Counterfactual quantum cryptography.
Noh, Tae-Gon
2009-12-01
Quantum cryptography allows one to distribute a secret key between two remote parties using the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics. The well-known established paradigm for the quantum key distribution relies on the actual transmission of signal particle through a quantum channel. In this Letter, we show that the task of a secret key distribution can be accomplished even though a particle carrying secret information is not in fact transmitted through the quantum channel. The proposed protocols can be implemented with current technologies and provide practical security advantages by eliminating the possibility that an eavesdropper can directly access the entire quantum system of each signal particle.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Sheng; Wang Jian; Tang Chao-Jing
2012-01-01
Counterfactual quantum cryptography,recently proposed by Noh,is featured with no transmission of signal particles.This exhibits evident security advantages,such as its immunity to the well-known photon-number-splitting attack.In this paper,the theoretical security of counterfactual quantum cryptography protocol against the general interceptresend attacks is proved by bounding the information of an eavesdropper Eve more tightly than in Yin's proposal [Phys.Rev.A 82 042335 (2010)].It is also shown that practical counterfactual quantum cryptography implementations may be vulnerable when equipped with imperfect apparatuses,by proving that a negative key rate can be achieved when Eve launches a time-shift attack based on imperfect detector efficiency.
Hughes, R J; Dyer, P L; Luther, G G; Morgan, G L; Schauer, M M; Hughes, Richard J; Dyer, P; Luther, G G; Morgan, G L; Schauer, M
1995-01-01
Quantum cryptography is a new method for secret communications offering the ultimate security assurance of the inviolability of a Law of Nature. In this paper we shall describe the theory of quantum cryptography, its potential relevance and the development of a prototype system at Los Alamos, which utilises the phenomenon of single-photon interference to perform quantum cryptography over an optical fiber communications link.
Fehr, S.
2010-01-01
Quantum cryptography makes use of the quantum-mechanical behavior of nature for the design and analysis of cryptographic schemes. Optimally (but not always), quantum cryptography allows for the design of cryptographic schemes whose security is guaranteed solely by the laws of nature. This is in shar
Gilbert, Gerald; Hamrick, Michael
2013-01-01
This book provides a detailed account of the theory and practice of quantum cryptography. Suitable as the basis for a course in the subject at the graduate level, it crosses the disciplines of physics, mathematics, computer science and engineering. The theoretical and experimental aspects of the subject are derived from first principles, and attention is devoted to the practical development of realistic quantum communications systems. The book also includes a comprehensive analysis of practical quantum cryptography systems implemented in actual physical environments via either free-space or fiber-optic cable quantum channels. This book will be a valuable resource for graduate students, as well as professional scientists and engineers, who desire an introduction to the field that will enable them to undertake research in quantum cryptography. It will also be a useful reference for researchers who are already active in the field, and for academic faculty members who are teaching courses in quantum information s...
Trojan horse attacks on counterfactual quantum key distribution
Yang, Xiuqing; Wei, Kejin; Ma, Haiqiang; Sun, Shihai; Du, Yungang; Wu, Lingan
2016-04-01
There has been much interest in "counterfactual quantum cryptography" (T.-G. Noh, 2009 [10]). It seems that the counterfactual quantum key distribution protocol without any photon carrier through the quantum channel provides practical security advantages. However, we show that it is easy to break counterfactual quantum key distribution systems in practical situations. We introduce the two types of Trojan horse attacks that are available for the two-way protocol and become possible for practical counterfactual systems with our eavesdropping schemes.
Broadband Quantum Cryptography
Rogers, Daniel
2010-01-01
Quantum cryptography is a rapidly developing field that draws from a number of disciplines, from quantum optics to information theory to electrical engineering. By combining some fundamental quantum mechanical principles of single photons with various aspects of information theory, quantum cryptography represents a fundamental shift in the basis for security from numerical complexity to the fundamental physical nature of the communications channel. As such, it promises the holy grail of data security: theoretically unbreakable encryption. Of course, implementing quantum cryptography in real br
Quantum cryptography: a view from classical cryptography
Buchmann, Johannes; Braun, Johannes; Demirel, Denise; Geihs, Matthias
2017-06-01
Much of digital data requires long-term protection of confidentiality, for example, medical health records. Cryptography provides such protection. However, currently used cryptographic techniques such as Diffe-Hellman key exchange may not provide long-term security. Such techniques rely on certain computational assumptions, such as the hardness of the discrete logarithm problem that may turn out to be incorrect. On the other hand, quantum cryptography---in particular quantum random number generation and quantum key distribution---offers information theoretic protection. In this paper, we explore the challenge of providing long-term confidentiality and we argue that a combination of quantum cryptography and classical cryptography can provide such protection.
Probabilistic direct counterfactual quantum communication
Zhang, Sheng
2017-02-01
It is striking that the quantum Zeno effect can be used to launch a direct counterfactual communication between two spatially separated parties, Alice and Bob. So far, existing protocols of this type only provide a deterministic counterfactual communication service. However, this counterfactuality should be payed at a price. Firstly, the transmission time is much longer than a classical transmission costs. Secondly, the chained-cycle structure makes them more sensitive to channel noises. Here, we extend the idea of counterfactual communication, and present a probabilistic-counterfactual quantum communication protocol, which is proved to have advantages over the deterministic ones. Moreover, the presented protocol could evolve to a deterministic one solely by adjusting the parameters of the beam splitters. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61300203).
Quantum cryptography communication technology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cho, Jai Wan; Choi, Young Soo; Lee, Jae Chul; Choi, Yu Rak; Jung, Gwang Il; Jung, Jong Eun; Hong, Seok Boong; Koo, In Soo
2007-09-15
Quantum cryptography communication based on quantum mechanics provides and unconditional security between two users. Even though huge advance has been done since the 1984, having a complete system is still far away. In the case of real quantum cryptography communication systems, an unconditional security level is lowered by the imperfection of the communication unit. It is important to investigate the unconditional security of quantum communication protocols based on these experimental results and implementation examples for the advanced spread all over the world. The Japanese report, titled, 'Investigation report on the worldwide trends of quantum cryptography communications systems' was translated and summarized in this report. An unconditional security theory of the quantum cryptography and real implementation examples in the domestic area are investigated also. The goal of the report is to make quantum cryptography communication more useful and reliable alternative telecommunication infrastructure as the one of the cyber security program of the class 1-E communication system of nuclear power plant. Also another goal of this report is to provide the quantitative decision basis on the quantum cryptography communication when this secure communication system will be used in class 1-E communication channel of the nuclear power plant.
Quantum Computational Cryptography
Kawachi, Akinori; Koshiba, Takeshi
As computational approaches to classical cryptography have succeeded in the establishment of the foundation of the network security, computational approaches even to quantum cryptography are promising, since quantum computational cryptography could offer richer applications than the quantum key distribution. Our project focused especially on the quantum one-wayness and quantum public-key cryptosystems. The one-wayness of functions (or permutations) is one of the most important notions in computational cryptography. First, we give an algorithmic characterization of quantum one-way permutations. In other words, we show a necessary and sufficient condition for quantum one-way permutations in terms of reflection operators. Second, we introduce a problem of distinguishing between two quantum states as a new underlying problem that is harder to solve than the graph automorphism problem. The new problem is a natural generalization of the distinguishability problem between two probability distributions, which are commonly used in computational cryptography. We show that the problem has several cryptographic properties and they enable us to construct a quantum publickey cryptosystem, which is likely to withstand any attack of a quantum adversary.
Quantum Cryptography in Practice
Elliott, C; Troxel, G; Elliott, Chip; Pearson, David; Troxel, Gregory
2003-01-01
BBN, Harvard, and Boston University are building the DARPA Quantum Network, the world's first network that delivers end-to-end network security via high-speed Quantum Key Distribution, and testing that Network against sophisticated eavesdropping attacks. The first network link has been up and steadily operational in our laboratory since December 2002. It provides a Virtual Private Network between private enclaves, with user traffic protected by a weak-coherent implementation of quantum cryptography. This prototype is suitable for deployment in metro-size areas via standard telecom (dark) fiber. In this paper, we introduce quantum cryptography, discuss its relation to modern secure networks, and describe its unusual physical layer, its specialized quantum cryptographic protocol suite (quite interesting in its own right), and our extensions to IPsec to integrate it with quantum cryptography.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gauthier Umana, Valérie
The security of almost all the public-key cryptosystems used in practice depends on the fact that the prime factorization of a number and the discrete logarithm are hard problems to solve. In 1994, Peter Shor found a polynomial-time algorithm which solves these two problems using quantum computers....... The public key cryptosystems that can resist these emerging attacks are called quantum resistant or post-quantum cryptosystems. There are mainly four classes of public-key cryptography that are believed to resist classical and quantum attacks: code-based cryptography, hash-based cryptography, lattice......-cyclic alternant codes and quasi-dyadic codes (joint work with Gregor Leander). We also present a deterministic polynomial-time algorithm to solve the Goppa Code Distinguisher problem for high rate codes (joint work with Jean-Charles Faugere, Ayoub Otmani, Ludovic Perret and Jean-Pierre Tillich). In the second...
Quantum cryptography in free space.
Jacobs, B C; Franson, J D
1996-11-15
The range of quantum cryptography systems using optical fibers is limited to roughly 30 km because amplifiers cannot be used. A fully operational system for quantum cryptography based on the transmission of single photons in free space under daylight conditions has been demonstrated. The feasibility of a global system for quantum cryptography based on a network of ground stations and satellites is discussed.
Quantum memory in quantum cryptography
Mor, T
1999-01-01
[Shortened abstract:] This thesis investigates the importance of quantum memory in quantum cryptography, concentrating on quantum key distribution schemes. In the hands of an eavesdropper -- a quantum memory is a powerful tool, putting in question the security of quantum cryptography; Classical privacy amplification techniques, used to prove security against less powerful eavesdroppers, might not be effective when the eavesdropper can keep quantum states for a long time. In this work we suggest a possible direction for approaching this problem. We define strong attacks of this type, and show security against them, suggesting that quantum cryptography is secure. We start with a complete analysis regarding the information about a parity bit (since parity bits are used for privacy amplification). We use the results regarding the information on parity bits to prove security against very strong eavesdropping attacks, which uses quantum memories and all classical data (including error correction codes) to attack th...
QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY: Single Photons.
Benjamin, S
2000-12-22
Quantum cryptography offers the potential of totally secure transfer of information, but as Benjamin discusses in this Perspective, its practical implementation hinges on being able to generate single photons (rather than two or more) at a time. Michler et al. show how this condition can be met in a quantum dot microdisk structure. Single molecules were also recently shown to allow controlled single-photon emission.
On Classical and Quantum Cryptography
Volovich, I V; Volovich, Ya.I.
2001-01-01
Lectures on classical and quantum cryptography. Contents: Private key cryptosystems. Elements of number theory. Public key cryptography and RSA cryptosystem. Shannon`s entropy and mutual information. Entropic uncertainty relations. The no cloning theorem. The BB84 quantum cryptographic protocol. Security proofs. Bell`s theorem. The EPRBE quantum cryptographic protocol.
Single photon quantum cryptography
Beveratos, A; Gacoin, T; Villing, A; Poizat, J P; Grangier, P; Beveratos, Alexios; Brouri, Rosa; Gacoin, Thierry; Villing, Andre; Poizat, Jean-Philippe; Grangier, Philippe
2002-01-01
We report the full implementation of a quantum cryptography protocol using a stream of single photon pulses generated by a stable and efficient source operating at room temperature. The single photon pulses are emitted on demand by a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color center in a diamond nanocrystal. The quantum bit error rate is less that 4.6% and the secure bit rate is 9500 bits/s. The overall performances of our system reaches a domain where single photons have a measurable advantage over an equivalent system based on attenuated light pulses.
Single photon quantum cryptography.
Beveratos, Alexios; Brouri, Rosa; Gacoin, Thierry; Villing, André; Poizat, Jean-Philippe; Grangier, Philippe
2002-10-28
We report the full implementation of a quantum cryptography protocol using a stream of single photon pulses generated by a stable and efficient source operating at room temperature. The single photon pulses are emitted on demand by a single nitrogen-vacancy color center in a diamond nanocrystal. The quantum bit error rate is less that 4.6% and the secure bit rate is 7700 bits/s. The overall performances of our system reaches a domain where single photons have a measurable advantage over an equivalent system based on attenuated light pulses.
Autocompensating Quantum Cryptography
Bethune, D S; Bethune, Donald S.; Risk, William P.
2002-01-01
Quantum cryptographic key distribution (QKD) uses extremely faint light pulses to carry quantum information between two parties (Alice and Bob), allowing them to generate a shared, secret cryptographic key. Autocompensating QKD systems automatically and passively compensate for uncontrolled time dependent variations of the optical fiber properties by coding the information as a differential phase between orthogonally-polarized components of a light pulse sent on a round trip through the fiber, reflected at mid-course using a Faraday mirror. We have built a prototype system based on standard telecom technology that achieves a privacy-amplified bit generation rate of ~1000 bits/s over a 10-km optical fiber link. Quantum cryptography is an example of an application that, by using quantum states of individual particles to represent information, accomplishes a practical task that is impossible using classical means.
Quantum Cryptography in Spin Networks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DENG Hong-Liang; FANG Xi-Ming
2007-01-01
In this paper we propose a new scheme of long-distance quantum cryptography based on spin networks with qubits stored in electron spins of quantum dots. By conditional Faraday rotation, single photon polarization measurement, and quantum state transfer, maximal-entangled Bell states for quantum cryptography between two long-distance parties are created. Meanwhile, efficient quantum state transfer over arbitrary distances is obtained in a spin chain by a proper choice of coupling strengths and using spin memory technique improved. We also analyse the security of the scheme against the cloning-based attack which can be also implemented in spin network and discover that this spin network cloning coincides with the optimal fidelity achieved by an eavesdropper for entanglement-based cryptography.
Quantum cryptography using optical fibers.
Franson, J D; Lives, H
1994-05-10
Quantum cryptography permits the transmission of secret information whose security is guaranteed by the uncertainty principle. An experimental system for quantum crytography is implemented based on the linear polarization of single photons transmitted by an optical fiber. Polarization-preserving optical fiber and a feedback loop are employed to maintain the state of polarization. Error rates of less than 0.5% are obtained.
QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY WITH PHOTON PAIRS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anand Sharma,
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Quantum cryptographic systems use quantum mechanical concepts that are based on qubit superposition of states, and on the no cloning or no copying theorem to establish unbreakable cipher keys. The basic idea of quantum cryptography is to send the key in the form of photons over a public channel, encoding the zeros and one on quantum states in such a way that any eavesdropping attempt can be detected. Using optical communications the most commonly quantum mechanical property used is the polarization state of photon. However, in most quantum cryptographic algorithms a random polarization state is required. The photons are ideal for low loss transport, either in free space or in optical fibers, i.e. we have the full arsenal of fiber optic technology at our disposal. In this paper we are describing the process of quantum cryptography with photon pairs.
On Simulation of Quantum Cryptography
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
The simulation of quantum cryptography on classical computers is discussed in this paper. The methods to express the preparation and measurement of quantum states on current computers are given and the basic algorithms for simulating the quantum key distribution protocols are presented. All the simulating results of each protocol are given and compared with the theoretic one. It is shown that the simulation results are completely tallied with the theoretic one.
Quantum cryptography beyond quantum key distribution
A. Broadbent (Anne); C. Schaffner (Christian)
2016-01-01
textabstractQuantum cryptography is the art and science of exploiting quantum mechanical effects in order to perform cryptographic tasks. While the most well-known example of this discipline is quantum key distribution (QKD), there exist many other applications such as quantum money, randomness
Quantum cryptography beyond quantum key distribution
Broadbent, A.; Schaffner, C.
2016-01-01
Quantum cryptography is the art and science of exploiting quantum mechanical effects in order to perform cryptographic tasks. While the most well-known example of this discipline is quantum key distribution (QKD), there exist many other applications such as quantum money, randomness generation,
Quantum cryptography beyond quantum key distribution
Broadbent, A.; Schaffner, C.
2016-01-01
Quantum cryptography is the art and science of exploiting quantum mechanical effects in order to perform cryptographic tasks. While the most well-known example of this discipline is quantum key distribution (QKD), there exist many other applications such as quantum money, randomness generation, secu
Trusted Certificates in Quantum Cryptography
Perkins, William
2006-01-01
This paper analyzes the performance of Kak's three stage quantum cryptographic protocol based on public key cryptography against a man-in-the-middle attack. A method for protecting against such an attack is presented using certificates distributed by a trusted third party.
Quantum cryptography with entangled photons
Jennewein; Simon; Weihs; Weinfurter; Zeilinger
2000-05-15
By realizing a quantum cryptography system based on polarization entangled photon pairs we establish highly secure keys, because a single photon source is approximated and the inherent randomness of quantum measurements is exploited. We implement a novel key distribution scheme using Wigner's inequality to test the security of the quantum channel, and, alternatively, realize a variant of the BB84 protocol. Our system has two completely independent users separated by 360 m, and generates raw keys at rates of 400-800 bits/s with bit error rates around 3%.
Salih, Hatim
2016-05-01
The phenomenon of quantum erasure has long intrigued physicists, but has surprisingly found limited practical application. Here, we propose a protocol for quantum key distribution (QKD) based on quantum erasure, promising inherent security against detector attacks. We particularly demonstrate its security against a powerful detector-blinding attack.
Secure communications using quantum cryptography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hughes, R.J.; Buttler, W.T.; Kwiat, P.G. [and others
1997-08-01
The secure distribution of the secret random bit sequences known as {open_quotes}key{close_quotes} material, is an essential precursor to their use for the encryption and decryption of confidential communications. Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology for secure key distribution with single-photon transmissions, nor evade detection (eavesdropping raises the key error rate above a threshold value). We have developed experimental quantum cryptography systems based on the transmission of non-orthogonal single-photon states to generate shared key material over multi-kilometer optical fiber paths and over line-of-sight links. In both cases, key material is built up using the transmission of a single-photon per bit of an initial secret random sequence. A quantum-mechanically random subset of this sequence is identified, becoming the key material after a data reconciliation stage with the sender. In our optical fiber experiment we have performed quantum key distribution over 24-km of underground optical fiber using single-photon interference states, demonstrating that secure, real-time key generation over {open_quotes}open{close_quotes} multi-km node-to-node optical fiber communications links is possible. We have also constructed a quantum key distribution system for free-space, line-of-sight transmission using single-photon polarization states, which is currently undergoing laboratory testing. 7 figs.
Quantum cryptography without switching.
Weedbrook, Christian; Lance, Andrew M; Bowen, Warwick P; Symul, Thomas; Ralph, Timothy C; Lam, Ping Koy
2004-10-22
We propose a new coherent state quantum key distribution protocol that eliminates the need to randomly switch between measurement bases. This protocol provides significantly higher secret key rates with increased bandwidths than previous schemes that only make single quadrature measurements. It also offers the further advantage of simplicity compared to all previous protocols which, to date, have relied on switching.
Trojan horse attacks on counterfactual quantum key distribution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Xiuqing, E-mail: xqqyang@163.com [School of Science, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); College of Science, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, 010051 Hohhot (China); Wei, Kejin; Ma, Haiqiang [School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Sun, Shihai, E-mail: shsun@nudt.edu.cn [Department of Physics, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Du, Yungang [College of Science, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, 010051 Hohhot (China); Wu, Lingan [Laboratory of Optical Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)
2016-04-22
There has been much interest in “counterfactual quantum cryptography” (T.-G. Noh, 2009 [10]). It seems that the counterfactual quantum key distribution protocol without any photon carrier through the quantum channel provides practical security advantages. However, we show that it is easy to break counterfactual quantum key distribution systems in practical situations. We introduce the two types of Trojan horse attacks that are available for the two-way protocol and become possible for practical counterfactual systems with our eavesdropping schemes. - Highlights: • We find the attacks available for the two-way protocol become possible for the practical counterfactual systems. • It does not require the assumption that it works on the counterfactual systems only in a finite key scenario. • Compared to the other attack models, our scheme is relatively simple for an eavesdropper.
Protocols and plan of quantum cryptography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Milorad S. Markagić
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Along with the development of confidentiality of data and resources, there is a need to develop systems that would provide confidentiality. Currently, the most used systems are classical cryptographic systems and encryption public key systems. However, none of these systems provides a solution for the famous 'catch 22' of cryptography. Owing to the intensive development of quantum mechanics, in the last 30 years emerged an entirely new kind of cryptography-quantum cryptography. Its greatest contribution is a possibility to discover an intercepted communication channel from a third party. The question is: is this really true? The question arises: 'If the quantum cryptography is so good, why is not widely used?' The aim of this paper is, on the one hand, to define the basic mechanisms of quantum cryptography IP, and, on the other hand, to point to the shortcomings, as they related to the opportunities of today's devices and flaws in protocols.
Classical Cryptography v/s Quantum Cryptography A Comparative Study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Minakshi Bhatt
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In this era of information technology, the need for security has attained paramount importance. As most of our sensitive information is stored in computers the need of data security becomes increasingly important. Protecting this information against unauthorized access is therefore a major concern for both operating systems and users alike. Cryptography is one such method of safeguarding sensitive data from being stolen or intercepted by unwanted third parties. Traditional cryptology is certainly clever, but as with all encoding methods in code-breaking history, it's being phased out. Quantum cryptography uses quantum mechanics to guarantee secure communication. It enables two parties to produce a shared random bit string known only to them, which can be used as a key to encrypt and decrypt messages. By harnessing the unpredictable nature of matter at the quantum level, physicists have figured out a way to exchange information on secret keys. Attaching information to the photons spin is the essence of Quantum Cryptology. In brief, the processes of encoding (cryptography and decoding (crypto analysis information or messages (called plaintext into an otherwise meaningless data (cipher text combined are cryptology. And when the keys used for this process are photons, it’s called Quantum Cryptology.
A Quick Glance at Quantum Cryptography
Lomonaco, S J
1998-01-01
The recent application of the principles of quantum mechanics to cryptography has led to a remarkable new dimension in secret communication. As a result of these new developments, it is now possible to construct cryptographic communication systems which detect unauthorized eavesdropping should it occur, and which give a guarantee of no eavesdropping should it not occur. CONTENTS P3....Cryptographic systems before quantum cryptography P7....Preamble to quantum cryptography P10..The BB84 quantum cryptographic protocol without noise P16..The BB84 quantum cryptographic protocol with noise P19..The B92 quantum cryptographic protocol P21..EPR quantum cryptographic protocols P25..Other protocols P25..Eavesdropping stategies and counter measures P26..Conclusion P29..Appendix A. The no cloning theorem P30..Appendix B. Proof that an undetectable eavesdropper can obtain no information from the B92 protocol P31..Appendix C. Part of a Rosetta stone for quantum mechanics P44..References
Cryptography, quantum computation and trapped ions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hughes, Richard J.
1998-03-01
The significance of quantum computation for cryptography is discussed. Following a brief survey of the requirements for quantum computational hardware, an overview of the ion trap quantum computation project at Los Alamos is presented. The physical limitations to quantum computation with trapped ions are analyzed and an assessment of the computational potential of the technology is made.
Quantum counterfactual communication without a weak trace
Arvidsson-Shukur, D. R. M.; Barnes, C. H. W.
2016-12-01
The classical theories of communication rely on the assumption that there has to be a flow of particles from Bob to Alice in order for him to send a message to her. We develop a quantum protocol that allows Alice to perceive Bob's message "counterfactually"; that is, without Alice receiving any particles that have interacted with Bob. By utilizing a setup built on results from interaction-free measurements, we outline a communication protocol whereby the information travels in the opposite direction of the emitted particles. In comparison to previous attempts on such protocols, this one is such that a weak measurement at the message source would not leave a weak trace that could be detected by Alice's receiver. While some interaction-free schemes require a large number of carefully aligned beam splitters, our protocol is realizable with two or more beam splitters. We demonstrate this protocol by numerically solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a Hamiltonian that implements this quantum counterfactual phenomenon.
On Replacing "Quantum Thinking" with Counterfactual Reasoning
Narens, Louis
The probability theory used in quantum mechanics is currently being employed by psychologists to model the impact of context on decision. Its event space consists of closed subspaces of a Hilbert space, and its probability function sometimes violate the law of the finite additivity of probabilities. Results from the quantum mechanics literature indicate that such a "Hilbert space probability theory" cannot be extended in a useful way to standard, finitely additive, probability theory by the addition of new events with specific probabilities. This chapter presents a new kind of probability theory that shares many fundamental algebraic characteristics with Hilbert space probability theory but does extend to standard probability theory by adjoining new events with specific probabilities. The new probability theory arises from considerations about how psychological experiments are related through counterfactual reasoning.
Quantum cryptography over underground optical fibers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hughes, R.J.; Luther, G.G.; Morgan, G.L.; Peterson, C.G.; Simmons, C.
1996-05-01
Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology in which two parties may simultaneously generated shared, secret cryptographic key material using the transmission of quantum states of light whose security is based on the inviolability of the laws of quantum mechanics. An adversary can neither successfully tap the key transmissions, nor evade detection, owing to Heisenberg`s uncertainty principle. In this paper the authors describe the theory of quantum cryptography, and the most recent results from their experimental system with which they are generating key material over 14-km of underground optical fiber. These results show that optical-fiber based quantum cryptography could allow secure, real-time key generation over ``open`` multi-km node-to-node optical fiber communications links between secure ``islands.``
Quantum asymmetric cryptography with symmetric keys
Gao, Fei; Wen, Qiaoyan; Qin, Sujuan; Zhu, Fuchen
2009-12-01
Based on quantum encryption, we present a new idea for quantum public-key cryptography (QPKC) and construct a whole theoretical framework of a QPKC system. We show that the quantum-mechanical nature renders it feasible and reasonable to use symmetric keys in such a scheme, which is quite different from that in conventional public-key cryptography. The security of our scheme is analyzed and some features are discussed. Furthermore, the state-estimation attack to a prior QPKC scheme is demonstrated.
Quantum asymmetric cryptography with symmetric keys
Gao, Fei; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Qin, Su-Juan; Zhu, Fu-Chen
2008-01-01
Based on quantum encryption, we present a new idea for quantum public-key cryptography (QPKC) and construct a whole theoretical framework of a QPKC system. We show that the quantum-mechanical nature renders it feasible and reasonable to use symmetric keys in such a scheme, which is quite different from that in conventional public-key cryptography. The security of our scheme is analyzed and some features are discussed. Furthermore, the state-estimation attack to a prior QPKC scheme is demonstr...
Quantum asymmetric cryptography with symmetric keys
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
Based on quantum encryption,we present a new idea for quantum public-key cryptography (QPKC) and construct a whole theoretical framework of a QPKC system. We show that the quantum-mechanical nature renders it feasible and reasonable to use symmetric keys in such a scheme,which is quite different from that in conventional public-key cryptography. The security of our scheme is analyzed and some features are discussed. Furthermore,the state-estimation attack to a prior QPKC scheme is demonstrated.
Quantum asymmetric cryptography with symmetric keys
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GAO Fei; WEN QiaoYan; QIN SuJuan; ZHU FuChen
2009-01-01
Based on quantum encryption, we present a new idea for quantum public-key cryptography (QPKC) and construct a whole theoretical framework of a QPKC system. We show that the quantum-mechanical nature renders it feasible and reasonable to use symmetric keys in such a scheme, which is quite different from that in conventional public-key cryptography. The security of our scheme is analyzed and some features are discussed. Furthermore, the state-estimation attack to a prior QPKC scheme is demonstrated.
Distinguishability of quantum states and shannon complexity in quantum cryptography
Arbekov, I. M.; Molotkov, S. N.
2017-07-01
The proof of the security of quantum key distribution is a rather complex problem. Security is defined in terms different from the requirements imposed on keys in classical cryptography. In quantum cryptography, the security of keys is expressed in terms of the closeness of the quantum state of an eavesdropper after key distribution to an ideal quantum state that is uncorrelated to the key of legitimate users. A metric of closeness between two quantum states is given by the trace metric. In classical cryptography, the security of keys is understood in terms of, say, the complexity of key search in the presence of side information. In quantum cryptography, side information for the eavesdropper is given by the whole volume of information on keys obtained from both quantum and classical channels. The fact that the mathematical apparatuses used in the proof of key security in classical and quantum cryptography are essentially different leads to misunderstanding and emotional discussions [1]. Therefore, one should be able to answer the question of how different cryptographic robustness criteria are related to each other. In the present study, it is shown that there is a direct relationship between the security criterion in quantum cryptography, which is based on the trace distance determining the distinguishability of quantum states, and the criterion in classical cryptography, which uses guesswork on the determination of a key in the presence of side information.
Quantum cryptography approaching the classical limit.
Weedbrook, Christian; Pirandola, Stefano; Lloyd, Seth; Ralph, Timothy C
2010-09-10
We consider the security of continuous-variable quantum cryptography as we approach the classical limit, i.e., when the unknown preparation noise at the sender's station becomes significantly noisy or thermal (even by as much as 10(4) times greater than the variance of the vacuum mode). We show that, provided the channel transmission losses do not exceed 50%, the security of quantum cryptography is not dependent on the channel transmission, and is therefore incredibly robust against significant amounts of excess preparation noise. We extend these results to consider for the first time quantum cryptography at wavelengths considerably longer than optical and find that regions of security still exist all the way down to the microwave.
802.11i Encryption Key Distribution Using Quantum Cryptography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thi Mai Trang Nguyen
2006-10-01
Full Text Available Quantum cryptography is a promising solution towards absolute security in long term cryptosystems. While the use of quantum cryptography in fiber optical networks gets significant advances, research on the application of quantum cryptography in mobile wireless network is still premature. In this paper, we analyze the interests of using quantum cryptography in 802.11 wireless networks, and propose a scheme integrating quantum cryptography in 802.11i security mechanisms for the distribution of the encryption keys. The use of an apparatus network to provide alternative line-of-sight paths is also discussed.
A Survey on Recent Security Trends using Quantum Cryptography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Rubya
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Cryptography is the science of keeping private information from nauthorized access of ensuring data integrity and authentication, and it is the strongest tool for controlling against much kind of security threats. Role of cryptography appears in many secured area like government agencies, large banks, telecommunications companies and other corporations who handle sensitive or military data. Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology in which two parties may simultaneously generate shared, secret cryptographic key material using the transmission of quantum states of light. This paper onsists of the main aspects of quantum cryptography and it investigates the information about where and all quantum cryptography takes place.
Quantum Cryptography in Existing Telecommunications Infrastructure
Rogers, Daniel; Bienfang, Joshua; Mink, Alan; Hershman, Barry; Nakassis, Anastase; Tang, Xiao; Ma, Lijun; Su, David; Williams, Carl; Clark, Charles
2006-03-01
Quantum cryptography has shown the potential for ultra-secure communications. However, all systems demonstrated to date operate at speeds that make them impractical for performing continuous one-time-pad encryption of today's broadband communications. By adapting clock and data recovery techniques from modern telecommunications engineering practice, and by designing and implementing expeditious error correction and privacy amplification algorithms, we have demonstrated error-corrected and privacy-amplified key rates up to 1.0 Mbps over a free-space link with a 1.25 Gbps clock. Using new detectors with improved timing resolution, careful wavelength selection and an increased clock speed, we expect to quadruple the transmission rate over a 1.5 km free-space link. We have identified scalable solutions for delivering sustained one-time-pad encryption at 10 Mbps, thus making it possible to integrate quantum cryptography with first-generation Ethernet protocols.
Quantum discord as a resource for quantum cryptography.
Pirandola, Stefano
2014-11-07
Quantum discord is the minimal bipartite resource which is needed for a secure quantum key distribution, being a cryptographic primitive equivalent to non-orthogonality. Its role becomes crucial in device-dependent quantum cryptography, where the presence of preparation and detection noise (inaccessible to all parties) may be so strong to prevent the distribution and distillation of entanglement. The necessity of entanglement is re-affirmed in the stronger scenario of device-independent quantum cryptography, where all sources of noise are ascribed to the eavesdropper.
Partially Blind Signatures Based on Quantum Cryptography
Cai, Xiao-Qiu; Niu, Hui-Fang
2012-12-01
In a partially blind signature scheme, the signer explicitly includes pre-agreed common information in the blind signature, which can improve the availability and performance. We present a new partially blind signature scheme based on fundamental properties of quantum mechanics. In addition, we analyze the security of this scheme, and show it is not possible to forge valid partially blind signatures. Moreover, the comparisons between this scheme and those based on public-key cryptography are also discussed.
Multiphoton entanglement concentration and quantum cryptography.
Durkin, Gabriel A; Simon, Christoph; Bouwmeester, Dik
2002-05-01
Multiphoton states from parametric down-conversion can be entangled both in polarization and photon number. Maximal high-dimensional entanglement can be concentrated postselectively from these states via photon counting. This makes them natural candidates for quantum key distribution, where the presence of more than one photon per detection interval has up to now been considered undesirable. We propose a simple multiphoton cryptography protocol for the case of low losses.
Spectral coherent-state quantum cryptography.
Cincotti, Gabriella; Spiekman, Leo; Wada, Naoya; Kitayama, Ken-ichi
2008-11-01
A novel implementation of quantum-noise optical cryptography is proposed, which is based on a simplified architecture that allows long-haul, high-speed transmission in a fiber optical network. By using a single multiport encoder/decoder and 16 phase shifters, this new approach can provide the same confidentiality as other implementations of Yuen's encryption protocol, which use a larger number of phase or polarization coherent states. Data confidentiality and error probability for authorized and unauthorized receivers are carefully analyzed.
Position-based quantum cryptography and catalytic computation
Speelman, F.
2016-01-01
In this thesis, we present several results along two different lines of research. The first part concerns the study of position-based quantum cryptography, a topic in quantum cryptography. By combining quantum mechanics with special relativity theory, new cryptographic tasks can be developed that us
FREE-SPACE QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY IN DAYLIGHT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hughes, R.J.; Buttler, W.T. [and others
2000-01-01
Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology in which two parties may simultaneously generate shared, secret cryptographic key material using the transmission of quantum states of light. The security of these transmissions is based on the inviolability of the laws of quantum mechanics and information-theoretically secure post-processing methods. An adversary can neither successfully tap the quantum transmissions, nor evade detection, owing to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. In this paper we describe the theory of quantum cryptography, and the most recent results from our experimental free-space system with which we have demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of quantum key generation over a point-to-point outdoor atmospheric path in daylight. We achieved a transmission distance of 0.5 km, which was limited only by the length of the test range. Our results provide strong evidence that cryptographic key material could be generated on demand between a ground station and a satellite (or between two satellites), allowing a satellite to be securely re-keyed on orbit. We present a feasibility analysis of surface-to-satellite quantum key generation.
IMPROVING TLS SECURITY BY QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamed Elboukhari
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Quantum Cryptography or Quantum Key Distribution (QKD solves the key distribution problem byallowing the exchange of a cryptographic key between two remote parties with absolute security,guaranteed by the laws of quantum physics. Extensive studies have been undertaken on QKD since it wasnoted that quantum computers could break public key cryptosystems based on number theory. Actually,the progress of research in this field allows the implementation of QKD outside of laboratories. Effortsare made to exploit this technology in the existing communication networks and to improve theperformance and reliability of the implemented technologies. Some research is in progress for theintegration of QKD with the protocols in different layers of OSI model. The examples of such researcheffort are the integration of QKD in point-to-point protocol (PPP OSI layer 2 and the integration ofQKD with IPSEC at OSI layer-3. All these works are moving towards the utilization of QKD technologyfor enhancing the security of modern computing applications on the internet. In this paper, we present anovel extension of the TLS protocol based on QKD. We introduce a scheme for integrating QuantumCryptography in this protocol. Our approach improves the security of the process of authentication anddata encryption. Also, we describe an example to illustrate the feasibility of our scheme’simplementation.
Experimental quantum secret sharing and third-man quantum cryptography.
Chen, Yu-Ao; Zhang, An-Ning; Zhao, Zhi; Zhou, Xiao-Qi; Lu, Chao-Yang; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Yang, Tao; Pan, Jian-Wei
2005-11-11
Quantum secret sharing (QSS) and third-man quantum cryptography (TQC) are essential for advanced quantum communication; however, the low intensity and fragility of the multiphoton entanglement source in previous experiments have made their realization an extreme experimental challenge. Here, we develop and exploit an ultrastable high intensity source of four-photon entanglement to report an experimental realization of QSS and TQC. The technology developed in our experiment will be important for future multiparty quantum communication.
On the complexity of search for keys in quantum cryptography
Molotkov, S. N.
2016-03-01
The trace distance is used as a security criterion in proofs of security of keys in quantum cryptography. Some authors doubted that this criterion can be reduced to criteria used in classical cryptography. The following question has been answered in this work. Let a quantum cryptography system provide an ɛ-secure key such that ½‖ρ XE - ρ U ⊗ ρ E ‖1 cryptography. Bounds for the minimum and maximum numbers of search steps for the determination of the actual key have been presented.
Direction Cryptography in Quantum Communications
Simmons, W; Simmons, Walter; Pakvasa, Sandip
2003-01-01
We examine a situation in which an information-carrying signal is sent from two sources to a common receiver. The radiation travels through free space in the presence of noise. The information resides in a relationship between the two beams. We inquire into whether itis possible, in principle, that the locations of the transmitters can be concealed from a party who receives the radiation and decodes the information. Direction finding entails making a set of measurements on asignal and constructing an analytic continuation of the time dependent fields from the results. The fact that this process is generally different in quantum mechanics and in classical electrodynamics is the basis in this investigation. We develop a model based upon encoding information into a microscopic, transverse, non-local quantum image (whose dimensions are of the order of a few wavelengths) and using a detector of a type recently proposed by Strekalov et al. The optical system, which uses SPDC (Spontaneous Parametric Down Conversion)...
High-rate measurement-device-independent quantum cryptography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pirandola, Stefano; Ottaviani, Carlo; Spedalieri, Gaetana
2015-01-01
Quantum cryptography achieves a formidable task - the remote distribution of secret keys by exploiting the fundamental laws of physics. Quantum cryptography is now headed towards solving the practical problem of constructing scalable and secure quantum networks. A significant step in this direction...... than those currently achieved. Our protocol could be employed to build high-rate quantum networks where devices securely connect to nearby access points or proxy servers....
Quantum cryptography with squeezed states
Hillery, M
1999-01-01
A quantum key distribution scheme based on the use of displaced squeezed vacuum states is presented. The states are squeezed in one of two field quadrature components, and the value of the squeezed component is used to encode a character from an alphabet. The uncertainty relation between quadrature components prevents an eavesdropper from determining both with enough precision to determine the character being sent. Losses degrade the performance of this scheme, but it is possible to use phase-sensitive amplifiers to boost the signal and partially compensate for their effect.
Free-space quantum cryptography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hughes, R.J.; Buttler, W.T.; Kwiat, P.G.; Lamoreaux, S.K.; Morgan, G.L.; Nordholt, J.E.; Peterson, C.G.
1998-12-31
An experimental free-space quantum key distribution (QKD) system has been tested over an outdoor optical path of {approximately}1 km under nighttime conditions at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This system employs the Bennett 92 protocol; here the authors give a brief overview of this protocol, and describe the experimental implementation of it. An analysis of the system efficiency is presented, as well as a description of the error detection protocol, which employs a two-dimensional parity check scheme. Finally, the susceptibility of this system to eavesdropping by various techniques is determined. Possible applications include the rekeying of satellites in low earth orbit.
High Data Rate Quantum Cryptography
Kwiat, Paul; Christensen, Bradley; McCusker, Kevin; Kumor, Daniel; Gauthier, Daniel
2015-05-01
While quantum key distribution (QKD) systems are now commercially available, the data rate is a limiting factor for some desired applications (e.g., secure video transmission). Most QKD systems receive at most a single random bit per detection event, causing the data rate to be limited by the saturation of the single-photon detectors. Recent experiments have begun to explore using larger degree of freedoms, i.e., temporal or spatial qubits, to optimize the data rate. Here, we continue this exploration using entanglement in multiple degrees of freedom. That is, we use simultaneous temporal and polarization entanglement to reach up to 8.3 bits of randomness per coincident detection. Due to current technology, we are unable to fully secure the temporal degree of freedom against all possible future attacks; however, by assuming a technologically-limited eavesdropper, we are able to obtain 23.4 MB/s secure key rate across an optical table, after error reconciliation and privacy amplification. In this talk, we will describe our high-rate QKD experiment, with a short discussion on our work towards extending this system to ship-to-ship and ship-to-shore communication, aiming to secure the temporal degree of freedom and to implement a 30-km free-space link over a marine environment.
Twenty Seven Years of Quantum Cryptography!
Hughes, Richard
2011-03-01
One of the fundamental goals of cryptographic research is to minimize the assumptions underlying the protocols that enable secure communications between pairs or groups of users. In 1984, building on earlier research by Stephen Wiesner, Charles Bennett and Gilles Brassard showed how quantum physics could be harnessed to provide information-theoretic security for protocols such as the distribution of cryptographic keys, which enables two parties to secure their conventional communications. Bennett and Brassard and colleagues performed a proof-of-principle quantum key distribution (QKD) experiment with single-photon quantum state transmission over a 32-cm air path in 1991. This seminal experiment led other researchers to explore QKD in optical fibers and over line-of-sight outdoor atmospheric paths (``free-space''), resulting in dramatic increases in range, bit rate and security. These advances have been enabled by improvements in sources and single-photon detectors. Also in 1991 Artur Ekert showed how the security of QKD could be related to quantum entanglement. This insight led to a deeper understanding and proof of QKD security with practical sources and detectors in the presence of transmission loss and channel noise. Today, QKD has been implemented over ranges much greater than 100km in both fiber and free-space, multi-node network testbeds have been demonstrated, and satellite-based QKD is under study in several countries. ``Quantum hacking'' researchers have shown the importance of extending security considerations to the classical devices that produce and detect the photon quantum states. New quantum cryptographic protocols such as secure identification have been proposed, and others such as quantum secret splitting have been demonstrated. It is now possible to envision quantum cryptography providing a more secure alternative to present-day cryptographic methods for many secure communications functions. My talk will survey these remarkable developments.
PREFACE: Quantum Information, Communication, Computation and Cryptography
Benatti, F.; Fannes, M.; Floreanini, R.; Petritis, D.
2007-07-01
The application of quantum mechanics to information related fields such as communication, computation and cryptography is a fast growing line of research that has been witnessing an outburst of theoretical and experimental results, with possible practical applications. On the one hand, quantum cryptography with its impact on secrecy of transmission is having its first important actual implementations; on the other hand, the recent advances in quantum optics, ion trapping, BEC manipulation, spin and quantum dot technologies allow us to put to direct test a great deal of theoretical ideas and results. These achievements have stimulated a reborn interest in various aspects of quantum mechanics, creating a unique interplay between physics, both theoretical and experimental, mathematics, information theory and computer science. In view of all these developments, it appeared timely to organize a meeting where graduate students and young researchers could be exposed to the fundamentals of the theory, while senior experts could exchange their latest results. The activity was structured as a school followed by a workshop, and took place at The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) and The International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) in Trieste, Italy, from 12-23 June 2006. The meeting was part of the activity of the Joint European Master Curriculum Development Programme in Quantum Information, Communication, Cryptography and Computation, involving the Universities of Cergy-Pontoise (France), Chania (Greece), Leuven (Belgium), Rennes1 (France) and Trieste (Italy). This special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical collects 22 contributions from well known experts who took part in the workshop. They summarize the present day status of the research in the manifold aspects of quantum information. The issue is opened by two review articles, the first by G Adesso and F Illuminati discussing entanglement in continuous variable
The Secrecy Capacity of Practical Quantum Cryptography
Gilbert, G
2001-01-01
Quantum cryptography has attracted much recent attention due to its potential for providing secret communications that cannot be decrypted by any amount of computational effort. This is the first analysis of the secrecy of a practical implementation of the BB84 protocol that simultaneously takes into account and presents the {\\it full} set of complete analytical expressions for effects due to the presence of pulses containing multiple photons in the attenuated output of the laser, the finite length of individual blocks of key material, losses due to error correction, privacy amplification, continuous authentication, errors in polarization detection, the efficiency of the detectors, and attenuation processes in the transmission medium. The analysis addresses eavesdropping attacks on individual photons rather than collective attacks in general. Of particular importance is the first derivation of the necessary and sufficient amount of privacy amplification compression to ensure secrecy against the loss of key ma...
Integration of Quantum Cryptography through Satellite Networks Transmission
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Skander Aris
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: The security of the telecommunications satellite has become a crucial issue. The telecommunications can be set using the classical cryptography. But this so-called classical cryptography provides cryptographic security. This means that security is based on the difficulty of some mathematics problems. On the other hand, quantum cryptography provides security without conditions based on the law of quantum physics. This method, called the theoretic information security is evidenced using the theory of information. Approach: In this study, we study whether quantum cryptography can be applied in the frame of the satellite telecommunications network. To do this in our project, we present theories regarding the following issues: Telecommunications Station and Satellite Communication Networks, Quantum Key Distribution, Open Space and Satellites, Analyses in different Scenarios between the Satellite and Earth station. Results: Quantum communications offers many advantages for secure data transmission, in our implementation study, we presented different scenarios of quantum key exchange between satellites and ground stations for possible approach to subsystem with quantum communication in space, capable of generating and detecting entangled photons as well as faint laser pulses. Conclusion: The use of satellites to distribute quantum photon provides a unique solution for long-distance. Moreover, quantum cryptography is a satisfactory solution to improve the safety problem. So, the quantum transmissions are the future of telecommunications.
Protocol for Direct Counterfactual Quantum Communication
Salih, Hatim; Li, Zheng-Hong; Al-Amri, M.; Zubairy, M. Suhail
2013-04-01
It has long been assumed in physics that for information to travel between two parties in empty space, “Alice” and “Bob,” physical particles have to travel between them. Here, using the “chained” quantum Zeno effect, we show how, in the ideal asymptotic limit, information can be transferred between Alice and Bob without any physical particles traveling between them.
SECOQC White Paper on Quantum Key Distribution and Cryptography
Alleaume, R; Branciard, C; Debuisschert, T; Dianati, M; Gisin, N; Godfrey, M; Grangier, P; Langer, T; Leverrier, A; Lütkenhaus, N; Painchault, P; Peev, M; Poppe, A; Pornin, T; Rarity, J; Renner, R; Ribordy, G; Riguidel, M; Salvail, L; Shields, A; Weinfurter, H; Zeilinger, A; Alleaume, Romain; Bouda, Jan; Branciard, Cyril; Debuisschert, Thierry; Dianati, Mehrdad; Gisin, Nicolas; Godfrey, Mark; Grangier, Philippe; Langer, Thomas; Leverrier, Anthony; Lutkenhaus, Norbert; Painchault, Philippe; Peev, Momtchil; Poppe, Andreas; Pornin, Thomas; Rarity, John; Renner, Renato; Ribordy, Gregoire; Riguidel, Michel; Salvail, Louis; Shields, Andrew; Weinfurter, Harald; Zeilinger, Anton
2007-01-01
The SECOQC White Paper on Quantum Key Distribution and Cryptography is the outcome on a thorough consultation and discussion among the participants of the European project SECOQC (www.secoqc.net). This paper is a review article that attempts to position Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) in terms of cryptographic applications. A detailed comparison of QKD with the solutions currently in use to solve the key distribution problem, based on classical cryptography, is provided. We also detail how the work on QKD networks lead within SECOQC will allow the deployment of long-distance secure communication infrastructures based on quantum cryptography. The purpose of the White Paper is finally to promote closer collaboration between classical and quantum cryptographers. We believe that very fruitful research, involving both communities, could emerge in the future years and try to sketch what may be the next challenges in this direction.
Optimal eavesdropping in cryptography with three-dimensional quantum states.
Bruss, D; Macchiavello, C
2002-03-25
We study optimal eavesdropping in quantum cryptography with three-dimensional systems, and show that this scheme is more secure against symmetric attacks than protocols using two-dimensional states. We generalize the according eavesdropping transformation to arbitrary dimensions, and discuss the connection with optimal quantum cloning.
Phase-modulation transmission system for quantum cryptography.
Mérolla, J M; Mazurenko, Y; Goedgebuer, J P; Porte, H; Rhodes, W T
1999-01-15
We describe a new method for quantum key distribution that utilizes phase modulation of sidebands of modulation by use of integrated electro-optic modulators at the transmitting and receiving modules. The system is shown to produce constructive or destructive interference with unity visibility, which should allow quantum cryptography to be carried out with high flexibility by use of conventional devices.
FRAMEWORK FOR WIRELESS NETWORK SECURITY USING QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Priyanka Bhatia
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Data that is transient over an unsecured wireless network is always susceptible to being intercepted by anyone within the range of the wireless signal. Hence providing secure communication to keep the user’s information and devices safe when connected wirelessly has become one of the major concerns. Quantum cryptography provides a solution towards absolute communication security over the network by encoding information as polarized photons, which can be sent through the air. This paper explores on the aspect of application of quantum cryptography in wireless networks. In this paper we present a methodology for integrating quantum cryptography and security of IEEE 802.11 wireless networks in terms of distribution of the encryption keys
Postselection technique for quantum channels with applications to quantum cryptography.
Christandl, Matthias; König, Robert; Renner, Renato
2009-01-16
We propose a general method for studying properties of quantum channels acting on an n-partite system, whose action is invariant under permutations of the subsystems. Our main result is that, in order to prove that a certain property holds for an arbitrary input, it is sufficient to consider the case where the input is a particular de Finetti-type state, i.e., a state which consists of n identical and independent copies of an (unknown) state on a single subsystem. Our technique can be applied to the analysis of information-theoretic problems. For example, in quantum cryptography, we get a simple proof for the fact that security of a discrete-variable quantum key distribution protocol against collective attacks implies security of the protocol against the most general attacks. The resulting security bounds are tighter than previously known bounds obtained with help of the exponential de Finetti theorem.
Field Experiment on a Robust Hierarchical Metropolitan Quantum Cryptography Network
Xu, Fangxing; Wang, Shuang; Yin, Zhenqiang; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Yun; Zhou, Zheng; Zhao, Yibo; Li, Hongwei; Liu, Dong; Han, Zhengfu; Guo, Guangcan
2009-01-01
A hierarchical metropolitan quantum cryptography network upon the inner-city commercial telecom fiber cables is reported in this paper. The seven-user network contains a four-node backbone net with one node acting as the subnet gateway, a two-user subnet and a single-fiber access link, which is realized by the Faraday-Michelson Interferometer set-ups. The techniques of the quantum router, optical switch and trusted relay are assembled here to guarantee the feasibility and expandability of the quantum cryptography network. Five nodes of the network are located in the government departments and the secure keys generated by the quantum key distribution network are utilized to encrypt the instant video, sound, text messages and confidential files transmitting between these bureaus. The whole implementation including the hierarchical quantum cryptographic communication network links and corresponding application software shows a big step toward the practical user-oriented network with high security level.
Lütkenhaus, N.; Shields, A. J.
2009-04-01
Quantum cryptography, and especially quantum key distribution (QKD), is steadily progressing to become a viable tool for cryptographic services. In recent years we have witnessed a dramatic increase in the secure bit rate of QKD, as well as its extension to ever longer fibre- and air-based links and the emergence of metro-scale trusted networks. In the foreseeable future even global-scale communications may be possible using quantum repeaters or Earth-satellite links. A handful of start-ups and some bigger companies are already active in the field. The launch of an initiative to form industrial standards for QKD, under the auspices of the European Telecommunication Standards Institute, described in the paper by Laenger and Lenhart in this Focus Issue, can be taken as a sign of the growing commercial interest. Recent progress has seen an increase in the secure bit rate of QKD links, by orders of magnitude, to over 1 Mb s-1. This has resulted mainly from an improvement in the detection technology. Here changes in the way conventional semiconductor detectors are gated, as well as the development of novel devices based on non-linear processes and superconducting materials, are leading the way. Additional challenges for QKD at GHz clock rates include the design of high speed electronics, remote synchronization and high rate random number generation. Substantial effort is being devoted to increasing the range of individual links, which is limited by attenuation and other losses in optical fibres and air links. An important advance in the past few years has been the introduction of protocols with the same scaling as an ideal single-photon set-up. The good news is that these schemes use standard optical devices, such as weak laser pulses. Thanks to these new protocols and improvements in the detection technology, the range of a single fibre link can exceed a few hundred km. Outstanding issues include proving the unconditional security of some of the schemes. Much of the
Entangled state quantum cryptography: eavesdropping on the ekert protocol
Naik; Peterson; White; Berglund; Kwiat
2000-05-15
Using polarization-entangled photons from spontaneous parametric down-conversion, we have implemented Ekert's quantum cryptography protocol. The near-perfect correlations of the photons allow the sharing of a secret key between two parties. The presence of an eavesdropper is continually checked by measuring Bell's inequalities. We investigated several possible eavesdropper strategies, including pseudo-quantum-nondemolition measurements. In all cases, the eavesdropper's presence was readily apparent. We discuss a procedure to increase her detectability.
Development of mechanism for enhancing data security in quantum cryptography
Singh, Ajit
2011-01-01
Nowadays security in communication is increasingly important to the network communication because many categories of data are required restriction on authorization of access, modify, delete and insert. Quantum cryptography is one of the solutions that use property of polarization to ensure that transmitted data is not tampered. The research paper provides the mechanism that enhances the data security in quantum cryptography during exchange of information. In first phase detailed explanation of Quantum key distribution's BB84 protocol is given. BB84 protocol is used as the basis for the mechanism. In next phase the proposed mechanism is explained. The proposed mechanism combines BB84 protocol at two levels, from sender to receiver and then from receiver to sender. Moreover, a logic circuit is used to combine the bits hence to reduce the probability of eavesdropping. The key obtained can be used to exchange the information securely further it can help in encryption and decryption of crucial data. Double level B...
Buhari, Abudhahir; Zukarnain, Zuriati Ahmad; Khalid, Roszelinda; Zakir Dato', Wira Jaafar Ahmad
2016-11-01
The applications of quantum information science move towards bigger and better heights for the next generation technology. Especially, in the field of quantum cryptography and quantum computation, the world already witnessed various ground-breaking tangible product and promising results. Quantum cryptography is one of the mature field from quantum mechanics and already available in the markets. The current state of quantum cryptography is still under various researches in order to reach the heights of digital cryptography. The complexity of quantum cryptography is higher due to combination of hardware and software. The lack of effective simulation tool to design and analyze the quantum cryptography experiments delays the reaching distance of the success. In this paper, we propose a framework to achieve an effective non-entanglement based quantum cryptography simulation tool. We applied hybrid simulation technique i.e. discrete event, continuous event and system dynamics. We also highlight the limitations of a commercial photonic simulation tool based experiments. Finally, we discuss ideas for achieving one-stop simulation package for quantum based secure key distribution experiments. All the modules of simulation framework are viewed from the computer science perspective.
Verification of Quantum Cryptography Protocols by Model Checking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamed Elboukhari
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Unlike classical cryptography which is based on mathematical functions, Quantum Cryptography orQuantum Key Distribution (QKD exploits the laws of quantum physics to offer unconditionally securecommunication. The progress of research in this field allows the anticipation of QKD to be availableoutside of laboratories within the next few years and efforts are made to improve the performance andreliability of the implemented technologies. But despite this big progress, several challenges remain. Forexample the task of how to test the devices of QKD did not yet receive enough attention. These apparatusesbecome heterogeneous, complex and so demand a big verification effort. In this paper we propose to studyquantum cryptography protocols by applying the technique of probabilistic model checking. Using PRISMtool, we analyze the security of BB84 protocol and we are focused on the specific security property ofeavesdropper's information gain on the key derived from the implementation of this protocol. We show thatthis property is affected by the parameters of the eavesdropper’s power and the quantum channel.
Nonlinear laser dynamics from quantum dots to cryptography
Lüdge, Kathy
2012-01-01
A distinctive discussion of the nonlinear dynamical phenomena of semiconductor lasers. The book combines recent results of quantum dot laser modeling with mathematical details and an analytic understanding of nonlinear phenomena in semiconductor lasers and points out possible applications of lasers in cryptography and chaos control. This interdisciplinary approach makes it a unique and powerful source of knowledge for anyone intending to contribute to this field of research.By presenting both experimental and theoretical results, the distinguished authors consider solitary lase
Authentication in Online Banking Systems through Quantum Cryptography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anand Sharma
2013-06-01
Full Text Available The new information technology is becoming an important factor in the future development of financial services industry, and especially banking industry. Growing international trading and problems in transferring money have motivated researchers to introduce a new structure. Online banking is the newest delivery channel for retail banking services. Online banking facilitated by various Electronic Commerce technologies, has helped commercial banks to stay competitive through productivity gains, transaction cost reduction and customer service improvement. Security for online banking has changed considerably during the relatively short period that online banking has been in use. In particular, authentication in the early implementations was, and sometimes still is, vulnerable to various attacks such as phishing. It is known that the quantum cryptography protocols are able to detect immediately any attempt to attack the key exchange and the authentication process. This paper presentsan introduction of online banking and quantum cryptography. In this paper we are proposing a model for authentication in online banking system with quantum cryptography.
Practical Quantum Cryptography for Secure Free-Space Communications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buttler, W.T.; Hughes, R.J.; Kwiat, P.G.; Lamoreaux, S.K.; Morgan, G.L.; Nordholt, J.E.; Peterson, C.G.
1999-02-01
Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology in which two parties may simultaneously generate shared, secret cryptographic key material using the transmission of quantum states of light. The security of these transmissions is based on the inviolability of the laws of quantum mechanics and information-theoretically secure post-processing methods. An adversary can neither successfully tap the quantum transmissions, nor evade detection, owing to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. In this paper we describe the theory of quantum cryptography, and the most recent results from our experimental free-space system with which we have demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of quantum key generation over a point-to-point outdoor atmospheric path in daylight. We achieved a transmission distance of 0.5 km, which was limited only by the length of the test range. Our results provide strong evidence that cryptographic key material could be generated on demand between a ground station and a satellite (or between two satellites), allowing a satellite to be securely re-keyed on orbit. We present a feasibility analysis of surface-to-satellite quantum key generation.
An Online Banking System Based on Quantum Cryptography Communication
Zhou, Ri-gui; Li, Wei; Huan, Tian-tian; Shen, Chen-yi; Li, Hai-sheng
2014-07-01
In this paper, an online banking system has been built. Based on quantum cryptography communication, this system is proved unconditional secure. Two sets of GHZ states are applied, which can ensure the safety of purchase and payment, respectively. In another word, three trading participants in each triplet state group form an interdependent and interactive relationship. In the meantime, trading authorization and blind signature is introduced by means of controllable quantum teleportation. Thus, an effective monitor is practiced on the premise that the privacy of trading partners is guaranteed. If there is a dispute or deceptive behavior, the system will find out the deceiver immediately according to the relationship mentioned above.
Quantum Overloading Cryptography Using Single-Photon Nonlocality
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TAN Yong-Gang; CAI Qing-Yu; SHI Ting-Yun
2007-01-01
@@ Using the single-photon nonlocality, we propose a quantum novel overloading cryptography scheme, in which a single photon carries two bits information in one-way quantum channel. Two commutative modes of the single photon, the polarization mode and the spatial mode, are used to encode secret information. Strict time windows are set to detect the impersonation attack. The spatial mode which denotes the existence of photons is noncommutative with the phase of the photon, so that our scheme is secure against photon-number-splitting attack. Our protocol may be secure against individual attack.
Cryptography from quantum uncertainty in the presence of quantum side information
Bouman, Niek Johannes
2012-01-01
The thesis starts with a high-level introduction into cryptography and quantum mechanics. Chapter 2 gives a theoretical foundation by introducing probability theory, information theory, functional analysis, quantum mechanics and quantum information theory. Chapter 3, 4 and 5 are editions of work
Cryptography from quantum uncertainty in the presence of quantum side information
Bouman, Niek Johannes
2012-01-01
The thesis starts with a high-level introduction into cryptography and quantum mechanics. Chapter 2 gives a theoretical foundation by introducing probability theory, information theory, functional analysis, quantum mechanics and quantum information theory. Chapter 3, 4 and 5 are editions of work pub
The Nature of the Controversy over Time-Symmetric Quantum Counterfactuals
Kastner, Ruth E
2014-01-01
It is proposed that the recent controversy over "time-symmetric quantum counterfactuals" (TSQCs), based on the Aharonov-Bergmann-Lebowitz Rule for measurements of pre- and post-selected systems, can be clarified by taking TSQCs to be counterfactuals with a specific type of compound antecedent. In that case, inconsistency proofs such as that of Sharp and Shanks (1993) are not applicable, and the main issue becomes not whether such statements are true, but whether they are nontrivial. The latter question is addressed and answered in the negative. Thus it is concluded that TSQCs, understood as counterfactuals with a compound antecedent, are true but only trivially so, and provide no new contingent information about specific quantum systems (except in special cases already identified in the literature).
Entropy in quantum information theory - Communication and cryptography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Majenz, Christian
to density matrices, the von Neumann entropy behaves dierently. The latter does not, for example, have the monotonicity property that the latter possesses: When adding another quantum system, the entropy can decrease. A long-standing open question is, whether there are quantum analogues of unconstrained non......Entropies have been immensely useful in information theory. In this Thesis, several results in quantum information theory are collected, most of which use entropy as the main mathematical tool. The rst one concerns the von Neumann entropy. While a direct generalization of the Shannon entropy...... in quantum Shannon theory. While immensely more entanglement-consuming, the variant of port based teleportation is interesting for applications like instantaneous non-local computation and attacks on quantum position-based cryptography. Port based teleportation cannot be implemented perfectly...
Encrypting Binary Bits via Quantum Cryptography
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZENGGuihua
2004-01-01
A quantum cryptographic algorithm, which may be exploited to encrypt classic information is investigated theoretically in this paper. The proposed algorithm can prevent quantum attack strategy as well as classic attack strategy. A proof-in-principle of experimental demonstration, which exploits optical fibre communication technology and photon technology, is suggested.
Staging quantum cryptography with chocolate ballsa)
Svozil, Karl
2006-09-01
Moderated by a director, laypeople and students assume the role of quanta and enact a quantum cryptographic protocol. The performance is based on a generalized urn model capable of reproducing complementarity even for classical chocolate balls.
Quantum cryptography: Round-robin with photons
Fröhlich, Bernd; Yuan, Zhiliang
2015-12-01
Last year the common notion that signal disturbance has to be monitored in a quantum cryptographic link to guarantee secrecy was challenged by a new protocol. The formidable task of demonstrating it experimentally has now been achieved.
Quantum cryptography for secure free-space communications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hughes, R.J.; Buttler, W.T.; Kwiat, P.G.; Lamoreaux, S.K.; Luther, G.G.; Morgan, G.L.; Nordholt, J.E.; Peterson, C.G.
1999-03-01
The secure distribution of the secret random bit sequences known as key material, is an essential precursor to their use for the encryption and decryption of confidential communications. Quantum cryptography is a new technique for secure key distribution with single-photon transmissions: Heisenberg`s uncertainty principle ensures that an adversary can neither successfully tap the key transmissions, nor evade detection (eavesdropping raises the key error rate above a threshold value). The authors have developed experimental quantum cryptography systems based on the transmission of non-orthogonal photon polarization states to generate shared key material over line-of-sight optical links. Key material is built up using the transmission of a single-photon per bit of an initial secret random sequence. A quantum-mechanically random subset of this sequence is identified, becoming the key material after a data reconciliation stage with the sender. The authors have developed and tested a free-space quantum key distribution (QKD) system over an outdoor optical path of {approximately}1 km at Los Alamos National Laboratory under nighttime conditions. Results show that free-space QKD can provide secure real-time key distribution between parties who have a need to communicate secretly. Finally, they examine the feasibility of surface to satellite QKD.
Quantum random number generators and their applications in cryptography
Stipcevic, Mario
2012-06-01
Random number generators (RNG) are an important resource in many areas: cryptography (both quantum and classical), probabilistic computation (Monte Carlo methods), numerical simulations, industrial testing and labeling, hazard games, scientific research etc. Because today's computers are deterministic, they can not create random numbers unless complemented with a physical RNG. Randomness of a RNG can be defined and scientifically characterized and measured. Especially valuable is the information-theoretic provable RNG which, at state of the art, seem to be possible only by harvest of randomness inherent to certain (simple) quantum systems and such a generator we call Quantum RNG (QRNG). On the other hand, current industry standards dictate use of RNGs based on free running oscillators (FRO) whose randomness is derived from electronics noise present in logic circuits and which, although quantum in nature, cannot be strictly proven. This approach is currently used in FPGA and ASIC chips. We compare weak and strong aspects of the two approaches for use in cryptography and in general. We also give an alternative definition of randomness, discuss usage of single photon detectors in realization of QRNGs and give several examples where QRNG can significantly improve security of a cryptographic system.
Continuous-variable quantum cryptography with untrusted relays
Pirandola, Stefano; Spedalieri, Gaetana; Weedbrook, Christian; Braunstein, Samuel L
2013-01-01
We extend the field of continuous-variable quantum cryptography to a more robust formulation which can be applied to untrusted networks. We consider two remote parties connected to an untrusted relay by insecure quantum links. To generate correlations, they transmit coherent states to the relay where a continuous-variable Bell detection is performed. Despite the possibility that the working mechanism of the relay could be fully corrupted and the links subject to optimal coherent attacks, the parties are still able to extract a secret key. Furthermore, our analysis shows that very long distances and high rates can be reached when the relay is proximal to one of the parties, configuration typical of a mobile device connecting to a public access point. Thus, using the cheapest possible quantum resources, we show the possibility of long-distance high-rate quantum key distribution in network topologies where direct links are missing between two end-users and intermediate relays cannot be trusted.
Experimental realization of quantum cryptography communication in free space
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG; Chuan; ZHANG; Jingfu; WANG; Pingxiao; DENG; Fuguo; A
2005-01-01
Utilizing linear optical devices, the principle of B92 quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol is demonstrated in free space with a distance of transmission of 2.2 meters. The faint laser pulses with 650 nm wavelength are used as the single photon sources. The experimental results show that the eavesdropping behavior in the signal transmission can be detected. We also discuss the problems and solutions in using the quantum cryptography communication practically. It is pointed out that one of the approaches to increasing the distance of the quantum communication is to overcome the attenuation of the single photon in transmission. This could not be solved by the use of single photon source, and new quantum communication protocols are needed to solve these problems.
A fully efficient secure quantum cryptography protocol
Xiang Bin Wang
2001-01-01
Since Bennett and Brassard suggested their quantum key distribution protocol(BB84 protocol) in 1984, the subject has been extensively studied both theoretically and experimentally. The protocol allows two remote parties Alice and Bob to create and share a secret key using a quantum channel and public authenticated communications. The quantum key created in this way is in principle secure because eavesdroppers have no way to tap the quantum channel without disturb it. In the protocol, two level quantum bits are measured in two basis, $X$ and $Z$ randomly by Bob. So at least half of the measurement results will be discarded because Bob has a half probability taking the measurement in a wrong basis. On the other hand, the security is not the maximum in BB84 protocol. To increase the security, one may straightforwardly increase the number of basis used in the protocol. For example, six state protocol was proposed recently for two level system. However, in this way, it seems to be the case that the higher the secu...
Continuous variable quantum cryptography using coherent states.
Grosshans, Frédéric; Grangier, Philippe
2002-02-04
We propose several methods for quantum key distribution (QKD) based on the generation and transmission of random distributions of coherent or squeezed states, and we show that they are secure against individual eavesdropping attacks. These protocols require that the transmission of the optical line between Alice and Bob is larger than 50%, but they do not rely on "sub-shot-noise" features such as squeezing. Their security is a direct consequence of the no-cloning theorem, which limits the signal-to-noise ratio of possible quantum measurements on the transmission line. Our approach can also be used for evaluating various QKD protocols using light with Gaussian statistics.
Continuous variable quantum cryptography using coherent states
Grosshans, F; Grosshans, Fr\\'ed\\'eric; Grangier, Philippe
2002-01-01
We propose several methods for quantum key distribution (QKD), based upon the generation and transmission of random distributions of coherent or squeezed states. We show that these protocols are secure against individual eavesdropping attacks, provided that the transmission of the optical line between Alice and Bob is larger than 50 %. The security of the protocol is related to the no-cloning theorem, that limits the signal to noise ratio of possible quantum measurements on the transmission line, even though the transmitted light has no "non-classical" feature such as squeezing. We show also that our approach can be used for evaluating any QKD protocol using light with gaussian statistics.
Quantum Cryptography with Entangled QuNits
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DENG Hong-Liang; FANG Xi-Ming
2005-01-01
@@ We propose an extension of quantum key distribution based on encoding the key into quNits, i.e. quantum states in an N-dimensional Hilbert space. In our protocol, we adopt asymmetric measurement scheme resulting in an efficiency higher than previous protocols and a generalized Bell inequality [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 (2004) 130404] is employed to detect the presence of an eavesdropper Eve. We also derive the information gained by a potential eavesdropper Eve applying a cloning-based attack and the maximal error rate which measures the robustness of the protocol. The result shows that the security of our scheme increases with the dimension N.
Quantum cryptography with an ideal local relay
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Spedalieri, Gaetana; Ottaviani, Carlo; Braunstein, Samuel L.
2015-01-01
We consider two remote parties connected to a relay by two quantum channels. To generate a secret key, they transmit coherent states to the relay, where the states are subject to a continuous-variable (CV) Bell detection. We study the ideal case where Alice's channel is lossless, i.e., the relay...
One-way entangled-photon autocompensating quantum cryptography
Walton, Zachary D.; Abouraddy, Ayman F.; Sergienko, Alexander V.; Saleh, Bahaa E.; Teich, Malvin C.
2003-06-01
A quantum cryptography implementation is presented that uses entanglement to combine one-way operation with an autocompensating feature that has hitherto only been available in implementations that require the signal to make a round trip between the users. Using the concept of advanced waves, it is shown that this proposed implementation is related to the round-trip implementation in the same way that Ekert’s two-particle scheme is related to the original one-particle scheme of Bennett and Brassard. The practical advantages and disadvantages of the proposed implementation are discussed in the context of existing schemes.
Finite key analysis in quantum cryptography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meyer, T.
2007-10-31
In view of experimental realization of quantum key distribution schemes, the study of their efficiency becomes as important as the proof of their security. The latter is the subject of most of the theoretical work about quantum key distribution, and many important results such as the proof of unconditional security have been obtained. The efficiency and also the robustness of quantum key distribution protocols against noise can be measured by figures of merit such as the secret key rate (the fraction of input signals that make it into the key) and the threshold quantum bit error rate (the maximal error rate such that one can still create a secret key). It is important to determine these quantities because they tell us whether a certain quantum key distribution scheme can be used at all in a given situation and if so, how many secret key bits it can generate in a given time. However, these figures of merit are usually derived under the ''infinite key limit'' assumption, that is, one assumes that an infinite number of quantum states are send and that all sub-protocols of the scheme (in particular privacy amplification) are carried out on these infinitely large blocks. Such an assumption usually eases the analysis, but also leads to (potentially) too optimistic values for the quantities in question. In this thesis, we are explicitly avoiding the infinite key limit for the analysis of the privacy amplification step, which plays the most important role in a quantum key distribution scheme. We still assume that an optimal error correction code is applied and we do not take into account any statistical errors that might occur in the parameter estimation step. Renner and coworkers derived an explicit formula for the obtainable key rate in terms of Renyi entropies of the quantum states describing Alice's, Bob's, and Eve's systems. This results serves as a starting point for our analysis, and we derive an algorithm that efficiently computes
Quantum random number generators and their use in cryptography
Stipcevic, Mario
2011-01-01
Random number generators (RNG) are an important resource in many areas: cryptography (both quantum and classical), probabilistic computation (Monte Carlo methods), numerical simulations, industrial testing and labeling, hazard games, scientific research, etc. Because today's computers are deterministic, they can not create random numbers unless complemented with a RNG. Randomness of a RNG can be precisely, scientifically characterized and measured. Especially valuable is the information-theoretic provable RNG (True RNG - TRNG) which, at state of the art, seem to be possible only by use of physical randomness inherent to certain (simple) quantum systems. On the other hand, current industry standard dictates use of RNG's based on free running oscillators (FRO) whose randomness is derived from electronics noise present in logic circuits and which cannot be strictly proven. This approach is currently used in 3-rd and 4-th generation FPGA and ASIC hardware, unsuitable for realization of quantum TRNG. We compare we...
Teleportation-based continuous variable quantum cryptography
Luiz, F. S.; Rigolin, Gustavo
2017-03-01
We present a continuous variable (CV) quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme based on the CV quantum teleportation of coherent states that yields a raw secret key made up of discrete variables for both Alice and Bob. This protocol preserves the efficient detection schemes of current CV technology (no single-photon detection techniques) and, at the same time, has efficient error correction and privacy amplification schemes due to the binary modulation of the key. We show that for a certain type of incoherent attack, it is secure for almost any value of the transmittance of the optical line used by Alice to share entangled two-mode squeezed states with Bob (no 3 dB or 50% loss limitation characteristic of beam splitting attacks). The present CVQKD protocol works deterministically (no postselection needed) with efficient direct reconciliation techniques (no reverse reconciliation) in order to generate a secure key and beyond the 50% loss case at the incoherent attack level.
Practical free-space quantum cryptography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hughes, R.J.; Buttler, W.T.; Kwiat, P.G.; Lamoreaux, S.K.; Luther, G.G.; Morgan, G.L.; Nordholt, J.E.; Peterson, C.G.; Simmons, C.M.
1998-12-01
An experimental free-space quantum key distribution (QKD) system has been tested over an outdoor optical path of {approx} 1 km under nighttime conditions at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This system employs the Bennett 92 protocol; here the authors give a brief overview of this protocol, and describe the experimental implementation of it. An analysis of the system efficiency is presented, as well as a description of the error detection protocol, which employs a two-dimensional parity check scheme. Finally, the susceptibility of this system to eavesdropping by various techniques is determined, and the effectiveness of privacy amplification procedures is discussed. The conclusions are that free-space QKD is both effective and secure; possible applications include the rekeying of satellites in low earth orbit.
Three-Stage Quantum Cryptography Protocol under Collective-Rotation Noise
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Linsen Wu
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Information security is increasingly important as society migrates to the information age. Classical cryptography widely used nowadays is based on computational complexity, which means that it assumes that solving some particular mathematical problems is hard on a classical computer. With the development of supercomputers and, potentially, quantum computers, classical cryptography has more and more potential risks. Quantum cryptography provides a solution which is based on the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and no-cloning theorem. While BB84-based quantum protocols are only secure when a single photon is used in communication, the three-stage quantum protocol is multi-photon tolerant. However, existing analyses assume perfect noiseless channels. In this paper, a multi-photon analysis is performed for the three-stage quantum protocol under the collective-rotation noise model. The analysis provides insights into the impact of the noise level on a three-stage quantum cryptography system.
Tight finite-key analysis for quantum cryptography.
Tomamichel, Marco; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Gisin, Nicolas; Renner, Renato
2012-01-17
Despite enormous theoretical and experimental progress in quantum cryptography, the security of most current implementations of quantum key distribution is still not rigorously established. One significant problem is that the security of the final key strongly depends on the number, M, of signals exchanged between the legitimate parties. Yet, existing security proofs are often only valid asymptotically, for unrealistically large values of M. Another challenge is that most security proofs are very sensitive to small differences between the physical devices used by the protocol and the theoretical model used to describe them. Here we show that these gaps between theory and experiment can be simultaneously overcome by using a recently developed proof technique based on the uncertainty relation for smooth entropies.
Quantum cryptography in real-life applications: Assumptions and security
Zhao, Yi
Quantum cryptography, or quantum key distribution (QKD), provides a means of unconditionally secure communication. The security is in principle based on the fundamental laws of physics. Security proofs show that if quantum cryptography is appropriately implemented, even the most powerful eavesdropper cannot decrypt the message from a cipher. The implementations of quantum crypto-systems in real life may not fully comply with the assumptions made in the security proofs. Such discrepancy between the experiment and the theory can be fatal to the security of a QKD system. In this thesis we address a number of these discrepancies. A perfect single-photon source is often assumed in many security proofs. However, a weak coherent source is widely used in a real-life QKD implementation. Decoy state protocols have been proposed as a novel approach to dramatically improve the performance of a weak coherent source based QKD implementation without jeopardizing its security. Here, we present the first experimental demonstrations of decoy state protocols. Our experimental scheme was later adopted by most decoy state QKD implementations. In the security proof of decoy state protocols as well as many other QKD protocols, it is widely assumed that a sender generates a phase-randomized coherent state. This assumption has been enforced in few implementations. We close this gap in two steps: First, we implement and verify the phase randomization experimentally; second, we prove the security of a QKD implementation without the coherent state assumption. In many security proofs of QKD, it is assumed that all the detectors on the receiver's side have identical detection efficiencies. We show experimentally that this assumption may be violated in a commercial QKD implementation due to an eavesdropper's malicious manipulation. Moreover, we show that the eavesdropper can learn part of the final key shared by the legitimate users as a consequence of this violation of the assumptions.
Anonymous-key quantum cryptography and unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment
Yuen, H P
2000-01-01
A new cryptographic tool, anonymous quantum key technique, is introduced that leads to unconditionally secure key distribution and encryption schemes that can be readily implemented experimentally in a realistic environment. If quantum memory is available, the technique would have many features of public-key cryptography; an identification protocol that does not require a shared secret key is provided as an illustration. The possibility is also indicated for obtaining unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment protocols with this technique.
Detection of Eavesdropping in Quantum Cryptography%量子密码的窃听检测
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李凯; 黄晓英; 滕吉红; 李振华
2012-01-01
量子密码是密码学与量子力学相结合的产物.它具有得天独厚的优势并逐渐成为下一代密码技术中的重要研究分支.与经典密码相比,量子密码最大的优势就是它的可证明安全性和可检测性.分析了量子密码协议中的窃听检测过程并给出一个新的量子密码协议方案.%Quantum cryptography is the combination of quantum mechanics and cryptography. It has native advantage in the sense of security and is gradually developing into an important branch of next generation of technologies in cryptography. Compared to the classical cryptography, the greatest advantages of quantum cryptography are provable security and detectability. In this paper, the detection of eavesdropping in quantum cryptography schemes is investigated and a new quantum cryptography protocol is presented.
Objective probabilities, quantum counterfactuals, and the ABL rule Apropos of Kastner's comment
Mohrhoff, U
2001-01-01
The ABL rule is derived and shown to be a tool of standard quantum mechanics. Objections by Kastner [quant-ph/0003098v3] and others to the counterfactual use of the ABL rule are shown to be groundless. In particular, this use is not restricted in the way Kastner has claimed. A variant of the three-box experiment due to Vaidman is discussed. It is argued that Born probabilities (and hence state vectors or density operators) are not the right basis for drawing ontological inferences. What quantum mechanics is trying to tell us about the world must be inferred from the objective ABL probabilities that are assigned to counterfactuals. The correct inferences, however, will remain incomprensible until a prevalent but inconsistent way of thinking about the temporal aspect of the world is rejected.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koenneker, Carsten (comp.)
2012-11-01
The following topics are dealt with: Reality in the test facility, quantum teleportation, the reality of quanta, interaction-free quantum measurement, rules for quantum computers, quantum computers with ions, spintronics with diamond, the limits of the quantum computers, a view in the future of quantum optics. (HSI)
Quantum signal processing-based visual cryptography with unexpanded shares
Das, Surya Sarathi; Sharma, Kaushik Das; Chandra, Jayanta K.; Bera, Jitendra Nath
2015-09-01
This paper proposes a visual cryptography scheme (VCS) based on quantum signal processing (QSP). VCS is an image encryption technique that is very simple in formulation and is secure. In (k,n)-VCS, a secret binary image is encoded into n share images and minimum k shares are needed to decrypt the secret image. The efforts to encrypt a grayscale image are few in number and the majority are related to grayscale to binary conversion. Thus, a generalized approach of encryption for all types of images, i.e., binary, gray, and color is needed. Here, a generic VCS is proposed based on QSP where all types of images can be encrypted without pixel expansion along with a smoothing technique to enhance the quality of the decrypted image. The proposed scheme is tested and compared for benchmark images, and the result shows the effectiveness of the scheme.
A Study of Quantum Algorithms and Quantum Cryptography
小柴, 健史
2007-01-01
This report describes properties of basic cryptographic primitives (quantum public-key cryptosystmes and quantum one-way functions) in the quantum world where quantum computers are available. Some quantum public-key cryptosystems have already proposed. However, the security requirements for quantum public-key cryptosystems are not studied well. We propose several security notions for quantum public-key cryptosystems and discuss relation among them. In the classical setting, the notion of one-...
A new spin on quantum cryptography: Avoiding trapdoors and embracing public keys
Ioannou, Lawrence M
2011-01-01
We give new arguments in support of \\emph{signed quantum key establishment}, where quantum cryptography is used in a public-key infrastructure that provides the required authentication. We also analyze more thoroughly than previous works the benefits that quantum key establishment protocols have over certain classical protocols, motivated in part by the various objections to quantum key establishment that are sometimes raised. Previous knowledge of quantum cryptography on the reader's part is not required for this article, as the definition of "quantum key establishment" that we use is an entirely classical and black-box characterization (one need only trust that protocols satisfying the definition exist).
量子密码体系研究%Study on Quantum Cryptography System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李佳
2013-01-01
本文主要介绍了量子密码体系中密码算法、密钥管理、密码技术、安全协议、密钥分配等主要内容。得出了量子密码比传统密码更安全的有效结论，最后总结了量子密码广阔的发展前景。%T his paper introduced som e im portantcontenton quantum cryptography system ,such as encryption algorithm , key m anagem ent, encryption technology, secure protocol, key distribution. It pointed out safer com-pared quantum cryptography w ith traditional cryptography and the broad prospects of developm ent on quantum cryptography system atlast.
Quantum cryptography using coherent states: Randomized encryption and key generation
Corndorf, Eric
With the advent of the global optical-telecommunications infrastructure, an increasing number of individuals, companies, and agencies communicate information with one another over public networks or physically-insecure private networks. While the majority of the traffic flowing through these networks requires little or no assurance of secrecy, the same cannot be said for certain communications between banks, between government agencies, within the military, and between corporations. In these arenas, the need to specify some level of secrecy in communications is a high priority. While the current approaches to securing sensitive information (namely the public-key-cryptography infrastructure and deterministic private-key ciphers like AES and 3DES) seem to be cryptographically strong based on empirical evidence, there exist no mathematical proofs of secrecy for any widely deployed cryptosystem. As an example, the ubiquitous public-key cryptosystems infer all of their secrecy from the assumption that factoring of the product of two large primes is necessarily time consuming---something which has not, and perhaps cannot, be proven. Since the 1980s, the possibility of using quantum-mechanical features of light as a physical mechanism for satisfying particular cryptographic objectives has been explored. This research has been fueled by the hopes that cryptosystems based on quantum systems may provide provable levels of secrecy which are at least as valid as quantum mechanics itself. Unfortunately, the most widely considered quantum-cryptographic protocols (BB84 and the Ekert protocol) have serious implementation problems. Specifically, they require quantum-mechanical states which are not readily available, and they rely on unproven relations between intrusion-level detection and the information available to an attacker. As a result, the secrecy level provided by these experimental implementations is entirely unspecified. In an effort to provably satisfy the cryptographic
Topics in quantum cryptography, quantum error correction, and channel simulation
Luo, Zhicheng
In this thesis, we mainly investigate four different topics: efficiently implementable codes for quantum key expansion [51], quantum error-correcting codes based on privacy amplification [48], private classical capacity of quantum channels [44], and classical channel simulation with quantum side information [49, 50]. For the first topic, we propose an efficiently implementable quantum key expansion protocol, capable of increasing the size of a pre-shared secret key by a constant factor. Previously, the Shor-Preskill proof [64] of the security of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) [6] quantum key distribution protocol relied on the theoretical existence of good classical error-correcting codes with the "dual-containing" property. But the explicit and efficiently decodable construction of such codes is unknown. We show that we can lift the dual-containing constraint by employing the non-dual-containing codes with excellent performance and efficient decoding algorithms. For the second topic, we propose a construction of Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) [19, 68] quantum error-correcting codes, which are originally based on pairs of mutually dual-containing classical codes, by combining a classical code with a two-universal hash function. We show, using the results of Renner and Koenig [57], that the communication rates of such codes approach the hashing bound on tensor powers of Pauli channels in the limit of large block-length. For the third topic, we prove a regularized formula for the secret key assisted capacity region of a quantum channel for transmitting private classical information. This result parallels the work of Devetak on entanglement assisted quantum communication capacity. This formula provides a new family protocol, the private father protocol, under the resource inequality framework that includes the private classical communication without the assisted secret keys as a child protocol. For the fourth topic, we study and solve the problem of classical channel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. I. Egorov
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A scheme of a single photon source for quantum informatics applications based on the spontaneous parametric scattering effect is proposed and a quantum cryptography setup using it is presented. The system is compared to the alternative ones that operate with attenuated classic light.
Fast and simple high-capacity quantum cryptography with error detection
Lai, Hong; Luo, Ming-Xing; Pieprzyk, Josef; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Lei; Li, Shudong; Orgun, Mehmet A.
2017-04-01
Quantum cryptography is commonly used to generate fresh secure keys with quantum signal transmission for instant use between two parties. However, research shows that the relatively low key generation rate hinders its practical use where a symmetric cryptography component consumes the shared key. That is, the security of the symmetric cryptography demands frequent rate of key updates, which leads to a higher consumption of the internal one-time-pad communication bandwidth, since it requires the length of the key to be as long as that of the secret. In order to alleviate these issues, we develop a matrix algorithm for fast and simple high-capacity quantum cryptography. Our scheme can achieve secure private communication with fresh keys generated from Fibonacci- and Lucas- valued orbital angular momentum (OAM) states for the seed to construct recursive Fibonacci and Lucas matrices. Moreover, the proposed matrix algorithm for quantum cryptography can ultimately be simplified to matrix multiplication, which is implemented and optimized in modern computers. Most importantly, considerably information capacity can be improved effectively and efficiently by the recursive property of Fibonacci and Lucas matrices, thereby avoiding the restriction of physical conditions, such as the communication bandwidth.
A Secure Key Distribution System of Quantum Cryptography Based on the Coherent State
Guo, Guang-Can; Zhang, Xiao-Yu
1996-01-01
The cryptographic communication has a lot of important applications, particularly in the magnificent prospects of private communication. As one knows, the security of cryptographic channel depends crucially on the secrecy of the key. The Vernam cipher is the only cipher system which has guaranteed security. In that system the key must be as long as the message and most be used only once. Quantum cryptography is a method whereby key secrecy can be guaranteed by a physical law. So it is impossible, even in principle, to eavesdrop on such channels. Quantum cryptography has been developed in recent years. Up to now, many schemes of quantum cryptography have been proposed. Now one of the main problems in this field is how to increase transmission distance. In order to use quantum nature of light, up to now proposed schemes all use very dim light pulses. The average photon number is about 0.1. Because of the loss of the optical fiber, it is difficult for the quantum cryptography based on one photon level or on dim light to realize quantum key-distribution over long distance. A quantum key distribution based on coherent state is introduced in this paper. Here we discuss the feasibility and security of this scheme.
Quantum Cryptography for Secure Communications to Low-Earth Orbit Satellites
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hughes, R.J.; Buttler, W.T.; Kwiat, P.G.; Lamoreaux, S.K.; Morgan, G.L.; Peterson, C.G.; Twyeffort, E.; Simmons, C.M.; Nordholt, J.E.
1999-06-03
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology in which two parties may simultaneously generate shared, secret cryptographic key material using the transmission of quantum states of light. The security of these transmissions is based on the inviolability of the laws of quantum mechanics. An adversary can neither successfully tap the quantum transmissions, nor evade detection. Key material is built up using the transmission of a single-photon per bit. We have developed an experimental quantum cryptography system based on the transmission of non-orthogonal single-photon polarization states to generate shared key material over line-of-sight optical links. Our results provide strong evidence that cryptographic key material could be generated on demand between a ground station and a satellite (or between two satellites), allowing a satellite to be securely re-keyed on in orbit.
Characterization of collective Gaussian attacks and security of coherent-state quantum cryptography.
Pirandola, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L; Lloyd, Seth
2008-11-14
We provide a simple description of the most general collective Gaussian attack in continuous-variable quantum cryptography. In the scenario of such general attacks, we analyze the asymptotic secret-key rates which are achievable with coherent states, joint measurements of the quadratures and one-way classical communication.
Reduced randomness in quantum cryptography with sequences of qubits encoded in the same basis
Lamoureux, L P; Cerf, N J; Gisin, Nicolas; Macchiavello, C
2005-01-01
We consider the cloning of sequences of qubits prepared in the states used in the BB84 or 6-state quantum cryptography protocol, and show that the single-qubit fidelity is unaffected even if entire sequences of qubits are prepared in the same basis. This result is of great importance for practical quantum cryptosystems because it reduces the need for high-speed random number generation without impairing on the security against finite-size attacks.
Compact transmission system using single-sideband modulation of light for quantum cryptography.
Duraffourg, L; Merolla, J M; Goedgebuer, J P; Mazurenko, Y; Rhodes, W T
2001-09-15
We report a new transmission that can be used for quantum key distribution. The system uses single-sideband-modulated light in an implementation of the BB84 quantum cryptography protocol. The system is formed by two integrated unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometers and is based on interference between phase-modulated sidebands in the spectral domain. Experiments show that high interference visibility can be obtained.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Octavian Dănilă
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Entanglement between two quantum elements is a phenomenon which presents a broad application spectrum, being used largely in quantum cryptography schemes and in physical characterisation of the universe. Commonly known entangled states have been obtained with photons and electrons, but other quantum elements such as quarks, leptons, and neutrinos have shown their informational potential. In this paper, we present the perspective of exploiting the phenomenon of entanglement that appears in nuclear particle interactions as a resource for quantum key distribution protocols.
The Modeling Library of Eavesdropping Methods in Quantum Cryptography Protocols by Model Checking
Yang, Fan; Yang, Guowu; Hao, Yujie
2016-07-01
The most crucial issue of quantum cryptography protocols is its security. There exists many ways to attack the quantum communication process. In this paper, we present a model checking method for modeling the eavesdropping in quantum information protocols. So when the security properties of a certain protocol are needed to be verified, we can directly use the models which are already built. Here we adopt the probabilistic model checking tool—PRISM to model these attack methods. The verification results show that the detection rate of eavesdropping is approximately close to 1 when enough photons are transmitted.
Le, Thinh Phuc; Scarani, Valerio
2011-01-01
We define a family of reference-frame-independent quantum cryptography protocols for arbitrary dimensional signals. The generalized entropic uncertainty relations [M. Tomamichel and R. Renner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 110506 (2011)] are used for the first time to derive security bounds for protocols which use more than two measurements and combine the statistics in a non-linear parameter. This shows the power and versatility of this technique compared to the heavier, though usually tighter, conventional techniques.
Active stabilization of the optical part in fiber optic quantum cryptography
Balygin, K. A.; Klimov, A. N.; Kulik, S. P.; Molotkov, S. N.
2016-03-01
The method of active stabilization of the polarization and other parameters of the optical part of a two-pass fiber optic quantum cryptography has been proposed and implemented. The method allows the completely automated maintenance of the visibility of interference close to an ideal value ( V ≥ 0.99) and the reduction of the instrumental contribution to the error in primary keys (QBER) to 0.5%.
Free space relativistic quantum cryptography with faint laser pulses
Molotkov, S. N.; Potapova, T. A.
2013-07-01
A new protocol for quantum key distribution through empty space is proposed. Apart from the quantum mechanical restrictions on distinguishability of non-orthogonal states, the protocol employs additional restrictions imposed by special relativity. The protocol ensures generation of a secure key even for the source generating non-strictly single-photon quantum states and for arbitrary losses in quantum communication channel.
Post-selection technique for quantum channels with applications to quantum cryptography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Christandl, Matthias [University of Munich (Germany); Koenig, Robert [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Renner, Renato [ETH Zurich (Switzerland)
2009-07-01
We propose a general method for studying properties of quantum channels acting on an n-partite system, whose action is invariant under permutations of the subsystems. Our main result is that, in order to prove that a certain property holds for any arbitrary input, it is sufficient to consider the special case where the input is a particular de Finetti-type state, i.e., a state which consists of n identical and independent copies of an (unknown) state on a single subsystem. A similar statement holds for more general channels which are covariant with respect to the action of an arbitrary finite or locally compact group. Our technique can be applied to the analysis of information-theoretic problems. For example, in quantum cryptography, we get a simple proof for the fact that security of a discrete-variable quantum key distribution protocol against collective attacks implies security of the protocol against the most general attacks. The resulting security bounds are tighter than previously known bounds obtained by proofs relying on the exponential de Finetti theorem.
Field test of a practical secure communication network with decoy-state quantum cryptography.
Chen, Teng-Yun; Liang, Hao; Liu, Yang; Cai, Wen-Qi; Ju, Lei; Liu, Wei-Yue; Wang, Jian; Yin, Hao; Chen, Kai; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Pan, Jian-Wei
2009-04-13
We present a secure network communication system that operated with decoy-state quantum cryptography in a real-world application scenario. The full key exchange and application protocols were performed in real time among three nodes, in which two adjacent nodes were connected by approximate 20 km of commercial telecom optical fiber. The generated quantum keys were immediately employed and demonstrated for communication applications, including unbreakable real-time voice telephone between any two of the three communication nodes, or a broadcast from one node to the other two nodes by using one-time pad encryption.
Practical limitation for continuous-variable quantum cryptography using coherent States.
Namiki, Ryo; Hirano, Takuya
2004-03-19
In this Letter, first, we investigate the security of a continuous-variable quantum cryptographic scheme with a postselection process against individual beam splitting attack. It is shown that the scheme can be secure in the presence of the transmission loss owing to the postselection. Second, we provide a loss limit for continuous-variable quantum cryptography using coherent states taking into account excess Gaussian noise on quadrature distribution. Since the excess noise is reduced by the loss mechanism, a realistic intercept-resend attack which makes a Gaussian mixture of coherent states gives a loss limit in the presence of any excess Gaussian noise.
Security Notions for Quantum Public-Key Cryptography
Koshiba, T
2007-01-01
It is well known that Shor's quantum algorithm for integer factorization can break down the RSA public-key cryptosystem, which is widely used in many cryptographic applications. Thus, public-key cryptosystems in the quantum computational setting are longed for cryptology. In order to define the security notions of public-key cryptosystems, we have to model the power of the sender, receiver, adversary and channel. While we may consider a setting where quantum computers are available only to adversaries, we generally discuss what are the right security notions for (quantum) public-key cryptosystems in the quantum computational setting. Moreover, we consider the security of quantum public-key cryptosystems known so far.
Security Notions for Quantum Public-Key Cryptography
Koshiba, Takeshi
2007-01-01
It is well known that Shor's quantum algorithm for integer factorization can break down the RSA public-key cryptosystem, which is widely used in many cryptographic applications. Thus, public-key cryptosystems in the quantum computational setting are longed for cryptology. In order to define the security notions of public-key cryptosystems, we have to model the power of the sender, receiver, adversary and channel. While we may consider a setting where quantum computers are available only to ad...
Reverse reconciliation protocols for quantum cryptography with continuous variables
Grosshans, F; Grosshans, Fr\\'ed\\'eric; Grangier, Philippe
2002-01-01
We introduce new quantum key distribution protocols using quantum continuous variables, that are secure against individual attacks for any transmission of the optical line between Alice and Bob. In particular, it is not required that this transmission is larger than 50 %. Though squeezing or entanglement may be helpful, they are not required, and there is no need for quantum memories or entanglement purification. These protocols can thus be implemented using coherent states and homodyne detection, and they may be more efficient than usual protocols using quantum discrete variables.
Information complementarity in multipartite quantum states and security in cryptography
Bera, Anindita; Kumar, Asutosh; Rakshit, Debraj; Prabhu, R.; SenDe, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal
2016-03-01
We derive complementarity relations for arbitrary quantum states of multiparty systems of any number of parties and dimensions between the purity of a part of the system and several correlation quantities, including entanglement and other quantum correlations as well as classical and total correlations, of that part with the remainder of the system. We subsequently use such a complementarity relation between purity and quantum mutual information in the tripartite scenario to provide a bound on the secret key rate for individual attacks on a quantum key distribution protocol.
Cryptography in the Bounded Quantum-Storage Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Serge, Fehr; Schaffner, Christian;
2008-01-01
We initiate the study of two-party cryptographic primitives with unconditional security, assuming that the adversary's quantum memory is of bounded size. We show that oblivious transfer and bit commitment can be implemented in this model using protocols where honest parties need no quantum memory...
Cryptography In The Bounded Quantum-Storage Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Salvail, Louis; Schaffner, Christian;
2005-01-01
We initiate the study of two-party cryptographic primitives with unconditional security, assuming that the adversary's quantum memory is of bounded size. We show that oblivious transfer and bit commitment can be implemented in this model using protocols where honest parties need no quantum memory...
Direct Use of Secret Key in Quantum Cryptography
Yuen, H P
2006-01-01
For single-photon quantum key generation between two users, it is shown that for collective attacks the use of a shared secret key extended via a pseudo-random number generator may simultaneously enhance the security and efficiency of the cryptosystem. This effect arises from the intrinsic performance difference between quantum detectors with versus without knowledge of the key, a purely quantum effect and a new principle for key generation. No intrusion level estimation is needed and the method is directly applicable to realistic systems involving multi-photon sources, losses, noises, and finite-sequence statistical fluctuations. It is suggested that such use of a secret key be routinely incorporated in a quantum key generation system. The use of a secret key in quantum direct encryption is also indicated.
A weak blind signature scheme based on quantum cryptography
Wen, Xiaojun; Niu, Xiamu; Ji, Liping; Tian, Yuan
2009-02-01
In this paper, we present a weak blind signature scheme based on the correlation of EPR (Einstein-Padolsky-Rosen) pairs. Different from classical blind signature schemes and current quantum signature schemes, our quantum blind signature scheme could guarantee not only the unconditionally security but also the anonymity of the message owner. To achieve that, quantum key distribution and one-time pad are adopted in our scheme. Experimental analysis proved that our scheme have the characteristics of non-counterfeit, non-disavowal, blindness and traceability. It has a wide application to E-payment system, E-government, E-business, and etc.
Field experiment on a robust hierarchical metropolitan quantum cryptography network
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU FangXing; CHEN Wei; WANG Shuang; YIN ZhenQiang; ZHANG Yang; LIU Yun; ZHOU Zheng; ZHAO YiBo; LI HongWei; LIU Dong; HAN ZhengFu; GUO GuangCan
2009-01-01
these bureaus.The whole implementation including the hierarchical quantum cryptographic communication network links and the corresponding application software shows a big step toward the practical user-oriented network with a high security level.
Public-key cryptography based on bounded quantum reference frames
Ioannou, Lawrence M.; Mosca, Michele
2009-01-01
We demonstrate that the framework of bounded quantum reference frames has application to building quantum-public-key cryptographic protocols and proving their security. Thus, the framework we introduce can be seen as a public-key analogue of the framework of Bartlett et al. (Phys. Rev. A 70, 032307), where a private shared reference frame is shown to have cryptographic application. The protocol we present in this paper is an identification scheme, which, like a digital signature scheme, is a ...
Role of causality in ensuring unconditional security of relativistic quantum cryptography
Molotkov, S N
2001-01-01
The problem of unconditional security of quantum cryptography (i.e. the security which is guaranteed by the fundamental laws of nature rather than by technical limitations) is one of the central points in quantum information theory. We propose a relativistic quantum cryptosystem and prove its unconditional security against any eavesdropping attempts. Relativistic causality arguments allow to demonstrate the security of the system in a simple way. Since the proposed protocol does not employ collective measurements and quantum codes, the cryptosystem can be experimentally realized with the present state-of-art in fiber optics technologies. The proposed cryptosystem employs only the individual measurements and classical codes and, in addition, the key distribution problem allows to postpone the choice of the state encoding scheme until after the states are already received instead of choosing it before sending the states into the communication channel (i.e. to employ a sort of ``antedate'' coding).
New field of cryptography: DNA cryptography
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIAO Guozhen; LU Mingxin; QIN Lei; LAI Xuejia
2006-01-01
DNA cryptography is a new born cryptographic field emerged with the research of DNA computing, in which DNA is used as information carrier and the modern biological technology is used as implementation tool. The vast parallelism and extraordinary information density inherent in DNA molecules are explored for cryptographic purposes such as encryption, authentication, signature, and so on. In this paper, we briefly introduce the biological background of DNA cryptography and the principle of DNA computing, summarize the progress of DNA cryptographic research and several key problems, discuss the trend of DNA cryptography, and compare the status, security and application fields of DNA cryptography with those of traditional cryptography and quantum cryptography. It is pointed out that all the three kinds of cryptography have their own advantages and disadvantages and complement each other in future practical application. The current main difficulties of DNA cryptography are the absence of effective secure theory and simple realizable method. The main goal of the research of DNA cryptography is exploring characteristics of DNA molecule and reaction, establishing corresponding theories, discovering possible development directions, searching for simple methods of realizing DNA cryptography, and laying the basis for future development.
Hacking commercial quantum cryptography systems by tailored bright illumination
Lydersen, Lars; Wiechers, Carlos; Wittmann, Christoffer; Elser, Dominique; Skaar, Johannes; Makarov, Vadim
2010-10-01
The peculiar properties of quantum mechanics allow two remote parties to communicate a private, secret key, which is protected from eavesdropping by the laws of physics. So-called quantum key distribution (QKD) implementations always rely on detectors to measure the relevant quantum property of single photons. Here we demonstrate experimentally that the detectors in two commercially available QKD systems can be fully remote-controlled using specially tailored bright illumination. This makes it possible to tracelessly acquire the full secret key; we propose an eavesdropping apparatus built from off-the-shelf components. The loophole is likely to be present in most QKD systems using avalanche photodiodes to detect single photons. We believe that our findings are crucial for strengthening the security of practical QKD, by identifying and patching technological deficiencies.
Entropy in quantum information theory - Communication and cryptography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Majenz, Christian
Entropies have been immensely useful in information theory. In this Thesis, several results in quantum information theory are collected, most of which use entropy as the main mathematical tool. The rst one concerns the von Neumann entropy. While a direct generalization of the Shannon entropy......-Shannon type inequalities. Here, a new constrained non-von-Neumann type inequality is proven, a step towards a conjectured unconstrained inequality by Linden and Winter. Like many other information-theoretic tasks, quantum source coding problems such as coherent state merging have recently been analyzed...... in the one-shot setting. While the case of many independent, identically distributed quantum states has been treated using the decoupling technique, the essentially optimal one-shot results in terms of the max-mutual information by Berta et al. and Anshu at al. had to bring in additional mathematical...
Quantum Cryptography Based on the Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm
Nagata, Koji; Nakamura, Tadao; Farouk, Ahmed
2017-09-01
Recently, secure quantum key distribution based on Deutsch's algorithm using the Bell state is reported (Nagata and Nakamura, Int. J. Theor. Phys. doi: 10.1007/s10773-017-3352-4, 2017). Our aim is of extending the result to a multipartite system. In this paper, we propose a highly speedy key distribution protocol. We present sequre quantum key distribution based on a special Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm using Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states. Bob has promised to use a function f which is of one of two kinds; either the value of f( x) is constant for all values of x, or else the value of f( x) is balanced, that is, equal to 1 for exactly half of the possible x, and 0 for the other half. Here, we introduce an additional condition to the function when it is balanced. Our quantum key distribution overcomes a classical counterpart by a factor O(2 N ).
Gaps between equations and experiments in quantum cryptography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Myers, John M [Gordon McKay Laboratory, Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Madjid, F Hadi [82 Powers Road, Concord, MA 01742 (United States)
2002-06-01
Traditional methods of cryptographic key distribution rest on judgments about an attacker. With the advent of quantum key distribution (QKD) came proofs of security for the mathematical models that define the protocols BB84 and B92; however, applying such proofs to actual transmitting and receiving devices has been questioned. Proofs of QKD security are propositions about models written in the mathematical language of quantum mechanics, and the issue is the linking of such models to actual devices in an experiment on security. To explore this issue, we adapt Wittgenstein's method of language games to view quantum language in its application to experimental activity involving transmitting and receiving devices. We sketch concepts with which to think about models in relation to experiments, without assuming the experiments accord with any model; included is a concept of one quantum mechanical model enveloping another. For any model that agrees with given experimental results and implies the security of a key, there is an enveloping model that agrees with the same results while denying that security. As a result there is a gap between equations and the behaviour recorded from devices in an experiment, a gap bridged only by resort to something beyond the reach of logic and measured data, well named by the word guesswork. While this recognition of guesswork encourages eavesdropping, a related recognition of guesswork in the design of feedback loops can help a transmitter and receiver to reduce their vulnerability to eavesdropping.
Jacak, Monika; Jacak, Janusz; Jóźwiak, Piotr; Jóźwiak, Ireneusz
2016-06-01
The overview of the current status of quantum cryptography is given in regard to quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols, implemented both on nonentangled and entangled flying qubits. Two commercial R&D platforms of QKD systems are described (the Clavis II platform by idQuantique implemented on nonentangled photons and the EPR S405 Quelle platform by AIT based on entangled photons) and tested for feasibility of their usage in commercial TELECOM fiber metropolitan networks. The comparison of systems efficiency, stability and resistivity against noise and hacker attacks is given with some suggestion toward system improvement, along with assessment of two models of QKD.
Navez, Patrick; Gatti, Alessandra; Lugiato, Luigi A.
2002-03-01
By analogy to classical cryptography, we develop a quantum cryptographic scheme in which the two public and private keys consist in each of two entangled beams of squeezed light. An analog secret information is encrypted by modulating the phase of the beam sent in public. The knowledge of the degree of nonclassical correlation between the beam quadratures measured in private and in public allows only the receiver to decrypt the secret information. Finally, in a view towards absolute security, we formally prove that any external intervention of an eavesdropper makes him vulnerable to any subsequent detection.
Quantum Cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time Bell states
Tittel, Wolfgang; Brendel, Jurgen; Zbinden, Hugo; Gisin, Nicolas
1999-01-01
We present a setup for quantum cryptography based on photon pairs in energy-time Bell states and show its feasibility in a laboratory experiment. Our scheme combines the advantages of using photon pairs instead of faint laser pulses and the possibility to preserve energy-time entanglement over long distances. Moreover, using four-dimensional energy-time states, no fast random change of bases is required in our setup: Nature itself decides whether to measure in the energy or in the time base, ...
General Theory of Decoy-State Quantum Cryptography with Dark Count Rate Fluctuation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GAO Xiang; SUN Shi-Hai; LIANG Lin-Mei
2009-01-01
The existing theory of decoy-state quantum cryptography assumes that the dark count rate is a constant, but in practice there exists fluctuation. We develop a new scheme of the decoy state, achieve a more practical key generation rate in the presence of fluctuation of the dark count rate, and compare the result with the result of the decoy-state without fluctuation.It is found that the key generation rate and maximal secure distance will be decreased under the influence of the fluctuation of the dark count rate.
Quantum cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time bell states
Tittel; Brendel; Zbinden; Gisin
2000-05-15
We present a setup for quantum cryptography based on photon pairs in energy-time Bell states and show its feasibility in a laboratory experiment. Our scheme combines the advantages of using photon pairs instead of faint laser pulses and the possibility to preserve energy-time entanglement over long distances. Moreover, using four-dimensional energy-time states, no fast random change of bases is required in our setup: Nature itself decides whether to measure in the energy or in the time base, thus rendering eavesdropper attacks based on "photon number splitting" less efficient.
Full-field implementation of a perfect eavesdropper on a quantum cryptography system.
Gerhardt, Ilja; Liu, Qin; Lamas-Linares, Antía; Skaar, Johannes; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Makarov, Vadim
2011-06-14
Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two remote parties to grow a shared secret key. Its security is founded on the principles of quantum mechanics, but in reality it significantly relies on the physical implementation. Technological imperfections of QKD systems have been previously explored, but no attack on an established QKD connection has been realized so far. Here we show the first full-field implementation of a complete attack on a running QKD connection. An installed eavesdropper obtains the entire 'secret' key, while none of the parameters monitored by the legitimate parties indicate a security breach. This confirms that non-idealities in physical implementations of QKD can be fully practically exploitable, and must be given increased scrutiny if quantum cryptography is to become highly secure.
On protection against a bright-pulse attack in the two-pass quantum cryptography system
Balygin, K. A.; Klimov, A. N.; Korol'kov, A. V.; Kulik, S. P.; Molotkov, S. N.
2016-06-01
The security of keys in quantum cryptography systems, in contrast to mathematical cryptographic algorithms, is guaranteed by fundamental quantum-mechanical laws. However, the cryptographic resistance of such systems, which are distributed physical devices, fundamentally depends on the method of their implementation and particularly on the calibration and control of critical parameters. The most important parameter is the number of photons in quasi-single-photon information states in a communication channel. The sensitivity to a bright-pulse attack has been demonstrated in an explicit form for a number of systems. A method guaranteeing the resistance to such attacks has been proposed and implemented. Furthermore, the relation of physical observables used and obtained at the control of quantum states to the length of final secret keys has been obtained for the first time.
A sessional blind signature based on quantum cryptography
Khodambashi, Siavash; Zakerolhosseini, Ali
2014-01-01
In this paper, we present a sessional blind signature protocol whose security is guaranteed by fundamental principles of quantum physics. It allows a message owner to get his message signed by an authorized signatory. However, the signatory is not capable of reading the message contents and everyone can verify authenticity of the message. For this purpose, we took advantage of a sessional signature as well as quantum entangled pairs which are generated with respect to it in our proposed protocol. We describe our proposed blind signature through an example and briefly discuss about its unconditional security. Due to the feasibility of the protocol, it can be widely employed for e-payment, e-government, e-business and etc.
High-dimensional quantum cryptography with twisted light
Mirhosseini, Mohammad; O'Sullivan, Malcolm N; Rodenburg, Brandon; Malik, Mehul; Gauthier, Daniel J; Boyd, Robert W
2014-01-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) systems have conventionally relied on the polarization of light for encoding. This limits the amount of information that can be sent per photon and puts a tight bound on the error such a system can tolerate. Here we show an experimental realization of a multilevel QKD system that uses the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of photons. Through the use of a 7-dimensional alphabet encoded in OAM, we achieve a channel capacity of 2.1 bits per sifted photon which is more than double the maximum allowed capacity of polarization-based QKD systems. Our experiment uses a digital micro-mirror device for the rapid generation of OAM modes at 4 kHz, and a mode sorter capable of sorting single photons based on OAM with a separation efficiency of 93%. Further, our scheme provides an increased tolerance to errors, leading to a quantum communication channel that is more robust against eavesdropping.
Thermal blinding of gated detectors in quantum cryptography.
Lydersen, Lars; Wiechers, Carlos; Wittmann, Christoffer; Elser, Dominique; Skaar, Johannes; Makarov, Vadim
2010-12-20
It has previously been shown that the gated detectors of two commercially available quantum key distribution (QKD) systems are blindable and controllable by an eavesdropper using continuous-wave illumination and short bright trigger pulses, manipulating voltages in the circuit [Nat. Photonics 4, 686 (2010)]. This allows for an attack eavesdropping the full raw and secret key without increasing the quantum bit error rate (QBER). Here we show how thermal effects in detectors under bright illumination can lead to the same outcome. We demonstrate that the detectors in a commercial QKD system Clavis2 can be blinded by heating the avalanche photo diodes (APDs) using bright illumination, so-called thermal blinding. Further, the detectors can be triggered using short bright pulses once they are blind. For systems with pauses between packet transmission such as the plug-and-play systems, thermal inertia enables Eve to apply the bright blinding illumination before eavesdropping, making her more difficult to catch.
High-Rate Strong-Signal Quantum Cryptography
Yuen, Horace P.
1996-01-01
Several quantum cryptosystems utilizing different kinds of nonclassical lights, which can accommodate high intensity fields and high data rate, are described. However, they are all sensitive to loss and both the high rate and the strong-signal character rapidly disappear. A squeezed light homodyne detection scheme is proposed which, with present-day technology, leads to more than two orders of magnitude data rate improvement over other current experimental systems for moderate loss.
Unconditionally secure commitment in position-based quantum cryptography.
Nadeem, Muhammad
2014-10-27
A new commitment scheme based on position-verification and non-local quantum correlations is presented here for the first time in literature. The only credential for unconditional security is the position of committer and non-local correlations generated; neither receiver has any pre-shared data with the committer nor does receiver require trusted and authenticated quantum/classical channels between him and the committer. In the proposed scheme, receiver trusts the commitment only if the scheme itself verifies position of the committer and validates her commitment through non-local quantum correlations in a single round. The position-based commitment scheme bounds committer to reveal valid commitment within allocated time and guarantees that the receiver will not be able to get information about commitment unless committer reveals. The scheme works for the commitment of both bits and qubits and is equally secure against committer/receiver as well as against any third party who may have interests in destroying the commitment. Our proposed scheme is unconditionally secure in general and evades Mayers and Lo-Chau attacks in particular.
Laser damage helps the eavesdropper in quantum cryptography
Bugge, Audun N; Ghazali, Aina M M; Skaar, Johannes; Lydersen, Lars; Makarov, Vadim
2013-01-01
By destructive laser illumination, an eavesdropper may turn a perfect quantum key distribution (QKD) system into a completely insecure system. We demonstrate this by illuminating avalanche photodiodes with increasingly intense radiation, and monitoring their parameters. After about 1 W illumination, the detectors' dark count rate drops by a factor of 2 to 5, permanently improving their single-photon counting performance. After about 1.5 W, the dark current rises, switching the detectors permanently into the linear photodetection mode and making them completely insecure for QKD applications. Illumination power higher than 2 W destroys all photosensitivity. This shows that an eavesdropper can engineer loopholes in QKD via laser damage.
Practical Quantum Cryptography: the Q-KeyMaker
Bovino, Fabio A
2011-01-01
In the next years the data transmission connections will constitute one of the principal tools of communication among cities, enterprises and public administration. With their enhanced connectivity, the systems and nets of information are now exposed to an increased vulnerability and new safety problems are emerging. Insofar Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) has matured to real world applications and can enhance the safety of the communication nets. In this paper we present the QKD network designed and implemented by Selex-SI and we give an overview of the obtained results.
Laser Damage Helps the Eavesdropper in Quantum Cryptography
Bugge, Audun Nystad; Sauge, Sebastien; Ghazali, Aina Mardhiyah M.; Skaar, Johannes; Lydersen, Lars; Makarov, Vadim
2014-02-01
We propose a class of attacks on quantum key distribution (QKD) systems where an eavesdropper actively engineers new loopholes by using damaging laser illumination to permanently change properties of system components. This can turn a perfect QKD system into a completely insecure system. A proof-of-principle experiment performed on an avalanche photodiode-based detector shows that laser damage can be used to create loopholes. After ˜1 W illumination, the detectors' dark count rate reduces 2-5 times, permanently improving single-photon counting performance. After ˜1.5 W, the detectors switch permanently into the linear photodetection mode and become completely insecure for QKD applications.
Memory attacks on device-independent quantum cryptography.
Barrett, Jonathan; Colbeck, Roger; Kent, Adrian
2013-01-01
Device-independent quantum cryptographic schemes aim to guarantee security to users based only on the output statistics of any components used, and without the need to verify their internal functionality. Since this would protect users against untrustworthy or incompetent manufacturers, sabotage, or device degradation, this idea has excited much interest, and many device-independent schemes have been proposed. Here we identify a critical weakness of device-independent protocols that rely on public communication between secure laboratories. Untrusted devices may record their inputs and outputs and reveal information about them via publicly discussed outputs during later runs. Reusing devices thus compromises the security of a protocol and risks leaking secret data. Possible defenses include securely destroying or isolating used devices. However, these are costly and often impractical. We propose other more practical partial defenses as well as a new protocol structure for device-independent quantum key distribution that aims to achieve composable security in the case of two parties using a small number of devices to repeatedly share keys with each other (and no other party).
量子密码通信及其研究进展%Quantum Cryptography and Its Research Progress
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
林帅; 林雄
2012-01-01
2007年4月2日，国际上首个量子密码通信网络由中国科学家在北京测试运行成功。这是迄今为止国际公开报道的唯一无中转，可同时、任意互通的量子密码通信网络，标志着量子保密通信技术从点对点方式向网络化迈出了关键一步。这次实验的成功，为量子因特网的发展奠定了基础。文章阐述量子密码的产生、量子密码学的基本原理、该领域的实验研究及研究成果，最后指出量子密码通信将是保障未来网络通信安全的一种重要技术。%China's first quantum cryptography network has been successfully tested in Beijing, the Chinese Academy of Sciences announced on April 2, 2007. It is the only fully-connected quantum network that could make simultaneous communications without any relay ever reported in the world, according to experts. The feat is a crucial step towards the practical usage of quantum cryptography from the point-to-point network. The success of this experiment, laid the foundation for the development of quantum Internet. This paper describes the generation of quantum cryptography, the basic principle of quantum cryptography in the field of experimental research and research results, and finally pointed out that quantum cryptography will be an important technology to protect the security of network communication.
Bridging the gap between theory and practice in quantum cryptography
Curty, Marcos; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Xu, Feihu; Mizutani, Akihiro; Lim, Charles C. W.; Qi, Bing; Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2015-10-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) needs to close the big gap between theory and practice to be a suitable technology for achieving information-theoretic secure communications. Indeed, recent studies on side-channel attacks have exposed the vulnerabilities of QKD implementations against an eavesdropper who may try to attack both the source and the measurement device. Here, we review two potential approaches that, combined, could bring this goal closer: measurement-device-independent QKD and the loss-tolerant QKD protocol. The former removes all possible side-channels from the measurement apparatus and guarantees a high performance over long distances. The latter appears as a robust solution against typical source flaws and it offers similar key rates as those of standard QKD systems. Most importantly, the feasibility of both solutions has already been demonstrated in several lab and field-test experiments.
Laser damage helps the eavesdropper in quantum cryptography.
Bugge, Audun Nystad; Sauge, Sebastien; Ghazali, Aina Mardhiyah M; Skaar, Johannes; Lydersen, Lars; Makarov, Vadim
2014-02-21
We propose a class of attacks on quantum key distribution (QKD) systems where an eavesdropper actively engineers new loopholes by using damaging laser illumination to permanently change properties of system components. This can turn a perfect QKD system into a completely insecure system. A proof-of-principle experiment performed on an avalanche photodiode-based detector shows that laser damage can be used to create loopholes. After ∼1 W illumination, the detectors' dark count rate reduces 2-5 times, permanently improving single-photon counting performance. After ∼1.5 W, the detectors switch permanently into the linear photodetection mode and become completely insecure for QKD applications.
Acin, A; Scarani, V; Acin, Antonio; Gisin, Nicolas; Scarani, Valerio
2004-01-01
A new class of quantum cryptography (QC) protocols that are robust against the most general photon number splitting attacks in a weak coherent pulse implementation has been recently proposed. In this article we give a quite exhaustive analysis of several eavesdropping attacks on these schemes. The eavesdropper (Eve) is supposed to have unlimited technological power while the honest parties (Alice and Bob) use present day technology, in particular an attenuated laser as an approximation of a single-photon source. They exploit the nonorthogonality of quantum states for decreasing the information accessible to Eve in the multi-photon pulses accidentally produced by the imperfect source. An implementation of some of these protocols using present day technology allow for a secure key distribution up to distances of $\\sim$ 150 km. We also show that strong-pulse implementations, where a strong pulse is included as a reference, allow for key distribution robust against photon number splitting attacks.
A Practical Trojan Horse for Bell-inequality-based Quantum Cryptography
Larsson, J A
2002-01-01
Quantum Cryptography, or more accurately, Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) is based on using an unconditionally secure ``quantum channel'' to share a secret key among two users. A manufacturer of QKD devices could, intentionally or not, use a (semi-)classical channel instead of the quantum channel, which would remove the supposedly unconditional security. One example is the BB84 protocol, where the quantum channel can be implemented in polarization of single photons. Here, use of several photons instead of one to encode each bit of the key provides a similar but insecure system. For protocols based on violation of a Bell inequality (e.g., the Ekert protocol), such a modification is generally thought to be impossible. However, a counterexample will be given here using an identical physical setup as is used in photon-polarization Ekert QKD. Since the physical implementation is identical, a manufacturer may include this modification as a Trojan Horse in manufactured systems, to be activated at will by an eavesdrop...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Casado, A [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada III, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Universidad de Sevilla, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Guerra, S [Centro Asociado de la Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Placido, J [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)], E-mail: acasado@us.es
2008-02-28
In this paper, the theory of parametric down-conversion in the Wigner representation is applied to Ekert's quantum cryptography protocol. We analyse the relation between two-photon entanglement and (non-secure) quantum key distribution within the Wigner framework in the Heisenberg picture. Experiments using two-qubit polarization entanglement generated in nonlinear crystals are analysed in this formalism, along with the effects of eavesdropping attacks in the case of projective measurements.
Verma, Amit
2009-01-01
Single photon sources to be used in quantum cryptography must show higher order antibunching (HOA). HOA is reported by us in several many wave mixing processes. In the present work we have investigated the possibility of observing HOA in multiwave mixing processes in general. The generalized Hamiltonian is solved for several particular cases in Heisenberg picture and possibility of observing HOA is investigated with the help of criterion of Pathak and Garcia. Several particular cases of the generalized Hamiltonian are solved with the help of short time approximation technique and HOA is reported for pump modes of different multiwave mixing processes. It is also found that HOA can not be observed for the signal and stokes modes in of the cases studied here.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benatti, Fabio [Trieste Univ., Miramare (Italy). Dipt. Fisica Teorica; Fannes, Mark [Leuven Univ. (Belgium). Inst. voor Theoretische Fysica; Floreanini, Roberto [INFN, Trieste (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Teorica; Petritis, Dimitri (eds.) [Rennes 1 Univ., 35 (France). Inst. de Recherche Mathematique de Rennes
2010-07-01
This multi-authored textbook addresses graduate students with a background in physics, mathematics or computer science. No research experience is necessary. Consequently, rather than comprehensively reviewing the vast body of knowledge and literature gathered in the past twenty years, this book concentrates on a number of carefully selected aspects of quantum information theory and technology. Given the highly interdisciplinary nature of the subject, the multi-authored approach brings together different points of view from various renowned experts, providing a coherent picture of the subject matter. The book consists of ten chapters and includes examples, problems, and exercises. The first five present the mathematical tools required for a full comprehension of various aspects of quantum mechanics, classical information, and coding theory. Chapter 6 deals with the manipulation and transmission of information in the quantum realm. Chapters 7 and 8 discuss experimental implementations of quantum information ideas using photons and atoms. Finally, chapters 9 and 10 address ground-breaking applications in cryptography and computation. (orig.)
On Counterfactuals and Contextuality
Svozil, K
2005-01-01
Although by definition a nonoperational, untestable method, counterfactual reasoning abounds in quantum mechanics. Many mind-boggling features such as contextuality are consequences of the assumption that elements of physical reality exist irrespective of their actual measurement. Yet quantum mechanically any operational, experimental existence is limited to a single maximal operator; i.e., to a single complete context. Quanta can only be prepared and measured in a single context. If quanta are measured in a context different from what they have been prepared for, the measurement device may or may not be capable of translating one context into the other. Counterfactual reasoning and contextuality is defined and critically evaluated with regard to its nonempirical content. To this end, a uniqueness property of states, explosion views and link observables are introduced. If only a single context associated with a particular maximum set of observables can be operationalized, then a context translation principle ...
Quantum Cryptography, Quantum Communication, and Quantum Computer in a Noisy Environment
Nagata, Koji; Nakamura, Tadao
2017-07-01
First, we study several information theories based on quantum computing in a desirable noiseless situation. (1) We present quantum key distribution based on Deutsch's algorithm using an entangled state. (2) We discuss the fact that the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm can be used for quantum communication including an error correction. Finally, we discuss the main result. We study the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm in a noisy environment. The original algorithm determines a noiseless function. Here we consider the case that the function has an environmental noise. We introduce a noise term into the function f( x). So we have another noisy function g( x). The relation between them is g( x) = f( x) ± O( 𝜖). Here O( 𝜖) ≪ 1 is the noise term. The goal is to determine the noisy function g( x) with a success probability. The algorithm overcomes classical counterpart by a factor of N in a noisy environment.
Protocol for counterfactually transporting an unknown qubit
Salih, Hatim
2015-12-01
Quantum teleportation circumvents the uncertainty principle using dual channels: a quantum one consisting of previously-shared entanglement, and a classical one, together allowing the disembodied transport of an unknown quantum state over distance. It has recently been shown that a classical bit can be counterfactually communicated between two parties in empty space, “Alice” and “Bob”. Here, by using our “dual” version of the chained quantum Zeno effect to achieve a counterfactual CNOT gate, we propose a protocol for transporting an unknown qubit counterfactually, that is without any physical particles travelling between Alice and Bob—no classical channel and no previously-shared entanglement.
Protocol for counterfactually transporting an unknown qubit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hatim eSalih
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Quantum teleportation circumvents the uncertainty principle using dual channels: a quantum one consisting of previously-shared entanglement, and a classical one, together allowing the disembodied transport of an unknown quantum state over distance. It has recently been shown that a classical bit can be counterfactually communicated between two parties in empty space, Alice and Bob. Here, by using our dual version of the chained quantum Zeno effect to achieve a counterfactual CNOT gate, we propose a protocol for transporting an unknown qubit counterfactually, that is without any physical particles travelling between Alice and Bob—no classical channel and no previously-shared entanglement.
Theoretical Study of Quantum Bit Rate in Free-Space Quantum Cryptography
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MA Jing; ZHANG Guang-Yu; TAN Li-Ying
2006-01-01
The quantum bit rate is an important operating parameter in free-space quantum key distribution. We introduce the measuring factor and the sifting factor, and present the expressions of the quantum bit rate based on the ideal single-photon sources and the single-photon sources with Poisson distribution. The quantum bit rate is studied in the numerical simulation for the laser links between a ground station and a satellite in a low earth orbit. The results show that it is feasible to implement quantum key distribution between a ground station and a satellite in a low earth orbit.
Renner, R.; Cirac, J. I.
2009-03-01
We show that the quantum de Finetti theorem holds for states on infinite-dimensional systems, provided they satisfy certain experimentally verifiable conditions. This result can be applied to prove the security of quantum key distribution based on weak coherent states or other continuous variable states against general attacks.
Hall, Matthew
2003-01-01
Uses cryptography to demonstrate the importance of algebra and the use of technology as an effective real application of mathematics. Explains simple encoding and decoding of messages for student learning of modular arithmetic. This elementary encounter with cryptography along with its historical and modern background serves to motivate student…
Oppliger, Rolf
2011-01-01
Whether you're new to the field or looking to broaden your knowledge of contemporary cryptography, this newly revised edition of an Artech House classic puts all aspects of this important topic into perspective. Delivering an accurate introduction to the current state-of-the-art in modern cryptography, the book offers you an in-depth understanding of essential tools and applications to help you with your daily work. The second edition has been reorganized and expanded, providing mathematical fundamentals and important cryptography principles in the appropriate appendixes, rather than summarize
Wright, Marie A.
1993-01-01
Cryptography is the science that renders data unintelligible to prevent its unauthorized disclosure or modification. Presents an application of matrices used in linear transformations to illustrate a cryptographic system. An example is provided. (17 references) (MDH)
Counterfactual thinking in physics
Elwenspoek, Miko; Birke, Dorothee; Butter, Michael; Köppe, Tilmann
2011-01-01
Counterfactual thinking plays a key role in research in physics and, I believe, in research in all natural sciences. In this contribution I will describe a few examples of counterfactual thinking, how it is used, the power of this method of inquiry, and the types of results that can be achieved. A b
Applications of single-qubit rotations in quantum public-key cryptography
Nikolopoulos, Georgios M.
2008-01-01
We discuss cryptographic applications of single-qubit rotations from the perspective of trapdoor one-way functions and public-key encryption. In particular, we present an asymmetric cryptosystem whose security relies on fundamental principles of quantum physics. A quantum public key is used for the encryption of messages while decryption is possible by means of a classical private key only. The trapdoor one-way function underlying the proposed cryptosystem maps integer numbers to quantum stat...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Förster, Klaus-Tycho
2017-01-01
Public-key cryptography is one of the biggest scientific achievements of the last century. Two people that never met before can establish a common secret in plain sight? Sounds like pure magic! The idea of this chapter is to reveal some of the tricks of this “crypto magic”. This chapter...
Faint laser pulses versus a single-photon source in free space quantum cryptography
Molotkov, S. N.; Potapova, T. A.
2016-03-01
In this letter we present estimates for the distance of secret key transmission through free space for three different protocols of quantum key distribution: for BB84 and phase time-coding protocols in the case of a strictly single-photon source, and for the relativistic quantum key distribution protocol in the case of faint laser pulses.
Randomized dynamical decoupling strategies and improved one-way key rates for quantum cryptography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kern, Oliver
2009-05-25
The present thesis deals with various methods of quantum error correction. It is divided into two parts. In the first part, dynamical decoupling methods are considered which have the task of suppressing the influence of residual imperfections in a quantum memory. Such imperfections might be given by couplings between the finite dimensional quantum systems (qudits) constituting the quantum memory, for instance. The suppression is achieved by altering the dynamics of an imperfect quantum memory with the help of a sequence of local unitary operations applied to the qudits. Whereas up to now the operations of such decoupling sequences have been constructed in a deterministic fashion, strategies are developed in this thesis which construct the operations by random selection from a suitable set. Formulas are derived which estimate the average performance of such strategies. As it turns out, randomized decoupling strategies offer advantages and disadvantages over deterministic ones. It is possible to benefit from the advantages of both kind of strategies by designing combined strategies. Furthermore, it is investigated if and how the discussed decoupling strategies can be employed to protect a quantum computation running on the quantum memory. It is shown that a purely randomized decoupling strategy may be used by applying the decoupling operations and adjusted gates of the quantum algorithm in an alternating fashion. Again this method can be enhanced by the means of deterministic methods in order to obtain a combined decoupling method for quantum computations analogously to the combining strategies for quantum memories. The second part of the thesis deals with quantum error-correcting codes and protocols for quantum key distribution. The focus is on the BB84 and the 6-state protocol making use of only one-way communication during the error correction and privacy amplification steps. It is shown that by adding additional errors to the preliminary key (a process called
Applications of single-qubit rotations in quantum public-key cryptography
Nikolopoulos, Georgios M.
2008-03-01
We discuss cryptographic applications of single-qubit rotations from the perspective of trapdoor one-way functions and public-key encryption. In particular, we present an asymmetric cryptosystem whose security relies on fundamental principles of quantum physics. A quantum public key is used for the encryption of messages while decryption is possible by means of a classical private key only. The trapdoor one-way function underlying the proposed cryptosystem maps integer numbers to quantum states of a qubit and its inversion can be infeasible by virtue of the Holevo’s theorem.
Private classical capacity with a symmetric side channel and its application to quantum cryptography
Smith, Graeme
2008-08-01
We study the symmetric-side-channel-assisted private capacity of a quantum channel, for which we provide a single-letter formula. This capacity is additive, convex, and, for degradable channels, equal to the unassisted private capacity. While a channel’s (unassisted) capacity for private classical communication may be strictly larger than its quantum capacity, we will show that these capacities are equal for degradable channels, thus demonstrating the equivalence of privacy and quantum coherence in this context. We use these ideas to find new bounds on the key rate of quantum key distribution protocols with one-way classical post-processing. For the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol, our results demonstrate that collective attacks are strictly stronger than individual attacks.
Virtual Entanglement and Reconciliation Protocols for Quantum Cryptography with Continuous Variables
Grosshans, F; Wenger, J; Tualle-Brouri, R; Grangier, P; Grangier, Ph.
2003-01-01
We discuss quantum key distribution protocols using quantum continuous variables. We show that such protocols can be made secure against individual gaussian attacks regardless the transmission of the optical line between Alice and Bob. This is achieved by reversing the reconciliation procedure subsequent to the quantum transmission, that is, using Bob's instead of Alice's data to build the key. Although squeezing or entanglement may be helpful to improve the resistance to noise, they are not required for the protocols to remain secure with high losses. Therefore, these protocols can be implemented very simply by transmitting coherent states and performing homodyne detection. Here, we show that entanglement nevertheless plays a crucial role in the security analysis of coherent state protocols. Every cryptographic protocol based on displaced gaussian states turns out to be equivalent to an entanglement-based protocol, even though no entanglement is actually present. This equivalence even holds in the absence of...
Jacak, Monika; Melniczuk, Damian; Jacak, Janusz; Jóźwiak, Ireneusz; Gruber, Jacek; Jóźwiak, Piotr
2015-02-01
In order to assess the susceptibility of the quantum key distribution (QKD) systems to the hacking attack including simultaneous and frequent system self-decalibrations, we analyze the stability of the QKD transmission organized in two commercially available systems. The first one employs non-entangled photons as flying qubits in the dark quantum channel for communication whereas the second one utilizes the entangled photon pairs to secretly share the cryptographic key. Applying standard methods of the statistical data analysis to the characteristic indicators of the quality of the QKD communication (the raw key exchange rate [RKER] and the quantum bit error rate [QBER]), we have estimated the pace of the self-decalibration of both systems and the repeatability rate in the case of controlled worsening of the dark channel quality.
Trojan-horse attacks threaten the security of practical quantum cryptography
Jain, Nitin; Anisimova, Elena; Khan, Imran; Makarov, Vadim; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd
2014-12-01
A quantum key distribution (QKD) system may be probed by an eavesdropper Eve by sending in bright light from the quantum channel and analyzing the back-reflections. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a setup for mounting such a Trojan-horse attack. We show it in operation against the quantum cryptosystem Clavis2 from ID Quantique, as a proof-of-principle. With just a few back-reflected photons, Eve discerns Bob's (secret) basis choice, and thus the raw key bit in the Scarani-Acín-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 protocol, with higher than 90% probability. This would clearly breach the security of the cryptosystem. Unfortunately, Eve's bright pulses have a side effect of causing a high level of afterpulsing in Bob's single-photon detectors, resulting in a large quantum bit error rate that effectively protects this system from our attack. However, in a Clavis2-like system equipped with detectors with less-noisy but realistic characteristics, an attack strategy with positive leakage of the key would exist. We confirm this by a numerical simulation. Both the eavesdropping setup and strategy can be generalized to attack most of the current QKD systems, especially if they lack proper safeguards. We also propose countermeasures to prevent such attacks.
Hybrid ququart-encoded quantum cryptography protected by Kochen-Specker contextuality
Cabello, Adan; Nagali, Eleonora; Sciarrino, Fabio; 10.1103/PhysRevA.84.030302
2011-01-01
Quantum cryptographic protocols based on complementarity are nonsecure against attacks in which complementarity is imitated with classical resources. The Kochen-Specker (KS) theorem provides protection against these attacks, without requiring entanglement or spatially separated composite systems. We analyze the maximum tolerated noise to guarantee the security of a KS-protected cryptographic scheme against these attacks, and describe a photonic realization of this scheme using hybrid ququarts defined by the polarization and orbital angular momentum of single photons.
Hybrid ququart-encoded quantum cryptography protected by Kochen-Specker contextuality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cabello, Adan [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41012 Sevilla (Spain); Department of Physics, Stockholm University, S-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); D' Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Nagali, Eleonora [Dipartimento di Fisica della ' ' Sapienza' ' Universita di Roma, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Sciarrino, Fabio [Dipartimento di Fisica della ' ' Sapienza' ' Universita di Roma, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (INO-CNR), I-50125 Florence (Italy)
2011-09-15
Quantum cryptographic protocols based on complementarity are not secure against attacks in which complementarity is imitated with classical resources. The Kochen-Specker (KS) theorem provides protection against these attacks, without requiring entanglement or spatially separated composite systems. We analyze the maximum tolerated noise to guarantee the security of a KS-protected cryptographic scheme against these attacks and describe a photonic realization of this scheme using hybrid ququarts defined by the polarization and orbital angular momentum of single photons.
Advanced techniques for free-space optical quantum cryptography over water
Hill, Alexander D.; Christensen, Bradley; Kwiat, Paul G.
2016-03-01
Free-space quantum key distribution (QKD) over water (e.g., ship to ship) may be limited by ship motion and atmospheric effects, such as mode distortion and beam wander due to turbulence. We report on a technique which reduces noise by excluding spatial modes which are less likely to contain QKD signal photons and experimentally demonstrate an improvement in QKD key generation rates in various noise and turbulence regimes.
General immunity and superadditivity of two-way Gaussian quantum cryptography
Ottaviani, Carlo; Pirandola, Stefano
2016-03-01
We consider two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution, studying its security against general eavesdropping strategies. Assuming the asymptotic limit of many signals exchanged, we prove that two-way Gaussian protocols are immune to coherent attacks. More precisely we show the general superadditivity of the two-way security thresholds, which are proven to be higher than the corresponding one-way counterparts in all cases. We perform the security analysis first reducing the general eavesdropping to a two-mode coherent Gaussian attack, and then showing that the superadditivity is achieved by exploiting the random on/off switching of the two-way quantum communication. This allows the parties to choose the appropriate communication instances to prepare the key, accordingly to the tomography of the quantum channel. The random opening and closing of the circuit represents, in fact, an additional degree of freedom allowing the parties to convert, a posteriori, the two-mode correlations of the eavesdropping into noise. The eavesdropper is assumed to have no access to the on/off switching and, indeed, cannot adapt her attack. We explicitly prove that this mechanism enhances the security performance, no matter if the eavesdropper performs collective or coherent attacks.
General immunity and superadditivity of two-way Gaussian quantum cryptography.
Ottaviani, Carlo; Pirandola, Stefano
2016-03-01
We consider two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution, studying its security against general eavesdropping strategies. Assuming the asymptotic limit of many signals exchanged, we prove that two-way Gaussian protocols are immune to coherent attacks. More precisely we show the general superadditivity of the two-way security thresholds, which are proven to be higher than the corresponding one-way counterparts in all cases. We perform the security analysis first reducing the general eavesdropping to a two-mode coherent Gaussian attack, and then showing that the superadditivity is achieved by exploiting the random on/off switching of the two-way quantum communication. This allows the parties to choose the appropriate communication instances to prepare the key, accordingly to the tomography of the quantum channel. The random opening and closing of the circuit represents, in fact, an additional degree of freedom allowing the parties to convert, a posteriori, the two-mode correlations of the eavesdropping into noise. The eavesdropper is assumed to have no access to the on/off switching and, indeed, cannot adapt her attack. We explicitly prove that this mechanism enhances the security performance, no matter if the eavesdropper performs collective or coherent attacks.
A simple coherent attack and practical security of differential phase shift quantum cryptography
Kronberg, D. A.
2014-02-01
The differential phase shift quantum key distribution protocol reveals good security against such powerful attacks as unambiguous state discrimination and beam splitting attacks. Its complete security analysis is complex due to high dimensions of the supposed spaces and density operators. In this paper, we consider a particular and conceptually simple coherent attack, available in practical implementations. The main condition for this attack is the length of used coherent state tuples of order 8-12. We show that under this condition, no high level of practical distance between legitimate users can be achieved.
A decoy-state protocol for quantum cryptography with 4 intensities of coherent states
Wang, X B
2004-01-01
In order to beat any type of photon-number-splitting attack, we In order to beat any type of photon-number-splitting attack, we propose a protocol for quantum key distributoin (QKD) using 4 different intensities of pulses. They are vacuum and coherent states with mean photon number $\\mu,\\mu'$ and $\\mu_s$. $\\mu_s$ is around 0.55 and this class of pulses are used as the main signal states. The other two classes of coherent states are used for both decoy and signal. We have shown that, given the typical set-up in practice, the key rate from the main signal pulses is more than 77% to 88% of the theoretically allowed maximal rate in the case of overall transmittance of $10^{-4}$ and $10^{-3}$.
Causal Responsibility and Counterfactuals
Lagnado, David A.; Gerstenberg, Tobias; Zultan, Ro'i
2013-01-01
How do people attribute responsibility in situations where the contributions of multiple agents combine to produce a joint outcome? The prevalence of over-determination in such cases makes this a difficult problem for counterfactual theories of causal responsibility. In this article, we explore a general framework for assigning responsibility in…
Klimov, A. N.; Kulik, S. P.; Molotkov, S. N.; Potapova, T. A.
2017-03-01
In the paper by Gleim et al (2016 Opt. Express 24 2619), it was declared that the system of quantum cryptography, exploiting quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol BB84 with the additional reference state and encoding in a sub-carrier, is able to distribute secret keys at a distance of 210 km. The following shows that a simple attack realized with a beam splitter results in a loss of privacy of the keys over substantially smaller distances. It turns out that the actual length of the secret key transmission for the QKD system encoding in the sub-carrier frequency is ten times less than that declared in Gleim et al (2016 Opt. Express 24 2619). Therefore it is impossible to safely use the keys when distributed at a larger length of the communication channel than shown below. The maximum communication distance does not exceed 22 km, even in the most optimistic scenario.
Causal inference based on counterfactuals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Höfler M
2005-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The counterfactual or potential outcome model has become increasingly standard for causal inference in epidemiological and medical studies. Discussion This paper provides an overview on the counterfactual and related approaches. A variety of conceptual as well as practical issues when estimating causal effects are reviewed. These include causal interactions, imperfect experiments, adjustment for confounding, time-varying exposures, competing risks and the probability of causation. It is argued that the counterfactual model of causal effects captures the main aspects of causality in health sciences and relates to many statistical procedures. Summary Counterfactuals are the basis of causal inference in medicine and epidemiology. Nevertheless, the estimation of counterfactual differences pose several difficulties, primarily in observational studies. These problems, however, reflect fundamental barriers only when learning from observations, and this does not invalidate the counterfactual concept.
Review of Lattice-based Public key Cryptography(Russian)
Usatyuk, V. S.
2010-01-01
This article presets a review of the achievements rapidly developing field of cryptography - public-key cryptography based on the lattice theory. Paper contains the necessary basic concepts and the major problems of the lattice theory, as well as together with the description on the benefits of this cryptography class - the properties of the reliability to quantum computers and full homomorphism, the shortcomings of specific implementations.
Bachman, Dale J.; Brown, Ezra A.; Norton, Anderson H.
2010-01-01
Cryptography is the science of hidden or secret writing. More generally, cryptography refers to the science of safeguarding information. Cryptography allows people to use a public medium such as the Internet to transmit private information securely, thus enabling a whole range of conveniences, from online shopping to personally printed movie…
Bachman, Dale J.; Brown, Ezra A.; Norton, Anderson H.
2010-01-01
Cryptography is the science of hidden or secret writing. More generally, cryptography refers to the science of safeguarding information. Cryptography allows people to use a public medium such as the Internet to transmit private information securely, thus enabling a whole range of conveniences, from online shopping to personally printed movie…
Ranade, K S; Alber, Gernot; Ranade, Kedar S.
2007-01-01
The concept of asymptotic correctability of Bell-diagonal quantum states is generalised to elementary quantum systems of higher dimensions. Based on these results basic properties of quantum state purification protocols are investigated which are capable of purifying tensor products of Bell-diagonal states and which are based on $B$-steps of the Gottesman-Lo-type with the subsequent application of a Calderbank-Shor-Steane quantum code. Consequences for maximum tolerable error rates of quantum cryptographic protocols are discussed.
Introduction to modern cryptography
Katz, Jonathan
2014-01-01
Praise for the First Edition:""This book is a comprehensive, rigorous introduction to what the authors name 'modern' cryptography. … a novel approach to how cryptography is taught, replacing the older, construction-based approach. … The concepts are clearly stated, both in an intuitive fashion and formally. … I would heartily recommend this book to anyone who is interested in cryptography. … The exercises are challenging and interesting, and can benefit readers of all academic levels.""-IACR Book Reviews, January 2010""Over the past 30 years, cryptography has been transformed from a mysterious
Selected areas in cryptography
Oorschot, Paul
1997-01-01
Selected Areas in Cryptography brings together in one place important contributions and up-to-date research results in this fast moving area. Selected Areas in Cryptography serves as an excellent reference, providing insight into some of the most challenging research issues in the field.
Beyond rationality : Counterfactual thinking and behavior regulation
Epstude, Kai; Roese, Neal J.
2007-01-01
Counterfactual thinking may be described as disciplined realistic, and rational, but we move a step further to describe a theoretical perspective centering on behavior regulation. According to this perspective, counterfactual thinking primarily centers on coordination of ongoing behavior. In short,
Discourse Updating after Reading a Counterfactual Event
de Vega, Manuel; Urrutia, Mabel
2012-01-01
This paper explores the temporal course of discourse updating after reading counterfactual events. To test the accessibility to discourse information, readers were asked to identify probes related to initial events in the text, previous to the counterfactual, or probes related to the critical counterfactual events. Experiment 1 showed that 500 ms…
Quantum Transmemetic Intelligence
Piotrowski, Edward W.; Sładkowski, Jan
The following sections are included: * Introduction * A Quantum Model of Free Will * Quantum Acquisition of Knowledge * Thinking as a Quantum Algorithm * Counterfactual Measurement as a Model of Intuition * Quantum Modification of Freud's Model of Consciousness * Conclusion * Acknowledgements * References
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Linda J. Blumberg PhD
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Time lags in receiving data from long-standing, large federal surveys complicate real-time estimation of the coverage effects of full Affordable Care Act (ACA implementation. Fast-turnaround household surveys fill some of the void in data on recent changes to insurance coverage, but they lack the historical data that allow analysts to account for trends that predate the ACA, economic fluctuations, and earlier public program expansions when predicting how many people would be uninsured without comprehensive health care reform. Using data from the Current Population Survey (CPS from 2000 to 2012 and the Health Reform Monitoring Survey (HRMS data for 2013 and 2015, this article develops an approach to estimate the number of people who would be uninsured in the absence of the ACA and isolates the change in coverage as of March 2015 that can be attributed to the ACA. We produce counterfactual forecasts of the number of uninsured absent the ACA for 9 age-income groups and compare these estimates with 2015 estimates based on HRMS relative coverage changes applied to CPS-based population estimates. As of March 2015, we find the ACA has reduced the number of uninsured adults by 18.1 million compared with the number who would have been uninsured at that time had the law not been implemented. That decline represents a 46% reduction in the number of nonelderly adults without insurance. The approach developed here can be applied to other federal data and timely surveys to provide a range of estimates of the overall effects of reform.
Tapson, Frank
1996-01-01
Describes public key cryptography, also known as RSA, which is a system using two keys, one used to put a message into cipher and another used to decipher the message. Presents examples using small prime numbers. (MKR)
Neural cryptography with feedback
Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Shacham, Lanir; Kanter, Ido
2004-04-01
Neural cryptography is based on a competition between attractive and repulsive stochastic forces. A feedback mechanism is added to neural cryptography which increases the repulsive forces. Using numerical simulations and an analytic approach, the probability of a successful attack is calculated for different model parameters. Scaling laws are derived which show that feedback improves the security of the system. In addition, a network with feedback generates a pseudorandom bit sequence which can be used to encrypt and decrypt a secret message.
Neural cryptography with feedback.
Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Shacham, Lanir; Kanter, Ido
2004-04-01
Neural cryptography is based on a competition between attractive and repulsive stochastic forces. A feedback mechanism is added to neural cryptography which increases the repulsive forces. Using numerical simulations and an analytic approach, the probability of a successful attack is calculated for different model parameters. Scaling laws are derived which show that feedback improves the security of the system. In addition, a network with feedback generates a pseudorandom bit sequence which can be used to encrypt and decrypt a secret message.
Zhou, Zhi; Arce, Gonzalo R; Di Crescenzo, Giovanni
2006-08-01
Visual cryptography encodes a secret binary image (SI) into n shares of random binary patterns. If the shares are xeroxed onto transparencies, the secret image can be visually decoded by superimposing a qualified subset of transparencies, but no secret information can be obtained from the superposition of a forbidden subset. The binary patterns of the n shares, however, have no visual meaning and hinder the objectives of visual cryptography. Extended visual cryptography [1] was proposed recently to construct meaningful binary images as shares using hypergraph colourings, but the visual quality is poor. In this paper, a novel technique named halftone visual cryptography is proposed to achieve visual cryptography via halftoning. Based on the blue-noise dithering principles, the proposed method utilizes the void and cluster algorithm [2] to encode a secret binary image into n halftone shares (images) carrying significant visual information. The simulation shows that the visual quality of the obtained halftone shares are observably better than that attained by any available visual cryptography method known to date.
Counterfactual Thinking and Educational Psychology
Hill, Joanna
2017-01-01
Counterfactual thinking refers to imaginative thoughts about what might have been ("if only" or "what if") which are intrinsically linked to self-conscious emotions (regret and guilt) and social judgements (blame). Research in adults suggests that the focus of these thoughts is influenced by order (temporal and causal). Little…
Chaos Cryptography with Dynamical Systems
Anderson, Robert; Morse, Jack; Schimmrigk, Rolf
2001-11-01
Cryptography is a subject that draws strength from an amazing variety of different mathematical fields, including such deep results as the Weil-Dwork-Deligne theorem on the zeta function. Physical theories have recently entered the subject as well, an example being the subject of quantum cryptography, motivated in part by Shor's insight into the vulnerability of prime number factorization based crypto systems. In this contribution we describe a cryptographic algorithm which is based on the dynamics of a class of physical models that exhibit chaotic behavior. More precisely, we consider dissipative systems which are described by nonlinear three-dimensional systems of differential equations with strange attractor surfaces of non-integer Lyapunov dimension. The time evolution of such systems in part of the moduli space shows unpredictable behavior, which suggests that they might be useful as pseudorandom number generators. We will show that this is indeed the case and illustrate our procedure mainly with the Lorenz attractor, though we also briefly mention the Rössler system. We use this class of nonlinear models to construct an extremely fast stream cipher with a large keyspace, which we test with Marsaglia's battery of DieHard tests.
Quantum Cryptography II: How to re-use a one-time pad safely even if P=NP.
Bennett, Charles H; Brassard, Gilles; Breidbart, Seth
2014-01-01
When elementary quantum systems, such as polarized photons, are used to transmit digital information, the uncertainty principle gives rise to novel cryptographic phenomena unachievable with traditional transmission media, e.g. a communications channel on which it is impossible in principle to eavesdrop without a high probability of being detected. With such a channel, a one-time pad can safely be reused many times as long as no eavesdrop is detected, and, planning ahead, part of the capacity of these uncompromised transmissions can be used to send fresh random bits with which to replace the one-time pad when an eavesdrop finally is detected. Unlike other schemes for stretching a one-time pad, this scheme does not depend on complexity-theoretic assumptions such as the difficulty of factoring.
The functional theory of counterfactual thinking
Epstude, Kai; Roese, Neal J.
2008-01-01
Counterfactuals are thoughts about alternatives to past events, that is, thoughts of what might have been. This article provides an updated account of the functional theory of counterfactual thinking, suggesting that such thoughts are best explained in terms of their role in behavior regulation and
Chinese Native Speakers Counterfactuals Revisited
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
1.IntroductionI have found,in my teaching experience,that English counterfactuals are among the most diffi-cult problems for Chinese native speaker EFL learners. A recent survey of EFL teachers in Guilin,China also supports these findings. In response to the question“What do you think is the most diffi-cult for your students to learn in English”,5 6out of 71 ,or 79% said the English subjunctive verbsare. To the question“Do you think the English subjunctives are difficultfor your students”,1 0 0 % ofthe EFL ...
Dynamics of neural cryptography.
Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Kanter, Ido
2007-05-01
Synchronization of neural networks has been used for public channel protocols in cryptography. In the case of tree parity machines the dynamics of both bidirectional synchronization and unidirectional learning is driven by attractive and repulsive stochastic forces. Thus it can be described well by a random walk model for the overlap between participating neural networks. For that purpose transition probabilities and scaling laws for the step sizes are derived analytically. Both these calculations as well as numerical simulations show that bidirectional interaction leads to full synchronization on average. In contrast, successful learning is only possible by means of fluctuations. Consequently, synchronization is much faster than learning, which is essential for the security of the neural key-exchange protocol. However, this qualitative difference between bidirectional and unidirectional interaction vanishes if tree parity machines with more than three hidden units are used, so that those neural networks are not suitable for neural cryptography. In addition, the effective number of keys which can be generated by the neural key-exchange protocol is calculated using the entropy of the weight distribution. As this quantity increases exponentially with the system size, brute-force attacks on neural cryptography can easily be made unfeasible.
Device-independence for two-party cryptography and position verification
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ribeiro, Jeremy; Thinh, Le Phuc; Kaniewski, Jedrzej;
Quantum communication has demonstrated its usefulness for quantum cryptography far beyond quantum key distribution. One domain is two-party cryptography, whose goal is to allow two parties who may not trust each other to solve joint tasks. Another interesting application is position......-based cryptography whose goal is to use the geographical location of an entity as its only identifying credential. Unfortunately, security of these protocols is not possible against an all powerful adversary. However, if we impose some realistic physical constraints on the adversary, there exist protocols for which...... security can be proven, but these so far relied on the knowledge of the quantum operations performed during the protocols. In this work we give device-independent security proofs of two-party cryptography and Position Verification for memoryless devices under different physical constraints on the adversary...
Cognitive Neuroscience of Human Counterfactual Reasoning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicole eVan Hoeck
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Counterfactual reasoning is a hallmark of human thought, enabling the capacity to shift from perceiving the immediate environment to an alternative, imagined perspective. Mental representations of counterfactual possibilities (e.g., imagined past events or future outcomes not yet at hand provide the basis for learning from past experience, enable planning and prediction, support creativity and insight, and give rise to emotions and social attributions (e.g., regret and blame. Yet remarkably little is known about the psychological and neural foundations of counterfactual reasoning. In this review, we survey recent findings from psychology and neuroscience indicating that counterfactual thought depends on an integrative network of systems for affective processing, mental simulation, and cognitive control. We review evidence to elucidate how these mechanisms are systematically altered through psychiatric illness and neurological disease. We propose that counterfactual thinking depends on the coordination of multiple information processing systems that together enable adaptive behavior and goal-directed decision making and make recommendations for the study of counterfactual inference in health, aging, and disease.
Data Authentication Using Cryptography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sagar Chouksey
2013-06-01
Full Text Available We present a novel approach using cryptographyfor data authentication. The key idea is to provide aencoded quantized data projection as authenticationdata. This can be correctly decoded with the help ofan authentic data using as side information.Cryptography source coding provides the desiredrobustness against legitimate variations whiledetecting illegitimate modification. Additionaladjustments might not change the meaning of thecontent, but could be misclassified as tampering.Users might also beinterested in localizingtampered regions. Distinguishing legitimateencodings with possible adjustments fromtampering and localizing tampering are thechallenges addressed in this paper. We applycryptography source coding and statistical methodsto solve the data authentication problem.Experimental results have been presented for dataauthentication.
2014-01-01
While cracking a code might seem like something few of us would encounter in our daily lives, it is actually far more prevalent than we may realize. Anyone who has had personal information taken because of a hacked email account can understand the need for cryptography and the importance of encryption-essentially the need to code information to keep it safe. This detailed volume examines the logic and science behind various ciphers, their real world uses, how codes can be broken, and the use of technology in this oft-overlooked field.
Quantum computer for dummies (in Russian)
Grozin, Andrey
2011-01-01
An introduction (in Russian) to quantum computers, quantum cryptography, and quantum teleportation for students who have no previous knowledge of these subjects, but know quantum mechanics. Several simple examples are considered in detail using the quantum computer emulator QCL.
Sica, Louis
2012-01-01
The usual interpretation of the Greenberger, Horne, Zeilinger (GHZ) theorem is that only nonlocal hidden variables are consistent with quantum mechanics. This conclusion is reasoned from the fact that combinations of results of unperformed non-commutative measurement procedures (counterfactuals) do not agree with quantum mechanical predictions taking non-commutation into account. However, it is shown from simple counter-examples, that combinations of such counterfactuals are inconsistent with classical non-commutative measurement sequences as well. There is thus no regime in which the validity of combined non-commutative counterfactuals may be depended upon. As a consequence, negative conclusions regarding local hidden variables do not follow from the GHZ and Bell theorems as historically reasoned.
Buchmann, Johannes A
2004-01-01
Cryptography is a key technology in electronic key systems. It is used to keep data secret, digitally sign documents, access control, etc. Therefore, users should not only know how its techniques work, but they must also be able to estimate their efficiency and security. For this new edition, the author has updated the discussion of the security of encryption and signature schemes and recent advances in factoring and computing discrete logarithms. He has also added descriptions of time-memory trade of attacks and algebraic attacks on block ciphers, the Advanced Encryption Standard, the Secure Hash Algorithm, secret sharing schemes, and undeniable and blind signatures. Johannes A. Buchmann is a Professor of Computer Science and Mathematics at the Technical University of Darmstadt, and the Associate Editor of the Journal of Cryptology. In 1985, he received the Feodor Lynen Fellowship of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation. Furthermore, he has received the most prestigious award in science in Germany, the Leib...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
CONSTANTINESCU Nicolae
2009-12-01
Full Text Available One of the main problems in cryptography is to give criteria to provide good comparators of cipher systems. The security of a cipher system must include the security of the algorithm, the security of the key generator and management module (see [BM94], [CM97],[Mau92a] and the security of the cryptographic key agreement protocol (see [Mau93a],[MC94],[Mau93b],[Mau92b]. This paper gives show the necessary mathematical background to estimate the most important cryptographic measures of the key generators and of the unconditionally key agreement protocols. These cryptographic measures are the Shannon entropy (for the key generator module and Renyi entropy of order for the key agreement protocol.
Counterfactual Thinking in the History of Psychology Course
Carroll, David W.
2013-01-01
History of psychology students wrote essays about historical figures and counterfactual events. A linguistic analysis of the essays revealed that counterfactual assignments included more auxiliary verbs and more references to tentativeness and the future. More important, scores on the counterfactual assignments but not the historical figure…
Counterfactual Thinking in the History of Psychology Course
Carroll, David W.
2013-01-01
History of psychology students wrote essays about historical figures and counterfactual events. A linguistic analysis of the essays revealed that counterfactual assignments included more auxiliary verbs and more references to tentativeness and the future. More important, scores on the counterfactual assignments but not the historical figure…
Cryptography Engineering Design Principles and Practical Applications
Ferguson, Niels; Kohno, Tadayoshi
2012-01-01
The ultimate guide to cryptography, updated from an author team of the world's top cryptography experts. Cryptography is vital to keeping information safe, in an era when the formula to do so becomes more and more challenging. Written by a team of world-renowned cryptography experts, this essential guide is the definitive introduction to all major areas of cryptography: message security, key negotiation, and key management. You'll learn how to think like a cryptographer. You'll discover techniques for building cryptography into products from the start and you'll examine the many technical chan
Understanding and applying cryptography and data security
Elbirt, Adam J
2009-01-01
Introduction A Brief History of Cryptography and Data Security Cryptography and Data Security in the Modern World Existing Texts Book Organization Symmetric-Key Cryptography Cryptosystem Overview The Modulo Operator Greatest Common Divisor The Ring ZmHomework ProblemsSymmetric-Key Cryptography: Substitution Ciphers Basic Cryptanalysis Shift Ciphers Affine Ciphers Homework ProblemsSymmetric-Key Cryptography: Stream Ciphers Random Numbers The One-Time Pad Key Stream GeneratorsReal-World ApplicationsHomework ProblemsSymmetric-Key Cryptography: Block Ciphers The Data Encryption StandardThe Advance
Symptomatic Remission and Counterfactual Reasoning in Schizophrenia
Albacete, Auria; Contreras, Fernando; Bosque, Clara; Gilabert, Ester; Albiach, Ángela; Menchón, José M.
2017-01-01
Counterfactual thinking (CFT) is a type of conditional reasoning involving mental representations of alternatives to past factual events that previous preliminary research has suggested to be impaired in schizophrenia. However, despite the potential impact of these deficits on the functional outcome of these patients, studies examining the role of CFT in this disorder are still few in number. The present study aimed to extent previous results by evaluating CFT in the largest sample to date of schizophrenia patients in symptomatic remission and healthy controls. The relationship with symptomatology, illness duration, and sociodemographic characteristics was also explored. Methods: Seventy-eight schizophrenia patients and 84 healthy controls completed a series of tests that examined the generation of counterfactual thoughts, the influence of the “causal order effect,” and the ability to counterfactually derive inferences by using de Counterfactual Inference Test. Results: Compared with controls, patients generated fewer counterfactual thoughts when faced with a simulated scenario. This deficit was negatively related to scores on all dimensions of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-PANNS, as well as to longer illness duration. The results also showed that schizophrenia patients deviated significantly from the normative pattern when generating inferences from CFT. Conclusions: These findings reveal CFT impairment to be present in schizophrenia even when patients are in symptomatic remission. However, symptomatology and illness duration may have a negative influence on these patients' ability to generate counterfactual thoughts. The results might support the relevance of targeting CFT in future treatment approaches, although further research is needed to better describe the relationship between CFT and both symptomatology and functional outcome. PMID:28111561
Security of quantum key distribution source
Simonsen, Eivind Sjøtun
2010-01-01
Cryptography has begun its journey into the field of quantum information theory. Classical cryptography has shown weaknesses, which may be exploited in the future, either by development in mathematics, or by quantum computers. Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a promising path for cryptography to enable secure communication in the future. Although the theory of QKD promises absolute security, the reality is that current quantum crypto systems have flaws in them, as perfect devices have proven...
Coding Theory, Cryptography and Related Areas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Buchmann, Johannes; Stichtenoth, Henning; Tapia-Recillas, Horacio
Proceedings of anInternational Conference on Coding Theory, Cryptography and Related Areas, held in Guanajuato, Mexico. in april 1998......Proceedings of anInternational Conference on Coding Theory, Cryptography and Related Areas, held in Guanajuato, Mexico. in april 1998...
Theory and practice of chaotic cryptography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amigo, J.M. [Centro de Investigacion Operativa, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Avda. de la Universidad, 03202 Elche (Spain)]. E-mail: jm.amigo@umh.es; Kocarev, L. [Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0402 (United States)]. E-mail: lkocarev@ucsd.edu; Szczepanski, J. [Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Science, Swietokrzyska 21, 00-049 Warsaw (Poland)]. E-mail: jszczepa@ippt.gov.pl
2007-06-25
In this Letter we address some basic questions about chaotic cryptography, not least the very definition of chaos in discrete systems. We propose a conceptual framework and illustrate it with different examples from private and public key cryptography. We elaborate also on possible limits of chaotic cryptography.
Coding, cryptography and combinatorics
Niederreiter, Harald; Xing, Chaoping
2004-01-01
It has long been recognized that there are fascinating connections between cod ing theory, cryptology, and combinatorics. Therefore it seemed desirable to us to organize a conference that brings together experts from these three areas for a fruitful exchange of ideas. We decided on a venue in the Huang Shan (Yellow Mountain) region, one of the most scenic areas of China, so as to provide the additional inducement of an attractive location. The conference was planned for June 2003 with the official title Workshop on Coding, Cryptography and Combi natorics (CCC 2003). Those who are familiar with events in East Asia in the first half of 2003 can guess what happened in the end, namely the conference had to be cancelled in the interest of the health of the participants. The SARS epidemic posed too serious a threat. At the time of the cancellation, the organization of the conference was at an advanced stage: all invited speakers had been selected and all abstracts of contributed talks had been screened by the p...
Questioning the preparatory function of counterfactual thinking.
Mercier, Hugo; Rolison, Jonathan J; Stragà, Marta; Ferrante, Donatella; Walsh, Clare R; Girotto, Vittorio
2017-02-01
Why do individuals mentally modify reality (e.g., "If it hadn't rained, we would have won the game")? According to the dominant view, counterfactuals primarily serve to prepare future performance. In fact, individuals who have just failed a task tend to modify the uncontrollable features of their attempt (e.g., "If the rules of the game were different, I would have won it"), generating counterfactuals that are unlikely to play any preparatory role. By contrast, they generate prefactuals that focus on the controllable features of their ensuing behavior (e.g., "If I concentrate more, I will win the next game"). Here, we test whether this tendency is robust and general. Studies 1a and 1b replicate this tendency and show that it occurs regardless of whether individuals think about their failures or their successes. Study 2 shows that individuals generate relatively few controllable counterfactuals, unless explicitly prompted to do so. These results raise some questions regarding the generality of the dominant view according to which counterfactuals mainly serve a preparatory function.
An introduction to mathematical cryptography
Hoffstein, Jeffrey; Silverman, Joseph H
2014-01-01
This self-contained introduction to modern cryptography emphasizes the mathematics behind the theory of public key cryptosystems and digital signature schemes. The book focuses on these key topics while developing the mathematical tools needed for the construction and security analysis of diverse cryptosystems. Only basic linear algebra is required of the reader; techniques from algebra, number theory, and probability are introduced and developed as required. This text provides an ideal introduction for mathematics and computer science students to the mathematical foundations of modern cryptography. The book includes an extensive bibliography and index; supplementary materials are available online. The book covers a variety of topics that are considered central to mathematical cryptography. Key topics include: classical cryptographic constructions, such as Diffie–Hellmann key exchange, discrete logarithm-based cryptosystems, the RSA cryptosystem, and digital signatures; fundamental mathematical tools for cr...
Use of Cryptography in communication
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
University Junior Assistant Ioana-Julieta Vasile
2008-05-01
Full Text Available This work envisages the presentation and analysis of important cryptographic systems in the field as well as the way these systems have been applied during the course of time. The work presents the advantages and disadvantages that derive from the use of cryptography while also emphasizing the importance cryptography has had along the way. Not least, the present article shall analyze the "Pretty Good Privacy" model - a widely used system nowadays, whose decryption key has yet to be found.
Finding Cryptography in Object Code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jason L. Wright
2008-10-01
Finding and identifying Cryptography is a growing concern in the malware analysis community. In this paper, a heuristic method for determining the likelihood that a given function contains a cryptographic algorithm is discussed and the results of applying this method in various environments is shown. The algorithm is based on frequency analysis of opcodes that make up each function within a binary.
Lightweight cryptography for constrained devices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alippi, Cesare; Bogdanov, Andrey; Regazzoni, Francesco
2014-01-01
Lightweight cryptography is a rapidly evolving research field that responds to the request for security in resource constrained devices. This need arises from crucial pervasive IT applications, such as those based on RFID tags where cost and energy constraints drastically limit the solution...
Cryptography as a Pedagogical Tool
Kaur, Manmohan
2008-01-01
In order to get undergraduates interested in mathematics, it is necessary to motivate them, give them good reasons to spend time on a subject that requires hard work, and, if possible, involve them in undergraduate research. This article discusses how cryptography can be used for all these purposes. In particular, a special topics course on…
Zhang, Yichen; Li, Zhengyu; Zhao, Yijia; Yu, Song; Guo, Hong
2017-02-01
We analyze the security of the two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocol in reverse reconciliation against general two-mode attacks, which represent all accessible attacks at fixed channel parameters. Rather than against one specific attack model, the expression of secret key rates of the two-way protocol are derived against all accessible attack models. It is found that there is an optimal two-mode attack to minimize the performance of the protocol in terms of both secret key rates and maximal transmission distances. We identify the optimal two-mode attack, give the specific attack model of the optimal two-mode attack and show the performance of the two-way protocol against the optimal two-mode attack. Even under the optimal two-mode attack, the performances of two-way protocol are still better than the corresponding one-way protocol, which shows the advantage of making double use of the quantum channel and the potential of long-distance secure communication using a two-way protocol.
Scarani, Valerio; Iblisdir, Sofyan; Gisin, Nicolas; Acin, Antonio
2005-01-01
The impossibility of perfectly copying (or cloning) an arbitrary quantum state is one of the basic rules governing the physics of quantum systems. The processes that perform the optimal approximate cloning have been found in many cases. These "quantum cloning machines" are important tools for studying a wide variety of tasks, e.g. state estimation and eavesdropping on quantum cryptography. This paper provides a comprehensive review of quantum cloning machines (both for discrete-dimensional an...
Everyday cryptography fundamental principles and applications
Martin, Keith M
2012-01-01
Cryptography is a vital technology that underpins the security of information in computer networks. This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the role that cryptography plays in providing information security for technologies such as the Internet, mobile phones, payment cards, and wireless local area networks. Focusing on the fundamental principles that ground modern cryptography as they arise in modern applications, it avoids both an over-reliance on transient currenttechnologies and over-whelming theoretical research.Everyday Cryptography is a self-contained and widely accessible in
Cryptography with DNA binary strands.
Leier, A; Richter, C; Banzhaf, W; Rauhe, H
2000-06-01
Biotechnological methods can be used for cryptography. Here two different cryptographic approaches based on DNA binary strands are shown. The first approach shows how DNA binary strands can be used for steganography, a technique of encryption by information hiding, to provide rapid encryption and decryption. It is shown that DNA steganography based on DNA binary strands is secure under the assumption that an interceptor has the same technological capabilities as sender and receiver of encrypted messages. The second approach shown here is based on steganography and a method of graphical subtraction of binary gel-images. It can be used to constitute a molecular checksum and can be combined with the first approach to support encryption. DNA cryptography might become of practical relevance in the context of labelling organic and inorganic materials with DNA 'barcodes'.
Counterfactual Thinking as a Mechanism in Narrative Persuasion
Tal-Or, Nurit; Boninger, David S.; Poran, Amir; Gleicher, Faith
2004-01-01
Two experiments examined the impact of counterfactual thinking on persuasion. Participants in both experiments were exposed to short video clips in which an actor described a car accident that resulted in serious injury. In the narrative description, the salience of a counterfactual was manipulated by either explicitly including the counterfactual…
Procrastination and counterfactual thinking: avoiding what might have been.
Sirois, Fuschia M
2004-06-01
The possible negative consequences of counterfactuals were explored in the current study by examining the relationship between counterfactual direction and trait procrastination, a self-defeating behavioural style. Eighty participants generated counterfactuals in response to two experimental anxiety inductions. Trait procrastination was overall related to avoiding thoughts about how things could have been better (making more downward and relatively fewer upward counterfactuals) in response to the two anxiety-provoking scenarios, suggesting the involvement of a self-enhancement motive (mood repair). Evidence for the involvement of this self-motive in procrastinating behaviour also emerged, as procrastination was more related to making more downward counterfactuals for a delay-specific anxiety scenario than for a general anxiety scenario. The pattern of results supports the proposal that downward counterfactuals may be associated with negative behavioural styles such as procrastination and implicates self-enhancement motives in this relationship. The behavioural and motivational consequences of downward counterfactuals are discussed and possible connections between downward counterfactuals and other self-defeating behaviours are presented.
The Counterfactual Nostalgia of Indie Games
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juul, Jesper
2015-01-01
” which can be described as a representation of a representation (Juul 2014), Here contemporary technology is used to represent earlier and cheaper representational styles, such as large pixels, crayons, or low-polygon 3D. Seeing independent game history through the lens of visual style, it is apparent...... that while early modern independent games such as Cave Story deliberately used a pixel style to emulate 1980’s video games, visual style in independent games has since become a type of counterfactual nostalgia, where visual styles refer to styles that were not actually part of video game history. For example...
Security, Privacy, and Applied Cryptography Engineering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second International Conference on Security, Privacy and Applied Cryptography Engineering held in Chennai, India, in November 2012. The 11 papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 61 submissions. The papers are organized...... and applications, high-performance computing in cryptology and cryptography in ubiquitous devices....
Report of the Public Cryptography Study Group.
American Council on Education, Washington, DC.
Concerns of the National Security Agency (NSA) that information contained in some articles about cryptography in learned and professional journals and in monographs might be inimical to the national security are addressed. The Public Cryptography Study Group, with one dissenting opinion, recommends that a voluntary system of prior review of…
Rossler Nonlinear Dynamical Machine for Cryptography Applications
Pandey, Sunil; Shrivastava, Dr S C
2009-01-01
In many of the cryptography applications like password or IP address encryption schemes, symmetric cryptography is useful. In these relatively simpler applications of cryptography, asymmetric cryptography is difficult to justify on account of the computational and implementation complexities associated with asymmetric cryptography. Symmetric schemes make use of a single shared key known only between the two communicating hosts. This shared key is used both for the encryption as well as the decryption of data. This key has to be small in size besides being a subset of a potentially large keyspace making it convenient for the communicating hosts while at the same time making cryptanalysis difficult for the potential attackers. In the present work, an abstract Rossler nonlinear dynamical machine has been described first. The Rossler system exhibits chaotic dynamics for certain values of system parameters and initial conditions. The chaotic dynamics of the Rossler system with its apparently erratic and irregular ...
Processing counterfactual and hypothetical conditionals: an fMRI investigation.
Kulakova, Eugenia; Aichhorn, Markus; Schurz, Matthias; Kronbichler, Martin; Perner, Josef
2013-05-15
Counterfactual thinking is ubiquitous in everyday life and an important aspect of cognition and emotion. Although counterfactual thought has been argued to differ from processing factual or hypothetical information, imaging data which elucidate these differences on a neural level are still scarce. We investigated the neural correlates of processing counterfactual sentences under visual and aural presentation. We compared conditionals in subjunctive mood which explicitly contradicted previously presented facts (i.e. counterfactuals) to conditionals framed in indicative mood which did not contradict factual world knowledge and thus conveyed a hypothetical supposition. Our results show activation in right occipital cortex (cuneus) and right basal ganglia (caudate nucleus) during counterfactual sentence processing. Importantly the occipital activation is not only present under visual presentation but also with purely auditory stimulus presentation, precluding a visual processing artifact. Thus our results can be interpreted as reflecting the fact that counterfactual conditionals pragmatically imply the relevance of keeping in mind both factual and supposed information whereas the hypothetical conditionals imply that real world information is irrelevant for processing the conditional and can be omitted. The need to sustain representations of factual and suppositional events during counterfactual sentence processing requires increased mental imagery and integration efforts. Our findings are compatible with predictions based on mental model theory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cryptography in constant parallel time
Applebaum, Benny
2013-01-01
Locally computable (NC0) functions are 'simple' functions for which every bit of the output can be computed by reading a small number of bits of their input. The study of locally computable cryptography attempts to construct cryptographic functions that achieve this strong notion of simplicity and simultaneously provide a high level of security. Such constructions are highly parallelizable and they can be realized by Boolean circuits of constant depth.This book establishes, for the first time, the possibility of local implementations for many basic cryptographic primitives such as one-way func
Cooperating attackers in neural cryptography.
Shacham, Lanir N; Klein, Einat; Mislovaty, Rachel; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang
2004-06-01
A successful attack strategy in neural cryptography is presented. The neural cryptosystem, based on synchronization of neural networks by mutual learning, has been recently shown to be secure under different attack strategies. The success of the advanced attacker presented here, called the "majority-flipping attacker," does not decay with the parameters of the model. This attacker's outstanding success is due to its using a group of attackers which cooperate throughout the synchronization process, unlike any other attack strategy known. An analytical description of this attack is also presented, and fits the results of simulations.
Advanced quantum communication systems
Jeffrey, Evan Robert
Quantum communication provides several examples of communication protocols which cannot be implemented securely using only classical communication. Currently, the most widely known of these is quantum cryptography, which allows secure key exchange between parties sharing a quantum channel subject to an eavesdropper. This thesis explores and extends the realm of quantum communication. Two new quantum communication protocols are described. The first is a new form of quantum cryptography---relativistic quantum cryptography---which increases communication efficiency by exploiting a relativistic bound on the power of an eavesdropper, in addition to the usual quantum mechanical restrictions intrinsic to quantum cryptography. By doing so, we have observed over 170% improvement in communication efficiency over a similar protocol not utilizing relativity. A second protocol, Quantum Orienteering, allows two cooperating parties to communicate a specific direction in space. This application shows the possibility of using joint measurements, or projections onto an entangled state, in order to extract the maximum useful information from quantum bits. For two-qubit communication, the maximal fidelity of communication using only separable operations is 73.6%, while joint measurements can improve the efficiency to 78.9%. In addition to implementing these protocols, we have improved several resources for quantum communication and quantum computing. Specifically, we have developed improved sources of polarization-entangled photons, a low-loss quantum memory for polarization qubits, and a quantum random number generator. These tools may be applied to a wide variety of future quantum and classical information systems.
Device-independent two-party cryptography secure against sequential attacks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kaniewski, Jedrzej; Wehner, Stephanie
2016-01-01
The goal of two-party cryptography is to enable two parties, Alice and Bob, to solve common tasks without the need for mutual trust. Examples of such tasks are private access to a database, and secure identification. Quantum communication enables security for all of these problems in the noisy......-storage model by sending more signals than the adversary can store in a certain time frame. Here, we initiate the study of device-independent (DI) protocols for two-party cryptography in the noisy-storage model. Specifically, we present a relatively easy to implement protocol for a cryptographic building block...... known as weak string erasure and prove its security even if the devices used in the protocol are prepared by the dishonest party. DI two-party cryptography is made challenging by the fact that Alice and Bob do not trust each other, which requires new techniques to establish security. We fully analyse...
Special Issue on Entropy-Based Applied Cryptography and Enhanced Security for Ubiquitous Computing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James (Jong Hyuk Park
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Entropy is a basic and important concept in information theory. It is also often used as a measure of the unpredictability of a cryptographic key in cryptography research areas. Ubiquitous computing (Ubi-comp has emerged rapidly as an exciting new paradigm. In this special issue, we mainly selected and discussed papers related with ore theories based on the graph theory to solve computational problems on cryptography and security, practical technologies; applications and services for Ubi-comp including secure encryption techniques, identity and authentication; credential cloning attacks and countermeasures; switching generator with resistance against the algebraic and side channel attacks; entropy-based network anomaly detection; applied cryptography using chaos function, information hiding and watermark, secret sharing, message authentication, detection and modeling of cyber attacks with Petri Nets, and quantum flows for secret key distribution, etc.
Device-independent two-party cryptography secure against sequential attacks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kaniewski, Jedrzej; Wehner, Stephanie
2016-01-01
The goal of two-party cryptography is to enable two parties, Alice and Bob, to solve common tasks without the need for mutual trust. Examples of such tasks are private access to a database, and secure identification. Quantum communication enables security for all of these problems in the noisy......-storage model by sending more signals than the adversary can store in a certain time frame. Here, we initiate the study of device-independent (DI) protocols for two-party cryptography in the noisy-storage model. Specifically, we present a relatively easy to implement protocol for a cryptographic building block...... known as weak string erasure and prove its security even if the devices used in the protocol are prepared by the dishonest party. DI two-party cryptography is made challenging by the fact that Alice and Bob do not trust each other, which requires new techniques to establish security. We fully analyse...
Cryptography and computational number theory
Shparlinski, Igor; Wang, Huaxiong; Xing, Chaoping; Workshop on Cryptography and Computational Number Theory, CCNT'99
2001-01-01
This volume contains the refereed proceedings of the Workshop on Cryptography and Computational Number Theory, CCNT'99, which has been held in Singapore during the week of November 22-26, 1999. The workshop was organized by the Centre for Systems Security of the Na tional University of Singapore. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the Singapore National Science and Technology Board under the grant num ber RP960668/M. The idea for this workshop grew out of the recognition of the recent, rapid development in various areas of cryptography and computational number the ory. The event followed the concept of the research programs at such well-known research institutions as the Newton Institute (UK), Oberwolfach and Dagstuhl (Germany), and Luminy (France). Accordingly, there were only invited lectures at the workshop with plenty of time for informal discussions. It was hoped and successfully achieved that the meeting would encourage and stimulate further research in information and computer s...
Basic Conditional Reasoning: How Children Mimic Counterfactual Reasoning
Leahy, Brian; Rafetseder, Eva; Perner, Josef
2014-01-01
Children approach counterfactual questions about stories with a reasoning strategy that falls short of adults’ Counterfactual Reasoning (CFR). It was dubbed “Basic Conditional Reasoning” (BCR) in Rafetseder et al. (Child Dev 81(1):376-389, 2010). In this paper we provide a characterisation of the differences between BCR and CFR using a distinction between permanent and nonpermanent features of stories and Lewis/Stalnaker counterfactual logic. The critical difference pertains to how consistency between a story and a conditional antecedent incompatible with a nonpermanent feature of the story is achieved. Basic conditional reasoners simply drop all nonpermanent features of the story. Counterfactual reasoners preserve as much of the story as possible while accommodating the antecedent. PMID:25729114
Basic Conditional Reasoning: How Children Mimic Counterfactual Reasoning.
Leahy, Brian; Rafetseder, Eva; Perner, Josef
2014-08-01
Children approach counterfactual questions about stories with a reasoning strategy that falls short of adults' Counterfactual Reasoning (CFR). It was dubbed "Basic Conditional Reasoning" (BCR) in Rafetseder et al. (Child Dev 81(1):376-389, 2010). In this paper we provide a characterisation of the differences between BCR and CFR using a distinction between permanent and nonpermanent features of stories and Lewis/Stalnaker counterfactual logic. The critical difference pertains to how consistency between a story and a conditional antecedent incompatible with a nonpermanent feature of the story is achieved. Basic conditional reasoners simply drop all nonpermanent features of the story. Counterfactual reasoners preserve as much of the story as possible while accommodating the antecedent.
Basic concepts in quantum computation
Ekert, A K; Inamori, H; Ekert, Artur; Hayden, Patrick; Inamori, Hitoshi
2000-01-01
Section headings: 1 Qubits, gates and networks 2 Quantum arithmetic and function evaluations 3 Algorithms and their complexity 4 From interferometers to computers 5 The first quantum algorithms 6 Quantum search 7 Optimal phase estimation 8 Periodicity and quantum factoring 9 Cryptography 10 Conditional quantum dynamics 11 Decoherence and recoherence 12 Concluding remarks
Quantum Advantage in Communication Networks
De, Aditi Sen
2011-01-01
Quantum channels are known to provide qualitatively better information transfer capacities over their classical counterparts. Examples include quantum cryptography, quantum dense coding, and quantum teleportation. This is a short review on paradigmatic quantum communication protocols in both bipartite as well as multipartite scenarios.
Tomorrow is another day! Merger review and counterfactual analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrea Pezzoli
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The choice of a counterfactual scenario other than the status quo is quite challenging. The investigation has to be particularly convincing if the deterioration of the competitive process which is likely to arise in the absence of the merger is related to a failing firm scenario – a special case of the more general counterfactual analysis. Could counterfactual analysis provide alternative tools to those required by the failing firm defense? Alternative but equally rigorous?The extent to which a broader counterfactual analysis might be taken into consideration is discussed in the paper. More precisely it will be discussed i if and when it may be desirable to focus the assessment not only on the most likely counterfactual, ii if the incomplete fulfillment of the three requirements for the failing firm defense necessarily leads to a prohibition and iii the role which may be played by entry and dynamic competition in the application of the failing firm defense. Finally, merger policy based on a broader counterfactual analysis is discussed in a bidding market context where tender design is not already set.
Upward counterfactual thinking and depression: A meta-analysis.
Broomhall, Anne Gene; Phillips, Wendy J; Hine, Donald W; Loi, Natasha M
2017-07-01
This meta-analysis examined the strength of association between upward counterfactual thinking and depressive symptoms. Forty-two effect sizes from a pooled sample of 13,168 respondents produced a weighted average effect size of r=.26, p<.001. Moderator analyses using an expanded set of 96 effect sizes indicated that upward counterfactuals and regret produced significant positive effects that were similar in strength. Effects also did not vary as a function of the theme of the counterfactual-inducing situation or study design (cross-sectional versus longitudinal). Significant effect size heterogeneity was observed across sample types, methods of assessing upward counterfactual thinking, and types of depression scale. Significant positive effects were found in studies that employed samples of bereaved individuals, older adults, terminally ill patients, or university students, but not adolescent mothers or mixed samples. Both number-based and Likert-based upward counterfactual thinking assessments produced significant positive effects, with the latter generating a larger effect. All depression scales produced significant positive effects, except for the Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Interview. Research and theoretical implications are discussed in relation to cognitive theories of depression and the functional theory of upward counterfactual thinking, and important gaps in the extant research literature are identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ranade, Kedar S.
2009-02-04
This PhD thesis deals with quantum-cryptographic protocols which allow general finite-dimensional quantum systems (qudits) as carriers of information in contrast to the predominantly used two-dimensional quantum systems (qubits). The main focus of investigations is the maximum tolerable error rate of such protocols and its behaviour as a function of the dimension of the information carriers. For this purpose, several concepts are introduced which allow the treatment of this problem. In particular, protocols are presented which work up to a maximum tolerate error rate, and it is shown that a wide class of protocols cannot be used for higher error rates. Among other things, it turns out that the maximum tolerable error rate for two-basis protocols increases up to 50% for high dimensions. Apart from the above-mentioned main subjects of this thesis, some other results from the field of quantum information theory are given, which were achieved during this PhD project. (orig.)
Cryptographie quantique à variables continues
Bencheikh, K.; Jankovic, A.; Symul, T.; Levenson, J. A.
2002-06-01
Nous avons élaboré un protocole de cryptographie quantique qui permet de générer et de distribuer une clé secrète aléatoire. Le protocole repose sur l'utilisation de paires de champs électromagnétiques dont les quadratures présentent des corrélations quantiques de type Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen. Les fluctuations quantiques instantanése constituent les bits aléatoires de la clé secrète, et la dégradation irréversible des corrélations quantiques des quadratures causée par une tierce personne permet de la détecter et de garantir la sécurité d'échange.
Genetic attack on neural cryptography.
Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Naeh, Rivka; Kanter, Ido
2006-03-01
Different scaling properties for the complexity of bidirectional synchronization and unidirectional learning are essential for the security of neural cryptography. Incrementing the synaptic depth of the networks increases the synchronization time only polynomially, but the success of the geometric attack is reduced exponentially and it clearly fails in the limit of infinite synaptic depth. This method is improved by adding a genetic algorithm, which selects the fittest neural networks. The probability of a successful genetic attack is calculated for different model parameters using numerical simulations. The results show that scaling laws observed in the case of other attacks hold for the improved algorithm, too. The number of networks needed for an effective attack grows exponentially with increasing synaptic depth. In addition, finite-size effects caused by Hebbian and anti-Hebbian learning are analyzed. These learning rules converge to the random walk rule if the synaptic depth is small compared to the square root of the system size.
Cheating prevention in visual cryptography.
Hu, Chih-Ming; Tzeng, Wen-Guey
2007-01-01
Visual cryptography (VC) is a method of encrypting a secret image into shares such that stacking a sufficient number of shares reveals the secret image. Shares are usually presented in transparencies. Each participant holds a transparency. Most of the previous research work on VC focuses on improving two parameters: pixel expansion and contrast. In this paper, we studied the cheating problem in VC and extended VC. We considered the attacks of malicious adversaries who may deviate from the scheme in any way. We presented three cheating methods and applied them on attacking existent VC or extended VC schemes. We improved one cheat-preventing scheme. We proposed a generic method that converts a VCS to another VCS that has the property of cheating prevention. The overhead of the conversion is near optimal in both contrast degression and pixel expansion.
Bent functions results and applications to cryptography
Tokareva, Natalia
2015-01-01
Bent Functions: Results and Applications to Cryptography offers a unique survey of the objects of discrete mathematics known as Boolean bent functions. As these maximal, nonlinear Boolean functions and their generalizations have many theoretical and practical applications in combinatorics, coding theory, and cryptography, the text provides a detailed survey of their main results, presenting a systematic overview of their generalizations and applications, and considering open problems in classification and systematization of bent functions. The text is appropriate for novices and advanced
Cryptography with chaos using Chua's system
Oliveira, C. H.; Pizolato, J. C., Jr.
2011-03-01
In the last years, chaotic systems have been applied in information security. These systems have a complex and unpredictable behavior, what makes them more attractive for data cryptography applications. In this work, the chaotic behavior of signals generated by Chua's system is combined with the original information in order to obtain a safe cryptographic method. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can be used in data cryptography applications.
Classical introduction to cryptography exercise book
Baigneres, Thomas; Lu, Yi
2007-01-01
This is a companion exercise and solution book to A Classical Introduction to Cryptography: Applications for Communications Security (0-387-25464-1). Coverage includes symmetric or public-key cryptography, cryptographic protocols, design, cryptanalysis, and implementation of cryptosystems. Readers should be comfortable with basic facts of discrete probability theory, discrete mathematics, calculus, algebra, and computer science. However, the exercises do not require an extensive background in mathematics, since the most important notions are introduced and discussed in many of them. Exercises
Mathematical Background of Public Key Cryptography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frey, Gerhard; Lange, Tanja
2005-01-01
The two main systems used for public key cryptography are RSA and protocols based on the discrete logarithm problem in some cyclic group. We focus on the latter problem and state cryptographic protocols and mathematical background material.......The two main systems used for public key cryptography are RSA and protocols based on the discrete logarithm problem in some cyclic group. We focus on the latter problem and state cryptographic protocols and mathematical background material....
Free-Space Quantum Key Distribution
Carrasco-Casado, Alberto; Denisenko, Natalia
2016-01-01
Based on the firm laws of physics rather than unproven foundations of mathematical complexity, quantum cryptography provides a radically different solution for encryption and promises unconditional security. Quantum cryptography systems are typically built between two nodes connected to each other through fiber optic. This chapter focuses on quantum cryptography systems operating over free-space optical channels as a cost-effective and license-free alternative to fiber optic counterparts. It provides an overview of the different parts of an experimental free-space quantum communication link developed in the Spanish National Research Council (Madrid, Spain).
Children's spontaneous counterfactuals: The roles of valence, expectancy, and cognitive flexibility.
Guajardo, Nicole R; McNally, Lena F; Wright, Amanda
2016-06-01
The current set of studies examined whether 8- to 11-year-olds generate counterfactuals spontaneously and whether outcome valence and outcome expectancy affect counterfactual reasoning within this age group. The role of cognitive flexibility in such reasoning also was explored. In Study 1, relatively few children spontaneously generated counterfactuals, yet both outcome expectancy and outcome valence influenced counterfactual reasoning. In Study 2, the majority of children generated counterfactuals without an explicit prompt and outcome valence influenced reasoning. Cognitive flexibility accounted for unique variance in counterfactual reasoning. The findings suggest that in middle childhood children spontaneously engage in counterfactual reasoning and that some of the same factors influence counterfactual reasoning in childhood as in adulthood.
Counterfactual thinking in patients with amnesia.
Mullally, Sinéad L; Maguire, Eleanor A
2014-11-01
We often engage in counterfactual (CF) thinking, which involves reflecting on "what might have been." Creating alternative versions of reality seems to have parallels with recollecting the past and imagining the future in requiring the simulation of internally generated models of complex events. Given that episodic memory and imagining the future are impaired in patients with hippocampal damage and amnesia, we wondered whether successful CF thinking also depends upon the integrity of the hippocampus. Here using two nonepisodic CF thinking tasks, we found that patients with bilateral hippocampal damage and amnesia performed comparably with matched controls. They could deconstruct reality, add in and recombine elements, change relations between temporal sequences of events, enabling them to determine plausible alternatives of complex episodes. A difference between the patients and control participants was evident, however, in the patients' subtle avoidance of CF simulations that required the construction of an internal spatial representation. Overall, our findings suggest that mental simulation in the form of nonepisodic CF thinking does not seem to depend upon the hippocampus unless there is the added requirement for construction of a coherent spatial scene within which to play out scenarios.
Quantum Key Distribution Protocol with Private-Public Key
Serna, Eduin H.
2009-01-01
A quantum cryptographic protocol based in public key cryptography combinations and private key cryptography is presented. Unlike the BB84 protocol [1] and its many variants [2,3] two quantum channels are used. The present research does not make reconciliation mechanisms of information to derive the key. A three related system of key distribution are described.
Guajardo, Nicole R.; Turley-Ames, Kandi Jo
2004-01-01
Two studies examined associations between theory of mind performance and counterfactual thinking using both antecedent and consequent counterfactual tasks. Moreover, the studies examined children's abilities to generate different types of counterfactual statements in terms of direction and structure. Participants were 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old…
On the counterfactual nature of envy : "It could have been me"
van de Ven, N.; Zeelenberg, M.
2015-01-01
We examined whether counterfactual thinking influences the experience of envy. Counterfactual thinking refers to comparing the situation as it is to what it could have been, and these thought processes have been shown to lead to a variety of emotions. We predicted that for envy the counterfactual th
The Functional Theory of Counterfactual Thinking: New Evidence, New Challenges, New Insights
Roese, N.J.; Epstude, Kai
2017-01-01
Thinking about what might have been – counterfactual thinking – is a common feature of the mental landscape. Key questions about counterfactual thinking center on why and how they occur and what downstream cognitive and behavioral outcomes they engender. The functional theory of counterfactual think
Quantum computing with trapped ions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hughes, R.J.
1998-01-01
The significance of quantum computation for cryptography is discussed. Following a brief survey of the requirements for quantum computational hardware, an overview of the ion trap quantum computation project at Los Alamos is presented. The physical limitations to quantum computation with trapped ions are analyzed and an assessment of the computational potential of the technology is made.
Neural Network Approach to Locating Cryptography in Object Code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jason L. Wright; Milos Manic
2009-09-01
Finding and identifying cryptography is a growing concern in the malware analysis community. In this paper, artificial neural networks are used to classify functional blocks from a disassembled program as being either cryptography related or not. The resulting system, referred to as NNLC (Neural Net for Locating Cryptography) is presented and results of applying this system to various libraries are described.
SHAMROCK: A Synthesizable High Assurance Cryptography and Key Management Coprocessor
2016-11-01
cryptography; key management ; synthesizable. I. INTRODUCTION Modern cryptographic algorithms are designed with Kerckhoffs’ Principle in mind – that...LOCKMA supports good cryptography and key management practices . However, in general a software only solution is insufficient to guarantee the...1 SHAMROCK: A Synthesizable High Assurance Cryptography and Key Management Coprocessor David Whelihan, Michael Vai, Dan Utin, Roger Khazan, Karen
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hughes, Richard John; Thrasher, James Thomas; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth
2016-11-29
Innovations for quantum key management harness quantum communications to form a cryptography system within a public key infrastructure framework. In example implementations, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a Merkle signature scheme (using Winternitz one-time digital signatures or other one-time digital signatures, and Merkle hash trees) to constitute a cryptography system. More generally, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a hash-based signature scheme. This provides a secure way to identify, authenticate, verify, and exchange secret cryptographic keys. Features of the quantum key management innovations further include secure enrollment of users with a registration authority, as well as credential checking and revocation with a certificate authority, where the registration authority and/or certificate authority can be part of the same system as a trusted authority for quantum key distribution.
Hughes, Richard John; Thrasher, James Thomas; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth
2016-11-29
Innovations for quantum key management harness quantum communications to form a cryptography system within a public key infrastructure framework. In example implementations, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a Merkle signature scheme (using Winternitz one-time digital signatures or other one-time digital signatures, and Merkle hash trees) to constitute a cryptography system. More generally, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a hash-based signature scheme. This provides a secure way to identify, authenticate, verify, and exchange secret cryptographic keys. Features of the quantum key management innovations further include secure enrollment of users with a registration authority, as well as credential checking and revocation with a certificate authority, where the registration authority and/or certificate authority can be part of the same system as a trusted authority for quantum key distribution.
GSM Security Using Identity-based Cryptography
Agarwal, Animesh; Das, Manik Lal
2009-01-01
Current security model in Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) predominantly use symmetric key cryptography. The rapid advancement of Internet technology facilitates online trading, banking, downloading, emailing using resource-constrained handheld devices such as personal digital assistants and cell phones. However, these applications require more security than the present GSM supports. Consequently, a careful design of GSM security using both symmetric and asymmetric key cryptography would make GSM security more adaptable in security intensive applications. This paper presents a secure and efficient protocol for GSM security using identity based cryptography. The salient features of the proposed protocol are (i) authenticated key exchange; (ii) mutual authentication amongst communicating entities; and (iii) user anonymity. The security analysis of the protocol shows its strength against some known threats observed in conventional GSM security.
Color extended visual cryptography using error diffusion.
Kang, InKoo; Arce, Gonzalo R; Lee, Heung-Kyu
2011-01-01
Color visual cryptography (VC) encrypts a color secret message into n color halftone image shares. Previous methods in the literature show good results for black and white or gray scale VC schemes, however, they are not sufficient to be applied directly to color shares due to different color structures. Some methods for color visual cryptography are not satisfactory in terms of producing either meaningless shares or meaningful shares with low visual quality, leading to suspicion of encryption. This paper introduces the concept of visual information pixel (VIP) synchronization and error diffusion to attain a color visual cryptography encryption method that produces meaningful color shares with high visual quality. VIP synchronization retains the positions of pixels carrying visual information of original images throughout the color channels and error diffusion generates shares pleasant to human eyes. Comparisons with previous approaches show the superior performance of the new method.
Quantum Random Number Generators
Herrero-Collantes, Miguel; Garcia-Escartin, Juan Carlos
2016-01-01
Random numbers are a fundamental resource in science and engineering with important applications in simulation and cryptography. The inherent randomness at the core of quantum mechanics makes quantum systems a perfect source of entropy. Quantum random number generation is one of the most mature quantum technologies with many alternative generation methods. We discuss the different technologies in quantum random number generation from the early devices based on radioactive decay to the multipl...
Quantum walks public key cryptographic system
Vlachou, C; Rodrigues, J.; Mateus, P.; Paunković, N.; Souto, A.
2016-01-01
Quantum Cryptography is a rapidly developing field of research that benefits from the properties of Quantum Mechanics in performing cryptographic tasks. Quantum walks are a powerful model for quantum computation and very promising for quantum information processing. In this paper, we present a quantum public-key cryptographic system based on quantum walks. In particular, in the proposed protocol the public key is given by a quantum state generated by performing a quantum walk. We show that th...
A Study of Hyperelliptic Curves in Cryptography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reza Alimoradi
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Elliptic curves are some specific type of curves known as hyper elliptic curves. Compared to the integer factorization problem(IFP based systems, using elliptic curve based cryptography will significantly decrease key size of the encryption. Therefore, application of this type of cryptography in systems that need high security and smaller key size has found great attention. Hyperelliptic curves help to make key length shorter. Many investigations are done with regard to improving computations, hardware and software implementation of these curves, their security and resistance against attacks. This paper studies and analyzes researches done about security and efficiency of hyperelliptic curves.
Ersner-Hershfield, Hal; Galinsky, Adam D; Kray, Laura J; King, Brayden G
2010-10-01
Four studies examined the relationship between counterfactual origins--thoughts about how the beginning of organizations, countries, and social connections might have turned out differently--and increased feelings of commitment to those institutions and connections. Study 1 found that counterfactually reflecting on the origins of one's country increases patriotism. Study 2 extended this finding to organizational commitment and examined the mediating role of poignancy. Study 3 found that counterfactual reflection boosts organizational commitment even beyond the effects of other commitment-enhancing appeals and that perceptions of fate mediate the positive effect of counterfactual origins on commitment. Finally, Study 4 temporally separated the counterfactual manipulation from a behavioral measure of commitment and found that counterfactual reflection predicted whether participants e-mailed social contacts 2 weeks later. The robust relationship between counterfactual origins and commitment was found across a wide range of companies and countries, with undergraduates and M.B.A. students, and for attitudes and behaviors.
On the counterfactual nature of envy: "It could have been me".
van de Ven, Niels; Zeelenberg, Marcel
2015-01-01
We examined whether counterfactual thinking influences the experience of envy. Counterfactual thinking refers to comparing the situation as it is to what it could have been, and these thought processes have been shown to lead to a variety of emotions. We predicted that for envy the counterfactual thought "it could have been me" would be important. In four studies we found a clear link between such counterfactual thoughts and the intensity of envy. Furthermore, Studies 3 and 4 revealed that a manipulation known to affect the extent of counterfactual thinking (the perception of being close to obtaining the desired outcome oneself), had an effect on the intensity of envy via counterfactual thoughts. This relationship between counterfactual thinking and the experience of envy allows for new predictions concerning situations under which envy is likely be more intense.
Quantum: information theory: technological challenge; Computacion Cuantica: un reto tecnologico
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calixto, M.
2001-07-01
The new Quantum Information Theory augurs powerful machines that obey the entangled logic of the subatomic world. Parallelism, entanglement, teleportation, no-cloning and quantum cryptography are typical peculiarities of this novel way of understanding computation. (Author) 24 refs.
Associations among False Belief Understanding, Counterfactual Reasoning, and Executive Function
Guajardo, Nicole R.; Parker, Jessica; Turley-Ames, Kandi
2009-01-01
The primary purposes of the present study were to clarify previous work on the association between counterfactual thinking and false belief performance to determine (1) whether these two variables are related and (2) if so, whether executive function skills mediate the relationship. A total of 92 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds completed false belief,…
Expectations in Counterfactual and Theory of Mind Reasoning
Ferguson, Heather J.; Scheepers, Christoph; Sanford, Anthony J.
2010-01-01
During language comprehension, information about the world is exchanged and processed. Two essential ingredients of everyday cognition that are employed during language comprehension are the ability to reason counterfactually, and the ability to understand and predict other peoples' behaviour by attributing independent mental states to them…
False belief and counterfactual reasoning in a social environment.
Van Hoeck, Nicole; Begtas, Elizabet; Steen, Johan; Kestemont, Jenny; Vandekerckhove, Marie; Van Overwalle, Frank
2014-04-15
Behavioral studies indicate that theory of mind and counterfactual reasoning are strongly related cognitive processes. In a neuroimaging study, we explored the common and distinct regions underlying these inference processes. We directly compared false belief reasoning (inferring an agent's false belief about an object's location or content) and counterfactual reasoning (inferring what the object's location or content would be if an agent had acted differently), both in contrast with a baseline condition of conditional reasoning (inferring what the true location or content of an object is). Results indicate that these three types of reasoning about social scenarios are supported by activations in the mentalizing network (left temporo-parietal junction and precuneus) and the executive control network (bilateral prefrontal cortex [PFC] and right inferior parietal lobule). In addition, representing a false belief or counterfactual state (both not directly observable in the external world) recruits additional activity in the executive control network (left dorsolateral PFC and parietal lobe). The results further suggest that counterfactual reasoning is a more complex cognitive process than false belief reasoning, showing stronger activation of the dorsomedial, left dorsolateral PFC, cerebellum and left temporal cortex.
Counterfactual thinking in moral judgement: an experimental study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simone eMigliore
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Counterfactual thinking is thinking about a past that did not happen. This is often the case in 'if only...' situations, where we wish something had or had not happened. To make a choice in a moral decision-making situation is particularly hard and, therefore, may be often associated with the imagination of a different outcome. The main aim of the present study is to investigate counterfactual thinking in the context of moral reasoning. We used a modified version of Greene’s moral dilemmas test, studying both the time needed to provide a counterfactual in the first and third person and the type of given response (in context-out of context in a sample of 90 healthy subjects.We found a longer response time for personal vs. impersonal moral dilemmas. This effect was enhanced in the first person perspective, while in the elderly there was an overall slowing of response time. Out of context/omissive responses were more frequent in the case of personal moral dilemmas presented in the first person version, with females showing a marked increase in this kind of response.These findings suggest that gender and perspective have a critical role in counterfactual thinking in the context of moral reasoning, and may have implications for the understanding of gender-related inclinations as well as differences in moral judgement.
Counterfactual Thinking and False Belief: The Role of Executive Function
Drayton, Stefane; Turley-Ames, Kandi J.; Guajardo, Nicole R.
2011-01-01
The purpose of the current study was to examine further the relationship between counterfactual thinking and false belief (FB) as examined by Guajardo and Turley-Ames ("Cognitive Development, 19" (2004) 53-80). More specifically, the current research examined the importance of working memory and inhibitory control in understanding the relationship…
Counterfactual Thinking and Impact Evaluation in Environmental Policy
Ferraro, Paul J.
2009-01-01
Impact evaluations assess the degree to which changes in outcomes can be attributed to an intervention rather than to other factors. Such attribution requires knowing what outcomes would have looked like in the absence of the intervention. This counterfactual world can be inferred only indirectly through evaluation designs that control for…
Statistical simulation and counterfactual analysis in social sciences
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
François Gélineau
2012-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we present statistical simulation techniques of interest in substantial interpretation of regression results. Taking stock of recent literature on causality, we argue that such techniques can operate within a counterfactual framework. To illustrate, we report findings using post-electoral data on voter turnout.
Security, Privacy, and Applied Cryptography Engineering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second International Conference on Security, Privacy and Applied Cryptography Engineering held in Chennai, India, in November 2012. The 11 papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 61 submissions. The papers are organized...
Number Theory and Public-Key Cryptography.
Lefton, Phyllis
1991-01-01
Described are activities in the study of techniques used to conceal the meanings of messages and data. Some background information and two BASIC programs that illustrate the algorithms used in a new cryptographic system called "public-key cryptography" are included. (CW)
Report on Pairing-based Cryptography.
Moody, Dustin; Peralta, Rene; Perlner, Ray; Regenscheid, Andrew; Roginsky, Allen; Chen, Lily
2015-01-01
This report summarizes study results on pairing-based cryptography. The main purpose of the study is to form NIST's position on standardizing and recommending pairing-based cryptography schemes currently published in research literature and standardized in other standard bodies. The report reviews the mathematical background of pairings. This includes topics such as pairing-friendly elliptic curves and how to compute various pairings. It includes a brief introduction to existing identity-based encryption (IBE) schemes and other cryptographic schemes using pairing technology. The report provides a complete study of the current status of standard activities on pairing-based cryptographic schemes. It explores different application scenarios for pairing-based cryptography schemes. As an important aspect of adopting pairing-based schemes, the report also considers the challenges inherent in validation testing of cryptographic algorithms and modules. Based on the study, the report suggests an approach for including pairing-based cryptography schemes in the NIST cryptographic toolkit. The report also outlines several questions that will require further study if this approach is followed.
Harry Potter and the Cryptography with Matrices
Chua, Boon Liang
2006-01-01
This article describes Cryptography, defined as the science of encrypting and deciphering messages written in secret codes, it has played a vital role in securing information since ancient times. There are several cryptographic techniques and many make extensive use of mathematics to secure information. The author discusses an activity built…
Bibliographic guide to the foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum information
Cabello, A
2000-01-01
This is a collection of references (papers, books, preprints, book reviews, Ph. D. thesis, patents, etc.), sorted alphabetically and (some of them) classified by subject, on foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum information. Specifically, it covers hidden variables (``no-go'' theorems, experiments), interpretations of quantum mechanics, entanglement, quantum effects (quantum Zeno effect, quantum erasure, ``interaction-free'' measurements, quantum ``non-demolition'' measurements), quantum information (cryptography, cloning, dense coding, teleportation), and quantum computation.
Quantum Entropy and Its Applications to Quantum Communication and Statistical Physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masanori Ohya
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Quantum entropy is a fundamental concept for quantum information recently developed in various directions. We will review the mathematical aspects of quantum entropy (entropies and discuss some applications to quantum communication, statistical physics. All topics taken here are somehow related to the quantum entropy that the present authors have been studied. Many other fields recently developed in quantum information theory, such as quantum algorithm, quantum teleportation, quantum cryptography, etc., are totally discussed in the book (reference number 60.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郭奋卓; 李慧娟; 高飞
2016-01-01
Based on the authors’ experience of guiding undergraduates’ innovative practice and observation of research activities of undergraduates in Princeton University, the roles of teachers and university in the innovative practice of undergraduate are analyzed, and some experience are given. Finally, three guidance suggestions are provided for the quantum cryptography research field. The above analysis, summary and suggestions are also helpful to the innovational education in other research fields.%结合作者指导本科生创新实践的经验和在美国普林斯顿大学访学期间对该校本科生科研活动的考察，分析了本科生创新实践过程中指导教师和学校的角色定位，并给出若干经验总结。以量子密码研究方向为例，对从事理论研究的创新实践给出了三点具体的指导性建议。上述分析总结以及相关的建议对于其他研究方向的创新实践也具有一定的指导意义。
Computational security of quantum encryption
Alagic, G.; Broadbent, A.; Fefferman, B.; Gagliardoni, T.; Schaffner, C.; St. Jules, M.; Nascimento, A.C.A.; Barreto, P.
2016-01-01
Quantum-mechanical devices have the potential to transform cryptography. Most research in this area has focused either on the information-theoretic advantages of quantum protocols or on the security of classical cryptographic schemes against quantum attacks. In this work, we initiate the study of
Modern Quantum Technologies of Information Security
Korchenko, Oleksandr; Gnatyuk, Sergiy
2010-01-01
In the paper systematization and classification of modern quantum technologies of the information security against cyber-terrorist attack are carried out. The characteristic of the basic directions of quantum cryptography from the viewpoint of used quantum technologies is given. The qualitative analysis of advantages and disadvantages of concrete quantum protocols is made. The current status of a problem of practical quantum cryptography using in telecommunication networks is considered. In particular, the short review of existing commercial systems of quantum key distribution is given.
IMPACT OF ERROR FILTERS ON SHARES IN HALFTONE VISUAL CRYPTOGRAPHY
Sunil Agrawal; Anshul Sharma
2012-01-01
Visual cryptography encodes a secret binary image (SI) into shares of random binary patterns. If the shares are xeroxed onto transparencies, the secret image can be visually decoded by superimposing a qualified subset of transparencies, but no secret information can be obtained from the superposition of a forbidden subset. The binary patterns of the shares, however, have no visual meaning and hinder the objectives of visual cryptography. Halftone visual cryptography encodes a s...
Shift visual cryptography scheme of two secret images
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2003-01-01
A new visual cryptography scheme of two secret images, which is named the shift visual cryptography of two secret images, is given. The compound function family of a general construction model is also introduced. The uniqueness and validity of this model are proved, and the minimum rows and columns for realizing the scheme are obtained. Compared with visual cryptography of one secret image, the shift visual cryptography scheme can share two secret images with the same size of pixels expansion without losing the contrast. It has randomness and various forms, and furthermore, we can also visually recover two secret images even if the two shares are different in form and color.
Asymmetric cryptography based on wavefront sensing.
Peng, Xiang; Wei, Hengzheng; Zhang, Peng
2006-12-15
A system of asymmetric cryptography based on wavefront sensing (ACWS) is proposed for the first time to our knowledge. One of the most significant features of the asymmetric cryptography is that a trapdoor one-way function is required and constructed by analogy to wavefront sensing, in which the public key may be derived from optical parameters, such as the wavelength or the focal length, while the private key may be obtained from a kind of regular point array. The ciphertext is generated by the encoded wavefront and represented with an irregular array. In such an ACWS system, the encryption key is not identical to the decryption key, which is another important feature of an asymmetric cryptographic system. The processes of asymmetric encryption and decryption are formulized mathematically and demonstrated with a set of numerical experiments.
Counterfactual Distributions in Bivariate Models—A Conditional Quantile Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Javier Alejo
2015-11-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a methodology to incorporate bivariate models in numerical computations of counterfactual distributions. The proposal is to extend the works of Machado and Mata (2005 and Melly (2005 using the grid method to generate pairs of random variables. This contribution allows incorporating the effect of intra-household decision making in counterfactual decompositions of changes in income distribution. An application using data from five latin american countries shows that this approach substantially improves the goodness of fit to the empirical distribution. However, the exercise of decomposition is less conclusive about the performance of the method, which essentially depends on the sample size and the accuracy of the regression model.
Baek, Tae Hyun; Shen, Lijiang; Reid, Leonard N
2013-01-01
This experiment examined the interaction effects of message framing and counterfactual thinking on attitudes toward binge drinking and behavioral intentions. Data from a 2 (message framing: gain vs. loss) × 2 (counterfactual thinking priming: additive vs. subtractive) between-subjects factorial design showed that a gain-framed message resulted in lower binge drinking intentions than did a loss-framed message after subjects engaged in additive counterfactual thinking. The effects of a loss-framed message on binge drinking intentions occurred when subtractive counterfactual thinking was induced. Theoretical and practical implications for anti-binge drinking public service announcements are discussed.
The Presumption of Innocence as a Counterfactual Principle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ferry de Jong
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This article’s primary aim is to highlight the essentially critical potential of the presumption of innocence, as well as the need for this critical potential to be duly recognized. It is argued that the essential meaning of the presumption of innocence is best understood when approached from what is referred to as its counterfactual status. As a first step, the different values and functions that are attributed to the presumption of innocence in contemporary legal literature are discussed, in order to provide an outline of the central ideas it contains or is supposed to contain. Subsequently, the concept of ‘counterfactuality’ is introduced and it is argued that a counterfactual perspective can further clarify the nature of the presumption of innocence. Next, a number of fundamental shifts in society and criminal justice are discussed that affect the presumption of innocence and that lend a large measure of urgency to disclosing its essence and critical potential. The conclusion argues that today’s threats to the presumption of innocence are of a fundamental nature, and that attempts to preserve the principle’s efficacy should focus on the value attached to its counterfactual and critical nature.
The Bradford Hill considerations on causality: a counterfactual perspective
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Höfler Michael
2005-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Bradford Hill's considerations published in 1965 had an enormous influence on attempts to separate causal from non-causal explanations of observed associations. These considerations were often applied as a checklist of criteria, although they were by no means intended to be used in this way by Hill himself. Hill, however, avoided defining explicitly what he meant by "causal effect". This paper provides a fresh point of view on Hill's considerations from the perspective of counterfactual causality. I argue that counterfactual arguments strongly contribute to the question of when to apply the Hill considerations. Some of the considerations, however, involve many counterfactuals in a broader causal system, and their heuristic value decreases as the complexity of a system increases; the danger of misapplying them can be high. The impacts of these insights for study design and data analysis are discussed. The key analysis tool to assess the applicability of Hill's considerations is multiple bias modelling (Bayesian methods and Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis; these methods should be used much more frequently.
Increasing complexity with quantum physics.
Anders, Janet; Wiesner, Karoline
2011-09-01
We argue that complex systems science and the rules of quantum physics are intricately related. We discuss a range of quantum phenomena, such as cryptography, computation and quantum phases, and the rules responsible for their complexity. We identify correlations as a central concept connecting quantum information and complex systems science. We present two examples for the power of correlations: using quantum resources to simulate the correlations of a stochastic process and to implement a classically impossible computational task.
Device-independent two-party cryptography secure against sequential attacks
Kaniewski, Jędrzej; Wehner, Stephanie
2016-05-01
The goal of two-party cryptography is to enable two parties, Alice and Bob, to solve common tasks without the need for mutual trust. Examples of such tasks are private access to a database, and secure identification. Quantum communication enables security for all of these problems in the noisy-storage model by sending more signals than the adversary can store in a certain time frame. Here, we initiate the study of device-independent (DI) protocols for two-party cryptography in the noisy-storage model. Specifically, we present a relatively easy to implement protocol for a cryptographic building block known as weak string erasure and prove its security even if the devices used in the protocol are prepared by the dishonest party. DI two-party cryptography is made challenging by the fact that Alice and Bob do not trust each other, which requires new techniques to establish security. We fully analyse the case of memoryless devices (for which sequential attacks are optimal) and the case of sequential attacks for arbitrary devices. The key ingredient of the proof, which might be of independent interest, is an explicit (and tight) relation between the violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality observed by Alice and Bob and uncertainty generated by Alice against Bob who is forced to measure his system before finding out Alice’s setting (guessing with postmeasurement information). In particular, we show that security is possible for arbitrarily small violation.
Horodecki, R; Horodecki, M; Horodecki, K; Horodecki, Ryszard; Horodecki, Pawel; Horodecki, Michal; Horodecki, Karol
2007-01-01
All our former experience with application of quantum theory seems to say: {\\it what is predicted by quantum formalism must occur in laboratory}. But the essence of quantum formalism - entanglement, recognized by Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen and Schr\\"odinger - waited over 70 years to enter to laboratories as a new resource as real as energy. This holistic property of compound quantum systems, which involves nonclassical correlations between subsystems, is a potential for many quantum processes, including ``canonical'' ones: quantum cryptography, quantum teleportation and dense coding. However, it appeared that this new resource is very complex and difficult to detect. Being usually fragile to environment, it is robust against conceptual and mathematical tools, the task of which is to decipher its rich structure. This article reviews basic aspects of entanglement including its characterization, detection, distillation and quantifying. In particular, the authors discuss various manifestations of entanglement via ...
Gröbner Bases, Coding, and Cryptography
Sala, Massimiliano; Perret, Ludovic
2009-01-01
Coding theory and cryptography allow secure and reliable data transmission, which is at the heart of modern communication. This book offers a comprehensive overview on the application of commutative algebra to coding theory and cryptography. It analyzes important properties of algebraic/geometric coding systems individually.
Comparative Analysis of Cryptography Library in IoT
Kumar, Uday; Borgohain, Tuhin; Sanyal, Sugata
2015-05-01
The paper aims to do a survey along with a comparative analysis of the various cryptography libraries that are applicable in the field of Internet of Things (IoT). The first half of the paper briefly introduces the various cryptography libraries available in the field of cryptography along with a list of all the algorithms contained within the libraries. The second half of the paper deals with cryptography libraries specifically aimed for application in the field of Internet of Things. The various libraries and their performance analysis listed down in this paper are consolidated from various sources with the aim of providing a single comprehensive repository for reference to the various cryptography libraries and the comparative analysis of their features in IoT.
When goal pursuit fails: The functions of counterfactual thought in intention formation
Epstude, K.; Roese, N.J.
2011-01-01
Counterfactual thoughts predominantly occur in response to failed goal pursuit. The primary function of self-related counterfactuals seems to be correction of specific behaviors and preparation for future successful goal attainment. In the present article we describe a model that outlines this view
McGarr, Oliver; McCormack, Orla
2016-01-01
This study explores reflective practice through the lens of counterfactual thinking and examines its role in encouraging student teachers to reflect on negative "critical incidents". The study posits that reflections on critical incidents are often not "critical" in nature. They more frequently result in counterfactual thinking…
The Influence of Counterfactual Thinking and Regret on Ethical Decision Making
Celuch, Kevin; Saxby, Carl; Oeding, Jill
2015-01-01
The authors explore the influence of counterfactual thoughts in triggering the emotions of regret and disappointment in ethical decision making. Counterfactual thinking involves examining possible outcomes to events and is often explored in what-if scenarios. Findings support that subjects were able to transfer regret (but not disappointment)…
McGarr, Oliver; McCormack, Orla
2016-01-01
This study explores reflective practice through the lens of counterfactual thinking and examines its role in encouraging student teachers to reflect on negative "critical incidents". The study posits that reflections on critical incidents are often not "critical" in nature. They more frequently result in counterfactual thinking…
When goal pursuit fails: The functions of counterfactual thought in intention formation
Epstude, K.; Roese, N.J.
2011-01-01
Counterfactual thoughts predominantly occur in response to failed goal pursuit. The primary function of self-related counterfactuals seems to be correction of specific behaviors and preparation for future successful goal attainment. In the present article we describe a model that outlines this view
Resource Letter QI-1: Quantum Information
Strauch, Frederick W.
2016-07-01
This Resource Letter surveys the history and modern developments in the field of quantum information. It is written to guide advanced undergraduates, beginning graduate students, and other new researchers to the theoretical and experimental aspects of this field. The topics covered include quantum states and processes, quantum coding and cryptography, quantum computation, the experimental implementation of quantum information processing, and the role of quantum information in the fundamental properties and foundations of physical theories.
Conjugacy Systems Based on Nonabelian Factorization Problems and Their Applications in Cryptography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lize Gu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available To resist known quantum algorithm attacks, several nonabelian algebraic structures mounted upon the stage of modern cryptography. Recently, Baba et al. proposed an important analogy from the integer factorization problem to the factorization problem over nonabelian groups. In this paper, we propose several conjugated problems related to the factorization problem over nonabelian groups and then present three constructions of cryptographic primitives based on these newly introduced conjugacy systems: encryption, signature, and signcryption. Sample implementations of our proposal as well as the related performance analysis are also presented.
Cubic Curves, Finite Geometry and Cryptography
Bruen, A A; Wehlau, D L
2011-01-01
Some geometry on non-singular cubic curves, mainly over finite fields, is surveyed. Such a curve has 9,3,1 or 0 points of inflexion, and cubic curves are classified accordingly. The group structure and the possible numbers of rational points are also surveyed. A possible strengthening of the security of elliptic curve cryptography is proposed using a `shared secret' related to the group law. Cubic curves are also used in a new way to construct sets of points having various combinatorial and geometric properties that are of particular interest in finite Desarguesian planes.
Coding theory and cryptography the essentials
Hankerson, DC; Leonard, DA; Phelps, KT; Rodger, CA; Wall, JR; Wall, J R
2000-01-01
Containing data on number theory, encryption schemes, and cyclic codes, this highly successful textbook, proven by the authors in a popular two-quarter course, presents coding theory, construction, encoding, and decoding of specific code families in an ""easy-to-use"" manner appropriate for students with only a basic background in mathematics offering revised and updated material on the Berlekamp-Massey decoding algorithm and convolutional codes. Introducing the mathematics as it is needed and providing exercises with solutions, this edition includes an extensive section on cryptography, desig
Cryptography with chaos at the physical level
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Machado, Romuel F. E-mail: romuelm@iceb.ufop.br; Baptista, Murilo S.; Grebogi, C
2004-09-01
In this work, we devise a chaos-based secret key cryptography scheme for digital communication where the encryption is realized at the physical level, that is, the encrypting transformations are applied to the wave signal instead to the symbolic sequence. The encryption process consists of transformations applied to a two-dimensional signal composed of the message carrying signal and an encrypting signal that has to be a chaotic one. The secret key, in this case, is related to the number of times the transformations are applied. Furthermore, we show that due to its chaotic nature, the encrypting signal is able to hide the statistics of the original signal.
Comment on "Cheating prevention in visual cryptography".
Chen, Yu-Chi; Horng, Gwoboa; Tsai, Du-Shiau
2012-07-01
Visual cryptography (VC), proposed by Naor and Shamir, has numerous applications, including visual authentication and identification, steganography, and image encryption. In 2006, Horng showed that cheating is possible in VC, where some participants can deceive the remaining participants by forged transparencies. Since then, designing cheating-prevention visual secret-sharing (CPVSS) schemes has been studied by many researchers. In this paper, we cryptanalyze the Hu-Tzeng CPVSS scheme and show that it is not cheating immune. We also outline an improvement that helps to overcome the problem.
Lightweight Cryptography for Passive RFID Tags
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
David, Mathieu
2012-01-01
among the smallest in the published literature and aims at being implemented on printed electronics RFID tags. Then, we compare different cryptographic primitives based on their key parameters: throughput, area, power consumption and level of security. Our main concern is the integrability...... of an integrator for a particular application. Finally, we conclude that the research for finding robust cryptographic primitive in the branch of lightweight cryptography still has some nice days ahead, and that providing a secure cryptosystem for printed electronics RFID tags remains an open research topic....
Marking the counterfactual: ERP evidence for pragmatic processing of German subjunctives.
Kulakova, Eugenia; Freunberger, Dominik; Roehm, Dietmar
2014-01-01
Counterfactual conditionals are frequently used in language to express potentially valid reasoning from factually false suppositions. Counterfactuals provide two pieces of information: their literal meaning expresses a suppositional dependency between an antecedent (If the dice had been rigged…) and a consequent (… then the game would have been unfair). Their second, backgrounded meaning refers to the opposite state of affairs and suggests that, in fact, the dice were not rigged and the game was fair. Counterfactual antecedents are particularly intriguing because they set up a counterfactual world which is known to be false, but which is nevertheless kept to when evaluating the conditional's consequent. In the last years several event-related potential (ERP) studies have targeted the processing of counterfactual consequents, yet counterfactual antecedents have remained unstudied. We present an EEG/ERP investigation which employed German conditionals to compare subjunctive mood (which marks counterfactuality) with indicative mood at the critical point of mood disambiguation via auxiliary introduction in the conditional's antecedent. Conditional sentences were presented visually one word at a time. Participants completed an acceptability judgment and probe detection task which was not related to the critical manipulation of linguistic mood. ERPs at the point of mood disambiguation in the antecedent were compared between indicative and subjunctive. Our main finding is a transient negative deflection in frontal regions for subjunctive compared to indicative mood in a time-window of 450-600 ms. We discuss this novel finding in respect to working memory requirements for rule application and increased referential processing demands for the representation of counterfactuals' dual meaning. Our result suggests that the counterfactually implied dual meaning is processed without any delay at the earliest point where counterfactuality is marked by subjunctive mood.
An arbitrated quantum signature scheme
Zeng, G; Zeng, Guihua; Keitel, Christoph H.
2002-01-01
The general principle for a quantum signature scheme is proposed and investigated based on ideas from classical signature schemes and quantum cryptography. The suggested algorithm is implemented by a symmetrical quantum key cryptosystem and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) triplet states and relies on the availability of an arbitrator. We can guarantee the unconditional security of the algorithm, mostly due to the correlation of the GHZ triplet states and the use of quantum one-time pads.
Efficient Reversible Montgomery Multiplier and Its Application to Hardware Cryptography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Noor M. Nayeem
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Problem Statement: Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU of a crypto-processor and microchips leak information through power consumption. Although the cryptographic protocols are secured against mathematical attacks, the attackers can break the encryption by measuring the energy consumption. Approach: To thwart attacks, this study proposed the use of reversible logic for designing the ALU of a crypto-processor. Ideally, reversible circuits do not dissipate any energy. If reversible circuits are used, then the attacker would not be able to analyze the power consumption. In order to design the reversible ALU of a crypto-processor, reversible Carry Save Adder (CSA using Modified TSG (MTSG gates and architecture of Montgomery multiplier were proposed. For reversible implementation of Montgomery multiplier, efficient reversible multiplexers and sequential circuits such as reversible registers and shift registers were presented. Results: This study showed that modified designs perform better than the existing ones in terms of number of gates, number of garbage outputs and quantum cost. Lower bounds of the proposed designs were established by providing relevant theorems and lemmas. Conclusion: The application of reversible circuit is suitable to the field of hardware cryptography.
Lower Bound for Visual Cryptography Schemes
Cheraghi, Abbas
2007-01-01
For a given visual cryptography scheme, it is possible to present a basis matrices for it and most of constructions are based on basis matrices. In this paper we introduce a lower bound for the pixel expansion of visual cryptography schemes with basis matrices. To make the main theorem more flexible, we will introduce a lower bound based on induced matchings of hypergraph of qualified sets. As an application, we present an algebraic proof for the fact that the pixel expansion of basis matrices of any $k$ out of $k$ scheme is at least $2^{k-1}$. In the sequel, we present a lower bound for the pixel expansion of a given graph access structure in term of maximum number of edges in an induced matching. Finally, we show that the minimum pixel expansion of basis matrices of graph access structure $P_n$ is exactly $\\lceil \\frac{n+1}{2}\\rceil$ and this shows the lower bound mentioned in the main theorem is sharp.
Quantum Information in Non-physics Departments at Liberal Arts Colleges
Westmoreland, Michael
2012-02-01
Quantum information and quantum computing have changed our thinking about the basic concepts of quantum physics. These fields have also introduced exciting new applications of quantum mechanics such as quantum cryptography and non-interactive measurement. It is standard to teach such topics only to advanced physics majors who have completed coursework in quantum mechanics. Recent encounters with teaching quantum cryptography to non-majors and a bout of textbook-writing suggest strategies for teaching this interesting material to those without the standard quantum mechanics background. This talk will share some of those strategies.
Counterfactuals and unphysical ceteris paribus: An explanatory fallacy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ćirković Milan M.
2013-01-01
Full Text Available I reconsider a type of counterfactual argument often used in historical sciences on a recent widely discussed example of the so-called “rare Earth” hypothesis in planetary sciences and astrobiology. The argument is based on the alleged “rarity” of some crucial ingredient for the planetary habitability, which is, in Earth’s case, provided by contingent evolutionary development. For instance, the claim that a contingent fact of history which has created planet Jupiter enables shielding of Earth from most dangerous impact catastrophes, thus increasing Earth’s habitability, leads often to the conclusion that such state-of-affairs must be rare in the Galaxy. I argue that this reasoning is deeply flawed, for several closely related reasons. In addition, the relevance of the philosophical problem of transworld identity for this kind of historical reasoning in science is put forward. This highlights many explanatory problems one faces when using historical counterfactuals in study of complex, nonlinear dynamical systems - and bolsters the relevance of philosophy for evaluation of scientific explanatory claims. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON176021 i br. ON 179048
The Influence of Counterfactual Comparison on Fairness in Gain-Loss Contexts.
Li, Qi; Wang, Chunsheng; Taxer, Jamie; Yang, Zhong; Zheng, Ya; Liu, Xun
2017-01-01
Fairness perceptions may be affected by counterfactual comparisons. Although certain studies using a two-player ultimatum game (UG) have shown that comparison with the proposers influences the responders' fairness perceptions in a gain context, the effect of counterfactual comparison in a UG with multiple responders or proposers remains unclear, especially in a loss context. To resolve these issues, this study used a modified three-player UG with multiple responders in Experiment 1 and multiple proposers in Experiment 2 to examine the influence of counterfactual comparison on fairness-related decision-making in gain and loss contexts. The two experiments consistently showed that regardless of the gain or loss context, the level of inequality of the offer and counterfactual comparison influenced acceptance rates (ARs), response times (RTs), and fairness ratings (FRs). If the offers that were received were better than the counterfactual offers, unequal offers were more likely to be accepted than equal offers, and participants were more likely to report higher FRs and to make decisions more quickly. In contrast, when the offers they received were worse than the counterfactual offers, participants were more likely to reject unequal offers than equal offers, reported lower FRs, and made decisions more slowly. These results demonstrate that responders' fairness perceptions are influenced by not only comparisons of the absolute amount of money that they would receive but also specific counterfactuals from other proposers or responders. These findings improve our understanding of fairness perceptions.
The Influence of Counterfactual Comparison on Fairness in Gain-Loss Contexts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qi Li
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Fairness perceptions may be affected by counterfactual comparisons. Although certain studies using a two-player ultimatum game (UG have shown that comparison with the proposers influences the responders' fairness perceptions in a gain context, the effect of counterfactual comparison in a UG with multiple responders or proposers remains unclear, especially in a loss context. To resolve these issues, this study used a modified three-player UG with multiple responders in Experiment 1 and multiple proposers in Experiment 2 to examine the influence of counterfactual comparison on fairness-related decision-making in gain and loss contexts. The two experiments consistently showed that regardless of the gain or loss context, the level of inequality of the offer and counterfactual comparison influenced acceptance rates (ARs, response times (RTs, and fairness ratings (FRs. If the offers that were received were better than the counterfactual offers, unequal offers were more likely to be accepted than equal offers, and participants were more likely to report higher FRs and to make decisions more quickly. In contrast, when the offers they received were worse than the counterfactual offers, participants were more likely to reject unequal offers than equal offers, reported lower FRs, and made decisions more slowly. These results demonstrate that responders' fairness perceptions are influenced by not only comparisons of the absolute amount of money that they would receive but also specific counterfactuals from other proposers or responders. These findings improve our understanding of fairness perceptions.
Thinking within the box: The relational processing style elicited by counterfactual mind-sets.
Kray, Laura J; Galinsky, Adam D; Wong, Elaine M
2006-07-01
By comparing reality to what might have been, counterfactuals promote a relational processing style characterized by a tendency to consider relationships and associations among a set of stimuli. As such, counterfactual mind-sets were expected to improve performance on tasks involving the consideration of relationships and associations but to impair performance on tasks requiring novel ideas that are uninfluenced by salient associations. The authors conducted several experiments to test this hypothesis. In Experiments 1a and 1b, the authors determined that counterfactual mind-sets increase mental states and preferences for thinking styles consistent with relational thought. Experiment 2 demonstrated a facilitative effect of counterfactual mind-sets on an analytic task involving logical relationships; Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrated that counterfactual mind-sets structure thought and imagination around salient associations and therefore impaired performance on creative generation tasks. In Experiment 5, the authors demonstrated that the detrimental effect of counterfactual mind-sets is limited to creative tasks involving novel idea generation; in a creative association task involving the consideration of relationships between task stimuli, counterfactual mind-sets improved performance.
How counterfactuals of Red-Queen theory shed light on science and its historiography.
Dagg, Joachim L
2017-08-01
A historical episode of evolutionary theory, which has lead to the Red Queen theory of the evolutionary maintenance of sex, includes two striking contingencies. These are used to explore alternative what-if scenarios, in order to test some common opinions about such counterfactuals. This sheds new light on the nature of science and its historiography. One counterfactual leads to an unexpected convergence of its result to that of the actual science but, nevertheless, differs in its causal structure. The other diverges towards an incompatible alternative, but this requires further contingent choices that also diverge from actual science. The convergence in the first counterfactual is due to a horizontal transfer of knowledge. Similar transfers of knowledge are typical for innovations of actual science. This suggests that contingent choices can merge as well as fork research traditions both in actual research and counterfactual history. Neither the paths of the actual history of science nor those of its counterfactual alternatives will form a tree of exclusively diverging bifurcations, but a network instead. Convergencies in counterfactuals may, therefore, be due to the web-structure of science as much as to the aims of the historians in question. Furthermore, the difference in causal structure between the actual science and its convergent counterfactual might become diagnostic for external factors rather than internal aims forcing a historian towards convergence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Marking the counterfactual: ERP evidence for pragmatic processing of German subjunctives
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eugenia eKulakova
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Counterfactual conditionals are frequently used in language to express potentially valid reasoning from factually false suppositions. Counterfactuals provide two pieces of information: their literal meaning expresses a suppositional dependency between an antecedent (If the dice had been rigged ... and a consequent (… then the game would have been unfair. Their second, backgrounded meaning refers to the opposite state of affairs and suggests that, in fact, the dice were not rigged and the game was fair. Counterfactual antecedents are particularly intriguing because they set up a counterfactual world which is known to be false, but which is nevertheless kept to when evaluating the conditional’s consequent. In the last years several event-related potential (ERP studies have targeted the processing of counterfactual consequents, yet counterfactual antecedents have remained unstudied. We present an EEG/ERP investigation which employed German conditionals to compare subjunctive mood (which marks counterfactuality with indicative mood at the critical point of mood disambiguation via auxiliary introduction in the conditional’s antecedent. Conditional sentences were presented visually one word at a time. Participants completed an acceptability judgement and probe detection task which was not related to the critical manipulation of linguistic mood. ERPs at the point of mood disambiguation in the antecedent were compared between indicative and subjunctive. Our main finding is a transient negative deflection in frontal regions for subjunctive compared to indicative mood in a time-window of 450-600 ms. We discuss this novel finding in respect to working memory requirements for rule application and increased referential processing demands for the representation of counterfactuals’ dual meaning. Our result suggests that the counterfactually implied dual meaning is processed without any delay at the earliest point where counterfactuality is marked by
Evaluation of correlation in optical encryption by using visual cryptography
Yi, Sang-Yi; Ryu, Chung-Sang; Ryu, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Seung-Hyun
2001-03-01
Visual cryptography made it possible to decrypt the information encrypted by thresholding scheme not with digital system but with human vision system. This method, however, has some limit in it because of the rack of resolution in both the spatial and amplitude domain. Optical visual cryptography, which used laser system instead of human eyesight, was proposed by conjunction of the optical theory with the cryptography. However, it also had some difficulties because it did not overcome the existing problem of visual cryptography completely. The problems occurred in the process of transferring data processing system from visual to optics. Therefore, it is appropriate to approach these problems in terms of optics. The results show that the optical visual cryptograph system has both the effectiveness and reliability as well as real-time implementation property.
Experimental quantum forgery of quantum optical money
Bartkiewicz, Karol; Černoch, Antonín; Chimczak, Grzegorz; Lemr, Karel; Miranowicz, Adam; Nori, Franco
2017-03-01
Unknown quantum information cannot be perfectly copied (cloned). This statement is the bedrock of quantum technologies and quantum cryptography, including the seminal scheme of Wiesner's quantum money, which was the first quantum-cryptographic proposal. Surprisingly, to our knowledge, quantum money has not been tested experimentally yet. Here, we experimentally revisit the Wiesner idea, assuming a banknote to be an image encoded in the polarization states of single photons. We demonstrate that it is possible to use quantum states to prepare a banknote that cannot be ideally copied without making the owner aware of only unauthorized actions. We provide the security conditions for quantum money by investigating the physically-achievable limits on the fidelity of 1-to-2 copying of arbitrary sequences of qubits. These results can be applied as a security measure in quantum digital right management.
Privacy-Enhancing Auctions Using Rational Cryptography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Miltersen, Peter Bro; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Triandopoulos, Nikolaos
2009-01-01
We consider enhancing with privacy concerns a large class of auctions, which include sealed-bid single-item auctions but also general multi-item multi-winner auctions, our assumption being that bidders primarily care about monetary payoff and secondarily worry about exposing information about...... show how to use rational cryptography to approximately implement any given ex interim individually strictly rational equilibrium of such an auction without a trusted mediator through a cryptographic protocol that uses only point-to-point authenticated channels between the players. By “ex interim...... close to the original equilibrium.Supported by the Center for Algorithmic Game Theory, funded by The Carlsberg Foundation....
Securing information display by use of visual cryptography.
Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Hayasaki, Yoshio; Nishida, Nobuo
2003-09-01
We propose a secure display technique based on visual cryptography. The proposed technique ensures the security of visual information. The display employs a decoding mask based on visual cryptography. Without the decoding mask, the displayed information cannot be viewed. The viewing zone is limited by the decoding mask so that only one person can view the information. We have developed a set of encryption codes to maintain the designed viewing zone and have demonstrated a display that provides a limited viewing zone.
Block Based Symmetry Key Visual Cryptography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Satyendra Nath Mandal
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Visual cryptography is a method for protecting image-based secrets that has a computation-free decoding process. In this technique, numbers of shares have been generated from one image. The shares are sent through any channel to the receiver and the receiver can again produce original image by stacking all the shares in proper order. But, this method wastes a lot of bandwidth of the network. The techniques of generating shares have been used in several existing methods which are not unique. The different methods have been used in different types of images like binary, gray and color images. In this paper, a block based symmetry key visual cryptography algorithm has been proposed to convert image in encrypted form and decrypt the encrypted image into original form. The symmetric key has been generated from a real number. The encryption and decryption algorithm have been designed based on symmetry key. The algorithm with key has been used to encrypt image into single share and decrypt the single share into original image. The real number has been used to form the key may be predefined or may be sent by secure channel to the receiver. The proposed algorithm can be applied to any type images i.e. binary, gray scale and color images. A comparison has been made of the proposed algorithm with different existing algorithms like Ceaser cipher, transpose of matrix, bit comp, and transposition cipher based on the performance. The pixels distributed in original and share images have also been tested. Finally, it has shown that breaking of security level of proposed algorithm i.e. to guess the real number is huge time consuming.
The real, the fake, and the fake fake: In counterfactual conditionals, crosslinguistically
H. Karawani
2014-01-01
This dissertation explores the expression of counterfactuality crosslinguistically, both from a morpho-syntactic/semantic perspective - focusing on the interaction between tense, aspect, mood and modality - and from a semantic/pragmatic perspective - focusing on the presuppositions and implicatures
Counterfactual Graphical Models for Mediation Analysis via Path-Specific Effects
Shpitser, Ilya
2012-01-01
Potential outcome counterfactuals represent variation in the outcome of interest after a hypothetical treatment or intervention is performed. Causal graphical models are a concise, intuitive way of representing causal assumptions, including independence constraints among such counterfactuals. Much of modern causal inference is concerned with expressing cause effect relationships of interest in counterfactual form, showing how the resulting counterfactuals can be identified (that is expressed in terms of available data, using domain-specific causal assumptions), and subsequently estimated using statistical methods. In this paper we will use causal graphical models to analyze the identification problem of the so-called \\emph{path-specific effects}, that is effects of treatment on outcome along certain specified causal paths. Such effects arise in mediation analysis settings where it's important to distinguish direct and indirect effects of treatment. We review existing results on path-specific effects in the fu...
Counterfactual thinking and emotions: regret and envy learning.
Coricelli, Giorgio; Rustichini, Aldo
2010-01-27
Emotions like regret and envy share a common origin: they are motivated by the counterfactual thinking of what would have happened had we made a different choice. When we contemplate the outcome of a choice we made, we may use the information on the outcome of a choice we did not make. Regret is the purely private comparison between two choices that we could have taken, envy adds to this the information on outcome of choices of others. However, envy has a distinct social component, in that it adds the change in the social ranking that follows a difference in the outcomes. We study the theoretical foundation and the experimental test of this view.
Quantum walk public-key cryptographic system
Vlachou, C.; Rodrigues, J.; Mateus, P.; Paunković, N.; Souto, A.
2015-12-01
Quantum Cryptography is a rapidly developing field of research that benefits from the properties of Quantum Mechanics in performing cryptographic tasks. Quantum walks are a powerful model for quantum computation and very promising for quantum information processing. In this paper, we present a quantum public-key cryptographic system based on quantum walks. In particular, in the proposed protocol the public-key is given by a quantum state generated by performing a quantum walk. We show that the protocol is secure and analyze the complexity of public key generation and encryption/decryption procedures.
Introduction to quantum information science
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hayashi, Masahito [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Mathematics; Ishizaka, Satoshi [Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan). Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences; Kawachi, Akinori [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Mathematical and Computing Sciences; Kimura, Gen [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan). College of Systems Engineering and Science; Ogawa, Tomohiro [Univ. of Electro-Communications, Tokyo (Japan). Graduate School of Information Systems
2015-04-01
Presents the mathematical foundation for quantum information in a very didactic way. Summarizes all required mathematical knowledge in linear algebra. Supports teaching and learning with more than 100 exercises with solutions. Includes brief descriptions to recent results with references. This book presents the basics of quantum information, e.g., foundation of quantum theory, quantum algorithms, quantum entanglement, quantum entropies, quantum coding, quantum error correction and quantum cryptography. The required knowledge is only elementary calculus and linear algebra. This way the book can be understood by undergraduate students. In order to study quantum information, one usually has to study the foundation of quantum theory. This book describes it from more an operational viewpoint which is suitable for quantum information while traditional textbooks of quantum theory lack this viewpoint. The current book bases on Shor's algorithm, Grover's algorithm, Deutsch-Jozsa's algorithm as basic algorithms. To treat several topics in quantum information, this book covers several kinds of information quantities in quantum systems including von Neumann entropy. The limits of several kinds of quantum information processing are given. As important quantum protocols,this book contains quantum teleportation, quantum dense coding, quantum data compression. In particular conversion theory of entanglement via local operation and classical communication are treated too. This theory provides the quantification of entanglement, which coincides with von Neumann entropy. The next part treats the quantum hypothesis testing. The decision problem of two candidates of the unknown state are given. The asymptotic performance of this problem is characterized by information quantities. Using this result, the optimal performance of classical information transmission via noisy quantum channel is derived. Quantum information transmission via noisy quantum channel by quantum error
Examining the cognitive costs of counterfactual language comprehension: Evidence from ERPs.
Ferguson, Heather J; Cane, James E
2015-10-05
Recent empirical research suggests that understanding a counterfactual event (e.g. 'If Josie had revised, she would have passed her exams') activates mental representations of both the factual and counterfactual versions of events. However, it remains unclear when readers switch between these models during comprehension, and whether representing multiple 'worlds' is cognitively effortful. This paper reports two ERP studies where participants read contexts that set up a factual or counterfactual scenario, followed by a second sentence describing a consequence of this event. Critically, this sentence included a noun that was either consistent or inconsistent with the preceding context, and either included a modal verb to indicate reference to the counterfactual-world or not (thus referring to the factual-world). Experiment 2 used adapted versions of the materials used in Experiment 1 to examine the degree to which representing multiple versions of a counterfactual situation makes heavy demands on cognitive resources by measuring individuals' working memory capacity. Results showed that when reference to the counterfactual-world was maintained by the ongoing discourse, readers correctly interpreted events according to the counterfactual-world (i.e. showed larger N400 for inconsistent than consistent words). In contrast, when cues referred back to the factual-world, readers showed no difference between consistent and inconsistent critical words, suggesting that they simultaneously compared information against both possible worlds. These results support previous dual-representation accounts for counterfactuals, and provide new evidence that linguistic cues can guide the reader in selecting which world model to evaluate incoming information against. Crucially, we reveal evidence that maintaining and updating a hypothetical model over time relies upon the availability of cognitive resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The Counterfactual Frame －Its Specification Patterns and Textual Functions－
Ohashi, Satoshi; 大橋, 哲
2012-01-01
In this paper a type of biconditional frame named the Counterfactual frame ispostulated as a type of schematic structure consisting of four propositions. Itprovides the logical basis for comprehending written text. Comprehension isdescribed as a creative process in which each proposition as an element of theframe is accumulatively specified in terms of propositional content, factuality,desirability, etc. The Counterfactual frame is defined as a type of biconditionalframe of which one pair of ...
MANAGING EXCHANGE RATE VOLATILITY : A COMPARATIVE COUNTERFACTUAL ANALYSIS OF SINGAPORE 1994 TO 2003
Peter Wilson; Henry Ng Shang Ren
2006-01-01
The objective of this paper is see how well Singapore’s exchange rate regime has coped with exchange rate volatility before and after the Asian financial crisis by comparing the performance of Singapore’s actual regime in minimising the volatility of the nominal effective exchange rate (NEER) and the bilateral rate against the US$ against some counterfactual regimes and the corresponding performance of eight other East Asian countries. In contrast to previous counterfactual exercises, such as...
Schacter, Daniel L; Benoit, Roland G; De Brigard, Felipe; Szpunar, Karl K
2015-01-01
This article considers two recent lines of research concerned with the construction of imagined or simulated events that can provide insight into the relationship between memory and decision making. One line of research concerns episodic future thinking, which involves simulating episodes that might occur in one's personal future, and the other concerns episodic counterfactual thinking, which involves simulating episodes that could have happened in one's personal past. We first review neuroimaging studies that have examined the neural underpinnings of episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking. We argue that these studies have revealed that the two forms of episodic simulation engage a common core network including medial parietal, prefrontal, and temporal regions that also supports episodic memory. We also note that neuroimaging studies have documented neural differences between episodic future thinking and episodic counterfactual thinking, including differences in hippocampal responses. We next consider behavioral studies that have delineated both similarities and differences between the two kinds of episodic simulation. The evidence indicates that episodic future and counterfactual thinking are characterized by similarly reduced levels of specific detail compared with episodic memory, but that the effects of repeatedly imagining a possible experience have sharply contrasting effects on the perceived plausibility of those events during episodic future thinking versus episodic counterfactual thinking. Finally, we conclude by discussing the functional consequences of future and counterfactual simulations for decisions.
Quantum Communication Complexity of Quantum Authentication Protocols
Guedes, Elloá B
2011-01-01
In order to perform Quantum Cryptography procedures it is often essencial to ensure that the parties of the communication are authentic. Such task is accomplished by quantum authentication protocols which are distributed algorithms based on the intrinsic properties of Quantum Mechanics. The choice of an authentication protocol must consider that quantum states are very delicate and that the channel is subject to eavesdropping. However, even in face of the various existing definitions of quantum authentication protocols in the literature, little is known about them in this perspective, and this lack of knowledge may unfavor comparisons and wise choices. In the attempt to overcome this limitation, in the present work we aim at showing an approach to evaluate quantum authentication protocols based on the determination of their quantum communication complexity. Based on our investigation, no similar methods to analyze quantum authentication protocols were found in the literature. Pursuing this further, our approa...
Random Oracles in a Quantum World
Boneh, D.; Dagdelen, O.; Fischlin, M.; Lehmann, D.; Schaffner, C.; Zhandry, M.
2012-01-01
The interest in post-quantum cryptography - classical systems that remain secure in the presence of a quantum adversary - has generated elegant proposals for new cryptosystems. Some of these systems are set in the random oracle model and are proven secure relative to adversaries that have classical
Advance Achieved for Global Secure Quantum Communication
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
@@ In today's Information Age, the protection of information is of .critical importance for national security, business firms, and private individuals. The common long-distance communication technology is poor in keeping privacy as it is vulnerable to eavesdropping. Quantum cryptography, a new approach to communication based on certain phenomena of quantum physics, is considered the absolute secure method in this regard.
Experimental entanglement distillation of mesoscopic quantum states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dong, Ruifang; Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Heersink, Joel
2008-01-01
The distribution of entangled states between distant parties in an optical network is crucial for the successful implementation of various quantum communication protocols such as quantum cryptography, teleportation and dense coding(1-3). However, owing to the unavoidable loss in any real optical...
New Eavesdropper Detection Method in Quantum Cryptograph
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cătălin Anghel
2011-12-01
Full Text Available ecurity of quantum cryptographic algorithms is one of the main research directions in quantum cryptography. Security growth of the quantum key distribution systems can be realized by detecting the eavesdropper quickly, precisely and without letting any secret information in the hands of the enemy. This paper proposes a new method, named QBTT, to detect the enemy who try to tap the communication channel. The QBTT method can be implemented in every type of quantum key distribution scheme.
Optical scanning cryptography for secure wireless transmission
Poon, Ting-Chung; Kim, Taegeun; Doh, Kyu
2003-11-01
We propose a method for secure wireless transmission of encrypted information. By use of an encryption key, an image or document is optically encrypted by optical heterodyne scanning and hence encryption is performed on the fly. We call this technique optical scanning cryptography. The output of the heterodyne encrypted signal is at radio frequency and can be directly sent through an antenna to a secure site for digital storage to be prepared for decryption. In the secure site, an identical optical scanning system to that used for encryption is used, together with a decryption key, to generate an electrical signal. The electrical signal is then processed and sent to a computer to be used for decryption. Utilizing the stored information received from the encryption stage and the electrical information from the secure site, a digital decryption unit performs a decryption algorithm. If the encryption key and the decryption key are matched, the decryption unit will decrypt the image or document faithfully. The overall cryptosystem can perform the incoherent optical processing counterpart of the well-known coherent double-random phase-encoding technique. We present computer simulations of the idea.
QC-LDPC code-based cryptography
Baldi, Marco
2014-01-01
This book describes the fundamentals of cryptographic primitives based on quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check (QC-LDPC) codes, with a special focus on the use of these codes in public-key cryptosystems derived from the McEliece and Niederreiter schemes. In the first part of the book, the main characteristics of QC-LDPC codes are reviewed, and several techniques for their design are presented, while tools for assessing the error correction performance of these codes are also described. Some families of QC-LDPC codes that are best suited for use in cryptography are also presented. The second part of the book focuses on the McEliece and Niederreiter cryptosystems, both in their original forms and in some subsequent variants. The applicability of QC-LDPC codes in these frameworks is investigated by means of theoretical analyses and numerical tools, in order to assess their benefits and drawbacks in terms of system efficiency and security. Several examples of QC-LDPC code-based public key cryptosystems are prese...
Optical scanning cryptography for secure wireless transmission.
Poon, Ting-Chung; Kim, Taegeun; Doh, Kyu
2003-11-10
We propose a method for secure wireless transmission of encrypted information. By use of an encryption key, an image or document is optically encrypted by optical heterodyne scanning and hence encryption is performed on the fly. We call this technique optical scanning cryptography. The output of the heterodyne encrypted signal is at radio frequency and can be directly sent through an antenna to a secure site for digital storage to be prepared for decryption. In the secure site, an identical optical scanning system to that used for encryption is used, together with a decryption key, to generate an electrical signal. The electrical signal is then processed and sent to a computer to be used for decryption. Utilizing the stored information received from the encryption stage and the electrical information from the secure site, a digital decryption unit performs a decryption algorithm. If the encryption key and the decryption key are matched, the decryption unit will decrypt the image or document faithfully. The overall cryptosystem can perform the incoherent optical processing counterpart of the well-known coherent double-random phase-encoding technique. We present computer simulations of the idea.
Finite and profinite quantum systems
Vourdas, Apostolos
2017-01-01
This monograph provides an introduction to finite quantum systems, a field at the interface between quantum information and number theory, with applications in quantum computation and condensed matter physics. The first major part of this monograph studies the so-called `qubits' and `qudits', systems with periodic finite lattice as position space. It also discusses the so-called mutually unbiased bases, which have applications in quantum information and quantum cryptography. Quantum logic and its applications to quantum gates is also studied. The second part studies finite quantum systems, where the position takes values in a Galois field. This combines quantum mechanics with Galois theory. The third part extends the discussion to quantum systems with variables in profinite groups, considering the limit where the dimension of the system becomes very large. It uses the concepts of inverse and direct limit and studies quantum mechanics on p-adic numbers. Applications of the formalism include quantum optics and ...
Counterfactual Reasoning in Non-psychotic First-Degree Relatives of People with Schizophrenia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Auria eAlbacete
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Counterfactual thinking (CFT is a type of conditional reasoning that enables the generation of mental simulations of alternatives to past factual events. Previous research has found this cognitive feature to be disrupted in schizophrenia. At the same time, the study of cognitive deficits in unaffected relatives of people with schizophrenia has significantly increased, supporting its potential endophenotypic role in this disorder. Using an exploratory approach, the current study examined CFT for the first time in a sample of non-psychotic first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients (N=43, in comparison with schizophrenia patients (N=54 and healthy controls (N=44. A series of tests that assessed the causal order effect in CFT and the ability to generate counterfactual thoughts and counterfactually derive inferences using the Counterfactual Inference Test was completed. Associations with variables of basic and social cognition, levels of schizotypy and psychotic-like experiences in addition to clinical and sociodemographic characteristics were also explored. Findings showed that first-degree relatives generated a lower number of counterfactual thoughts than controls, and were more adept at counterfactually deriving inferences, specifically in the scenarios related to regret and to judgements of avoidance in an unusual situation. No other significant results were found. These preliminary findings suggest that non-psychotic first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients show a subtle disruption of global counterfactual thinking compared with what is normally expected in the general population. Because of the potential impact of such deficits, new treatments targeting CFT improvement might be considered in future management strategies.
Remembering what could have happened: neural correlates of episodic counterfactual thinking.
De Brigard, F; Addis, D R; Ford, J H; Schacter, D L; Giovanello, K S
2013-10-01
Recent evidence suggests that our capacities to remember the past and to imagine what might happen in the future largely depend on the same core brain network that includes the middle temporal lobe, the posterior cingulate/retrosplenial cortex, the inferior parietal lobe, the medial prefrontal cortex, and the lateral temporal cortex. However, the extent to which regions of this core brain network are also responsible for our capacity to think about what could have happened in our past, yet did not occur (i.e., episodic counterfactual thinking), is still unknown. The present study examined this issue. Using a variation of the experimental recombination paradigm (Addis, Pan, Vu, Laiser, & Schacter, 2009. Neuropsychologia. 47: 2222-2238), participants were asked both to remember personal past events and to envision alternative outcomes to such events while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Three sets of analyses were performed on the imaging data in order to investigate two related issues. First, a mean-centered spatiotemporal partial least square (PLS) analysis identified a pattern of brain activity across regions of the core network that was common to episodic memory and episodic counterfactual thinking. Second, a non-rotated PLS analysis identified two different patterns of brain activity for likely and unlikely episodic counterfactual thoughts, with the former showing significant overlap with the set of regions engaged during episodic recollection. Finally, a parametric modulation was conducted to explore the differential engagement of brain regions during counterfactual thinking, revealing that areas such as the parahippocampal gyrus and the right hippocampus were modulated by the subjective likelihood of counterfactual simulations. These results suggest that episodic counterfactual thinking engages regions that form the core brain network, and also that the subjective likelihood of our counterfactual thoughts modulates the engagement of different
Secure communications with low-orbit spacecraft using quantum cryptography
Hughes, Richard J.; Buttler, William T.; Kwiat, Paul G.; Luther, Gabriel G.; Morgan, George L; Nordholt, Jane E.; Peterson, Charles G.; Simmons, Charles M.
1999-01-01
Apparatus and method for secure communication between an earth station and spacecraft. A laser outputs single pulses that are split into preceding bright pulses and delayed attenuated pulses, and polarized. A Pockels cell changes the polarization of the polarized delayed attenuated pulses according to a string of random numbers, a first polarization representing a "1," and a second polarization representing a "0." At the receiving station, a beamsplitter randomly directs the preceding bright pulses and the polarized delayed attenuated pulses onto longer and shorter paths, both terminating in a beamsplitter which directs the preceding bright pulses and a first portion of the polarized delayed attenuated pulses to a first detector, and a second portion of the polarized delayed attenuated pulses to a second detector to generate a key for secure communication between the earth station and the spacecraft.
Sarmah, Dipti Kapoor
2010-01-01
Steganography and Cryptography are two popular ways of sending vital information in a secret way. One hides the existence of the message and the other distorts the message itself. There are many cryptography techniques available; among them AES is one of the most powerful techniques. In Steganography we have various techniques in different domains like spatial domain, frequency domain etc. to hide the message. It is very difficult to detect hidden message in frequency domain and for this domain we use various transformations like DCT, FFT and Wavelets etc. In this project we are developing a system where we develop a new technique in which Cryptography and Steganography are used as integrated part along with newly developed enhanced security module. In Cryptography we are using AES algorithm to encrypt a message and a part of the message is hidden in DCT of an image; remaining part of the message is used to generate two secret keys which make this system highly secured. Keyword: Cryptography, Steganography, S...
Fast, parallel and secure cryptography algorithm using Lorenz's attractor
Marco, Anderson Gonçalves; Bruno, Odemir Martinez; 10.1142/S0129183110015166
2012-01-01
A novel cryptography method based on the Lorenz's attractor chaotic system is presented. The proposed algorithm is secure and fast, making it practical for general use. We introduce the chaotic operation mode, which provides an interaction among the password, message and a chaotic system. It ensures that the algorithm yields a secure codification, even if the nature of the chaotic system is known. The algorithm has been implemented in two versions: one sequential and slow and the other, parallel and fast. Our algorithm assures the integrity of the ciphertext (we know if it has been altered, which is not assured by traditional algorithms) and consequently its authenticity. Numerical experiments are presented, discussed and show the behavior of the method in terms of security and performance. The fast version of the algorithm has a performance comparable to AES, a popular cryptography program used commercially nowadays, but it is more secure, which makes it immediately suitable for general purpose cryptography ...
A Review on Elliptic Curve Cryptography for Embedded Systems
Afreen, Rahat
2011-01-01
Importance of Elliptic Curves in Cryptography was independently proposed by Neal Koblitz and Victor Miller in 1985.Since then, Elliptic curve cryptography or ECC has evolved as a vast field for public key cryptography (PKC) systems. In PKC system, we use separate keys to encode and decode the data. Since one of the keys is distributed publicly in PKC systems, the strength of security depends on large key size. The mathematical problems of prime factorization and discrete logarithm are previously used in PKC systems. ECC has proved to provide same level of security with relatively small key sizes. The research in the field of ECC is mostly focused on its implementation on application specific systems. Such systems have restricted resources like storage, processing speed and domain specific CPU architecture.
IMPACT OF ERROR FILTERS ON SHARES IN HALFTONE VISUAL CRYPTOGRAPHY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sunil Agrawal
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Visual cryptography encodes a secret binary image (SI into shares of random binary patterns. If the shares are xeroxed onto transparencies, the secret image can be visually decoded by superimposing a qualified subset of transparencies, but no secret information can be obtained from the superposition of a forbidden subset. The binary patterns of the shares, however, have no visual meaning and hinder the objectives of visual cryptography. Halftone visual cryptography encodes a secret binary image into n halftone shares (images carrying significant visual information. When secrecy is important factor rather than the quality of recovered image the shares must be of better visual quality. Different filters such as Floyd-Steinberg, Jarvis, Stuki, Burkes, Sierra, and Stevenson’s-Arce are used and their impact on visual quality of shares is seen. The simulation shows that error filters used in error diffusion lays a great impact on the visual quality of the shares.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodgers, P
1998-03-01
There is more to information than a string of ones and zeroes the ability of ''quantum bits'' to be in two states at the same time could revolutionize information technology. In the mid-1930s two influential but seemingly unrelated papers were published. In 1935 Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen proposed the famous EPR paradox that has come to symbolize the mysteries of quantum mechanics. Two years later, Alan Turing introduced the universal Turing machine in an enigmatically titled paper, On computable numbers, and laid the foundations of the computer industry one of the biggest industries in the world today. Although quantum physics is essential to understand the operation of transistors and other solid-state devices in computers, computation itself has remained a resolutely classical process. Indeed it seems only natural that computation and quantum theory should be kept as far apart as possible surely the uncertainty associated with quantum theory is anathema to the reliability expected from computers? Wrong. In 1985 David Deutsch introduced the universal quantum computer and showed that quantum theory can actually allow computers to do more rather than less. The ability of particles to be in a superposition of more than one quantum state naturally introduces a form of parallelism that can, in principle, perform some traditional computing tasks faster than is possible with classical computers. Moreover, quantum computers are capable of other tasks that are not conceivable with their classical counterparts. Similar breakthroughs in cryptography and communication followed. (author)
Efficient Quantum Pseudorandomness
Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Harrow, Aram W.; Horodecki, Michał
2016-04-01
Randomness is both a useful way to model natural systems and a useful tool for engineered systems, e.g., in computation, communication, and control. Fully random transformations require exponential time for either classical or quantum systems, but in many cases pseudorandom operations can emulate certain properties of truly random ones. Indeed, in the classical realm there is by now a well-developed theory regarding such pseudorandom operations. However, the construction of such objects turns out to be much harder in the quantum case. Here, we show that random quantum unitary time evolutions ("circuits") are a powerful source of quantum pseudorandomness. This gives for the first time a polynomial-time construction of quantum unitary designs, which can replace fully random operations in most applications, and shows that generic quantum dynamics cannot be distinguished from truly random processes. We discuss applications of our result to quantum information science, cryptography, and understanding the self-equilibration of closed quantum dynamics.
Efficient Quantum Pseudorandomness.
Brandão, Fernando G S L; Harrow, Aram W; Horodecki, Michał
2016-04-29
Randomness is both a useful way to model natural systems and a useful tool for engineered systems, e.g., in computation, communication, and control. Fully random transformations require exponential time for either classical or quantum systems, but in many cases pseudorandom operations can emulate certain properties of truly random ones. Indeed, in the classical realm there is by now a well-developed theory regarding such pseudorandom operations. However, the construction of such objects turns out to be much harder in the quantum case. Here, we show that random quantum unitary time evolutions ("circuits") are a powerful source of quantum pseudorandomness. This gives for the first time a polynomial-time construction of quantum unitary designs, which can replace fully random operations in most applications, and shows that generic quantum dynamics cannot be distinguished from truly random processes. We discuss applications of our result to quantum information science, cryptography, and understanding the self-equilibration of closed quantum dynamics.
Problems and solutions in quantum computing and quantum information
Steeb, Willi-Hans
2012-01-01
Quantum computing and quantum information are two of the fastest growing and most exciting research fields in physics. Entanglement, teleportation and the possibility of using the non-local behavior of quantum mechanics to factor integers in random polynomial time have also added to this new interest. This book supplies a huge collection of problems in quantum computing and quantum information together with their detailed solutions, which will prove to be invaluable to students as well as researchers in these fields. All the important concepts and topics such as quantum gates and quantum circuits, product Hilbert spaces, entanglement and entanglement measures, deportation, Bell states, Bell inequality, Schmidt decomposition, quantum Fourier transform, magic gate, von Neumann entropy, quantum cryptography, quantum error corrections, number states and Bose operators, coherent states, squeezed states, Gaussian states, POVM measurement, quantum optics networks, beam splitter, phase shifter and Kerr Hamilton opera...
A New Visual Cryptography Scheme for Color Images
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B.SaiChandana,
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Visual cryptography is a method for protecting image-based secrets that has a computation-free decoding process. In this paper, we proposed a visual cryptographic system which can be used to hide the original image information from an intruder or an unwanted user. The images can be in any standard format. The encrypted image is sent to the destination through the network and then the image is decrypted. We used symmetric key cryptography. Experimental results indicate the proposed method is a simple, practical and effective cryptographicsystem.
Implementation of Elliptic Curve Cryptography in Binary Field
Susantio, D. R.; Muchtadi-Alamsyah, I.
2016-04-01
Currently, there is a steadily increasing demand of information security, caused by a surge in information flow. There are many ways to create a secure information channel, one of which is to use cryptography. In this paper, we discuss the implementation of elliptic curves over the binary field for cryptography. We use the simplified version of the ECIES (Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption Scheme). The ECIES encrypts a plaintext by masking the original message using specified points on the curve. The encryption process is done by separating the plaintext into blocks. Each block is then separately encrypted using the encryption scheme.
Quantum Computation and Information From Theory to Experiment
Imai, Hiroshi
2006-01-01
Recently, the field of quantum computation and information has been developing through a fusion of results from various research fields in theoretical and practical areas. This book consists of the reviews of selected topics charterized by great progress and cover the field from theoretical areas to experimental ones. It contains fundamental areas, quantum query complexity, quantum statistical inference, quantum cloning, quantum entanglement, additivity. It treats three types of quantum security system, quantum public key cryptography, quantum key distribution, and quantum steganography. A photonic system is highlighted for the realization of quantum information processing.
Counterfactual thinking: an fMRI study on changing the past for a better future
Ma, Ning; Ampe, Lisa; Baetens, Kris; Van Overwalle, Frank
2013-01-01
Recent studies suggest that a brain network mainly associated with episodic memory has a more general function in imagining oneself in another time, place or perspective (e.g. episodic future thought, theory of mind, default mode). If this is true, counterfactual thinking (e.g. ‘If I had left the office earlier, I wouldn’t have missed my train.’) should also activate this network. Present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study explores the common and distinct neural activity of counterfactual and episodic thinking by directly comparing the imagining of upward counterfactuals (creating better outcomes for negative past events) with the re-experiencing of negative past events and the imagining of positive future events. Results confirm that episodic and counterfactual thinking share a common brain network, involving a core memory network (hippocampal area, temporal lobes, midline, and lateral parietal lobes) and prefrontal areas that might be related to mentalizing (medial prefrontal cortex) and performance monitoring (right prefrontal cortex). In contrast to episodic past and future thinking, counterfactual thinking recruits some of these areas more strongly and extensively, and additionally activates the bilateral inferior parietal lobe and posterior medial frontal cortex. We discuss these findings in view of recent fMRI evidence on the working of episodic memory and theory of mind. PMID:22403155
Counterfactual thinking: an fMRI study on changing the past for a better future.
Van Hoeck, Nicole; Ma, Ning; Ampe, Lisa; Baetens, Kris; Vandekerckhove, Marie; Van Overwalle, Frank
2013-06-01
Recent studies suggest that a brain network mainly associated with episodic memory has a more general function in imagining oneself in another time, place or perspective (e.g. episodic future thought, theory of mind, default mode). If this is true, counterfactual thinking (e.g. 'If I had left the office earlier, I wouldn't have missed my train.') should also activate this network. Present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study explores the common and distinct neural activity of counterfactual and episodic thinking by directly comparing the imagining of upward counterfactuals (creating better outcomes for negative past events) with the re-experiencing of negative past events and the imagining of positive future events. Results confirm that episodic and counterfactual thinking share a common brain network, involving a core memory network (hippocampal area, temporal lobes, midline, and lateral parietal lobes) and prefrontal areas that might be related to mentalizing (medial prefrontal cortex) and performance monitoring (right prefrontal cortex). In contrast to episodic past and future thinking, counterfactual thinking recruits some of these areas more strongly and extensively, and additionally activates the bilateral inferior parietal lobe and posterior medial frontal cortex. We discuss these findings in view of recent fMRI evidence on the working of episodic memory and theory of mind.
Decision-making dysfunctions of counterfactuals in depression: who might I have been?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jonathon Richard Howlett
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Cognitive neuroscience enables us now to decompose major depressive disorder into dysfunctional component processes and relate these processes to specific neural substrates. This approach can be used to illuminate the biological basis of altered psychological processes in depression, including abnormal decision-making. One important decision-related process is counterfactual thinking, or the comparison of reality to hypothetical alternatives. Evidence suggests that individuals with depression experience exaggerated emotional responses due to focusing on counterfactual decision outcomes in general and regret, i.e. the emotion associated with focus on an alternative superior outcome, in particular. Regret is linked to self-esteem in that it involves the evaluation of an individual’s own decisions. Alterations of self-esteem, in turn, are a hallmark of depression. The literature on the behavioral and neural processes underlying counterfactual thinking, self-esteem, and depression is selectively reviewed. A model is proposed in which unstable self-representation in depression is more strongly perturbed when a different choice would have produced a better outcome, leading to increased feelings of regret. This approach may help unify diverse aspects of depression, can generate testable predictions, and may suggest new treatment avenues targeting distorted counterfactual cognitions, attentional biases toward superior counterfactual outcomes, or increased affective response to regretted outcomes.
Quantum Key Distribution with Fibonacci Orbital Angular Momentum States
Simon, David S.; Lawrence, Nate; Trevino, Jacob; Negro, Luca Dal; Sergienko, Alexander V.
2012-01-01
Quantum cryptography and quantum key distribution (QKD) have been the most successful applications of quantum information processing, highlighting the unique capability of quantum mechanics, through the no-cloning theorem, to protect the security of shared encryption keys. Here we present a new and fundamentally different approach to high-capacity, high-efficiency QKD by exploiting interplay between cross-disciplinary ideas from quantum information and light scattering of aperiodic photonic m...
Opto-electronics on Single Nanowire Quantum Dots
2010-01-01
An important goal for nanoscale opto-electronics is the transfer of single electron spin states into single photon polarization states (and vice versa), thereby interfacing quantum transport and quantum optics. Such an interface enables new experiments in the field of quantum information processing. Single and entangled photon-pair generation can be used for quantum cryptography. Furthermore, photons can be used in the readout of a quantum computer based on electron spins. Semiconducting nano...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Véra Ehrenstein
2013-11-01
Full Text Available This paper examines counterfactual display in the valuation of carbon offsetting projects. Considered a legitimate way to encourage climate change mitigation, such projects rely on the establishment of procedures for the prospective assessment of their capacity to become carbon sinks. This requires imagining possible worlds and assessing their plausibility. The world inhabited by the project is articulated through conditional formulation and subjected to what we call "counterfactual display": the production and circulation of documents that demonstrate and configure the counterfactual valuation. We present a case study on one carbon offsetting reforestation project in the Democratic Republic of Congo. We analyse the construction of the scene that allows the "What would have happened" question to make sense and become actionable. We highlight the operations of calculative framing that this requires, the reality constraints it relies upon, and the entrepreneurial conduct it stimulates.
Zhang, Yunfeng; Paik, Jaehyon; Pirolli, Peter
2015-04-01
Animals routinely adapt to changes in the environment in order to survive. Though reinforcement learning may play a role in such adaptation, it is not clear that it is the only mechanism involved, as it is not well suited to producing rapid, relatively immediate changes in strategies in response to environmental changes. This research proposes that counterfactual reasoning might be an additional mechanism that facilitates change detection. An experiment is conducted in which a task state changes over time and the participants had to detect the changes in order to perform well and gain monetary rewards. A cognitive model is constructed that incorporates reinforcement learning with counterfactual reasoning to help quickly adjust the utility of task strategies in response to changes. The results show that the model can accurately explain human data and that counterfactual reasoning is key to reproducing the various effects observed in this change detection paradigm.
The mathematics of ciphers number theory and RSA cryptography
Coutinho, S C
1999-01-01
This book is an introduction to the algorithmic aspects of number theory and its applications to cryptography, with special emphasis on the RSA cryptosys-tem. It covers many of the familiar topics of elementary number theory, all with an algorithmic twist. The text also includes many interesting historical notes.
Enhancing Undergraduate Mathematics Curriculum via Coding Theory and Cryptography
Aydin, Nuh
2009-01-01
The theory of error-correcting codes and cryptography are two relatively recent applications of mathematics to information and communication systems. The mathematical tools used in these fields generally come from algebra, elementary number theory, and combinatorics, including concepts from computational complexity. It is possible to introduce the…
Steganography and Cryptography Inspired Enhancement of Introductory Programming Courses
Kortsarts, Yana; Kempner, Yulia
2015-01-01
Steganography is the art and science of concealing communication. The goal of steganography is to hide the very existence of information exchange by embedding messages into unsuspicious digital media covers. Cryptography, or secret writing, is the study of the methods of encryption, decryption and their use in communications protocols.…
Design and Implementation of Hierarchical Visual Cryptography with Expansionless Shares
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pallavi Vijay Chavan
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Visual cryptography is the art of encrypting visual information such as handwritten text, images etc. The encryption takes place in such a way that no mathematical computations are required in order to decrypt the secret. The original information to be encrypted is called as secret. After encryption, ciphers are generated and referred as shares. The part of secret in scrambled form is known as share. Fundamental idea behind visual cryptography is to share the secret among group of nparticipants. In order to share the secret, it is divided inton number of pieces called shares. These shares are distributed among the participants. To reveal the original secret, each participant provides his own share. Complete knowledge of n-1 shares is unable to decrypt the secret. Many visual cryptographic schemes exist. The basic scheme is 2 out of 2 visual cryptography in which the secret is partitioned into exactly two parts. To reveal the secret these two shares must participate. Following figure indicates simple example of 2 out of 2 visual cryptography scheme.
APE: Authenticated Permutation-Based Encryption for Lightweight Cryptography
Andreeva, Elena; Bilgin, Begül; Bogdanov, Andrey; Luykx, Atul; Mennink, Bart; Mouha, Nicky; Yasuda, Kan
The domain of lightweight cryptography focuses on cryptographic algorithms for extremely constrained devices. It is very costly to avoid nonce reuse in such environments, because this requires either a hardware source of randomness, or non-volatile memory to store a counter. At the same time, a lot
A "proof-reading" of Some Issues in Cryptography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damgård, Ivan Bjerre
2007-01-01
In this paper, we identify some issues in the interplay between practice and theory in cryptography, issues that have repeatedly appeared in different incarnations over the years. These issues are related to fundamental concepts in the eld, e.g., to what extent we can prove that a system is secure...
Introduction to Cryptography and the Bitcoin Protocol (1/2)
CERN. Geneva
2014-01-01
The Bitcoin protocol not only supports an electronic currency, but also has the possibility for being (mis)used in other ways. Topics will include the basic operation of how Bitcoin operates including motivations and also such things as block chaining, bitcoin mining, and how financial transactions operate. A knowledge of the topics covered in the Basic Cryptography lecture will be assumed.
Introduction to Cryptography and the Bitcoin Protocol (2/2)
CERN. Geneva
2014-01-01
The Bitcoin protocol not only supports an electronic currency, but also has the possibility for being (mis)used in other ways. Topics will include the basic operation of how Bitcoin operates including motivations and also such things as block chaining, bitcoin mining, and how financial transactions operate. A knowledge of the topics covered in the Basic Cryptography lecture will be assumed.
Quantum random number generators
Herrero-Collantes, Miguel; Garcia-Escartin, Juan Carlos
2017-01-01
Random numbers are a fundamental resource in science and engineering with important applications in simulation and cryptography. The inherent randomness at the core of quantum mechanics makes quantum systems a perfect source of entropy. Quantum random number generation is one of the most mature quantum technologies with many alternative generation methods. This review discusses the different technologies in quantum random number generation from the early devices based on radioactive decay to the multiple ways to use the quantum states of light to gather entropy from a quantum origin. Randomness extraction and amplification and the notable possibility of generating trusted random numbers even with untrusted hardware using device-independent generation protocols are also discussed.
Regularity and counterfactuality in Hume's treatment of causation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Oscar de Almeida Marques
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Of the several theories of causation current in our days, Hume is said to be the inspiration of two of the most influential and accepted: the regularity theory, first clearly formulated by Thomas Brown in 1822, and the counterfactual theory, proposed by David Lewis in 1973. After a brief outline of the comparative merits and difficulties of these two views, I proceed to examine whether Hume's own treatment of causation actually corresponds to any of them. I will show that his first definition of cause, coupled with his rules by which to judge about causes and effects, contains elements that, properly developed, allow us to address successfully some traditional difficulties of the regularity view of causation, without resorting to the conceptual resources employed in the counterfactual approach. Therefore, we can properly classify Hume as an advocate of the conception of causation as regularity, noting however that his primary goal in his research and definitions of the concept was to provide not so much an analysis of causation as such, but of causation as we apprehend it, in the form of our ability to make causal inferences and refine them to reach the more sophisticated causal reasonings that are required in the theoretical and practical issues of life.Das diversas teorias da causação existentes em nossos dias, Hume pode ser considerado o precursor de duas das mais influentes e aceitas: a teoria regularista, formulada claramente pela primeira vez por Thomas Brown, em 1822, e a teoria contrafatualista, proposta por David Lewis em 1973. Depois de um breve resumo dos méritos e dificuldades comparativos dessas duas perspectivas, passo a examinar se o tratamento de Hume da causação corresponde, na verdade a algum deles. Mostro que a sua primeira definição de causa, juntamente com suas regras para julgar sobre as causas e efeitos, contém elementos que, devidamente desenvolvidos, permitem-nos abordar com sucesso algumas dificuldades
Community-Based Reasoning in Games: Salience, Rule-Following, and Counterfactuals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cyril Hédoin
2016-11-01
Full Text Available This paper develops a game-theoretic and epistemic account of a peculiar mode of practical reasoning that sustains focal points but also more general forms of rule-following behavior which I call community-based reasoning (CBR. It emphasizes the importance of counterfactuals in strategic interactions. In particular, the existence of rules does not reduce to observable behavioral patterns but also encompasses a range of counterfactual beliefs and behaviors. This feature was already at the core of Wittgenstein’s philosophical account of rule-following. On this basis, I consider the possibility that CBR may provide a rational basis for cooperation in the prisoner’s dilemma.
Deconstructing the smoking-preeclampsia paradox through a counterfactual framework.
Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Zoega, Helga; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur; Williams, Michelle A
2016-06-01
Although smoking during pregnancy may lead to many adverse outcomes, numerous studies have reported a paradoxical inverse association between maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and preeclampsia. Using a counterfactual framework we aimed to explore the structure of this paradox as being a consequence of selection bias. Using a case-control study nested in the Icelandic Birth Registry (1309 women), we show how this selection bias can be explored and corrected for. Cases were defined as any case of pregnancy induced hypertension or preeclampsia occurring after 20 weeks' gestation and controls as normotensive mothers who gave birth in the same year. First, we used directed acyclic graphs to illustrate the common bias structure. Second, we used classical logistic regression and mediation analytic methods for dichotomous outcomes to explore the structure of the bias. Lastly, we performed both deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis to estimate the amount of bias due to an uncontrolled confounder and corrected for it. The biased effect of smoking was estimated to reduce the odds of preeclampsia by 28 % (OR 0.72, 95 %CI 0.52, 0.99) and after stratification by gestational age at delivery ( 1, revealing the structure of the paradox. The bias-adjusted estimation of the smoking effect on preeclampsia showed an OR of 1.22 (95 %CI 0.41, 6.53). The smoking-preeclampsia paradox appears to be an example of (1) selection bias most likely caused by studying cases prevalent at birth rather than all incident cases from conception in a pregnancy cohort, (2) omitting important confounders associated with both smoking and preeclampsia (preventing the outcome to develop) and (3) controlling for a collider (gestation weeks at delivery). Future studies need to consider these aspects when studying and interpreting the association between smoking and pregnancy outcomes.
Quantum stream cipher based on optical communications
Hirota, Osamu; Kato, Kentaro; Sohma, Masaki; Usuda, Tsuyoshi S.; HARASAWA, Katsuyoshi
2004-01-01
In 2000, an attractive new quantum cryptography was discovered by H.P.Yuen based on quantum communication theory. It is applicable to direct encryption, for example quantum stream cipher based on Yuen protocol(Y-00), with high speeds and for long distance by sophisticated optical devices which can work under the average photon number per signal light pulse:$ = 1000 \\sim 10000$. In addition, it may provide information-theoretic security against known/chosen plaintext attack, which has no class...
A brief review on quantum bit commitment
Almeida, Álvaro J.; Loura, Ricardo; Paunković, Nikola; Silva, Nuno A.; Muga, Nelson J.; Mateus, Paulo; André, Paulo S.; Pinto, Armando N.
2014-08-01
In classical cryptography, the bit commitment scheme is one of the most important primitives. We review the state of the art of bit commitment protocols, emphasizing its main achievements and applications. Next, we present a practical quantum bit commitment scheme, whose security relies on current technological limitations, such as the lack of long-term stable quantum memories. We demonstrate the feasibility of our practical quantum bit commitment protocol and that it can be securely implemented with nowadays technology.
Experimental quantum multiparty communication protocols
Smania, Massimiliano; Elhassan, Ashraf M.; Tavakoli, Armin; Bourennane, Mohamed
2016-06-01
Quantum information science breaks limitations of conventional information transfer, cryptography and computation by using quantum superpositions or entanglement as resources for information processing. Here we report on the experimental realisation of three-party quantum communication protocols using single three-level quantum system (qutrit) communication: secret-sharing, detectable Byzantine agreement and communication complexity reduction for a three-valued function. We have implemented these three schemes using the same optical fibre interferometric setup. Our realisation is easily scalable without compromising on detection efficiency or generating extremely complex many-particle entangled states.
Implementation of diffie-Hellman key exchange on wireless sensor using elliptic curve cryptography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Khajuria, Samant; Tange, Henrik
2009-01-01
This work describes a low-cost public key cryptography (PKC) based solution for security services such as authentication as required for wireless sensor networks. We have implemented a software approach using elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) over GF (2m) in order to obtain stronger cryptography....... from Crossbow. Results has shown that the point calculation can be done fairly amount of time with relatively small space consumption......This work describes a low-cost public key cryptography (PKC) based solution for security services such as authentication as required for wireless sensor networks. We have implemented a software approach using elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) over GF (2m) in order to obtain stronger cryptography...
Celuch, Kevin; Saxby, Carl
2013-01-01
The present study extends understanding of the self-regulatory aspects of ethical decision making by integrating and exploring relationships among counterfactual thinking, attribution, anticipatory emotions, and ethical decision-making constructs and processes. Specifically, we examine the effects of a manipulation designed to stimulate a…
Mortimer Lightwood; or, Seriality, Counterfactuals, Co-Production, and Queer Fantasy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Holly Furneaux
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In this reflection on her participation as Mortimer Lightwood in Birkbeck’s Our Mutual Friend Twitter reading project, Holly Furneaux situates the project in a long legacy of actively reading Dickens’s works. She opens up some possibilities about the queer potentials of the serial form, the counterfactual, and Dickens fans’ creative responses.
Ernst, Florian
2015-03-01
Thought Experiments in Historiographic Function: Max Weber on Eduard Meyer and the Question of Counterfactuality. Max Weber's remarks on his colleague Eduard Meyer regarding counterfactual reasoning in history reflects a significant shift during the Methodenstreit around 1900. The question of attributing historical change strictly to either individual causes or abstract general laws has been tackled in a new way: By counterfactual reasoning a historian should be able to detect the most significant (and therefore meaningful) cause, event, or action for a certain historical outcome. Following Fritz Ringer, this paper argues that given the predominating methods of the natural sciences, scholars of the humanities conducted historical research by counterfactual thought experiments. This way, Weber pried open contemporary narratives (e.g. historicism), and by employing a unique historical causal analysis he made way for refined concepts to offer a model of interpretation that gave hope for a more feasible, practice-oriented approach to historical research than the epistemological discussions had hitherto offered. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Celuch, Kevin; Saxby, Carl
2013-01-01
The present study extends understanding of the self-regulatory aspects of ethical decision making by integrating and exploring relationships among counterfactual thinking, attribution, anticipatory emotions, and ethical decision-making constructs and processes. Specifically, we examine the effects of a manipulation designed to stimulate a…
Habib, M.; Cassotti, M.; Borst, G.; Simon, G.; Pineau, A.; Houde, O.; Moutier, S.
2012-01-01
Regret and relief are related to counterfactual thinking and rely on comparison processes between what has been and what might have been. In this article, we study the development of regret and relief from late childhood to adulthood (11.2-20.2 years), and we examine how these two emotions affect individuals' willingness to retrospectively…
Kim, Hyun Sik
2015-01-01
Drawing on data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class 1998-1999 of the United States, this article evaluates teacher expectancy effects on achievement growth in kindergarten. We attempt to disentangle teacher expectancy effects from omitted variable bias or predictive validity by exploiting counterfactual predictions in…
Towards bad history? A call for the use of counterfactual historical reasoning in history education
Huijgen, Tim; Holthuis, Paul
2014-01-01
In this article we argue for the use of Counterfactual Historical Reasoning (CHR) in history education. Within the discipline of History the use of CHR as a reasoning and research strategy is very controversial. However, different studies show the potential of CHR for achieving the important
Chapman, A. . Camels, diamonds and counterfactuals : a model for teaching causal reasoning
Weijs, Marijke
2011-01-01
In het artikel ‘Camels, diamonds and counterfactuals: a model for teaching causal reasoning’ beschrijft Chapman een onderwijsmodel voor vooruitgang in oorzakelijk redeneren. Dit model is bedoeld voor 16+-leerlingen die met dit model worden toegerust om een robuuste oorzakelijke analyse te maken. Cha
Towards bad history? A call for the use of counterfactual historical reasoning in history education
Huijgen, Tim; Holthuis, Paul
2014-01-01
In this article we argue for the use of Counterfactual Historical Reasoning (CHR) in history education. Within the discipline of History the use of CHR as a reasoning and research strategy is very controversial. However, different studies show the potential of CHR for achieving the important student
Counterfactual Thinking in Tourette’s Syndrome: A Study Using Three Measures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefano Zago
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Pathophysiological evidence suggests an involvement of frontostriatal circuits in Tourette syndrome (TS and cognitive abnormalities have been detected in tasks sensitive to cognitive deficits associated with prefrontal damage (verbal fluency, planning, attention shifting, working memory, cognitive flexibility, and social reasoning. A disorder in counterfactual thinking (CFT, a behavioural executive process linked to the prefrontal cortex functioning, has not been investigated in TS. CFT refers to the generation of a mental simulation of alternatives to past factual events, actions, and outcomes. It is a pervasive cognitive feature in everyday life and it is closely related to decision-making, planning, problem-solving, and experience-driven learning—cognitive processes that involve wide neuronal networks in which prefrontal lobes play a fundamental role. Clinical observations in patients with focal prefrontal lobe damage or with neurological and psychiatric diseases related to frontal lobe dysfunction (e.g., Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and schizophrenia show counterfactual thinking impairments. In this work, we evaluate the performance of CFT in a group of patients with Tourette’s syndrome compared with a group of healthy participants. Overall results showed no statistical differences in counterfactual thinking between TS patients and controls in the three counterfactual measures proposed. The possible explanations of this unexpected result are discussed below.
Al-Khalili, Jim
2003-01-01
In this lively look at quantum science, a physicist takes you on an entertaining and enlightening journey through the basics of subatomic physics. Along the way, he examines the paradox of quantum mechanics--beautifully mathematical in theory but confoundingly unpredictable in the real world. Marvel at the Dual Slit experiment as a tiny atom passes through two separate openings at the same time. Ponder the peculiar communication of quantum particles, which can remain in touch no matter how far apart. Join the genius jewel thief as he carries out a quantum measurement on a diamond without ever touching the object in question. Baffle yourself with the bizzareness of quantum tunneling, the equivalent of traveling partway up a hill, only to disappear then reappear traveling down the opposite side. With its clean, colorful layout and conversational tone, this text will hook you into the conundrum that is quantum mechanics.
Visual cryptography for image processing and security theory, methods, and applications
Liu, Feng
2014-01-01
This unique book describes the fundamental concepts, theories and practice of visual cryptography. The design, construction, analysis, and application of visual cryptography schemes (VCSs) are discussed in detail. Original, cutting-edge research is presented on probabilistic, size invariant, threshold, concolorous, and cheating immune VCS. Features: provides a thorough introduction to the field; examines various common problems in visual cryptography, including the alignment, flipping, cheating, distortion, and thin line problems; reviews a range of VCSs, including XOR-based visual cryptograph
Integrating identity-based cryptography in IMS service authentication
Abid, Mohamed; Moustafa, Hassnaa; Afifi, Hossam
2010-01-01
Nowadays, the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) is a promising research field. Many ongoing works related to the security and the performances of its employment are presented to the research community. Although, the security and data privacy aspects are very important in the IMS global objectives, they observe little attention so far. Secure access to multimedia services is based on SIP and HTTP digest on top of IMS architecture. The standard deploys AKA-MD5 for the terminal authentication. The third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) provided Generic Bootstrapping Architecture (GBA) to authenticate the subscriber before accessing multimedia services over HTTP. In this paper, we propose a new IMS Service Authentication scheme using Identity Based cryptography (IBC). This new scheme will lead to better performances when there are simultaneous authentication requests using Identity-based Batch Verification. We analyzed the security of our new protocol and we presented a performance evaluation of its cryptographi...
Electronic Voting Protocol Using Identity-Based Cryptography
Gallegos-Garcia, Gina; Tapia-Recillas, Horacio
2015-01-01
Electronic voting protocols proposed to date meet their properties based on Public Key Cryptography (PKC), which offers high flexibility through key agreement protocols and authentication mechanisms. However, when PKC is used, it is necessary to implement Certification Authority (CA) to provide certificates which bind public keys to entities and enable verification of such public key bindings. Consequently, the components of the protocol increase notably. An alternative is to use Identity-Based Encryption (IBE). With this kind of cryptography, it is possible to have all the benefits offered by PKC, without neither the need of certificates nor all the core components of a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI). Considering the aforementioned, in this paper we propose an electronic voting protocol, which meets the privacy and robustness properties by using bilinear maps. PMID:26090515
Electronic Voting Protocol Using Identity-Based Cryptography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gina Gallegos-Garcia
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Electronic voting protocols proposed to date meet their properties based on Public Key Cryptography (PKC, which offers high flexibility through key agreement protocols and authentication mechanisms. However, when PKC is used, it is necessary to implement Certification Authority (CA to provide certificates which bind public keys to entities and enable verification of such public key bindings. Consequently, the components of the protocol increase notably. An alternative is to use Identity-Based Encryption (IBE. With this kind of cryptography, it is possible to have all the benefits offered by PKC, without neither the need of certificates nor all the core components of a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI. Considering the aforementioned, in this paper we propose an electronic voting protocol, which meets the privacy and robustness properties by using bilinear maps.
Electronic Voting Protocol Using Identity-Based Cryptography.
Gallegos-Garcia, Gina; Tapia-Recillas, Horacio
2015-01-01
Electronic voting protocols proposed to date meet their properties based on Public Key Cryptography (PKC), which offers high flexibility through key agreement protocols and authentication mechanisms. However, when PKC is used, it is necessary to implement Certification Authority (CA) to provide certificates which bind public keys to entities and enable verification of such public key bindings. Consequently, the components of the protocol increase notably. An alternative is to use Identity-Based Encryption (IBE). With this kind of cryptography, it is possible to have all the benefits offered by PKC, without neither the need of certificates nor all the core components of a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI). Considering the aforementioned, in this paper we propose an electronic voting protocol, which meets the privacy and robustness properties by using bilinear maps.
Towards Practical Whitebox Cryptography: Optimizing Efficiency and Space Hardness
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bogdanov, Andrey; Isobe, Takanori; Tischhauser, Elmar Wolfgang
2016-01-01
Whitebox cryptography aims to provide security for cryptographic algorithms in an untrusted environment where the adversary has full access to their implementation. Typical security goals for whitebox cryptography include key extraction security and decomposition security: Indeed, it should...... such as DES or AES are prone to practical key extraction attacks, there have been two dedicated design approaches for whitebox block ciphers: ASASA by Birykov et al. at ASIACRYPT'14 and SPACE by Bogdanov and Isobe at CCS'15. While ASASA suffers from decomposition attacks, SPACE reduces the security against...... key extraction and decomposition attacks in the white box to the security of a standard block cipher such as AES in the standard blackbox setting. However, due to the security-prioritized design strategy, SPACE imposes a sometimes prohibitive performance overhead in the real world as it needs many AES...
Region Incrementing Visual Cryptography Scheme with Same Contrast
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Shundong; LI Jiliang; WANG Daoshun
2016-01-01
In binary Region increm enting visual cryptography schemes (RIVCSs), the secrets of multi-ple secrecy regions can be gradually revealed by hu-man visual system. A characteristic of the existing binary RIVCSs different from traditional binary Visual cryptog-raphy schemes (VCSs) is that, the contrasts for different revealed regions are different while traditional binary VCSs have same contrast. To keep the quality (contrast) of re-covered image compatible with the traditional VCS, we use integer linear programming to design a binary (k,n)-RIVCS with same contrast for all secrecy regions in this paper. Experimental results demonstrate that our method is feasible and effective. The trade-off is that our schem e involves a larger pixel expansion.
Public-key cryptography in functional programming context
Márton, Gyöngyvér
2010-01-01
Up to now, for efficiency reasons cryptographic algorithm has been written in an imperative language. But to get acquaintance with a functional programming language a question arises: functional programming offers some new for secure communication or not? This article investigates this question giving an overview on some cryptography algorithms and presents how the RSA encryption in the functional language Clean can be implemented and how can be measured the efficiency of a certain application.
On Some Security Issues in Pervasive Computing - Light Weight Cryptography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rukma Rekha N
2012-02-01
Full Text Available Pervasive Computing Environment is a world where technologies fadeout into the background. The technology is invisible to the user and he is least distracted by the technology. This paper tries to focus on the issues of pervasive computing and reveals the security issues in pervasive computing. We try to find out the role of light weight cryptography in pervasive computing and a comparison between traditional and light weight cryptographic approaches was made.
Survey of Multiple Information Hiding Techniques using Visual Cryptography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bijoy Chhetri
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Information now a day‟s seems to have become abundant and the secure transmission and visualization of it has been a challenge. The major security concerns are of Authentication, Confidentiality and Data Integrity. In regard to this, the various security methodologies have been introduced and Cryptography is one of the schemes where the information is transferred in the disguise form and only authentic user can reveal the exact information. Various Cryptographic techniques has played a very vital role in this regard, among which Visual Cryptographic System(VCS is one of such kind where the secret data (image, text etc is encoded into multiple images and decoded using Human Visual System(HVS without having to tedious calculations and sound knowledge of Cryptography. VC is one of such methodology where the secret information is bifurcated into many disguise images and on super imposing these images, the original secret information is revealed, using Human Visual System(HVS unlike the traditional cryptography where lot of complex mathematical and time consuming calculation are to be performed. In this paper study of various VC techniques has been done based on number of shares, number of secret messages and types of shares in the cases of Grayscale Image.
Cryptographic Protocols under Quantum Attacks
Lunemann, Carolin
2011-01-01
The realm of this thesis is cryptographic protocol theory in the quantum world. We study the security of quantum and classical protocols against adversaries that are assumed to exploit quantum effects to their advantage. Security in the quantum world means that quantum computation does not jeopardize the assumption, underlying the protocol construction. But moreover, we encounter additional setbacks in the security proofs, which are mostly due to the fact that some well-known classical proof techniques are forbidden by certain properties of a quantum environment. Interestingly, we can exploit some of the very same properties to the benefit of quantum cryptography. Thus, this work lies right at the heart of the conflict between highly potential effects but likewise rather demanding conditions in the quantum world.
Petrocelli, John V; Dowd, Keith
2009-09-01
Punitive responses to crime have been linked to a relatively low need for cognition (NFC). Sargent's (2004) findings suggest that this relationship is due to a relatively complex attributional system, employed by high-NFC individuals, which permits them to recognize potential external or situational causes of crime. However, high-NFC individuals may also be more likely to engage in counterfactual thinking, which has been linked to greater judgments of blame and responsibility. Three studies examine the relationship between trait and state NFC and punitiveness in light of counterfactual thinking. Results suggest that the ease of generating upward counterfactuals in response to an unfortunate crime moderates the NFC-punitiveness relationship, such that high-NFC individuals are less punitive than low-NFC individuals only when counterfactual thoughts are relatively difficult to generate. These findings are discussed in light of punishment theory and their possible implications with regard to the legal system.
Practical quantum retrieval games
Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Karasamanis, Markos; Lütkenhaus, Norbert
2016-06-01
Complex cryptographic protocols are often constructed from simpler building blocks. In order to advance quantum cryptography, it is important to study practical building blocks that can be used to develop new protocols. An example is quantum retrieval games (QRGs), which have broad applicability and have already been used to construct quantum money schemes. In this work, we introduce a general construction of quantum retrieval games based on the hidden matching problem and show how they can be implemented in practice using available technology. More precisely, we provide a general method to construct (1-out-of-k ) QRGs, proving that their cheating probabilities decrease exponentially in k . In particular, we define QRGs based on coherent states of light, which can be implemented even in the presence of experimental imperfections. Our results constitute a tool in the arsenal of the practical quantum cryptographer.
Multi-pixel Visual Cryptography for color images with Meaningful Shares
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ms. KIRAN KUMARI,
2010-06-01
Full Text Available The important issue of visual cryptography is visual quality of recovered image. This paper presents Multi-pixel Visual Cryptography for color images to generate two meaningful shares. Some filters are proposed for better visual quality of recovered image and a new simple watermarking algorithm is proposed to generate meaningful shares.
What is the appropriate counterfactual when estimating effects of multilateral trade policy reform
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Anderson, Kym; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Nelgen, Signe;
2015-01-01
of the DDA’s possible effects thus requires first modelling the world economy to 2030 and, in that process, projecting what trade-related policies might be by then without a DDA. Typically, modelers assume the counterfactual policy regime to be a ‘business-as-usual’ projection assuming the status quo. Yet we...... by projecting the world economy to 2030 using the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model with those two alternative policy regimes and then simulating a move to global free trade (the maximum benefit from a multilateral trade reform) in each of those two cases. The welfare effects of removing...... the counterfactual price distortions in 2030 are shown to be much larger in the case where agricultural protection grows endogenously than in the case assuming no policy changes over the projection period. This suggests the traditional way of estimating effects of a multilateral agricultural trade agreement may...
Mechanism of bystander-blaming: defensive attribution, counterfactual thinking, and gender.
Levy, Inna; Ben-David, Sarah
2015-01-01
Contemporary victimology recognizes that an understanding of the mechanism of blaming requires a comprehensive approach that includes the victim, the offender, and the bystander. However, most of the existing research on blaming focuses on the victim and the offender, ignoring the issue of bystander-blaming. This study highlights the bystander and investigates bystander-blaming by exploring some theoretical explanations, including counterfactual thinking, defensive attribution, and gender differences. The study included 363 young male and female participants, who read vignettes describing the behavior of the victim and the bystander in a rape scenario and answered questions regarding bystander-blaming. The results show that both counterfactual thinking and defensive attribution play a role in bystander-blaming. This article addresses the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. © The Author(s) 2013.
Counterfactuals and history: Contingency and convergence in histories of science and life.
Hesketh, Ian
2016-08-01
This article examines a series of recent histories of science that have attempted to consider how science may have developed in slightly altered historical realities. These works have, moreover, been influenced by debates in evolutionary science about the opposing forces of contingency and convergence in regard to Stephen Jay Gould's notion of "replaying life's tape." The article argues that while the historians under analysis seem to embrace contingency in order to present their counterfactual narratives, for the sake of historical plausibility they are forced to accept a fairly weak role for contingency in shaping the development of science. It is therefore argued that Simon Conway Morris's theory of evolutionary convergence comes closer to describing the restrained counterfactual worlds imagined by these historians of science than does contingency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
When less is more: counterfactual thinking and satisfaction among Olympic medalists.
Medvec, V H; Madey, S F; Gilovich, T
1995-10-01
Research on counterfactual thinking has shown that people's emotional responses to events are influenced by their thoughts about "what might have been." The authors extend these findings by documenting a familiar occasion in which those who are objectively better off nonetheless feel worse. In particular, an analysis of the emotional reactions of bronze and silver medalists at the 1992 Summer Olympics--both at the conclusion of their events and on the medal stand--indicates that bronze medalists tend to be happier than silver medalists. The authors attribute these results to the fact that the most compelling counterfactual alternative for the silver medalist is winning the gold, whereas for the bronze medalist it is finishing without a medal. Support for this interpretation was obtained from the 1992 Olympics and the 1994 Empire State Games. The discussion focuses on the implications of endowment and contrast for well being.
Quantum Public-Key Cryptosystem
Luo, Ming-Xing; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Yun, Deng; Yang, Yi-Xian
2012-03-01
Quantum one-way functions play a fundamental role in cryptography because of its necessity for the secure encryption schemes taking into account the quantum computer. In this paper our purpose is to establish a theoretical framework for a candidate of the quantum one-way functions and quantum trapdoor functions based on one-parameter unitary groups. The dynamics of parameterized unitary groups ensure the one-wayness and quantum undistinguishability in different levels, and the physical feasibility are derived from the simultaneous approximation of its infinitesimal generators. Moreover, these special functions are used to construct new cryptosystems-the quantum public-key cryptosystems for encrypting both the classical and quantum information.
How Can African Agriculture Adapt to Climate Change? A Counterfactual Analysis from Ethiopia
2012-01-01
We analyze the impact of different adaptation strategies on crop net revenues in the Nile Basin of Ethiopia. We estimate a multinomial endogenous switching regression model of climate change adaptation and crop net revenues and implement a counterfactual analysis. Households data are combined with spatial climate data. We find that adaptation to climate change based upon a portfolio of strategies significantly increases farm net revenues. Changing crop varieties has a positive and significant...
The power of possibility: causal learning, counterfactual reasoning, and pretend play.
Buchsbaum, Daphna; Bridgers, Sophie; Skolnick Weisberg, Deena; Gopnik, Alison
2012-08-01
We argue for a theoretical link between the development of an extended period of immaturity in human evolution and the emergence of powerful and wide-ranging causal learning mechanisms, specifically the use of causal models and Bayesian learning. We suggest that exploratory childhood learning, childhood play in particular, and causal cognition are closely connected. We report an empirical study demonstrating one such connection--a link between pretend play and counterfactual causal reasoning. Preschool children given new information about a causal system made very similar inferences both when they considered counterfactuals about the system and when they engaged in pretend play about it. Counterfactual cognition and causally coherent pretence were also significantly correlated even when age, general cognitive development and executive function were controlled for. These findings link a distinctive human form of childhood play and an equally distinctive human form of causal inference. We speculate that, during human evolution, computations that were initially reserved for solving particularly important ecological problems came to be used much more widely and extensively during the long period of protected immaturity.
Quantum Cost Efficient Reversible BCD Adder for Nanotechnology Based Systems
Islam, Md Saiful; Begum, Zerina
2011-01-01
Reversible logic allows low power dissipating circuit design and founds its application in cryptography, digital signal processing, quantum and optical information processing. This paper presents a novel quantum cost efficient reversible BCD adder for nanotechnology based systems using PFAG gate. It has been demonstrated that the proposed design offers less hardware complexity and requires minimum number of garbage outputs than the existing counterparts. The remarkable property of the proposed designs is that its quantum realization is given in NMR technology.
Enhanced security for multi-detector Quantum Random Number Generators
Marangon, Davide G.; Vallone, Giuseppe; Zanforlin, Ugo; Villoresi, Paolo
2016-01-01
Quantum random number generators (QRNG) represent an advanced solution for randomness generation, essential in every cryptographic applications. In this context, integrated arrays of single photon detectors have promising applications as QRNGs based on the spatial detection of photons. For the employment of QRNGs in Cryptography, it is necessary to have efficient methods to evaluate the so called quantum min-entropy that corresponds to the amount of the true extractable quantum randomness fro...
General Impossibility of Group Homomorphic Encryption in the Quantum World
Armknecht, Frederik; Gagliardoni, Tommaso; Katzenbeisser, Stefan; Peter, Andreas
2014-01-01
Group homomorphic encryption represents one of the most important building blocks in modern cryptography. It forms the basis of widely-used, more sophisticated primitives, such as CCA2-secure encryption or secure multiparty computation. Unfortunately, recent advances in quantum computation show that many of the existing schemes completely break down once quantum computers reach maturity (mainly due to Shor's algorithm). This leads to the challenge of constructing quantum-resistant group homom...
An application of different dioids in public key cryptography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Durcheva, Mariana I., E-mail: mdurcheva66@gmail.com [Technical University of Sofia, Faculty of Applied Mathematics and Informatics, 8 Kliment Ohridski St., Sofia 1000 (Bulgaria)
2014-11-18
Dioids provide a natural framework for analyzing a broad class of discrete event dynamical systems such as the design and analysis of bus and railway timetables, scheduling of high-throughput industrial processes, solution of combinatorial optimization problems, the analysis and improvement of flow systems in communication networks. They have appeared in several branches of mathematics such as functional analysis, optimization, stochastic systems and dynamic programming, tropical geometry, fuzzy logic. In this paper we show how to involve dioids in public key cryptography. The main goal is to create key – exchange protocols based on dioids. Additionally the digital signature scheme is presented.
Geometry, algebra and applications from mechanics to cryptography
Encinas, Luis; Gadea, Pedro; María, Mª
2016-01-01
This volume collects contributions written by different experts in honor of Prof. Jaime Muñoz Masqué. It covers a wide variety of research topics, from differential geometry to algebra, but particularly focuses on the geometric formulation of variational calculus; geometric mechanics and field theories; symmetries and conservation laws of differential equations, and pseudo-Riemannian geometry of homogeneous spaces. It also discusses algebraic applications to cryptography and number theory. It offers state-of-the-art contributions in the context of current research trends. The final result is a challenging panoramic view of connecting problems that initially appear distant.
Watermarking Scheme Based on Wavelet Transformation and Visual Cryptography
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Young-Chang Hou; Shih-Chieh Wei; Hsin-Ju Liu; A-Yu Tseng
2014-01-01
Based on the principles of the visual cryptography and the law of large numbers, the unexpanded shares are generated during the processes of embedding and verifying the hidden watermark. The watermark embedding is done in the frequency domain, which can be decoded by the human visual system (HVS) without the necessity of any complicated computation and the help of the original image. Experimental results indicated that our method had a good robustness on darkening, lightening, blurring, sharpening, noise, distorting, jitter, joint photographic experts group (JPEG) compression, and crop attacks.
A Luggage Control System Based on NFC and Homomorphic Cryptography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Néstor Álvarez-Díaz
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We propose an innovative luggage tracking and management system that can be used to secure airport terminal services and reduce the waiting time of passengers during check-in. This addresses an urgent need to streamline and optimize passenger flows at airport terminals and lowers the risk of terrorist threats. The system employs Near Field Communication (NFC technology and homomorphic cryptography (the Paillier cryptosystem to protect wireless communication and stored data. A security analysis and a performance test show the usability and applicability of the proposed system.
Cyber Security for Smart Grid, Cryptography, and Privacy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Swapna Iyer
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The invention of “smart grid” promises to improve the efficiency and reliability of the power system. As smart grid is turning out to be one of the most promising technologies, its security concerns are becoming more crucial. The grid is susceptible to different types of attacks. This paper will focus on these threats and risks especially relating to cyber security. Cyber security is a vital topic, since the smart grid uses high level of computation like the IT. We will also see cryptography and key management techniques that are required to overcome these attacks. Privacy of consumers is another important security concern that this paper will deal with.
Implementing SSL/TLS using cryptography and PKI
Davies, Joshua
2011-01-01
Hands-on, practical guide to implementing SSL and TLS protocols for Internet security If you are a network professional who knows C programming, this practical book is for you. Focused on how to implement Secure Socket Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS), this book guides you through all necessary steps, whether or not you have a working knowledge of cryptography. The book covers SSLv2, TLS 1.0, and TLS 1.2, including implementations of the relevant cryptographic protocols, secure hashing, certificate parsing, certificate generation, and more. Coverage includes: Underst
Survey paper on different approaches of Threshold Cryptography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Neha Gupta
2012-09-01
Full Text Available A traditional key management service is based on a Certificate Authority or a Trusted Third party. Security solutions for traditional network are not suitable for Mobile ad hoc network. The characteristics of MANET presence a number of challenges to security such as self-configuring, wireless links, infrastructure less nature. Threshold cryptography has proved to be an effective technique for key distribution and management. In this paper we highlight the different approaches used for certificate generation, discovering and authentication of public keys.
Enhancing Information Security and Privacy by Combining Biometrics with Cryptography
Kanade, Sanjay
2012-01-01
This book deals with "crypto-biometrics", a relatively new and multi-disciplinary area of research (started in 1998). Combining biometrics and cryptography provides multiple advantages, such as, revocability, template diversity, better verification accuracy, and generation of cryptographically usable keys that are strongly linked to the user identity. In this text, a thorough review of the subject is provided and then some of the main categories are illustrated with recently proposed systems by the authors. Beginning with the basics, this text deals with various aspects of crypto-biometrics, i
Novel optical scanning cryptography using Fresnel telescope imaging.
Yan, Aimin; Sun, Jianfeng; Hu, Zhijuan; Zhang, Jingtao; Liu, Liren
2015-07-13
We propose a new method called modified optical scanning cryptography using Fresnel telescope imaging technique for encryption and decryption of remote objects. An image or object can be optically encrypted on the fly by Fresnel telescope scanning system together with an encryption key. For image decryption, the encrypted signals are received and processed with an optical coherent heterodyne detection system. The proposed method has strong performance through use of secure Fresnel telescope scanning with orthogonal polarized beams and efficient all-optical information processing. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated by numerical simulations and experimental results.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张盛; 王剑; 唐朝京; 张权
2011-01-01
It is established that a single quantum cryptography protocol usually cooperates with other cryptographic systems, such as an authentication system, in the real world. However, few protocols have been proposed on how to combine two or more quantum protocols. To fill this gap, we propose a composed quantum protocol, containing both quantum identity authentication and quantum key distribution, using squeezed states. Hence, not only the identity can be verified, but also a new private key can be generated by our new protocol. We also analyze the security under an optimal attack, and the efficiency, which is defined by the threshold of the tolerant error rate, using Gaussian error function.
Schroeder, Manfred
2009-01-01
"Number Theory in Science and Communication" is a well-known introduction for non-mathematicians to this fascinating and useful branch of applied mathematics . It stresses intuitive understanding rather than abstract theory and highlights important concepts such as continued fractions, the golden ratio, quadratic residues and Chinese remainders, trapdoor functions, pseudoprimes and primitive elements. Their applications to problems in the real world are one of the main themes of the book. This revised fifth edition is augmented by recent advances in coding theory, permutations and derangements and a chapter in quantum cryptography. From reviews of earlier editions – "I continue to find [Schroeder’s] Number Theory a goldmine of valuable information. It is a marvellous book, in touch with the most recent applications of number theory and written with great clarity and humor.’ Philip Morrison (Scientific American) "A light-hearted and readable volume with a wide range of applications to which the author ha...
Elliott, C
2004-01-01
A team from BBN Technologies, Boston University, and Harvard University has recently built and begun to operate the world's first Quantum Key Distribution (QKD)network under DARPA sponsorship. The DARPA Quantum Network became fully operational on October 23, 2003 in BBN's laboratories, and in June 2004 was fielded through dark fiber under the streets of Cambridge, Mass., to link our campuses with non-stop quantum cryptography, twenty-four hours per day. As of December 2004, it consists of six nodes. Four are 5 MHz, BBN-built BB84 systems designed for telecommunications fiber and inter-connected by a photonic switch. Two are the electronics subsystems for a high speed free-space system designed and built by NIST. This paper describes the motivation for our work, the current status of the DARPA Quantum Network, its unique optical switching and key relay protocols, and our future plans.
Quantum random number generation
Ma, Xiongfeng; Yuan, Xiao; Cao, Zhu; Qi, Bing; Zhang, Zhen
2016-06-01
Quantum physics can be exploited to generate true random numbers, which have important roles in many applications, especially in cryptography. Genuine randomness from the measurement of a quantum system reveals the inherent nature of quantumness—coherence, an important feature that differentiates quantum mechanics from classical physics. The generation of genuine randomness is generally considered impossible with only classical means. On the basis of the degree of trustworthiness on devices, quantum random number generators (QRNGs) can be grouped into three categories. The first category, practical QRNG, is built on fully trusted and calibrated devices and typically can generate randomness at a high speed by properly modelling the devices. The second category is self-testing QRNG, in which verifiable randomness can be generated without trusting the actual implementation. The third category, semi-self-testing QRNG, is an intermediate category that provides a tradeoff between the trustworthiness on the device and the random number generation speed.
Frodo: Take off the ring! Practical, quantum-secure key exchange from LWE
J. Bos; C.J. Costello (Craig); L. Ducas (Léo); Mironov (I); Naehrig (Michael); Nikolaendo (Valieria); Ragghunathan (Ananth); Stebila (Douglas)
2016-01-01
textabstractLattice-based cryptography offers some of the most attractive primitives believed to be resistant to quantum computers. Following increasing interest from both companies and government agencies in building quantum computers, a number of works have proposed instantiations of practical
Embracing the quantum limit in silicon computing.
Morton, John J L; McCamey, Dane R; Eriksson, Mark A; Lyon, Stephen A
2011-11-16
Quantum computers hold the promise of massive performance enhancements across a range of applications, from cryptography and databases to revolutionary scientific simulation tools. Such computers would make use of the same quantum mechanical phenomena that pose limitations on the continued shrinking of conventional information processing devices. Many of the key requirements for quantum computing differ markedly from those of conventional computers. However, silicon, which plays a central part in conventional information processing, has many properties that make it a superb platform around which to build a quantum computer.
DESIGN OF A NEW SECURITY PROTOCOL USING HYBRID CRYPTOGRAPHY ALGORITHMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dr.S.Subasree and Dr.N.K.Sakthivel
2010-02-01
Full Text Available A Computer Network is an interconnected group of autonomous computing nodes, which use a well defined, mutually agreed set of rules and conventions known as protocols, interact with one-another meaningfully and allow resource sharing preferably in a predictable and controllable manner. Communication has a major impact on today’s business. It is desired to communicate data with high security. Security Attacks compromises the security and hence various Symmetric and Asymmetric cryptographic algorithms have been proposed to achieve the security services such as Authentication, Confidentiality, Integrity, Non-Repudiation and Availability. At present, various types of cryptographic algorithms provide high security to information on controlled networks. These algorithms are required to provide data security and users authenticity. To improve the strength of these security algorithms, a new security protocol for on line transaction can be designed using combination of both symmetric and asymmetric cryptographic techniques. This protocol provides three cryptographic primitives such as integrity, confidentiality and authentication. These three primitives can be achieved with the help of Elliptic Curve Cryptography, Dual-RSA algorithm and Message Digest MD5. That is it uses Elliptic Curve Cryptography for encryption, Dual-RSA algorithm for authentication and MD-5 for integrity. This new security protocol has been designed for better security with integrity using a combination of both symmetric and asymmetric cryptographic techniques.
Architecture for the Secret-Key BC3 Cryptography Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arif Sasongko
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Cryptography is a very important aspect in data security. The focus of research in this field is shifting from merely security aspect to consider as well the implementation aspect. This paper aims to introduce BC3 algorithm with focus on its hardware implementation. It proposes architecture for the hardware implementation for this algorithm. BC3 algorithm is a secret-key cryptography algorithm developed with two considerations: robustness and implementation efficiency. This algorithm has been implemented on software and has good performance compared to AES algorithm. BC3 is improvement of BC2 and AE cryptographic algorithm and it is expected to have the same level of robustness and to gain competitive advantages in the implementation aspect. The development of the architecture gives much attention on (1 resource sharing and (2 having single clock for each round. It exploits regularity of the algorithm. This architecture is then implemented on an FPGA. This implementation is three times smaller area than AES, but about five times faster. Furthermore, this BC3 hardware implementation has better performance compared to BC3 software both in key expansion stage and randomizing stage. For the future, the security of this implementation must be reviewed especially against side channel attack.
A Novel Authenticity of an Image Using Visual Cryptography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Prashant Kumar Koshta
2012-04-01
Full Text Available A digital signature is an important public-key primitive thatperforms the function of conventional handwritten signatures forentity authentication, data integrity, and non-repudiation,especially within the electronic commerce environment.Currently, most conventional digital signature schemes are basedon mathematical hard problems. These mathematical algorithmsrequire computers to perform the heavy and complexcomputations to generate and verify the keys and signatures. In1995, Naor and Shamir proposed a visual cryptography (VC forbinary images. VC has high security and requires simplecomputations. The purpose of this thesis is to provide analternative to the current digital signature technology. Weintroduce a new digital signature scheme based on the concept ofa non-expansion visual cryptography. A visual digital signaturescheme is a method to enable visual verification of theauthenticity of an image in an insecure environment without theneed to perform any complex computations. We proposedscheme generates visual shares and manipulates them using thesimple Boolean operations OR rather than generating andcomputing large and long random integer values as in theconventional digital signature schemes currently in use.
Cryptography on Android Message Applications – A Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nishika
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Short Message Service (SMS is a text messaging service component of phone, web, or mobile communication systems, using standardized communications protocols that allow the exchange of short text messages between fixed line or mobile phone devices. Security of SMS’s is still an open challenging task. Various Cryptographic algorithms have been applied to secure the mobile SMS. The success of any cryptography technique depends on various factors like complexity, time, memory requirement, cost etc. In this paper we survey the most common and widely used SMS Encryption techniques. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages. Recent trends on Cryptography on android message applications have also been discussed. The latest cryptographic algorithm is based on lookup table and dynamic key which is easy to implement and to use and improve the efficiency. In this paper, an improvement in lookup tableand dynamic algorithm is proposed. Rather than using the Static Lookup Table, Dynamic Lookup Table may be used which will improve the overall efficiency.
Fourier-based automatic alignment for improved Visual Cryptography schemes.
Machizaud, Jacques; Chavel, Pierre; Fournel, Thierry
2011-11-01
In Visual Cryptography, several images, called "shadow images", that separately contain no information, are overlapped to reveal a shared secret message. We develop a method to digitally register one printed shadow image acquired by a camera with a purely digital shadow image, stored in memory. Using Fourier techniques derived from Fourier Optics concepts, the idea is to enhance and exploit the quasi periodicity of the shadow images, composed by a random distribution of black and white patterns on a periodic sampling grid. The advantage is to speed up the security control or the access time to the message, in particular in the cases of a small pixel size or of large numbers of pixels. Furthermore, the interest of visual cryptography can be increased by embedding the initial message in two shadow images that do not have identical mathematical supports, making manual registration impractical. Experimental results demonstrate the successful operation of the method, including the possibility to directly project the result onto the printed shadow image.
Measures and applications of quantum correlations
Adesso, Gerardo; Cianciaruso, Marco
2016-01-01
Quantum information theory is built upon the realisation that quantum resources like coherence and entanglement can be exploited for novel or enhanced ways of transmitting and manipulating information, such as quantum cryptography, teleportation, and quantum computing. We now know that there is potentially much more than entanglement behind the power of quantum information processing. There exist more general forms of non-classical correlations, stemming from fundamental principles such as the necessary disturbance induced by a local measurement, or the persistence of quantum coherence in all possible local bases. These signatures can be identified and are resilient in almost all quantum states, and have been linked to the enhanced performance of certain quantum protocols over classical ones in noisy conditions. Their presence represents, among other things, one of the most essential manifestations of quantumness in cooperative systems, from the subatomic to the macroscopic domain. In this work we give an ove...
Quantum mechanics a modern development
Ballentine, Leslie E
2015-01-01
Although there are many textbooks that deal with the formal apparatus of quantum mechanics (QM) and its application to standard problems, none take into account the developments in the foundations of the subject which have taken place in the last few decades. There are specialized treatises on various aspects of the foundations of QM, but none that integrate those topics with the standard material. This book aims to remove that unfortunate dichotomy, which has divorced the practical aspects of the subject from the interpretation and broader implications of the theory. In this edition a new chapter on quantum information is added. As the topic is still in a state of rapid development, a comprehensive treatment is not feasible. The emphasis is on the fundamental principles and some key applications, including quantum cryptography, teleportation of states, and quantum computing. The impact of quantum information theory on the foundations of quantum mechanics is discussed. In addition, there are minor revisions ...
Popescu-Rohrlich correlations imply efficient instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation
Broadbent, Anne
2016-08-01
In instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation, two parties cooperate in order to perform a quantum computation on their joint inputs, while being restricted to a single round of simultaneous communication. Previous results showed that instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation is possible, at the cost of an exponential amount of prior shared entanglement (in the size of the input). Here, we show that a linear amount of entanglement suffices, (in the size of the computation), as long as the parties share nonlocal correlations as given by the Popescu-Rohrlich box. This means that communication is not required for efficient instantaneous nonlocal quantum computation. Exploiting the well-known relation to position-based cryptography, our result also implies the impossibility of secure position-based cryptography against adversaries with nonsignaling correlations. Furthermore, our construction establishes a quantum analog of the classical communication complexity collapse under nonsignaling correlations.
Ramakrishnan, B
2009-01-01
This collection of articles contains the proceedings of the two international conferences (on Number Theory and Cryptography) held at the Harish - Chandra Research Institute. In recent years the interest in number theory has increased due to its applications in areas like error-correcting codes and cryptography. These proceedings contain papers in various areas of number theory, such as combinatorial, algebraic, analytic and transcendental aspects, arithmetic algebraic geometry, as well as graph theory and cryptography. While some papers do contain new results, several of the papers are expository articles that mention open questions, which will be useful to young researchers.
Introduction to the theory of quantum information processing
Bergou, János A
2013-01-01
Introduction to the Theory of Quantum Information Processing provides the material for a one-semester graduate level course on quantum information theory and quantum computing for students who have had a one-year graduate course in quantum mechanics. Many standard subjects are treated, such as density matrices, entanglement, quantum maps, quantum cryptography, and quantum codes. Also included are discussions of quantum machines and quantum walks. In addition, the book provides detailed treatments of several underlying fundamental principles of quantum theory, such as quantum measurements, the no-cloning and no-signaling theorems, and their consequences. Problems of various levels of difficulty supplement the text, with the most challenging problems bringing the reader to the forefront of active research. This book provides a compact introduction to the fascinating and rapidly evolving interdisciplinary field of quantum information theory, and it prepares the reader for doing active research in this area.
Towards a high-speed quantum random number generator
Stucki, Damien; Burri, Samuel; Charbon, Edoardo; Chunnilall, Christopher; Meneghetti, Alessio; Regazzoni, Francesco
2013-10-01
Randomness is of fundamental importance in various fields, such as cryptography, numerical simulations, or the gaming industry. Quantum physics, which is fundamentally probabilistic, is the best option for a physical random number generator. In this article, we will present the work carried out in various projects in the context of the development of a commercial and certified high speed random number generator.
General Impossibility of Group Homomorphic Encryption in the Quantum World
Armknecht, Frederik; Gagliardoni, Tommaso; Katzenbeisser, Stefan; Peter, Andreas
2014-01-01
Group homomorphic encryption represents one of the most important building blocks in modern cryptography. It forms the basis of widely-used, more sophisticated primitives, such as CCA2-secure encryption or secure multiparty computation. Unfortunately, recent advances in quantum computation show that
A quantum symmetric key cipher(Y-00) and key generation (Quantum stream cipher-Part II)
Hirota, O; Sohma, M; Fuse, M; Hirota, Osamu; Kato, Kentaro; Sohma, Masaki; Fuse, Masaru
2004-01-01
What obstructs the realization of useful quantum cryptography is single photon scheme, or entanglement which is not applicable to the current infrastructure of optical communication network. We are concerned with the following question: Can we realize the information theoretically secure symmetric key cipher under "the finite secret key" based on quantum-optical communications? A role of quantum information theory is to give an answer for such a question. As an answer for the question, a new quantum cryptography was proposed by H.P.Yuen, which can realize a secure symmetric key cipher with high speeds(Gbps) and for long distance(1000 Km). Although some researchers claim that Yuen protocol(Y-00) is equivalent to the classical cryptography, they are all mistaken. Indeed it has no classical analogue, and also provides a generalization even in the conventional cryptography. At present, it is proved that a basic model of Y-00 has at least the security such as $H(X|Y_E)=H(K|Y_E)=H(K)$, $H(K|Y_E,X)\\sim 0$ under the ...
Multi secret image color visual cryptography schemes for general access structures
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
In the proposed visual cryptography schemes for general access structures, the single secret image black-and-white visual cryptography schemes with meaningful shares have been constructed, in which the shares are innocent looking images. The meaningful shares have not been realized in single secret image color schemes; neither have the multi secret images color schemes. In this paper, the multi secret images color visual cryptography schemes for general access structures with meaningful shares are constructed by the method of matrix concatenation, the pixel expansion is obtained, and the validity of the scheme is proven. In our scheme, the different combination of meaningful color shares can be used to recover distinct color secret images. The multi secret images black-and-white visual cryptography scheme is a special case of our color scheme.
Cryptanalysis and security enhancement of optical cryptography based on computational ghost imaging
Yuan, Sheng; Yao, Jianbin; Liu, Xuemei; Zhou, Xin; Li, Zhongyang
2016-04-01
Optical cryptography based on computational ghost imaging (CGI) has attracted much attention of researchers because it encrypts plaintext into a random intensity vector rather than complexed-valued function. This promising feature of the CGI-based cryptography reduces the amount of data to be transmitted and stored and therefore brings convenience in practice. However, we find that this cryptography is vulnerable to chosen-plaintext attack because of the linear relationship between the input and output of the encryption system, and three feasible strategies are proposed to break it in this paper. Even though a large number of plaintexts need to be chosen in these attack methods, it means that this cryptography still exists security risks. To avoid these attacks, a security enhancement method utilizing an invertible matrix modulation is further discussed and the feasibility is verified by numerical simulations.
Private quantum computation: an introduction to blind quantum computing and related protocols
Fitzsimons, Joseph F.
2017-06-01
Quantum technologies hold the promise of not only faster algorithmic processing of data, via quantum computation, but also of more secure communications, in the form of quantum cryptography. In recent years, a number of protocols have emerged which seek to marry these concepts for the purpose of securing computation rather than communication. These protocols address the task of securely delegating quantum computation to an untrusted device while maintaining the privacy, and in some instances the integrity, of the computation. We present a review of the progress to date in this emerging area.
Quantum Information in Space and Time
Volovich, I V
2001-01-01
Many important results in modern quantum information theory have been obtained for an idealized situation when the spacetime dependence of quantum phenomena is neglected. However the transmission and processing of (quantum) information is a physical process in spacetime. Therefore such basic notions in quantum information theory as the notions of composite systems, entangled states and the channel should be formulated in space and time. We emphasize the importance of the investigation of quantum information in space and time. Entangled states in space and time are considered. A modification of Bell`s equation which includes the spacetime variables is suggested. A general relation between quantum theory and theory of classical stochastic processes is proposed. It expresses the condition of local realism in the form of a {\\it noncommutative spectral theorem}. Applications of this relation to the security of quantum key distribution in quantum cryptography are considered.
GIVING YOURSELF A GOOD BEATING: APPRAISAL, ATTRIBUTION, RUMINATION, AND COUNTERFACTUAL THINKING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katie Dray
2009-11-01
Full Text Available How individuals respond to adversity is one component of mental toughness and athletes may manage the adversity of a defeat in very different ways. In this article we focus on four types of cognition (appraisal, attribution, counterfactual thinking, and rumination that athletes may exhibit in the immediate aftermath of a competitive defeat. In particular we define each of these terms and present a "caricature" of each of the respective literatures, focussing on the prevailing trends and substantive findings. These caricatures assist in the identification of several areas in which literature on athletes' retrospective cognition about defeat may be advanced. We use combat sports as a vehicle to illustrate our propositions
Metzinger, Thomas
2014-01-01
Seth develops a convincing and detailed internalist alternative to the sensorimotor-contingency theory of perceptual phenomenology. However, there are remaining conceptual problems due to a semantic ambiguity in the notion of "presence" and the idea of "subjective veridicality." The current model should be integrated with the earlier idea that experiential "realness" and "mind-independence" are determined by the unavailability of earlier processing stages to attention. Counterfactual richness and attentional unavailability may both be indicators of the overall processing level currently achieved, a functional property that normally correlates with epistemic reliability. Perceptual presence as well as phenomenal transparency express epistemic reliability on the level of conscious processing.
Using counterfactuals to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of controlling biological invasions.
McConnachie, Matthew M; van Wilgen, Brian W; Ferraro, Paul J; Forsyth, Aurelia T; Richardson, David M; Gaertner, Mirijam; Cowling, Richard M
2016-03-01
Prioritizing limited conservation funds for controlling biological invasions requires accurate estimates of the effectiveness of interventions to remove invasive species and their cost-effectiveness (cost per unit area or individual). Despite billions of dollars spent controlling biological invasions worldwide, it is unclear whether those efforts are effective, and cost-effective. The paucity of evidence results from the difficulty in measuring the effect of invasive species removal: a researcher must estimate the difference in outcomes (e.g. invasive species cover) between where the removal program intervened and what might have been observed if the program had not intervened. In the program evaluation literature, this is called a counterfactual analysis, which formally compares what actually happened and what would have happened in the absence of an intervention. When program implementation is not randomized, estimating counterfactual outcomes is especially difficult. We show how a thorough understanding of program implementation, combined with a matching empirical design can improve the way counterfactual outcomes are estimated in nonexperimental contexts. As a practical demonstration, we estimated the cost-effectiveness of South Africa's Working for Water program, arguably the world's most ambitious invasive species control program, in removing invasive alien trees from different land use types, across a large area in the Cape Floristic Region. We estimated that the proportion of the treatment area covered by invasive trees would have been 49% higher (5.5% instead of 2.7% of the grid cells occupied) had the program not intervened. Our estimates of cost per hectare to remove invasive species, however, are three to five times higher than the predictions made when the program was initiated. Had there been no control (counter-factual), invasive trees would have spread on untransformed land, but not on land parcels containing plantations or land transformed by
Why cryptography should not rely on physical attack complexity
Krämer, Juliane
2015-01-01
This book presents two practical physical attacks. It shows how attackers can reveal the secret key of symmetric as well as asymmetric cryptographic algorithms based on these attacks, and presents countermeasures on the software and the hardware level that can help to prevent them in the future. Though their theory has been known for several years now, since neither attack has yet been successfully implemented in practice, they have generally not been considered a serious threat. In short, their physical attack complexity has been overestimated and the implied security threat has been underestimated. First, the book introduces the photonic side channel, which offers not only temporal resolution, but also the highest possible spatial resolution. Due to the high cost of its initial implementation, it has not been taken seriously. The work shows both simple and differential photonic side channel analyses. Then, it presents a fault attack against pairing-based cryptography. Due to the need for at least two indepe...
Malicious cryptography techniques for unreversable (malicious or not) binaries
Filiol, Eric
2010-01-01
Fighting against computer malware require a mandatory step of reverse engineering. As soon as the code has been disassemblied/decompiled (including a dynamic analysis step), there is a hope to understand what the malware actually does and to implement a detection mean. This also applies to protection of software whenever one wishes to analyze them. In this paper, we show how to amour code in such a way that reserse engineering techniques (static and dymanic) are absolutely impossible by combining malicious cryptography techniques developped in our laboratory and new types of programming (k-ary codes). Suitable encryption algorithms combined with new cryptanalytic approaches to ease the protection of (malicious or not) binaries, enable to provide both total code armouring and large scale polymorphic features at the same time. A simple 400 Kb of executable code enables to produce a binary code and around $2^{140}$ mutated forms natively while going far beyond the old concept of decryptor.
SPEED AND SECURITY ENHANCEMENT THROUGH PUBLIC KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.SAIGEETHA
2010-08-01
Full Text Available It is true that the transfer of data is essential in the fast developing world. It is equally true that the transfer of data tobe taken place with much security by not giving groom to the intruders. This paper presents the analysis of the security of information with enhanced the speed of encryption and decryption process. This process uses public key cryptography via RSA algorithm with some modification. There are two keys used in RSA algorithm foreffectiveness in the aspect of security one being the public key used for all and the other being the secret key. The implementation is done in the JAVA language and crypt analysis is performed to check the level of protection and speed .
State-of-the-Art Visual Cryptography Schemes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahmoud E. Hodeish
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Visual Cryptography (VC is recent technology used to the strengthen security of many applications in various fields. It allows visual information like printed text, handwritten notes, and images to be encrypted by dividing it into shares. The most important characteristic of VCS is that one can visually decrypted the secret image by stacking shares without computation. The current paper aims at introducing a descriptive review for VC, which covering the "state-of-the-art" concept, and classification of schemes. In this paper, we have classified the VC schemes and provide some interpretation on the base of some various measures such as pixel expansion, share generated, format of secret image and number of secret image, which actually deemed as valuable contribution in the field of VC studies
A Hyper Modern Cryptography Algorithm to Improved Data Security: HMCA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vishwa Gupta
2011-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an improved block cipher symmetric encryption algorithm that has the same structure of encryption and decryption. So far, conventional cryptography algorithms have difference structure of encryption and decryption. We devise our algorithm by inserting a symmetric layer using random number, encryption number and XOR operations, in which the whole proposed algorithm rounds uses encryption procedure and the same for it decryption procedure. The symmetry layer is put between encryption part and decryption one. The proposed algorithm has the batter speed compared with the comparing encryption algorithm. Nevertheless, the proposed algorithm improves encryption security by inserting the symmetric layer. The proposed algorithm will be useful to the applications which require the same procedure of encryption and decryption
INTEGRATING IDENTITY-BASED CRYPTOGRAPHY IN IMS SERVICE AUTHENTICATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamed Abid
2009-10-01
Full Text Available Nowadays, the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS is a promising research field. Many ongoing works related to the security and the performances of its employment are presented to the research community. Although, the security and data privacy aspects are very important in the IMS global objectives, they observe little attention so far. Secure access to multimedia services is based on SIP and HTTP digest on top of IMS architecture. The standard deploys AKA-MD5 for the terminal authentication. The third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP provided Generic Bootstrapping Architecture (GBA toauthenticate the subscriber before accessing multimedia services over HTTP. In this paper, we propose a new IMS Service Authentication scheme using Identity Based cryptography (IBC. This new scheme willlead to better performances when there are simultaneous authentication requests using Identity-based Batch Verification. We analyzed the security of our new protocol and we presented a performance evaluation of its cryptographic operations.
Step to improve neural cryptography against flipping attacks.
Zhou, Jiantao; Xu, Qinzhen; Pei, Wenjiang; He, Zhenya; Szu, Harold
2004-12-01
Synchronization of neural networks by mutual learning has been demonstrated to be possible for constructing key exchange protocol over public channel. However, the neural cryptography schemes presented so far are not the securest under regular flipping attack (RFA) and are completely insecure under majority flipping attack (MFA). We propose a scheme by splitting the mutual information and the training process to improve the security of neural cryptosystem against flipping attacks. Both analytical and simulation results show that the success probability of RFA on the proposed scheme can be decreased to the level of brute force attack (BFA) and the success probability of MFA still decays exponentially with the weights' level L. The synchronization time of the parties also remains polynomial with L. Moreover, we analyze the security under an advanced flipping attack.
SECURITY SYSTEM FOR DATA USING STEGANOGRAPHY AND CRYPTOGRAPHY (SSDSC
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ayman Wazwaz1
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Security System for Data using Steganography and Cryptography (SSDSC is a set of hardware and software components that will be used to send secured documents through the internet. Some of the software will be loaded into a microcontrollers in order to increase the complexity and security. The data will be encrypted using the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES algorithm with a key from the Raspberry PI microcontroller and hide it inside an image using Least Significant Bit (LSB algorithm, the data will be invisible. The image will be transmitted and received through the internet, the receivers will extract the hidden data from the image and decrypt it to have the original data with the image. Complicating the steps of hiding and encryption will reduce the possiblity of intrusin of secured documents, and the process will be trasparent to the user to increase security without affecting the normal steps and the behavior in secured documents exchange.
Secure Antnet Routing Algorithm for Scalable Adhoc Networks Using Elliptic Curve Cryptography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Vijayalakshmi
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The secure end-to-end route discovery in the decentralized Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANETs should have to meet the requirements of prevention of DoS attacks on data traffic, should be adaptive and fault tolerant and must have high speed, low energy overhead and scalability for future development. In this research a secure routing using antnet mechanism and mutual authentication using Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC has been proposed to meet the above requirements. The common perception of public key cryptography is that it is not well suited for adhoc networks as they are very complex and slow. Against this popular belief, this research implements Elliptic Curve Cryptography -a public key cryptography scheme. ECC provides a similar level of security to conventional integer-based public-key algorithms, but with much shorter keys. Because of the shorter keys ECC algorithms run faster, require less space and consume less energy. These advantages make ECC a better choice of public key cryptography, especially for a resource constrained systems like MANETs. Using the antnet routing algorithm, the highly trustable route will be selected for data transfer and each Mobile Node (MN in MANET maintains the trust value of its one-hop neighbors. The mutual authentication between source and destination is done by master key exchange using Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC. v
Plasmonics for emerging quantum technologies
Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Mortensen, N. Asger
2017-01-01
Expanding the frontiers of information processing technologies and, in particular, computing with ever-increasing speed and capacity has long been recognized as an important societal challenge, calling for the development of the next generation of quantum technologies. With its potential to exponentially increase computing power, quantum computing opens up possibilities to carry out calculations that ordinary computers could not finish in the lifetime of the universe, whereas optical communications based on quantum cryptography become completely secure. At the same time, the emergence of Big Data and the ever-increasing demands of miniaturization and energy-saving technologies bring about additional fundamental problems and technological challenges to be addressed in scientific disciplines dealing with light-matter interactions. In this context, quantum plasmonics represents one of the most promising and fundamental research directions and, indeed, the only one that enables the ultimate miniaturization of photonic components for quantum optics when being taken to extreme limits in light-matter interactions.
Cryptanalysis and improvement of a quantum private set intersection protocol
Cheng, Xiaogang; Guo, Ren; Chen, Yonghong
2017-02-01
A recent Quantum Private Set Intersection (QPSI) scheme is crypt-analyzed. The original claimed communication overhead is shown to be not accurate. And the original security definition is passive and not fair. To ensure fairness, a passive third party is introduced. It is also shown that unconditional fairness of QPSI protocol is impossible. Since otherwise, it would violate a well-known impossible quantum cryptography result.
Practical Quantum Key Distribution with Polarization-Entangled Photons
Poppe, A; Lorünser, T; Maurhardt, O; Ursin, R; Boehm, H R; Peev, M; Suda, M; Jennewein, T; Zeilinger, Anton
2004-01-01
We present an entangled state quantum cryptography system that operated for the first time in a real world application scenario. The full key generation protocol was performed in real time between two distributed embedded hardware devices, which were connected by 1.45 km of optical fiber, installed for this experiment in the Vienna sewage system. The generated quantum key was immediately handed over and used by a secure communication application.
Quantum Information with Structured Light
Mirhosseini, Mohammad
Quantum information science promises dramatic progress in a variety of fields such as cryptography, computation, and metrology. Although the proof-of-principle attempts for implementing quantum protocols have often relied on only a few qubits, the utilization of more sophisticated quantum systems is required for practical applications. In this thesis, we investigate the emerging role of high-dimensional optical states as a resource for encoding quantum information. We begin the first chapter with a review of orbital angular momentum (OAM) as a prime candidate for realizing multilevel quantum states and follow with a brief introduction to the quantum measurement theory. The second and the third chapters are dedicated to the application of OAM modes in quantum cryptography. In the second chapter, we discuss the challenges of projective measurement of OAM at the single-photon level, a crucial task required for quantum information processing. We then present our development of an efficient and accurate mode-sorting device that is capable of projectively measuring the orbital angular momentum of single photons. In the third chapter, we discuss the role of OAM modes in increasing the information capacity of quantum cryptography. We start this chapter by establishing the merits of encoding information on the quantum index of OAM modes in a free-space link. We then generalizing the BB-84 QKD protocol to the Hilbert space spanned by a finite number of OAM modes and outline our experimental realization. The last two chapters are dedicated to the tomography of structured light fields. We start the fourth chapter by applying the recently found method of direct measurement to the characterization of OAM superpositions. We find the quantum state in the Hilbert space spanned by 27 OAM modes by performing a weak measurement of orbital angular momentum (OAM) followed by a strong measurement of azimuthal angle. We then introduce the concept of compressive direct measurement (CDM
Prospects for quantum computation with trapped ions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hughes, R.J.; James, D.F.V.
1997-12-31
Over the past decade information theory has been generalized to allow binary data to be represented by two-state quantum mechanical systems. (A single two-level system has come to be known as a qubit in this context.) The additional freedom introduced into information physics with quantum systems has opened up a variety of capabilities that go well beyond those of conventional information. For example, quantum cryptography allows two parties to generate a secret key even in the presence of eavesdropping. But perhaps the most remarkable capabilities have been predicted in the field of quantum computation. Here, a brief survey of the requirements for quantum computational hardware, and an overview of the in trap quantum computation project at Los Alamos are presented. The physical limitations to quantum computation with trapped ions are discussed.
Optimal architectures for long distance quantum communication.
Muralidharan, Sreraman; Li, Linshu; Kim, Jungsang; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Lukin, Mikhail D; Jiang, Liang
2016-02-15
Despite the tremendous progress of quantum cryptography, efficient quantum communication over long distances (≥ 1000 km) remains an outstanding challenge due to fiber attenuation and operation errors accumulated over the entire communication distance. Quantum repeaters (QRs), as a promising approach, can overcome both photon loss and operation errors, and hence significantly speedup the communication rate. Depending on the methods used to correct loss and operation errors, all the proposed QR schemes can be classified into three categories (generations). Here we present the first systematic comparison of three generations of quantum repeaters by evaluating the cost of both temporal and physical resources, and identify the optimized quantum repeater architecture for a given set of experimental parameters for use in quantum key distribution. Our work provides a roadmap for the experimental realizations of highly efficient quantum networks over transcontinental distances.
Optimal architectures for long distance quantum communication
Muralidharan, Sreraman; Li, Linshu; Kim, Jungsang; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Jiang, Liang
2016-02-01
Despite the tremendous progress of quantum cryptography, efficient quantum communication over long distances (≥1000 km) remains an outstanding challenge due to fiber attenuation and operation errors accumulated over the entire communication distance. Quantum repeaters (QRs), as a promising approach, can overcome both photon loss and operation errors, and hence significantly speedup the communication rate. Depending on the methods used to correct loss and operation errors, all the proposed QR schemes can be classified into three categories (generations). Here we present the first systematic comparison of three generations of quantum repeaters by evaluating the cost of both temporal and physical resources, and identify the optimized quantum repeater architecture for a given set of experimental parameters for use in quantum key distribution. Our work provides a roadmap for the experimental realizations of highly efficient quantum networks over transcontinental distances.
A reconfigurable spintronic device for quantum and classical logic
Bhowmik, Debanjan; Sarkar, Angik; Bhattacharyya, Tarun Kanti
2010-01-01
Quantum superposition and entanglement of physical states can be harnessed to solve some problems which are intractable on a classical computer implementing binary logic. Several algorithms have been proposed to utilize the quantum nature of physical states and solve important problems. For example, Shor's quantum algorithm is extremely important in the field of cryptography since it factors large numbers exponentially faster than any known classical algorithm. Another celebrated example is the Grovers quantum algorithm. These algorithms can only be implemented on a quantum computer which operates on quantum bits (qubits). Rudimentary implementations of quantum processor have already been achieved through linear optical components, ion traps, NMR etc. However demonstration of a solid state quantum processor had been elusive till DiCarlo et al demonstrated two qubit algorithms in superconducting quantum processor. Though this has been a significant step, scalable semiconductor based room temperature quantum co...
High-dimensional quantum cloning and applications to quantum hacking.
Bouchard, Frédéric; Fickler, Robert; Boyd, Robert W; Karimi, Ebrahim
2017-02-01
Attempts at cloning a quantum system result in the introduction of imperfections in the state of the copies. This is a consequence of the no-cloning theorem, which is a fundamental law of quantum physics and the backbone of security for quantum communications. Although perfect copies are prohibited, a quantum state may be copied with maximal accuracy via various optimal cloning schemes. Optimal quantum cloning, which lies at the border of the physical limit imposed by the no-signaling theorem and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, has been experimentally realized for low-dimensional photonic states. However, an increase in the dimensionality of quantum systems is greatly beneficial to quantum computation and communication protocols. Nonetheless, no experimental demonstration of optimal cloning machines has hitherto been shown for high-dimensional quantum systems. We perform optimal cloning of high-dimensional photonic states by means of the symmetrization method. We show the universality of our technique by conducting cloning of numerous arbitrary input states and fully characterize our cloning machine by performing quantum state tomography on cloned photons. In addition, a cloning attack on a Bennett and Brassard (BB84) quantum key distribution protocol is experimentally demonstrated to reveal the robustness of high-dimensional states in quantum cryptography.
High-dimensional quantum cloning and applications to quantum hacking
Bouchard, Frédéric; Fickler, Robert; Boyd, Robert W.; Karimi, Ebrahim
2017-01-01
Attempts at cloning a quantum system result in the introduction of imperfections in the state of the copies. This is a consequence of the no-cloning theorem, which is a fundamental law of quantum physics and the backbone of security for quantum communications. Although perfect copies are prohibited, a quantum state may be copied with maximal accuracy via various optimal cloning schemes. Optimal quantum cloning, which lies at the border of the physical limit imposed by the no-signaling theorem and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, has been experimentally realized for low-dimensional photonic states. However, an increase in the dimensionality of quantum systems is greatly beneficial to quantum computation and communication protocols. Nonetheless, no experimental demonstration of optimal cloning machines has hitherto been shown for high-dimensional quantum systems. We perform optimal cloning of high-dimensional photonic states by means of the symmetrization method. We show the universality of our technique by conducting cloning of numerous arbitrary input states and fully characterize our cloning machine by performing quantum state tomography on cloned photons. In addition, a cloning attack on a Bennett and Brassard (BB84) quantum key distribution protocol is experimentally demonstrated to reveal the robustness of high-dimensional states in quantum cryptography. PMID:28168219
Pulsed energy-time entangled twin-photon source for quantum communication
Brendel, J; Tittel, W; Zbinden, H
1999-01-01
A pulsed source of energy-time entangled photon pairs pumped by a standard laser diode is proposed and demonstrated. The basic states can be distinguished by their time of arrival. This greatly simplifies the realization of 2-photon quantum cryptography, Bell state analyzers, quantum teleportation, dense coding, entanglement swapping, GHZ-states sources, etc. Moreover the entanglement is well protected during photon propagation in telecom optical fibers, opening the door to few-photon applications of quantum communication over long distances.
Plasmonics for emerging quantum technologies
Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I
2016-01-01
Expanding the frontiers of information processing technologies and, in particular, computing with ever increasing speed and capacity has long been recognized an important societal challenge, calling for the development of the next generation of quantum technologies. With its potential to exponentially increase computing power, quantum computing opens up possibilities to carry out calculations that ordinary computers could not finish in the lifetime of the Universe, while optical communications based on quantum cryptography become completely secure. At the same time, the emergence of Big Data and the ever increasing demands of miniaturization and energy saving technologies bring about additional fundamental problems and technological challenges to be addressed in scientific disciplines dealing with light-matter interactions. In this context, quantum plasmonics represents one of the most promising and fundamental research directions and, indeed, the only one that enables ultimate miniaturization of photonic com...
Plasmonics for emerging quantum technologies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Mortensen, N. Asger
2017-01-01
to exponentially increase computing power, quantum computing opens up possibilities to carry out calculations that ordinary computers could not finish in the lifetime of the Universe, while optical communications based on quantum cryptography become completely secure. At the same time, the emergence of Big Data......Expanding the frontiers of information processing technologies and, in particular, computing with ever increasing speed and capacity has long been recognized an important societal challenge, calling for the development of the next generation of quantum technologies. With its potential...... and the ever increasing demands of miniaturization and energy saving technologies bring about additional fundamental problems and technological challenges to be addressed in scientific disciplines dealing with light-matter interactions. In this context, quantum plasmonics represents one of the most promising...