts of my research were happenstances and what parts did I plan? What does it feel like to be on scientific quests? Using examples in my journey, I also turn to questions that have intrigued me throughout my sojourn as a solar astronomer. How do scientific discoveries come about? What factors lead to little discoveries? And what factors lead to major exciting discoveries? Are there timely questions we do not think to ask? How can small, seemingly scattered pieces of knowledge suddenly coalesce into a deeper understanding - what is called the "Aha!" experience - the times when our mental light switches on, and with child-like wonder we behold a "big picture"?

  13. Bioterrorism: processing contaminated evidence, the effects of formaldehyde gas on the recovery of latent fingermarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoile, Rebecca; Walsh, Simon J; Roux, Claude

    2007-09-01

    In the present age of heightened emphasis on counter terrorism, law enforcement and forensic science are constantly evolving and adapting to the motivations and capabilities of terrorist groups and individuals. The use of biological agents on a population, such as anthrax spores, presents unique challenges to the forensic investigator, and the processing of contaminated evidence. In this research, a number of porous and non-porous items were contaminated with viable [corrected] spores and marked with latent fingermarks. The test samples were then subjected to a standard formulation of formaldehyde gas. Latent fingermarks were then recovered post decontamination using a range of methods. Standard fumigation, while effective at destroying viable spores, contributed to the degradation of amino acids leading to loss of ridge detail. A new protocol for formaldehyde gas decontamination was developed which allows for the destruction of viable spores and the successful recovery of latent marks, all within a rapid response time of less than 1 h.

  14. Upaya Perumusan Prinsip Counter Accounting Melalui Filosofi Punk Sebagai Counter Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayno Utama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to demonstrate that resistance to mainstream research contained in top/elite accounting journals for sparking creativity and innovation unconsciously has utilized the philosophy of punk. The research method of this research is argumentation technique. The result of this research shows that the philosophy of punk as counter culture can be utilized for accounting research through formulation the accounting principles namely counter accounting. Creative and innovative accounting as forms of counter accounting towards mainstream accounting tradition especially in elite journals, will not pervade in a short time.

  15. The Art of Asking Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Rosetta A.

    1979-01-01

    A rationale is given for the use of questioning techniques and strategies in classroom instruction. B. Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives is presented as one framework for questions. Five pitfalls, including avoiding vague questions and personal pronouns, are discussed. (CL)

  16. COUNTER-ROTATION IN RELATIVISTIC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC JETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cayatte, V.; Sauty, C. [Laboratoire Univers et Théories, Observatoire de Paris, UMR 8102 du CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, F-92190 Meudon (France); Vlahakis, N.; Tsinganos, K. [Department of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Faculty of Physics, University of Athens, 15784 Zografos, Athens (Greece); Matsakos, T. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Lima, J. J. G., E-mail: veronique.cayatte@obspm.fr [Centro de Astrofísica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal)

    2014-06-10

    Young stellar object observations suggest that some jets rotate in the opposite direction with respect to their disk. In a recent study, Sauty et al. showed that this does not contradict the magnetocentrifugal mechanism that is believed to launch such outflows. Motion signatures that are transverse to the jet axis, in two opposite directions, have recently been measured in M87. One possible interpretation of this motion is that of counter-rotating knots. Here, we extend our previous analytical derivation of counter-rotation to relativistic jets, demonstrating that counter-rotation can indeed take place under rather general conditions. We show that both the magnetic field and a non-negligible enthalpy are necessary at the origin of counter-rotating outflows, and that the effect is associated with a transfer of energy flux from the matter to the electromagnetic field. This can be realized in three cases: if a decreasing enthalpy causes an increase of the Poynting flux, if the flow decelerates, or if strong gradients of the magnetic field are present. An illustration of the involved mechanism is given by an example of a relativistic magnetohydrodynamic jet simulation.

  17. Can counter-stereotypes boost flexible thinking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Goclowska; R.J. Crisp; K. Labuschagne

    2012-01-01

    To reduce prejudice psychologists design interventions requiring people to think of counter-stereotypes (i.e., people who defy stereotypic expectations—a strong woman, a Black President). Grounded in the idea that stereotypes constrain the ability to think flexibly, we propose that thinking of count

  18. International perspectives on countering school segregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, J.T.A.; Denessen, E.J.P.G.; Peters, T.J.M.; Walraven, G.

    2010-01-01

    School segregation is perceived as an unyielding problem worldwide, which is manifest along both ethnic and socio-economic lines. With this edited volume we aim to share information about school segregation and policies focused on countering school segregation from an international perspective. Many

  19. Counter Trafficking System Development "Analysis Training Program"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Dennis C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This document will detail the training curriculum for the Counter-Trafficking System Development (CTSD) Analysis Modules and Lesson Plans are derived from the United States Military, Department of Energy doctrine and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Global Security (GS) S Program.

  20. Can counter-stereotypes boost flexible thinking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goclowska, M.A.; Crisp, R.J.; Labuschagne, K.

    2013-01-01

    To reduce prejudice psychologists design interventions requiring people to think of counter-stereotypes (i.e., people who defy stereotypic expectations—a strong woman, a Black President). Grounded in the idea that stereotypes constrain the ability to think flexibly, we propose that thinking of count

  1. Cerenkov counters at the Omega Facility

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    P. Petroff on the left. Here one sees both the gas Cerenkov counters sitting in front of the magnet to select forward emitted particles. The smaller one, working at high pressure, sits nearest to the Omega magnet (see photo 7505073X), the other (see photo 7505071X) works at atmospheric pressure.

  2. One-Counter Markov Decision Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazdil, T.; Brozek, V.; Etessami, K.; Kucera, A.; Wojtczak, D.K.; Charikar, M.

    2010-01-01

    We study the computational complexity of central analysis problems for One-Counter Markov Decision Processes (OC-MDPs), a class of finitely-presented, countable-state MDPs. OC-MDPs are equivalent to a controlled extension of (discrete-time) Quasi-Birth-Death processes (QBDs), a stochastic model stud

  3. Ultrafine Condensation Particle Counter Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The Model 3776 Ultrafine Condensation Particle Counter (UCPC; pictured in Appendix A) is designed for researchers interested in airborne particles smaller than 20 nm. With sensitivity to particles down to 2.5 nm in diameter, this UCPC is ideally suited for atmospheric and climate research, particle formation and growth studies, combustion and engine exhaust research, and nanotechnology research.

  4. Social Epistemology: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Social Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of interviews with some of the world’s most influential scholars working on social epistemology from a range of disciplinary perspectives. We hear their views on social epistemology; its aim, scope, use, broader intellectual environment, future...... direction, and how the work of the interviewees fits in these respects. Interviews with David Bloor, Cristina Bicchieri, Richard Bradley, Lorraine Code, Hans van Ditmarsch, Miranda Fricker, Steve Fuller, Sanford Goldberg, Alvin Goldman, Philip Kitcher, Martin Kusch, Jennifer Lackey, Helen E. Longino, Philip...

  5. Trick questions: cosmopolitan hospitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Byrne

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Byrne’s paper consists of two parallel texts. The first explores the limits of cosmopolitanism in practice, taking as its subject the Life in the UK Citizenship Test, inaugurated under the Labour Government in 2005. It argues that the test exemplifies the predicament of all attempts at cosmopolitan hospitality as unconditional welcoming, through a discussion of the relation between questioning and welcoming the stranger. Establishing the relationship between cosmopolitanism and hospitality as envisaged in Derrida’s reading of Kant it asks what kind of cosmopolitan hospitality is either possible or desirable by exploring what Derrida calls the ‘perversions’ inherent in the structures of hospitality. It focuses on the concept of the ‘trick questions’ that the state asks the foreigner observed by Derrida in his reading of The Apology of Socrates; questions that seem to invite answers but foreclose the possibilities of a free response. The second text asks how this logic that Derrida identifies can be pushed or coaxed into new ways of addressing the perceived threats of ‘unconditional’ hospitality through a reading of ‘unconditional hospitality’ as queer in the work of Tove Jansson.

  6. The Gentle Art of Questioning: Writing Great Clicker Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasteen, Stephanie

    2012-02-01

    How does a teacher use questioning effectively? This workshop will focus on writing those questions that engage students, spark their curiosity, help recap material, give you insight into their thinking, or help them learn critical ideas in physics. We will focus on ``peer instruction'' -- a research-tested method of requiring students to discuss challenging questions with one another. We will investigate the surprising power of multiple-choice questions to achieve critical thinking skills. Finally, we will look at writing questions that align with our goals for students, discuss the elements of effective questions, and practice writing questions and work on improving them.

  7. Counter-Narratives and the Unrehearsed Stories Counter-Terrorists Unwittingly Produce.

    OpenAIRE

    Beatrice de Graaf

    2009-01-01

    Governments produce both deliberate and involuntary (and less conscious) narratives when countering terrorism. The thesis of this article is that such unintended messages can be much more powerful and consequential than is realized; in fact, they can completely contradict the intended official 'counter-narrative'. To substantiate this hypothesis, the author looks at the experience of the German Federal Republic in the 1970s and beyond when state and society were confronted with the Red Army F...

  8. Questions and Questioning Techniques: A View of Indonesian Students’ Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Tri Ragawanti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated students’ preference on teacher’s questions and questionings techniques and more importantly on how they could facilitate or impede their learning. The results on teacher’s questioning techniques showed that random nomination was more preferred than pre-arranged format nomination. In addition, techniques of nominating volunteering students and of giving wait-time were disliked by most student-respondents. As for types of question, the yes/no question was favored by most of the respondents. Different from the yes/no question, the number of respondents leaning forward to the analysis question, questions about fact of life, and questions to state opinion did not show a significant difference from the number of those leaning against the same questions.

  9. Active control of counter-rotating open rotor interior noise in a Dornier 728 experimental aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Thomas; Unruh, Oliver; Algermissen, Stephan; Pohl, Martin

    2016-08-01

    The fuel consumption of future civil aircraft needs to be reduced because of the CO2 restrictions declared by the European Union. A consequent lightweight design and a new engine concept called counter-rotating open rotor are seen as key technologies in the attempt to reach this ambitious goals. Bearing in mind that counter-rotating open rotor engines emit very high sound pressures at low frequencies and that lightweight structures have a poor transmission loss in the lower frequency range, these key technologies raise new questions in regard to acoustic passenger comfort. One of the promising solutions for the reduction of sound pressure levels inside the aircraft cabin are active sound and vibration systems. So far, active concepts have rarely been investigated for a counter-rotating open rotor pressure excitation on complex airframe structures. Hence, the state of the art is augmented by the preliminary study presented in this paper. The study shows how an active vibration control system can influence the sound transmission of counter-rotating open rotor noise through a complex airframe structure into the cabin. Furthermore, open questions on the way towards the realisation of an active control system are addressed. In this phase, an active feedforward control system is investigated in a fully equipped Dornier 728 experimental prototype aircraft. In particular, the sound transmission through the airframe, the coupling of classical actuators (inertial and piezoelectric patch actuators) into the structure and the performance of the active vibration control system with different error sensors are investigated. It can be shown that the active control system achieves a reduction up to 5 dB at several counter-rotating open rotor frequencies but also that a better performance could be achieved through further optimisations.

  10. Unproven (questionable) cancer therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigden, M L

    1995-11-01

    More than half of all cancer patients use some form of alternative treatment during the course of their illness. Alternative therapies are often started early in patients' illness, and their use is frequently not acknowledged to health care professionals. Some alternative therapies are harmful, and their promoters may be fraudulent. Persons who try alternative cancer therapies may not be poorly educated but may ultimately abandon conventional treatment. Recent attention has focused on aspects of questionable therapies that make these treatments attractive to patients and that may be perceived as being deficient in the practice of conventional health care professionals. Physicians with patients with cancer should always make sure that unproven therapies are discussed early in the therapeutic relationship. They should also attempt to be aware of alternative therapies that are in vogue in their particular geographic area.

  11. From Questions to Queries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Drlík

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The extension of (Internet databases forceseveryone to become more familiar with techniques of datastorage and retrieval because users’ success often dependson their ability to pose right questions and to be able tointerpret their answers. University programs pay moreattention to developing database programming skills than todata exploitation skills. To educate our students to become“database users”, the authors intensively exploit supportivetools simplifying the production of database elements astables, queries, forms, reports, web pages, and macros.Videosequences demonstrating “standard operations” forcompleting them have been prepared to enhance out-ofclassroomlearning. The use of SQL and other professionaltools is reduced to the cases when the wizards are unable togenerate the intended construct.

  12. The social question revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenneth, Petersson; Olsson, Ulf; Krejsler, John B.

    2015-01-01

    of social and political unrest, poverty and lack of morality. In the name of European Union social integration is thus organized differently as compared to former times. There are, nevertheless similarities. In both cases educational systems become key arenas for integrating social groups......The focus of this chapter is the re-installation of the social question as a historical practice. The purpose is to investigate how historic figures return and are applied in contemporary political discourses, more precisely in the context of education, education policy and teacher education...... and raising the level of knowledge and competences in society. Higher education, in this case teacher education, is supposed to develop potentials of individuals and maximize “their contribution to a sustainable and democratic knowledge-based society.” Consequently; student cohorts should reflect...

  13. The questions for Machiavelli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakićević Dragan D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main intention of the work that deals with the Nicolo Machiavelli thought is to point out the obvious paradox between the high political goal and the legitimating of all possible means for its realization. Are evil deeds inevitable in the sphere of politics and under what circumstances the immorality contained in political acts could be transformed into common good? The text asks additional questions such as about the accomplishments of ambitious political projects, the relationship among the ideologist and the representative of political power, the transformations of the means into the ends, the use of violence and indoctrination in political acts, revolutionary and evolutionary political methods, etc. The author claims that political technologies recommended by Machiavelli basically haven't diminished, but have taken on more modern and more adequate forms.

  14. The Deflection Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, A. H.; Nesvold, E.; van Heerden, E.; Erasmus, N.; Marchis, F.

    2016-12-01

    On 15 February, 2013, a 15 m diameter asteroid entered the Earth's atmosphere over Russia. The resulting shockwave injured nearly 1500 people, and incurred 33 million (USD) in infrastructure damages. The Chelyabinsk meteor served as a forceful demonstration of the threat posed to Earth by the hundreds of potentially hazardous objects (PHOs) that pass near the Earth every year. Although no objects have yet been discovered on an impact course for Earth, an impact is virtually statistically guaranteed at some point in the future. While many impactor deflection technologies have been proposed, humanity has yet to demonstrate the ability to divert an impactor when one is found. Developing and testing any single proposed technology will require significant research time and funding. This leaves open an obvious question - towards which technologies should funding and research be directed, in order to maximize our preparedness for when an impactor is eventually found? To help answer this question, we have created a detailed framework for analyzing various deflection technologies and their effectiveness. Using an n-body integrator (REBOUND), we have simulated the attempted deflections of a population of Earth-impacting objects with a variety of velocity perturbations (∂Vs), and measured the effects that these perturbations had on impact probability. We then mapped the ∂Vs applied in the orbital simulations to the technologies capable of achieving those perturbations, and analyzed which set of technologies would be most effective at preventing a PHO from impacting the earth. As a final step, we used the results of these simulations to train a machine learning algorithm. This algorithm, combined with a simulated PHO population, can predict which technologies are most likely to be needed. The algorithm can also reveal which impactor observables (mass, spin, orbit, etc.) have the greatest effect on the choice of deflection technology. These results can be used as a tool to

  15. 21 CFR 866.2180 - Manual colony counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual colony counter. 866.2180 Section 866.2180...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2180 Manual colony counter. (a) Identification. A manual colony counter is a device intended for medical purposes that...

  16. Automatic Chinese Factual Question Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Rus, Vasile; Liu, Li

    2017-01-01

    Question generation is an emerging research area of artificial intelligence in education. Question authoring tools are important in educational technologies, e.g., intelligent tutoring systems, as well as in dialogue systems. Approaches to generate factual questions, i.e., questions that have concrete answers, mainly make use of the syntactical…

  17. Professionalising counter fraud specialists (fraud investigators) in the UK public sector: a focus upon Department for Work and Pensions, National Health Service and the Local Authority

    OpenAIRE

    Frimpong, KO

    2013-01-01

    This thesis seeks to examine and explore the professionalisation initiatives of the UK public sector counter fraud specialists (fraud investigators), with a focus upon the Department for Work and Pensions (DWP), National Health Service (NHS) and Local Authority (LA). The conceptual framework used to underpin the study was functionalist / “traits” theory of a profession and professionalisation. The main research question for the thesis concerns the issue of whether counter fraud specialism is ...

  18. Track reconstruction in the BESⅢ muon counter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Yu-Tie; LIU Kun; YOU Zheng-Yun; MAO Ya-Jun; LI Wei-Dong; BIAN Jian-Ming; CAO Guo-Fu; CAO Xue-Xiang; CHEN Shen-Jian; DENG Zi-Yan; FU Cheng-Dong; GAO Yuan-Ning; HAN Lei; HAN Shao-Qing; HE Kang-Lin; HE Miao; HU Ji-Feng; HU Xiao-Wei; HUANG Bin; HUANG Xing-Tao; JIA Lu-Kui; JI Xiao-Bin; LI Hai-Bo; LIU Bei-Jiang; LIU Chun-Xiu; LIU Huai-Min; LIU Ying; LIU Yong; LUO Tao; Lü Qi-Wen; MA Qiu-Mei; MA Xiang; MAO Ze-Pu; MO Xiao-Hu; NING Fei-Peng; PING Rong-Gang; QIU Jin-Fa; SONG Wen-Bo; SUN Sheng-Sen; SUN Xiao-Dong; SUN Yong-Zhao; TIAN Hao-Lai; WANG Ji-Ke; WANG Liang-Liang; WEN Shuo-Pin; WU Ling-Hui; WU Zhi; XIE Yu-Guang; XU Min; YAN Jie; YAN Liang; YAO Jian; YUAN Chang-Zheng; YUAN Ye; ZHANG Chang-Chun; ZHANG Jian-Yong; ZHANG Lei; ZHANG Xue-Yao; ZHANG Yao; ZHENG Yang-Heng; ZHU Yong-Sheng; ZOU Jia-Heng

    2009-01-01

    The reconstruction algorithm for BESⅢ Muon Counter, MucRecAlg, is developed with the object-oriented language C++ in BESⅢ offline software environment. MucRecAlg consists of the following functions: to find track seeds either from extrapolation of tracks in the main drift chamber or from the fired strips in muon counter, to select fired strips associated to the candidate tracks, to fit the candidate tracks with a linear or quadratic function and to calculate other parameters of the tracks for muon identification. Monte Carlo samples are generated to check the performance of the reconstruction package, such as reconstruction efficiency, muon remaining rate and pion rejection rate, etc. The preliminary results show that the pion rejection rate is around 3%-4% while the muon remaining rate is better than 90% in 0.4-1.6 GeV/c momentum region, which meets the requirement as shown in the design report.

  19. Effectiveness of E-learning Compared to Classroom Learning in the Diagnostic Approach to Bioterrorism and Chemical Terrorism for Emergency Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Alavi-Moghaddam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Emergency physicians play an important role in the immediate diagnosis of bioterrorism activities. The present study was conducted with the purpose of comparing the effectiveness of e-learning and classroom learning in approach to bioterrorism and chemical terrorism for emergency physicians. Methods: This was a semi-empirical study, which was conducted via testing knowledge before and after the educational intervention in the field of bioterrorism and chemical terrorism on the emergency physicians in Tehran. The external validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by two academic experts in order to determine the ability to detect bioterrorist and chemical terrorist diseases. In this study, education was done in both virtual and classroom forms. The education regarded 6 bioterrorist diseases in group A (anthrax, plague, viral hemorrhagic fever, tularemia, smallpox, and 5 chemical terrorist diseases (nerve gas, mustard, lewisite, phosgene, chlorine. Results: 160 doctors participated in this study. 96 people (60% were men and 64 people (40% were women. The average age of the participants was 36.2±5.5 years. In e-learning method, the pre-test scores average was (30.6%, while the post-test scores average was (81.6% (p=0.001. In classroom learning method, the pre-test scores average was (41.9%, while the post-test scores average was (72.9%, which the pre-test and post-test scores average differences in both cases are significant (p<0.001. In e-learning method, the difference was (51%, and in the classroom method it was (31%, which these two represent a 20% difference between methods. From statistical point of view, this difference indicates that the e-learning method being more effective (p=0.02. Conclusions: Based on the study results, it seems that in comparison to the classroom learning, e-learning method is more effective in helping emergency physicians to diagnose bioterrorism or chemical terrorism factors. Keywords: E

  20. Counter-stereotypical pictures as a strategy for overcoming spontaneous gender stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eimear eFinnegan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present research investigated the use of counter-stereotypical pictures as a strategy for overcoming spontaneous gender stereotypes when certain social role nouns and professional terms are read. Across two experiments, participants completed a judgement task in which they were presented with word pairs comprised of a role noun with a stereotypical gender bias (e.g. beautician and a kinship term with definitional gender (e.g. brother. Their task was to quickly decide whether or not both terms could refer to one person. In each experiment they completed 2 blocks of such judgement trials separated by a training session in which they were presented with pictures of people working in gender counter-stereotypical (Experiment 1 or gender stereotypical roles (Experiment 2. To ensure participants were focused on the pictures, they were also required to answer 4 questions on each one relating to the character’s leisure activities, earnings, job satisfaction and personal life. Accuracy of judgements to stereotype incongruent pairings was found to improve significantly across blocks when participants were exposed to counter-stereotype images (9.87% as opposed to stereotypical images (0.12%, while response times decreased significantly across blocks in both studies. It is concluded that exposure to counter-stereotypical pictures is a valuable strategy for overcoming spontaneous gender stereotype biases in the short term.

  1. Counter-stereotypical pictures as a strategy for overcoming spontaneous gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, Eimear; Oakhill, Jane; Garnham, Alan

    2015-01-01

    The present research investigated the use of counter-stereotypical pictures as a strategy for overcoming spontaneous gender stereotypes when certain social role nouns and professional terms are read. Across two experiments, participants completed a judgment task in which they were presented with word pairs comprised of a role noun with a stereotypical gender bias (e.g., beautician) and a kinship term with definitional gender (e.g., brother). Their task was to quickly decide whether or not both terms could refer to one person. In each experiment they completed two blocks of such judgment trials separated by a training session in which they were presented with pictures of people working in gender counter-stereotypical (Experiment 1) or gender stereotypical roles (Experiment 2). To ensure participants were focused on the pictures, they were also required to answer four questions on each one relating to the character's leisure activities, earnings, job satisfaction, and personal life. Accuracy of judgments to stereotype incongruent pairings was found to improve significantly across blocks when participants were exposed to counter-stereotype images (9.87%) as opposed to stereotypical images (0.12%), while response times decreased significantly across blocks in both studies. It is concluded that exposure to counter-stereotypical pictures is a valuable strategy for overcoming spontaneous gender stereotype biases in the short term.

  2. Neutron counter based on beryllium activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienkowska, B.; Prokopowicz, R.; Kaczmarczyk, J.; Paducha, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM), Hery 23, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Scholz, M.; Igielski, A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAS (IFJPAN), Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Karpinski, L. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Rzeszow University of Technology, Pola 2, 35-959 Rzeszow (Poland); Pytel, K. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), Soltana 7, 05-400 Otwock - Swierk (Poland)

    2014-08-21

    The fusion reaction occurring in DD plasma is followed by emission of 2.45 MeV neutrons, which carry out information about fusion reaction rate and plasma parameters and properties as well. Neutron activation of beryllium has been chosen for detection of DD fusion neutrons. The cross-section for reaction {sup 9}Be(n, α){sup 6}He has a useful threshold near 1 MeV, which means that undesirable multiple-scattered neutrons do not undergo that reaction and therefore are not recorded. The product of the reaction, {sup 6}He, decays with half-life T{sub 1/2} = 0.807 s emitting β{sup −} particles which are easy to detect. Large area gas sealed proportional detector has been chosen as a counter of β–particles leaving activated beryllium plate. The plate with optimized dimensions adjoins the proportional counter entrance window. Such set-up is also equipped with appropriate electronic components and forms beryllium neutron activation counter. The neutron flux density on beryllium plate can be determined from the number of counts. The proper calibration procedure needs to be performed, therefore, to establish such relation. The measurements with the use of known β–source have been done. In order to determine the detector response function such experiment have been modeled by means of MCNP5–the Monte Carlo transport code. It allowed proper application of the results of transport calculations of β{sup −} particles emitted from radioactive {sup 6}He and reaching proportional detector active volume. In order to test the counter system and measuring procedure a number of experiments have been performed on PF devices. The experimental conditions have been simulated by means of MCNP5. The correctness of simulation outcome have been proved by measurements with known radioactive neutron source. The results of the DD fusion neutron measurements have been compared with other neutron diagnostics.

  3. Neutron counter based on beryllium activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienkowska, B.; Prokopowicz, R.; Scholz, M.; Kaczmarczyk, J.; Igielski, A.; Karpinski, L.; Paducha, M.; Pytel, K.

    2014-08-01

    The fusion reaction occurring in DD plasma is followed by emission of 2.45 MeV neutrons, which carry out information about fusion reaction rate and plasma parameters and properties as well. Neutron activation of beryllium has been chosen for detection of DD fusion neutrons. The cross-section for reaction 9Be(n, α)6He has a useful threshold near 1 MeV, which means that undesirable multiple-scattered neutrons do not undergo that reaction and therefore are not recorded. The product of the reaction, 6He, decays with half-life T1/2 = 0.807 s emitting β- particles which are easy to detect. Large area gas sealed proportional detector has been chosen as a counter of β-particles leaving activated beryllium plate. The plate with optimized dimensions adjoins the proportional counter entrance window. Such set-up is also equipped with appropriate electronic components and forms beryllium neutron activation counter. The neutron flux density on beryllium plate can be determined from the number of counts. The proper calibration procedure needs to be performed, therefore, to establish such relation. The measurements with the use of known β-source have been done. In order to determine the detector response function such experiment have been modeled by means of MCNP5-the Monte Carlo transport code. It allowed proper application of the results of transport calculations of β- particles emitted from radioactive 6He and reaching proportional detector active volume. In order to test the counter system and measuring procedure a number of experiments have been performed on PF devices. The experimental conditions have been simulated by means of MCNP5. The correctness of simulation outcome have been proved by measurements with known radioactive neutron source. The results of the DD fusion neutron measurements have been compared with other neutron diagnostics.

  4. Prevent: A Fragmented Counter-Terrorism Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    of the Prevent strategy. The British counter-insurgency experiences in Malaysia provide an invaluable insight into the historical lessons of...cultural diversity , and language are recognized, it becomes easier to appreciate why a separation from the rest of the United Kingdom’s society is...autonomy in Malaysia reflect a similar dichotomy that the OSCT and DCLG face today. The Prevent strategy of decentralized control and emphasis on local

  5. Light Obscuration Particle Counter Fuel Contamination Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-08

    4) (5). The Army utilizes ASTM D4176 – Standard Test Method for Free Water and Particulate Contamination in Distillate Fuels (Visual Inspection ...where high in the 4µm (c) channel only. 78 samples where aviation fuels (JP-8 and F-24) that where high in the 6µm (c),14µm (c), and/or 30µm (c...AND USE OF LIQUID FUELS Charleston, South Carolina USA 4-8 October 2015 LIGHT OBSCURATION PARTICLE COUNTER FUEL CONTAMINATION LIMITS Joel

  6. Nanodesign: some basic questions

    CERN Document Server

    Schommers, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    There is no doubt that nanoscience will be the dominant direction for technology in this century, and that this science will influence our lives to a large extent as well as open completely new perspectives on all scientific and technological disciplines. To be able to produce optimal nanosystems with tailor-made properties, it is necessary to analyze and construct such systems in advance by adequate theoretical and computational methods. Since we work in nanoscience and nanotechnology at the ultimate level, we have to apply the basic laws of physics. What methods and tools are relevant here? The book gives an answer to this question. The background of the theoretical methods and tools is critically discussed, and also the world view on which these physical laws are based. Such a debate is not only of academic interest but is of highly general concern, and this is because we constantly move in nanoscience and nanotechnology between two extreme poles, between infinite life and total destruction . On the one ...

  7. Hardware support for software controlled fast multiplexing of performance counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Performance counters may be operable to collect one or more counts of one or more selected activities, and registers may be operable to store a set of performance counter configurations. A state machine may be operable to automatically select a register from the registers for reconfiguring the one or more performance counters in response to receiving a first signal. The state machine may be further operable to reconfigure the one or more performance counters based on a configuration specified in the selected register. The state machine yet further may be operable to copy data in selected one or more of the performance counters to a memory location, or to copy data from the memory location to the counters, in response to receiving a second signal. The state machine may be operable to store or restore the counter values and state machine configuration in response to a context switch event.

  8. Questioning Strategies of English Teachers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梅

    2014-01-01

    AMY.B.M.TSUI thinks that most of the interactive learning starts with the teachers ’questioning. Richard and Lock-art (1994) think that the proper questioning can help the students to acquire the second language. Jin Chuanbao ( 1997) even thinks that the questioning process of the teachers should become the core of the class. Though almost all of the teachers are ques-tioning, they know little about the questioning strategies. In this case, it is urgent to study this subject. The present study reveals some problems of four teachers’questioning strategies in Junior Middle School. I hope some helpful ideas can be found in the thesis.

  9. A question of authority

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Earl W.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2003-10-15

    A Question of Authority. This article deals with a certain scenario and several reviewers are to give their opinion. This one is in regards to - Suspending an IACUC approved animal use activity is about the last thing a research institution wants to do. Consider the predicament that the Great Eastern University IACUC faced when Dr. Janet Jenkins, the Attending Veterinarian, suspended all animal use activity on an approved protocol of Dr. Roy Maslo. Jenkins had the IACUCs authority to temporarily suspend a protocol, subject to review by a quorum of the full committee. She alleged that Maslo used mice from his breeding colony, not purchased rats, to begin a new study. Jenkins saw Maslos technicians bringing mouse cages to a procedure room and setting up for a minor survival surgery. She asked them to wait until she clarified things as she felt confident that the protocol called for rats. She called Maslo and asked him if the study had been approved for mice, to which he responded affirmatively. Still not feeling quite assured, she went to her office, reviewed the protocol, and found only rat studies described. She also called the IACUC office to see if there were any approved amendments which she may not have received, and was told that there were none. By the time she returned, one procedure was completed. Understandably upset, she informed the technicians and Maslo that any further activity on the protocol was suspended until the issue was resolved. Jenkins informed the IACUC chairman who in turned called an emergency meeting of the committee.

  10. Effects of the USA PATRIOT Act and the 2002 Bioterrorism Preparedness Act on select agent research in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, M Beatrice; Reyes-Gonzalez, Leonardo; Veloso, Francisco M; Casman, Elizabeth A

    2010-05-25

    A bibliometric analysis of the Bacillus anthracis and Ebola virus archival literature was conducted to determine whether negative consequences of the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism" (USA PATRIOT) Act and the 2002 Bioterrorism Preparedness Act on US select agent research could be discerned. Indicators of the health of the field, such as number of papers published per year, number of researchers authoring papers, and influx rate of new authors, indicated an overall stimulus to the field after 2002. As measured by interorganizational coauthorships, both B. anthracis and Ebola virus research networks expanded after 2002 in terms of the number of organizations and the degree of collaboration. Coauthorship between US and non US scientists also grew for Ebola virus but contracted for the subset of B. anthracis research that did not involve possession of viable, virulent bacteria. Some non-US institutions were dropped, and collaborations with others intensified. Contrary to expectations, research did not become centralized around a few gatekeeper institutions. Two negative effects were detected. There was an increased turnover rate of authors in the select agent community that was not observed in the control organism (Klebsiella pneumoniae) research community. However, the most striking effect observed was not associated with individual authors or institutions; it was a loss of efficiency, with an approximate 2- to 5-fold increase in the cost of doing select agent research as measured by the number of research papers published per millions of US research dollars awarded.

  11. Antibiotic Resistance Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the Farm Get Smart About Antibiotics Week Antibiotic Resistance Questions and Answers Language: English (US) Español ( ... Many ear infections Top of Page Questions about Antibiotic Resistance Examples of How Antibiotic Resistance Spreads Click for ...

  12. Consumer Preferences for High Welfare Meat in Germany: Self-service Counter or Service Counter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Weinrich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many people view animal welfare standards in the agricultural industry as critical and some consumers would prefer to buy high welfare meat. In order to successfully introduce high welfare meat products onto the market, some important marketing decisions must be made. Due to limited shelf space in retail outlets, niche products like high welfare meat cannot be placed both at the self-service counter and at the service counter. In order to analyze where to place it best an online survey of 642 German consumers was conducted. By means of factor and cluster analyses, consumers’ animal welfare attitudes and their preference for a point of purchase were combined. The different target groups were joint using cross tabulation analysis. The results reveal that consumers in the target group show a more positive attitude to the service counter.

  13. The Questions of Liberal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcilla, Rene V.

    2007-01-01

    There is a certain kind of liberal educator who bases his or her practice on a particular attitude toward the "Big Questions." The questions of fundamental literacy in K-12 education, or of expertise in vocational and professional education, may be just as important, but they are seen as quite different in kind. Indeed, the questions of liberal…

  14. The Hermeneutics of Educational Questioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Charles

    2005-01-01

    This article looks at the practice of educational questioning using the philosophical hermeneutics of Hans-Georg Gadamer. It first looks at questions and statements from a hermeneutic perspective, demonstrating some of the differences and similarities between the two. It then details Gadamer's notion of the "true question", asking whether it is…

  15. Disjunctive questions, intonation, and highlighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Roelofsen; S. van Gool

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how intonation affects the interpretation of disjunctive questions. The semantic effect of a question is taken to be three-fold. First, it raises an issue. In the tradition of inquisitive semantics, we model this by assuming that a question proposes several possible updates of th

  16. Does Anyone Have Any Questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Judith M.; Ritter, Virginia F.

    The purpose of this study was to determine if answering a child's question with a question produces further analytical questioning by the child. A sample of 80 children in nursery-kindergarten, first, second and third grades (ages ranging from 4-9 years) were divided into two groups. An abstract painting by Kandinsky was shown individually to each…

  17. The Hermeneutics of Educational Questioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Charles

    2005-01-01

    This article looks at the practice of educational questioning using the philosophical hermeneutics of Hans-Georg Gadamer. It first looks at questions and statements from a hermeneutic perspective, demonstrating some of the differences and similarities between the two. It then details Gadamer's notion of the "true question", asking whether it is…

  18. Children Who Question Their Heterosexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Priscilla R.; Egan, Susan K.; Perry, David G.

    2004-01-01

    Many gay, lesbian, and bisexual adults report a period of childhood sexual questioning--an uneasy questioning of their heterosexuality brought on by same-sex attractions and motivating same-sex sexual exploration. This article evaluates hypotheses about the correlates, causes, and consequences of childhood sexual questioning. Participants were 182…

  19. Counter-Narratives and the Unrehearsed Stories Counter-Terrorists Unwittingly Produce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice de Graaf

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Governments produce both deliberate and involuntary (and less conscious narratives when countering terrorism. The thesis of this article is that such unintended messages can be much more powerful and consequential than is realized; in fact, they can completely contradict the intended official 'counter-narrative'. To substantiate this hypothesis, the author looks at the experience of the German Federal Republic in the 1970s and beyond when state and society were confronted with the Red Army Faction (RAF and similar left-wing "revolutionaries" like those of the 2nd of June Movement or the Red Zora.

  20. Challenges to counseling customers at the pharmacy counter - why do they exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig

    2012-01-01

    Challenges to engage pharmacy customers in medicine dialogues at the counter have been identified comprising a new and extended clinical role for pharmacists in the health care system. This article seeks to expand understanding of factors involved in successful interaction at the pharmacy counter...... between customers and pharmacy staff to develop their relationship further. Practical challenges to customer encounters experienced by community pharmacists are discussed using theory from the field of mainly inter-relational communication and particular studies on pharmacy communication. Preconceived...... expectation of customers, the type of question asked by pharmacy staff, and differences in perception of illness and medicines between staff and customers are discussed. Both staff and customer influence the outcome of attempts by pharmacy staff to engage customers in dialogue about their medicine use through...

  1. Arts and Techniques of Questioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管楠

    2012-01-01

      Most learners learn English from teachers in classrooms, therefore, classroom instruction is very important. However, teachers’questioning plays a very significant part in classroom teaching. It is not only an important part of classroom interaction but also an effective way of learning second language as wel. On the one hand, it is through question and answer exchange that teachers interactwithstudents.Onthe other hand, it isalsothroughinteractionwiththeirteachersand peers that ESLlearners learn the target language. Teachers’ aims of questioning, question types, teachers’modification of questions, the wait-time, the feedback and the assessment providedby teacherswil affectclassroom interaction.

  2. PRELIMINARY PROGRAMMED WHOLE—BODY COUNTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张少东; 郑文忠; 等

    1995-01-01

    It is capable of giving the initial intakes of radionuclides and the assessment quantitites used in radiation protection according to its measured results of radionuclides in vivo.It is accomplished by providing the software of controlling,interface and internal dose estimation programs to the original iron cabin shielding whole-body counter.The preliminary application shows that its data processing is rapid and correct,and can meet the requirement of rapid internal radioactive contamination monitoring and diagnosing in case of lots of internal contamination subjects happened in nuclear accident.

  3. Taxing junk food to counter obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Caroline; Grandi, Sonia M; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2013-11-01

    We examined the advantages and disadvantages of implementing a junk food tax as an intervention to counter increasing obesity in North America. Small excise taxes are likely to yield substantial revenue but are unlikely to affect obesity rates. High excise taxes are likely to have a direct impact on weight in at-risk populations but are less likely to be politically palatable or sustainable. Ultimately, the effectiveness of earmarked health programs and subsidies is likely to be a key determinant of tax success in the fight against obesity.

  4. Shared address collectives using counter mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocksome, Michael; Dozsa, Gabor; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Mamidala, Amith R; Miller, Douglas

    2014-02-18

    A shared address space on a compute node stores data received from a network and data to transmit to the network. The shared address space includes an application buffer that can be directly operated upon by a plurality of processes, for instance, running on different cores on the compute node. A shared counter is used for one or more of signaling arrival of the data across the plurality of processes running on the compute node, signaling completion of an operation performed by one or more of the plurality of processes, obtaining reservation slots by one or more of the plurality of processes, or combinations thereof.

  5. Cerenkov counter for the experiment NA3

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    The program of the NA3 experiment included the study of hadronic interactions with a large transverse momentum pT, thus the inclusion in the set-up of three gas threshold Cerenkov counters of large acceptance. The photo shows the downstream part of the second Cerenkov (located at the output of the magnet). The yellow membrane is a temporary protection for the optics (shown in photo 7810540X) to be taken away when fixing this part to the gas tank (entering the magnet and not shown). The photomultipliers all around are heavily shielded.

  6. The multimodal argumentation of persuasive counter discourses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Carmen Daniela

    are given prominence in the argumentation by examining their complex interplay and functional differentiation. The ways in which speech, writing and images articulate the counter discourse occupy a central position in the analysis. A special focus is put on the multimodal configuration of specific...... and new multimodal ways of discussing them. References Kress, G. 2010. Multimodality. A Social Semiotic Approach to Contemporary Communication. London: Routledge. Van Leeuwen, Theo. 2008. Discourse and Practice. New Tools for Critical Discourse Analysis. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chouliaraki, L...

  7. Industrial espionage and technical surveillance counter measurers

    CERN Document Server

    Androulidakis, Iosif

    2016-01-01

    This book examines technical aspects of industrial espionage and its impact in modern companies, organizations, and individuals while emphasizing the importance of intellectual property in the information era. The authors discuss the problem itself and then provide statistics and real world cases. The main contribution provides a detailed discussion of the actual equipment, tools and techniques concerning technical surveillance in the framework of espionage. Moreover, they present the best practices and methods of detection (technical surveillance counter measures) as well as means of intellectual property protection.

  8. Methods and procedures for the collection and disposal of bioterrorism agents at border ports%国境口岸生物恐怖剂标本采集和处理方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆琳; 车志军; 孙福军; 王飞; 刘国传

    2011-01-01

    本文建立了国境口岸生物恐怖剂标本采集和处理的规范程序和方法,对于提高国境口岸生物恐怖防控能力建设,有效防止生物恐怖有害因子入境,保障口岸安全具有重要意义.%This paper establishes standards, procedures, and methods of collecting and disposing of bioterrorism agents at border ports. The capacity for bioterrorism prevention and control should be enhanced at border ports, potential bioterrorism agents should be prevented from entering the country, and port security should be ensured.

  9. Can multiple-choice questions simulate free-response questions?

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Shih-Yin

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a study to evaluate the extent to which free-response questions could be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents. Two carefully designed research-based multiple-choice questions were transformed into a free-response format and administered on the final exam in a calculus-based introductory physics course. The original multiple-choice questions were administered in another similar introductory physics course on final exam. Findings suggest that carefully designed multiple-choice questions can reflect the relative performance of the free-response questions while maintaining the benefits of ease of grading and quantitative analysis, especially if the different choices in the multiple-choice questions are weighted to reflect the different levels of understanding that students display.

  10. A new TDCR-LS counter using Channel photomultiplier tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, C; Cassette, P; Sahagia, Maria

    2008-01-01

    A new Triple to Double Coincidence Ratio (TDCR) liquid scintillation (LS) counter using recently available photodetectors, the Channel photomultiplier (CPM) tubes, was constructed and tested in the framework of a scientific cooperation between IFIN-HH and LNHB. The prototype LS counter uses 3CPM tubes arranged symmetrically in an optical chamber around a standard LS vial. The behavior of the prototype was first evaluated with a light emitting diode (LED) light pulser. The counter was then compared against a TDCR counter using conventional photomultiplier tubes, by measuring (55)Fe, (3)H, (63)Ni and (90)Sr/(90)Y LS sources prepared in commercial liquid scintillation cocktails. Although the observed detection efficiency was significantly lower than the one achieved with the traditional counter, we found a remarkable agreement on the activity determination using the two counters. Details on the prototype and the measurement results obtained are discussed in this paper.

  11. Multi-platform comparison of ten commercial master mixes for probe-based real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of bioterrorism threat agents for surge preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzard, Gregory S; Baker, Daniel; Wolcott, Mark J; Norwood, David A; Dauphin, Leslie A

    2012-11-30

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and United States Army Research Institute for Infectious Diseases have developed real-time PCR assays for the detection of bioterrorism threat agents. These assays all rely on a limited number of approved real-time PCR master mixes. Because the availability of these reagents is a critical element of bioterrorism preparedness, we undertook a joint national preparedness exercise to address the potential surge needs resulting from a large-scale bio-emergency. We identified 9 commercially-available potential alternatives to an existing approved master mix (LightCycler FastStart DNA Master HybProbes): the TaqMan Fast Universal PCR master mix, OmniMix HS, FAST qPCR master mix, EXPRESS qPCR SuperMix kit, QuantiFast Probe PCR kit, LightCycler FastStart DNA Master(PLUS) HybProbe, Brilliant II FAST qPCR master mix, ABsolute Fast QPCR Mix and the HotStart IT Taq master mix. The performances of these kits were evaluated by the use of real-time PCR assays for four bioterrorism threat agents: Bacillus anthracis, Brucella melitensis, Burkholderia mallei and Francisella tularensis. The master mixes were compared for target-specific detection levels, as well as consistency of results among three different real-time PCR platforms (LightCycler, SmartCycler and 7500 Fast Dx). Real-time PCR analysis revealed that all ten kits performed well for agent detection on the 7500 Fast Dx instrument; however, the QuantiFast Probe PCR kit yielded the most consistently positive results across multiple real-time PCR platforms. We report that certain combinations of commonly used master mixes and instruments are not as reliable as others at detecting low concentrations of target DNA. Furthermore, our study provides laboratories the option to select from the commercial kits we evaluated to suit their preparedness needs.

  12. Neutron pileup algorithms for multiplicity counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Sean M.; Stave, Sean; Lintereur, Azaree; Siciliano, Edward; Kouzes, Richard; Bliss, Mary

    2015-06-01

    Abstract The shortage of helium-3 (3He) has created a need to identify alternative neutron detection options for a variety of nuclear nonproliferation applications. One application that may be affected by 3He replacement technology is that of mass accountancy for safeguards, which utilizes coincidence and multiplicity counters to verify special nuclear material declarations. The use of neutron scintillation materials, such as LiF-ZnS sheets, as an alternative to 3He proportional tubes in multiplicity counters requires novel techniques for Pulse Shape Discrimination to distinguish between neutrons and gamma rays. These techniques must work under high count rates, as the maximum momentary rate for incoming neutrons from multiplicity events can be quite large. We have created a fast and accurate neutron discrimination algorithm based on time window filtering and signature comparison that can operate quickly on data with high degrees of gamma ray and neutron pileup. This algorithm is evaluated for its capability to separate signals as the pileup rate increases, and the possibility for implementation on fast hardware (e.g., FPGA hardware) for real-time operation is explored.

  13. Instability patterns between counter-rotating disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Moisy

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The instability patterns in the flow between counter-rotating disks (radius to height ratio R/h from 3.8 to 20.9 are investigated experimentally by means of visualization and Particle Image Velocimetry. We restrict ourselves to the situation where the boundary layers remain stable, focusing on the shear layer instability that occurs only in the counter-rotating regime. The associated pattern is a combination of a circular chain of vortices, as observed by Lopez et al. (2002 at low aspect ratio, surrounded by a set of spiral arms, first described by Gauthier et al. (2002 in the case of high aspect ratio. Stability curve and critical modes are measured for the whole range of aspect ratios. From the measurement of a local Reynolds number based on the shear layer thickness, evidence is given that a free shear layer instability, with only weak curvature effect, is responsible for the observed patterns. Accordingly, the number of vortices is shown to scale as the shear layer radius, which results from the competition between the centrifugal effects of each disk.

  14. Neutron pileup algorithms for multiplicity counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Sean M., E-mail: sean.robinson@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Stave, Sean; Lintereur, Azaree; Siciliano, Edward; Kouzes, Richard; Bliss, Mary [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The shortage of helium-3 ({sup 3}He) has created a need to identify alternative neutron detection options for a variety of nuclear nonproliferation applications. One application that may be affected by {sup 3}He replacement technology is that of mass accountancy for safeguards, which utilizes coincidence and multiplicity counters to verify special nuclear material declarations. The use of neutron scintillation materials, such as LiF–ZnS sheets, as an alternative to {sup 3}He proportional tubes in multiplicity counters requires novel techniques for Pulse Shape Discrimination to distinguish between neutrons and gamma rays. These techniques must work under high count rates, as the maximum momentary rate for incoming neutrons from multiplicity events can be quite large. We have created a fast and accurate neutron discrimination algorithm based on time window filtering and signature comparison that can operate quickly on data with high degrees of gamma ray and neutron pileup. This algorithm is evaluated for its capability to separate signals as the pileup rate increases, and the possibility for implementation on fast hardware (e.g., FPGA hardware) for real-time operation is explored.

  15. Silicon photomultipliers in AMIGA muon counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botti, Ana Martina [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Instituto de Tecnologias en Deteccion y Astroparticulas (ITeDA) (Argentina); Collaboration: Pierre-Auger-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The project AMIGA (Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array) aims to extend the energy range at the Pierre Auger Observatory to observe cosmic rays of lower energies (down to ∝10{sup 17} eV) and to study the transition from extragalactic to galactic cosmic rays. AMIGA is compounded by an infill of surface detectors (employing Cherenkov radiation detection in water) and muon counters. The AMIGA muon counters consist of an array of buried modules composed of 64 scintillator bars, a multi-pixel Photo Multiplier Tube (PMT) and the corresponding electronic of acquisition which works along with the surface detector. Currently, ITeDA is evaluating the feasibility of replacing PMTs with silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) without performing any substantial modification in the digital readout nor in the mechanical design. I present calibration results of a prototype module associated to the surface detector Toune of the Pierre Auger Observatory using a SiPM Hamamatsu S1257-100C plugged to the standard AMIGA front-end electronics. In addition, a study concerning gain stability and temperature variation has also been performed and is reported. I finally discuss a comparison between traces measured by both photodetectors (PMT and SiPM) for modules associated to the surface detector Toune.

  16. The Brazilian military: its role in counter-drug activities.

    OpenAIRE

    Kitchener, Roy I.

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis examines the role of Brazil's military in counter-drug operations. Drug trafficking in Brazil poses a growing threat to the country's national security, but Brazil's physical size and limited resources have hindered the government's counter-drug efforts. The Brazilian military has been reluctant to assume a more significant role in counter-drug operations. The thesis argues that external, internal, and ...

  17. Hardware support for software controlled fast reconfiguration of performance counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W.

    2013-06-18

    Hardware support for software controlled reconfiguration of performance counters may include a plurality of performance counters collecting one or more counts of one or more selected activities. A storage element stores data value representing a time interval, and a timer element reads the data value and detects expiration of the time interval based on the data value and generates a signal. A plurality of configuration registers stores a set of performance counter configurations. A state machine receives the signal and selects a configuration register from the plurality of configuration registers for reconfiguring the one or more performance counters.

  18. Hardware support for software controlled fast reconfiguration of performance counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W

    2013-09-24

    Hardware support for software controlled reconfiguration of performance counters may include a plurality of performance counters collecting one or more counts of one or more selected activities. A storage element stores data value representing a time interval, and a timer element reads the data value and detects expiration of the time interval based on the data value and generates a signal. A plurality of configuration registers stores a set of performance counter configurations. A state machine receives the signal and selects a configuration register from the plurality of configuration registers for reconfiguring the one or more performance counters.

  19. A new highly segmented start counter for the CLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharabian, Y.G. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Battaglieri, M. [INFN Sezione di Genova, 16146 Genova (Italy); Burkert, V.D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); DeVita, R. [INFN Sezione di Genova, 16146 Genova (Italy); Elouadrhiri, L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Guo, L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Kashy, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Kubarovsky, V. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Mutchler, G.S. [T.W. Bonner Nuclear Laboratory, Rice University, Houton, TX 77251-1892 (United States)]. E-mail: mutchler@rice.edu; Ostrick, M. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Ripani, M. [INFN Sezione di Genova, 16146 Genova (Italy); Rossi, P. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Rottura, A. [INFN Sezione di Genova, 16146 Genova (Italy); Pasyuk, E. [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, 85287-1504 (United States); Weygand, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The design, construction and performance of a highly segmented Start Counter are described. The Start Counter is an integral part of the trigger used in photon beam running with CLAS in Hall B at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF). The Start Counter is constructed of 24 2.2-mm-thick single-ended scintillation paddles, forming a hermetic hexagon around the target region. This device measures the interaction time of the incoming photon in the target by detecting the outgoing particles. The counter provides complex trigger topologies, shows good efficiency and achieved a time resolution of 350 ps.

  20. A critique to the significance of Gettier counter-examples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Jianbo

    2006-01-01

    Usually,people think that Gettier counter-examples challenged the traditional tripartite definition of knowledge and fundamentally changed the characteristic of the contemporary epistemology.This paper argues that regard for Gettier counter-examples is exaggerated,because(i)the JTB definition is neither an important nor a comprehensive one that covers all knowledge.Moreover,the significance of Gettier counter-examples is limited.(ii)The source of Gettier counter-examples lies in one arbitrary judgment,two mix-ups,three false assumptions,and a misunderstanding about the JTB definition.

  1. Instance-Based Question Answering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    included factoid questions grouped around a set of target entities. For example, for the target entity “ Franz Kafka ”, associated questions included: “Where...from Franz Schubert. A year later he did on Dec 5th.”). Depending on the task, an answer extractor may identify very small, factoid candidates which...IWP): Paraphrase Ac- quisition and Applications, 2003. [55] A. Ittycheriah, M. Franz , and S. Roukos. Ibm’s statistical question answering system - trec

  2. And the next question is powerful questions for sticky moments

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    A very practical and easy to use book of 3,000+ powerful questions, forming part of every coach''s / manager''s toolkit; it enables you to easily find key questions in some of the most distinctive areas of coaching, such as confidence, communications & leadership.

  3. Development of a comparative risk ranking system for agents posing a bioterrorism threat to human or animal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomuzia, Katharina; Menrath, Andrea; Frentzel, Hendrik; Filter, Matthias; Weiser, Armin A; Bräunig, Juliane; Buschulte, Anja; Appel, Bernd

    2013-09-01

    Various systems for prioritizing biological agents with respect to their applicability as biological weapons are available, ranging from qualitative to (semi)quantitative approaches. This research aimed at generating a generic risk ranking system applicable to human and animal pathogenic agents based on scientific information. Criteria were evaluated and clustered to create a criteria list. Considering availability of data, a number of 28 criteria separated by content were identified that can be classified in 11 thematic areas or categories. Relevant categories contributing to probability were historical aspects, accessibility, production efforts, and possible paths for dispersion. Categories associated with impact are dealing with containment measures, availability of diagnostics, preventive and treatment measures in human and animal populations, impact on society, human and veterinary public health, and economic and ecological consequences. To allow data-based scoring, each criterion was described by at least 1 measure that allows the assignment of values. These values constitute quantities, ranges, or facts that are as explicit and precise as possible. The consideration of minimum and maximum values that can occur due to natural variations and that are often described in the literature led to the development of minimum and maximum criteria and consequently category scores. Missing or incomplete data, and uncertainty resulting therefrom, were integrated into the scheme via a cautious (but not overcautious) approach. The visualization technique that was used allows the description and illustration of uncertainty on the level of probability and impact. The developed risk ranking system was evaluated by assessing the risk originating from the bioterrorism threat of the animal pathogen bluetongue virus, the human pathogen Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7, the zoonotic Bacillus anthracis, and Botulinum neurotoxin.

  4. [On-site detection of bioterrorism-relevant agents : Rapid detection methods for viruses, bacteria and toxins - capabilities and limitations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Daniel; Richter, Martin; Schrick, Livia; Lasch, Peter; Keeren, Kathrin; Polleichtner, Angela; Lemmer, Karin; Nitsche, Andreas; Grunow, Roland; Herzog, Christian; Dorner, Brigitte G; Schaade, Lars

    2016-12-01

    In Europe, besides the threat of terrorist attacks involving conventional methods such as explosive devices and automatic weapons, there is also a potential threat of terrorist groups using non-conventional material like biological agents in the scope of future attacks. Consequently, rapid and reliable detection systems for biological agents are being developed and tested continuously to inform crisis management. For environmental detection, a broad spectrum of different laboratory-based techniques has been developed for relevant biological agents. However for environmental samples, fast and reliable on-site detection methods are desired by first responders for rapid assessment.Based on different functional principles, generic, immunological and nucleic-acid-based on-site detection methods can be distinguished. Those should be facile, fast, sensitive, and specific. However, commercially available kits usually have limited sensitivity and often have not been validated independently. Furthermore in this context, the multitude of relevant biological agents that potentially have to be considered present in complex environmental matrices poses a serious challenge for reliable detection. Therefore, detailed knowledge of the specific scope of applications and the limitations of different analytical systems is necessary to evaluate the results obtained purposefully.The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the analytical principles, benefits and limitations of prevailing on-site environmental detection systems for bioterrorism-relevant viruses, bacteria and toxins. Despite promising developments the informative value of currently available on-site tests is still limited. Thus, expert laboratories have to conduct confirmatory testing.

  5. Commonly Asked Questions in Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Assael, Marc J

    2011-01-01

    Have you ever had a question that keeps persisting and for which you cannot find a clear answer? Is the question seemingly so "simple" that the problem is glossed over in most resources, or skipped entirely? CRC Press/Taylor and Francis is pleased to introduce Commonly Asked Questions in Thermodynamics, the first in a new series of books that address the questions that frequently arise in today's major scientific and technical disciplines. Designed for a wide audience, from students and researchers to practicing professionals in related areas, the books are organized in a user friend

  6. Questioning Questions: Elementary Teachers' Adaptations of Investigation Questions Across the Inquiry Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, Mandy

    2017-01-01

    Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in this study. A dataset of 120 elementary science classroom videos and associated lesson plans from 40 elementary teachers (K-5) across 21 elementary school campuses were scored on an instrument measuring the amount of teacher-direction or student-direction of the lessons' investigation questions. Results indicated that the investigation questions were overwhelmingly teacher directed in nature, with no opportunities for students to develop their own questions for investigation. This study has implications for researchers and practitioners alike, calling attention to the teacher-directed nature of investigation questions in existing science curriculum materials, and the need for teacher training in instructional strategies to adapt their existing curriculum materials across the continuum of teacher-directed and student-directed investigation questions. Teachers need strategies for adapting the teacher-directed questions provided in their existing curriculum materials in order to allow students the opportunity to engage in this essential scientific practice.

  7. Fiber-Optic Monitoring System of Particle Counters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Titov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers development of a fiber-optic system to monitor the counters of particles. Presently, optical counters of particles, which are often arranged at considerable distance from each other, are used to study the saltation phenomenon. For monitoring the counters, can be used electric communication lines.However, it complicates and raises the price of system Therefore, we offered a fiber-optic system and the counter of particles, free from these shortcomings. The difference between the offered counter of particles and the known one is that the input of radiation to the counter and the output of radiation scattering on particles are made by the optical fibers, and direct radiation is entered the optical fiber rather than is delayed by a light trap and can be used for lighting the other counters thereby allowing to use their connection in series.The work involved a choice of the quartz multimode optical fiber for communication, defining the optical fiber and lenses parameters of the counter of particles, and a selection of the radiation source and the photo-detector.Using the theory of light diffraction on a particle, a measuring range of the particle sizes has been determined. The system speed has been estimated, and it has been shown that a range of communication can reach 200km.It should be noted that modulation noise of counters of particles connected in series have the impact on the useful signal. To assess the extent of this influence we have developed a calculation procedure to illustrate that with ten counters connected in series this influence on the signal-to-noise ratio will be insignificant.Thus, it has been shown that the offered fiber-optic system can be used for monitoring the counters of particles across the desertified territories. 

  8. Probability and Statistics: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probability and Statistics: 5 Questions is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in probability and statistics. We hear their views on the fields, aims, scopes, the future direction of research and how their work fits...

  9. The Value Question in Metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-07-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit-how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes.

  10. Modelling of an IR scintillation counter

    CERN Document Server

    Fraga, M M F; Policarpo, Armando

    2000-01-01

    A systematic study of the excitation and de-excitation mechanisms in ternary gas mixtures Ar+CO sub 2 +N sub 2 is presented regarding the possibility of developing a proportional scintillation counter based on the detection of the infrared molecular emissions associated with the lowest vibrational states of molecules. The use of visible or near-infrared photons (lambda<1 mu m) for applications like imaging and quality control of microstructure detectors has been reported. In view of these applications we analyse the processes leading to near-infrared emissions in pure argon and give an estimation of the number of photons emitted per electron, at several pressures, as a function of the charge gain.

  11. Absolute calibration of TFTR helium proportional counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strachan, J.D.; Diesso, M.; Jassby, D.; Johnson, L.; McCauley, S.; Munsat, T.; Roquemore, A.L. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Barnes, C.W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Loughlin, M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.]|[JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    1995-06-01

    The TFTR helium proportional counters are located in the central five (5) channels of the TFTR multichannel neutron collimator. These detectors were absolutely calibrated using a 14 MeV neutron generator positioned at the horizontal midplane of the TFTR vacuum vessel. The neutron generator position was scanned in centimeter steps to determine the collimator aperture width to 14 MeV neutrons and the absolute sensitivity of each channel. Neutron profiles were measured for TFTR plasmas with time resolution between 5 msec and 50 msec depending upon count rates. The He detectors were used to measure the burnup of 1 MeV tritons in deuterium plasmas, the transport of tritium in trace tritium experiments, and the residual tritium levels in plasmas following 50:50 DT experiments.

  12. EFFECT OF COUNTERS IN PERFORMANCE OF HADOOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Jain

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological advancements have led to an overflow of data from distinctive domains (e.g., health care and scientific sensors, user-generated data, Internet and financial companies, and supply chain systems over the past two decades [1]. Big data is commonly unstructured, huge in volume and require more real-time analysis. This paper discusses a Big Data problem from NCDC for huge volume of weather data collected from various parts of world. We had generated map ( and reduce ( function for solving this problem and experimental results of these applications on a Hadoop cluster are being discussed. In this paper, performance of above application has been shown with respect to some counters available.

  13. Microstrip proportional counter development at MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, M. A.; Kolodziejczak, J. J.; Ramsey, B. D.

    1992-01-01

    Microstrip detectors are an exciting new development in proportional counter design fabricated using integrated circuit-type photolithography techniques; they therefore offer very high spatial accuracy and uniformity. A development program is underway at NASA-Marshall to produce large-area microstrips for use in an X-ray detector balloon flight program and to investigate the general performance limits of these new devices. Microstrips tested so far have been fabricated both in-house using standard photolithographic techniques and by an outside contractor using electron beam technology. Various substrate materials have been tested along with different electrode configurations. The distributions of pickup on subdivided cathodes on both top and bottom surfaces of the microstrips are also being investigated for use as two-dimensional imaging detectors. Data from these tests in the development of a large-area device will be presented.

  14. Actively suspended counter-rotating machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Philip A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A counter-rotating machine, such as a positive displacement pump having a pair of meshed, non-contacting helical screws (10,12), subjects its rotating members to axial and radial thrust forces when used for such purposes as compression of liquid or gaseous phase fluids while transporting them through a pump cavity (11,13). Each helical screw (10,12) has a shaft (17,17') which is actively suspended at opposite ends (11a,11b) of the pump cavity by a servo-controlled magnetic bearing assembly (19) and a servo-controlled rotary drive motor (20). Both bearing assemblies and drive motors are mounted on the outside of the pump cavity (11,13). Opto-electric angular position sensors (250) provide synchronization between radial orientation of the drive motors. The bearing assemblies and drive motors conjugately provide axial stabilization and radial centering of the helical screws during volumetric compression of aspirated liquid or gaseous phase fluids.

  15. Over-the-counter analgesic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Broe, Marc E; Elseviers, Monique M

    2009-10-01

    Chronic analgesic nephropathy, particularly chronic interstitial nephritis and renal papillary necrosis, results from daily use for many years of mixtures containing at least two analgesics and caffeine or dependence-inducing drugs. Computed tomography scan can accurately diagnose this disease even in the absence of reliable information on previous analgesic use. The occasion to moderate regular use of aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is without renal risk when renal function is normal. Paracetamol use is less clear although the risk is not great. The continued use of non-phenacetin-combined analgesics with or without nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is associated with faster progression toward renal impairment. As long as high-risk analgesic mixtures are available over the counter, analgesic nephropathy will continue to be a problem.

  16. The multimodal argumentation of persuasive counter discourses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Carmen Daniela

    with the characteristics and potential fallacies of the advertising discourse of commercials. The original advertising discourse is deconstructed and reconstructed with additional visual material in front of the viewers’ eyes who are instructed by a voiceover narrator what to look at and how to identify and decode...... and critical participants in the process of message understanding. In this paper, I explore the Media Bites videos that identify and discuss problematic gender issues in commercials advertising various products. I adopt a multimodal approach in my discourse analysis and I establish which semiotic modes...... are given prominence in the argumentation by examining their complex interplay and functional differentiation. The ways in which speech, writing and images articulate the counter discourse occupy a central position in the analysis. A special focus is put on the multimodal configuration of specific...

  17. Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen Nepper

    2012-01-01

    Bidrag til festskrift til Jesper Hoffmeyer i anledning af hans 70 års dag i Don Favineau, Paul Cobley & Kalevi Kull (eds.): "A More Developed Sign. Interpreting the Work of Jesper Hoffmeyer". Antologien udg. som særnummer af Tartu Semiotics Library Nr. 10 og mit bidrag forefindes på p. 217-220....

  18. The Counter Terrorist Classroom: Religion, Education, and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearon, Liam

    2013-01-01

    The article identifies international cases--from the United States, Europe, and the United Nations--of an emergent interface of religion, education, and security. This is manifest in the uses of religion in education to counter religious extremism, the notional "counter terrorist classroom." To avoid an over-association of extremism with religion,…

  19. Majorizational Choosing of SeveralDifferent Fuzzy Counter Operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Different fuzzy reasoning methods were made by choosing different fuzzy operater. This article generally introduced the basic structure of fuzzy controller ,and gave several different fuzzy controllers ,and compared and analyzed different fuzzy counters in theory and computer simulating control and realized majorizational choosing of several fuzzy counters.

  20. Counter-terrorism strategies in Indonesia, Algeria and Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.; Hasan, Noorhaidi; Hendriks, B.; Janssen, F.

    2012-01-01

    This report is the result of a year-long study, conducted from March 2010 to March 2011, of the counter-terrorist strategies of three countries: Indonesia, Algeria and Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to acquire insight into the counter-terrorist strategies of these countries, to analyse them

  1. VLSI Architecture Of A Binary Up/Down Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, In-Shek; Truong, Trieu-Kie; Reed, I. S.

    1988-01-01

    Identical stages contain relatively-few logic gates. New algorithm simplifies design of binary up/down counter. Design suitable for very-large-scale integrated circuits. Contains simple "pipeline" array of identical cells. Programmable logic unit converts increment and decrement input signals to "U" and "D" signals required by algorithm of counter.

  2. The Counter Terrorist Classroom: Religion, Education, and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearon, Liam

    2013-01-01

    The article identifies international cases--from the United States, Europe, and the United Nations--of an emergent interface of religion, education, and security. This is manifest in the uses of religion in education to counter religious extremism, the notional "counter terrorist classroom." To avoid an over-association of extremism with…

  3. Dirty Fighting: How to Counter Total Warfare Mentality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    DIRTY FIGHTING: HOW TO COUNTER TOTAL WARFARE MENTALITY A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and...to Counter Total Warfare Mentality Approved by: , Thesis Committee Chair LTC Sandra J. Sanchez, MBA , Member Marlyn R. Pierce...

  4. Lessons from History for Counter- Terrorism Strategic Communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, H.J.; Reed, A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on the Counter-terrorism Strategic Communication (CTSC) Project’s research paper “A Brief History of Propaganda during Conflict“, this Policy Brief lays out the key policy-relevant lessons for developing effective counter-terrorism strategic communications. It presents a framework of

  5. The Counter Terrorist Classroom: Religion, Education, and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearon, Liam

    2013-01-01

    The article identifies international cases--from the United States, Europe, and the United Nations--of an emergent interface of religion, education, and security. This is manifest in the uses of religion in education to counter religious extremism, the notional "counter terrorist classroom." To avoid an over-association of extremism with…

  6. Recent results on aerogel development for use in Cherenkov counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilyuk, A.F. E-mail: danilyuk@catalysis.nsk.su; Kirillov, V.L.; Savelieva, M.D.; Bobrovnikov, V.S.; Buzykaev, A.R.; Kravchenko, E.A.; Lavrov, A.V.; Onuchin, A.P

    2002-11-21

    Synthesis of silica aerogel for Cherenkov counters is being studied for more than 10 years at the Boreskov Institute of Catalysis in collaboration with the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics. Index of refraction, light scattering length and light absorption length are optical characteristics which determine the quality of aerogel Cherenkov counter. These parameters were measured for the aerogel produced. The results are presented.

  7. Recent results on aerogel development for use in Cherenkov counters

    CERN Document Server

    Danilyuk, A F; Savelieva, M D; Bobrovnikov, V S; Buzykaev, A R; Kravchenko, E A; Lavrov, A V; Onuchin, A P

    2002-01-01

    Synthesis of silica aerogel for Cherenkov counters is being studied for more than 10 years at the Boreskov Institute of Catalysis in collaboration with the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics. Index of refraction, light scattering length and light absorption length are optical characteristics which determine the quality of aerogel Cherenkov counter. These parameters were measured for the aerogel produced. The results are presented.

  8. Counter-Buffing: A Visual Criticism of Guerrilla Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzon, Robb Conrad; Cooke, Laquana

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses and explores hip-hop's reclamation of space using transit as a public bulletin. It is situated within counter-publics discourse and couched in the theoretical frameworks offered by visual rhetorical theory. This article also discusses hip-hop counter-publics through guerrilla advertising by former graffiti artists, SKI and…

  9. Counter-terrorism strategies in Indonesia, Algeria and Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.; Hasan, Noorhaidi; Hendriks, B.; Janssen, F.

    2012-01-01

    This report is the result of a year-long study, conducted from March 2010 to March 2011, of the counter-terrorist strategies of three countries: Indonesia, Algeria and Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to acquire insight into the counter-terrorist strategies of these countries, to analyse

  10. Counter design influences the privacy of patients in health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mobach, Mark P.

    2009-01-01

    A re-furnishing of counter areas in primary health care was used to assess patient privacy and its influences on the nature of conversations in a controlled experiment. Patients in two community-based pharmacies in the Netherlands were assigned to enclosed counters and a queue at distance, or to cou

  11. The IFIN-HH triple coincidence liquid scintillation counter

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Razdolescu, AC

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available at IFIN-HH using a 3 H standard. The performances of the IFIN-HH TDCR counter was checked against the measurement results of the TDCR counters of CSIR NML (South Africa), RC (Poland) and LNHB (France). A set of ready-to-measure Ni-63 sources in liquid...

  12. Phrasal Paraphrase Based Question Reformulation for Archived Question Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Lu, Ke; Ji, Rongrong; Wang, Fanglin; Liu, Ting

    2013-01-01

    Lexical gap in cQA search, resulted by the variability of languages, has been recognized as an important and widespread phenomenon. To address the problem, this paper presents a question reformulation scheme to enhance the question retrieval model by fully exploring the intelligence of paraphrase in phrase-level. It compensates for the existing paraphrasing research in a suitable granularity, which either falls into fine-grained lexical-level or coarse-grained sentence-level. Given a question in natural language, our scheme first detects the involved key-phrases by jointly integrating the corpus-dependent knowledge and question-aware cues. Next, it automatically extracts the paraphrases for each identified key-phrase utilizing multiple online translation engines, and then selects the most relevant reformulations from a large group of question rewrites, which is formed by full permutation and combination of the generated paraphrases. Extensive evaluations on a real world data set demonstrate that our model is able to characterize the complex questions and achieves promising performance as compared to the state-of-the-art methods.

  13. Phrasal Paraphrase Based Question Reformulation for Archived Question Retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    Full Text Available Lexical gap in cQA search, resulted by the variability of languages, has been recognized as an important and widespread phenomenon. To address the problem, this paper presents a question reformulation scheme to enhance the question retrieval model by fully exploring the intelligence of paraphrase in phrase-level. It compensates for the existing paraphrasing research in a suitable granularity, which either falls into fine-grained lexical-level or coarse-grained sentence-level. Given a question in natural language, our scheme first detects the involved key-phrases by jointly integrating the corpus-dependent knowledge and question-aware cues. Next, it automatically extracts the paraphrases for each identified key-phrase utilizing multiple online translation engines, and then selects the most relevant reformulations from a large group of question rewrites, which is formed by full permutation and combination of the generated paraphrases. Extensive evaluations on a real world data set demonstrate that our model is able to characterize the complex questions and achieves promising performance as compared to the state-of-the-art methods.

  14. Design of a novel quantum reversible ternary up-counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshmand, Pouran; Haghparast, Majid

    2015-08-01

    Reversible logic has been recently considered as an interesting and important issue in designing combinational and sequential circuits. The combination of reversible logic and multi-valued logic can improve power dissipation, time and space utilization rate of designed circuits. Only few works have been reported about sequential reversible circuits and almost there are no paper exhibited about quantum ternary reversible counter. In this paper, first we designed 2-qutrit and 3-qutrit quantum reversible ternary up-counters using quantum ternary reversible T-flip-flop and quantum reversible ternary gates. Then we proposed generalized quantum reversible ternary n-qutrit up-counter. We also introduced a new approach for designing any type of n-qutrit ternary and reversible counter. According to the results, we can conclude that applying second approach quantum reversible ternary up-counter is better than the others.

  15. Electrovacuum Static Counter-Rotating Relativistic Dust Disks

    CERN Document Server

    González, G A

    2002-01-01

    A detailed study of the Counter-Rotating Model (CRM) for generic electrostatic (magnetostatic) axially symmetric thin disks without radial pressure is presented. We find a general constraint over the counter-rotating tangential velocities needed to cast the surface energy-momentum tensor of the disk as the superposition of two counter-rotating charged dust fluids. We then show that this constraint is satisfied if we take the two counter-rotating streams as circulating along electrogeodesics with equal and opposite tangential velocities. We also find explicit expressions for the energy densities, electrostatic (magnetostatic) charge densities and velocities of the counter-rotating fluids. Three specific examples are considered where we obtain some CRM well behaved based in simple solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell equations. The considered solutions are Reissner-Nordstrom in the electrostatic case, its magnetostatic counterpart and two solutions obtained from Taub-NUT and Kerr solutions.

  16. DESIGN OF TERNARY COUNTER BASED ON ADIABATIC DOMINO CIRCUIT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Qiankun; Wang Pengjun; Zheng Xuesong

    2013-01-01

    By researching the ternary counter and low power circuit design method,a novel design of low power ternary Domino counter on switch-level is proposed.Firstly,the switch-level structure expression of ternary loop operation circuit with enable pin is derived according to the switch-signal theory,and the one bit ternary counter is obtained combining the ternary adiabatic Domino literal operation circuit and buffer.Then the switch-level structure expression of enable signal circuit is derived,and the four bits ternary counter is obtained by cascade connection.Finally,the circuit is simulated by Spice tool and the output waveforms transform in proper order indicating that the logic function is correct.The energy consumption of the four bits ternary adiabatic Domino counter is 63% less than the conventional Domino counterpart.

  17. Explaining errors in children's questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Caroline F

    2007-07-01

    The ability to explain the occurrence of errors in children's speech is an essential component of successful theories of language acquisition. The present study tested some generativist and constructivist predictions about error on the questions produced by ten English-learning children between 2 and 5 years of age. The analyses demonstrated that, as predicted by some generativist theories [e.g. Santelmann, L., Berk, S., Austin, J., Somashekar, S. & Lust. B. (2002). Continuity and development in the acquisition of inversion in yes/no questions: dissociating movement and inflection, Journal of Child Language, 29, 813-842], questions with auxiliary DO attracted higher error rates than those with modal auxiliaries. However, in wh-questions, questions with modals and DO attracted equally high error rates, and these findings could not be explained in terms of problems forming questions with why or negated auxiliaries. It was concluded that the data might be better explained in terms of a constructivist account that suggests that entrenched item-based constructions may be protected from error in children's speech, and that errors occur when children resort to other operations to produce questions [e.g. Dabrowska, E. (2000). From formula to schema: the acquisition of English questions. Cognitive Liguistics, 11, 83-102; Rowland, C. F. & Pine, J. M. (2000). Subject-auxiliary inversion errors and wh-question acquisition: What children do know? Journal of Child Language, 27, 157-181; Tomasello, M. (2003). Constructing a language: A usage-based theory of language acquisition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press]. However, further work on constructivist theory development is required to allow researchers to make predictions about the nature of these operations.

  18. Technologies and equipments of the individual decontamination for medicinal rescue against bioterrorism attack%反生物恐怖袭击医学救援中人员洗消技术与装备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹勇平; 贾德胜

    2012-01-01

    This paper made a discussion an the realistic threats of bioterrorism attack in the world and China,the principles and the basic methods of mass decontamination of individuals during a bioterrorism attack incident,the re-search developments at home and abroad and the existing problems in our nation on technology and equipment of de-contamination against bioterrorism attack, in order to provide the references for further improving the preparedness of emergency rescue and carrying out the research on technology and equipment of individual decontamination against bioterrorism attack.%本文探讨了生物恐怖袭击在世界和我国威胁的现实性、反生物恐怖袭击大量人员洗消的原则和基本方法、反生物恐怖袭击洗消技术和装备的研究进展以及我国在反生物恐怖袭击洗消技术和装备存在的问题,为进一步做好反生物恐怖袭击应急救援准备工作和开展生防人员洗消技术装备研究提供参考.

  19. Balancing Fear: Why Counter-Terror Legislation was Blocked after the Oklahoma City and London Bombings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Rubin

    2010-11-01

    executive approval ratings are critical to the passage of counter-terror laws.  In light of the recent slew of counter-terror legislation passed worldwide, cases where counter-terror legislation has been blocked have become critically important.  To this end, this article asks, “Why does counter-terror legislation get blocked when it does?”  To answer the question, three variables are tested: partisan composition of the government, public opinion-based mass fear levels, and executive approval ratings.  To test the variables, two cases are evaluated: the passage of diluted counter-terror legislation after the Oklahoma City Bombing in 1995 and after the 2005 London Bombings.  In evaluating the cases, legislative debates and executive statements that occurred after the terror attacks are examined and then compared to cases from the UK in 1974 and the US in 2001 where counter-terror legislation quickly passed.  The article concludes that executive approval ratings and the partisan composition of the government have the most explanatory power in determining whether terror attacks will lead to broad counter-terror legislation or not.Keywords: London bombings; counter-terror legislation; USA; United Kingdom

  20. Balancing Fear: Why Counter-Terror Legislation was Blocked after the Oklahoma City and London Bombings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Rubin

    2010-11-01

    executive approval ratings are critical to the passage of counter-terror laws.  In light of the recent slew of counter-terror legislation passed worldwide, cases where counter-terror legislation has been blocked have become critically important.  To this end, this article asks, “Why does counter-terror legislation get blocked when it does?”  To answer the question, three variables are tested: partisan composition of the government, public opinion-based mass fear levels, and executive approval ratings.  To test the variables, two cases are evaluated: the passage of diluted counter-terror legislation after the Oklahoma City Bombing in 1995 and after the 2005 London Bombings.  In evaluating the cases, legislative debates and executive statements that occurred after the terror attacks are examined and then compared to cases from the UK in 1974 and the US in 2001 where counter-terror legislation quickly passed.  The article concludes that executive approval ratings and the partisan composition of the government have the most explanatory power in determining whether terror attacks will lead to broad counter-terror legislation or not.Keywords: London bombings; counter-terror legislation; USA; United Kingdom

  1. Solar physics: Dynamo theory questioned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Observations of X-ray emission -- a diagnostic tool for the mechanisms driving stellar magnetic fields -- from four cool stars call into question accepted models of magnetic-field generation in the Sun and stars. See Letter p.526

  2. LGBT Caregiving: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FCA - A A + A You are here Home LGBT Caregiving: Frequently Asked Questions Order this publication Printer- ... service or organization is open to working with LGBT families? Kudos to you for managing to “go ...

  3. Frequent Questions About Universal Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frequent questions such as Who is affected by the universal waste regulations? What is “mercury-containing equipment”? How are waste batteries managed under universal waste? How are waste pesticides managed under universal waste?

  4. HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Media Resources News Newsletters Events Redirect for HPV Vaccine FAQ Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... to the address below. http://www.cdc.gov/hpv/parents/questions-answers.html File Formats Help: How ...

  5. Question Inventory on Tobacco (QIT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Tobacco-Related Survey Questions. The QIT is a...

  6. Questions to Ask Your Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to MBCN Contact Us Questions to ask your doctor Medical appointments can be stressful. To better deal ... for you. If diagnosed by your primary care physician Where do you send your metastatic patients for ...

  7. Questions Students Ask: Beta Decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Jordan; Hartt, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Answers a student's question about the emission of a positron from a nucleus. Discusses the problem from the aspects of the uncertainty principle, beta decay, the Fermi Theory, and modern physics. (YP)

  8. Climate Leadership Awards Frequent Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides answers to frequently asked questions regarding the Climate Leadership Awards, sponsored by EPA's Center for Corporate Climate Leadership with co-sponsorship from the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions and The Climate Registry.

  9. Frequently Asked Questions about Pharmacogenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Specific Genetic Disorders Frequently Asked Questions About Pharmacogenomics Enlarge What is pharmacogenomics? What might pharmacogenomics mean ... page, you will need Adobe Reader. What is pharmacogenomics? Pharmacogenomics uses information about a person's genetic makeup, ...

  10. Question Inventory on Tobacco (QIT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2015, 2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Survey Questions (Tobacco Use). The QIT is...

  11. Key Questions in Thoracic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Subotic, Dragan R.

    2016-01-01

    This 1000-page textbook encompasses much more than the title suggests. In fact, the title “Key questions in thoracic surgery and pulmonology” would be more fitting. The specific format of the book, with precise questions and evidence-based, but equally clear answers covering all relevant fields of pulmonology and thoracic surgery, makes this 40-chapter book a “must read” not only for residents, but also for senior pulmonologists and thoracic surgeons.

  12. Protein Electrochemistry: Questions and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourmond, V; Léger, C

    This chapter presents the fundamentals of electrochemistry in the context of protein electrochemistry. We discuss redox proteins and enzymes that are not photoactive. Of course, the principles described herein also apply to photobioelectrochemistry, as discussed in later chapters of this book. Depending on which experiment is considered, electron transfer between proteins and electrodes can be either direct or mediated, and achieved in a variety of configurations: with the protein and/or the mediator free to diffuse in solution, immobilized in a thick, hydrated film, or adsorbed as a sub-monolayer on the electrode. The experiments can be performed with the goal to study the protein or to use it. Here emphasis is on mechanistic studies, which are easier in the configuration where the protein is adsorbed and electron transfer is direct, but we also explain the interpretation of signals obtained when diffusion processes affect the response.This chapter is organized as a series of responses to questions. Questions 1-5 are related to the basics of electrochemistry: what does "potential" or "current" mean, what does an electrochemical set-up look like? Questions 6-9 are related to the distinction between adsorbed and diffusive redox species. The answers to questions 10-13 explain the interpretation of slow and fast scan voltammetry with redox proteins. Questions 14-19 deal with catalytic electrochemistry, when the protein studied is actually an enzyme. Questions 20, 21 and 22 are general.

  13. Counter-Rotating Tandem Motor Drilling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent Perry

    2009-04-30

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI), in partnership with Dennis Tool Company (DTC), has worked to develop an advanced drill bit system to be used with microhole drilling assemblies. One of the main objectives of this project was to utilize new and existing coiled tubing and slimhole drilling technologies to develop Microhole Technology (MHT) so as to make significant reductions in the cost of E&P down to 5000 feet in wellbores as small as 3.5 inches in diameter. This new technology was developed to work toward the DOE's goal of enabling domestic shallow oil and gas wells to be drilled inexpensively compared to wells drilled utilizing conventional drilling practices. Overall drilling costs can be lowered by drilling a well as quickly as possible. For this reason, a high drilling rate of penetration is always desired. In general, high drilling rates of penetration (ROP) can be achieved by increasing the weight on bit and increasing the rotary speed of the bit. As the weight on bit is increased, the cutting inserts penetrate deeper into the rock, resulting in a deeper depth of cut. As the depth of cut increases, the amount of torque required to turn the bit also increases. The Counter-Rotating Tandem Motor Drilling System (CRTMDS) was planned to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) resulting in the reduction of the drilling cost. The system includes two counter-rotating cutter systems to reduce or eliminate the reactive torque the drillpipe or coiled tubing must resist. This would allow the application of maximum weight-on-bit and rotational velocities that a coiled tubing drilling unit is capable of delivering. Several variations of the CRTDMS were designed, manufactured and tested. The original tests failed leading to design modifications. Two versions of the modified system were tested and showed that the concept is both positive and practical; however, the tests showed that for the system to be robust and durable, borehole diameter should be substantially larger

  14. Counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Lynn A.; Krause, Lee S.

    2004-09-01

    This paper will evaluate the feasibility of constructing a system to support intelligence analysts engaged in counter-terrorism. It will discuss the use of emerging techniques to evaluate a large-scale threat data repository (or Infosphere) and comparing analyst developed models to identify and discover potential threat-related activity with a uncertainty metric used to evaluate the threat. This system will also employ the use of psychological (or intent) modeling to incorporate combatant (i.e. terrorist) beliefs and intent. The paper will explore the feasibility of constructing a hetero-hierarchical (a hierarchy of more than one kind or type characterized by loose connection/feedback among elements of the hierarchy) agent based framework or "family of agents" to support "evidence retrieval" defined as combing, or searching the threat data repository and returning information with an uncertainty metric. The counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture will be guided by a series of models, constructed to represent threat operational objectives, potential targets, or terrorist objectives. The approach would compare model representations against information retrieved by the agent family to isolate or identify patterns that match within reasonable measures of proximity. The central areas of discussion will be the construction of an agent framework to search the available threat related information repository, evaluation of results against models that will represent the cultural foundations, mindset, sociology and emotional drive of typical threat combatants (i.e. the mind and objectives of a terrorist), and the development of evaluation techniques to compare result sets with the models representing threat behavior and threat targets. The applicability of concepts surrounding Modeling Field Theory (MFT) will be discussed as the basis of this research into development of proximity measures between the models and result sets and to provide feedback in support of model

  15. COUNTER-PUNISHMENT, COMMUNICATION AND COOPERATION AMONG PARTNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia eAndrighetto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We study how communication affects cooperation in an experimental public goods environment with punishment and counter-punishment opportunities. Participants interacted over thirty rounds in fixed groups with fixed identifiers that allowed them to trace other group members’ behavior over time. The two dimensions of communication we study are asking for a specific contribution level and having to express oneself when choosing to counter-punish. We conduct four experimental treatments, all involving a contribution stage, a punishment stage and a counter-punishment stage in each round. In the first treatment communication is not possible at any of the stages. The second treatment allows participants to ask for a contribution level at the punishment stage and in the third treatment participants are required to send a message if they decide to counter-punishment. The fourth combines the two communication channels of the second and third treatments. We find that the three treatments involving communication at any of the two relevant stages lead to significantly higher contributions than the baseline treatment. We find no difference between the three treatments with communication. We also relate our results to previous results from treatments without counter-punishment opportunities and do not find that the presence of counter-punishment leads to lower cooperation level. The overall pattern of results shows that given fixed identifiers the key factor is the presence of communication. Whenever communication is possible contributions and earnings are higher than when it is not, regardless of counter-punishment opportunities.

  16. Effect of Counter Electrode in Electroformation of Giant Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuuhei Oana

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Electroformation of cell-sized lipid membrane vesicles (giant vesicles, GVs, from egg yolk phosphatidylcholine, was examined varying the shape of the counter electrode. Instead of a planar ITO (indium tin oxide electrode commonly used, platinum wire mesh was employed as a counter electrode facing lipid deposit on a planar formation electrode. The modification did not significantly alter GV formation, and many GVs of 30–50 µm, some as large as 100 µm, formed as with the standard setup, indicating that a counter electrode does not have to be a complete plane. When the counter electrode was reduced to a set of two parallel platinum wires, GV formation deteriorated. Some GVs formed, but only in close proximity to the counter electrode. Lower electric voltage with this setup no longer yielded GVs. Instead, a large onion-like multilamellar structure was observed. The deteriorated GV formation and the formation of a multilamellar structure seemed to indicate the weakened effect of the electric field on lipid deposit due to insufficient coverage with a small counter electrode. Irregular membranous objects formed by spontaneous swelling of lipid without electric voltage gradually turned into multilamellar structure upon following application of voltage. No particular enhancement of GV formation was observed when lipid deposit on a wire formation electrode was used in combination with a large planar counter electrode.

  17. A dual-detector extended range rem-counter

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrarini, M; Silari, M; Agosteo, S

    2010-01-01

    The design and characterization of a dual-detector spherical rem counter is discussed in this paper. The rem counter is based on a polythene sphere with lead and cadmium insets, designed to host at its centre either an active (He-3 SP9 proportional counter) or a passive (CR39 + B-10 radiator) thermal neutron detector. Its sensitivity ranges from thermal energies up to 1 GeV. A Monte Carlo characterization of this dual-detector rem counter has shown no significant change in the shape of the response curve obtained with the two detectors. The rem counter has been calibrated with a Pu-Be source. An intercomparison in a high-energy neutron field has been carried out at the CERF facility at CERN among the rem counter in the two configurations, two commercial units and the original version of the active LINUS in use at CERN. Both the active and passive versions of the rem counter agree, within the statistical uncertainties, with the CERN LINUS and with the facility reference values. Both versions of the instrument ...

  18. Particle size dependent response of aerosol counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankilov, A.; Baklanov, A.; Colhoun, M.; Enderle, K.-H.; Gras, J.; Julanov, Yu.; Kaller, D.; Lindner, A.; Lushnikov, A. A.; Mavliev, R.; McGovern, F.; O'Connor, T. C.; Podzimek, J.; Preining, O.; Reischl, G. P.; Rudolf, R.; Sem, G. J.; Szymanski, W. W.; Vrtala, A. E.; Wagner, P. E.; Winklmayr, W.; Zagaynov, V.

    During an international workshop at the Institute for Experimental Physics of the University of Vienna, Austria, which was coordinated within the Committee on Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols (IAMAS-IUGG), 10 instruments for aerosol number concentration measurement were studied, covering a wide range of methods based on various different measuring principles. In order to investigate the detection limits of the instruments considered with respect to particle size, simultaneous number concentration measurements were performed for monodispersed aerosols with particle sizes ranging from 1.5 to 50 nm diameter and various compositions. The instruments considered show quite different response characteristics, apparently related to the different vapors used in the various counters to enlarge the particles to an optically detectable size. A strong dependence of the 50% cutoff diameter on the particle composition in correlation with the type of vapor used in the specific instrument was found. An enhanced detection efficiency for ultrafine hygroscopic sodium chloride aerosols was observed with water operated systems, an analogous trend was found for n-butanol operated systems with nonhygroscopic silver and tungsten oxide particles.

  19. Training options for countering nuclear smuggling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, D Y; Erickson, S A

    1999-07-01

    The burden of stopping a nuclear smuggling attempt at the border rests most heavily on the front-line customs inspector. He needs to know how to use the technological tools at his disposal, how to discern tell-tale anomalies in export documents and manifests, how to notice psychological signs of a smuggler's tension, and how to search anything that might hide nuclear material. This means that assistance in the counter-nuclear smuggling training of customs officers is one of the most critical areas of help that the United States can provide. This paper discusses the various modes of specialized training, both in the field and in courses, as well as the types of assistance that can be provided. Training for nuclear customs specialists, and supervisors and managers of nuclear smuggling detection systems is also important, and differs from front-line inspector training in several aspects. The limitations of training and technological tools such as expert centers that will overcome these limitations are also discussed. Training assistance planned by DOE/NN-43 to Russia within the Second Line of Defense program is discussed in the light of these options, and future possibilities for such training are projected.

  20. Over-the-Counter Medications in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servey, Jessica; Chang, Jennifer

    2014-10-15

    Many pregnant women take over-the-counter (OTC) medications despite the absence of randomized controlled trials to guide their use during pregnancy. Most data come from case-control and cohort studies. In 1979, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration began reviewing all prescription and OTC medications to develop risk categories for use in pregnancy. Most OTC medications taken during pregnancy are for allergy, respiratory, gastrointestinal, or skin conditions, as well as for general analgesia. Acetaminophen, which is used by about 65% of pregnant women, is generally considered safe during any trimester. Cold medications are also commonly used and are considered safe for short-term use outside of the first trimester. Many gastrointestinal medications are now available OTC. Histamine H2 blockers and proton pump inhibitors have not demonstrated significant fetal effects. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are generally not recommended in pregnancy, especially during organogenesis and in the third trimester. There are even fewer data regarding use of individual herbal supplements. Ginger is considered safe and effective for treating nausea in pregnancy. Topical creams are considered safe based on small studies and previous practice. All OTC medication use should be discussed with patients, and the effects of the symptoms should be balanced with the risks and benefits of each medication. Because of the expanding OTC market, formalized studies are warranted for patients to make a safe and informed decision about OTC medication use during pregnancy.

  1. First Generation College Students in STEM: Counter Stories of Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Carol D.

    First-generation community college Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) students have unique challenges in transferring to a four-year college. This is especially true for Latin and African American students who may experience multiple challenges, including discrimination, immigration issues and language issues, and sometimes poor academic preparation in their K-12 education. This project used a grounded theory approach to explore through an equity lens the educational journey of seven Los Medanos College students who have successfully transferred to a four-year institution were interviewed. All of these students that participated in this project were former Mathematics Engineering Science Achievement Program (MESA) students at Los Medanos College. The MESA Program is a learning community that provides academic support for "educationally and economically disadvantaged" students so they can excel in math and science, transfer to four-year institutions as majors in math-based fields, and graduate with baccalaureate degrees in STEM majors. Several intervention strategies are embedded into the program, including: counseling, mentors, a learning center, tutors, financial aid and transfer workshops, and internship and scholarship opportunities. The students were interviewed and asked several questions regarding their high school life, MESA, and community college and transfer experiences. The main theoretical framework utilized to analyze the interviews was Border Lands theory because these students created a safe space that allowed them to straddle their life at home and their life at school. Interviews with these students reveal seven successful, happy, and engaged students. Several themes emerged with respect to the importance of students' finding a major that they love, finding community, and the importance of teachers, family, and engagement in their success. The results of this project also emphasize the importance of hiring passionate teachers

  2. Hardware support for collecting performance counters directly to memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan; Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W.

    2012-09-25

    Hardware support for collecting performance counters directly to memory, in one aspect, may include a plurality of performance counters operable to collect one or more counts of one or more selected activities. A first storage element may be operable to store an address of a memory location. A second storage element may be operable to store a value indicating whether the hardware should begin copying. A state machine may be operable to detect the value in the second storage element and trigger hardware copying of data in selected one or more of the plurality of performance counters to the memory location whose address is stored in the first storage element.

  3. The Application of Counter-Rotating Turbine in Rocket Turbopump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Fei

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Counter rotating turbine offers advantages on weight, volume, efficiency, and maneuverability relative to the conventional turbine because of its special architecture. Nowadays, it has been a worldwide research emphasis and has been used widely in the aeronautic field, while its application in the astronautic field is seldom investigated. Researches of counter rotating turbine for rocket turbopump are reviewed in this paper. A primary analysis of a vaneless counter rotating-turbine configuration with rotors of different diameters and rotational speeds is presented. This unconventional configuration meets the requirements of turbopump and may benefit the performance and reliability of rocket engines.

  4. Countering the ‘Natural’ Organizational Self on Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Trine Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Using narrative as a theoretical and methodological lens, this study explores digital processes of organizational identity construction in the intersection between organization and market.The purpose is to understand the ways in which online interactions produce counter-narratives that contrast......, challenge and contradict organizational self-narration in light of market place skepticism and cynicism. The study identifies three strategies of counter-narrativizing (authenticity, legitimacy and irony) based on juxtaposing pairs of opposites. Moreover, it suggests counter-narration to be a natural...

  5. Development of Laser-Based Handheld Aerosol Particle Counter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chang; LI Hui

    2005-01-01

    The JC-CA300 handheld Aerosol particle counter is designed and developed based on light scattering principle. The JC-CA300 counter is composed of optical sensor, DSP component and microprocessor unit. The hardware architecture is designed in compact style by SMT IC chips. The whole counter weight is less than 2 pounds. With 32K RAM space, the JC-CA300 can store 500 sampling records and support standard printer and communicate with a computer through RS232 interface. Based on experimental results, the main performance of JC-CA300 is better than that of the ARTI'S HHPC-6 instrument.

  6. Foreign language didactics: Identity questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Píšová

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The efforts to emancipate foreign language didactics have been an ongoingand non-linear process launched in our country in the 50s of the previous century.Its key aspects may be presented as foreign language didactics identity questions.These include explicit delineation of the object and methodology of foreign languagedidactics on the basis of developmental analysis, current state of knowledge andtrends/approaches to the discipline. The issues related to the full-fledged scientificstatus of foreign language didactics are discussed both on a domain-general level(questions relevant for the whole field of subject didactics and on a domain-specificlevel (foreign language didactics specific questions.

  7. Current Over-the-Counter Medicine Label: Take a Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This is to help protect consumers against possible criminal tampering. Drug products with tamper-evident packaging have ... Medicines Medicines in My Home (MIMH) Choosing the right over-the-counter medicine (OTCs) The Over-the- ...

  8. Calibration and Monte Carlo modelling of neutron long counters

    CERN Document Server

    Tagziria, H

    2000-01-01

    The Monte Carlo technique has become a very powerful tool in radiation transport as full advantage is taken of enhanced cross-section data, more powerful computers and statistical techniques, together with better characterisation of neutron and photon source spectra. At the National Physical Laboratory, calculations using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP-4B have been combined with accurate measurements to characterise two long counters routinely used to standardise monoenergetic neutron fields. New and more accurate response function curves have been produced for both long counters. A novel approach using Monte Carlo methods has been developed, validated and used to model the response function of the counters and determine more accurately their effective centres, which have always been difficult to establish experimentally. Calculations and measurements agree well, especially for the De Pangher long counter for which details of the design and constructional material are well known. The sensitivit...

  9. leaves extracts as counter stain in gram staining reaction 56

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Keywords: Aqueous Extract, Dyes, Henna, Counter-Staining. INTRODUCTION ... is a stain with color contrasting to the principal stain, making the .... different solutions of ethanol extracts were prepared .... this plant a true natural dye. Saponins ...

  10. Over the Counter Laxatives for Constipation: Use with Caution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be best for you. Type of laxative (brand examples) How they work Side effects Oral osmotics ( ... the-counter laxatives. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2014;312:1167. Constipation. National Institute of Diabetes ...

  11. Over-the-counter codeine use in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Grimsson, A

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the assumption that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership in Iceland would lead to increased irrational use of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine....

  12. Study Counters Link Between Excess Pregnancy Weight and Overweight Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Study Counters Link Between Excess Pregnancy Weight and Overweight Kids Connection is likely in the genes, researchers ... 24, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Kids whose moms were overweight during pregnancy have increased odds of being overweight ...

  13. Bathroom Buddies: Countering your Clockwise Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C. M.; Stegman, D. R.

    2006-12-01

    Which way does your bathtub, toilet, sink, or other favorite plumbing basin drain? Popular television shows perpetuate the fact that water spins the opposite direction in the southern hemisphere, and sometimes even explicitly point to the Coriolis effect (or Earth's rotation) as the cause. Skeptics disagree: "No way. Water doesn't obey your rules: it goes where it wants...like me, babe." [1]. Fact: Cyclones rotate clockwise in the southern hemisphere and hurricanes counter-clockwise in the northern hemisphere. But does your hemisphere also determine the direction water spirals down your toilet? In the ideal scenario of water draining out a sink (i.e. a defect-free, perfectly-leveled basin in which water has remained undisturbed for sufficient enough time to quiet any background motions or eddies) --- then yes, maybe it is possible. However, in everyday life, not even the most decadent of bathtubs provide us a large enough lengthscale to observe the Coriolis effect on the direction which water spirals towards the drain. Thus, we are left confronting the possibility that something heard on television isn't true. But is just "telling" students, friends, or strangers in bars enough to debunk this urban myth? Rather, we offer a practical demonstration involving a friend from the opposite hemisphere (if not one in existence, then find one on the internet!), a bathroom, a funnel, a bucket, some food coloring, a camera, a pitcher and some equations and scalings for extra credit and fun. 1) Simpson, B., "Bart vs. Australia", Season 6, Episode 119, 1995.

  14. Evaluation of dual flow counter-current chromatography and intermittent counter-current extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatova, Svetlana; Hewitson, Peter; Mathews, Ben; Sutherland, Ian

    2011-09-09

    The aim of this research is to compare two continuous extraction technologies, intermittent counter-current extraction (ICcE) and dual flow counter-current chromatography (DFCCC), in terms of loading and throughput using the GUESSmix, and show the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods. A model sample containing caffeine, vanillin, naringenin and carvone, with a total load of 11.2 g, was employed with a hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (2:3:2:3) phase system to evaluate an ICcE method on a preparative (912 ml coil volume) DE-Midi instrument. While DFCCC was carried out on a specially designed preparative (561 ml coil volume) bobbin installed in a similar Midi instrument case. While similar throughputs of 7.8 g/h and 6.9 g/h were achieved for the ICcE and DFCCC methods respectively, ICcE was demonstrated to have a number of advantages over DFCCC.

  15. Arts and Techniques of Questioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yu

    2011-01-01

    Most learners learn English from teachers in classroom. Therefore, classroom instruction plays a very important role. Teachers' questioning constitutes a very significant aspect of classroom teaching. It is not only an important part of classroom interaction but an effective way of learning second language as well.

  16. Understanding Bitcoins: Facts and Questions

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Saboia de Albuquerque; Marcelo de Castro Callado

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work is to do a research challenge about the digital currency named Bitcoins, as well as exploit the general concept behind digital currencies and cryptocurrencies, and enumerate some of its current criticism and problems. Such currencies usage and public knowledge is increasing hastily on the last few months, and many questions arise with its popularity.

  17. Questioning Mechanisms During Complex Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-11

    is probably a general phenomenon in this culture that tutors are reluctant to give negative feedback on students’ errors and poor answers. Instead of...1991). Questioning in classrooms: A sociolinguistic perspective. Review of £’fiu!r’aiona1 R.ear.h, L, 157-178. Carroll, J. M., Mack, R. L., Lewis, C

  18. Understanding Bitcoins: Facts and Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Saboia de Albuquerque

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to do a research challenge about the digital currency named Bitcoins, as well as exploit the general concept behind digital currencies and cryptocurrencies, and enumerate some of its current criticism and problems. Such currencies usage and public knowledge is increasing hastily on the last few months, and many questions arise with its popularity.

  19. Over-the-counter codeine use in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Grimsson, A

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the assumption that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership in Iceland would lead to increased irrational use of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine.......The objective of this study was to test the assumption that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership in Iceland would lead to increased irrational use of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine....

  20. Using DMA for copying performance counter data to memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan; Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W

    2013-12-31

    A device for copying performance counter data includes hardware path that connects a direct memory access (DMA) unit to a plurality of hardware performance counters and a memory device. Software prepares an injection packet for the DMA unit to perform copying, while the software can perform other tasks. In one aspect, the software that prepares the injection packet runs on a processing core other than the core that gathers the hardware performance data.

  1. Over-the-counter treatments for acne and rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosamilia, Lorraine Larsen

    2016-06-01

    Acne and rosacea are common inflammatory processes historically classified in the same disease category, but evolving understanding of their disparate pathophysiology and exacerbating factors have generated an enormous armamentarium of therapeutic possibilities. Patients seek over-the-counter therapies first when managing cutaneous disease; therefore, this review defines ingredients considered to be effective over-the-counter acne and rosacea products, their mechanisms, and safe formulations, including botanical components, oral supplements, and other anecdotal options in this vast skin care domain.

  2. CounterPoint: Zeeman-split absorption lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Casey

    2015-12-01

    CounterPoint works in concert with MoogStokes (ascl:1308.018). It applies the Zeeman effect to the atomic lines in the region of study, splitting them into the correct number of Zeeman components and adjusting their relative intensities according to the predictions of Quantum Mechanics, and finally creates a Moog-readable line list for use with MoogStokes. CounterPoint has the ability to use VALD and HITRAN line databases for both atomic and molecular lines.

  3. Liberty and Order: Reintegration as Counter-Insurgency in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    experienced the same fits and starts as others in the region. There have been successes , including the reintegration of the M-19 (Movimiento del 19... REINTEGRATION AS COUNTER-INSURGENCY IN COLOMBIA Mr. GREGORY E. PHILLIPS, DOS COURSE 5601 and 5602 FUNDAMENTALS OF STRATEGIC LOGIC and THE NATURE OF...COVERED 00-00-2003 to 00-00-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Liberty and Order: Reintegration as Counter-Insurgency in Colombia 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  4. Counter-terrorism judicial review by a traditionally weak judiciary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Jens Elo

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses recent Danish case law on counter-terrorism measures to ascertain the extent to which a tradiitonally weak judiciary like the Danish one performs a real review. The conclusion is that the review is real, but measured.......The article analyses recent Danish case law on counter-terrorism measures to ascertain the extent to which a tradiitonally weak judiciary like the Danish one performs a real review. The conclusion is that the review is real, but measured....

  5. MODELS FOR THE COUNTER-GRADIENT TRANSPORT PHENOMENA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋剑波; 卢志明; 刘晓明; 刘宇陆

    2001-01-01

    The counter gradient transport phenomena on momentum, energy and passive scalar in turbulent flows were studied by use of the single response function for TSDIA. As a result, models that can describe qualitatively the phenomena are obtained. Then the results are simplified by use of the inertial range theory, and the results for lower degrees agree with results of predecessor. Finally the counter gradient-transport phenomena in channel flow and circular wake flow are analyzed.

  6. A Gas Proportional Scintillation Counter with krypton filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, C. M. B.; Mano, R. D. P.; Barata, E. C. G. M.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Freitas, E. D. C.

    2016-12-01

    A Gas Proportional Scintillation Counter filled with pure krypton was studied. Energy resolution below 10% for 5.9-keV X-rays was obtained with this prototype. This value is much better than the energy resolution obtained with proportional counters or other MPGDs with krypton filling. The krypton electroluminescence scintillation and ionisation thresholds were found to be about 0.5 and 3.5 kV cm-1bar-1, respectively.

  7. Advertising health: the case for counter-ads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfman, L; Wallack, L

    1993-01-01

    Public service advertisements have been used by many in hopes of "selling" good health behaviors. But selling good behavior--even if it could be done more effectively--is not the best goal for using mass media to prevent health problems. Personal behavior is only part of what determines health status. Social conditions and the physical environment are important determinants of health that are usually ignored by health promotion advertising. Public service advertising may be doing more harm than good if it is diverting attention from more effective socially based health promotion strategies. Counter-ads are one communications strategy that could be used to promote a broader responsibility for rectifying health problems. In the tradition of advocacy advertising directly promoting policy rather than products, counter-ads promote views consistent with a public health perspective. Counter-ads set the agenda for health issues, conferring status on policy-oriented strategies for addressing health problems. The primary purpose of counter-ads is to challenge the dominant view that public health problems reflect personal health habits. They are controversial because they place health issues in a social and political context. Advertising strategies for health promotion range over a spectrum from individually oriented public service advertising to socially oriented counter-advertising. The recent anti-tobacco campaign from the California Department of Health Services represents advertisements across the spectrum. Counter-ads that focus on a politically controversial definition for health problems are an appropriate and necessary alternative to public service advertising.

  8. Message passing with a limited number of DMA byte counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blocksome, Michael (Rochester, MN); Chen, Dong (Croton on Hudson, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Kumar, Sameer (White Plains, NY); Parker, Jeffrey J. (Rochester, MN)

    2011-10-04

    A method for passing messages in a parallel computer system constructed as a plurality of compute nodes interconnected as a network where each compute node includes a DMA engine but includes only a limited number of byte counters for tracking a number of bytes that are sent or received by the DMA engine, where the byte counters may be used in shared counter or exclusive counter modes of operation. The method includes using rendezvous protocol, a source compute node deterministically sending a request to send (RTS) message with a single RTS descriptor using an exclusive injection counter to track both the RTS message and message data to be sent in association with the RTS message, to a destination compute node such that the RTS descriptor indicates to the destination compute node that the message data will be adaptively routed to the destination node. Using one DMA FIFO at the source compute node, the RTS descriptors are maintained for rendezvous messages destined for the destination compute node to ensure proper message data ordering thereat. Using a reception counter at a DMA engine, the destination compute node tracks reception of the RTS and associated message data and sends a clear to send (CTS) message to the source node in a rendezvous protocol form of a remote get to accept the RTS message and message data and processing the remote get (CTS) by the source compute node DMA engine to provide the message data to be sent.

  9. Over the counter ophthalmic drug misuse, are we aware?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani Kadri

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the misuse of ‘over the counter’ ophthalmic medications in our city. Method: Responses of a structured questionnaire covering various aspects of over the counter drug use was obtained from pharmacy workers in and around our city. Results: Eighty nine pharmacy workers took part in this cross–sectional study. An average number of seven patients per day with ophthalmic complaints were seen by the pharmacy workers. Dispensing over the counter was practiced by 89.9% of the pharmacists. The most common complaint of the patients visiting the pharmacy, was redness and itching (86.5%. Antibiotics (96.6% were the most common eye drops dispensed over the counter, followed by steroids (55.1%, decongestants (54.1%, antibiotic-steroid combination eye drops (29.2% and lubricants (16.8%. Awareness regarding complications of steroid use was seen in 40.6% of pharmacists. 6.7% pharmacists had seen patients with complications following use of over the counter medications. In our study, majority of the eye drops dispensed were prescription drugs. Conclusion: Availability of prescription eye drops over the counter is an immense public threat. Educating the pharmacist and the population can decrease ocular morbidity. Research into methods to effectively deal with over-the-counter drug misuse is required and law can be enforced based on the findings.

  10. Comparison of quantitative PCR and culture-based methods for evaluating dispersal of Bacillus thuringiensis endospores at a bioterrorism hoax crime scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crighton, Taryn; Hoile, Rebecca; Coleman, Nicholas V

    2012-06-10

    Since the anthrax mail attacks of 2001, law enforcement agencies have processed thousands of suspicious mail incidents globally, many of which are hoax bioterrorism threats. Bio-insecticide preparations containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) spores have been involved in several such threats in Australia, leading to the requirement for rapid and sensitive detection techniques for this organism, a close relative of Bacillus anthracis. Here we describe the development of a quantitative PCR (qPCR) method for the detection of Bt crystal toxin gene cry1, and evaluation of the method's effectiveness during a hoax bioterrorism event in 2009. When combined with moist wipe sampling, the cry1 qPCR was a rapid, reliable, and sensitive diagnostic tool for detecting and quantifying Bt contamination, and mapping endospore dispersal within a mail sorting facility. Results from the cry1 qPCR were validated by viable counts of the same samples on Bacillus-selective agar (PEMBA), which revealed a similar pattern of contamination. Extensive and persistent contamination of the facility was detected, both within the affected mailroom, and extending into office areas up to 30m distant from the source event, emphasising the need for improved containment procedures for suspicious mail items, both during and post-event. The cry1 qPCR enables detection of both viable and non-viable Bt spores and cells, which is important for historical crime scenes or scenes subjected to decontamination. This work provides a new rapid method to add to the forensics toolbox for crime scenes suspected to be contaminated with biological agents.

  11. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Share Compartir This video describes the Category A diseases: smallpox, anthrax, botulism, plague, tularemia, and viral hemorrhagic fevers. If these germs were used to intentionally infect people, they would cause the most illness and death. Watch this video to learn how ...

  12. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

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  14. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

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  15. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

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    Full Text Available ... Emergencies Clinicians Coping with Disaster Crisis & Risk Communication Health Alert Network (HAN) Laboratory Information Older Adults Preparation & ... Biological Warfare and Terrorism: The Military and Public Health Response," co-produced by the United States Army ...

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  18. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

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  19. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

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  20. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

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  1. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

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    Full Text Available ... Older Adults Preparation & Planning Situation Awareness Social Media Surveillance Training & Education What's New Emergency Preparedness and You ... Public Health Response," co-produced by the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), ...

  2. Bioterror Paper Gets Online

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erika; Check; 秦艳艳

    2005-01-01

    牛奶是大多数人每天必不可少的食品。如果有恐怖分子在牛奶中下毒,后果将不堪设想。美国国家科学院最近发表的一篇文章就提出了这一假设,这将成为潜伏在美国人生活中的新的恐怖危机。而这篇文章也招来了美国各界的激烈争议。

  3. FOOD SAFETY AND BIOTERRORISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter describes the scope of the bioterrorist threat to the United States food supply in terms of food service establishments. Descriptions include the organisms and other agents that may be disseminated by food ingestion and the challenges in differentiation of intentional and unintenti...

  4. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

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  5. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

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    Full Text Available ... Emergencies Clinicians Coping with Disaster Crisis & Risk Communication Health Alert Network (HAN) Laboratory Information Older Adults Preparation & ... Biological Warfare and Terrorism: The Military and Public Health Response," co-produced by the United States Army ...

  6. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

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  7. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

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  8. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

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  9. Biodefense and Bioterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to cause disease, spread, or resist medical treatment. Biological agents spread through the air, water, or in ... viruses, plague, or smallpox could be used as biological agents. Biodefense uses medical measures to protect people ...

  10. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

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  11. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

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  12. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

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  14. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

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  16. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

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  17. On a question of Gross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhijit

    2007-03-01

    Using the notion of weighted sharing of sets we prove two uniqueness theorems which improve the results proved by Fang and Qiu [H. Qiu, M. Fang, A unicity theorem for meromorphic functions, Bull. Malaysian Math. Sci. Soc. 25 (2002) 31-38], Lahiri and Banerjee [I. Lahiri, A. Banerjee, Uniqueness of meromorphic functions with deficient poles, Kyungpook Math. J. 44 (2004) 575-584] and Yi and Lin [H.X. Yi, W.C. Lin, Uniqueness theorems concerning a question of Gross, Proc. Japan Acad. Ser. A 80 (2004) 136-140] and thus provide an answer to the question of Gross [F. Gross, Factorization of meromorphic functions and some open problems, in: Proc. Conf. Univ. Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 1976, in: Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 599, Springer, Berlin, 1977, pp. 51-69], under a weaker hypothesis.

  18. Foreign language didactics: Identity questions

    OpenAIRE

    Michaela Píšová

    2011-01-01

    The efforts to emancipate foreign language didactics have been an ongoingand non-linear process launched in our country in the 50s of the previous century.Its key aspects may be presented as foreign language didactics identity questions.These include explicit delineation of the object and methodology of foreign languagedidactics on the basis of developmental analysis, current state of knowledge andtrends/approaches to the discipline. The issues related to the full-fledged scientificstatus of ...

  19. Some open questions in hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Dyndal, Mateusz

    2014-01-01

    When speaking of unsolved problems in physics, this is surprising at first glance to discuss the case of fluid mechanics. However, there are many deep open questions that come with the theory of fluid mechanics. In this paper, we discuss some of them that we classify in two categories, the long term behavior of solutions of equations of hydrodynamics and the definition of initial (boundary) conditions. The first set of questions come with the non-relativistic theory based on the Navier-Stokes equations. Starting from smooth initial conditions, the purpose is to understand if solutions of Navier-Stokes equations remain smooth with the time evolution. Existence for just a finite time would imply the evolution of finite time singularities, which would have a major influence on the development of turbulent phenomena. The second set of questions come with the relativistic theory of hydrodynamics. There is an accumulating evidence that this theory may be relevant for the description of the medium created in high en...

  20. Questions as a tool to design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aurisicchio, Marco; Ahmed, Saeema; Wallace, Ken

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes an interpretation of design activity through investigating design questions. From a number of previous studies two types of question have been identified: 1) reasoning questions; and 2) strategic questions. Strategic questions are part of an experienced designers approach to ...

  1. Soft Physics and Intermittency Open Question(s) in Krakow

    CERN Document Server

    Peschanski, R

    1993-01-01

    This contribution contains a summary of the Krakow meeting on Soft Physics and Fluctuations. It emphasizes both the experimental and the theoretical investigations on correlations/fluctuations and intermittency in multi-particle processes and discusses of the present status of this concept. A clarification of the main open questions in this field of research is now within reach, thanks to the studies presented at the meeting. Summary Talk of the Krakow Workshop on Multiparticle Physics, May, 4-7, 1993. E-mail contact: pesch@amoco.saclay.cea.fr

  2. God in Question: Questioning as a Prerequisite for Theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kočí

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There are questions that are so important that it is a pity to spoil them with answers. No doubt, the question of God is one of them. Contrary to many presuppositions, theology is not capable of providing us with the final answers in this respect. On the contrary, theology professed as fides quaerens intellectum is an ongoing struggle with questions. Modernity interrupted this paradigm of theological questioning. Theology was withdrawn from the realm of understanding and shifted to the realm of explanation. Modernity brought the univocalization of God. Nonetheless, the attempts to tackle the question of God lead to hegemonic narratives about God. Such narratives are rightly criticized in a postmodern context for their totalizing pretensions. The problem of postmodern criticism is its one-sided emphasis on the apophatic dimension of theological discourse. I propose that theology can go a step further beyond postmodernity. In order to do so, I deal with the Czech philosopher Jan Patočka, who provides an opportunity to rethink God from the perspective of questioning in a new way. Patočka’s insistence on problematicity is the main reading key of his work. In this line of though, I interpret Patočka’s student Tomáš Halík and his thesis about the necessity to take the metaphor of an unknown God into account. I argue that theology must avoid the temptation to remove God from the question and make a well-known God of him. The time has come for theologians to turn their answers back into questions and dwell with them. Bůh jako otázka: Tázání jako předpoklad teologie Některé otázky jsou tak důležité, že je škoda kazit je odpověďmi. Není pochyb, že otázka po Bohu je jednou z nich. Navzdory mnoha předpokladům, ani teologie není schopna poskytnout v tomto ohledu konečné odpovědi. Teologie pojatá jako fides quaerens intellectum je nepřetržitý nekončící zápas s otázkami. Moderna narušila toto paradigma teologick

  3. Questions concerning the nuclear wastes; Les dechets nucleaires en questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daures, Pierre [ed.] [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1998-07-01

    At present, 75% of the electricity in France is of nuclear origin. Most of French people approve this mode of energy production and agree upon the continuation of the electronuclear sector exploitation. However, as any industry, the nuclear industry produces wastes which constitute a keen preoccupation of the public opinion. The nuclear program, even at its very inception, has provided the appropriate mastering of radioactive wastes by reducing their volume, by conditioning, reprocessing and storing, expressing continually its carefulness for population protection as well as for environment defence against the radiological effects. Pursuing its policy of transparency the EDF demonstrated openness and understanding towards questions raised by anyone. This brochure gives answers to the following 17 questions: -what the nuclear wastes are, which is their origin? - what is their amount? - are the nuclear waste dangerous? - how to treat the nuclear wastes? - are the radioactive waste storage sure? - is the nuclear waste transportation sure? - are these solutions sure? - why searches for long-lived radioactive wastes? - what is transmutation? - shall we bequeath to the next generations our nuclear wastes? - are there particular problems in nuclear power plant decommissioning? - what the wastes issued from decommissioning become? - are the costs of reprocessing and decommissioning taken into account in the price of the kWh? - were the nuclear wastes taken into account since the nuclear program inception? - who manages the nuclear wastes? - why France accepted the reprocessing of nuclear wastes produced in foreign countries? - is there an international policy for nuclear wastes?.

  4. A Reflection on Teacher Questioning Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasih Elisabeth Roostini

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This small-scale research is expected to serve as a reflective means for teachers so that they can explore their questioning types in their own classroom. It analyzed questioning types used by three teachers of general English classes. The questioning types were classified based on three dimensions—purpose, form, and function. The purpose-based questioning types, based on Long and Sato’s findings (1983, were classified into two: referential and display. The form-based questioning types, based on the classification of question types by Celce-Murcia and Larsen-Freeman (1999 and Biber et al. (1999, were classified into four major types: yes/no-questions, wh-questions, tag questions, and alternative questions. The function-based questioning types, based on Long and Sato’s findings (1983, were classified into three sub-types: comprehension checks, confirmation checks, and clarification requests.           The data, obtained from three recorded class meetings, were transcribed and analyzed to see what questioning types each teacher employed and to obtain the number and percentage distribution of questioning types each teacher used. The results showed that referential questions were more frequently used than display questions at higher levels. There were a substantial number of incomplete questions, a form-based questioning type that did not belong to the classification of form-based questioning types employed in this study. The predominant use of incomplete questions in a communicative classroom should be reviewed as this questioning type required accuracy, rather than promoting language practice. The third type, the function-based questioning types, did not occur frequently at all the three stages. This study suggests that teachers use incomplete questions less frequently and try to use other form-based questioning types. It also encourages teachers to reflect on their own teaching and pursue their professional development.

  5. Suggestions about the ability to respond to bioterrorism in military hospitals%军队医院应对生物恐怖能力现状调查及能力提高的建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 吴杰; 于弘; 郑涛; 孙建中

    2014-01-01

    根据军队医院在应对生物恐怖能力现状调查中获得的结果,针对现阶段军队医院存在的薄弱环节,提出应对生物恐怖能力的建议:平战结合,整体提高;立足自身,任务牵引;危机管理,分级响应;军地联动,依托社会。%According to the investigation about the current ability of military hospitals to cope with bioterrorism , we suggest that military hospitals improve the capability for bioterrorism response based on the research above by satisfying mission requirements , combining peacetime with wartime , carrying out crisis management , classifying response and cooperating with local sectors .

  6. Can counter-advertising reduce pre-adolescent children's susceptibility to front-of-package promotions on unhealthy foods? Experimental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Helen; Scully, Maree; Kelly, Bridget; Chapman, Kathy; Wakefield, Melanie

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to test whether counter-advertisements (i.e. messages contesting industry marketing) make pre-adolescent children less susceptible to the influence of food promotions. Since children have lower media literacy levels due to their immature cognitive abilities, specific research questions explored were: (1) whether the effectiveness of counter-ads is contingent on children having understood them; and (2) whether counter-ads may be detrimental when they are misinterpreted. A between-subjects experimental design using a web-based methodology was employed. 1351 grade 5-6 students (mean age 11 years) from schools located in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia participated. Participants were randomly shown an animated web banner advertisement (counter-ad challenging front-of-package promotion or control ad) and a pair of food packages from the same product category comprising an unhealthy product featuring a front-of-package promotion (nutrient content claim or sports celebrity endorsement) and a healthier control pack without a front-of-package promotion. Responses to the assigned advertisement, choice of product (healthy versus unhealthy) and ratings of the unhealthy product and front-of-package promotion on various nutritional and image-related attributes were recorded for each child. Sixty-six percent of children who viewed a counter-ad understood its main message. These children rated the front-of-package promotion as less believable and rated the unhealthy product bearing the front-of-package promotion as less healthy compared to the control group. However, children who misunderstood the counter-ad rated the unhealthy product bearing a front-of-package promotion as more healthy and rated the front-of-package promotion more favourably than those who correctly understood the counter-ad. Counter-advertising may have unintended consequences when misunderstood. If public health organizations or government pursue counter-advertising as a strategy to reduce

  7. Detailed Network Measurements Using Sparse Graph Counters: The Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Yi; Prabhakar, Balaji

    2007-01-01

    Measuring network flow sizes is important for tasks like accounting/billing, network forensics and security. Per-flow accounting is considered hard because it requires that many counters be updated at a very high speed; however, the large fast memories needed for storing the counters are prohibitively expensive. Therefore, current approaches aim to obtain approximate flow counts; that is, to detect large elephant flows and then measure their sizes. Recently the authors and their collaborators have developed [1] a novel method for per-flow traffic measurement that is fast, highly memory efficient and accurate. At the core of this method is a novel counter architecture called "counter braids.'' In this paper, we analyze the performance of the counter braid architecture under a Maximum Likelihood (ML) flow size estimation algorithm and show that it is optimal; that is, the number of bits needed to store the size of a flow matches the entropy lower bound. While the ML algorithm is optimal, it is too complex to im...

  8. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...... to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many...

  9. SIX QUESTIONS IN TEACHING LISTENING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangHui

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses problems common in the listening classes, namely, lack of motivation, orientation and sense of achievement and the presence of pressure, fear and frustration. The author examines different factors in the teaching of listening and poses 6 questions that might help teachers to reflect on their teaching. The conclusion is that the aim of listening class is to develop rather than test listening strategies and skills; that students need to be provided with communicative tasks before and while listening; that materials should be realistic, varied and graded ; that listening should be integrated with other skills development; and finally, that learner autonomy provides the ultimate solution to listening problems.

  10. No question about exciting questions in cell biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D Pollard

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although we have a good grasp of many important processes in cell biology, including knowledge of many molecules involved and how they interact with each other, we still do not understand most of the dynamical features that are the essence of living systems. Fortunately, we now have the ability to dissect biological systems in enough detail to understand their dynamics, including the use of mathematical models to account for past observations and predict future experiments. This deep level of mechanistic understanding should be our goal—not simply to satisfy our scientific curiosity, but also to understand the causes of disease well enough to predict risks, make early diagnoses, and treat effectively. Many big questions remain to be answered before we reach this goal of understanding cellular dynamics.

  11. No question about exciting questions in cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Thomas D

    2013-12-01

    Although we have a good grasp of many important processes in cell biology, including knowledge of many molecules involved and how they interact with each other, we still do not understand most of the dynamical features that are the essence of living systems. Fortunately, we now have the ability to dissect biological systems in enough detail to understand their dynamics, including the use of mathematical models to account for past observations and predict future experiments. This deep level of mechanistic understanding should be our goal—not simply to satisfy our scientific curiosity, but also to understand the causes of disease well enough to predict risks, make early diagnoses, and treat effectively. Many big questions remain to be answered before we reach this goal of understanding cellular dynamics.

  12. BEWARE OF BRANDING SOMEONE A TERRORIST: LOCAL PROFESSIONALS ON PERSON-SPECIFIC INTERVENTIONS TO COUNTER EXTREMISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quirine Eijkman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the effect of local tailored interventions to counter (violent extremism, and therefore contributes to the academic and policy debates. It focusses on local, professional perspectives on person-specific interventions utilising a Dutch case study as the basis. The interventions are part of the wider-ranging counter terrorism policy that entails (local measures that are deployed in relation to designated high-risk individuals and groups. By reviewing policy documents and conducting semi-structured interviews, the exploratory study concludes that the key factors for a hand-tailored intervention are a solid network, expert knowledge to assess potential signs of extremist ideology, an awareness of not having too many concurrent measures, good inter-institutional cooperation and information-sharing. The professionals involved felt that person-specific interventions have contributed to reducing the threat of religious extremism in the Netherlands. Nonetheless, municipal officials and security agents emphasised the importance of setting realistic goals and a focus on preventive rather than repressive measures. Furthermore, despite the central role that municipal actors play, they run up against problems such as cooperation within the security and care sector. National entities appear to emphasize information-gathering and monitoring more than community-focused cooperation. Thereby questioning whether, on the national level, local professionals are perceived as playing a key role in dealing with extremism.

  13. Les questions de migrations internationales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samman, Mouna Liliane

    1993-03-01

    International migrations have growing implications for both countries of origin and countries of destination. In the latter, the presence of foreigners and of members of their families today creates problems of integration, causes argument and brings mounting xenophobia. Paralleling political, economic and social measures taken by public authorities to respond to these difficulties, education needs to assist in defusing the resulting social tensions by preparing the minds of learners and helping to develop new attitudes. In particular, when educational programmes address questions of international migration, these should be treated in the framework of historical evolution so that their real significance and their true temporal and spatial dimensions become apparent. It is also important that the growing interdependence between countries should be made plain, that national history should be placed in its international context, and that the true consequences of these developments should be made clear. In this context, learners need to be acquainted with Human Rights, thereby stressing universal moral values and the role of the individual. Lastly, questions relating to international migration are usually presented in the media in a selective and partial manner, and the young people who take in this information often accept the hasty judgments which are made of situations as proven facts. This is why all teaching about international migration needs to be considered or reconsidered in the light of the complementary or competing actions of the media.

  14. Pisa Question and Reasoning Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersoy Esen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to determine the level of the reasoning skills of the secondary school students. This research has been conducted during the academic year of 2015-2016 with the participation of 51 students in total, from a province in the Black Sea region of Turkey by using random sampling method. Case study method has been used in this study, since it explains an existing situation. In this study, content analysis from the qualitative research methods was carried out. In order to ensure the validity of the scope, agreement percentage formula was used and expert opinions were sought.The problem named Holiday from the Chapter 1 of the normal units in Problem Solving Questions from PISA (Program for International Student Assessments [35] are used as the data collection tool for the study. The problem named Holiday consists of two questions. Applied problems were evaluated according to the mathematical reasoning stages of TIMSS (2003. The findings suggest that the students use proportional reasoning while solving the problems and use the geometric shapes to facilitate the solution of the problem. When they come across problems related to each other, it is observed that they create connections between the problems based on the results of the previous problem. In conclusion, the students perform crosscheck to ensure that their solutions to the problems are accurate.

  15. Are Quantum Theory Questions Epistemic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Yaccuzzi Polisena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available How to displace-move quantum theory [Ǭ] questions-problems to philosophy? Seeing the collapse of our society’s cultural-intellectual-morals, the philosophy of the 21st century has to contribute to the formation of new principles-formalisms: the big task of the contemporary philosophy ©] is to innovate, to transform the building of the knowledge! Which is the role of the contemporary philosopher? (Noam Chomsky. Building science so that it is more human, out of the scientific mercantilism so that it does not continue transgressing that which is most precious: the thought-life. The ideas that I propose demand a deep cultural-epistemiologicscientific-philosophical-ethical rethinking that goes from quantum entities up to life in society. The starting idea is «the quantum [Ǭ], the paradigm of the contemporary science ©]» (Bernard D’Espagnat. I propose to displace-move questions of the quantum theory [Ǭ]: spin, measure, layering to the field of philosophy (φ to build generic symbols. Can the contemporary episteme model the collapse of the ? For a philosopher, can understanding the importance and the behaviour of the spin bring something new to philosophy ? Can information of the states of the spin be used to observe in a holographic way the pattern energy-information contained in the quantum entities? Is quantum [Ǭ] physics mechanical?

  16. Evaluative Conditioning: The "How" Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher R; Olson, Michael A; Fazio, Russell H

    2010-01-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) refers to attitude formation or change toward an object due to that object's mere co-occurrence with another valenced object or objects. This chapter focuses on the "how" question, that is, the question of what cognitive processes intervene between mere co-occurrence and attitude formation or change. Though EC has typically been thought of as occurring through a single, albeit contentious, mechanism, we begin by pointing out that both the heterogeneity of EC methodologies and the abundance of inconsistent results suggest that multiple processes with different characteristics can produce EC. We describe how the earliest posited process of EC, Pavlovian conditioning or signal learning, is a valid mechanism of EC that appears to have operated in some experiments but is unlikely to have operated in others and also cannot account for various EC findings. We describe other mechanisms of EC, when they can be expected to occur, and what characteristics they have. We particularly focus our attention on a process model of EC we have recently introduced, the implicit misattribution model. Finally, we describe the implications of a multi-process view of EC, which we argue can help resolve theoretical controversies and further the application of EC as a practical intervention for influencing attitudes in various domains.

  17. Progress on prevention and therapy against category A of bioterrorism agents in U.S.%美国针对A类生物恐怖剂的医学防护技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莹; 张传本; 王磊; 王松俊

    2008-01-01

    "Anthrax incident"happened in U.S.demonstrates the reality of the threat of bioterrorism.It also stimulates scientists to study the prevention against bioterrorism.The CDC has defined Bacillus anthracis,Smallpox virus,Yersinia pestis,Clostridium botulinum toxin,Francisella tularensis and Hemorrhagic fevers virus as category A of bioterrorism agents,meaning they present the greatest potential threats for harming public health.In the review,progress on prevention and therapy against these agents studied in U.S.will be summarized.%美国"炭疽事件"充分说明了生物恐怖威胁的现实性,同时也刺激了美国科技界对生物恐怖防护技术的研究.此文就美国针对A类生物恐怖剂预防和治疗相关技术的研究进展作了综述.

  18. DMA shared byte counters in a parallel computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan G.; Heidelberger, Philip; Vranas, Pavlos

    2010-04-06

    A parallel computer system is constructed as a network of interconnected compute nodes. Each of the compute nodes includes at least one processor, a memory and a DMA engine. The DMA engine includes a processor interface for interfacing with the at least one processor, DMA logic, a memory interface for interfacing with the memory, a DMA network interface for interfacing with the network, injection and reception byte counters, injection and reception FIFO metadata, and status registers and control registers. The injection FIFOs maintain memory locations of the injection FIFO metadata memory locations including its current head and tail, and the reception FIFOs maintain the reception FIFO metadata memory locations including its current head and tail. The injection byte counters and reception byte counters may be shared between messages.

  19. Measuring Cherenkov Backgrounds from Proportional Counters in SNO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Stanley

    2006-04-01

    In the current phase of operation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, He-3 proportional counters have been deployed in the center of the detector to measure neutron production from neutral-current interactions between neutrinos and deuterons in the heavy water. Radioactive decays of Bi-214 and Tl-208 in the counters produce gammas of sufficient energy to photodisintegrate deuterons, which become a background to the neutral current measurement. We have measured the background rate in-situ using Cherenkov light detected with SNO's 9456 inward-looking photomultiplier tubes. A maximum likelihood method is used to separate backgrounds in the heavy water from backgrounds in the proportional counters based upon the spatial distribution of low energy Cherenkov event vertices. Uncertainties on the backgrounds have been estimated using calibration data taken with both a distributed Na-24 source, and a contained Th source deployed at various points in the detector.

  20. Event identification in 3He proportional counters using risetime discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, T. J.; Bass, C. D.; Beise, E. J.; Breuer, H.; Erwin, D. K.; Heimbach, C. R.; Nico, J. S.

    2013-07-01

    We present a straightforward method for particle identification and background rejection in 3He proportional counters for use in neutron detection. By measuring the risetime and pulse height of the preamplifier signals, one may define a region in the risetime versus pulse height space where the events are predominately from neutron interactions. For six proportional counters surveyed in a low-background environment, we demonstrate the ability to reject alpha-particle events with an efficiency of 99%. By applying the same method, we also show an effective rejection of microdischarge noise events that, when passed through a shaping amplifier, are indistinguishable from physical events in the counters. The primary application of this method is in measurements where the signal-to-background for counting neutrons is very low, such as in underground laboratories.

  1. Event Identification in $^3$He Proportional Counters Using Risetime Discrimination

    CERN Document Server

    Langford, T J; Beise, E J; Breuer, H; Erwin, D K; Heimbach, C R; Nico, J S

    2012-01-01

    We present a straightforward method for particle identification and background rejection in $^3$He proportional counters for use in neutron detection. By measuring the risetime and pulse height of the preamplifier signals, one may define a region in the risetime versus pulse height space where the events are predominately from neutron interactions. For six proportional counters surveyed in a low-background environment, we demonstrate the ability to reject alpha-particle events with an efficiency of 99%. By applying the same method, we also show an effective rejection of microdischarge noise events that, when passed through a shaping amplifier, are indistinguishable from physical events in the counters. The primary application of this method is in measurements where the signal-to-background for counting neutrons is very low, such as in underground laboratories.

  2. Wind tunnel tests of stratospheric airship counter rotating propellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaxi Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic performance of the high-altitude propeller, especially the counter rotation effects, is experimentally studied. Influences of different configurations on a stratospheric airship, included 2-blade counter-rotating propeller (CRP, dual 2-blade single rotation propellers (SRPs and 4-blade SRP, are also indicated. This research indicates that the effect of counter rotation can greatly improve the efficiency. It shows that the CRP configuration results in a higher efficiency than the dual 2-blade SRPs configuration or 4-blade SRP configuration under the same advance ratio, and the CRP configuration also gains the highest efficiency whether under the situation of providing the same trust or absorbing the same power. It concludes that, for a stratospheric airship, the CRP configuration is better than the multiple SRPs configuration or a multi-blade SRP one.

  3. Emergent information technologies and enabling policies for counter-terrorism

    CERN Document Server

    Popp, R

    2006-01-01

    Explores both counter-terrorism and enabling policy dimensions of emerging information technologies in national security After the September 11th attacks, "connecting the dots" has become the watchword for using information and intelligence to protect the United States from future terrorist attacks. Advanced and emerging information technologies offer key assets in confronting a secretive, asymmetric, and networked enemy. Yet, in a free and open society, policies must ensure that these powerful technologies are used responsibly, and that privacy and civil liberties remain protected. Emergent Information Technologies and Enabling Policies for Counter-Terrorism provides a unique, integrated treatment of cutting-edge counter-terrorism technologies and their corresponding policy options. Featuring contributions from nationally recognized authorities and experts, this book brings together a diverse knowledge base for those charged with protecting our nation from terrorist attacks while preserving our civil liberti...

  4. Fast scintillation counters for the D0 muon system upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldin, B. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Abramov, V.; Babintsev, V. [and others

    1999-08-01

    The design and main parameters of the completely redesigned D0 Forward Angle Muon System (FAMUS: 1.0 < {vert_bar}{eta}{vert_bar} < 2.0) for the next high luminosity Tevatron Collider run are reported. Results of the studies of trigger scintillation counters based on fast scintillator Bicron 404A and WLS bars SOFZ-105 are presented. The authors report about results of test beam studies of prototype counters including minimum ionizing particles detection efficiency, time resolution and amplitude response. Radiation ageing of scintillating materials for the doses up to 1 Mrad, phototubes magnetic shielding in the fields of up to 700 G and ageing of phototubes are presented. All tests show robustness of scintillation counters as triggering detector of the new muon system for a long period.

  5. Forensic Speaker Recognition Law Enforcement and Counter-Terrorism

    CERN Document Server

    Patil, Hemant

    2012-01-01

    Forensic Speaker Recognition: Law Enforcement and Counter-Terrorism is an anthology of the research findings of 35 speaker recognition experts from around the world. The volume provides a multidimensional view of the complex science involved in determining whether a suspect’s voice truly matches forensic speech samples, collected by law enforcement and counter-terrorism agencies, that are associated with the commission of a terrorist act or other crimes. While addressing such topics as the challenges of forensic case work, handling speech signal degradation, analyzing features of speaker recognition to optimize voice verification system performance, and designing voice applications that meet the practical needs of law enforcement and counter-terrorism agencies, this material all sounds a common theme: how the rigors of forensic utility are demanding new levels of excellence in all aspects of speaker recognition. The contributors are among the most eminent scientists in speech engineering and signal process...

  6. Radiosonde aerosol counter for vertical profiling of atmospheric dust layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulanowski, Z.; Hirst, E.; Kaye, P. H.; Harrison, R. G.; Nicoll, K. A.; Rogers, G.

    2010-05-01

    A low-cost, miniature aerosol particle counter has been developed, intended for use with balloon-borne meteorological radiosondes. It is particularly suitable for airborne mineral dust measurements. Ambient air is drawn into the counter using a diaphragm pump at a rate of 0.5 litre per minute. The counter detects particles in the airstream using a diode laser and a photodiode. Output from the photodiode is digitised into 5 size bins, with minimum particle diameters equivalent to 0.6, 1.4, 2.6, 5.4 and 10.6 micrometers. The counter is interfaced to a Vaisala RS92 radiosonde, which transmits data from the counter together with meteorological parameters and GPS-derived position to a ground based receiver at 1 Hz rate. Statistically significant particle size distributions can be obtained once a second for number concentrations down to about 100,000 particle per litre (within the measured size range), or correspondingly less at lower temporal resolutions. At the same time, the counter is capable of measuring dust number concentrations exceeding a million per litre without incurring significant errors. Soundings during the DREAME campaign in Kuwait (Ulanowski et al. EGU 2010, AS4.7) and on Cape Verde Islands (Nicoll et al. EGU 2010, AS4.7) provided dust concentration profiles with a typical vertical resolution of 4 m. Comparisons with integrated dust column size distribution measurements from AERONET sun photometers showed good agreement in two out of three cases where near-simultaneous retrievals were available. Optical thickness calculations based on the size distributions measured in Kuwait, with the assumption that the dust particles were prolate spheroids, agreed with the AERONET optical thickness at 675 nm to within 15%.

  7. Full simulation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory proportional counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran, B; Habib, S; Hallin, A L [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3 (Canada); Bichsel, H; Cox, G A; Formaggio, J A; McGee, S; Miller, M L; Oblath, N S [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Cai, B; Kraus, C; Leslie, H R; Martin, R [Department of Physics, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Deng, H [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6396 (United States); Detwiler, J; Loach, J C [Institute for Nuclear and Particle Astrophysics and Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hime, A [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Huang, M [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-0264 (United States); Monreal, B; Monroe, J, E-mail: nsoblath@mit.edu [Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    The third phase of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) experiment added an array of {sup 3}He proportional counters to the detector. The purpose of this neutral-current detection (NCD) array was to observe neutrons resulting from neutral-current solar-neutrino-deuteron interactions. We have developed a detailed simulation of current pulses from NCD array proportional counters, from the primary neutron capture on {sup 3}He through NCD array signal-processing electronics. This NCD array MC simulation was used to model the alpha-decay background in SNO's third-phase {sup 8}B solar-neutrino measurement.

  8. Full simulation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory proportional counters

    CERN Document Server

    Beltran, B; Cai, B.; Cox, G.A.; Deng, H.; Detwiler, J.; Formaggio, J.A.; Habib, S.; Hallin, A.L.; Hime, A.; Huang, M.; Kraus, C.; Leslie, H.R.; Loach, J.C.; Martin, R.; McGee, S.; Miller, M.L.; Monreal, B.; Monroe, J.; Oblath, N.S.; Peeters, S.J.M.; Poon, A.W.P.; Prior, G.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Smith, M.W.E.; Stonehill, L.C.; Tolich, N.; Van Wechel, T.; Wan Chan Tseung, H.; Wendland, J.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Wright, A.

    2011-01-01

    The third phase of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) experiment added an array of 3He proportional counters to the detector. The purpose of this Neutral Current Detection (NCD) array was to observe neutrons resulting from neutral-current solar neutrino-deuteron interactions. We have developed a detailed simulation of the current pulses from the NCD array proportional counters, from the primary neutron capture on 3He through the NCD array signal-processing electronics. This NCD array Monte Carlo simulation was used to model the alpha-decay background in SNO's third-phase 8B solar-neutrino measurement.

  9. Semi-automatic, octave-spanning optical frequency counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tze-An; Shu, Ren-Huei; Peng, Jin-Long

    2008-07-07

    This work presents and demonstrates a semi-automatic optical frequency counter with octave-spanning counting capability using two fiber laser combs operated at different repetition rates. Monochromators are utilized to provide an approximate frequency of the laser under measurement to determine the mode number difference between the two laser combs. The exact mode number of the beating comb line is obtained from the mode number difference and the measured beat frequencies. The entire measurement process, except the frequency stabilization of the laser combs and the optimization of the beat signal-to-noise ratio, is controlled by a computer running a semi-automatic optical frequency counter.

  10. Introduction to Neutron Coincidence Counter Design Based on Boron-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2012-01-22

    The Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation Policy (NA-241) is supporting the project 'Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology' at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for development of an alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is ultimately to design, build and demonstrate a boron-lined proportional tube based alternative system in the configuration of a coincidence counter. This report, providing background information for this project, is the deliverable under Task 1 of the project.

  11. Counter-propagating patterns in the BioPhotonics Workstation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palima, Darwin; Lindballe, T.; Kristensen, M.V.

    2010-01-01

    for stable three-dimensional manipulation of multiple particles. In this work, we analyze counter-propagating shaped-beam traps that depart from this conventional geometry. We show that projecting shaped beams with separation distances previously considered axially unstable can, in fact, enhance the trap...... by improving axial and transverse trapping stiffness. We also show interesting results of trapping and micromanipulation experiments that combine optical forces with fluidic forces. These results hint about the rich potential of using patterned counter-propagating beams for optical trapping and manipulation...

  12. Address Counter Generators for Low Power Memory BIST

    OpenAIRE

    Balwinder Singh; Sukhleen Bindra Narang; Arun Khosla

    2011-01-01

    In today's Integrated Circuits (IC's) designs Built-in Self Test (BIST) is becoming important for the memory which is the most necessary part of the System on Chip. The March algorithm has been widely used to test memory core of System on chip (SOC). LFSRs and counters are mainly used to generate the memory addresses, which can be serially applied to the memory cores under test. In this paper Address counters and Data generators (i.e. parts of the MBIST) are designed. These implemented in Har...

  13. Search for an optimum time response of spark counters

    CERN Document Server

    Devismes, A; Kress, T; Gobbi, A; Eschke, J; Herrmann, N; Hildenbrand, K D; Koczón, P; Petrovici, M

    2002-01-01

    A spark counter of the type developed by Pestov has been tested with the aim of searching for an optimum time response function, changing voltage, content of noble and quencher gases, pressure and energy-loss. Replacing the usual argon by neon has brought an improvement of the resolution and a significant reduction of tails in the time response function. It has been proven that a counter as long as 90 cm can deliver, using neon gas mixture, a time resolution sigma<60 ps with about 1% absolute tail and an efficiency of about 90%.

  14. Appearance questions can be misleading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel; Markman, Ellen M.

    2005-01-01

    Preschoolers' success on the appearance-reality task is a milestone in theory-of-mind development. On the standard task children see a deceptive object, such as a sponge that looks like a rock, and are asked, "What is this really?" and "What does this look like?" Children below 4 1/2 years of age...... fail saying that the object not only is a sponge but also looks like a sponge. We propose that young children's difficulty stems from ambiguity in the meaning of "looks like." This locution can refer to outward appearance ("Peter looks like Paul") but in fact often refers to likely reality ("That looks...... like Jim"). We propose that "looks like" is taken to refer to likely reality unless the reality is already part of the common ground of the conversation. Because this joint knowledge is unclear to young children on the appearance-reality task, they mistakenly think the appearance question is about...

  15. Questions and Answers about BSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. Skillicorn

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Bulk Synchronous Parallelism (BSP is a parallel programming model that abstracts from low-level program structures in favour of supersteps. A superstep consists of a set of independent local computations, followed by a global communication phase and a barrier synchronisation. Structuring programs in this way enables their costs to be accurately determined from a few simple architectural parameters, namely the permeability of the communication network to uniformly-random traffic and the time to synchronise. Although permutation routing and barrier synch ronisations are widely regarded as inherently expensive, this is not the case. As a result, the structure imposed by BSP does not reduce performance, while bringing considerable benefits for application building. This paper answers the most common questions we are asked about BSP and justifies its claim to be a major step forward in parallel programming.

  16. Questioning Strategy in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李顺梅

    2015-01-01

    Learner autonomy has been a hot issue discussed by educators in recent years.Because it is believed that the ulti-mate goal of educating is to help students learn autonomously and actively not only in school but also,after graduation,for their whole life.Many people misunderstand the meaning of learner autonomy as learners learn something totally independent from teacher or learn after class.This is not the truth;teacher is indispensible to promote learner autonomy.Therefore,English teacher bears a great respon-sibility of fostering and promoting learner autonomy in the classroom.Questioning is the most frequently used and easiest method in the various teaching methods.

  17. Simultaneous Detection of CDC Category "A" DNA and RNA Bioterrorism Agents by Use of Multiplex PCR & RT-PCR Enzyme Hybridization Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J. Henrickson

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Assays to simultaneously detect multiple potential agents of bioterrorism are limited. Two multiplex PCR and RT-PCR enzyme hybridization assays (mPCR-EHA, mRT-PCR-EHA were developed to simultaneously detect many of the CDC category “A” bioterrorism agents. The “Bio T” DNA assay was developed to detect: Variola major (VM, Bacillus anthracis (BA, Yersinia pestis (YP, Francisella tularensis (FT and Varicella zoster virus (VZV. The “Bio T” RNA assay (mRT-PCR-EHA was developed to detect: Ebola virus (Ebola, Lassa fever virus (Lassa, Rift Valley fever (RVF, Hantavirus Sin Nombre species (HSN and dengue virus (serotypes 1-4. Sensitivity and specificity of the 2 assays were tested by using genomic DNA, recombinant plasmid positive controls, RNA transcripts controls, surrogate (spiked clinical samples and common respiratory pathogens. The analytical sensitivity (limit of detection (LOD of the DNA asssay for genomic DNA was 1×100~1×102 copies/mL for BA, FT and YP. The LOD for VZV whole organism was 1×10-2 TCID50/mL. The LOD for recombinant controls ranged from 1×102~1×103copies/mL for BA, FT, YP and VM. The RNA assay demonstrated LOD for RNA transcript controls of 1×104~1×106 copies/mL without extraction and 1×105~1×106 copies/mL with extraction for Ebola, RVF, Lassa and HSN. The LOD for dengue whole organisms was ~1×10-4 dilution for dengue 1 and 2, 1×104 LD50/mL and 1×102 LD50/mL for dengue 3 and 4. The LOD without extraction for recombinant plasmid DNA controls was ~1×103 copies/mL (1.5 input copies/reaction for Ebola, RVF, Lassa and HSN. No cross-reactivity of primers and probes used in both assays was detected with common respiratory pathogens or between targeted analytes. Clinical sensitivity was estimated using 264 surrogate clinical samples tested with the BioT DNA assay and 549 samples tested with the BioT RNA assay. The clinical specificity is 99.6% and 99.8% for BioT DNA assay and BioT RNA assay, respectively. The

  18. Questions That Engage Students in Mathematical Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilaria, Daniel R.

    Teacher questions are an important part of a student-inquiry classroom. This research examines two different student-centered settings to determine the teacher questions that engaged students in mathematical thinking. It reports on questions asked in both a research setting and a high school classroom. Discursive and retracing questions are…

  19. On Effective Questioning in English Classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏慧芳

    2010-01-01

    Teachers' questioning has traditionally been viewed as an important constituent of teacher talk and the core of effective teaching in classroom context.Questioning is the basic means used by teachers to challenge students to think,appraise teaching results and help students to realize their desired goals,thus,playing a key role in the second language acquisition.This paper will first introduce the definition and types of teachers'questioning and the criteria for effective questioning.It will also give some practical suggestions for practice effective questioning,focusing on good questions,wait-time,feedback and allocation of questions.

  20. Socrates' questions: a focus for nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunkers, Sandra S

    2004-07-01

    This column focuses on the philosophical dialogue originated by Socrates. Six questions that Socrates would ask the ancient Greeks are explored in discussing a book written by Phillips entitled Six Questions of Socrates. These questions were: What is virtue? What is moderation? What is justice? What is good? What is courage? What is piety? A human becoming perspective is used as a lens to view the discussion on these questions and the question is posed, "What would it be like to frame discussions on health and quality of life around Socrates' questions?" Parse's teaching-learning processes are presented as a means of creating an environment where dialogue on these questions can occur.

  1. GAMMA PROPORTIONAL COUNTER CONTAINING HIGH Z GAS AND LOW Z MODERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, R.

    1963-07-23

    A gamma radiation counter employing a gas proportional counter is described. The radiation counter comprises a cylindrical gas proportional counter which contains a high atomic number gas and is surrounded by a low atomic number gamma radiation moderator material. At least one slit is provided in the moderator to allow accident gamma radiation to enter the moderator in the most favorable manner for moderation, and also to allow low energy gamma radiation to enter the counter without the necessity of passing through the moderator. This radiation counter is capable of detecting and measuring gamma radiation in the energy range of 0.5-5 Mev. (AEC)

  2. Countering Children's Sugared Food Commercials: Do Rebuttals Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Lois; Sandman, Peter M.

    To assist the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) in policy making decisions concerning sugared food advertisements on television, a study was conducted to assess the effects on children of counter advertisements and disclaimers as a means of lessening the undesirable impact of sugared food ads. Approximately 1,200 children, aged 5 to 10 years,…

  3. Improving SHA-1 counter-cryptanalysis using unavoidable conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shumow, D.; Stevens, M.M.J.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of counter-cryptanalysis and a collision detection algorithm that detects whether a given single message was constructed using a cryptanalytic collision attack on MD5 or SHA-1 was presented by Stevens at CRYPTO 2013. It was shown that collision detection is not only possible but also pra

  4. Stellar counter-rotation in lenticular galaxy NGC 448

    CERN Document Server

    Katkov, Ivan Yu; Chilingarian, Igor V; Uklein, Roman I; Egorov, Oleg V

    2016-01-01

    The counter-rotation phenomenon in disc galaxies directly indicates a complex galaxy assembly history which is crucial for our understanding of galaxy physics. Here we present the complex data analysis for a lenticular galaxy NGC 448, which has been recently suspected to host a counter-rotating stellar component. We collected deep long-slit spectroscopic observations using the Russian 6-m telescope and performed the photometric decomposition of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) archival images. We exploited (i) a non-parametric approach in order to recover stellar line-of-sight velocity distributions and (ii) a parametric spectral decomposition technique in order to disentangle stellar population properties of both main and counter-rotating stellar discs. Our spectral decomposition stays in perfect agreement with the photometric analysis. The counter-rotating component contributes $\\approx$30 per cent to the total galaxy light. We estimated its stellar mass to be $9.0^{+2.7}_{-1.8}\\cdot10^{9}M_\\odot$. The radia...

  5. Crypto and empire: the contradictions of counter-surveillance advocacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gürses, S.; Kundnani, A.; Van Hoboken, J.

    2016-01-01

    Since Edward Snowden’s revelations of US and UK surveillance programs, privacy advocates, progressive security engineers, and policy makers have been seeking to win majority support for countering surveillance. The problem is framed as the replacement of targeted surveillance with mass surveillance

  6. BABYSCAN - a whole body counter for small children in Fukushima

    CERN Document Server

    Hayano, Ryugo S; Bronson, Frazier L; Oginni, Babatunde; Muramatsu, Isamu

    2014-01-01

    BABYSCAN, a whole body counter for small children with a detection limit for $^{137}$Cs of better than 50 Bq/body, was developed, and the first unit has been installed at a hospital in Fukushima, to help families with small children who are very much concerned about internal exposures. The design principles, implementation details and the initial operating experience are described.

  7. [Health care consumers about over-the-counter drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    Dutch consumers can now purchase 'over-the-counter drugs' (OTCs) at three distribution channels: (a) the pharmacy; (b) the chemist; (c) other sales outlets such as supermarkets and petrol stations. However, little is known about whether consumers consider themselves and others to have adequate knowl

  8. Laser phase-detector and counter for fine displacement measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Row, R. T.; Wang, C. P.

    A simple technique for the measurement of fine displacement has been developed. With use of an HeNe laser, an optical phase-detector, and counter, a displacement accuracy of 300 nm has been demonstrated over a range of 2 cm.

  9. Reactance and Coping Responses to Tobacco Counter-Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehbe, Michelle S; Basil, Michael; Basil, Debra

    2017-07-01

    Tobacco prevention messages generally take one of three tactics: They can be educational, attack the tobacco industry, or attack particular brands. Being a smoker and smoking a particular brand may form an essential part of a person's self-identity. As such, reactance theory suggests that attack messages can unintentionally attack smokers' self-image. A 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 experiment using six different messages and 260 respondents tested whether smokers have different reactions to tobacco counter-advertisements than nonsmokers. It also examined whether attacking a smoker's brand leads to greater reactance and other maladaptive responses compared to attacking other brands. Consistent with predictions, smokers reported more maladaptive coping responses and fewer adaptive coping responses to tobacco counter-ads than nonsmokers. The study also reveals differences attributable to brand identification. These findings suggest that interventions should consider different counter-advertising tactics for smokers and nonsmokers. Similar admonitions may apply to counter-advertising strategies on other health issues.

  10. Development of proportional counters using photosensitive gases and liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.F.

    1984-10-01

    An introduction to the history and to the principle of operation of wire chambers using photosensitive gases and liquids is presented. Their use as light sensors coupled to Gas Scintillation Proportional Counters and BaF/sub 2/, as well as their use in Cherenkov Ring imaging, is discussed in some detail. 42 references, 21 figures.

  11. A Simulation of Counter-Cyclical Intervention: Some Practical Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grawe, Nathan D.; Watts, Michael, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The author introduces a simulation of counter-cyclical interventions that highlights important issues surrounding the practice of government intervention. The simulation provides experiential insight as to why economists have long debated the degree of persistence exhibited by disequilibrating shocks and connects this debate to discussions about…

  12. Insubordinate Spaces for Intemperate Times: Countering the Pedagogies of Neoliberalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Barbara; Lipsitz, George

    2013-01-01

    Henry A. Giroux argues that countering the disasters of neoliberalism requires facing "the challenge of developing a politics and pedagogy that can serve and actualize a democratic notion of the social" (2011). The authors suggest that Immanuel Wallerstein's notion of "middle-run" temporality (2008) and Stuart Hall's discussion of "middle-level"…

  13. Shift-register coincidence electronics system for thermal neutron counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swansen, J.E.; Collinsworth, P.R.; Krick, M.S.

    1980-04-01

    An improved shift-register, coincidence-counting logic circuit, developed for use with thermal neutron well counters, is described in detail. A distinguishing feature of the circuit is its ability to operate usefully at neutron counting rates of several hundred kHz. A portable electronics package incorporating the new coincidence logic and support circuits is also described.

  14. Insubordinate Spaces for Intemperate Times: Countering the Pedagogies of Neoliberalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Barbara; Lipsitz, George

    2013-01-01

    Henry A. Giroux argues that countering the disasters of neoliberalism requires facing "the challenge of developing a politics and pedagogy that can serve and actualize a democratic notion of the social" (2011). The authors suggest that Immanuel Wallerstein's notion of "middle-run" temporality (2008) and Stuart Hall's discussion of "middle-level"…

  15. Rapid Scan Humidified Growth Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory L. Kok; Athanasios Nenes

    2013-03-13

    This research focused on enhancements to the streamwise thermal gradient cloud condensation nuclei counter to support the rapid scan mode and to enhance the capability for aerosol humidified growth measurements. The research identified the needs for flow system modifications and range of capability for operating the conventional instrument in the rapid scan and humidified growth modes.

  16. Radiation-hard polycrystalline mercuric iodide semiconductor particle counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieber, M. [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel)]|[Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore Ca 94556 (United States); Zuck, A.; Melekhov, L.; Nissenbaum, J. [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel); Turchetta, R.; Dulinski, W.; Husson, D.; Riester, J.L. [LEPSI (ULP/IN2P3), Strasbourg (France)

    1998-06-01

    Mercuric iodide polycrystalline radiation detectors, which can act as nuclear particle counters and for large area imaging devices, have been fabricated using three different methods. Response to X- and gamma rays, beta particles and to 100GeV muons, as well as radiation hardness results are briefly described. (orig.) 8 refs.

  17. Counter-intuitive Cases of Data Fusion in Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraev, Ulukbek; Kantor, Paul; Ng, K. B.

    2001-01-01

    Aspects of Data Fusion (DF) for information retrieval are explored. Based on a geometrical model of DF, it is shown that in the ideal case, performance of DF for a pair of information retrieval schemes may be approximated by a quadratic polynomial. Compares counter-intuitive cases of DF with cases that behave according to the geometric model. (AEF)

  18. Counter-term for the Palatini action of general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jingbo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we analysis the counter-term for the general relativity in the Palatini framework. The expression is valid for both the null boundary and non-null boundary. We show that final results coincide with that in Ref.\\cite{pad1} which starts form the Einstein-Hilbert action.

  19. Counter Rotating Open Rotor Animation using Particle Image Velocimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Roosenboom, E W M; Geisler, R; Pallek, D; Agocs, J; Neitzke, K -P

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the two accompanying fluid dynamics videos for the "Counter rotating open rotor flow field investigation using stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry" presented at the 64th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics in Baltimore, Maryland, November 20-22, 2011.

  20. Over-the-counter codeine use in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, A B; Grimsson, A

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to test the assumption that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership in Iceland would lead to increased irrational use of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine. METHODS: Based on this assumption we built and tested a model using an interru...