WorldWideScience

Sample records for counteracting incentive sensitization

  1. Counteracting incentive sensitization in severe alcohol dependence using deep brain stimulation of the nucleus accumbens: clinical and basic science aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Jochen Heinze

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The ventral striatum / nucleus accumbens has been implicated in the craving for drugs and alcohol which is a major reason for relapse of addicted people. Craving might be induced by drug-related cues. This suggests that disruption of craving-related neural activity in the nucleus accumbens may significantly reduce craving in alcohol-dependent patients. Here we report on preliminary clinical and neurophysiological evidence in three male patients who were treated with high frequency deep brain stimulation of the nucleus accumbens bilaterally. All three had been alcohol dependent for many years, unable to abstain from drinking, and had experienced repeated relapses prior to the stimulation. After the operation, craving was greatly reduced and all three patients were able to abstain from drinking for extended periods of time. Immediately after the operation but prior to connection of the stimulation electrodes to the stimulator, local field potentials were obtained from the externalized cables in two patients while they performed cognitive tasks addressing action monitoring and incentive salience of drug related cues. LFPs in the action monitoring task provided further evidence for a role of the nucleus accumbens in goal-directed behaviors. Importantly, alcohol related cue stimuli in the incentive salience task modulated LFPs even though these cues were presented outside of the attentional focus. This implies that cue-related craving involves the nucleus accumbens and is highly automatic.

  2. Applying incentive sensitization models to behavioral addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Fjorback, Lone; Møller, Arne

    2014-01-01

    The incentive sensitization theory is a promising model for understanding the mechanisms underlying drug addiction, and has received support in animal and human studies. So far the theory has not been applied to the case of behavioral addictions like Gambling Disorder, despite sharing clinical...

  3. The incentive sensitization theory of addiction: some current issues

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Terry E.; Berridge, Kent C

    2008-01-01

    We present a brief overview of the incentive sensitization theory of addiction. This posits that addiction is caused primarily by drug-induced sensitization in the brain mesocorticolimbic systems that attribute incentive salience to reward-associated stimuli. If rendered hypersensitive, these systems cause pathological incentive motivation (‘wanting’) for drugs. We address some current questions including: what is the role of learning in incentive sensitization and addiction? Does incentive s...

  4. Applying incentive sensitization models to behavioral addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Fjorback, Lone; Møller, Arne

    2014-01-01

    The incentive sensitization theory is a promising model for understanding the mechanisms underlying drug addiction, and has received support in animal and human studies. So far the theory has not been applied to the case of behavioral addictions like Gambling Disorder, despite sharing clinical...... symptoms and underlying neurobiology. We examine the relevance of this theory for Gambling Disorder and point to predictions for future studies. The theory promises a significant contribution to the understanding of behavioral addiction and opens new avenues for treatment....

  5. Developing Tools to Counteract and Prevent Suicide Bomber Incidents: A Case Study in Value Sensitive Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royakkers, Lambèr; Steen, Marc

    2017-08-01

    Developers and designers make all sorts of moral decisions throughout an innovation project. In this article, we describe how teams of developers and designers engaged with ethics in the early phases of innovation based on case studies in the SUBCOP project (SUBCOP stands for 'SUicide Bomber COunteraction and Prevention'). For that purpose, Value Sensitive Design (VSD) will be used as a reference. Specifically, we focus on the following two research questions: How can researchers/developers learn about users' perspectives and values during the innovation process? and How can researchers/developers take into account these values, and related design criteria, in their decision-making during the innovation process? Based on a case study of several innovation processes in this project, we conclude the researchers/developers involved are able to do something similar to VSD (without them knowing about VSD or calling it 'VSD'), supported by relatively simple exercises in the project, e.g., meetings with potential end-users and discussions with members of the Ethical Advisory Board of the project. Furthermore, we also found-possibly somewhat counterintuitively-that a commercial, with its focus on understanding and satisfying customers' needs, can promote VSD.

  6. Assessment of Relationship-Specific Incentive and Threat Sensitivities: Predicting Satisfaction and Affect in Adult Intimate Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Kleinman, Brighid M.; Kaczynski, Karen J.; Carver, Charles S.

    2010-01-01

    Self-report scales assessing relationship-specific incentive and threat sensitivity were created. Initial tests of factor structure and associations with relationship quality were conducted in a sample of persons in intimate relationships (Study 1). Associations with conceptually related measures were examined to determine convergent and…

  7. How sensitive are retirement decisions to financial incentives? : A stated preference analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, A.H.O.; Vonkova, H.

    We study the effects of financial incentives on retirement decisions using stated preference data. Dutch survey respondents were given hypothetical retirement scenarios describing age(s) of (partial and full) retirement and replacement rate(s). A stylized model is estimated in which utility is the

  8. Diminished neural responses predict enhanced intrinsic motivation and sensitivity to external incentive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Karen E; Ma, Wei Ji; Deci, Edward L; Ryan, Richard M; Chiu, Pearl H

    2015-06-01

    The duration and quality of human performance depend on both intrinsic motivation and external incentives. However, little is known about the neuroscientific basis of this interplay between internal and external motivators. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural substrates of intrinsic motivation, operationalized as the free-choice time spent on a task when this was not required, and tested the neural and behavioral effects of external reward on intrinsic motivation. We found that increased duration of free-choice time was predicted by generally diminished neural responses in regions associated with cognitive and affective regulation. By comparison, the possibility of additional reward improved task accuracy, and specifically increased neural and behavioral responses following errors. Those individuals with the smallest neural responses associated with intrinsic motivation exhibited the greatest error-related neural enhancement under the external contingency of possible reward. Together, these data suggest that human performance is guided by a "tonic" and "phasic" relationship between the neural substrates of intrinsic motivation (tonic) and the impact of external incentives (phasic).

  9. Co-sensitivity to the incentive properties of palatable food and cocaine in rats; implications for co-morbid addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, AnneMarie; Salamon, Avi; Tucci, Mark; Limebeer, Cheryl L; Parker, Linda A; Leri, Francesco

    2013-09-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that there may be a shared vulnerability to acquire behaviors motivated by strong incentive stimuli. Non-food restricted male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 78) underwent place conditioning with Oreos, and were subsequently tested on cocaine self-administration (SA) on fixed and progressive ratios, as well as extinction and reinstatement by cocaine primes and by consumption of Oreos. Although there was a group preference for the Oreo-paired compartment, at the individual level some rats (69%) displayed a preference and others did not. In cocaine SA, 'preference' rats achieved higher break points on a progressive ratio, and displayed greater responding during extinction and cocaine-induced reinstatement. Within the context of this study, Oreo-cocaine cross-reinstatement was not observed. In a control study, rats (n = 29) conditioned with a less palatable food (rice cakes) also displayed individual differences in place preference, but not on subsequent cocaine tests. These findings indicate that there is a relationship between incentive learning promoted by palatable foods and by cocaine. This supports the hypothesis that co-morbid food-drug addictions may result from a shared vulnerability to acquire behaviors motivated by strong incentives.

  10. Peace Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2015-01-01

    How does economic assistance influence the success or failure of peace processes in Africa? Can economic assistance act as an incentive to facilitate an end to conflict? The literature largely ignores aid as a factor supporting peace processes. In addressing this topic, the current study tries...... to assess the impact of donor economic aid on recent African peace processes. This research points to the conclusion that international assistance can be a positive incentive for lasting peace....

  11. Using Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the ethical implications of using incentives to encourage and recognise youth participation in research. While the complexity of research projects and the diversity of research subjects necessarily preclude simple solutions, the author argues that social research can successfully and ethically use a mix of extrinsic and…

  12. Geothermal power, policy, and design: Using levelized cost of energy and sensitivity analysis to target improved policy incentives for the U.S. geothermal market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Christopher L.

    At the core of the geothermal industry is a need to identify how policy incentives can better be applied for optimal return. Literature from Bloomquist (1999), Doris et al. (2009), and McIlveen (2011) suggest that a more tailored approach to crafting geothermal policy is warranted. In this research the guiding theory is based on those suggestions and is structured to represent a policy analysis approach using analytical methods. The methods being used are focus on qualitative and quantitative results. To address the qualitative sections of this research an extensive review of contemporary literature is used to identify the frequency of use for specific barriers, and is followed upon with an industry survey to determine existing gaps. As a result there is support for certain barriers and justification for expanding those barriers found within the literature. This method of inquiry is an initial point for structuring modeling tools to further quantify the research results as part of the theoretical framework. Analytical modeling utilizes the levelized cost of energy as a foundation for comparative assessment of policy incentives. Model parameters use assumptions to draw conclusions from literature and survey results to reflect unique attributes held by geothermal power technologies. Further testing by policy option provides an opportunity to assess the sensitivity of each variable with respect to applied policy. Master limited partnerships, feed in tariffs, RD&D, and categorical exclusions all result as viable options for mitigating specific barriers associated to developing geothermal power. The results show reductions of levelized cost based upon the model's exclusive parameters. These results are also compared to contemporary policy options highlighting the need for tailored policy, as discussed by Bloomquist (1999), Doris et al. (2009), and McIlveen (2011). It is the intent of this research to provide the reader with a descriptive understanding of the role of

  13. Aligning Ambition and Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Peyrache, Eloïc

    Labor turnover creates longer term career concerns incentives that motivate employees in addition to the short term monetary incentives provided by the current employer. We analyze how these incentives interact and derive implications for the design of incentive contracts and organizational choic...

  14. Aligning Ambition and Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Peyrache, Eloïc

    Labor turnover creates longer term career concerns incentives that motivate employees in addition to the short term monetary incentives provided by the current employer. We analyze how these incentives interact and derive implications for the design of incentive contracts and organizational choice...

  15. Aligning ambition and incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Peyrache, Eloïc

    2011-01-01

    Labor turnover creates longer term career concerns incentives that motivate employees in addition to the short term monetary incentives provided by the current employer. We analyze how these incentives interact, and derive implications for the design of incentive contracts and organizational choice...

  16. Incentives for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Kate; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Perera, Rafael

    2015-05-18

    -up (up to 24 weeks post-partum) of 3.60 (95% CI 2.39 to 5.43; 1295 participants, moderate-quality studies) in favour of incentives. Three of the trials demonstrated a clear benefit for contingent rewards; one delivered monthly vouchers to confirmed quitters and to their designated 'significant other supporter', achieving a quit rate in the intervention group of 21.4% at two months post-partum, compared with 5.9% among the controls. Another trial offered a scaled programme of rewards for the percentage of smoking reduction achieved over the course of the 12-week intervention, and achieved an intervention quit rate of 31% at six weeks post-partum, compared with no quitters in the control group. The largest (UK-based) trial provided intervention quitters with up to GBP 400-worth of vouchers, and achieved a quit rate of 15.4% at longest follow-up, compared to the control quit rate of 4%. Four trials confirmed that payments made to reward a successful quit attempt (i.e. contingent), compared to fixed payments for attending the antenatal appointment (non-contingent), resulted in higher quit rates. Front-loading of rewards to counteract early withdrawal symptoms made little difference to quit rates. Incentives appear to boost cessation rates while they are in place. The two trials recruiting from work sites that achieved sustained success rates beyond the reward schedule concentrated their resources into substantial cash payments for abstinence. Such an approach may only be feasible where independently-funded smoking cessation programmes are already available, and within a relatively affluent and educated population. Deposit-refund trials can suffer from relatively low rates of uptake, but those who do sign up and contribute their own money may achieve higher quit rates than reward-only participants. Incentive schemes conducted among pregnant smokers improved the cessation rates, both at the end-of-pregnancy and post-partum assessments. Current and future research might

  17. Study design for a randomized controlled trial to increase the relative reinforcing value of vegetable consumption using incentive sensitization among obese and overweight people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal dietary guidance recommends consumption of a variety of vegetables, but Americans only consume a small fraction of recommended amounts. Studies have attempted to increase consumption with modest results. In this manuscript, we present the protocol for a study that applies incentive sensitiza...

  18. A Neural Computational Model of Incentive Salience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Berridge, Kent C.; Tindell, Amy J.; Smith, Kyle S.; Aldridge, J. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    Incentive salience is a motivational property with ‘magnet-like’ qualities. When attributed to reward-predicting stimuli (cues), incentive salience triggers a pulse of ‘wanting’ and an individual is pulled toward the cues and reward. A key computational question is how incentive salience is generated during a cue re-encounter, which combines both learning and the state of limbic brain mechanisms. Learning processes, such as temporal-difference models, provide one way for stimuli to acquire cached predictive values of rewards. However, empirical data show that subsequent incentive values are also modulated on the fly by dynamic fluctuation in physiological states, altering cached values in ways requiring additional motivation mechanisms. Dynamic modulation of incentive salience for a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS or cue) occurs during certain states, without necessarily requiring (re)learning about the cue. In some cases, dynamic modulation of cue value occurs during states that are quite novel, never having been experienced before, and even prior to experience of the associated unconditioned reward in the new state. Such cases can include novel drug-induced mesolimbic activation and addictive incentive-sensitization, as well as natural appetite states such as salt appetite. Dynamic enhancement specifically raises the incentive salience of an appropriate CS, without necessarily changing that of other CSs. Here we suggest a new computational model that modulates incentive salience by integrating changing physiological states with prior learning. We support the model with behavioral and neurobiological data from empirical tests that demonstrate dynamic elevations in cue-triggered motivation (involving natural salt appetite, and drug-induced intoxication and sensitization). Our data call for a dynamic model of incentive salience, such as presented here. Computational models can adequately capture fluctuations in cue-triggered ‘wanting’ only by

  19. A neural computational model of incentive salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Berridge, Kent C; Tindell, Amy J; Smith, Kyle S; Aldridge, J Wayne

    2009-07-01

    Incentive salience is a motivational property with 'magnet-like' qualities. When attributed to reward-predicting stimuli (cues), incentive salience triggers a pulse of 'wanting' and an individual is pulled toward the cues and reward. A key computational question is how incentive salience is generated during a cue re-encounter, which combines both learning and the state of limbic brain mechanisms. Learning processes, such as temporal-difference models, provide one way for stimuli to acquire cached predictive values of rewards. However, empirical data show that subsequent incentive values are also modulated on the fly by dynamic fluctuation in physiological states, altering cached values in ways requiring additional motivation mechanisms. Dynamic modulation of incentive salience for a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS or cue) occurs during certain states, without necessarily requiring (re)learning about the cue. In some cases, dynamic modulation of cue value occurs during states that are quite novel, never having been experienced before, and even prior to experience of the associated unconditioned reward in the new state. Such cases can include novel drug-induced mesolimbic activation and addictive incentive-sensitization, as well as natural appetite states such as salt appetite. Dynamic enhancement specifically raises the incentive salience of an appropriate CS, without necessarily changing that of other CSs. Here we suggest a new computational model that modulates incentive salience by integrating changing physiological states with prior learning. We support the model with behavioral and neurobiological data from empirical tests that demonstrate dynamic elevations in cue-triggered motivation (involving natural salt appetite, and drug-induced intoxication and sensitization). Our data call for a dynamic model of incentive salience, such as presented here. Computational models can adequately capture fluctuations in cue-triggered 'wanting' only by incorporating

  20. A neural computational model of incentive salience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Incentive salience is a motivational property with 'magnet-like' qualities. When attributed to reward-predicting stimuli (cues, incentive salience triggers a pulse of 'wanting' and an individual is pulled toward the cues and reward. A key computational question is how incentive salience is generated during a cue re-encounter, which combines both learning and the state of limbic brain mechanisms. Learning processes, such as temporal-difference models, provide one way for stimuli to acquire cached predictive values of rewards. However, empirical data show that subsequent incentive values are also modulated on the fly by dynamic fluctuation in physiological states, altering cached values in ways requiring additional motivation mechanisms. Dynamic modulation of incentive salience for a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS or cue occurs during certain states, without necessarily requiring (relearning about the cue. In some cases, dynamic modulation of cue value occurs during states that are quite novel, never having been experienced before, and even prior to experience of the associated unconditioned reward in the new state. Such cases can include novel drug-induced mesolimbic activation and addictive incentive-sensitization, as well as natural appetite states such as salt appetite. Dynamic enhancement specifically raises the incentive salience of an appropriate CS, without necessarily changing that of other CSs. Here we suggest a new computational model that modulates incentive salience by integrating changing physiological states with prior learning. We support the model with behavioral and neurobiological data from empirical tests that demonstrate dynamic elevations in cue-triggered motivation (involving natural salt appetite, and drug-induced intoxication and sensitization. Our data call for a dynamic model of incentive salience, such as presented here. Computational models can adequately capture fluctuations in cue-triggered 'wanting' only by

  1. Delegation and incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Bester, Helmut; Krähmer, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the relation between authority and incentives. It extends the standard principal--agent model by a project selection stage in which the principal can either delegate the choice of project to the agent or keep the authority. The agent's subsequent choice of effort depends both on monetary incentives and the selected project. We find that the consideration of effort incentives makes the principal less likely to delegate the authority over projects to the agent. In fact, if t...

  2. Innovation in Workforce Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-13

    of key acquisition personnel including providing appropriate compensation and other forms of incentives • Inability to couple rewards to performance...against incentives • Gerald Ledford and Barry Gerhart in “Negative Effects of Extrinsic Rewards and Intrinsic Motivation: More Smoke Than Fire” argue...May 13, 2015 Innovation in Workforce Incentives Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection

  3. Credit ratings and CEO risk-taking incentives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuang, Y.F.; Qin, B.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the sophistication of rating agencies in incorporating managerial risk-taking incentives into their credit risk evaluation. We measure risk-taking incentives using two proxies: the sensitivity of managerial wealth to stock return volatility (vega) and the sensitivity of

  4. Using Misperception to Counteract Noise in the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumley, Lachlan; Korb, Kevin B.; Kopp, Carlo

    The Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma is a game-theoretical model which can be identified in many repeated real-world interactions between competing entities. The Tit for Tat strategy has been identified as a successful strategy which reinforces mutual cooperation, however, it is sensitive to environmental noise which disrupts continued cooperation between players to their detriment. This paper explores whether a population of Tit for Tat players may evolve specialised individual-based noise to counteract environmental noise. We have found that when the individual-based noise acts similarly to forgiveness it can counteract the environmental noise, although excessive forgiveness invites the evolution of exploitative individual-based noise, which is highly detrimental to the population when widespread.

  5. Incentives from Curriculum Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerselman, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum tracking creates incentives in the years before its start, and we should therefore expect test scores to be higher during those years. I find robust evidence for incentive effects of tracking in the UK based on the UK comprehensive school reform. Results from the Swedish comprehensive school reform are inconclusive. Internationally, I…

  6. Photovoltaic Incentive Design Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, T. E.

    2006-12-01

    Investments in customer-owned grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) energy systems are growing at a steady pace. This is due, in part, to the availability of attractive economic incentives offered by public state agencies and utilities. In the United States, these incentives have largely been upfront lump payments tied to the system capacity rating. While capacity-based ''buydowns'' have stimulated the domestic PV market, they have been criticized for subsidizing systems with potentially poor energy performance. As a result, the industry has been forced to consider alternative incentive structures, particularly ones that pay based on long-term measured performance. The industry, however, lacks consensus in the debate over the tradeoffs between upfront incentive payments versus longer-term payments for energy delivery. This handbook is designed for agencies and utilities that offer or intend to offer incentive programs for customer-owned PV systems. Its purpose is to help select, design, and implement incentive programs that best meet programmatic goals. The handbook begins with a discussion of the various available incentive structures and then provides qualitative and quantitative tools necessary to design the most appropriate incentive structure. It concludes with program administration considerations.

  7. Rewards and Performance Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigon, Jack

    1994-01-01

    Discusses rewards and performance incentives for employees, including types of rewards; how rewards help in managing; dysfunctional awards; selecting the right reward; how to find rewards that fit; and delivering rewards effectively. Examples are included. (three references) (LRW)

  8. Incentives in Supply Function Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetter, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The author analyses delegation in homogenous duopoly under the assumption that the firm-managers compete in supply functions. In supply function equilibrium, managers’ decisions are strategic complements. This reverses earlier findings in that the author finds that owners give managers incentives...... to act in an accommodating way. As a result, optimal delegation reduces per-firm output and increases profits to above-Cournot profits. Moreover, in supply function equilibrium the mode of competition is endogenous. This means that the author avoids results that are sensitive with respect to assuming...

  9. Incentives in Supply Function Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetter, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    to act in an accommodating way. As a result, optimal delegation reduces per-firm output and increases profits to above-Cournot profits. Moreover, in supply function equilibrium the mode of competition is endogenous. This means that the author avoids results that are sensitive with respect to assuming......The author analyses delegation in homogenous duopoly under the assumption that the firm-managers compete in supply functions. In supply function equilibrium, managers’ decisions are strategic complements. This reverses earlier findings in that the author finds that owners give managers incentives...

  10. Fertility incentives and disincentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Financioglu, N

    1984-06-01

    Some 40 countries use some form of incentives and disincentives in support of population policies, about half with the aim of reducing fertility and half with the aim of increasing it. These schemes range from limitations on tax and family allowances or maternity benefits after a given family size has been reached to payments to acceptors of fertility control methods. Some schemes aim to eliminate or reduce the cost and inconvenience people may face in achieving their fertility preferences, whereas others contain an element of deterrence. It is difficult to isolate and measure the impact of incentives on fertility from the effects of other factors such as family planning service availability or modernization. Studies in pronatalist countries suggest that incentive schemes produce short-term fertility increases without a change in average family size. Monetary incentives must be constantly increased to keep pace with inflation, placing a heavy burden on government budgets. Administrative capacity to operate the scheme is critical in terms of both manpower and efficient systems for record keeping, monitoring, and close supervision to prevent abuse. There is also considerable debate on the moral and ethical implications of incentives and disincentives as policy tools. Incentives offered for the acceptance of a particular fertility control method potentially contravene the principle of voluntary and informed consent. In addition, the relative value of the reward is greater for those in the lower income groups. The discriminatory nature of certain types of incentives and disincentives is illustrated by measures introduced in Singapore that give highest priority in school enrollment to the children of highly educated mothers with 2-3 children. This ruling is expected to further intensify the controversy surrounding incentive and disincentive schemes.

  11. Incentive and insurance effects of income taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.

    2015-01-01

    the sensitivity of labour supply to taxes, which tends to reduce tax distortions and lower the marginal costs of public funds. The relation between incentives and insurance and thus efficiency and equity is flattened by the insurance effect and it may even be non-monotone. However, the optimal utilitarian policy...

  12. Incentive and insurance effects of income taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.

    2015-01-01

    Tax distortions cause a trade-off between efficiency and equity. However, taxes not only affect incentives; they also provide implicit insurance, and this may critically affect the efficiency–equity relationship. For a standard labour supply problem it is shown that the insurance effect mutes...... the sensitivity of labour supply to taxes, which tends to reduce tax distortions and lower the marginal costs of public funds. The relation between incentives and insurance and thus efficiency and equity is flattened by the insurance effect and it may even be non-monotone. However, the optimal utilitarian policy...

  13. Innumeracy and incentives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Dale

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ratio-Bias phenomenon, observed by psychologist Seymour Epstein and colleagues, is a systematic manifestation of irrationality. When offered a choice between two lotteries, individuals consistently choose the lottery with the greater number of potential successes, even when it offers a smaller probability of success. In the current study, we conduct experiments to confirm this phenomenon and test for the existence of Bias as distinct from general irrationality. Moreover, we examine the effect of introducing a monetary incentive of varying size (depending on the treatment on the extent of irrational choices within this framework. We confirm the existence of the Bias. Moreover, the existence of an incentive significantly reduces the extent of irrationality exhibited, and that this effect is roughly linear in response to changes in the size of the incentive within the magnitudes investigated.

  14. Cost incentives for doctors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schottmüller, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    If doctors take the costs of treatment into account when prescribing medication, their objectives differ from their patients' objectives because the patients are insured. This misalignment of interests hampers communication between patient and doctor. Giving cost incentives to doctors increases...... welfare if (i) the doctor's examination technology is sufficiently good or (ii) (marginal) costs of treatment are high enough. If the planner can costlessly choose the extent to which doctors take costs into account, he will opt for less than 100%. Optimal health care systems should implement different...... degrees of cost incentives depending on type of disease and/or doctor....

  15. Incentives and Earnings Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    by investigating the effects that explicit short-run incentives and implicit incentives have on earnings growth. The model’s predictions are tested using personnel records from a large bank and are found to be consistent with the observed earnings growth during the first half of the employees’ careers.......The career prospects of newly recruited employees differ substantially within an organization. The stars experience considerable growth in earnings; others can hardly maintain their entry salaries. This article sheds light on the mechanisms generating the observed heterogeneity in earnings growth...

  16. Incentives for Recruiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    promotions, with prizes for the kids: anything from football ti’kets to trips to Disneyland ." [Ref. 10:p. 68] Any publisher who wants a successful...such as a trip to Disneyland . The latter focuses more on providing an 29 incentive to the carrier to get a certain number of new customers in a short

  17. Dynamic Incentives in Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruckes, Martin; Rønde, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    to this inertial tendency is either to increase the financial incentives to encourage searching or to accept no searching. The former response increases search efforts and total profits; the latter response has the opposite results. Inertia can be removed by restructuring the firm in period 2, but this may create...

  18. Incentives for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter; Harrison, Oliver; Cooper, Cary; Jané-Llopis, Eva

    2011-08-01

    This article discusses incentives to help make healthy choices the easy choices for individuals, operating at the levels of the individual, producers and service providers, and governments. Whereas paying individuals directly to be healthier seems to have a limited effect, offering financial incentives through health insurance improves health. Changing the environment to make healthier choices more accessible acts as an incentive to improve health. Employers can provide incentives to improve the health of their employees. Producers and service providers can take voluntary action to make their products less harmful, and they can be nudged into marketing healthier products within a regulatory environment. International agreements and monitoring systems can incentivize governments to do more for health. Lessons from climate change adaptation suggest that multilevel governance and policy integration are greater obstacles to policy change and implementation than knowing what has to be done. Policy change and implementation are triggered by many drivers, many of which are side effects of other policy pressures rather than of the direct policy goal itself. Effective action to reduce noncommunicable diseases will require leveraging social networks into a new ways of thinking about health; making better health prestigious and aspirational, and giving health and wellness a brand that encourages positive behavior change.

  19. Opposing incentives for collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorch, Bertil F.; Wien, Charlotte; Larsen, Asger Væring

    The Danish Bibliometric Research Indicator (BFI) is part of the performance-based model for the distribution of a special pool of baseline funding for universities and public research institutions in Denmark. BFI rewards the research publications published in the most recognized scientific journals...... collaboration is associated with a higher number of citations than single authorship which may present the author with two opposing incentives for research collaboration....

  20. Incentives and Prosocial Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Bénabou, Roland; Tirole, Jean

    2004-01-01

    We build a theory of prosocial behaviour that combines heterogeneity in individual altruism and greed with concerns for social reputation or self-respect. The presence of rewards or punishments creates doubt as to the true motive for which good deeds are performed, and this ‘overjustification effect’ can result in a net crowding out of prosocial behaviour by extrinsic incentives. The model also allows us to identify settings that are conducive to multiple social norms of behaviour, and those ...

  1. Employee incentives: bonuses or penalties?

    OpenAIRE

    Nosenzo, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Firms regularly use incentives to motivate their employees to be more productive. However, often little attention is paid to the language used in employment contracts to describe these incentives. It may be more effective to present incentives as entitlements that can be lost by failing to reach a performance target, rather than as additional rewards that can be gained by reaching that target. However, emphasizing the potential losses incurred as a result of failure may entail hidden costs fo...

  2. Humans Integrate Monetary and Liquid Incentives to Motivate Cognitive Task Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Marianne Yee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is unequivocal that a wide variety of incentives can motivate behavior. However, few studies have explicitly examined whether and how different incentives are integrated in terms of their motivational influence. The current study examines the combined effects of monetary and liquid incentives on cognitive processing, and whether appetitive and aversive incentives have distinct influences. We introduce a novel task paradigm, in which participants perform cued task-switching for monetary rewards that vary parametrically across trials, with liquid incentives serving as post-trial performance feedback. Critically, the symbolic meaning of the liquid was held constant (indicating successful reward attainment, while liquid valence was blocked. In the first experiment, monetary rewards combined additively with appetitive liquid feedback to improve subject task performance. Aversive liquid feedback counteracted monetary reward effects in low monetary reward trials, particularly in a subset of participants who tended to avoid responding under these conditions. Self-report motivation ratings predicted behavioral performance above and beyond experimental effects. A follow-up experiment replicated the predictive power of motivation ratings even when only appetitive liquids were used, suggesting that ratings reflect idiosyncratic subjective values of, rather than categorical differences between, the liquid incentives. Together, the findings indicate an integrative relationship between primary and secondary incentives and potentially dissociable influences in modulating motivational value, while informing hypotheses regarding candidate neural mechanisms.

  3. Humans Integrate Monetary and Liquid Incentives to Motivate Cognitive Task Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Debbie M; Krug, Marie K; Allen, Ariel Z; Braver, Todd S

    2015-01-01

    It is unequivocal that a wide variety of incentives can motivate behavior. However, few studies have explicitly examined whether and how different incentives are integrated in terms of their motivational influence. The current study examines the combined effects of monetary and liquid incentives on cognitive processing, and whether appetitive and aversive incentives have distinct influences. We introduce a novel task paradigm, in which participants perform cued task-switching for monetary rewards that vary parametrically across trials, with liquid incentives serving as post-trial performance feedback. Critically, the symbolic meaning of the liquid was held constant (indicating successful reward attainment), while liquid valence was blocked. In the first experiment, monetary rewards combined additively with appetitive liquid feedback to improve subject task performance. Aversive liquid feedback counteracted monetary reward effects in low monetary reward trials, particularly in a subset of participants who tended to avoid responding under these conditions. Self-report motivation ratings predicted behavioral performance above and beyond experimental effects. A follow-up experiment replicated the predictive power of motivation ratings even when only appetitive liquids were used, suggesting that ratings reflect idiosyncratic subjective values of, rather than categorical differences between, the liquid incentives. Together, the findings indicate an integrative relationship between primary and secondary incentives and potentially dissociable influences in modulating motivational value, while informing hypotheses regarding candidate neural mechanisms.

  4. Do organizational incentives spur innovation?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barros, Henrique M; Lazzarini, Sergio G

    2012-01-01

    ... generate for the firm. In considering this perspective, this paper addresses whether organizational incentives affect innovation, and considers the conduits through which this link is established...

  5. Discourse on corruption counteraction in network trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid A. Zhigun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the specific forms of corruption and promising methods to counteract corruption in network trade. Methods the combination of inductive observations comparisons generalizations facts and trends of corruption in network trade with a logical analytical deduction of economic theories and the corruption concept are the basis of the study and provide an opportunity on the one hand to assess the level of compliance of theoretical concepts of corruption with the practice and on the other handnbsp to determine their applicability to organize opposition and create conditions to prevent its occurrence to summarize the features of corruption in the form of a kickback the discourse method was applied in this work. Results on the basis of theoretical provisions and facts of corruption in trade it is proved that it has typical characteristics of corruption in commercial and nonprofit organizations. The key reasons are identified why corruption occurs in trade. Among them supply of poor quality goods at inflated prices leading to bribery in the form of laquopersonal bonusraquo to administrator of the trading organization when selling goods by an unscrupulous supplier and also supply goods to the trade organizations which will not buy without kickback. Most of these corrupt deals are carried out by natural monopolies in the form of state and municipal procurement. In some cases the kickback is the argument stimulating the decision to introduce new and advanced technologies. The factors that lead to corruption in trade are listed and reasonable methods to counteract it are grounded allowing to create conditions for its eradication in other branches of business as well. Scientific novelty for the first time a generalization has been made about the deficit as the driving force in the mechanism when the bribegivers and bribetakers change places. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in the

  6. Financial incentives and weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Robert W

    2012-11-01

    This paper reviews research studies evaluating the use of financial incentives to promote weight control conducted between 1972 and 2010. It provides an overview of behavioral theories pertaining to incentives and describes empirical studies evaluating specific aspects of incentives. Research on financial incentives and weight control has a history spanning more than 30 years. Early studies were guided by operant learning concepts from Psychology, while more recent studies have relied on economic theory. Both theoretical orientations argue that providing financial rewards for losing weight should motivate people to engage in behaviors that produce weight loss. Empirical research has strongly supported this idea. However, results vary widely due to differences in incentive size and schedule, as well as contextual factors. Thus, many important questions about the use of incentives have not yet been clearly answered. Weight-maintenance studies using financial incentives are particularly sparse, so that their long-term efficacy and thus, value in addressing the public health problem of obesity is unclear. Major obstacles to sustained applications of incentive in weight control are funding sources and acceptance by those who might benefit.

  7. Separating Real Incentives and Accountability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. Vieider (Ferdinand)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn experimental investigations of the effect of real incentives, accountability—the implicit or explicit expectation of a decision maker that she may have to justify her decisions in front of somebody else—is often confounded with the incentives themselves. This confounding of accountabi

  8. External economic incentives for prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treutlein, D.

    2014-01-01

    Economic incentives in occupational safety and health (OSH) describe processes that reward organisations for safe and healthy workplaces. From a European perspective, incentives are seen as an effective tool complementary to OSH regulation aimed at encouraging businesses at the management level to

  9. External economic incentives for prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treutlein, D.

    2014-01-01

    Economic incentives in occupational safety and health (OSH) describe processes that reward organisations for safe and healthy workplaces. From a European perspective, incentives are seen as an effective tool complementary to OSH regulation aimed at encouraging businesses at the management level to p

  10. Insurance Incentives for Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Michael C.

    1984-01-01

    To reduce the cost of reimbursements, many insurance companies have begun to use insurance incentives as a way to motivate individuals to participate in health promotion activities. Traditional health education, research and demonstration, and policy-premium incentives are methods of health promotion used by life and health insurance companies.…

  11. An Argument for Early Retirement Incentive Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenen, Leonard B.; Ernest, Robert C.

    1982-01-01

    Early retirement incentive programs are discussed as a humanitarian way of reducing payroll costs and rewarding long-tenured employees. The incentives to be considered, program communication, and problems found in incentive programs are addressed. (Author/MLF)

  12. Network versus Economic Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    The article supplements the traditional economic line of reasoning with an economic sociological account of the transition from unemployment to employment. The lack of full information is recognised by economic theory while the focus on network within the tradition of economic sociology has...... not been adopted. The article argues that the importance of network actually might be very well understood within recent economic theories that emphasise the lack of full information. The empirical evidence for the importance of network both for employed and unemployed is provided by analysing a best case...... might be an important part of the vicious circles of unemployment. Finally, the article analyse the importance of network versus the importance of economic incentives. The result supports the thesis that economic sociology provides a better account of the transition from unemployment to employment than...

  13. Electrical stimulation counteracts muscle decline in seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Helmut; Barberi, Laura; Löfler, Stefan; Sbardella, Simona; Burggraf, Samantha; Fruhmann, Hannah; Carraro, Ugo; Mosole, Simone; Sarabon, Nejc; Vogelauer, Michael; Mayr, Winfried; Krenn, Matthias; Cvecka, Jan; Romanello, Vanina; Pietrangelo, Laura; Protasi, Feliciano; Sandri, Marco; Zampieri, Sandra; Musaro, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The loss in muscle mass coupled with a decrease in specific force and shift in fiber composition are hallmarks of aging. Training and regular exercise attenuate the signs of sarcopenia. However, pathologic conditions limit the ability to perform physical exercise. We addressed whether electrical stimulation (ES) is an alternative intervention to improve muscle recovery and defined the molecular mechanism associated with improvement in muscle structure and function. We analyzed, at functional, structural, and molecular level, the effects of ES training on healthy seniors with normal life style, without routine sport activity. ES was able to improve muscle torque and functional performances of seniors and increased the size of fast muscle fibers. At molecular level, ES induced up-regulation of IGF-1 and modulation of MuRF-1, a muscle-specific atrophy-related gene. ES also induced up-regulation of relevant markers of differentiating satellite cells and of extracellular matrix remodeling, which might guarantee shape and mechanical forces of trained skeletal muscle as well as maintenance of satellite cell function, reducing fibrosis. Our data provide evidence that ES is a safe method to counteract muscle decline associated with aging.

  14. ISG15 counteracts Listeria monocytogenes infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoshevich, Lilliana; Impens, Francis; Ribet, David; Quereda, Juan J; Nam Tham, To; Nahori, Marie-Anne; Bierne, Hélène; Dussurget, Olivier; Pizarro-Cerdá, Javier; Knobeloch, Klaus-Peter; Cossart, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    ISG15 is an interferon-stimulated, linear di-ubiquitin-like protein, with anti-viral activity. The role of ISG15 during bacterial infection remains elusive. We show that ISG15 expression in nonphagocytic cells is dramatically induced upon Listeria infection. Surprisingly this induction can be type I interferon independent and depends on the cytosolic surveillance pathway, which senses bacterial DNA and signals through STING, TBK1, IRF3 and IRF7. Most importantly, we observed that ISG15 expression restricts Listeria infection in vitro and in vivo. We made use of stable isotope labeling in tissue culture (SILAC) to identify ISGylated proteins that could be responsible for the protective effect. Strikingly, infection or overexpression of ISG15 leads to ISGylation of ER and Golgi proteins, which correlates with increased secretion of cytokines known to counteract infection. Together, our data reveal a previously uncharacterized ISG15-dependent restriction of Listeria infection, reinforcing the view that ISG15 is a key component of the innate immune response. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06848.001 PMID:26259872

  15. Neural effects of positive and negative incentives during marijuana withdrawal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca M Filbey

    Full Text Available In spite of evidence suggesting two possible mechanisms related to drug-seeking behavior, namely reward-seeking and harm avoidance, much of the addiction literature has focused largely on positive incentivization mechanisms associated with addiction. In this study, we examined the contributing neural mechanisms of avoidance of an aversive state to drug-seeking behavior during marijuana withdrawal. To that end, marijuana users were scanned while performing the monetary incentive delay task in order to assess positive and negative incentive processes. The results showed a group x incentive interaction, such that marijuana users had greater response in areas that underlie reward processes during positive incentives while controls showed greater response in the same areas, but to negative incentives. Furthermore, a negative correlation between withdrawal symptoms and response in the amygdala during negative incentives was found in the marijuana users. These findings suggest that although marijuana users have greater reward sensitivity and less harm avoidance than controls, that attenuated amygdala response, an area that underlies fear and avoidance, was present in marijuana users with greater marijuana withdrawal symptoms. This is concordant with models of drug addiction that involve multiple sources of reinforcement in substance use disorders, and suggests the importance of strategies that focus on respective mechanisms.

  16. Bandwidth Trading as Incentive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eger, Kolja; Killat, Ulrich

    In P2P networks with multi-source download the file of interest is fragmented into pieces and peers exchange pieces with each other although they did not finish the download of the complete file. Peers can adopt different strategies to trade upload for download bandwidth. These trading schemes should give peers an incentive to contribute bandwidth to the P2P network. This chapter studies different trading schemes analytically and by simulations. A mathematical framework for bandwidth trading is introduced and two distributed algorithms, which are denoted as Resource Pricing and Reciprocal Rate Control, are derived. The algorithms are compared to the tit-for-tat principle in BitTorrent. Nash Equilibria and results from simulations of static and dynamic networks are presented. Additionally, we discuss how trading schemes can be combined with a piece selection algorithm to increase the availability of a full copy of the file. The chapter closes with an extension of the mathematical model which takes also the underlying IP network into account. This results in a TCP variant optimised for P2P content distribution.

  17. Premier Hospital Quality Incentive Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS is pursuing a vision to improve the quality of health care by expanding the information available about quality of care and through direct incentives to reward...

  18. Stock Repurchases and Incentive Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Jolls

    1998-01-01

    A longstanding puzzle in corporate finance is the rise of stock repurchases as a means of distributing earnings to shareholders. While most attempts to explain repurchase behavior focus on the incentives of firms, this paper focuses on the incentives of the agents who run firms, as determined by those agents' compensation packages. The increased use of repurchases coincided with an increasing reliance on stock options to compensate top managers, and stock options encourage managers to choose ...

  19. Postoperative incentive spirometry use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Hamid; Jain, Amit; Tan, Eric W; Stein, Benjamin E; Van Hoy, Megan L; Stewart, Nadine N; Lemma, Mesfin A

    2012-06-01

    The authors hypothesized that the use of incentive spirometry by orthopedic patients is less than the recommended level and is affected by patient-related factors and type of surgery. To determine its postoperative use, the authors prospectively surveyed all patients in their institution's general orthopedic ward who had undergone elective spine surgery or total knee or hip arthroplasty during a consecutive 3-month period in 2010, excluding patients with postoperative delirium or requiring a monitored bed. All 182 patients (74 men, 108 women; average age, 64.5 years; range, 32-88 years; spine group, n=55; arthroplasty group, n=127), per protocol, received preoperative spirometry education by a licensed respiratory therapist (recommended use, 10 times hourly) and reinforcement education by nurses. Patients were asked twice daily (morning and evening) regarding their spirometry use during the previous 1-hour period by a registered nurse on postoperative days 1 through 3. All data were collected by the same 2 nurses using the same standardized questionnaire. Spirometry use was correlated with surgery type, postoperative day/time, and patient's age and sex. Student's t test, Spearman test, and one-way analysis of variance were used to compare differences (PSpirometry use averaged 4.1 times per hour (range, 0-10 times). No statistical correlations were found between spirometry use and age. Sex did not influence spirometry use. The arthroplasty group reported significantly higher use than did the spine group: 4.3 and 3.5 times per hour, respectively. Mean use increased significantly between postoperative days 1, 2, and 3.

  20. Modeling regulated water utility investment incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, S.; Harou, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    This work attempts to model the infrastructure investment choices of privatized water utilities subject to rate of return and price cap regulation. The goal is to understand how regulation influences water companies' investment decisions such as their desire to engage in transfers with neighbouring companies. We formulate a profit maximization capacity expansion model that finds the schedule of new supply, demand management and transfer schemes that maintain the annual supply-demand balance and maximize a companies' profit under the 2010-15 price control process in England. Regulatory incentives for costs savings are also represented in the model. These include: the CIS scheme for the capital expenditure (capex) and incentive allowance schemes for the operating expenditure (opex) . The profit-maximizing investment program (what to build, when and what size) is compared with the least cost program (social optimum). We apply this formulation to several water companies in South East England to model performance and sensitivity to water network particulars. Results show that if companies' are able to outperform the regulatory assumption on the cost of capital, a capital bias can be generated, due to the fact that the capital expenditure, contrarily to opex, can be remunerated through the companies' regulatory capital value (RCV). The occurrence of the 'capital bias' or its entity depends on the extent to which a company can finance its investments at a rate below the allowed cost of capital. The bias can be reduced by the regulatory penalties for underperformances on the capital expenditure (CIS scheme); Sensitivity analysis can be applied by varying the CIS penalty to see how and to which extent this impacts the capital bias effect. We show how regulatory changes could potentially be devised to partially remove the 'capital bias' effect. Solutions potentially include allowing for incentives on total expenditure rather than separately for capex and opex and allowing

  1. CEO risk-taking incentives and socially irresponsible activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouslah, Kais; Linares-Zegarra, José; M'Zali, Bouchra; Scholtens, Bert

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between CEO risk-taking incentives, measured by the sensitivity of CEO wealth held in options to a change in stock return volatility or Vega, and socially irresponsible activities using a large sample of U.S. firms during the period 1992–2012. Our results for the

  2. Do not trash the incentive! Monetary incentives and waste sorting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucciol, A.; Montinari, N.; Piovesan, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines whether monetary incentives are an effective tool for increasing domestic waste sorting. We exploit the exogenous variation in the pricing systems experienced during the 1999-2008 decade by the 95 municipalities in the district of Treviso (Italy). We estimate with a panel

  3. 28 CFR 544.43 - Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mandatory English-as-a-Second Language Program (ESL) § 544.43 Incentives. The Warden or designee shall establish a system of incentives to encourage an inmate to meet the mandatory ESL program requirements....

  4. Utility Incentives for Combined Heat and Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the results of EPA's research and analysis into utility incentives for CHP. It provides information about utility-initiated policies, programs, and incentives for CHP systems, and includes case studies and tools and resources.

  5. Federal Incentives for Wind Power (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-05-01

    This fact sheet describes the federal incentives available as of April 2013 that encourage increased development and deployment of wind energy technologies, including research grants, tax incentives, and loan programs.

  6. Variation in Incentive Effects across Neighbourhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Hanly

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Small monetary incentives increase survey cooperation rates, however evidence suggests that the appeal of incentives may vary across sample subgroups. Fieldwork budgets can be most effectively distributed by targeting those subgroups where incentives will have the strongest appeal. We examine data from a randomised experiment implemented in the pilot phase of the Irish Longitudinal Study of Ageing, which randomly assigned households to receive a higher (€25 or lower (€10 incentive amount. Using a random effects logistic regression model, we observe a variable effect of the higher incentive across geographic neighbourhoods. The higher incentive has the largest impact in neighbourhoods where baseline cooperation is low, as predicted by Leverage-Saliency theory. Auxiliary neighbourhood-level variables are linked to the sample frame to explore this variation further, however none of these moderate the incentive effect, suggesting that richer information is needed to identify sample subgroups where incentive budgets should be directed.

  7. Incentives in Supply Function Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetter, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    The author analyses delegation in homogenous duopoly under the assumption that firm-managers compete in supply functions. He reverses earlier findings in that owners give managers incentives to act in an accommodating way. That is, optimal delegation reduces per-firm output and increases profits ...

  8. Social Relations and Relational Incentives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Dur (Robert); J. Tichem (Jan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis paper studies how social relationships between managers and employees affect relational incentive contracts. To this end we develop a simple dynamic principal-agent model where both players may have feelings of altruism or spite toward each other. The contract may contain two types

  9. Incentives and regulation in banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martynova, N.

    2015-01-01

    The financial crisis of 2007-2008 has unveiled the hidden flaws in the regulatory framework of the financial sector. The rules of the game established by regulators were not stringent enough and provided bankers with wrong incentives to gamble with depositors’ money. There are two major challenges i

  10. To Duncan, Incentives a Priority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Alyson

    2009-01-01

    U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan says he is eager to use a proposed $15 billion federal incentive-grant fund in part to reward states, districts, and even nonprofit organizations that have set high standards for the students they serve. "With this fund, we really have a chance to drive dramatic changes, to take to scale what works, invest…

  11. Motivating communities through economic incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viravaidya, M; Weeden, D

    1986-12-01

    Thailand's pilot Community-based Incentives Program in the northeast illustrates the high level of contraceptive prevalence that can be achieved when entire communities profit from economic incentives. This particular community incentives program began in 1983 with funding from the Special Projects Fund of the Population Crisis Committee under the auspices of Thailand's largest nongovernmental organization, the Population and Community Development Association (PDA). PDA, with its long and impressive record as a grassroots family planning service network, had almost a decade of experience in creating demand for family planning by offering income generating incentives to individuals. Through the community incentives program, PDA used the grant from abroad to establish loan funds of about $2000 in each of 6 villages. The loan funds grew in size as the overall contraceptive prevalence rate in the villages increased. Loans between $80 and $200 were made available to villagers for income-generating activities, mostly to buy fertilizer, rent tractors, or hire workers for planting and harvesting the local crops. Elected villagers administered the funds and reviewed loan applications with assistance from PDA. By the end of 2 years, loans totaling $72,000 had been granted in the 6 villages, and 75% of all village households had received at least 1 loan. Repayment was nearly 100% on schedule with no defaults. The 6 loan funds are still operating in 1986 but without outside assistance. Contraceptive practice increased from 46% to 75% of all married women aged 15-44 in the 6 villages between 1983-85. In a comparative study of 3 villages in which no loan fund operated, contraceptive prevalence increased from 51% to only 57%. In the Thai experience, the private PDA appears to have several advantages over the central government in implementing a community incentives approach: because PDA works closely with community members, it is able to determine community needs, involve the

  12. Internal Financial Incentives in Systems Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    34On the Design of Managerial Incentive Structures in a Decentralized Planning Environment," The American Economic Review , September, 1976. (3] Canes...Michael E., "The Simple Economics of Incentive Contracting: Note" The American Economic Review , June, 1975. [4] Cummins, Michael T., "Incentive...Harris, Milton; Raiv, Artur, "Optimal Incentive Contracts with Imperfect Information," The American Economic Review , March, 1978. (9] Jennergren

  13. Pattern of the rational worker incentive system

    OpenAIRE

    Kopytova A.V.

    2017-01-01

    The article presents a model of rational incentive system with the structure consisting of three blocks. The first block (financial incentives) provides monetary compensation to a worker. The second block (stimulating by comfortable living conditions) is aimed to regulate the quality of a worker’s life in and outside the place he works. The third block (non-financial incentives) takes into account cultural and social worker’s needs. The proposed structure of incentive system provides the most...

  14. The Effect of Incentives and Meta-incentives on the Evolution of Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Isamu; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Toriumi, Fujio; Sasaki, Tatsuya

    2015-05-01

    Although positive incentives for cooperators and/or negative incentives for free-riders in social dilemmas play an important role in maintaining cooperation, there is still the outstanding issue of who should pay the cost of incentives. The second-order free-rider problem, in which players who do not provide the incentives dominate in a game, is a well-known academic challenge. In order to meet this challenge, we devise and analyze a meta-incentive game that integrates positive incentives (rewards) and negative incentives (punishments) with second-order incentives, which are incentives for other players' incentives. The critical assumption of our model is that players who tend to provide incentives to other players for their cooperative or non-cooperative behavior also tend to provide incentives to their incentive behaviors. In this paper, we solve the replicator dynamics for a simple version of the game and analytically categorize the game types into four groups. We find that the second-order free-rider problem is completely resolved without any third-order or higher (meta) incentive under the assumption. To do so, a second-order costly incentive, which is given individually (peer-to-peer) after playing donation games, is needed. The paper concludes that (1) second-order incentives for first-order reward are necessary for cooperative regimes, (2) a system without first-order rewards cannot maintain a cooperative regime, (3) a system with first-order rewards and no incentives for rewards is the worst because it never reaches cooperation, and (4) a system with rewards for incentives is more likely to be a cooperative regime than a system with punishments for incentives when the cost-effect ratio of incentives is sufficiently large. This solution is general and strong in the sense that the game does not need any centralized institution or proactive system for incentives.

  15. The Effect of Incentives and Meta-incentives on the Evolution of Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isamu Okada

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Although positive incentives for cooperators and/or negative incentives for free-riders in social dilemmas play an important role in maintaining cooperation, there is still the outstanding issue of who should pay the cost of incentives. The second-order free-rider problem, in which players who do not provide the incentives dominate in a game, is a well-known academic challenge. In order to meet this challenge, we devise and analyze a meta-incentive game that integrates positive incentives (rewards and negative incentives (punishments with second-order incentives, which are incentives for other players' incentives. The critical assumption of our model is that players who tend to provide incentives to other players for their cooperative or non-cooperative behavior also tend to provide incentives to their incentive behaviors. In this paper, we solve the replicator dynamics for a simple version of the game and analytically categorize the game types into four groups. We find that the second-order free-rider problem is completely resolved without any third-order or higher (meta incentive under the assumption. To do so, a second-order costly incentive, which is given individually (peer-to-peer after playing donation games, is needed. The paper concludes that (1 second-order incentives for first-order reward are necessary for cooperative regimes, (2 a system without first-order rewards cannot maintain a cooperative regime, (3 a system with first-order rewards and no incentives for rewards is the worst because it never reaches cooperation, and (4 a system with rewards for incentives is more likely to be a cooperative regime than a system with punishments for incentives when the cost-effect ratio of incentives is sufficiently large. This solution is general and strong in the sense that the game does not need any centralized institution or proactive system for incentives.

  16. 20 CFR 638.519 - Incentives system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incentives system. 638.519 Section 638.519... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.519 Incentives system. The center operator shall establish and maintain its own incentives system for students in accordance with...

  17. Merger incentives and the failing firm defense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouckaert, J.M.C.; Kort, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    The merger incentives between profitable firms differ fundamentally from the incentives of a profitable firm to merge with a failing firm. We investigate these incentives under different modes of price competition and Cournot behavior. Our main finding is that firms strictly prefer exit of the faili

  18. Merger incentives and the failing firm defense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouckaert, J.M.C.; Kort, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    The merger incentives between profitable firms differ fundamentally from the incentives of a profitable firm to merge with a failing firm. We investigate these incentives under different modes of price competition and Cournot behavior. Our main finding is that firms strictly prefer exit of the

  19. Earnings progression, human capital and incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders

    progression by investigating the effects of on-the-job human capital acquisition, explicit short-run incentives and career concern incentives on earnings progression. The model leads to predictions about the incentive structure and the progression in both cross-sectional and individual earnings which...

  20. 7 CFR 3560.656 - Incentives offers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incentives offers. 3560.656 Section 3560.656... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Housing Preservation § 3560.656 Incentives offers. (a....653(d), incentives to agree to the restrictive-use period in § 3560.662 if the following conditions...

  1. 12 CFR 708a.12 - Voting incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voting incentives. 708a.12 Section 708a.12... INSURED CREDIT UNIONS TO MUTUAL SAVINGS BANKS § 708a.12 Voting incentives. If a converting credit union offers an incentive to encourage members to participate in the vote, including a prize raffle, every...

  2. 28 CFR 544.72 - Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incentives. 544.72 Section 544.72 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Literacy Program § 544.72 Incentives. The Warden shall establish a system of incentives to encourage an...

  3. 24 CFR 901.130 - Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incentives. 901.130 Section 901.130... HOUSING MANAGEMENT ASSESSMENT PROGRAM § 901.130 Incentives. (a) A PHA that is designated high performer or... the applicable incentives unless it has been designated an overall high performer. (c) High-performing...

  4. Earnings progression, human capital and incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders

    progression by investigating the effects of on-the-job human capital acquisition, explicit short-run incentives and career concern incentives on earnings progression. The model leads to predictions about the incentive structure and the progression in both cross-sectional and individual earnings which...

  5. Sustainability and Counteracting Factors to Profit Rate Decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ougaard, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses sustainability implications of barriers to growth as specified in the theory of the long-term falling rate of profit but focusing on the counteracting factors (CFs) specified by Marx. These depend much on political processes and are important in state theory for understanding...... policies of national and international institutions. Fourteen partly overlapping factors are identified and grouped in five categories: increased pressure on labor, geographical expansion, resource efficiency, technological progress, and destruction or devaluation of capital. It is suggested...... which implies a destruction of capital that will counteract the falling rate of profit. This will require sustained political intervention....

  6. Alpha-Tocopherol Counteracts the Cytotoxicity Induced by Ochratoxin A in Primary Porcine Fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusi, Elenora; Rebucci, Raffaella; Pecorini, Chiara

    2010-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to determine the half-lethal concentration of ochratoxin A (OTA) as well as the levels of lactate dehydrogenase release and DNA fragmentation induced by OTA in primary porcine fibroblasts, and to examine the role of α-tocopherol in counteracting its toxicity....... Cells showed a dose-, time- and origin-dependent (ear vs. embryo) sensitivity to ochratoxin A. Pre-incubation for 3 h with 1 nM α-tocopherol significantly (P lactate dehydrogenase release and DNA damage in both fibroblast cultures. These findings indicate that α...

  7. Employee incentives in the healthcare industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnies, Richard C; Collins, Sandra K; Collins, Kevin S

    2008-01-01

    *Employee incentives are an important part of a radiology department's ability to attract and maintain employees. For incentive programs to be successful, radiology managers must diligently look for the incentives that motivate each particular employee. *The types of incentives being used frequently in the field of healthcare vary between technical, managerial, and executive positions. The process of identifying the right employee incentive for each group of individuals may be challenging, but if the result is a more productive and satisfied group of employees, the process is worth the effort.

  8. Counteracting Age Stereotypes: A Self-Awareness Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiwei; Pethtel, Olivia; Ma, Xiaodong

    2010-01-01

    The major goals of the present study were to (a) examine age differences in susceptibility to age stereotypes and (b) test a self-awareness manipulation in counteracting age stereotypes. Young and older adults read two sets of descriptors that only differed in the to-be-ignored age-related information. In the high self-awareness condition,…

  9. To what extent can cirrus seeding counteract global warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Blaz; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2017-04-01

    The idea of modifying cirrus clouds to directly counteract greenhouse gas warming has gained a lot of momentum in recent years, despite large disputes over its physical feasibility. We use the ECHAM-HAM general circulation model to evaluate the temperature and precipitation responses to cirrus thinning by seeding with efficient ice nucleating particles and increasing ice crystal sedimentation velocities in a 1.5xCO2 world. The seeding scenario can counteract about 40% of the warming and precipitation increase induced by 1.5 x CO2 concentrations with respect to present day values. The idealized ice crystal sedimentation velocity increase scenario on the other hand fully restores the global annual temperature but counteracts only half of the precipitation increase. Moreover, we define a climate damage function, quadratic in temperature and precipitation anomalies to calculate the damage of the different scenarios in 21 selected land regions. Seeding can decrease about 55% of the CO2 induced damage, while the sedimentation velocity increase can counteract about 95% of the damage. A regional analysis shows the negative responses of seeding are minimal both in terms of precipitation and temperature, which makes cirrus seeding an attractive geoengineering method.

  10. Contractual incentives in EPC contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Salvesen, Terje

    2011-01-01

    The Norwegian Oil Industry has through the years utilized several different Contract models for offshore projects. In the recent years, the big oil companies are using EPC Contracts to regulate deliveries in the industry. The main focus in the master thesis was the EPC Contract for offshore deliveries and the contractual incentives built into these Contract models. The first section presents the basics to the EPC contract format. Subjects are why the EPC Contract format is used...

  11. Extrinsic incentives and tax compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Sour, Laura; Gutiérrez Andrade, Miguel Ángel

    2011-01-01

    This paper models the impact of extrinsic incentives in a tax compliance model. It also provides experimental evidence that confirms the existence of a positive relationship between rewards and tax compliance. If individuals are audited, rewards for honest taxpayers are effective in increasing the level of tax compliance. These results are particularly relevant in countries where there is little respect for tax law since rewards can contribute to crowding in the intrinsic motivation to comply.

  12. Extrinsic incentives and tax compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Sour, Laura; Gutiérrez Andrade, Miguel Ángel

    2011-01-01

    This paper models the impact of extrinsic incentives in a tax compliance model. It also provides experimental evidence that confirms the existence of a positive relationship between rewards and tax compliance. If individuals are audited, rewards for honest taxpayers are effective in increasing the level of tax compliance. These results are particularly relevant in countries where there is little respect for tax law since rewards can contribute to crowding in the intrinsic motivation to comply.

  13. The Effect of Incentives and Meta-incentives on the Evolution of Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Isamu Okada; Hitoshi Yamamoto; Fujio Toriumi; Tatsuya Sasaki

    2015-01-01

    Although positive incentives for cooperators and/or negative incentives for free-riders in social dilemmas play an important role in maintaining cooperation, there is still the outstanding issue of who should pay the cost of incentives. The second-order free-rider problem, in which players who do not provide the incentives dominate in a game, is a well-known academic challenge. In order to meet this challenge, we devise and analyze a meta-incentive game that integrates positive incentives (re...

  14. A concept of a space hazard counteraction system: Astronomical aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shustov, B. M.; Rykhlova, L. V.; Kuleshov, Yu. P.; Dubov, Yu. N.; Elkin, K. S.; Veniaminov, S. S.; Borovin, G. K.; Molotov, I. E.; Naroenkov, S. A.; Barabanov, S. I.; Emel'yanenko, V. V.; Devyatkin, A. V.; Medvedev, Yu. D.; Shor, V. A.; Kholshevnikov, K. V.

    2013-07-01

    The basic science of astronomy and, primarily, its branch responsible for studying the Solar System, face the most important practical task posed by nature and the development of human civilization—to study space hazards and to seek methods of counteracting them. In pursuance of the joint Resolution of the Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) and the RAS (Russian Academy of Sciences) Space Council of June 23, 2010, the RAS Institute of Astronomy in collaboration with other scientific and industrial organizations prepared a draft concept of the federal-level program targeted at creating a system of space hazard detection and counteraction. The main ideas and astronomical content of the concept are considered in this article.

  15. Water Conservation and Economic Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2016-12-01

    Water has played a vital role in the progress of human civilization throughout history. Both agriculture based economics as well as industry based economics totally rely upon water for survival and prosperity. Water could be a limiting factor in dictating day-to-day human activities and as such one should learn to live within the limits of available natural resources. Most of the water on this earth is either salty or undrinkable. Only one percent of world's water is available for all the needs of human civilization. This includes human personal household needs, community activities, agriculture, industry, plant and animal life sustenance. The supply of usable fresh water is finite and the per capita consumption of fresh water needs to be reduced in particularly in some selected regions of this world. The United States consumes about 450 billion gallons of water every day. The U.S. daily average of water pumped by public water supply systems is 185 gallons per person. The biggest water gobbler in a household is the lawn. Typically, at least 50% of water consumed by households is used outdoors. Even inside a house, bathroom facilities claim nearly 75% of the water used. Here is a short list of economic Incentives that may help water conservation. (1) Providing rebates, refunds or other economic incentives to those consumers that are willing to change to modern technological methods. Examples include, but not limited to energy efficient washing machines, low-flush toilets and improved shower head designs. (2) Communities should provide economic incentives to limit the type and size of landscaping. (3) Need, necessity and nature of outdoor water use could be restricted whenever possible. (4) Sprinkler ban may be deemed appropriate in extreme cases. (5) Set up hotlines that can help penalize those that ignore water conservation guidelines. (6) Incorporating water conservation monitors. References: http://www.nrdc.org/water/http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wr/ws/wtrcnsv.htmlhttp://www.sscwd.org/tips.html

  16. Incentive Stackelberg Mean-payoff Games

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Anshul; Deepak, M. S. Krishna; Padarthi, Bharath Kumar; Schewe, Sven; Trivedi, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    We introduce and study incentive equilibria for multi-player meanpayoff games. Incentive equilibria generalise well-studied solution concepts such as Nash equilibria and leader equilibria (also known as Stackelberg equilibria). Recall that a strategy profile is a Nash equilibrium if no player can improve his payoff by changing his strategy unilaterally. In the setting of incentive and leader equilibria, there is a distinguished player called the leader who can assign strategies to all other p...

  17. Essays on Policy Incentives and Labor Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Katherine Ellyn

    2016-01-01

    My dissertation broadly examines how individuals respond to incentives imbedded in various policy designs. I study a variety of policies, including teacher retirement incentives, child care subsidies, and the Earned Income Tax Credit. The evidence presented here is of importance to policy analysis and design.In the first chapter, I examine what types of teachers respond to early retirement incentives (ERIs). In recent years, many education programs have been faced with steep budget cuts. ...

  18. A Neural Computational Model of Incentive Salience

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Zhang; Berridge, Kent C; Amy J Tindell; Kyle S Smith; J Wayne Aldridge

    2009-01-01

    Incentive salience is a motivational property with ‘magnet-like’ qualities. When attributed to reward-predicting stimuli (cues), incentive salience triggers a pulse of ‘wanting’ and an individual is pulled toward the cues and reward. A key computational question is how incentive salience is generated during a cue re-encounter, which combines both learning and the state of limbic brain mechanisms. Learning processes, such as temporal-difference models, provide one way for stimuli to acquire ca...

  19. Incentive Ratios of Fisher Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ning; Deng, Xuaitue; Zhang, Hongyang

    2012-01-01

    In a Fisher market, a market maker sells m items to n potential buyers. The buyers submit their utility functions and money endowments to the market maker, who, upon receiving submitted information, derives market equilibrium prices and allocations of its items. While agents may benefit...... by misreporting their private information, we show that the percentage of improvement by a unilateral strategic play, called incentive ratio, is rather limited—it is less than 2 for linear markets and at most $e^{1/e}\\thickapprox 1.445$ for Cobb-Douglas markets. We further prove that both ratios are tight....

  20. On the Effectiveness of Incentive Pay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    2015-01-01

    Extant research already emphasises that complementarities and substitution involving incentive pay and other elements of an organisation's management control system play an important role in terms of explaining the effectiveness of incentive systems. Despite this awareness calls continue for more...... research addressing the need to better understand how interdependencies arise among management control system elements and how they affect organisational effectiveness. Based on an in-depth case study on the implementation of a new incentive system in a manufacturing firm, we seek to provide more research...... the effectiveness of the incentive system in the individual organisational setting is determined by these relationships....

  1. Incentives and intrinsic motivation in healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel Berdud

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: The conclusions could act as a guide to support the optimal design of incentive policies and schemes within health organisations when healthcare professionals are intrinsically motivated.

  2. 5 CFR 575.109 - Payment of recruitment incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of recruitment incentives. 575... RECRUITMENT, RELOCATION, AND RETENTION INCENTIVES; SUPERVISORY DIFFERENTIALS; AND EXTENDED ASSIGNMENT INCENTIVES Recruitment Incentives § 575.109 Payment of recruitment incentives. (a) An authorized agency...

  3. 48 CFR 16.402-1 - Cost incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost incentives. 16.402-1... AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.402-1 Cost incentives. (a) Most incentive contracts include only cost incentives, which take the form of a profit or fee adjustment formula and are...

  4. 5 CFR 575.309 - Payment of retention incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of retention incentives. 575.309... RECRUITMENT, RELOCATION, AND RETENTION INCENTIVES; SUPERVISORY DIFFERENTIALS; AND EXTENDED ASSIGNMENT INCENTIVES Retention Incentives § 575.309 Payment of retention incentives. (a) An authorized agency official...

  5. 5 CFR 575.209 - Payment of relocation incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of relocation incentives. 575.209... RECRUITMENT, RELOCATION, AND RETENTION INCENTIVES; SUPERVISORY DIFFERENTIALS; AND EXTENDED ASSIGNMENT INCENTIVES Relocation Incentives § 575.209 Payment of relocation incentives. (a) An authorized agency...

  6. Rac1 GTPase silencing counteracts microgravity-induced effects on osteoblastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guignandon, Alain; Faure, Céline; Neutelings, Thibaut; Rattner, Aline; Mineur, Pierre; Linossier, Marie-Thérèse; Laroche, Norbert; Lambert, Charles; Deroanne, Christophe; Nusgens, Betty; Demets, René; Colige, Alain; Vico, Laurence

    2014-09-01

    Bone cells exposed to real microgravity display alterations of their cytoskeleton and focal adhesions, two major mechanosensitive structures. These structures are controlled by small GTPases of the Ras homology (Rho) family. We investigated the effects of RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42 modulation of osteoblastic cells under microgravity conditions. Human MG-63 osteoblast-like cells silenced for RhoGTPases were cultured in the automated Biobox bioreactor (European Space Agency) aboard the Foton M3 satellite and compared to replicate ground-based controls. The cells were fixed after 69 h of microgravity exposure for postflight analysis of focal contacts, F-actin polymerization, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, and matrix targeting. We found that RhoA silencing did not affect sensitivity to microgravity but that Rac1 and, to a lesser extent, Cdc42 abrogation was particularly efficient in counteracting the spaceflight-related reduction of the number of focal contacts [-50% in silenced, scrambled (SiScr) controls vs. -15% for SiRac1], the number of F-actin fibers (-60% in SiScr controls vs. -10% for SiRac1), and the depletion of matrix-bound VEGF (-40% in SiScr controls vs. -8% for SiRac1). Collectively, these data point out the role of the VEGF/Rho GTPase axis in mechanosensing and validate Rac1-mediated signaling pathways as potential targets for counteracting microgravity effects. © FASEB.

  7. Incentives to reduce groundwater consumption in Yemen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Perry, C.J.; Al-Aulaqi, N.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper options for changing the incentive structure to reduce unsustainable groundwater consumption in Yemen are evaluated. Special attention is paid to incentives that decrease the profitability of irrigation water use and subsidies on improved irrigation technology. Although the literature

  8. 78 FR 21116 - Superior Supplier Incentive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... Department of the Navy Superior Supplier Incentive Program AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION... policy that will establish a Superior Supplier Incentive Program (SSIP). Under the SSIP, contractors that..., performance, quality, and business relations would be granted Superior Supplier Status (SSS). Contractors...

  9. 36 CFR 906.7 - Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incentives. 906.7 Section 906.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION AFFIRMATIVE ACTION POLICY AND PROCEDURE Development Program § 906.7 Incentives. (a) At the request of the developer, the...

  10. Estimating Acceptability of Financial Health Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigsby, Elisabeth; Seitz, Holli H.; Halpern, Scott D.; Volpp, Kevin; Cappella, Joseph N.

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that financial incentives can influence health behavior change, but research on the public acceptability of these programs and factors that predict public support have been limited. A representative sample of U.S. adults (N = 526) were randomly assigned to receive an incentive program description in which the…

  11. The Incentive System in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landfried, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the incentive system in German higher education. He states that the underdeveloped incentive and management mechanisms in German higher education result in mistaken allocations in the higher education system in general and in some individual institutions in particular. He believes that the only way to optimize…

  12. Are Delegation and Incentives Complementary Instruments ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    It is natural to suppose that delegation and incentives are complementaryboth in the sense that when more decisions are delegated toa lower level of an organizational hierarchy, more use should be madeof incentives at that level, and in the sense that more use of incentivesshould be accompanied...

  13. 75 FR 57907 - Teacher Incentive Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... 1810-AB08 Teacher Incentive Fund ACTION: Interim final requirements; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Education (Secretary) amends the final requirements for the Teacher Incentive Fund program to...) for participation in the Congressionally mandated TIF national evaluation. DATES: These interim...

  14. The Impact of Lottery Incentives on Student Survey Response Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.

    2003-01-01

    A controlled experiment tested the effects of lottery incentives using a prospective college applicant Web survey, with emails sent to more than 9,000 high school students. Found minimal effect of postpaid incentives for increasing levels of incentive. (EV)

  15. 48 CFR 1816.402-2 - Performance incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Performance incentives... ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 1816.402-2 Performance incentives. ...

  16. Spatial warping by oriented line detectors can counteract neural delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don eVaughn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The slow speed of neural transmission necessitates that cortical visual information from dynamic scenes will lag reality. The perceiving the present (PTP hypothesis suggests that the visual system can mitigate the effect of such delays by spatially warping scenes to look as they will in ~100 ms from now (Changizi, 2001. We here show that the Hering illusion, in which straight lines appear bowed, can be induced by a background of optic flow, consistent with the PTP hypothesis. However, importantly, the bowing direction is the same whether the flow is inward or outward. This suggests that if the warping is meant to counteract latencies, it is accomplished by a simple strategy that is insensitive to motion direction, and that works only under typical (forward-moving circumstances. We also find that the illusion strengthens with longer pulses of optic flow, demonstrating motion integration over ~80 ms. The illusion is identical whether optic flow precedes or follows the flashing of bars, exposing the spatial warping to be equally postdictive and predictive, i.e., peri-dictive. Additionally, the illusion is diminished by cues which suggest the bars are independent of the background movement. Collectively, our findings are consistent with a role for networks of visual orientation-tuned neurons (e.g., simple cells in primary visual cortex in spatial warping. We conclude that under the common condition of forward ego-motion, spatial warping counteracts the disadvantage of neural latencies. It is not possible to prove that this is the purpose of spatial warping, but our findings at minimum place constraints on the PTP hypothesis, demonstrating that any spatial warping for the purpose of counteracting neural delays is not a precise, on-the-fly computation, but instead a heuristic achieved by a simple mechanism that succeeds under normal circumstances.

  17. Incentive contracts for development projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, David T.; Smith, Byron; DeGroff, B.

    2012-09-01

    Finding a contract vehicle that balances the concerns of the customer and the contractor in a development project can be difficult. The customer wants a low price and an early delivery, with as few surprises as possible as the project progresses. The contractor wants sufficient cost and schedule to cover risk. Both want to clearly define what each party will provide. Many program offices do not want to award cost plus contracts because their funding sources will not allow it, their boards do not want an open ended commitment, and they feel like they lose financial control of the project. A fixed price incentive contract, with a mutually agreed upon target cost, provides the owner with visibility into the project and input into the execution of the project, encourages both parties to save costs, and stimulates a collaborative atmosphere by aligning the respective interests of customers and contractors.

  18. Trick or treat: The influence of incentives on developmental changes in feedback-based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin eUnger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Developmental researchers have suggested that adolescents are characterized by stronger reward sensitivity than both children and younger adults. However, at this point, little is known about the extent to which developmental differences in incentive processing influence feedback-based learning. In this study, we applied an incentivized reinforcement learning task, in which errors resulted in losing money (loss condition, failure to gain money (gain condition, or neither (no-incentive condition. Children (10-11 years, mid-adolescents (13-14 years, and late adolescents (15-17 years performed this task while event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded. We focused our analyses on two ERP correlates of error processing, the error-negativity (Ne and the error positivity (Pe that are thought to reflect a rapid preconscious performance monitoring mechanism (Ne and conscious detection and/or evaluation of response errors (Pe. Participants in all age groups responded more quickly and accurately in gain and loss conditions than in the no-incentive condition. The performance data thus did not support the idea that incentives generally have a greater behavioral impact in adolescents than in children. While the Ne was not modulated by the incentive manipulation, both children and adolescents showed a larger Pe to errors in the gain condition compared to loss and no-incentive conditions. This is in contrast to results from adult studies, in which the Ne but not the Pe was enhanced for high-value errors, raising the possibility that motivational influences on performance monitoring might be reflected in the activity of separable neural systems in children and adolescents vs. adults. In contrast to the idea of higher reward/incentive sensitivity in adolescents, our findings suggest that incentives have similar effects on feedback-based learning from late childhood into late adolescence with no changes in preferences for trick over treat.

  19. Extending the GMR Current Measurement Range with a Counteracting Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin Yan Poon

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, current transformers are often used for current measurement in low voltage (LV electrical networks. They have a large physical size and are not designed for use with power electronic circuits. Semiconductor-based current sensing devices such as the Hall sensor and Giant Magnetoresistive (GMR sensor are advantageous in terms of small size, high sensitivity, wide frequency range, low power consumption, and relatively low cost. Nevertheless, the operational characteristics of these devices limit their current measurement range. In this paper, a design based on using counteracting magnetic field is introduced for extending the GMR current measurement range from 9 A (unipolar to ±45 A. A prototype has been implemented to verify the design and the linear operation of the circuit is demonstrated by experimental results. A microcontroller unit (MCU is used to provide an automatic scaling function to optimize the performance of the proposed current sensor.

  20. PA3297 Counteracts Antimicrobial Effects of Azithromycin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao eTan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes acute and chronic infections in human. Its increasing resistance to antibiotics requires alternative treatments that are more effective than available strategies. Among the alternatives is the unconventional usage of conventional antibiotics, of which the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin (AZM provides a paradigmatic example. AZM therapy is associated with a small but consistent improvement in respiratory function of cystic fibrosis (CF patients suffering from chronic P. aeruginosa infection. Besides immunomodulating activities, AZM represses bacterial genes involved in virulence, quorum sensing, biofilm formation, and motility, all of which are due to stalling of ribosome and depletion of cellular tRNA pool. However, how P. aeruginosa responds to and counteracts the effects of AZM remain elusive. Here we found that deficiency of PA3297, a gene encoding a DEAH-box helicase, intensified AZM-mediated bacterial killing, suppression of pyocyanin production and swarming motility, and hypersusceptibility to hydrogen peroxide. We demonstrated that expression of PA3297 is induced by the interaction between AZM and ribosome. Importantly, mutation of PA3297 resulted in elevated levels of unprocessed 23S-5S rRNA in the presence of AZM, which might lead to increased susceptibility to AZM-mediated effects. Our results revealed one of the bacterial responses in counteracting the detrimental effects of AZM.

  1. Counteractive effect of antacid suspensions on intrinsic dental erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turssi, Cecilia P; Vianna, Lídia M F F; Hara, Anderson T; do Amaral, Flávia L B; França, Fabiana M G; Basting, Roberta T

    2012-08-01

    This in vitro study aimed to investigate the anti-erosive effect of antacid suspensions applied to enamel after exposure to hydrochloric acid (HCl). Ninety bovine enamel slabs were embedded, flattened, and polished. Reference areas were created and specimens were divided into six groups. They were exposed to 0.01 M HCl (pH 2) for 2 min, followed by immersion for 1 min in one of the following test suspensions: magnesium hydroxide, aluminum hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide/aluminum hydroxide, sodium alginate/sodium bicarbonate/calcium carbonate, or hydrated magnesium aluminate. Artificial saliva was used as a negative control. Specimens were subjected to a total of five cycles of erosion/antacid treatment. Enamel surface loss was measured (in micrometers) by optical profilometry. In addition, baseline and final surface microhardness (SMH) values of enamel were obtained. It was found that antacid suspensions significantly reduced enamel loss, and that similar protection was afforded by all formulations. No differences were observed between the final enamel SMH values among groups. Antacid suspensions counteracted HCl-induced enamel loss, although they were not effective in reducing enamel softening. Mouth rinsing with antacid suspensions after vomiting can potentially represent a promising strategy to counteract enamel loss caused by erosion.

  2. Robo 4 Counteracts Angiogenesis in Herpetic Stromal Keratitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Gimenez

    Full Text Available The cornea is a complex tissue that must preserve its transparency to maintain optimal vision. However, in some circumstances, damage to the eye can result in neovascularization that impairs vision. This outcome can occur when herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 causes the immunoinflammatory lesion stromal keratitis (SK. Potentially useful measures to control the severity of SK are to target angiogenesis which with herpetic SK invariably involves VEGF. One such way to control angiogenesis involves the endothelial receptor Robo4 (R4, which upon interaction with another protein activates an antiangiogenic pathway that counteracts VEGF downstream signaling. In this study we show that mice unable to produce R4 because of gene knockout developed significantly higher angiogenesis after HSV-1 ocular infection than did infected wild type (WT controls. Moreover, providing additional soluble R4 (sR4 protein by subconjunctival administration to R4 KO HSV-1 infected mice substantially rescued the WT phenotype. Finally, administration of sR4 to WT HSV-1 infected mice diminished the extent of corneal angiogenesis compared to WT control animals. Our results indicate that sR4 could represent a useful therapeutic tool to counteract corneal angiogenesis and help control the severity of SK.

  3. Topical legal aspects of corruption counteraction in public procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Igorevich Zemlin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to analyze the current developments in the Russian legislation on corruption counteraction and the legislation on public procurement system on this basis to study legal conflicts and gaps and to develop proposals under the provisions of the National AntiCorruption Plan for 2014ndash2015. Methods historical formallegal logical and systemicfunctional structural and contextual approach to the study of law and theoretical propositions concerning the definition nature and characteristics of legal relations arising in the process of and relating to the corruption counteraction in the public procurement system. Results аn aggregate of theoretical conclusions and proposals aimed at perfection of anticorruption legislation and legislation on the contractual public procurement system is presented. Scientific novelty the results of the author39s interpretation of changes in the Russian anticorruption legislation and legislation on the contractual public procurement system existing legal conflicts and gaps. Practical significance developing proposals for improving the standards of anticorruption legislation and legislation on public procurement system under the provisions of the National AntiCorruption Plan for 2014ndash2015. nbsp

  4. INEQUALITY, INCENTIVES AND THE INTERPERSONAL TEST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article defends three claims: (1) even if Rawls' difference principle permits incentives to induce talented people to be more productive, it does not follow that it permits inequalities; (2) the difference principle, when adequately specified, may in some circumstances permit...... incentives and allow that the worst off are not made as well off as they could be; and (3) an argument for incentives might pass Cohen's interpersonal test even if it is unsound and might not pass it even if it is sound. 1...

  5. Incentives of Health Care Expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eero Siljander

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The incentives of health care expenditure (HCE have been a topic of discussion in the USA (Obama reforms and in Europe (adjustment to debt crisis. There are competing views of institutional versus GDP (unit income elasticity and productivity related factors of growth of expenditure. However ageing of populations, technology change and economic incentives related to institutions are also key drivers of growth according to the OECD and EU’s AWG committee. Simulation models have been developed to forecast the growth of social expenditure (including HCEs to 2050. In this article we take a historical perspective to look at the institutional structures and their relationship to HCE growth. When controlling for age structure, price developments, doctor density and in-patient and public shares of expenditures, we find that fee-for-service in primary care, is according to the results, in at least 20 percent more costly than capitation or salary remuneration. Capitation and salary (or wage remuneration are at same cost levels in primary care. However we did not find the cost lowering effect for gatekeeping which could have been expected based on previous literature. Global budgeting 30 (partly DRG based percent less costly in specialized care than other reimbursement schemes like open contracting or volume based reimbursement. However the public integration of purchaser and provider cost seems to result to about 20 higher than public reimbursement or public contracting. Increasing the number of doctors or public financing share results in increased HCEs. Therefore expanding public reimbursement share of health services seems to lead to higher HCE. On the contrary, the in-patient share reduced expenditures. Compared to the previous literature, the finding on institutional dummies is in line with similar modeling papers. However the results for public expansion of services is a contrary one to previous works on the subject. The median lag length of

  6. When and how to use monetary incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Laura Sachs

    2005-01-01

    Will money motivate your staff to perform better? While some practice managers prefer not to use bonus incentive programs, others use them fequently and report excellent results. This article explores the benefits and pitfalls of using monetary incentives with your staff. It explores the effectiveness of bonuses compared with raises. It also considers the four qualities of effective incentive bonus programs and gives examples of both percentage bonus programs and flat-dollar bonus programs. In particular, this article includes how-to advice for structuring a new patient incentive bonus program along with the potential problems of such programs as reported by two doctors who tried them. Finally, the article explores the benefits of using merchandise rewards rather than cash and includes innovative ideas for maximizing bonuses by implementing a "cookie jar" system and dividing annual bonuses into two installments.

  7. 75 FR 71325 - Wildlife Habitat Incentive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ...: ``Wildlife means non-domesticated birds, fishes, reptiles, amphibians, invertebrates, and mammals.'' Section... conservation programs like the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP). Response: Section 1244(h) of... documentation, payment scheduling, and documentation. Technical standards for certifying other services...

  8. EHR Incentive Programs - Data and Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — As of March 2013, more than 259,000 health care providers received payment for participating in the Medicare and Medicaid Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive...

  9. Motivational incentives of nurses and nursing leadership

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bakola H; Zyga S; Panoutsopoulos G; Alikari V

    2016-01-01

    ... and maximizing the quality of service. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the need for motivating nurses, presenting a realistic framework of incentives as well as the role of nursing leadership in this. Method...

  10. 24 CFR 902.71 - Incentives for high performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incentives for high performers. 902... DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM PHAS Incentives and Remedies § 902.71 Incentives for high performers. (a) Incentives for high performer PHAs. A PHA that is designated a high performer will be...

  11. 48 CFR 16.402-2 - Performance incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance incentives. 16... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.402-2 Performance incentives. (a) Performance incentives may be considered in connection with specific product characteristics (e.g...

  12. 48 CFR 16.402-3 - Delivery incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delivery incentives. 16... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.402-3 Delivery incentives. (a) Delivery incentives should be considered when improvement from a required delivery schedule is a...

  13. 45 CFR 305.34 - Payment of incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment of incentives. 305.34 Section 305.34... PROGRAM PERFORMANCE MEASURES, STANDARDS, FINANCIAL INCENTIVES, AND PENALTIES § 305.34 Payment of incentives. (a) Each State must report one-fourth of its estimated annual incentive payment on each of its...

  14. 48 CFR 1516.401-70 - Award term incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Award term incentives. 1516... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 1516.401-70 Award term incentives. (a) Award term incentives enable a contractor to become eligible for additional periods of...

  15. 5 CFR 575.306 - Authorizing a retention incentive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... a retention incentive; (2) Determine when a group or category of employees has unusually high or... in the absence of a retention incentive; (3) Approve a retention incentive for an employee (or group... the limitation on the maximum amount of a retention incentive for an employee (or group or category of...

  16. Improving Acquisition Through Innovation in Workforce Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-30

    analytic review of 45 studies on the effects of incentives on workplace performance and documented the impact of several factors that influenced...as a driver of individual performance. Kohn suggests that rewards and punishments are two sides of the same coin attempting to manipulate behavior...H. D. (2003). The effects of incentives on workplace performance: A meta-analytic review of research studies. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 16

  17. Economic incentives and alternative nitrogen regulation schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Ørum, Jens Erik

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to investigate economic incentives associated with changes in nitrogen regulation, including the distribution between farm types and geographically. The analysis is carried out on a partial equilibrium simulation model of the Danish agricultural sector—ESMERALDA. ......The objective of this chapter is to investigate economic incentives associated with changes in nitrogen regulation, including the distribution between farm types and geographically. The analysis is carried out on a partial equilibrium simulation model of the Danish agricultural sector...

  18. Public Incentives for Conservation on Private Land

    OpenAIRE

    Suter, Jordan; Sahan, Dissanayake; Lynne, Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Habitat destruction and fragmentation resulting from land development has motivated considerable public and private expenditures on land conservation initiatives. In addition to direct expenditures related to the procurement of conservation land, legislators have also put in place incentives aimed at encouraging private landowners to voluntarily donate conservation easements. Many landowners have taken advantage of these incentives, as private land held under conservation easement increased n...

  19. Acidification counteracts negative effects of warming on diatom silicification

    KAUST Repository

    Coello-Camba, Alexandra

    2016-10-24

    Diatoms are a significant group contributing up to 40 % of annual primary production in the oceans. They have a special siliceous cell wall that, acting as a ballast, plays a key role in the sequestration of global carbon and silica. Diatoms dominate primary production in the Arctic Ocean, where global climate change is causing increases in water temperature and in the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2). Here we show that as water temperature increases diatoms become stressed, grow to smaller sizes, and decrease their silicification rates. But at higher pCO2, as the pH of seawater decreases, silica incorporation rates are increased. In a future warmer Arctic ocean diatoms may have a competitive advantage under increased ocean acidification, as increased pCO2 counteracts the adverse effects of increasing temperature on silicification and buffers its consequences in the biogeochemical cycles of carbon and silica.

  20. Counteracting age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechshøft, Rasmus; Reitelseder, Søren; Højfeldt, Grith;

    2016-01-01

    at both societal and individual levels. Only a few longitudinal studies have been reported, but whey protein supplementation seems to improve muscle mass and function, and its combination with heavy strength training appears even more effective. However, heavy resistance training may reduce adherence...... to training, thereby attenuating the overall benefits of training. We hypothesize that light load resistance training is more efficient when both adherence and physical improvement are considered longitudinally. We launched the interdisciplinary project on Counteracting Age-related Loss of Skeletal Muscle....... Moreover, we will evaluate changes in physical performance, muscle fiber type and acute anabolic response to whey protein ingestion, sensory adaptation, gut microbiome, and a range of other measures, combined with questionnaires on life quality and qualitative interviews with selected subjects. The CALM...

  1. [Non-indicated cesarean section--does the "Golem" counteract?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Arie

    2011-11-01

    Cesarean section rate is steadily increasing and in Israel it has risen to 20%. MultipLe and different reasons have led to this phenomenon, among them are non-indicated cesarean sections. Although health care providers disagree whether this development is medically, ethically and publically justified, national associations allow it, while respecting those obstetricians who decline to do so. In Israel there are some hospitals which allow non-indicated cesarean sections, whereas others reject them. When discussing this issue with the patients, documentation is advised concerning the reasons for approval or rejection of the patients' request in order to avoid future complaints in the case of adverse outcome. Low risk vaginal delivery should be regarded as a natural process and not as a medical treatment and keeping balanced and reasonable decisions may help to contain the phenomenon and avoid a situation in which the "Golem" created by the medical system, counteracts.

  2. Plant-Derived Agents for Counteracting Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Balaji; Kurdi, Amani; Mahgoub, Eglal; Sadek, Bassem

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin (CSP) is a chemotherapeutic agent commonly used to treat a variety of malignancies. The major setback with CSP treatment is that its clinical efficacy is compromised by its induction of organ toxicity, particular to the kidneys and ears. Despite the significant strides that have been made in understanding the mechanisms underlying CSP-induced renal toxicity, advances in developing renoprotective strategies are still lacking. In addition, the renoprotective approaches described in the literature reveal partial amelioration of CSP-induced renal toxicity, stressing the need to develop potent combinatorial/synergistic agents for the mitigation of renal toxicity. However, the ideal renoprotective adjuvant should not interfere with the anticancer efficacy of CSP. In this review, we have discussed the progress made in utilizing plant-derived agents (phytochemicals) to combat CSP-induced nephrotoxicity in preclinical studies. Furthermore, we have also presented strategies to utilize phytochemicals as prototypes for the development of novel renoprotective agents for counteracting chemotherapy-induced renal damage.

  3. The Illusory Effects of Saving Incentives on Saving

    OpenAIRE

    Engen, Eric M.; William G. Gale; John Karl Scholz

    1996-01-01

    The authors evaluate research on how tax-based saving incentives (IRAs and 401(k)s) affect saving. Previous research overstates the impact of the incentives on saving by failing to account for several issues: households with saving incentives have stronger tastes for saving than others; saving incentives have interacted with debt, nonfinancial assets, financial markets, and pensions; and saving incentives represent pretax balances, whereas taxable accounts represent posttax balances. Accounti...

  4. Pay as You Speed, ISA with incentive for not speeding: results and interpretation of speed data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius; Berthelsen, Kasper K; Harms, Lisbeth

    2012-09-01

    To simulate a market introduction of Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) and to study the effect of a Pay as You Speed (PAYS) concept, a field trial with 153 drivers was conducted during 2007-2009. The participants drove under PAYS conditions for a shorter or a longer period. The PAYS concept consisted of informative ISA linked with economic incentive for not speeding, measured through automatic count of penalty points whenever the speed limit was exceeded. The full incentive was set to 30% of a participant's insurance premium. The participants were exposed to different treatments, with and without incentive crossed with informative ISA present or absent. The results showed that ISA is an efficient tool for reducing speeding particularly on rural roads. The analysis of speed data demonstrated that the proportion of distance driven above the speed where the ISA equipment responded (PDA) was a sensitive measure for reflecting the effect of ISA, whereas mean free flow speed and the 85th percentile speed, were less sensitive to ISA effects. The PDA increased a little over time but still remained at a low level; however, when ISA was turned off, the participants' speeding relapsed to the baseline level. Both informative ISA and incentive ISA reduced the PDA, but there was no statistically significant interaction. Informative reduced it more than the incentive.

  5. Incentives to promote breastfeeding: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Victoria Hall; Morgan, Heather; Rothnie, Kieran; MacLennan, Graeme; Stewart, Fiona; Thomson, Gillian; Crossland, Nicola; Tappin, David; Campbell, Marion; Hoddinott, Pat

    2015-03-01

    Few women in industrialized countries achieve the World Health Organization's recommendation to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months. Governments are increasingly seeking new interventions to address this problem, including the use of incentives. The goal of this study was to assess the evidence regarding the effectiveness of incentive interventions, delivered within or outside of health care settings, to individuals and/or their families seeking to increase and sustain breastfeeding in the first 6 months after birth. Searches of electronic databases, reference lists, and grey literature were conducted to identify relevant reports of published, unpublished, and ongoing studies. All study designs published in English, which met our definition of incentives and that were from a developed country, were eligible for inclusion. Abstract and full-text article review with sequential data extraction were conducted by 2 independent authors. Sixteen full reports were included in the review. The majority evaluated multicomponent interventions of varying frequency, intensity, and duration. Incentives involved providing access to breast pumps, gifts, vouchers, money, food packages, and help with household tasks, but little consensus in findings was revealed. The lack of high-quality, randomized controlled trials identified by this review and the multicomponent nature of the interventions prohibited meta-analysis. This review found that the overall effect of providing incentives for breastfeeding compared with no incentives is unclear due to study heterogeneity and the variation in study quality. Further evidence on breastfeeding incentives offered to women is required to understand the possible effects of these interventions. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. CROSS-CULTURAL INCENTIVES FOR THE FDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru ZAIȚ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to invest there are some incentives needed, including among them, certainly, the ones discussed and analysed in the scientific literature such as: specific earning chances (expectations of each participant (wage, profit, dividend, budget revenue, etc., potential investor’s general or current state, etc.. Less visible incentives from complex areas not obviously related to the investment are, however, less considered. Among these could be incentives arising from inherited or education and culture transmitted philosophy, generally regarding earnings, business and investment. We notice these incentives in case of FDI in different shades and intensities.Investor’s decision to acquire, sell or to carry out projects in a particular area, region or country is not only due to purely economic, commercial or financial reasoning. In such operations, meeting among businessmen, managers and other professionals in the field is, first of all, meeting in specific circumstances, among more or less different cultures.Both theory and practice must be concerned in what way and to what extent these factors influence the investment intention, outcome and yield. Our study proposes a list of the most important cultural type incentives for investment (mainly FDI, based on a set of cases, through a logical and empirical research, using some of the most relevant and recent studies and several real situations to which we got access. These are early data and analysis that will allow us to draw attention to the problem and to develop further research to reach generalizable results

  7. Incentives and intrinsic motivation in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdud, Mikel; Cabasés, Juan M; Nieto, Jorge

    It has been established in the literature that workers within public organisations are intrinsically motivated. This paper is an empirical study of the healthcare sector using methods of qualitative analysis research, which aims to answer the following hypotheses: 1) doctors are intrinsically motivated; 2) economic incentives and control policies may undermine doctors' intrinsic motivation; and 3) well-designed incentives may encourage doctors' intrinsic motivation. We conducted semi-structured interviews à-la-Bewley with 16 doctors from Navarre's Healthcare Service (Servicio Navarro de Salud-Osasunbidea), Spain. The questions were based on current theories of intrinsic motivation and incentives to test the hypotheses. Interviewees were allowed to respond openly without time constraints. Relevant information was selected, quantified and analysed by using the qualitative concepts of saturation and codification. The results seem to confirm the hypotheses. Evidence supporting hypotheses 1 and 2 was gathered from all interviewees, as well as indications of the validity of hypothesis 3 based on interviewees' proposals of incentives. The conclusions could act as a guide to support the optimal design of incentive policies and schemes within health organisations when healthcare professionals are intrinsically motivated. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. DMPD: An arms race: innate antiviral responses and counteracting viral strategies. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18031256 An arms race: innate antiviral responses and counteracting viral strategie...s. Schroder M, Bowie AG. Biochem Soc Trans. 2007 Dec;35(Pt 6):1512-4. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show An arms race...: innate antiviral responses and counteracting viral strategies. PubmedID 18031256 Title An arms race

  9. Associative Interactions in Crowded Solutions of Biopolymers Counteract Depletion Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Joost; Foschepoth, David; te Brinke, Esra; Boersma, Arnold J; Imamura, Hiromi; Rivas, Germán; Heus, Hans A; Huck, Wilhelm T S

    2015-10-14

    The cytosol of Escherichia coli is an extremely crowded environment, containing high concentrations of biopolymers which occupy 20-30% of the available volume. Such conditions are expected to yield depletion forces, which strongly promote macromolecular complexation. However, crowded macromolecule solutions, like the cytosol, are very prone to nonspecific associative interactions that can potentially counteract depletion. It remains unclear how the cytosol balances these opposing interactions. We used a FRET-based probe to systematically study depletion in vitro in different crowded environments, including a cytosolic mimic, E. coli lysate. We also studied bundle formation of FtsZ protofilaments under identical crowded conditions as a probe for depletion interactions at much larger overlap volumes of the probe molecule. The FRET probe showed a more compact conformation in synthetic crowding agents, suggesting strong depletion interactions. However, depletion was completely negated in cell lysate and other protein crowding agents, where the FRET probe even occupied slightly more volume. In contrast, bundle formation of FtsZ protofilaments proceeded as readily in E. coli lysate and other protein solutions as in synthetic crowding agents. Our experimental results and model suggest that, in crowded biopolymer solutions, associative interactions counterbalance depletion forces for small macromolecules. Furthermore, the net effects of macromolecular crowding will be dependent on both the size of the macromolecule and its associative interactions with the crowded background.

  10. Electrical stimulation (ES counteracts muscle decline in seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut eKern

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The loss in muscle mass coupled with a decrease in specific force and shift in fiber composition are all marks of aging. Training and regular exercise attenuate the signs of sarcopenia. However, pathologic conditions limit the ability to perform physical exercise.We addressed whether electrical stimulation (ES is an alternative intervention to improve muscle recovery and defined the molecular mechanism associated with improvement in muscle structure and function.We analyzed, at functional, structural, and molecular level, the effects of ES training on healthy seniors with normal life style, without routine sport activity.ES was able to improve muscle torque and functional performances of seniors and increased the size of fast muscle fibers. At molecular level, ES induced up-regulation of IGF-1 and modulation of MuRF1, a muscle-specific atrophy-related gene. ES also induced up-regulation of relevant markers of differentiating satellite cells and of extracellular matrix remodeling, which might guarantee shape and mechanical forces of trained skeletal muscle as well as maintenance of satellite cell function, reducing fibrosis.Our data provide evidence that ES is a safe method to counteract muscle decline associated with aging.

  11. Plant-Derived Agents for Counteracting Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreesh Ojha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin (CSP is a chemotherapeutic agent commonly used to treat a variety of malignancies. The major setback with CSP treatment is that its clinical efficacy is compromised by its induction of organ toxicity, particular to the kidneys and ears. Despite the significant strides that have been made in understanding the mechanisms underlying CSP-induced renal toxicity, advances in developing renoprotective strategies are still lacking. In addition, the renoprotective approaches described in the literature reveal partial amelioration of CSP-induced renal toxicity, stressing the need to develop potent combinatorial/synergistic agents for the mitigation of renal toxicity. However, the ideal renoprotective adjuvant should not interfere with the anticancer efficacy of CSP. In this review, we have discussed the progress made in utilizing plant-derived agents (phytochemicals to combat CSP-induced nephrotoxicity in preclinical studies. Furthermore, we have also presented strategies to utilize phytochemicals as prototypes for the development of novel renoprotective agents for counteracting chemotherapy-induced renal damage.

  12. Molecular chaperones as therapeutic targets to counteract proteostasis defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Monica; Dominici, Roberto; Cardano, Marina; Diaferia, Giuseppe; Rovida, Ermanna; Biunno, Ida

    2012-03-01

    The health of cells is preserved by the levels and correct folding states of the proteome, which is generated and maintained by the proteostasis network, an integrated biological system consisting of several cytoprotective and degradative pathways. Indeed, the health conditions of the proteostasis network is a fundamental prerequisite to life as the inability to cope with the mismanagement of protein folding arising from genetic, epigenetic, and micro-environment stress appears to trigger a whole spectrum of unrelated diseases. Here we describe the potential functional role of the proteostasis network in tumor biology and in conformational diseases debating on how the signaling branches of this biological system may be manipulated to develop more efficacious and selective therapeutic strategies. We discuss the dual strategy of these processes in modulating the folding activity of molecular chaperones in order to counteract the antithetic proteostasis deficiencies occurring in cancer and loss/gain of function diseases. Finally, we provide perspectives on how to improve the outcome of these disorders by taking advantage of proteostasis modeling.

  13. Subarray-based FDA radar to counteract deceptive ECM signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Ahmed; Wang, Wen-Qin; Yuan, Zhao; Mohamed, Suhad; Bin, Tang

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, the frequency diverse array (FDA) radar concept has attracted extensive attention, as it may benefit from a small frequency increment, compared to the carrier frequency across the array elements and thereby achieve an array factor that is a function of the angle, the time, and the range which is superior to the conventional phase array radar (PAR). However, limited effort on the subject of FDA in electronic countermeasure scenarios, especially in the presence of mainbeam deceptive jamming, has been published. Basic FDA is not desirable for anti-jamming applications, due to the range-angle coupling response of targets. In this paper, a novel method based on subarrayed FDA signal processing is proposed to counteract deceptive ECM signals. We divide the FDA array into multiple subarrays, each of which employs a distinct frequency increment. As a result, in the subarray-based FDA, the desired target can be distinguished at subarray level in joint range-angle-Doppler domain by utilizing the fact that the jammer generates false targets with the same ranges to each subarray without reparations. The performance assessment shows that the proposed solution is effective for deceptive ECM targets suppression. The effectiveness is verified by simulation results.

  14. Sweet delusion. Glucose drinks fail to counteract ego depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Florian; Eggert, Frank

    2014-04-01

    Initial acts of self-control have repeatedly been shown to reduce individuals' performance on a consecutive self-control task. In addition, sugar containing drinks have been demonstrated to counteract this so-called ego-depletion effect, both when being ingested and when merely being sensed in the oral cavity. However, since the underlying evidence is less compelling than suggested, replications are crucially required. In Experiment 1, 70 participants consumed a drink containing either sugar or a non-caloric sweetener between two administrations of delay-discounting tasks. Experiment 2 (N=115) was designed to unravel the psychological function of oral glucose sensing by manipulating the temporal delay between a glucose mouth rinse and the administration of the consecutive self-control task. Despite applying powerful research designs, no effect of sugar sensing or ingestion on ego depletion could be detected. These findings add to previous challenges of the glucose model of self-control and highlight the need for independent replications.

  15. The beneficial effects of taurine to counteract sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scicchitano, Bianca M; Sica, Gigliola

    2016-11-22

    Aging is a multifactorial process characterized by several features including low-grade inflammation, increased oxidative stress and reduced regenerative capacity, which ultimately lead to alteration in morpho-functional properties of skeletal muscle, thus promoting sarcopenia. This condition is characterized by a gradual loss of muscle mass due to an unbalance between protein synthesis and degradation, finally conveying in functional decline and disability. The development of specific therapeutic approaches able to block or reverse this condition may represent an invaluable tool for the promotion of a healthy aging among elderly. It is well established that changes in the quantity and the quality of dietary proteins, as well as the intake of specific amino acids, are able to counteract some of the physiopathological processes related to the progression of the loss of muscle mass and may have beneficial effects in improving the anabolic response of muscle in the elderly. Taurine is a non-essential amino acid expressed in high concentration in several mammalian tissues and particularly in skeletal muscle where it is involved in the modulation of intracellular calcium concentration and ion channel regulation and where it also acts as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory factor. The aim of this review is to summarize the pleiotropic effects of taurine on specific muscle targets and to discuss its role in regulating signaling pathways involved in the maintenance of muscle homeostasis. We also highlight the potential use of taurine as a therapeutic molecule for the amelioration of skeletal muscle function and performance severely compromised during aging.

  16. Targeting species D adenoviruses replication to counteract the epidemic keratoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitenko, Natalia A; Speiseder, Thomas; Groitl, Peter; Spirin, Pavel V; Prokofjeva, Maria M; Lebedev, Timofey D; Rubtsov, Petr M; Lam, Elena; Riecken, Kristoffer; Fehse, Boris; Dobner, Thomas; Prassolov, Vladimir S

    2015-06-01

    Human adenoviruses are non-enveloped DNA viruses causing various infections; their pathogenicity varies dependent on virus species and type. Although acute infections can sometimes take severe courses, they are rarely fatal in immune-competent individuals. Adenoviral conjunctivitis and epidemic keratoconjunctivitis are hyperacute and highly contagious infections of the eye caused by human adenovirus types within species D. Currently there is no causal treatment available to counteract these diseases effectively. The E2B region of the adenovirus genome encodes for the viral DNA polymerase, which is required for adenoviral DNA replication. Here we propose novel model systems to test this viral key factor, DNA polymerase, as a putative target for the development of efficient antiviral therapy based on RNA interference. Using our model cell lines we found that different small interfering RNAs mediate significant suppression (up to 90%) of expression levels of viral DNA polymerase upon transfection. Moreover, permanent expression of short hairpin RNA based on the most effective small interfering RNA led to a highly significant, more than tenfold reduction in replication for different human group D adenoviruses involved in ocular infections.

  17. Paperless Transaction for Publication Incentive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Rosziati; Madon, Hamiza Diana; Nazri, Nurul Hashida Amira Mohd; Saarani, Norhafizah; Mustapha, Aida

    2017-08-01

    Within the Malaysian context, incentive system in scientific publishing rewards authors for publishing journal articles or conference papers that are indexed by Scopus. At Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, the incentive system is going into its third year in operational. The main challenge lies in preparing the evidences as required by the application guideline. This paper presents an online module for publication incentive within the University Publication Information System (SMPU). The module was developed using the Scrum methodology based on the existing workflow of paper-based application. The module is hoped to increase the quality of the system deliverables of SMPU as well as having the ability to cope with change of university requirements in the future.

  18. Splitting motivation: unilateral effects of subliminal incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Liane; Palminteri, Stefano; Lafargue, Gilles; Pessiglione, Mathias

    2010-07-01

    Motivation is generally understood to denote the strength of a person's desire to attain a goal. Here we challenge this view of motivation as a person-level concept, in a study that targeted subliminal incentives to only one half of the human brain. Participants in the study squeezed a handgrip to win the greatest fraction possible of each subliminal incentive, which materialized as a coin image flashed in one visual hemifield. Motivation effects (i.e., more force exerted when the incentive was higher) were observed only for the hand controlled by the stimulated brain hemisphere. These results show that in the absence of conscious control, one brain hemisphere, and hence one side of the body, can be motivated independently of the other.

  19. Incentive relativity in middle aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justel, N; Mustaca, A; Boccia, M; Ruetti, E

    2014-01-24

    Response to a reinforcer is affected by prior experience with different reward values of that reward, a phenomenon known as incentive relativity. Two different procedures to study this phenomenon are the incentive downshift (ID) and the consummatory anticipatory negative contrast (cANC), the former is an emotional-cognitive protocol and the latter cognitive one. Aged rodents, as also well described in aged humans, exhibit alterations in cognitive functions. The main goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of age in the incentive' assessment using these two procedures. The results indicated that aged rats had an adequate assessment of the rewards but their performance is not completely comparable to that of young subjects. They recover faster from the ID and they had a cognitive impairment in the cANC. The results are discussed in relation to age-related changes in memory and emotion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Powerplant productivity improvements and regulatory incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, D; Brown, D

    1980-10-27

    The purpose of this study was to examine the benefits to be gained from increased powerplant productivity and to validate and demonstrate the use of incentives within the regulatory process to promote the improvement of powerplant productivity. The system-wide costs savings to be gained from given productivity improvement scenarios are estimated in both the short and long term. Numerous reports and studies exist which indicate that productivity improvements at the powerplant level are feasible and cost effective. The efforts of this study widen this focus and relate system-wide productivity improvements with system-wide cost savings. The initial thrust of the regulatory section of this study is to validate the existence of reasonable incentive procedures which would enable regulatory agencies to better motivate electric utilities to improve productivity on both the powerplant and system levels. The voluntary incentive format developed in this study was designed to facilitate the link between profit and efficiency which is typically not clear in most regulated market environments. It is concluded that at the present time, many electric utilities in this country could significantly increase the productivity of their base load units, and the adoption of an incentive program of the general type recommended in this study would add to rate of return regulation the needed financial incentives to enable utilities to make such improvements without losing long-run profit. In light of the upcoming oil import target levels and mandatory cutbacks of oil and gas as boiler fuels for electric utilities, the use of incentive programs to encourage more efficient utilization of coal and nuclear base load capacity will become far more inviting over the next two decades.

  1. Differential dependence of Pavlovian incentive motivation and instrumental incentive learning processes on dopamine signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassum, Kate M; Ostlund, Sean B; Balleine, Bernard W; Maidment, Nigel T

    2011-01-01

    Here we attempted to clarify the role of dopamine signaling in reward seeking. In Experiment 1, we assessed the effects of the dopamine D(1)/D(2) receptor antagonist flupenthixol (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) on Pavlovian incentive motivation and found that flupenthixol blocked the ability of a conditioned stimulus to enhance both goal approach and instrumental performance (Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer). In Experiment 2 we assessed the effects of flupenthixol on reward palatability during post-training noncontingent re-exposure to the sucrose reward in either a control 3-h or novel 23-h food-deprived state. Flupenthixol, although effective in blocking the Pavlovian goal approach, was without effect on palatability or the increase in reward palatability induced by the upshift in motivational state. This noncontingent re-exposure provided an opportunity for instrumental incentive learning, the process by which rats encode the value of a reward for use in updating reward-seeking actions. Flupenthixol administered prior to the instrumental incentive learning opportunity did not affect the increase in subsequent off-drug reward-seeking actions induced by that experience. These data suggest that although dopamine signaling is necessary for Pavlovian incentive motivation, it is not necessary for changes in reward experience, or for the instrumental incentive learning process that translates this experience into the incentive value used to drive reward-seeking actions, and provide further evidence that Pavlovian and instrumental incentive learning processes are dissociable.

  2. Incentives and performance governance of research organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Wollersheim, Jutta; Ringelhan, Stefanie; Osterloh, Margit

    2015-01-01

    ​This book contributes to the current discussion in society, politics and higher education on innovation capacity and the financial and non-financial incentives for researchers. The expert contributions in the book deal with implementation of incentive systems at higher education institutions in order to foster innovation. On the other hand, the book also discusses the extent to which governance structures from economy can be transferred to universities and how scientific performance can be measured and evaluated. This book is essential for decision-makers in knowledge-intensive organizations and higher-educational institutions dealing with the topic of performance management.

  3. Incentive Contracts for Venture Capital Syndication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xin-li; YANG De-li

    2007-01-01

    Aiming at the incentive problems of venture capital syndication at the second and later stages, an game model is set up by principal agent and incentive theory, given that the lead venture capitalist has already some knowledge of the project quality from his initial funding of the project. Under symmetric and asymmetric information, the model analyzes how the optimal syndication contracts induce venture capitalists to truthfully reveal their information to each other, and vary with the level of venture capitalists' expertise and information in evaluating projects.

  4. Antihypertensive efficacy of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition and aspirin counteraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guazzi, M D; Campodonico, J; Celeste, F; Guazzi, M; Santambrogio, G; Rossi, M; Trabattoni, D; Alimento, M

    1998-01-01

    Blockade of bradykinin breakdown and enhancement of prostaglandin release probably participate in the antihypertensive activity of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Cyclooxygenase blockers may attenuate the efficacy of ACE inhibitors by interfering with prostaglandin synthesis, and patients taking aspirin may not benefit from ACE inhibition. This study was designed to evaluate the incidence of the counteractive phenomenon and to define minimal aspirin dosage that causes an antagonistic effect. These were 26 patients with mild to moderate hypertension (group 1) and 26 patients with severe untreated primary hypertension (group 2). Enalapril (20 mg twice a day) was used as a single drug in group 1 and was added to the combination of long-acting nifedipine (30 mg/day) and atenolol (50 mg/day) in group 2. Aspirin was tested at doses of 100 and 300 mg/day, and an attenuation of more than 20% of the mean blood pressure decrease produced by enalapril was the criteria that defined antagonism. The 100 mg dose was ineffective. However, 300 mg aspirin had an antagonistic effect in 57% of patients in group 1 and 50% of patients in group 2: mean arterial pressure was lowered by 63% and 91% less, respectively. Results were independent of the drug administration order. In "responders," aspirin significantly attenuated the renin rise associated with ACE inhibition. These findings suggest that a number of ACE-inhibited patients are susceptible to 300 mg/day aspirin, regardless of hypertension severity. Antagonism may be mediated through prostaglandin inhibition according to predominance, in an individual patient, of prostaglandin activation (also as a renin secretory stimulus) or angiotensin blockade by enalapril.

  5. RIPK1 counteracts ZBP1-mediated necroptosis to inhibit inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Juan; Kumari, Snehlata; Kim, Chun; Van, Trieu-My; Wachsmuth, Laurens; Polykratis, Apostolos; Pasparakis, Manolis

    2016-12-01

    Receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) regulates cell death and inflammation through kinase-dependent and -independent functions. RIPK1 kinase activity induces caspase-8-dependent apoptosis and RIPK3 and mixed lineage kinase like (MLKL)-dependent necroptosis. In addition, RIPK1 inhibits apoptosis and necroptosis through kinase-independent functions, which are important for late embryonic development and the prevention of inflammation in epithelial barriers. The mechanism by which RIPK1 counteracts RIPK3-MLKL-mediated necroptosis has remained unknown. Here we show that RIPK1 prevents skin inflammation by inhibiting activation of RIPK3-MLKL-dependent necroptosis mediated by Z-DNA binding protein 1 (ZBP1, also known as DAI or DLM1). ZBP1 deficiency inhibited keratinocyte necroptosis and skin inflammation in mice with epidermis-specific RIPK1 knockout. Moreover, mutation of the conserved RIP homotypic interaction motif (RHIM) of endogenous mouse RIPK1 (RIPK1(mRHIM)) caused perinatal lethality that was prevented by RIPK3, MLKL or ZBP1 deficiency. Furthermore, mice expressing only RIPK1(mRHIM) in keratinocytes developed skin inflammation that was abrogated by MLKL or ZBP1 deficiency. Mechanistically, ZBP1 interacted strongly with phosphorylated RIPK3 in cells expressing RIPK1(mRHIM), suggesting that the RIPK1 RHIM prevents ZBP1 from binding and activating RIPK3. Collectively, these results show that RIPK1 prevents perinatal death as well as skin inflammation in adult mice by inhibiting ZBP1-induced necroptosis. Furthermore, these findings identify ZBP1 as a critical mediator of inflammation beyond its previously known role in antiviral defence and suggest that ZBP1 might be implicated in the pathogenesis of necroptosis-associated inflammatory diseases.

  6. Exercise counteracts fatty liver disease in rats fed on fructose-rich diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voltarelli Fabrício A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to analyze the effects of exercise at the aerobic/anaerobic transition on the markers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, insulin sensitivity and the blood chemistry of rats kept on a fructose-rich diet. Methods We separated 48 Wistar rats into two groups according to diet: a control group (balanced diet AIN-93 G and a fructose-rich diet group (60% fructose. The animals were tested for maximal lactate-steady state (MLSS in order to identify the aerobic/anaerobic metabolic transition during swimming exercises at 28 and 90 days of age. One third of the animals of each group were submitted to swimming training at an intensity equivalent to the individual MLSS for 1 hours/day, 5 days/week from 28 to 120 days (early protocol. Another third were submitted to the training from 90 to 120 days (late protocol, and the others remained sedentary. The main assays performed included an insulin tolerance test (ITT and tests of serum alanine aminotransferase [ALT] and aspartate aminotransferase [AST] activities, serum triglyceride concentrations [TG] and liver total lipid concentrations. Results The fructose-fed rats showed decreased insulin sensitivity, and the late-exercise training protocol counteracted this alteration. There was no difference between the groups in levels of serum ALT, whereas AST and liver lipids increased in the fructose-fed sedentary group when compared with the other groups. Serum triglycerides concentrations were higher in the fructose-fed trained groups when compared with the corresponding control group. Conclusions The late-training protocol was effective in restoring insulin sensitivity to acceptable standards. Considering the markers here evaluated, both training protocols were successful in preventing the emergence of non-alcoholic fatty liver status disease.

  7. Glossary – dCHPP (CHP Policies and incentives database)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This glossary provides descriptions of the policy and incentive types included in the CHP Partnership's CHP Policies and incentives database (dCHPP), as well as the frequency with which the EPA updates each type.

  8. Professional norms, public service motivation and economic incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2007-01-01

    The theories of professions, public service motivation, and economic incentives explain the behaviour of the producers of publicly financed services differently. They emphasize professional norms, sector, and economic incentives, respectively. The few existing attempts to integrate these theories...

  9. Examining the Incentives in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Dominic J.; Goldhaber, Dan D.

    2008-01-01

    In their best seller, "Freakonomics", University of Chicago economist Steven Levitt and "New York Times" writer Stephen Dubner show in an amusing and often provocative manner how an economic way of thinking can be useful in explaining all sorts of real-world phenomena. Their central insight is very simple: incentives are the cornerstone of modern…

  10. Developmental Effects of Incentives on Response Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, Charles F.; Luna, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Inhibitory control and incentive processes underlie decision making, yet few studies have explicitly examined their interaction across development. Here, the effects of potential rewards and losses on inhibitory control in 64 adolescents (13- to 17-year-olds) and 42 young adults (18- to 29-year-olds) were examined using an incentivized antisaccade…

  11. Incentives and Social Relations in the Workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Sol (Joeri)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis, I study how organizations can incentivize a group of individuals, both in theory and by conducting …eld experiments. The …eld experiments introduce short-term team incentives in a randomly selected sample of stores that belong to a single Dutch retail chain of 128 stores.

  12. Incentives for Cheating Given Imperfect Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1998-10-01

    The incentives for cheating given imperfect detection can be discussed within the context of first strike stability. The cost reduction due to is balanced against the sanctions that would be imposed if cheating was detected. For small political sanctions, the optimum level is at high levels of cheating. For large sanctions, the optimum is at quite low levels, which discourages cheating.

  13. Economic Incentives for Stormwater Control (ISBN9781439845608)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addressing a huge knowledge gap from a policy perspective, this book focuses on the economic tools available for stormwater runoff control. It provides case studies demonstrating the application of various incentives, such as tradable credits, fees with rebates, and auction mecha...

  14. Incentives through Consumer Learning about Tastes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    no equilibrium in which the firm always exerts high effort. However, when consumers learn about their own tastes, such an equilibrium can exist. Consumer learning about tastes therefore is an alternative to reputational concerns that produces stable incentives. We discuss the implications of this mechanism...

  15. Targeted Business Incentives and Local Labor Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to examine the effects of geographically targeted business incentives on local labor markets. Unlike elsewhere in the United States, enterprise zone (EZ) designations in Texas are determined in part by a cutoff rule based on census block group poverty rates. Exploiting this discontinuity as a…

  16. Incentive Issues in Information Security Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chul Ho

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation studies three incentive issues in information security management. The first essay studies contract issues between a firm that outsources security functions and a managed security service provider (MSSP) that provides security functions to the firm. Since MSSP and firms cannot observe each other's actions, both can suffer…

  17. Incentives and Social Relations in the Workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Sol (Joeri)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis, I study how organizations can incentivize a group of individuals, both in theory and by conducting …eld experiments. The …eld experiments introduce short-term team incentives in a randomly selected sample of stores that belong to a single Dutch retail chain of 128

  18. Health, Financial Incentives and Retirement in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Erdogan-Ciftci (Esen); E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy); A. Lopez-Nicolas (Angel)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWe estimate the impact of health and financial incentives on the retirement transitions of older workers in Spain. Individual measures of pension wealth, peak and accrual values are constructed using labor market histories and health shocks are derived as changes in a composite health st

  19. Incentives, Teachers, and Gender at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Incentive pay programs have become panacea for a multitude of educational challenges. When aimed at teachers the assumption is that rewards entice them to work in particular ways or particular schools. However, the assumption is based on an economic formula that does not take into consideration the gendered nature of policy processes. This study…

  20. 75 FR 30007 - Teacher Incentive Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... FY 2010 (NIA) for the Teacher Incentive Fund. This notice makes a correction to the May 21 NIA. FOR...: Correction On page 28745 of the May 21 NIA, we requested that applicants submit a short e-mail as a notice of... applicant intends to address.'' We are correcting the May 21 NIA to provide applicants with the correct...

  1. Early Retirement Incentive Programs for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, Scott E.; McCarthy, Martha M.

    1989-01-01

    Despite their popularity, early retirement incentive programs (ERIPs) remain controversial. Although early retirement may be appealing to some teachers, others bristle at being shoved into retirement. Following a historical overview, this article summarizes recent state legislation and addresses ERIP legal status under the Age Discrimination in…

  2. Financial Incentives to Promote Active Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Adam; Suhrcke, Marc; Ogilvie, David

    2012-01-01

    Context Financial incentives, including taxes and subsidies, can be used to encourage behavior change. They are common in transport policy for tackling externalities associated with use of motor vehicles, and in public health for influencing alcohol consumption and smoking behaviors. Financial incentives also offer policymakers a compromise between “nudging,” which may be insufficient for changing habitual behavior, and regulations that restrict individual choice. Evidence acquisition The literature review identified studies published between January 1997 and January 2012 of financial incentives relating to any mode of travel in which the impact on active travel, physical activity, or obesity levels was reported. It encompassed macroenvironmental schemes, such as gasoline taxes, and microenvironmental schemes, such as employer-subsidized bicycles. Five relevant reviews and 20 primary studies (of which nine were not included in the reviews) were identified. Evidence synthesis The results show that more-robust evidence is required if policymakers are to maximize the health impact of fiscal policy relating to transport schemes of this kind. Conclusions Drawing on a literature review and insights from the SLOTH (sleep, leisure, occupation, transportation, and home-based activities) time-budget model, this paper argues that financial incentives may have a larger role in promoting walking and cycling than is acknowledged generally. PMID:23159264

  3. The Cornell Staff Retirement Incentive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Kenneth T.; Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Hallock, Kevin F.; Seeber, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate potential determinants of enrollment in an early retirement incentive program for non-tenure-track employees at a large university. Using administrative records on the eligible, population of employees not covered by collective bargaining agreements, historical employee count and layoff data by budget units, and public information on…

  4. Federal Tax Incentives for Battery Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    Investments in renewable energy can be more attractive with the contribution of two key federal tax incentives. NREL provides basic information about the investment tax credit (ITC) and the Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) depreciation deduction, which may apply to battery storage systems owned by a private party (i.e., a tax-paying business).

  5. 75 FR 53023 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... principles and the guidance are consistent with the Principles for Sound Compensation Practices adopted by... of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act. Today, OTS is.... Description: The guidance is based on three key principles that are designed to ensure that incentive...

  6. The Effects of Incentives on Recruiter Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    recruiter. (after Samuelson , Kraus, Reese, Moskowitz, 2006, p. 13). ...................................................................................3...sailors to volunteer for recruiting duty. However, these incentives lack the endurance to successively motivate recruiters. Samuelson et al.’s (2006...productivity between 12 and 18 months ( Samuelson , Kraus, Reese, & Moskowitz, 2006). The drop-off in productivity after their peak (with usually more than half

  7. Targeting incentives to reduce habitat fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Lewis; Andrew Plantinga; Junjie Wu

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a theoretical model to analyze the spatial targeting of incentives for the restoration of forested landscapes when wildlife habitat can be enhanced by reducing fragmentation. The key theoretical result is that the marginal net benefits of increasing forest can be convex, in which case corner solutions--converting either none or all of the...

  8. 5 CFR 575.311 - Continuation, reduction, and termination of retention incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of retention incentives. 575.311 Section 575.311 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, RELOCATION, AND RETENTION INCENTIVES; SUPERVISORY DIFFERENTIALS; AND EXTENDED ASSIGNMENT INCENTIVES Retention Incentives § 575.311 Continuation, reduction, and...

  9. Economic incentives to wind systems commercialization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotker, M.; Shaw, Jr, R. W.; Adolfson, W. F.; Bernardi, R. P.; Davidoff, P. H.; Eckhart, M. T.; Gunwaldsen, D. S.; Mettam, P. J.; Narayanan, P.; Sillin, J. O.

    1978-08-01

    This assessment of Economic Incentives to Wind Systems Commercialization is an analysis of the quantitative and qualitative impacts of a variety of Government funded economic incentives on Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS). The purpose of this study is to achieve better understanding of the relationship between implementation of specific economic incentives for WECS, and the factors surrounding WECS commercial introduction.

  10. Coupons for Success: A Marketing Incentive in Academic Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potacco, Donna R.; Chen, Peter; Desroches, Danielle; Chisholm, Daniel R.; De Young, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    How does a Coupon Incentive Program motivate students to seek academic support in high-risk courses? Results from this study demonstrated that the Coupon Incentive Program was effective in motivating voluntary student attendance and improving student outcomes. Recommendations related to implementation of the Coupon Incentive Program are discussed.…

  11. The Impact of Incentives and Requirements on Group Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    INCENTIVES AND REQUIREMENTS ON GROUP COLLABORATION by Sheryl Jardine September 2010 Thesis Co-Advisors: Susan Hocevar Gail Thomas THIS PAGE...Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Impact of Incentives and Requirements on Group Collaboration 6. AUTHOR(S) Sheryl Jardine 5. FUNDING NUMBERS...OF INCENTIVES AND REQUIREMENTS ON GROUP COLLABORATION Sheryl Jardine Mitigation & Recovery Section Manager, Washington State Emergency

  12. Economic incentives to wind systems commercialization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotker, M.; Shaw, Jr, R. W.; Adolfson, W. F.; Bernardi, R. P.; Davidoff, P. H.; Eckhart, M. T.; Gunwaldsen, D. S.; Mettam, P. J.; Narayanan, P.; Sillin, J. O.

    1978-08-01

    This assessment of Economic Incentives to Wind Systems Commercialization is an analysis of the quantitative and qualitative impacts of a variety of Government funded economic incentives on Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS). The purpose of this study is to achieve better understanding of the relationship between implementation of specific economic incentives for WECS, and the factors surrounding WECS commercial introduction.

  13. 28 CFR 91.4 - Truth in Sentencing Incentive Grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Truth in Sentencing Incentive Grants. 91... FACILITIES General § 91.4 Truth in Sentencing Incentive Grants. (a) Half of the total amount of funds... available for Truth in Sentencing Incentive Grants. (b) Eligibility. To be eligible to receive such a grant...

  14. 75 FR 27165 - Conservation Reserve Program; Transition Incentives Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Corporation 7 CFR Part 1410 RIN 0560-AH80 Conservation Reserve Program; Transition Incentives Program AGENCY... amending the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) regulations to add provisions for incentives to retired or... farmer or rancher for production. The Transition Incentives Program involves new and mandatory provisions...

  15. 48 CFR 1816.402-270 - NASA technical performance incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... incentives. 1816.402-270 Section 1816.402-270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 1816.402-270 NASA technical performance incentives. (a) Pursuant to the guidelines in 1816.402, NASA has...

  16. 48 CFR 819.7105 - Incentives for prime contractor participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incentives for prime... Incentives for prime contractor participation. (a) Under the Small Business Act, 15 U.S.C. 637(d)(4)(e), VA is authorized to provide appropriate incentives to encourage subcontracting opportunities for small...

  17. Faculty Incentives for Online Course Design, Delivery, and Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Jennifer H.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated the types and frequency of incentives for online instruction at non-profit institutions of higher education with an established teaching and learning development unit. While up to 70% of institutions offer incentives, this support is not universal and varies by incentive type and purpose.

  18. 48 CFR 216.402-2 - Technical performance incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... incentives. 216.402-2 Section 216.402-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 216.402-2 Technical performance incentives. See PGI 216.402-2 for guidance on establishing...

  19. 46 CFR 393.5 - Incentives, Impediments and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incentives, Impediments and Solutions. 393.5 Section 393... AMERICA'S MARINE HIGHWAY PROGRAM § 393.5 Incentives, Impediments and Solutions. (a) Summary. The purpose of this section is to identify short term incentives and solutions to impediments in order to...

  20. Incentive issues in the South African construction industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    survey by completing the structured questionnaire. The questionnaire survey is .... Alliance contracting is reinforced by incentive design, ... Many researchers have advocated the use of incentives as ... aims to evaluate the current practices of incentive mechanisms in the ..... The analysis shows lack of consistency in the.

  1. Coupons for Success: A Marketing Incentive in Academic Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potacco, Donna R.; Chen, Peter; Desroches, Danielle; Chisholm, Daniel R.; De Young, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    How does a Coupon Incentive Program motivate students to seek academic support in high-risk courses? Results from this study demonstrated that the Coupon Incentive Program was effective in motivating voluntary student attendance and improving student outcomes. Recommendations related to implementation of the Coupon Incentive Program are discussed.…

  2. 49 CFR 538.9 - Dual fuel vehicle incentive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dual fuel vehicle incentive. 538.9 Section 538.9... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.9 Dual fuel vehicle incentive. The application of 49 U.S.C. 32905(b) and (d) to qualifying dual fuel vehicles...

  3. 26 CFR 1.422-2 - Incentive stock options defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... option defined—(1) In general. The term incentive stock option means an option that meets the requirements of paragraph (a)(2) of this section on the date of grant. An incentive stock option is also subject to the $100,000 limitation described in § 1.422-4. An incentive stock option may contain a...

  4. 12 CFR 2.4 - Bonus and incentive plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bonus and incentive plans. 2.4 Section 2.4... § 2.4 Bonus and incentive plans. A bank employee or officer may participate in a bonus or incentive... do not exceed the greater of: (a) Five percent of the recipient's annual salary; or (b) Five...

  5. Non-endothelial endothelin counteracts hypoxic vasodilation in porcine large coronary arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fröbert Ole

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The systemic vascular response to hypoxia is vasodilation. However, reports suggest that the potent vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (ET-1 is released from the vasculature during hypoxia. ET-1 is reported to augment superoxide anion generation and may counteract nitric oxide (NO vasodilation. Moreover, ET-1 was proposed to contribute to increased vascular resistance in heart failure by increasing the production of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA. We investigated the role of ET-1, the NO pathway, the potassium channels and radical oxygen species in hypoxia-induced vasodilation of large coronary arteries. Results In prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α, 10 μM-contracted segments with endothelium, gradual lowering of oxygen tension from 95 to 1% O2 resulted in vasodilation. The vasodilation to O2 lowering was rightward shifted in segments without endothelium at all O2 concentrations except at 1% O2. The endothelin receptor antagonist SB217242 (10 μM markedly increased hypoxic dilation despite the free tissue ET-1 concentration in the arterial wall was unchanged in 1% O2 versus 95% O2. Exogenous ET-1 reversed hypoxic dilation in segments with and without endothelium, and the hypoxic arteries showed an increased sensitivity towards ET-1 compared to the normoxic controls. Without affecting basal NO, hypoxia increased NO concentration in PGF2α-contracted arteries, and an NO synthase inhibitor, L-NOARG,(300 μM, NG-nitro-L-Arginine reduced hypoxic vasodilation. NO-induced vasodilation was reduced in endothelin-contracted preparations. Arterial wall ADMA concentrations were unchanged by hypoxia. Blocking of potassium channels with TEA (tetraethylammounium chloride(10 μM inhibited vasodilation to O2 lowering as well as to NO. The superoxide scavenger tiron (10 μM and the putative NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin (10 μM leftward shifted concentration-response curves for O2 lowering without changing vasodilation to 1% O2. PEG (polyethylene

  6. The effect of task demand and incentive on neurophysiological and cardiovascular markers of effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairclough, Stephen H; Ewing, Kate

    2017-09-01

    According to motivational intensity theory, effort is proportional to the level of task demand provided that success is possible and successful performance is deemed worthwhile. The current study represents a simultaneous manipulation of demand (working memory load) and success importance (financial incentive) to investigate neurophysiological (EEG) and cardiovascular measures of effort. A 2×2 repeated-measures study was conducted where 18 participants performed a n-back task under three conditions of demand: easy (1-back), hard (4-back) and very hard (7-back). In addition, participants performed these tasks in the presence of performance-contingent financial incentive or in a no-incentive (pilot trial) condition. Three bands of EEG activity were quantified: theta (4-7Hz), lower-alpha (7.5-10Hz) and upper-alpha (10.5-13Hz). Fronto-medial activity in the theta band and activity in the upper-alpha band at frontal, central and parietal sites were sensitive to demand and indicated greatest effort when the task was challenging and success was possible. Mean systolic blood pressure and activity in the lower-alpha band at parietal sites were also sensitive to demand but also increased in the incentive condition across all levels of task demand. The results of the study largely support the predictions of motivational intensity using neurophysiological markers of effort. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Forest management could counteract distribution retractions forced by climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, Louise; Harrison, Philip J; Räty, Minna; Bärring, Lars; Strandberg, Gustav; Snäll, Tord

    2017-03-28

    Climate change is expected to drive the distribution retraction of northern species. However, particularly in regions with a history of intensive exploitation, changes in habitat management could facilitate distribution expansions counter to expectations under climate change. Here, we test the potential for future forest management to facilitate the southwards expansion of an old-forest species from the boreal region into the boreo-nemoral region, contrary to expectations under climate change. We used an ensemble of species distribution models based on citizen science data to project the response of Phellinus ferrugineofuscus, a red-listed old-growth indicator, wood-decaying fungus, to six forest management and climate change scenarios. We projected change in habitat suitability across the boreal and boreo-nemoral regions of Sweden for the period 2020-2100. Scenarios varied in the proportion of forest set-aside from production, the level of timber extraction, and the magnitude of climate change. Habitat suitabilities for the study species were projected to show larger relative increases over time in the boreo-nemoral region compared to the boreal region, under all scenarios. By 2100, mean suitabilities in set-aside forest in the boreo-nemoral region were similar to the suitabilities projected for set-aside forest in the boreal region in 2020, suggesting that occurrence in the boreo-nemoral region could be increased. However, across all scenarios, consistently higher projected suitabilities in set-aside forest in the boreal region indicated that the boreal region remained the species stronghold. Furthermore, negative effects of climate change were evident in the boreal region, and projections suggested that climatic changes may eventually counteract the positive effects of forest management in the boreo-nemoral region. Our results suggest that the current rarity of this old-growth indicator species in the boreo-nemoral region may be due to the history of intensive

  8. Subthreshold α2-Adrenergic Activation Counteracts Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Potentiation of Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minglin Pan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The pancreatic β cell harbors α2-adrenergic and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 receptors on its plasma membrane to sense the corresponding ligands adrenaline/noradrenaline and GLP-1 to govern glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. However, it is not known whether these two signaling systems interact to gain the adequate and timely control of insulin release in response to glucose. The present work shows that the α2-adrenergic agonist clonidine concentration-dependently depresses glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from INS-1 cells. On the contrary, GLP-1 concentration-dependently potentiates insulin secretory response to glucose. Importantly, the present work reveals that subthreshold α2-adrenergic activation with clonidine counteracts GLP-1 potentiation of glucose-induced insulin secretion. This counteractory process relies on pertussis toxin- (PTX- sensitive Gi proteins since it no longer occurs following PTX-mediated inactivation of Gi proteins. The counteraction of GLP-1 potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by subthreshold α2-adrenergic activation is likely to serve as a molecular mechanism for the delicate regulation of insulin release.

  9. Definition of singularity due to Newton’s second law counteracting gravity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arezu Jahanshir; Hossein Javadi; Farshid forouzbakhsh

    2013-01-01

    .... Regarding on review of Newton's second law in this paper, we have been attempted toenter to the sub-quantum space by crossing the border of quantum mechanics thento survey of counteracting Newton's...

  10. Layoffs as part of an optimal incentive mix:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Takáts, Elöd

    Firms offer highly complex contracts to their employees. These contracts contain a mix of incentives, such as fixed wages, bonus payments, promotion options, and layoff threats. In general, economists understand how incentives motivate employees but not why a particular mix should be used....... In this paper we present a model in which the observed incentive mix is an optimal contract. In particular, we show that it can be optimal for firms to combine cost-efficient incentives such as promotions and bonuses with layoffs. The intuition is that layoffs play a dual role. First, they create incentives...

  11. Layoffs as part of an optimal incentive mix:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Takáts, Elöd

    Firms offer highly complex contracts to their employees. These contracts contain a mix of incentives, such as fixed wages, bonus payments, promotion options, and layoff threats. In general, economists understand how incentives motivate employees but not why a particular mix should be used....... In this paper we present a model in which the observed incentive mix is an optimal contract. In particular, we show that it can be optimal for firms to combine cost-efficient incentives such as promotions and bonuses with layoffs. The intuition is that layoffs play a dual role. First, they create incentives...

  12. Managing dual warehouses with an incentive policy for deteriorating items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jonas C. P.; Wang, Kung-Jeng; Lin, Yu-Siang

    2016-02-01

    Distributors in a supply chain usually limit their own warehouse in finite capacity for cost reduction and excess stock is held in a rent warehouse. In this study, we examine inventory control for deteriorating items in a two-warehouse setting. Assuming that there is an incentive offered by a rent warehouse that allows the rental fee to decrease over time, the objective of this study is to maximise the joint profit of the manufacturer and the distributor. An optimisation procedure is developed to derive the optimal joint economic lot size policy. Several criteria are identified to select the most appropriate warehouse configuration and inventory policy on the basis of storage duration of materials in a rent warehouse. Sensitivity analysis is done to examine the results of model robustness. The proposed model enables a manufacturer with a channel distributor to coordinate the use of alternative warehouses, and to maximise the joint profit of the manufacturer and the distributor.

  13. A computational substrate for incentive salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Samuel M; Daw, Nathaniel D; Montague, P Read

    2003-08-01

    Theories of dopamine function are at a crossroads. Computational models derived from single-unit recordings capture changes in dopaminergic neuron firing rate as a prediction error signal. These models employ the prediction error signal in two roles: learning to predict future rewarding events and biasing action choice. Conversely, pharmacological inhibition or lesion of dopaminergic neuron function diminishes the ability of an animal to motivate behaviors directed at acquiring rewards. These lesion experiments have raised the possibility that dopamine release encodes a measure of the incentive value of a contemplated behavioral act. The most complete psychological idea that captures this notion frames the dopamine signal as carrying 'incentive salience'. On the surface, these two competing accounts of dopamine function seem incommensurate. To the contrary, we demonstrate that both of these functions can be captured in a single computational model of the involvement of dopamine in reward prediction for the purpose of reward seeking.

  14. Incentives for better performance in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduljawad, Asaad; Al-Assaf, Assaf F

    2011-05-01

    Incentives for better performance in health care have several modes and methods. They are designed to motivate and encourage people to perform well and improve their outcomes. They may include monetary or non-monetary incentives and may be applied to consumers, individual providers or institutions. One such model is the Pay-for-Performance system. In this system, beneficiaries are compared with one another based on a set of performance indicators and those that achieve a high level of performance are rewarded financially. This system is meant to recognise and primarily to reward high performers. Its goal is to encourage beneficiaries to strive for better performance. This system has been applied in several countries and for several recipients and settings. Early indications show that this system has had mixed effects on performance.

  15. WORK INCENTIVES IN AN AGE OF AUTOMATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEVENSTEIN, AARON

    HISTORICAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL PREMISES ABOUT THE MEANING OF WORK AND THE ROLE OF WORK IN MAN'S LIFE ARE EXPLORED. ATTITUDES TOWARD WORK CHANGE AS INCENTIVES CHANGED. WORK HAD MEANING WHEN IT MEANT SURVIVAL OR WAS CONNECTED TO A FEAR OF GOD. FREUD SAW WORK AS A FORCE WHICH BINDS MAN TO REALITY. OTHERS SEE IT AS A MEANS TO SELF-FULLFILLMENT, OR AS A…

  16. Job assignments, intrinsic motivation and explicit incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Nafziger, Julia

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the interplay of job assignments with the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation of an agent. Job assignments influence the self confidence of the agent, and thereby his intrinsic motivation. Monetary reward allow the principal to complement intrinsic motivation with extrinsic incentives. The main result is that the principal chooses an inefficient job assignment rule to enhance the agent's intrinsic motivation even though she can motivate him with monetary rewards. This show...

  17. Regulatory Risk under Optimal Incentive Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Strausz, Roland

    2009-01-01

    The paper provides a tractable, analytical framework to study regulatory risk under optimal incentive regulation. Regulatory risk is captured by uncertainty about the policy variables in the regulator’s objective function: weights attached to profits and costs of public funds. Results are as follows: 1) The regulator’s reaction to regulatory risk depends on the curvature of the aggregate demand function. 2) It yields a positive information rent effect exactly when demand is convex. 3) Firms b...

  18. Bank Solvency, Market Structure, and Monitoring Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Caminal, Ramon; Matutes, Carmen

    1997-01-01

    We analyse the impact of market structure on the probability of banking failure when banks’ loan portfolios are subject to aggregate uncertainty. In our model borrowers are subject to a moral hazard problem, which induces banks to choose between two second-best alternative devices: costly monitoring and credit rationing. We show that investment depends on both the lending rate and the information structure. Since monitoring incentives increase with interest rate margins, the relationship betw...

  19. Incentive Design for Introducing Genetically Modified Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Kingwell, Ross S.

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops raises several issues. This paper looks at incentives required to reduce problems of illegal and improper use of GM proprietary technology used in growing GM crops. A simple model of producer behaviour describes some key influences of a farmer’s response to GM crops. The model is illustrated using the example of INGARD cotton grown in Australia. The key findings are that legitimate adoption of a GM crop by a farmer depends on their attitude ...

  20. Evaluating incentive mechanisms for conserving habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Parkhurst, Gregory M.; Jason F. Shogren

    2005-01-01

    Private lands have an important role in the success of the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The current command-andcontrol approach to protecting species on private land has resulted in disincentives to the landowner, which have decreased the ability of the ESA to protect many of our endangered and threatened species. Herein we define and evaluate, from an economic perspective, eight incentive mechanisms, including the status quo, for protecting species on private land. We highlight the strength...

  1. Economic Incentives and Global Fisheries Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Costello; John Lynham; Sarah E. Lester; Gaines, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    Widespread global collapses of fisheries corroborate decades-old predictions by economists, made long before large-scale industrialization of the world's fisheries, that open access would have deleterious ecological and economic effects on fishery resources. Incentive-based alternatives (collectively called catch shares) have been shown to generate pecuniary benefits, but little empirical evidence exists for, or against, a link to global fisheries sustainability. We report and expand on an an...

  2. Salt Potentiates Methylamine Counteraction System to Offset the Deleterious Effects of Urea on Protein Stability and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Laishram R.; Warepam, Marina; Ahmad, Faizan; Dar, Tanveer Ali

    2015-01-01

    Cellular methylamines are osmolytes (low molecular weight organic compounds) believed to offset the urea’s harmful effects on the stability and function of proteins in mammalian kidney and marine invertebrates. Although urea and methylamines are found at 2:1 molar ratio in tissues, their opposing effects on protein structure and function have been questioned on several grounds including failure to counteraction or partial counteraction. Here we investigated the possible involvement of cellular salt, NaCl, in urea-methylamine counteraction on protein stability and function. We found that NaCl mediates methylamine counteracting system from no or partial counteraction to complete counteraction of urea’s effect on protein stability and function. These conclusions were drawn from the systematic thermodynamic stability and functional activity measurements of lysozyme and RNase-A. Our results revealed that salts might be involved in protein interaction with charged osmolytes and hence in the urea-methylamine counteraction. PMID:25793733

  3. Salt potentiates methylamine counteraction system to offset the deleterious effects of urea on protein stability and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safikur Rahman

    Full Text Available Cellular methylamines are osmolytes (low molecular weight organic compounds believed to offset the urea's harmful effects on the stability and function of proteins in mammalian kidney and marine invertebrates. Although urea and methylamines are found at 2:1 molar ratio in tissues, their opposing effects on protein structure and function have been questioned on several grounds including failure to counteraction or partial counteraction. Here we investigated the possible involvement of cellular salt, NaCl, in urea-methylamine counteraction on protein stability and function. We found that NaCl mediates methylamine counteracting system from no or partial counteraction to complete counteraction of urea's effect on protein stability and function. These conclusions were drawn from the systematic thermodynamic stability and functional activity measurements of lysozyme and RNase-A. Our results revealed that salts might be involved in protein interaction with charged osmolytes and hence in the urea-methylamine counteraction.

  4. Incentive or habit learning in amphibians?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén N Muzio

    Full Text Available Toads (Rhinella arenarum received training with a novel incentive procedure involving access to solutions of different NaCl concentrations. In Experiment 1, instrumental behavior and weight variation data confirmed that such solutions yield incentive values ranging from appetitive (deionized water, DW, leading to weight gain, to neutral (300 mM slightly hypertonic solution, leading to no net weight gain or loss, and aversive (800 mM highly hypertonic solution leading to weight loss. In Experiment 2, a downshift from DW to a 300 mM solution or an upshift from a 300 mM solution to DW led to a gradual adjustment in instrumental behavior. In Experiment 3, extinction was similar after acquisition with access to only DW or with a random mixture of DW and 300 mM. In Experiment 4, a downshift from DW to 225, 212, or 200 mM solutions led again to gradual adjustments. These findings add to a growing body of comparative evidence suggesting that amphibians adjust to incentive shifts on the basis of habit formation and reorganization.

  5. Motivational incentives of nurses and nursing leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakola H.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the health sector which is characterized much more as a "labor intensive" rather than as "capital intensive" human capital is the core for improving efficiency, enhancing productivity and maximizing the quality of service. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the need for motivating nurses, presenting a realistic framework of incentives as well as the role of nursing leadership in this. Method: Literature review was carried out based on research and review articles from international (PubMed, Medline and Greek (Iatrotek databases. Results: The high performance of nursing staff depends on factors such as working environment conditions, financial rewards, job stress, etc. The international literature review highlighted as the main motivation factors for health care workers, the assessment by managers and colleagues, the personal achievements, the economic stability as well as training and job characteristics. The framework of incentives should include measures to improve work conditions and environment, measures for developing a working framework, incentives for moral compensation and self-realization. The role of nursing leadership should be based on the theory of path-goal for the improving of nursing practice, patient satisfaction and reduction of hospitalization costs. Conclusions: In order to apply a proper motivation of nursing staff, in addition to effective implementation of existing provisions, further changes to the legal framework without "personal" criteria focused more on punishment other than a reward , should be required.

  6. Incentives for demand-side management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, M.W.; Brown, J.B. [Barakat and Chamberlin, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This report is the first product of an ongoing project to monitor the efforts of states to remove regulatory barriers to, and provide financial incentives for, utility investment in demand-side management (DSM) resources. The project was commissioned by the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) in response to growing interest among regulators for a comprehensive survey of developments in this area. Each state report beings with an overview of the state`s progress toward removing regulatory barriers and providing incentives for DSM. Information is organized under five headings: status; IRP regulations and practice; current treatment of DSM, directions and trends; commission contact person. Where applicable, each overview is followed by one or more sections that report on specific incentive proposals or mechanisms within the state. Information on each proposal or mechanism is organized under eight headings. A notation on each page identifies the utility or other group associated with the proposal or mechanism. The eight headings are as follows: status; background; treatment of cost recovery; treatment of lost revenues/decoupling; treatment of profitability; other features; issues, and additional observations.

  7. Incentives for demand-side management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, M.W.; Brown, J.B. (Barakat and Chamberlin, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    This report is the first product of an ongoing project to monitor the efforts of states to remove regulatory barriers to, and provide financial incentives for, utility investment in demand-side management (DSM) resources. The project was commissioned by the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) in response to growing interest among regulators for a comprehensive survey of developments in this area. Each state report beings with an overview of the state's progress toward removing regulatory barriers and providing incentives for DSM. Information is organized under five headings: status; IRP regulations and practice; current treatment of DSM, directions and trends; commission contact person. Where applicable, each overview is followed by one or more sections that report on specific incentive proposals or mechanisms within the state. Information on each proposal or mechanism is organized under eight headings. A notation on each page identifies the utility or other group associated with the proposal or mechanism. The eight headings are as follows: status; background; treatment of cost recovery; treatment of lost revenues/decoupling; treatment of profitability; other features; issues, and additional observations.

  8. Cocaine self-administration increases the incentive motivational properties of the drug in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroche, V; Le Moal, M; Piazza, P V

    1999-08-01

    A progressive increase in the frequency and intensity of drug use is one of the major behavioural phenomena characterizing the development of addiction. The nature of the drug-induced adaptations involved in this escalating drug intake remains unknown. Some theories propose that this escalation is due to a progressive decrease (tolerance) in the reinforcing or incentive effects of the drug. Alternative views posit that with chronic use the reinforcing or incentive effects of drugs increase, by a sensitization or a learning mechanism. In this report, we address the question of whether escalating cocaine intake is paralleled by an increase or a decrease in the reinforcing and incentive effects of the drug. Using the experimental model of intravenous drug self-administration with a within-session dose-response paradigm, we first studied the course of cocaine intake over 14 sessions in rats. After acquisition of cocaine self-administration, cocaine intake progressively increased at each dose tested. Then rats, previously allowed to self-administer cocaine during either six or 29 sessions, were compared in three different tests of the incentive and reinforcing effects of cocaine: cocaine-induced reinstatement of self-administration, cocaine-induced runway and cocaine-induced place conditioning. As compared with rats briefly exposed to cocaine self-administration (six sessions), rats with the longer experience (29 sessions) exhibited a higher intake of cocaine paralleled by a higher responsiveness in the cocaine-induced reinstatement and runway tests. Both groups of rats were similarly sensitive to the rewarding effects of the drug as evaluated by the threshold dose of cocaine inducing place conditioning. Our results demonstrate that escalating cocaine intake is paralleled by an increase in the motivational properties of the drug in the absence of apparent signs of tolerance to the reinforcing or incentive effects of cocaine.

  9. CD55 is a key complement regulatory protein that counteracts complement-mediated inactivation of Newcastle Disease Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaswamy, Udaya S; Cotter, Christopher R; Cheng, Xing; Jin, Hong; Chen, Zhongying

    2016-08-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is being developed as an oncolytic virus for virotherapy. In this study we analysed the regulation of complement-mediated inactivation of a recombinant NDV in different host cells. NDV grown in human cells was less sensitive to complement-mediated virus inactivation than NDV grown in embryonated chicken eggs. Additionally, NDV produced from HeLa-S3 cells is more resistant to complement than NDV from 293F cells, which correlated with higher expression and incorporation of complement regulatory proteins (CD46, CD55 and CD59) into virions from HeLa-S3 cells. Further analysis of the recombinant NDVs individually expressing the three CD molecules showed that CD55 is the most potent in counteracting complement-mediated virus inactivation. The results provide important information on selecting NDV manufacture substrate to mitigate complement-mediated virus inactivation.

  10. Counteraction of antibiotic production and degradation stabilizes microbial communities

    OpenAIRE

    Kelsic, Eric D.; Zhao, Jeffrey; Vetsigian, Kalin; Kishony, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Summary A major challenge in theoretical ecology is understanding how natural microbial communities support species diversity 1-8 , and in particular how antibiotic producing, sensitive and resistant species coexist 9-15 . While cyclic “rock-paper-scissors” interactions can stabilize communities in spatial environments 9-11 , coexistence in unstructured environments remains an enigma 12,16 . Here, using simulations and analytical models, we show that the opposing actions of antibiotic product...

  11. Can incentives undermine intrinsic motivation to participate in epidemiologic surveys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenemark, Marika; Vernby, Asa; Norberg, Annika Lindahl

    2010-04-01

    Response rates to surveys are decreasing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of lottery tickets as incentives in an epidemiologic control group. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to parents in the municipality of Stockholm, Sweden, who were to be used as a control group in a study addressing stress in parents of children with cancer. A stratified random sample of 450 parents were randomized into three incentive groups: (a) no incentive; (b) a promised incentive of one lottery ticket to be received upon reply; (c) a promised incentive of one lottery ticket to be received upon reply and an additional lottery ticket upon reply within 1 week. The overall response rate across the three groups was 65.3%. The response rate was highest in the no incentive group (69.3%) and lowest in the one plus one lottery ticket group (62.0%). In a survival analysis, the difference between the two response curves was significant by the log-rank test (P = 0.04), with the no incentive group having a shorter time to response than the incentive group. Our findings suggest that the use of lottery tickets as incentives to increase participation in a mail questionnaire among parents may be less valuable or even harmful. Incentives may undermine motivation in studies in which the intrinsic motivation of the respondents is already high.

  12. High brachytherapy doses can counteract hypoxia in cervical cancer—a modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Emely; Dasu, Alexandru; Beskow, Catharina; Toma-Dasu, Iuliana

    2017-01-01

    Tumour hypoxia is a well-known adverse factor for the outcome of radiotherapy. For cervical tumours in particular, several studies indicate large variability in tumour oxygenation. However, clinical evidence shows that the management of cervical cancer including brachytherapy leads to high rate of success. It was the purpose of this study to investigate whether the success of brachytherapy for cervical cancer, seemingly regardless of oxygenation status, could be explained by the characteristics of the brachytherapy dose distributions. To this end, a previously used in silico model of tumour oxygenation and radiation response was further developed to simulate the treatment of cervical cancer employing a combination of external beam radiotherapy and intracavitary brachytherapy. Using a clinically-derived brachytherapy dose distribution and assuming a homogeneous dose delivered by external radiotherapy, cell survival was assessed on voxel level by taking into account the variation of sensitivity with oxygenation as well as the effects of repair, repopulation and reoxygenation during treatment. Various scenarios were considered for the conformity of the brachytherapy dose distribution to the hypoxic region in the target. By using the clinically-prescribed brachytherapy dose distribution and varying the total dose delivered with external beam radiotherapy in 25 fractions, the resulting values of the dose for 50% tumour control, D 50, were in agreement with clinically-observed values for high cure rates if fast reoxygenation was assumed. The D 50 was furthermore similar for the different degrees of conformity of the brachytherapy dose distribution to the tumour, regardless of whether the hypoxic fraction was 10%, 25%, or 40%. To achieve 50% control with external RT only, a total dose of more than 70 Gy in 25 fractions would be required for all cases considered. It can thus be concluded that the high doses delivered in brachytherapy can counteract the increased

  13. Increasing participation in incentive programs for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorice, Michael G; Oh, Chi-Ok; Gartner, Todd; Snieckus, Mary; Johnson, Rhett; Donlan, C Josh

    2013-07-01

    Engaging private landowners in conservation activities for imperiled species is critical to maintaining and enhancing biodiversity. Market-based approaches can incentivize conservation behaviors on private lands by shifting the benefit-cost ratio of engaging in activities that result in net conservation benefits for target species. In the United States and elsewhere, voluntary conservation agreements with financial incentives are becoming an increasingly common strategy. While the influence of program design and delivery of voluntary conservation programs is often overlooked, these aspects are critical to achieving the necessary participation to attain landscape-scale outcomes. Using a sample of family-forest landowners in the southeast United States, we show how preferences for participation in a conservation program to protect an at-risk species, the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus), are related to program structure, delivery, and perceived efficacy. Landowners were most sensitive to programs that are highly controlling, require permanent conservation easements, and put landowners at risk for future regulation. Programs designed with greater levels of compensation and that support landowners' autonomy to make land management decisions can increase participation and increase landowner acceptance of program components that are generally unfavorable, like long-term contracts and permanent easements. There is an inherent trade-off between maximizing participation and maximizing the conservation benefits when designing a conservation incentive program. For conservation programs targeting private lands to achieve landscape-level benefits, they must attract a critical level of participation that creates a connected mosaic of conservation benefits. Yet, programs with attributes that strive to maximize conservation benefits within a single agreement (and reduce risks of failure) are likely to have lower participation, and thus lower landscape benefits. Achieving

  14. Maternal incentive scheme in Nepal – status of knowledge and financial benefits received by mothers on ANC incentive and safe delivery incentive program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarshan Subedi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antenatal (ANC and Safe Delivery Incentive Program (SDIP of Nepal is implemented with the view to increase institutional delivery, thereby improving maternal health. The program has been a public issue regarding its information cum. incentive received by the clients and reimbursement to the health facilities. The study aimed to identify and assess the knowledge with financial benefits received by mothers from 4ANC visits and institutional delivery. Methods: Descriptive study was conducted among six villages of Syangja district, Nepal in December 2013. Data was taken from mothers who had delivered during the last one year of study. Full concern was adapted to consent, anonymity, confidentiality and validity. Epi-data and SPSS were used for analysis and interpretation of data. Results: Among the total 414 mothers, 60.6% and 82.9% were aware on 4ANC incentive and SDIP respectively. Total, consulted, mothers who had delivered in health-facility (n=212 received delivery incentive. Comparing the delivery benefits with ANC (n=212, 65.4% of mothers were deprived from ANC incentive though they practiced scheduled ANC visit. As an interesting fact, some other cases of non-ANC visit (n=3 and less than four/non-scheduled visit (n=8 were benefited from the ANC incentive as opposed to the rule of scheme. Analysis has shown that mothers who were aware on ANC incentive scheme were 5.2 times more likely to receive incentive than those of unaware one. Conclusion: The utilization of ANC incentive is found to be the result of its level of awareness. Government and concerned authority should valuably focus on ANC incentive program to increase its utilization like SDIP.

  15. Wellness Incentives, Equity, and the 5 Groups Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Wellness incentives are an increasingly popular means of encouraging participation in prevention programs, but they may not benefit all groups equally. To assist those planning, conducting, and evaluating incentive programs, I describe the impact of incentives on 5 groups: the “lucky ones,” the “yes-I-can” group, the “I'll-do-it-tomorrow” group, the “unlucky ones,” and the “leave-me-alone” group. The 5 groups problem concerns the question of when disparities in the capacity to use incentive programs constitute unfairness and how policymakers ought to respond. I outline 4 policy options: to continue to offer incentives universally, to offer them universally but with modifications, to offer targeted rather than universal programs, and to abandon incentive programs altogether. PMID:22095346

  16. Professional norms, public service motivation and economic incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2007-01-01

    have, however, indicated that these factors interact. Using interviews, surveys and registers, the paper investigated how professional norms, economic incentives and sector affected the behaviour of Danish dentists and physicians. It was found that when strong professional norms existed, economic......The theories of professions, public service motivation, and economic incentives explain the behaviour of the producers of publicly financed services differently. They emphasize professional norms, sector, and economic incentives, respectively. The few existing attempts to integrate these theories...... incentives were unimportant for both public and private employees. In contrast, when no firm professional norm applied, economic incentives affected behaviour. Controlling for different economic incentives, sector does not seem to affect the behaviour much. The results imply that the economic...

  17. Designing an Incentive Contract Menu for Sustaining the Electricity Market

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Yu; Tongdan Jin; Chunjie Zhong

    2015-01-01

    This paper designs an incentive contract menu to achieve long-term stability for electricity prices in a day-ahead electricity market. A bi-level Stackelberg game model is proposed to search for the optimal incentive mechanism under a one-leader and multi-followers gaming framework. A multi-agent simulation platform was developed to investigate the effectiveness of the incentive mechanism using an independent system operator (ISO) and multiple power generating companies (GenCos). Further, a Q...

  18. Do incentives exert undue influence on survey participation? Experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Eleanor; Couper, Mick P

    2008-09-01

    MONETARY INCENTIVES ARE INCREASINGLY used to help motivate survey participation. Research Ethics Committees have begun to ask whether, and under what conditions, the use of monetary incentives to induce participation might be coercive. The article reports research from an online vignette-based study bearing on this question, concluding that at present the evidence suggests that larger incentives do not induce research participants to accept higher risks than they would be unwilling to accept with smaller ones.

  19. Incentives to participate in clinical trials: practical and ethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Steven L; Feldman, James

    2015-09-01

    Clinical trials often offer incentives to encourage individuals to enroll and to enhance follow-up. The scope and nature of incentives used in emergency department (ED)-based trials are unknown. The objective of this study is to characterize the quantity and quality of incentives and other forms of compensation used in clinical trials of human subjects recruited in US EDs. A secondary goal is to provide an historical and ethical analysis of the use of incentives in clinical trials. We reviewed English-language randomized clinical trials conducted in US EDs from 2009 to 2013. Full text of the studies was reviewed to identify whether incentives were used, their value, and timing. Funding source was noted as well. Data are presented with descriptive statistics. Of 1151 articles identified, 76 (6.6%) fit criteria for review. Of these, 7 (9.2%) provided incentive payments. A recently published eighth trial was included as well. The total cash value of incentives offered ranged from $10 to $195. Four studies offered payment at enrollment only. Incentives included cash, debit cards, and gift cards. The use of financial incentives in ED-based trials is uncommon. Studies that use incentives are generally extramurally funded, usually by a federal agency, and include waves of follow-up that continue after discharge from the ED. Payment size is modest. Incentives may improve recruitment and retention in ED-based trials, but authoritative data are lacking. Investigators need to take care to avoid incentives that may be coercive or unduly influence research participants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Stock-based compensation plans and employee incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Zabojnik, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Standard principal-agent theory predicts that large firms should not use employee stock options and other stock-based compensation to provide incentives to non-executive employees. Yet, business practitioners appear to believe that stock-based compensation improves incentives, and mounting empirical evidence points to the same conclusion. This paper provides an explanation for why stock-based incentives can be effective. In the model of this paper, employee stock options complement individual...

  1. [Financial incentives in improving healthcare quality. SESPAS Report 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eirea Eiras, Carlos; Ortún Rubio, Vicente

    2012-03-01

    We address the contribution of financial incentives linked to pay for performance (P4P) to improving the quality of care. The situation of P4P is analyzed internationally and in the distinct health services in Spain. The participation of P4P in wage compensation and the effects of the current economic crisis on these incentives is discussed. We review the results of recent studies to clarify the role of these incentive models and assess possible orientations and new proposals.

  2. When incentives backfire: Spillover effects in food choice

    OpenAIRE

    Angelucci, Manuela; Prina, Silvia; Royer, Heather; Samek, Anya

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about how peers influence the impact of incentives. We investigate two mechanisms by which these effects can occur: through peers' actions and peers' incentives. In a field experiment on snack choice in the school lunchroom (choice of grapes versus cookies), we randomize who receives incentives, the fraction of peers incentivized, and whether or not it can be observed that peers' choices are incentivized. We show that, while peers' actions - picking grapes - have a positive sp...

  3. Design of economic incentive instruments in nutrition policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2011-01-01

    • Economic incentives are instruments to improve diets and reduce the fraction of people exposed to diet-related health risks • Proper targeting and design of economic incentive instruments is important, if such instruments should be efficient and feasible policy measures in the improvement of di...... of dietary behaviour in industrialised countries • From a cost-effectiveness perspective, there are considerable potential for optimizing the targeting and design of economic incentive instruments in nutritional policy...

  4. Career concerns incentives: An experimental test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Morgenstern, Albrecht; Raab, Philippe

    Holmström's (1982/99) career concerns model has become a workhorse for analyzing agency issues in many fields. The underlying signal jamming argument requires players to use information in a Bayesian way, which is difficult to directly test with field data: typically little is known about...... the information that individuals base their decisions on. Our laboratory experiment provides prima facie evidence: i) the signal jamming mechanism successfully creates incentives on the labor supply side; ii) decision errors take time to decrease; iii) while subjects' average beliefs are remarkably consistent...

  5. Financial incentives for reducing proliferation risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weise, Rachel A.; Hund, Gretchen

    2016-08-15

    This article submitted for publication to the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists explains the possible financial incentives for financial institutions and large integrators to reduce nuclear proliferation risks by including anti-proliferation measures in their due diligence and requiring their suppliers to meet heightened compliance standards. Because manufacturers of dual-use nuclear goods are diverse and numerous outreach is difficult. However, financial institutions and large integrators work with nearly all dual-use manufacturers, making financial institutions and integrators well-positioned to increase awareness of proliferation and trafficking risks throughout the nuclear supply chain

  6. The Effect of Incentives on Sustainable Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Laura Rosendahl; Sloof, Randolph; Van Praag, Mirjam

    2017-01-01

    of primary school in the Netherlands. Schools participating in this program are randomly assigned to one of three treatments: the first is purely financially oriented, the second promotes sustainable behavior and the third also induces sustainability by (monetary) incentives. Comparing the first twogroups we...... find that solely promoting sustainability does not lead to a change in sustainable behavior. However, once the monetary reward is linked to sustainable outcome measures, we find a significant positive effect on sustainable behavior. Inour specificsetting, the choice to behave more sustainable comes...

  7. Relational incentives in Chinese family firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi Jiancai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly discusses the choice of managerial compensation contracts in Chinese family firms. Relation or guanxi in Chinese language is an important factor that should be considered because it can bring the shirking cost to the relation-based manager and the caring cost to the owner under Chinese-style differential mode of association (“chaxu geju”. Our theoretical analysis shows that under some conditions it is optimal for the owner to choose the efficiency wage contract, and that under other conditions it is optimal for the owner to choose the share-based incentive contract.

  8. Incentive mechanisms for Opportunistic Cloud Computing Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, Eric; Olesen, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Opportunistic Cloud Computing Service (OCCS) is a social network approach to the provisioning and management of cloud computing services for enterprises. The OCCS network may suffer from the free riding problem where members are selfish and will only want to use services on the platform without e......, incentive compatibility, allocative efficiency, robustness, and flexible to accommodate changing user behavior on the platform.......Opportunistic Cloud Computing Service (OCCS) is a social network approach to the provisioning and management of cloud computing services for enterprises. The OCCS network may suffer from the free riding problem where members are selfish and will only want to use services on the platform without...

  9. Early Retirement Incentives and Student Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Maria D; Lovenheim, Michael F

    2014-08-01

    Early retirement incentives (ERIs) are increasingly prevalent in education as districts seek to close budget gaps by replacing expensive experienced teachers with lower-cost newer teachers. Combined with the aging of the teacher workforce, these ERIs are likely to change the composition of teachers dramatically in the coming years. We use exogenous variation from an ERI program in Illinois in the mid-1990s to provide the first evidence in the literature of the effects of large-scale teacher retirements on student achievement. We find the program did not reduce test scores; likely, it increased them, with positive effects most pronounced in lower-SES schools.

  10. Incentives and Insurance in International Financial Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    77 ---- 4 S -- 175 p I or~ -C7s t~z 4_ O&r h%.0~4j\\- Si A RAND NOTE * . INCENTIVES AND INSURANCE IN INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL MARKETS Daniel F . Kohler...Markets 6. PE04RPOwnGa ORG. REPOr owtA86ER AUTHOR(O 6. CONTRACT OR1 GRANT 11UM411Ctej Daniel F . Kohler MDA9O3-83-C-0148 %’ 9. P90FoAMN* OR1GANSRATION...Insurance and Loan Guarantee, by Daniel F . Kohler and Kip T. Fisher, N-1951-USDP, January 1983. * The Effects of Export Credit Subsidies on Western

  11. Practical implications of incentive systems are utilized by dental franchises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavner, S B

    1989-01-01

    The success of any dental practice depends, among other factors, on the critical role of staff employees. In order to encourage desired staff behaviors, incentive systems can be designed for employee dentists, assistants/hygienists and managers. A survey of dental franchises was conducted in 1987 for the purpose of examining their incentive control systems. The specific incentives employed by these dental franchises for their employees are analyzed. The implications of these incentive systems used by dental franchise organizations for all dental practices are then discussed.

  12. Understanding congestion in China's medical market: an incentive structure perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Zesheng; Wang, Shuhong; Barnes, Stephen R

    2016-01-01

    .... Our analysis reveals that prior medical system reforms with price regulation in China have induced hospitals to establish incentives for capital-intensive investments, while ignoring human capital...

  13. DSM shareholder incentives: Current designs and economic theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoft, S.; Eto, J.; Kito, S.

    1995-01-01

    This report reviews recent DSM shareholder incentive designs and performance at 10 US utilities identifies opportunities for regulators to improve the design of DSM shareholder incentive mechanisms to increase the procurement of cost-effective DSM resources. We develop six recommendations: (1) apply shared-savings incentives to DSM resource programs; (2) use markup incentives for individual programs only when net benefits are difficult to measure, but are known to be positive; (3) set expected incentive payments based on covering a utility`s {open_quotes}hidden costs,{close_quotes} which include some transitional management and risk-adjusted opportunity costs; (4) use higher marginal incentives rates than are currently found in practice, but limit total incentive payments by adding a fixed charge; (5) mitigate risks to regulators and utilities by lowering marginal incentive rates at high and low performance levels; and (6) use an aggregate incentive mechanism for all DSM resource programs, with limited exceptions (e.g., information programs where markups are more appropriate).

  14. Safety, economic incentives and insurance in the Norwegian petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmundsen, Petter [Department of Industrial Economics and Risk Management, University of Stavanger, N-4036 Stavanger (Norway)], E-mail: Petter.Osmundsen@uis.no; Aven, Terje [Department of Industrial Economics and Risk Management, University of Stavanger, N-4036 Stavanger (Norway)], E-mail: Terje.Aven@uis.no; Erik Vinnem, Jan [Department of Industrial Economics and Risk Management, University of Stavanger, N-4036 Stavanger (Norway)], E-mail: jev@preventor.no

    2008-01-15

    There is an increased use of key performance indicators and incentive schemes in the petroleum industry. Applying modern incentive theory, we explore what implications this management trend has for injury and major accident prevention efforts and safety. Can economic incentives be designed for accident prevention activities? In cases where this is not possible, what are the challenges for the safety efforts? In particular, how are safety efforts affected by enhanced economic incentives for other performance dimensions like production and rate of return? Can safety be neglected? What remedies are available?.

  15. Incentives and the siting of radioactive waste facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, S.A.; Copenhaver, E.D.; Reed, J.H.; Soderstrom, E.J.; Sorensen, J.H.; Peelle, E.; Bjornstad, D.J.

    1982-08-01

    The importance of social and institutional issues in the siting of nuclear waste facilities has been recognized in recent years. Limited evidence from a survey of rural Wisconsin residents in 1980 indicates that incentives may help achieve the twin goals of increasing local support and decreasing local opposition to hosting nuclear waste facilities. Incentives are classified according to functional categories (i.e., mitigation, compensation, and reward) and the conditions which may be prerequisites to the use of incentives are outlined (i.e., guarantee of public health and safety, some measure of local control, and a legitimation of negotiations during siting). Criteria for evaluating the utility of incentives in nuclear waste repository siting are developed. Incentive packages may be more useful than single incentives, and nonmonetary incentives, such as independent monitoring and access to credible information, may be as important in eliciting support as monetary incentives. Without careful attention to prerequisites in the siting process it is not likely that incentives will facilitate the siting process.

  16. R&D tax incentives for innovation and managerial decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Walicka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In many countries tax incentives are a popular means of realizing political, economic and social objectives. The main motive of their application is often to achieve and accelerate the selected activities in the public interest and also stimulate development of industry, and induce growth in research and investment. The key element that helps a company achieve a competitive advantage is innovation. Global competition forces the production of unique products and services. Tax incentives in science, research and development are important in stimulating innovation. The purpose of this article is to show the level of managerial awareness about R&D tax incentives, the level of R&D tax incentive usage by companies in Poland, and main obstacles that managers meet with R&D tax incentives in practice. We explore R&D tax incentives as a government instrument on R&D management and aim to find the reasons why Polish companies do not take advantage of them. We examine 275 companies using a semi-structured questi onnaire. Our findings suggest that many firms report lack of knowledge about such incentives, and firms find many obstacles to reach all of the requirements which are necessary to use the incentive. Due to our analysis we find that large firms, especially those that implement innovation, are more likely to use the tax incentives, but small and medium sized companies find more obstacle. The effect of this tax policy is significant mainly in large, high-tech sector firms.

  17. Counteraction between overshadowing and degraded contingency treatments: support for the extended comparator hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Miller, Ralph R

    2006-01-01

    Four experiments using rats in a Pavlovian lick-suppression preparation investigated the effects of combining 2 treatments known for their response-decrementing effects, namely, overshadowing and degraded contingency. Contrary to most contemporary learning theories, the extended comparator hypothesis predicts that these 2 treatments will counteract each other, and therefore, less of a decrement in conditioned responding should be observed than with either treatment alone. Experiments 1 and 2 confirmed this prediction in first-order conditioning and sensory preconditioning preparations, respectively. Experiment 3 demonstrated that posttraining extinction of the training context resulted in a recovery from degraded contingency and reversed the counteractive effect on overshadowing. Finally, Experiment 4 demonstrated that posttraining extinction of the overshadowing stimulus resulted in recovery from simple overshadowing and also reversed the counteractive effect on degraded contingency. These results are consistent with the extended comparator hypothesis but not traditional or recent acquisition-focused models.

  18. Universal health insurance through incentives reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enthoven, A C; Kronick, R

    1991-05-15

    Roughly 35 million Americans have no health care coverage. Health care expenditures are out of control. The problems of access and cost are inextricably related. Important correctable causes include cost-unconscious demand, a system not organized for quality and economy, market failure, and public funds not distributed equitably or effectively to motivate widespread coverage. We propose Public Sponsor agencies to offer subsidized coverage to those otherwise uninsured, mandated employer-provided health insurance, premium contributions from all employers and employees, a limit on tax-free employer contributions to employee health insurance, and "managed competition". Our proposed new government revenues equal proposed new outlays. We believe our proposal will work because efficient managed care does exist and can provide satisfactory care for a cost far below that of the traditional fee-for-service third-party payment system. Presented with an opportunity to make an economically responsible choice, people choose value for money; the dynamic created by these individual choices will give providers strong incentives to render high-quality, economical care. We believe that providers will respond to these incentives.

  19. Counteraction of antibiotic production and degradation stabilizes microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsic, Eric D.; Zhao, Jeffrey; Vetsigian, Kalin; Kishony, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Summary A major challenge in theoretical ecology is understanding how natural microbial communities support species diversity1-8, and in particular how antibiotic producing, sensitive and resistant species coexist9-15. While cyclic “rock-paper-scissors” interactions can stabilize communities in spatial environments9-11, coexistence in unstructured environments remains an enigma12,16. Here, using simulations and analytical models, we show that the opposing actions of antibiotic production and degradation enable coexistence even in well-mixed environments. Coexistence depends on 3-way interactions where an antibiotic degrading species attenuates the inhibitory interactions between two other species. These 3-way interactions enable coexistence that is robust to substantial differences in inherent species growth rates and to invasion by “cheating” species that cease producing or degrading antibiotics. At least two antibiotics are required for stability, with greater numbers of antibiotics enabling more complex communities and diverse dynamical behaviors ranging from stable fixed-points to limit cycles and chaos. Together, these results show how multi-species antibiotic interactions can generate ecological stability in both spatial and mixed microbial communities, suggesting strategies for engineering synthetic ecosystems and highlighting the importance of toxin production and degradation for microbial biodiversity. PMID:25992546

  20. Counteraction of antibiotic production and degradation stabilizes microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsic, Eric D; Zhao, Jeffrey; Vetsigian, Kalin; Kishony, Roy

    2015-05-28

    A major challenge in theoretical ecology is understanding how natural microbial communities support species diversity, and in particular how antibiotic-producing, -sensitive and -resistant species coexist. While cyclic ‘rock–paper–scissors’ interactions can stabilize communities in spatial environments, coexistence in unstructured environments remains unexplained. Here, using simulations and analytical models, we show that the opposing actions of antibiotic production and degradation enable coexistence even in well-mixed environments. Coexistence depends on three-way interactions in which an antibiotic-degrading species attenuates the inhibitory interactions between two other species. These interactions enable coexistence that is robust to substantial differences in inherent species growth rates and to invasion by ‘cheating’ species that cease to produce or degrade antibiotics. At least two antibiotics are required for stability, with greater numbers of antibiotics enabling more complex communities and diverse dynamic behaviours ranging from stable fixed points to limit cycles and chaos. Together, these results show how multi-species antibiotic interactions can generate ecological stability in both spatially structured and mixed microbial communities, suggesting strategies for engineering synthetic ecosystems and highlighting the importance of toxin production and degradation for microbial biodiversity.

  1. Design of economic incentive instruments in nutrition policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2011-01-01

    • Economic incentives are instruments to improve diets and reduce the fraction of people exposed to diet-related health risks • Proper targeting and design of economic incentive instruments is important, if such instruments should be efficient and feasible policy measures in the improvement of di...

  2. Study on the efficacy of the safety incentive mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Shui-cheng; LI Hong-xia; Feng Chang-gen

    2001-01-01

    Safety Incentive mechanism and corresponding motivation avenues are helpful and important for the scientific safety management in coal mine. With the help of modem systematic analysis method, the effcacy of safety incentive mechanisms is discussed in detail. The research shows that more effective avenue to reduce accident is to differently use motivation measures in practice.

  3. Feedback, Goal Setting, and Incentives Effects on Organizational Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    persuasive argument for em- PlOy’iz these very precise copts in explaning how goal setting works. The mse of incentives to alter motivatios ad...almost every cascelvehe situ- atios where a behavior is to be sohesced. Reviews of incentive motivatios theo- rie an be fommd in Cphgieli an Pritchard

  4. Fundamental Characteristics of Incentive Streams Created by Legal Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari Mattiacci, G.

    2002-01-01

    The law shapes people’s behaviour by creating incentives. For example, tort law induces motorists to drive carefully by making them pay compensation for the accidents they may cause. This study analyses the way the law can create incentives in those cases in which the courts or the administrative bo

  5. Incentives: Getting and Keeping Workers Involved in Health Promotion Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, James F.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The article explores motivation as it relates to worksite health promotion participation, addressing incentive use as a motivational means of getting and keeping employees involved in health promotion programs. It suggests various incentives to help program planners, categorizing them as social or material reinforcers. (SM)

  6. Using Incentives To Promote Employee Health. WBGH Worksite Wellness Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenney, Sharon L.

    The use of incentives by businesses is a well-accepted pattern of management-employee collaboration. Increasingly, U.S. businesses are using incentives to encourage employees to stay healthy. Research in the field of behavior modification indicates that positive reinforcement, negative consequences and restrictions, and feedback have great…

  7. 24 CFR 599.507 - Tax incentives utilization plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax incentives utilization plan... Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF....507 Tax incentives utilization plan. (a) Preliminary plan. Within six months of designation, the CoRA...

  8. Something for Nothing: Cash Flow as a Contract Incentive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Defense AT&L: March-April 2016 16 Something for Nothing “Cash Flow” as a Contract Incentive John Pritchard n John Krieger Pritchard and...negligible resources are required to implement the incentive, this is the closest the government ever will come to getting something for nothing . The

  9. [An incentive mechanism for environment management under unsymmetrical information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J; Zheng, Z; Fu, G

    2001-01-01

    Information unsymmtry is a big obstacle in environment management. In this paper, an incentive mechanism for implementation of effluent charge under unsymmetrical information was designed. This mechanism will provide incentives for true information and lower down the transaction cost in environment management.

  10. Adaptive Incentive Controls for Stackelberg Games with Unknown Cost Functionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Games with Incentives," Preprints of the 4th IFAC/IFORS/ IIASA Conf. on the Modelling and Control of National Economies, Washington, D. C., June 1983...34Robustness of Incentive Policies in Team Problems with Discrepancies in Goal Perceptions," Preprints of the 4th IFAC/IFORS/ IIASA Conf. on the

  11. 38 CFR 21.256 - Incentives for employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incentives for employers. 21.256 Section 21.256 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.... Chapter 31 Employment Services § 21.256 Incentives for employers. (a) General. VA may make payments to...

  12. 12 CFR 702.307 - Incentives for new credit unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incentives for new credit unions. 702.307 Section 702.307 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION Alternative Prompt Corrective Action for New Credit Unions § 702.307 Incentives...

  13. Long Term Incentives for Residential Customers Using Dynamic Tariff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews several grid tariff schemes, including flat tariff, time-of-use, time-varying tariff, demand charge and dynamic tariff (DT), from the perspective of the long term incentives. The long term incentives can motivate the owners of flexible demands to change their energy consumption...

  14. 48 CFR 919.7006 - Incentives for DOE contractor participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incentives for DOE contractor participation. 919.7006 Section 919.7006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF....7006 Incentives for DOE contractor participation. (a) Under cost-plus-award fee contracts, approved...

  15. Creating Teacher Incentives for School Excellence and Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Barnett; Eckert, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Ensuring that all students in America's public schools are taught by good teachers is an educational and moral imperative. Teacher incentive proposals are rarely grounded on what high-quality research indicates are the kinds of teacher incentives that lead to school excellence and equity. Few of the current approaches to creating teacher…

  16. Team incentives in public organisations; an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, P; Vyrastekova, J; Onderstal, S.

    2006-01-01

    Using a simple production game, we investigate whether public firms perform better when they increase the power of their workers¿ incentive schemes. In a laboratory experiment, subjects choose between a `public firm¿ and a `private firm¿ with team and individual incentives, respectively. When

  17. Private versus Public Feedback - The Incentive Effects of Symbolic Awards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhards, Leonie; Siemer, Neele

    We experimentally compare the incentive effects of rewarding individuals for outstanding performance publicly versus privately. We implement two real-effort tasks, which differ in how prestigious subjects perceive working on them. In both tasks private and public feedback similarly enhances...... experiment at a secondary school we furthermore compare the incentive effects of different forms of public recognition....

  18. A model of strategic product quality and process improvement incentives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, Jasper; Gaalman, G.

    2013-01-01

    In many production firms it is common practice to financially reward managers for firm performance improvement. The use of financial incentives for improvement has been widely researched in several analytical and empirical studies. Literature has also addressed the strategic effect of incentives, in

  19. A model of strategic product quality and process improvement incentives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, Jasper; Gaalman, Gerard

    In many production firms it is common practice to financially reward managers for firm performance improvement. The use of financial incentives for improvement has been widely researched in several analytical and empirical studies. Literature has also addressed the strategic effect of incentives, in

  20. 48 CFR 48.105 - Relationship to other incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... incentives. 48.105 Section 48.105 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.105 Relationship to other incentives... should not be rewarded both as value engineering shares and under performance, design-to-cost, or similar...

  1. SOE Execs:Get Ready For Stock Incentives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Stock option incentive plan will soon be available to state-owned enterprise executives, but will it lead to greater prosperity or new problems? Atrailblazing new scheme to infuse state-owned enterprises (SOEs) with incentive stock options is underway. It's a plan that may bolster company performance, but it's

  2. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the...

  3. Financial Incentives for Steering Education and Training. Getting Skills Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2017

    2017-01-01

    This report examines how governments use financial incentives to promote a better alignment between labour market needs, on the one hand, and the supply of skills, on the other. In doing so, it identifies: (1) innovative models that countries may be interested in learning from; (2) best practice in the design and use of financial incentives; (3)…

  4. Sellers' hedging incentives at EPA's emission trading auction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, B.R.; Haan, M.

    1999-01-01

    Cason (1993)argued thattheauction theEPAused in order to start the market for sulfur allowances, is not efficient. The set-up of the auction gives both buyers and sellers an incentive to understate their valuation of an allowance. In this paper, we show that the sellers’ incentives are even more per

  5. Incentives as connectors: insights into a breastfeeding incentive intervention in a disadvantaged area of North-West England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson Gill

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incentive or reward schemes are becoming increasingly popular to motivate healthy lifestyle behaviours. In this paper, insights from a qualitative and descriptive study to investigate the uptake, impact and meanings of a breastfeeding incentive intervention integrated into an existing peer support programme (Star Buddies are reported. The Star Buddies service employs breastfeeding peer supporters to support women across the ante-natal, intra-partum and post-partum period. Methods In a disadvantaged area of North West England, women initiating breastfeeding were recruited by peer supporters on the postnatal ward or soon after hospital discharge to participate in an 8 week incentive (gifts and vouchers and breastfeeding peer supporter intervention. In-depth interviews were conducted with 26 women participants who engaged with the incentive intervention, and a focus group was held with the 4 community peer supporters who delivered the intervention. Descriptive analysis of routinely collected data for peer supporter contacts and breastfeeding outcomes before and after the incentive intervention triangulated and retrospectively provided the context for the qualitative thematic analysis. Results A global theme emerged of 'incentives as connectors', with two sub-themes of 'facilitating connections' and 'facilitating relationships and wellbeing'. The incentives were linked to discussion themes and gift giving facilitated peer supporter access for proactive weekly home visits to support women. Regular face to face contacts enabled meaningful relationships and new connections within and between the women, families, peer supporters and care providers to be formed and sustained. Participants in the incentive scheme received more home visits and total contact time with peer supporters compared to women before the incentive intervention. Full participation levels and breastfeeding rates at 6-8 weeks were similar for women before and after

  6. Reduced Influence of Monetary Incentives on Go/NoGo Performance During Smoking Abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydon, David M; Roberts, Nicole J; Geier, Charles F

    2015-09-01

    Smokers may experience decreased sensitivity to nondrug incentives during acute smoking deprivation. This decreased sensitivity may undermine attempts to encourage continued abstinence by enhancing cognitive processes through the use of monetary incentives. This study assessed whether the capacity for monetary incentives to enhance cognitive performance was compromised in nicotine-deprived smokers. Eighteen smokers performed an incentivized Go/NoGo task on 2 occasions, once after smoking as usual prior to the session, and once after undergoing 12-hr abstinence. Participants could earn up to $5.00 ($2.50 per session) based on their performance on reward blocks of the Go/NoGo task. Performance was significantly more accurate on incentivized NoGo, frequent-Go, and infrequent-Go trials relative to neutral trials during the smoke as usual session. Participants also produced fewer premature, impulsive responses on rewarded versus neutral blocks during the smoke as usual session. No significant difference between reward and neutral blocks was observed on any of the 4 performance indices during the abstinent session. The ability for monetary incentives to enhance inhibitory control may be compromised during acute abstinence in smokers. These findings may have implications for contingency management treatment programs which are thought to promote continued abstinence partly by facilitating the allocation of cognitive resources to processes that encourage continued abstinence by increasing the value associated with continued abstinence. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. 48 CFR 16.402-4 - Structuring multiple-incentive contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... multiple-incentive contracts. A properly structured multiple-incentive arrangement should— (a) Motivate the... include a cost incentive (or constraint) that operates to preclude rewarding a contractor for...

  8. 75 FR 81885 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program; Correcting Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program; Correcting Amendment AGENCY: Centers for Medicare...; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program'' that appeared in the July 28, 2010 Federal Register. DATES... 44314) the final rule entitled ``Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive...

  9. Maldistribution in air-water heat pump evaporators. Part 2: Economic analysis of counteracting technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mader, Gunda; Palm, Björn; Elmegaard, Brian

    2015-01-01

    In this study a methodology is applied to quantify the effect of evaporator maldistributionon operating costs of airewater heat pumps. The approach is used to investigate the cost-effectivenessof two technologies enabling to counteract maldistribution: a flash gasbypass setup and the individual...

  10. Adipose gene expression patterns of weight gain suggest counteracting steroid hormone synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van E.M.; Franssen-Hal, van N.L.W.; Schaap, M.M.; Pennings, J.; Hoebee, B.; Keijer, J.

    2005-01-01

    VAN SCHOTHORST, EVERT M., NICOLE FRANSSEN-VAN HAL, MIRJAM M. SCHAAP, JEROEN PENNINGS, BARBARA HOEBEE, AND JAAP KEIJER. Adipose gene expression patterns of weight gain suggest counteracting steroid hormone synthesis. Obes Res. 2005;13:1031-1041. Objective: To identify early molecular changes in weigh

  11. Allured or alarmed: Counteractive control responses to food temptations in the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.; Kroese, F.M.; Evers, C.; Ridder, de D.T.D.

    2013-01-01

    Typically, it is believed that palatable, high caloric foods signal reward and trigger indulgent responses. However, Counteractive Control Theory suggests that, to the extent that people are concerned about their weight, a confrontation with palatable foods should also trigger ‘alarm bell responses’

  12. Designing an Incentive Contract Menu for Sustaining the Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper designs an incentive contract menu to achieve long-term stability for electricity prices in a day-ahead electricity market. A bi-level Stackelberg game model is proposed to search for the optimal incentive mechanism under a one-leader and multi-followers gaming framework. A multi-agent simulation platform was developed to investigate the effectiveness of the incentive mechanism using an independent system operator (ISO and multiple power generating companies (GenCos. Further, a Q-learning approach was implemented to analyze and assess the response of GenCos to the incentive menu. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the incentive contract.

  13. Successive duopoly under moral hazard: Will incentive contracts persist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Fernández-Olmos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The central purpose of this paper is to examine the incentive contract as an equilibrium phenomenon. We analyse a model of vertical differentiation in which we deal with the strategic role of the competitor’s decisions in a successive duopoly. Is it better for a processor to offer an incentive contract to an upstream producer or the spot market? We determine the equilibrium of a game in which the processors simultaneously decide whether to offer an incentive contract or to continue at the spot market to acquire their input. Our results show that under successive duopoly, offering an incentive contract constitutes the unique equilibrium solution, which highlights the incentive contract persistence.

  14. Construction Health and Safety: Effectiveness of Safety Incentive Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkefli F.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety incentive programmes or awards have become a standard practice for most construction companies as an effort to improve their safety performance on worksites. Providing incentives in the construction industry is an action which aims to motivate contractors and workers to achieve the objectives set by a project’s management in order to improve overall performance on the project. This study was conducted to measure the effectiveness of such incentives and analyse the extent of involved parties’ contribution to the success of the programme. It was found that workers have become motivated and site safety performance has also improved since the implementation of the safety incentive programme. Incentives are divided into two categories, (1 monetary and (2 non-monetary. These were evaluated based on workers’ rate of achievement or behaviour.

  15. The role of incentives in nurses' aspirations to management roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carol A; Spence Laschinger, Heather K; Cziraki, Karen

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to describe findings from a study examining nurses' perceptions of incentives for pursuing management roles. Upcoming retirements of nurse managers and a reported lack of interest in manager roles signal concerns about a leadership shortage. However, there is limited research on nurses' career aspirations and specifically the effect of perceived incentives for pursuing manager roles. Data from a national, cross-sectional survey of Canadian nurses were analyzed (n = 1241) using multiple regression to measure the effect of incentives on nurses' career aspirations. Twenty-four percent of nurses expressed interest in pursuing management roles. Age, education, and incentives explained 43% of the variance in career aspirations. Intrinsically oriented incentives such as new challenges, autonomy, and the opportunity to influence others were the strongest predictors of aspirations to management roles. Ensuring an adequate supply of nurse managers will require proactive investment in the identification, recruitment, and development of nurses with leadership potential.

  16. Too poor to say no? Health incentives for disadvantaged populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Kristin

    2017-03-01

    Incentive schemes, which offer recipients benefits if they meet particular requirements, are being used across the world to encourage healthier behaviours. From the perspective of equality, an important concern about such schemes is that since people often do not have equal opportunity to fulfil the stipulated conditions, incentives create opportunity for further unfair advantage. Are incentive schemes that are available only to disadvantaged groups less susceptible to such egalitarian concerns? While targeted schemes may at first glance seem well placed to help improve outcomes among disadvantaged groups and thus reduce inequalities, I argue in this paper that they are susceptible to significant problems. At the same time, incentive schemes may be less problematic when they operate in ways that differ from the 'standard' incentive mechanism; I discuss three such mechanisms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Third-Party Incentive Strategies and Conflict Management in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2016-01-01

    Dr. Nikolas Emmanuel's examines the use of an incentives approach in managing intrastate conflict in Africa because in many cases, risks and costs make applications of hard power alone unfeasible. Furthermore, simply ignoring episodes of civil conflict in the hope that they will "burn themselves...... out"� does not appear to be a viable alternative. That said, both noncoercive and coercive incentive strategies exist and have been deployed by third parties in a variety of conflict situations. Such incentives seek to manage conflict by encouraging political bargaining. The clear intention...... parties can help manage conflicts. Second, it offers a typology of the available incentive strategies, classifying them along noncoercive and coercive lines. Thus, the article outlines the possibilities offered by an incentives approach, focusing on examples drawn from recent African cases....

  18. Incentive Mechanisms for Hierarchical Spectrum Markets

    CERN Document Server

    Iosifidis, George; Alpcan, Tansu; Koutsopoulos, Iordanis

    2011-01-01

    We study spectrum allocation mechanisms in hierarchical multi-layer markets which are expected to proliferate in the near future based on the current spectrum policy reform proposals. We consider a setting where a state agency sells spectrum to Primary Operators (POs) and in turn these resell it to Secondary Operators (SOs) through auctions. We show that these hierarchical markets do not result in a socially efficient spectrum allocation which is aimed by the agency, due to lack of coordination among the entities in different layers and the inherently selfish revenue-maximizing strategy of POs. In order to reconcile these opposing objectives, we propose an incentive mechanism which aligns the strategy and the actions of the POs with the objective of the agency, and thus it leads to system performance improvement in terms of social welfare. This pricing based mechanism constitutes a method for hierarchical market regulation and requires the feedback provision from SOs. A basic component of the proposed incenti...

  19. Career concerns incentives: An experimental test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Morgenstern, Albrecht; Raab, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Holmström's (1982/99) career concerns model has become a workhorse for analyzing agency issues in many elds. The underlying signal jamming argument requires players to use information in a Bayesian way, which is difficult to directly test with eld data: typically little is known about the informa......Holmström's (1982/99) career concerns model has become a workhorse for analyzing agency issues in many elds. The underlying signal jamming argument requires players to use information in a Bayesian way, which is difficult to directly test with eld data: typically little is known about...... the information that individuals base their decisions on. Our laboratory experiment provides prima facie evidence: i) the signal jamming mechanism successfully creates incentives on the labor supply side; ii) decision errors take time to decrease; iii) while subjects’ average beliefs are remarkably consistent...

  20. Nucleus accumbens corticotropin-releasing factor increases cue-triggered motivation for sucrose reward: paradoxical positive incentive effects in stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peciña, Susana; Schulkin, Jay; Berridge, Kent C

    2006-01-01

    Background Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is typically considered to mediate aversive aspects of stress, fear and anxiety. However, CRF release in the brain is also elicited by natural rewards and incentive cues, raising the possibility that some CRF systems in the brain mediate an independent function of positive incentive motivation, such as amplifying incentive salience. Here we asked whether activation of a limbic CRF subsystem magnifies the increase in positive motivation for reward elicited by incentive cues previously associated with that reward, in a way that might exacerbate cue-triggered binge pursuit of food or other incentives? We assessed the impact of CRF microinjections into the medial shell of nucleus accumbens using a pure incentive version of Pavlovian-Instrumental transfer, a measure specifically sensitive to the incentive salience of reward cues (which it separates from influences of aversive stress, stress reduction, frustration and other traditional explanations for stress-increased behavior). Rats were first trained to press one of two levers to obtain sucrose pellets, and then separately conditioned to associate a Pavlovian cue with free sucrose pellets. On test days, rats received microinjections of vehicle, CRF (250 or 500 ng/0.2 μl) or amphetamine (20 μg/0.2 μl). Lever pressing was assessed in the presence or absence of the Pavlovian cues during a half-hour test. Results Microinjections of the highest dose of CRF (500 ng) or amphetamine (20 μg) selectively enhanced the ability of Pavlovian reward cues to trigger phasic peaks of increased instrumental performance for a sucrose reward, each peak lasting a minute or so before decaying after the cue. Lever pressing was not enhanced by CRF microinjections in the baseline absence of the Pavlovian cue or during the presentation without a cue, showing that the CRF enhancement could not be explained as a result of generalized motor arousal, frustration or stress, or by persistent

  1. Nucleus accumbens corticotropin-releasing factor increases cue-triggered motivation for sucrose reward: paradoxical positive incentive effects in stress?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulkin Jay

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF is typically considered to mediate aversive aspects of stress, fear and anxiety. However, CRF release in the brain is also elicited by natural rewards and incentive cues, raising the possibility that some CRF systems in the brain mediate an independent function of positive incentive motivation, such as amplifying incentive salience. Here we asked whether activation of a limbic CRF subsystem magnifies the increase in positive motivation for reward elicited by incentive cues previously associated with that reward, in a way that might exacerbate cue-triggered binge pursuit of food or other incentives? We assessed the impact of CRF microinjections into the medial shell of nucleus accumbens using a pure incentive version of Pavlovian-Instrumental transfer, a measure specifically sensitive to the incentive salience of reward cues (which it separates from influences of aversive stress, stress reduction, frustration and other traditional explanations for stress-increased behavior. Rats were first trained to press one of two levers to obtain sucrose pellets, and then separately conditioned to associate a Pavlovian cue with free sucrose pellets. On test days, rats received microinjections of vehicle, CRF (250 or 500 ng/0.2 μl or amphetamine (20 μg/0.2 μl. Lever pressing was assessed in the presence or absence of the Pavlovian cues during a half-hour test. Results Microinjections of the highest dose of CRF (500 ng or amphetamine (20 μg selectively enhanced the ability of Pavlovian reward cues to trigger phasic peaks of increased instrumental performance for a sucrose reward, each peak lasting a minute or so before decaying after the cue. Lever pressing was not enhanced by CRF microinjections in the baseline absence of the Pavlovian cue or during the presentation without a cue, showing that the CRF enhancement could not be explained as a result of generalized motor arousal, frustration or stress

  2. A Bayesian model of context-sensitive value attribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoli, Francesco; Friston, Karl J; Martinelli, Cristina; Selaković, Mirjana; Shergill, Sukhwinder S; Dolan, Raymond J

    2016-06-22

    Substantial evidence indicates that incentive value depends on an anticipation of rewards within a given context. However, the computations underlying this context sensitivity remain unknown. To address this question, we introduce a normative (Bayesian) account of how rewards map to incentive values. This assumes that the brain inverts a model of how rewards are generated. Key features of our account include (i) an influence of prior beliefs about the context in which rewards are delivered (weighted by their reliability in a Bayes-optimal fashion), (ii) the notion that incentive values correspond to precision-weighted prediction errors, (iii) and contextual information unfolding at different hierarchical levels. This formulation implies that incentive value is intrinsically context-dependent. We provide empirical support for this model by showing that incentive value is influenced by context variability and by hierarchically nested contexts. The perspective we introduce generates new empirical predictions that might help explaining psychopathologies, such as addiction.

  3. Incentive Pass-through for Residential Solar Systems in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, C. G. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rai, Varun [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The deployment of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has grown rapidly over the last decade, partly because of various government incentives. In the United States, among the largest and longest-running incentives have been those established in California. Building on past research, this report addresses the still-unanswered question: to what degree have the direct PV incentives in California been passed through from installers to consumers? This report helps address this question by carefully examining the residential PV market in California (excluding a certain class of third-party-owned PV systems) and applying both a structural-modeling approach and a reduced-form regression analysis to estimate the incentive pass-through rate. The results suggest an average pass-through rate of direct incentives of nearly 100%, though with regional differences among California counties. While these results could have multiple explanations, they suggest a relatively competitive market and well-functioning subsidy program. Further analysis is required to determine whether similar results broadly apply to other states, to other customer segments, to all third-party-owned PV systems, or to all forms of financial incentives for solar (considering not only direct state subsidies, but also utility electric bill savings and federal tax incentives).

  4. Using financial incentives to improve value in orthopaedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansky, David; Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Bozic, Kevin J

    2012-04-01

    A variety of reforms to traditional approaches to provider payment and benefit design are being implemented in the United States. There is increasing interest in applying these financial incentives to orthopaedics, although it is unclear whether and to what extent they have been implemented and whether they increase quality or reduce costs. We reviewed and discussed physician- and patient-oriented financial incentives being implemented in orthopaedics, key challenges, and prerequisites to payment reform and value-driven payment policy in orthopaedics. We searched the MEDLINE database using as search terms various provider payment and consumer incentive models. We retrieved a total of 169 articles; none of these studies met the inclusion criteria. For incentive models known to the authors to be in use in orthopaedics but for which no peer-reviewed literature was found, we searched Google for further information. Provider financial incentives reviewed include payments for reporting, performance, and patient safety and episode payment. Patient incentives include tiered networks, value-based benefit design, reference pricing, and value-based purchasing. Reform of financial incentives for orthopaedic surgery is challenged by (1) lack of a payment/incentive model that has demonstrated reductions in cost trends and (2) the complex interrelation of current pay schemes in today's fragmented environment. Prerequisites to reform include (1) a reliable and complete data infrastructure; (2) new business structures to support cost sharing; and (3) a retooling of patient expectations. There is insufficient literature reporting the effects of various financial incentive models under implementation in orthopaedics to know whether they increase quality or reduce costs. National concerns about cost will continue to drive experimentation, and all anticipated innovations will require improved collaboration and data collection and reporting.

  5. Health incentives: the science and art of motivating healthy behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Employers seeking to motivate and encourage healthy behaviors among their employees are increasingly turning to incentive rewards. In fact, a recent Buck Consultants survey of 555 employers, titled Working Well: A Global Survey of Health Promotion and Workplace Wellness Strategies, predicts the use of such rewards to more than double over the next two to three years. This article provides an overview of the key considerations for employers seeking to maximize the value of incentive rewards. Discussion includes incentive strategies, types of rewards, reward amounts and regulatory considerations under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).

  6. Handover Incentives for Self-Interested WLANs with Overlapping Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fafoutis, Xenofon; Siris, Vasilios A.

    2012-01-01

    We consider an environment where self-interested IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) have overlapping coverage, and investigate the incentives that can trigger handovers between the WLANs. Our focus is on the incentives for supporting handovers due solely to the improved performance...... for all wireless networks. Such incentives arise due to a well-known property of 802.11 networks, where low rate users that send traffic significantly degrade the performance of high rate users that are associated with the same access point. A key difference of this paper compared to other works...

  7. Geopressured-geothermal energy development: government incentives and institutional structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, D.O.; Prestwood, D.C.L.; Roberts, K.; Vanston, J.H. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The following subjects are included: a geothermal resource overview, the evolution of the current Texas geopressured-geothermal institutional structure, project evaluation with uncertainty and the structure of incentives, the natural gas industry, the electric utility industry, potential governmental participants in resource development, industrial users of thermal energy, current government incentives bearing on geopressured-geothermal development, six profiles for utilization of the geopressured-geothermal resources in the mid-term, and probable impacts of new government incentives on mid-term resource utilization profiles. (MHR)

  8. Nature gives us strength: exposure to nature counteracts ego-depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Jason T; Lau, Shun

    2015-01-01

    Previous research rarely investigated the role of physical environment in counteracting ego-depletion. In the present research, we hypothesized that exposure to natural environment counteracts ego-depletion. Three experiments were conducted to test this hypothesis. In Experiment 1, initially depleted participants who viewed pictures of nature scenes showed greater persistence on a subsequent anagram task than those who were given a rest period. Experiment 2 expanded upon this finding by showing that natural environment enhanced logical reasoning performance after ego-depleting task. Experiment 3 adopted a two- (depletion vs. no-depletion) -by-two (nature exposure vs. urban exposure) factorial design. We found that nature exposure moderated the effect of depletion on anagram task performance. Taken together, the present studies offer a viable and novel strategy to mitigate the negative impacts of ego-depletion.

  9. The University of the Third Age as an institution counteracting marginalization of older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Marcinkiewicz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the role of the University of the Third Age in counteracting the effects of marginalization of the elderly. The history of the University of the Third Age is presented and also different models of this institution are characterized. The paper presents new trends in research conducted by participants of the U3A and shown their relation to marginalization

  10. More reflectivity for the soil to counteract the global-warming of the Earth

    OpenAIRE

    Tejedor, A; Pacheco, A. F.

    2009-01-01

    It is argued that a dedicated effort to increase the reflectivity of the surface of our planet by means of, for example, metallic plates would induce an increase in the global albedo which would counteract in part the present global-warming process of the Earth. This could alleviate the urgency of reducing the CO2 emissions. The City of Zaragoza (Spain) is chosen to illustrate the likelihood of our arguments.

  11. New Incentives to Stimulate Data Publication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, E. R.; Lowry, R.; Pissierssens, P.

    2008-12-01

    Data from ocean observations and experiments often are not submitted to appropriate data centers, or if they are submitted, may not be easily retrievable. These problems arise for a variety of reasons. Data are not always submitted, even when required by the agency funding the research, because the rewards for submitting data are not strong enough. Once data are submitted, the typical data center disaggregates the data into its component parameters, so it is difficult to get all the data related to a particular experiment back out of the system. With the advent of persistent identifiers, like digital object identifiers , the rapid evolution of the high-speed Internet, and the availability of large digital storage capacities that enable the transfer and storage of comprehensive data sets, it is now possible to restructure data management in a way that will create new incentives for ocean scientists to submit their data, for others to use it, and for the originating scientists to get credit for their effort and creativity in collecting the data. This presentation will report on a new activity of the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research and the International Ocean Data and Information Exchange of UNESCO's Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission that is mapping out new ways to (1) submit the data underlying the figures and tables in traditionally published papers to a recognized repository and link it to the publication, and (2) stimulate the submission of data publications that can be cited on originating scientists' CVs.

  12. Mitigating Inadvertent Insider Threats with Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Debin; Wang, Xiaofeng; Camp, L. Jean

    Inadvertent insiders are trusted insiders who do not have malicious intent (as with malicious insiders) but do not responsibly managing security. The result is often enabling a malicious outsider to use the privileges of the inattentive insider to implement an insider attack. This risk is as old as conversion of a weak user password into root access, but the term inadvertent insider is recently coined to identify the link between the behavior and the vulnerability. In this paper, we propose to mitigate this threat using a novel risk budget mechanism that offers incentives to an insider to behave according to the risk posture set by the organization. We propose assigning an insider a risk budget, which is a specific allocation of risk points, allowing employees to take a finite number of risk-seeking choice. In this way, the employee can complete her tasks without subverting the security system, as with absolute prohibitions. In the end, the organization penalizes the insider if she fails to accomplish her task within the budget while rewards her in the presence of a surplus. Most importantly. the risk budget requires that the user make conscious visible choices to take electronic risks. We describe the theory behind the system, including specific work on the insider threats. We evaluated this approach using human-subject experiments, which demonstrate the effectiveness of our risk budget mechanism. We also present a game theoretic analysis of the mechanism.

  13. Environmental controls: Market incentives v. direct regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosobud, R.F.; Atallah, D.S. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Cap-and-trade environmental markets, where the commodities are tradable pollution rights, are being introduced in several closely watched applications as a potentially more cost-effective way of cleaning up the environment than direct or command-and-control (CAC) regulation. In this study, we examine the evidence on control cost savings provided by price and transactions data from the first few years of activity in two markets designed to reduce atmospheric pollution. Some observers of both markets have argued that prices for tradable permits lower than expected, and transactions fewer than expected, are evidence that the markets are not achieving the hoped for savings. It was found, on the contrary, that observed prices point toward more flexible and improved pollution control choices and that the number of transactions has been steadily increasing as market incentives are incorporated into enterprise decisions. These new markets during their first few years are generating, according to our estimates, control cost savings in the neighborhood of one to two billion dollars annually. However, there is evidence that the markets have not yet reached their full potential. In the course of this study, several obstacles to market performance were found that are worthy of attention by policy makers. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Financial incentive schemes in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillam S

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stephen Gillam Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Abstract: Pay-for-performance (P4P schemes have become increasingly common in primary care, and this article reviews their impact. It is based primarily on existing systematic reviews. The evidence suggests that P4P schemes can change health professionals' behavior and improve recorded disease management of those clinical processes that are incentivized. P4P may narrow inequalities in performance comparing deprived with nondeprived areas. However, such schemes have unintended consequences. Whether P4P improves the patient experience, the outcomes of care or population health is less clear. These practical uncertainties mirror the ethical concerns of many clinicians that a reductionist approach to managing markers of chronic disease runs counter to the humanitarian values of family practice. The variation in P4P schemes between countries reflects different historical and organizational contexts. With so much uncertainty regarding the effects of P4P, policy makers are well advised to proceed carefully with the implementation of such schemes until and unless clearer evidence for their cost–benefit emerges. Keywords: financial incentives, pay for performance, quality improvement, primary care

  15. Private versus social incentives for pharmaceutical innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Paula; Macho-Stadler, Inés; Pérez-Castrillo, David

    2016-12-01

    We provide a theoretical framework to contribute to the current debate regarding the tendency of pharmaceutical companies to direct their R&D toward marketing products that are "follow-on" drugs of already existing drugs, rather than toward the development of breakthrough drugs. We construct a model with a population of patients who can be treated with drugs that are horizontally and vertically differentiated. In addition to a pioneering drug, a new drug can be marketed as the result of an innovative process. We analyze physician prescription choices and the optimal pricing decision of an innovative firm. We also characterize the incentives of the innovative firm to conduct R&D activities, disentangling the quest for breakthrough drugs from the firm effort to develop follow-on drugs. Our results offer theoretical support for the conventional wisdom that pharmaceutical firms devote too many resources to conducting R&D activities that lead to incremental innovations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Subtle social clues, explicit incentives and cooperation in social dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, Chr.; Declerck, C.; Suetens, S.

    2008-01-01

    Subtle contextual social cues and the explicit incentive structure of social dilemmas are two important, but fundamentally different classes of determinants of cooperative behavior. The former provides subjective social information regarding the likelihood of attaining mutual cooperation by shaping

  17. OBJECTIVES AND INCENTIVES AT THE EUROPEAN PATENT OFFICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friebel, Guido; Koch, Alexander; Seabright, Paul

    This report examines the effectiveness of the current system of incentives within the European Patent Office (EPO) and considers the possible consequences of placing greater emphasis on quantitative measures of productivity in rewarding EPO staff....

  18. OBJECTIVES AND INCENTIVES AT THE EUROPEAN PATENT OFFICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friebel, Guido; Koch, Alexander; Seabright, Paul

    This report examines the effectiveness of the current system of incentives within the European Patent Office (EPO) and considers the possible consequences of placing greater emphasis on quantitative measures of productivity in rewarding EPO staff....

  19. Social Relations, Incentives, and Gender in the Workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.A. Onemu (Okemena)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Gender differences in preferences regarding social relationships and competitive environments are well documented in psychology and economics. Research also shows that social relationships and competition among co-workers are affected by the incentive schemes workers

  20. Envisioning Incentives for Improving University Governance: A Ghanaian Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bernard Bekuni Boawei Bingab; Joseph Ato Forson; Oscar Siema Mmbali; Theresa Yaaba Baah-Ennumh; Joshua-Luther Ndoye Upoalkpajor

    2016-01-01

    The incentive to strengthen university governance system has three implications: (1) improving the quality of the university education system, and thus providing students and the general public value for money...

  1. Review: Pharmaceutical policies : effects of financial incentives for prescribers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, H.; Austvoll-Dahlgren, A.; Aaserud, M.; Oxman, A. D.; Ramsay, C.; Vernby, A.; Koesters, J. P.

    2007-01-01

    Background Pharmaceuticals, while central to medical therapy, pose a significant burden to health care budgets. Therefore regulations to control prescribing costs and improve quality of care are implemented increasingly. These include the use of financial incentives for prescribers, namely increased

  2. Physical activity counteracts tumor cell growth in colon carcinoma C26-injected muscles: an interim report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Hiroux

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle tissue is a rare site of tumor metastasis but is the main target of the degenerative processes occurring in cancer-associated cachexia syndrome. Beneficial effects of physical activity in counteracting cancer-related muscle wasting have been described in the last decades. Recently it has been shown that, in tumor xeno-transplanted mouse models, physical activity is able to directly affect tumor growth by modulating inflammatory responses in the tumor mass microenvironment. Here, we investigated the effect of physical activity on tumor cell growth in colon carcinoma C26 cells injected tibialis anterior muscles of BALB/c mice. Histological analyses revealed that 4 days of voluntary wheel running significantly counteracts tumor cell growth in C26-injected muscles compared to the non-injected sedentary controls. Since striated skeletal muscle tissue is the site of voluntary contraction, our results confirm that physical activity can also directly counteract tumor cell growth in a metabolically active tissue that is usually not a target for metastasis.

  3. In COS cells Vpu can both stabilize tetherin expression and counteract its antiviral activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheed, Abdul A; Kuruppu, Nishani D; Felton, Kathryn L; D'Souza, Darren; Freed, Eric O

    2014-01-01

    The interferon-inducible cellular protein tetherin (CD317/BST-2) inhibits the release of a broad range of enveloped viruses. The HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu enhances virus particle release by counteracting this host restriction factor. While the antagonism of human tetherin by Vpu has been associated with both proteasomal and lysosomal degradation, the link between Vpu-mediated tetherin degradation and the ability of Vpu to counteract the antiviral activity of tetherin remains poorly understood. Here, we show that human tetherin is expressed at low levels in African green monkey kidney (COS) cells. However, Vpu markedly increases tetherin expression in this cell line, apparently by sequestering it in an internal compartment that bears lysosomal markers. This stabilization of tetherin by Vpu requires the transmembrane sequence of human tetherin. Although Vpu stabilizes human tetherin in COS cells, it still counteracts the ability of tetherin to suppress virus release. The enhancement of virus release by Vpu in COS cells is associated with a modest reduction in cell-surface tetherin expression, even though the overall expression of tetherin is higher in the presence of Vpu. This study demonstrates that COS cells provide a model system in which Vpu-mediated enhancement of HIV-1 release is uncoupled from Vpu-mediated tetherin degradation.

  4. How to create economic incentives in occupational safety and health: A practical guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsler, D.; Heyer, A.; Kuhl, K.; Eeckelaert, L.; Chatzigiannoglou, C.; Maier, A.; Cuervo, M.; Elsler, D.; Frusteri, L.; Charalambous, A.; Molinaro, R.; Steiger, O.; Brummer, E.; Penttila, M.; Petrisic, N.; Vanadzins, I.; Benedetti, F.; Karadeniz, O.; Treutlein, D.; Tompa, E.; Kohstall, T.; Nicot, A.M.; Tynkkynen, M.; Kruger, H.; Wittig, K.; Stadnik, M.; Jones, C.; Epegui, H.; Lunde-Jensen, P.; Ottati, M.; Pecillo-Pacek, M.; Greef, M.de; Mierlo, M. van; Maya Rubio, M.I.; Kahr, J.; Sapir, M.

    2011-01-01

    This Guide on Economic Incentives Schemes is intended to serve as a practical and user-friendly guide to help incentive providers to create or optimise their own economic incentive schemes. Incentives schemes should not only reward past results of good OSH management (such as low accident numbers),

  5. 48 CFR 16.405-1 - Cost-plus-incentive-fee contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost-plus-incentive-fee... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.405-1 Cost-plus-incentive-fee contracts. (a) Description. The cost-plus-incentive-fee contract is a cost-reimbursement contract that...

  6. How to create economic incentives in occupational safety and health: A practical guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsler, D.; Heyer, A.; Kuhl, K.; Eeckelaert, L.; Chatzigiannoglou, C.; Maier, A.; Cuervo, M.; Elsler, D.; Frusteri, L.; Charalambous, A.; Molinaro, R.; Steiger, O.; Brummer, E.; Penttila, M.; Petrisic, N.; Vanadzins, I.; Benedetti, F.; Karadeniz, O.; Treutlein, D.; Tompa, E.; Kohstall, T.; Nicot, A.M.; Tynkkynen, M.; Kruger, H.; Wittig, K.; Stadnik, M.; Jones, C.; Epegui, H.; Lunde-Jensen, P.; Ottati, M.; Pecillo-Pacek, M.; Greef, M.de; Mierlo, M. van; Maya Rubio, M.I.; Kahr, J.; Sapir, M.

    2011-01-01

    This Guide on Economic Incentives Schemes is intended to serve as a practical and user-friendly guide to help incentive providers to create or optimise their own economic incentive schemes. Incentives schemes should not only reward past results of good OSH management (such as low accident numbers),

  7. 26 CFR 1.422-3 - Stockholder approval of incentive stock option plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stockholder approval of incentive stock option... incentive stock option plans. This section addresses the stockholder approval of incentive stock option... such cases an incentive stock option plan must be approved: (a) By a majority of the votes cast at...

  8. 26 CFR 1.422-4 - $100,000 limitation for incentive stock options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... qualifies as an incentive stock option nevertheless fails to be an incentive stock option to the extent that... incentive stock option (determined without regard to this section) is exercisable for the first time by any... it will not be treated as an incentive stock option) is disregarded. See § 1.422-2(a)(4). (2)...

  9. 41 CFR 302-14.2 - What is the purpose of a home marketing incentive payment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INCENTIVE PAYMENTS Payment of Incentive to the Employee § 302-14.2 What is the purpose of a home marketing incentive payment? The purpose of a home marketing incentive payment is to reduce the Government's... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the purpose of...

  10. An Incentive Based Regulatory System: A Bridge Too Far

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This paper argues that the operation of the financial sector as a whole will not be as effective if market discipline is relied upon as the only tool of financial regulation. Before enacting any incentive mechanisms, there must be adequate built-in measures to prevent the exploitation of information asymmetries as well as greater harmonisation and co-ordination of regulatory standards between countries. The paper considers the "incentive problem" in regulation using a principal-agent framewor...

  11. Short-term incentive schemes for hospital managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Malambe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Short-term incentives, considered to be an extrinsic motivation, are commonly used to motivate performance. This study explored hospital managers’ perceptions of short term incentives in maximising performance and retention.Research purpose: The study explored the experiences, views and perceptions of private hospital managers in South Africa regarding the use of short-term incentives to maximise performance and retention, as well as the applicability of the findings to public hospitals.Motivation for the study: Whilst there is an established link between performance reward schemes and organisational performance, there is little understanding of the effects of short term incentives on the performance and retention of hospital managers within the South African context.Research design, approach, and method: The study used a qualitative research design: interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 19 hospital managers, and a thematic content analysis was performed.Main findings: Short-term incentives may not be the primary motivator for hospital managers, but they do play a critical role in sustaining motivation. Participants indicated that these schemes could also be applicable to public hospitals.Practical/managerial implications: Hospital managers are inclined to be more motivated by intrinsic than extrinsic factors. However, hospital managers (as middle managers also seem to be motivated by short-term incentives. A combination of intrinsic and extrinsic motivators should thus be used to maximise performance and retention.Contribution/value-add: Whilst the study sought to explore hospital managers’ perceptions of short-term incentives, it also found that an adequate balance between internal and external motivators is key to implementing an effective short-term incentive scheme.

  12. A Simulation of the Bonus Incentive Recruiter Model (BIRM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    of the Bonus Incentive Recruiter Model ( BIRM ) and to provide estimates of the BIRM’s effects on recruiting. Since this incentive structure has not been...field tested, it is critical for USAREC to accurately understand the possible outcomes, advantages, and shortcomings if the BIRM were implemented...effects of the utility, cost and production functions. The simulation found that USAREC should meet the Army’s manpower goals with the BIRM and the cost should be less than hiring additional recruiters.

  13. A simulation of the Bonus Incentive Recruiter Model (BIRM)

    OpenAIRE

    Piper, Samuel T.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to provide the United States Army Recruiting Command (USAREC) with background material for developing the bonus table of the Bonus Incentive Recruiter Model (BIRM) and to provide estimates of the BIRM's effects on recruiting. Since this incentive structure has not been field tested, it is critical for USAREC to accurately understand the possible outcomes, advantages, and shortcomings if the BIRM were implemented. The first part of this thesis describes a method f...

  14. Exit Options in Corporate Finance: Liquidity versus Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Aghion, Philippe; Bolton, Patrick; Tirole, Jean

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a first study of the optimal design of active monitors' exit options in a problem involving a demand for liquidity and costly monitoring of the issuer. Optimal incentives to monitor the issuer may involve restricting the monitor's right to sell her claims on the firm's cash-flow early. But the monitor will then require a liquidity premium for holding such an illiquid claim. In general, therefore, there will be a trade off between incentives and liquidity. The paper highlig...

  15. Individual preferences modulate incentive values: evidence from functional MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch Volker; Dieckmann Anja; Pedroni Andreas F; Koeneke Susan; Jäncke Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background In most studies on human reward processing, reward intensity has been manipulated on an objective scale (e.g., varying monetary value). Everyday experience, however, teaches us that objectively equivalent rewards may differ substantially in their subjective incentive values. One factor influencing incentive value in humans is branding. The current study explores the hypothesis that individual brand preferences modulate activity in reward areas similarly to objectively meas...

  16. CONSERVATION OF ENDANGERED SPECIES: CAN INCENTIVES WORK FOR PRIVATE LANDOWNERS?

    OpenAIRE

    Langpap, Christian

    2003-01-01

    It has been argued that the traditional regulatory approach of the Endangered Species Act, based on land-use restrictions, has failed to protect endangered species on private land. In response, there has been a call for the use of incentives to complement this regulatory approach. This paper examines the potential of incentives programs to elicit conservation-oriented management choices from landowners. Data obtained from a survey of non-industrial private forest owners in Oregon and Washingt...

  17. Exit Options in Corporate Finance: Liquidity versus Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Aghion, Philippe; Bolton, Patrick; Tirole, Jean

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a first study of the optimal design of active monitors' exit options in a problem involving a demand for liquidity and costly monitoring of the issuer. Optimal incentives to monitor the issuer may involve restricting the monitor's right to sell her claims on the firm's cash-flow early. But the monitor will then require a liquidity premium for holding such an illiquid claim. In general, therefore, there will be a trade off between incentives and liquidity. The paper highlig...

  18. Innovation Incentive of Downstream Firms in Stackelberg Duopoly Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Hongzhen; Yan Qingyou; Huang Wenjie

    2006-01-01

    The licensing strategies and innovation incentives of downstream firms in a Stackelberg duopoly model were analyzed under three respective assumptions that upstream industry is monopoly, duopoly, or perfect competition. It is found that the Stackelberg firm may license his drastic innovation by a fixed royalty rate which is lower than innovation size. The incentives of drastic innovation of Stackelberg firm facing input suppliers with market power decrease considerably even under royalty licensing,compared with facing perfectly competitive input market.

  19. Individual preferences modulate incentive values: Evidence from functional MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch Volker; Dieckmann Anja; Pedroni Andreas F; Koeneke Susan; Jäncke Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background In most studies on human reward processing, reward intensity has been manipulated on an objective scale (e.g., varying monetary value). Everyday experience, however, teaches us that objectively equivalent rewards may differ substantially in their subjective incentive values. One factor influencing incentive value in humans is branding. The current study explores the hypothesis that individual brand preferences modulate activity in reward areas similarly to objectively meas...

  20. Ghrelin counteracts salt-induced hypertension via promoting diuresis and renal nitric oxide production in Dahl rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hirotaka; Nakata, Masanori; Dezaki, Katsuya; Lu, Ming; Gantulga, Darambazar; Yamamoto, Keiji; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Kario, Kazuomi; Yada, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Ghrelin is the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone-secretagogue receptor expressed in various tissues including the heart, blood vessels and kidney. This study sought to determine the effects of long-term treatment with ghrelin (10 nmol/kg, twice a day, intraperitoneally) on the hypertension induced by high salt (8.0% NaCl) diet in Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive (DS) rats. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured by a tail cuff method. During the treatment period for 3 weeks, high salt diet increased blood pressure compared to normal salt (0.3% NaCl) diet, and this hypertension was partly but significantly (P<0.01) attenuated by simultaneous treatment with ghrelin. Ghrelin significantly increased urine volume and tended to increase urine Na⁺ excretion. Furthermore, ghrelin increased urine nitric oxide (NO) excretion and tended to increase renal neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) mRNA expression. Ghrelin did not alter the plasma angiotensin II level and renin activity, nor urine catecholamine levels. Furthermore, ghrelin prevented the high salt-induced increases in heart thickness and plasma ANP mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that long-term ghrelin treatment counteracts salt-induced hypertension in DS rats primarily through diuretic action associated with increased renal NO production, thereby exerting cardio-protective effects.

  1. Mammalian ribosomal and chaperone protein RPS3A counteracts α-synuclein aggregation and toxicity in a yeast model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Graeve, Stijn; Marinelli, Sarah; Stolz, Frank; Hendrix, Jelle; Vandamme, Jurgen; Engelborghs, Yves; Van Dijck, Patrick; Thevelein, Johan M

    2013-11-01

    Accumulation of aggregated forms of αSyn (α-synuclein) into Lewy bodies is a known hallmark associated with neuronal cell death in Parkinson's disease. When expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, αSyn interacts with the plasma membrane, forms inclusions and causes a concentration-dependent growth defect. We have used a yeast mutant, cog6Δ, which is particularly sensitive to moderate αSyn expression, for screening a mouse brain-specific cDNA library in order to identify mammalian proteins that counteract αSyn toxicity. The mouse ribosomal and chaperone protein RPS3A was identified as a suppressor of αSyn [WT (wild-type) and A53T] toxicity in yeast. We demonstrated that the 50 N-terminal amino acids are essential for this function. The yeast homologues of RPS3A were not effective in suppressing the αSyn-induced growth defect, illustrating the potential of our screening system to identify modifiers that would be missed using yeast gene overexpression as the first screening step. Co-expression of mouse RPS3A delayed the formation of αSyn-GFP inclusions in the yeast cells. The results of the present study suggest that the recently identified extraribosomal chaperonin function of RPS3A also acts on the neurodegeneration-related protein αSyn and reveal a new avenue for identifying promising candidate mammalian proteins involved in αSyn functioning.

  2. Understanding congestion in China's medical market: an incentive structure perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zesheng; Wang, Shuhong; Barnes, Stephen R

    2016-04-01

    Congestion has become one of the most important factors leading to patient dissatisfaction and doctor-patient conflicts in the medical market of China. In this study, we explore the causes and effects of structural congestion in the Chinese medical market from an incentive structure perspective. Our analysis reveals that prior medical system reforms with price regulation in China have induced hospitals to establish incentives for capital-intensive investments, while ignoring human capital, and have driven medical staff and patients to higher-level hospitals, reinforcing an incentive structure in which congestion in higher-level hospitals and idle resources in lower-level hospitals coexist. The existing incentive structure has led to cost increases and degradation of human capital and specific factor effects. Recent reforms to reduce congestion in the Chinese medical market were not effective. Most of them had no impact on and did not involve the existing distorted incentive structure. Future reforms should consider rebalancing expectations for medical quality, free flow of human capital and price regulation reforms to rebuild a new incentive structure.

  3. Managerial strategies to make incentives meaningful and motivating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korlén, Sara; Essén, Anna; Lindgren, Peter; Amer-Wahlin, Isis; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica

    2017-04-10

    Purpose Policy makers are applying market-inspired competition and financial incentives to drive efficiency in healthcare. However, a lack of knowledge exists about the process whereby incentives are filtered through organizations to influence staff motivation, and the key role of managers is often overlooked. The purpose of this paper is to explore the strategies managers use as intermediaries between financial incentives and the individual motivation of staff. The authors use empirical data from a local case in Swedish specialized care. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted an exploratory qualitative case study of a patient-choice reform, including financial incentives, in specialized orthopedics in Sweden. In total, 17 interviews were conducted with professionals in managerial positions, representing six healthcare providers. A hypo-deductive, thematic approach was used to analyze the data. Findings The results show that managers applied alignment strategies to make the incentive model motivating for staff. The managers' strategies are characterized by attempts to align external rewards with professional values based on their contextual and practical knowledge. Managers occasionally overruled the financial logic of the model to safeguard patient needs and expressed an interest in having a closer dialogue with policy makers about improvements. Originality/value Externally imposed incentives do not automatically motivate healthcare staff. Managers in healthcare play key roles as intermediaries by aligning external rewards with professional values. Managers' multiple perspectives on healthcare practices and professional culture can also be utilized to improve policy and as a source of knowledge in partnership with policy makers.

  4. Analysis of Federal incentives used to stimulate energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    Federal incentives for the development of solar energy are examined. A Federal incentive is any action that can be taken by the government to expand residential and commercial use of solar energy. The development of solar energy policy could be enhanced by identification, quantification, and analysis of Federal incentives that have been used to simulate the development of other forms of energy. The text of this report identifies, quantifies, and analyzes such incentives and relates them to current thought about solar energy. Four viewpoints used in this discussion come from 4 types of analysis: economic, political, organizational, and legal. The next chapter identifies actions (primarily domestic) that the Federal government has taken concerning energy. This analysis uses the typology of actions described in the previous chapter to identify actions, and the four viewpoints described there to determine whether an action concerns energy. Once identified, the actions are described and then quantified by an estimate of the 1976 cost of accomplishing them. Then incentives, investments, liabilities, regulations, and other factors are analyzed in detail for nuclear energy, hydroelectric power, coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Incentives of all energy sources are then discussed with respect to solar energy policy. (MCW)

  5. Performance-based incentives to improve health status of mothers and newborns: what does the evidence show?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Rena; Agarwal, Koki; Askew, Ian; Iriarte, Emma; Morgan, Lindsay; Watson, Julia

    2013-12-01

    Performance-based incentives (PBIs) aim to counteract weak providers' performance in health systems of many developing countries by providing rewards that are directly linked to better health outcomes for mothers and their newborns. Translating funding into better health requires many actions by a large number of people. The actions span from community to the national level. While different forms of PBIs are being implemented in a number of countries to improve health outcomes, there has not been a systematic review of the evidence of their impact on the health of mothers and newborns. This paper analyzes and synthesizes the available evidence from published studies on the impact of supply-side PBIs on the quantity and quality of health services for mothers and newborns. This paper reviews evidence from published and grey literature that spans PBI for public-sector facilities, PBI in social insurance reforms, and PBI in NGO contracting. Some initiatives focus on safe deliveries, and others reward a broader package of results that include deliveries. The Evidence Review Team that focused on supply-side incentives for the US Government Evidence Summit on Enhancing Provision and Use of Maternal Health Services through Financial Incentives, reviewed published research reports and papers and added studies from additional grey literature that were deemed relevant. After collecting and reviewing 17 documents, nine studies were included in this review, three of which used before-after designs; four included comparison or control groups; one applied econometric methods to a five-year time series; and one reported results from a large-scale impact evaluation with randomly-assigned intervention and control facilities. The available evidence suggests that incentives that reward providers for institutional deliveries result in an increase in the number of institutional deliveries. There is some evidence that the content of antenatal care can improve with PBI. We found no direct

  6. Incentives and enablers to improve adherence in tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutge, Elizabeth E; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Knight, Stephen E; Sinclair, David; Volmink, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    Background Patient adherence to medications, particularly for conditions requiring prolonged treatment such as tuberculosis (TB), is frequently less than ideal and can result in poor treatment outcomes. Material incentives to reward good behaviour and enablers to remove economic barriers to accessing care are sometimes given in the form of cash, vouchers, or food to improve adherence. Objectives To evaluate the effects of material incentives and enablers in patients undergoing diagnostic testing, or receiving prophylactic or curative therapy, for TB. Search methods We undertook a comprehensive search of the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; LILACS; Science Citation Index; and reference lists of relevant publications up to 5 June 2015. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials of material incentives in patients being investigated for TB, or on treatment for latent or active TB. Data collection and analysis At least two review authors independently screened and selected studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias in the included trials. We compared the effects of interventions using risk ratios (RR), and presented RRs with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The quality of the evidence was assessed using GRADE. Main results We identified 12 eligible trials. Ten were conducted in the USA: in adolescents (one trial), in injection drug or cocaine users (four trials), in homeless adults (three trials), and in prisoners (two trials). The remaining two trials, in general adult populations, were conducted in Timor-Leste and South Africa. Sustained incentive programmes Only two trials have assessed whether material incentives and enablers can improve long-term adherence and completion of treatment for active TB, and neither demonstrated a clear benefit (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.14; two trials, 4356 participants; low quality evidence). In one trial, the incentive

  7. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Amplifies the Incentive Value of Reward-Predictive Cues Through Potentiation of Phasic Dopamine Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoelder, Marcia; Tsutsui, Kimberly T; Lesscher, Heidi M B; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Clark, Jeremy J

    2015-12-01

    Adolescent alcohol use remains a major public health concern due in part to well-established findings implicating the age of onset in alcohol use in the development of alcohol use disorders and persistent decision-making deficits in adults. We have previously demonstrated that moderate adolescent alcohol consumption in rats promotes suboptimal decision making and an associated perturbation in mesolimbic dopamine transmission in adulthood. Dopamine-dependent incentive learning processes are an integral component of value-based decision making and a fundamental element to many theoretical accounts of addiction. Thus we tested the hypothesis that adolescent alcohol use selectively alters incentive learning processes through perturbation of mesolimbic dopamine systems. To assess incentive learning, behavioral and neurochemical measurements were made during the acquisition, maintenance, extinction, and reacquisition of a Pavlovian conditioned approach procedure in adult rats with a history of adolescent alcohol consumption. We show that moderate adolescent alcohol consumption potentiates stimulus-evoked phasic dopamine transmission, measured in vivo by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, in adulthood and biases individuals toward a dopamine-dependent incentive learning strategy. Moreover, we demonstrate that animals exposed to alcohol in adolescence are more sensitive to an unexpected variation in reward outcomes. This pattern of phasic dopamine signaling and the associated bias in learning may provide a mechanism for the well-documented vulnerability of individuals with early-life alcohol use for alcohol use disorders in adulthood.

  8. Service motives and profit incentives among physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godager, Geir; Iversen, Tor; Ma, Ching-To Albert

    2009-03-01

    We model physicians as health care professionals who care about their services and monetary rewards. These preferences are heterogeneous. Different physicians trade off the monetary and service motives differently, and therefore respond differently to incentive schemes. Our model is set up for the Norwegian health care system. First, each private practice physician has a patient list, which may have more or less patients than he desires. The physician is paid a fee-for-service reimbursement and a capitation per listed patient. Second, a municipality may obligate the physician to perform 7.5 h/week of community services. Our data are on an unbalanced panel of 435 physicians, with 412 physicians for the year 2002, and 400 for 2004. A physician's amount of gross wealth and gross debt in previous periods are used as proxy for preferences for community service. First, for the current period, accumulated wealth and debt are predetermined. Second, wealth and debt capture lifestyle preferences because they correlate with the planned future income and spending. The main results show that both gross debt and gross wealth have negative effects on physicians' supply of community health services. Gross debt and wealth have no effect on fee-for-service income per listed person in the physician's practice, and positive effects on the total income from fee-for-service. The higher income from fee-for-service is due to a longer patient list. Patient shortage has no significant effect on physicians' supply of community services, a positive effect on the fee-for-service income per listed person, and a negative effect on the total income from fee for service. These results support physician preference heterogeneity.

  9. Investigating financial incentives for maternal health: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Mary Ellen; Higgs, Elizabeth S; Koblinsky, Marge

    2013-12-01

    Projection of current trends in maternal and neonatal mortality reduction shows that many countries will fall short of the UN Millennium Development Goal 4 and 5. Underutilization of maternal health services contributes to this poor progress toward reducing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the quality of services continues to lag in many countries, with a negative effect on the health of women and their babies, including deterring women from seeking care. To enhance the use and provision of quality maternal care, countries and donors are increasingly using financial incentives. This paper introduces the JHPN Supplement, in which each paper reviews the evidence of the effectiveness of a specific financial incentive instrument with the aim of improving the use and quality of maternal healthcare and impact. The US Agency for International Development and the US National Institutes of Health convened a US Government Evidence Summit on Enhancing Provision and Use of Maternal Health Services through Financial Incentives on 24-25 April 2012 in Washington, DC. The Summit brought together leading global experts in finance, maternal health, and health systems from governments, academia, development organizations, and foundations to assess the evidence on whether financial incentives significantly and substantially increase provision, use and quality of maternal health services, and the contextual factors that impact the effectiveness of these incentives. Evidence review teams evaluated the multidisciplinary evidence of various financial mechanisms, including supply-side incentives (e.g. performance-based financing, user fees, and various insurance mechanisms) and demand-side incentives (e.g. conditional cash transfers, vouchers, user fee exemptions, and subsidies for care-seeking). At the Summit, the teams presented a synthesis of evidence and initial recommendations on practice, policy, and research for discussion. The Summit enabled structured

  10. Prevalence and effects of mycotoxins on poultry health and performance, and recent development in mycotoxin counteracting strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesan, G R; Ledoux, D R; Naehrer, K; Berthiller, F; Applegate, T J; Grenier, B; Phillips, T D; Schatzmayr, G

    2015-06-01

    Extensive research over the last couple of decades has made it obvious that mycotoxins are commonly prevalent in majority of feed ingredients. A worldwide mycotoxin survey in 2013 revealed 81% of around 3,000 grain and feed samples analyzed had at least 1 mycotoxin, which was higher than the 10-year average (from 2004 to 2013) of 76% in a total of 25,944 samples. The considerable increase in the number of positive samples in 2013 may be due to the improvements in detection methods and their sensitivity. The recently developed liquid chromatography coupled to (tandem) mass spectrometry allows the inclusion of a high number of analytes and is the most selective, sensitive, and accurate of all the mycotoxin analytical methods. Mycotoxins can affect the animals either individually or additively in the presence of more than 1 mycotoxin, and may affect various organs such as gastrointestinal tract, liver, and immune system, essentially resulting in reduced productivity of the birds and mortality in extreme cases. While the use of mycotoxin binding agents has been a commonly used counteracting strategy, considering the great diversity in the chemical structures of mycotoxins, it is very obvious that there is no single method that can be used to deactivate mycotoxins in feed. Therefore, different strategies have to be combined in order to specifically target individual mycotoxins without impacting the quality of feed. Enzymatic or microbial detoxification, referred to as "biotransformation" or "biodetoxification," utilizes microorganisms or purified enzymes thereof to catabolize the entire mycotoxin or transform or cleave it to less or non-toxic compounds. However, the awareness on the prevalence of mycotoxins, available modern techniques to analyze them, the effects of mycotoxicoses, and the recent developments in the ways to safely eliminate the mycotoxins from the feed are very minimal among the producers. This symposium review paper comprehensively discusses the above

  11. Icaritin requires Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling to counteract skeletal muscle atrophy following mechanical unloading

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, Zong-Kang; Li, Jie; Liu, Jin; Baosheng GUO; Leung, Albert; Zhang, Ge; Zhang, Bao-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Counteracting muscle atrophy induced by mechanical unloading/inactivity is of great clinical need and challenge. A therapeutic agent that could counteract muscle atrophy following mechanical unloading in safety is desired. This study showed that natural product Icaritin (ICT) could increase the phosphorylation level of Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) at p110 catalytic subunit and promote PI3K/Akt signaling markers in C2C12 cells. This study further showed that the high dose ICT treatment...

  12. Analysis of federal incentives used to stimulate energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, R.J.; Cone, B.W.; Emery, J.C.; Huelshoff, M.; Lenerz, D.E.; Marcus, A.; Morris, F.A.; Sheppard, W.J.; Sommers, P.

    1981-08-01

    The purpose of the analysis is to identify and quantify Federal incentives that have increased the consumption of coal, oil, natural gas, and electricity. The introductory chapter is intended as a device for presenting the policy questions about the incentives that can be used to stimulate desired levels of energy development. In the theoretical chapter federal incentives were identified for the consumption of energy as Federal government actions whose major intent or result is to stimulate energy consumption. The stimulus comes through changing values of variables included in energy demand functions, thereby inducing energy consumers to move along the function in the direction of greater quantity of energy demanded, or through inducing a shift of the function to a position where more energy will be demanded at a given price. The demand variables fall into one of six categories: price of the energy form, price of complements, price of substitutes, preferences, income, and technology. The government can provide such incentives using six different policy instruments: taxation, disbursements, requirements, nontraditional services, traditional services, and market activity. The four major energy forms were examined. Six energy-consuming sectors were examined: residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, transportation, and public. Two types of analyses of incentive actions are presented in this volume. The generic chapter focused on actions taken in 1978 across all energy forms. The subsequent chapters traced the patterns of incentive actions, energy form by energy form, from the beginning of the 20th century, to the present. The summary chapter includes the results of the previous chapters presented by energy form, incentive type, and user group. Finally, the implications of these results for solar policy are presented in the last chapter. (MCW)

  13. Incentive Use in Research: Protecting Vulnerable Populations from Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruna Muwonge

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Global investment in Medical Research and Development has markedly increased in the last few decades. However, due to the decreasing public altruism, researchers have come under increased pressures from the funding bodies to produce results. Out of desperation, some researchers have resorted to using incentives as a means of sourcing for volunteers. Consequently, the research burden has disproportionately been shared among the most vulnerable populations in the society. Incentives especially monetary ones present an ethical dilemma because of the uncertainties’ surrounding the morality, amount and type of payment, vulnerability of volunteers and possible threats to voluntary participation. Several studies done on the use of incentives in medical research have noted that financial motivation was the number one reason for subjects to volunteer in Medical research. Mutual benefit and freedom of choice by participants were given as reasons to support their use. However, scientists who are against the use of incentives believe that they are coercive or undue inducements, and may influence a subjects’ ability to give an informed consent. Guidelines exist that protect vulnerable groups from exploitation, although none sheds light into the use of incentives. Nonetheless, in the face of the waning public altruism, the benefits of using incentives far outweigh the dangers, although researchers should avoid situations where their use may become problematic. As a mode of payment to research subjects, researchers should adopt a combination of the Dickerts’ Wage and re-imbursement models as guides in quantifying the incentive. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 408-417

  14. The response of maize production in Kenya to economic incentives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onono, P.A.,

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural development policy in Kenya has emphasised the use of incentives towards increased production and therefore self-sufficiency in maize which is a basic staple for most households. The channels used to provide incentives to maize farmers over the years include setting higher producer prices; subsidisation of inputs; provision of agricultural credit, research and extension services; construction and maintenance of roads, development of irrigation and water systems; legislative, institutional and macroeconomic reforms. Despite these efforts outputof maize has remained below domestic requirements in most years and the country continues to rely on imports to meet the deficits. Studies have assessed the responsiveness of maize to output price and reported inelastic responses and have recommended policies targeting non-price incentives to complement prices for the required increased production of maize. The studies, however, did not analyse the influence of the non-price incentives on the production of the crop. The findings of those studies are therefore deficient in explaining the relative importance of different non-price incentives and how they complement prices in influencing maize production in Kenya. This study investigated the response of maize production to both price and non-price incentives. The aim of this study was to ascertain the relative importance of non-price factors in influencing production of the crops as well as complementarity between price and non-price incentives. The findings show that maize production responds positively to its output price, development expenditures in agriculture, maize sales to marketing boards, growth in per capita GDP, liberalisation and governance reforms. However, maize production responds negatively to fertiliser price and unfavourable weather conditions. The response of maize output to its price is lower with rising inflation and grain market liberalisation.

  15. What incentives influence employers to engage in workplace health interventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsson, Camilla; Lohela-Karlsson, Malin; Kwak, Lydia; Bergström, Gunnar; Hellman, Therese

    2016-08-23

    To achieve a sustainable working life it is important to know more about what could encourage employers to increase the use of preventive and health promotive interventions. The objective of the study is to explore and describe the employer perspective regarding what incentives influence their use of preventive and health promotive workplace interventions. Semi-structured focus group interviews were carried out with 20 representatives from 19 employers across Sweden. The economic sectors represented were municipalities, government agencies, defence, educational, research, and development institutions, health care, manufacturing, agriculture and commercial services. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and the data were analysed using latent content analysis. Various incentives were identified in the analysis, namely: "law and provisions", "consequences for the workplace", "knowledge of worker health and workplace health interventions", "characteristics of the intervention", "communication and collaboration with the provider". The incentives seemed to influence the decision-making in parallel with each other and were not only related to positive incentives for engaging in workplace health interventions, but also to disincentives. This study suggests that the decision to engage in workplace health interventions was influenced by several incentives. There are those incentives that lead to a desire to engage in a workplace health intervention, others pertain to aspects more related to the intervention use, such as the characteristics of the employer, the provider and the intervention. It is important to take all incentives into consideration when trying to understand the decision-making process for workplace health interventions and to bridge the gap between what is produced through research and what is used in practice.

  16. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Vif N-Terminal Residues Selectively Counteract Feline APOBEC3s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qinyong; Zhang, Zeli; Cano Ortiz, Lucía; Franco, Ana Cláudia; Häussinger, Dieter; Münk, Carsten

    2016-12-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) Vif protein counteracts feline APOBEC3s (FcaA3s) restriction factors by inducing their proteasomal degradation. The functional domains in FIV Vif for interaction with FcaA3s are poorly understood. Here, we have identified several motifs in FIV Vif that are important for selective degradation of different FcaA3s. Cats (Felis catus) express three types of A3s: single-domain A3Z2, single-domain A3Z3, and double-domain A3Z2Z3. We proposed that FIV Vif would selectively interact with the Z2 and the Z3 A3s. Indeed, we identified two N-terminal Vif motifs (12LF13 and 18GG19) that specifically interacted with the FcaA3Z2 protein but not with A3Z3. In contrast, the exclusive degradation of FcaA3Z3 was regulated by a region of three residues (M24, L25, and I27). Only a FIV Vif carrying a combination of mutations from both interaction sites lost the capacity to degrade and counteract FcaA3Z2Z3. However, alterations in the specific A3s interaction sites did not affect the cellular localization of the FIV Vif protein and binding to feline A3s. Pulldown experiments demonstrated that the A3 binding region localized to FIV Vif residues 50 to 80, outside the specific A3 interaction domain. Finally, we found that the Vif sites specific to individual A3s are conserved in several FIV lineages of domestic cat and nondomestic cats, while being absent in the FIV Vif of pumas. Our data support a complex model of multiple Vif-A3 interactions in which the specific region for selective A3 counteraction is discrete from a general A3 binding domain.

  17. Material incentives and enablers in the management of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutge, Elizabeth E; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Knight, Stephen E; Volmink, Jimmy

    2012-01-18

    Patient adherence to medications, particularly for conditions requiring prolonged treatment such as tuberculosis, is frequently less than ideal, and can result in poor treatment outcomes. Material incentives (given as cash, vouchers and tokens), have been used to improve adherence. To assess the effects of material incentives in people undergoing diagnostic testing, or receiving prophylactic or curative therapy, for tuberculosis. We undertook a comprehensive search of the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; LILACS; Science Citation Index; and reference lists of relevant publications; to 22 June 2011. Randomized controlled trials of material incentives in patients being investigated for tuberculosis, or on treatment for latent or active disease. At least two authors independently screened and selected studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias. The effects of interventions are compared using risk ratios (RR), and presented with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The quality of the evidence was assessed using GRADE. We identified 11 eligible studies. Ten were conducted in the USA: in adolescents (one trial), in injection drug or cocaine users (four trials), in homeless adults (three trials), and in prisoners (two trials). One additional trial recruited malnourished men receiving active treatment for tuberculosis in Timor-Leste.Material incentives may increase the return rate for reading of tuberculin skin test results compared to normal care (two trials, 1371 participants: RR 2.16, 95% CI 1.41 to 3.29, low quality evidence).Similarly, incentives probably improve clinic re-attendance for initiation or continuation of antituberculosis prophylaxis (three trials, 595 participants: RR 1.58, 95% CI 1.27 to 1.96, moderate quality evidence), and may improve subsequent completion of prophylaxis in some settings (three trials, 869 participants: RR 1.79, 95% CI 0.70 to 4

  18. Counteracting ammonia inhibition during anaerobic digestion by recovery using submersible microbial desalination cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia inhibition is one of the most frequent and serious problems in biogas plants. In this study, a novel hybrid system consisting of a submersible microbial desalination cell (SMDC) and a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was developed for counteracting ammonia inhibition during anaerobic...... digestion (AD) with simultaneous in situ ammonia recovery and electricity production. The SMDC was powered by acetate in a buffer solution, while synthetic ammonia-rich wastewater was used as the feeding of the CSTR. Under continuous operation, ammonia recovery rate of 86 g-N/m2 /day and current density...

  19. Herpes simplex virus 1 counteracts viperin via its virion host shutoff protein UL41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guanghui; Wang, Kezhen; Wang, Shuai; Cai, Mingsheng; Li, Mei-li; Zheng, Chunfu

    2014-10-01

    The interferon (IFN)-inducible viperin protein restricts a broad range of viruses. However, whether viperin plays a role during herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection is poorly understood. In the present study, it was shown for the first time that wild-type (WT) HSV-1 infection couldn't induce viperin production, and ectopically expressed viperin inhibited the replication of UL41-null HSV-1 but not WT viruses. The underlying molecular mechanism is that UL41 counteracts viperin's antiviral activity by reducing its mRNA accumulation.

  20. Semi-Supervised Learning Techniques in AO Applications: A Novel Approach To Drift Counteraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vito, S.; Fattoruso, G.; Pardo, M.; Tortorella, F.; Di Francia, G.

    2011-11-01

    In this work we proposed and tested the use of SSL techniques in the AO domain. The SSL characteristics have been exploited to reduce the need for costly supervised samples and the effects of time dependant drift of state-of-the-art statistical learning approaches. For this purpose, an on-field recorded one year long atmospheric pollution dataset has been used. The semi-supervised approach benefitted from the use of updated unlabeled samples, adapting its knowledge to the slowly changing drift effects. We expect that semi-supervised learning can provide significant advantages to the performance of sensor fusion subsystems in artificial olfaction exhibiting an interesting drift counteraction effect.

  1. Incentives and enablers to improve adherence in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutge, Elizabeth E; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Knight, Stephen E; Sinclair, David; Volmink, Jimmy

    2015-09-03

    Patient adherence to medications, particularly for conditions requiring prolonged treatment such as tuberculosis (TB), is frequently less than ideal and can result in poor treatment outcomes. Material incentives to reward good behaviour and enablers to remove economic barriers to accessing care are sometimes given in the form of cash, vouchers, or food to improve adherence. To evaluate the effects of material incentives and enablers in patients undergoing diagnostic testing, or receiving prophylactic or curative therapy, for TB. We undertook a comprehensive search of the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; LILACS; Science Citation Index; and reference lists of relevant publications up to 5 June 2015. Randomized controlled trials of material incentives in patients being investigated for TB, or on treatment for latent or active TB. At least two review authors independently screened and selected studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias in the included trials. We compared the effects of interventions using risk ratios (RR), and presented RRs with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The quality of the evidence was assessed using GRADE. We identified 12 eligible trials. Ten were conducted in the USA: in adolescents (one trial), in injection drug or cocaine users (four trials), in homeless adults (three trials), and in prisoners (two trials). The remaining two trials, in general adult populations, were conducted in Timor-Leste and South Africa. Sustained incentive programmesOnly two trials have assessed whether material incentives and enablers can improve long-term adherence and completion of treatment for active TB, and neither demonstrated a clear benefit (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.14; two trials, 4356 participants; low quality evidence). In one trial, the incentive, given as a daily hot meal, was not well received by the population due to the inconvenience of

  2. Parental financial incentives for increasing preschool vaccination uptake: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigham, Sarah; Ternent, Laura; Bryant, Andrew; Robalino, Shannon; Sniehotta, Falko F; Adams, Jean

    2014-10-01

    Financial incentives have been used to promote vaccination uptake but are not always viewed as acceptable. Quasimandatory policies, such as requiring vaccinations for school enrollment, are widely implemented in some countries. A systematic review was conducted to determine the effectiveness, acceptability, and economic costs and consequences of parental financial incentives and quasimandatory schemes for increasing the uptake of preschool vaccinations in high-income countries. Electronic databases and gray literature were searched for randomized controlled trials, controlled before-and-after studies, and time series analyses examining the effectiveness of parental financial incentives and quasimandatory schemes, as well as any empirical studies exploring acceptability. All included studies were screened for information on economic costs and consequences. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed the quality of selected articles by using established instruments. Studies were synthesized in narrative reviews. Four studies on the effectiveness and 6 on the acceptability of parental financial incentives and quasimandatory interventions met the inclusion criteria. Only 1 study reported on costs and consequences. Studies of effectiveness had low risk of bias but displayed substantial heterogeneity in terms of interventions and methods. There was insufficient evidence to conclude whether these interventions were effective. Studies of acceptability suggested a preference, in settings where this already occurs, for incentives linking vaccinations to access to education. There was insufficient evidence to draw conclusions on economic costs and consequences. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Motivating employees through incentives: productive or a counterproductive strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayum, Mehran; Sawal, Shefa Haider; Khan, Hassan Mehmood

    2014-05-01

    The disparity between human resource in health and provision of health services is a growing concern worldwide. Many developing countries are facing this crisis and therefore human resource in health is considered a high priority on their agenda.This imbalance between supplies of human resource is exacerbated by migration of health workers in many countries. Understanding the motivational factor is an important aspect to retain the migrating health workforce. This paper analyses the role of financial and non financial incentives in motivating the health work force. A review of available literature was conducted to understand the role of motivational factor in retaining health workforce. A review of current literature found that an incentive plays a key role in motivating a health worker. Financial incentives are useful in improving the compliance to standard policies and procedures. Comprehensive integrated incentive system approach should be established to develop a sustainable health workforce with required skill. Likewise monetary incentives should be linked to adherence to provincial and national guidelines and procedures. Sustainability could be ensured by commitment of government, political will and involvement of key stakeholders and decision makers.

  4. Intermediaries in Trust: Indirect Reciprocity, Incentives, and Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giangiacomo Bravo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Any trust situation involves a certain amount of risk for trustors that trustees could abuse. In some cases, intermediaries exist who play a crucial role in the exchange by providing reputational information. To examine under what conditions intermediary opinion could have a positive impact on cooperation, we designed two experiments based on a modified version of the investment game where intermediaries rated the behaviour of trustees under various incentive schemes and different role structures. We found that intermediaries can increase trust if there is room for indirect reciprocity between the involved parties. We also found that the effect of monetary incentives and social norms cannot be clearly separable in these situations. If properly designed, monetary incentives for intermediaries can have a positive effect. On the one hand, when intermediary rewards are aligned with the trustor’s interest, investments and returns tend to increase. On the other hand, fixed monetary incentives perform less than any other incentive schemes and endogenous social norms in ensuring trust and fairness. These findings should make us reconsider the mantra of incentivization of social and public conventional policy.

  5. Anti-double dipping rules for federal tax incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ing, E.T.C. [Law Office of Edwin T.C. Ing, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Political as well as technological changes are now reshaping the electric utility industry. While accommodating these changes, state legislative and regulatory agencies have the opportunity to promote public policies. In this regard, various state entities are evaluating appropriate incentives for renewable energy development so as to introduce greater competition in electric generation. For example, the California legislature is considering a supplemental production payment and the State of Iowa has instituted a low-interest loan program for wind and other alternative energy generation. By complementing the existing federal tax incentives, state incentives can spur the wind industry`s growth. If structured in the wrong way, however, state assistance programs will undercut the value of the federal tax incentives. The federal anti-double dipping rules apply to certain state programs. If a developer utilizes the wrong type of state assistance for a wind project, the anti-double dipping rules will reduce the federal tax incentives and this in turn will decrease the project`s profitability. Rather than suffer these results, very few if any developer will use the state program. Despite the time and effort a state may expend to enact a program for alternative energy development, the state assistance will be ineffectual. This paper reviews the counterproductive results which state assistance can have on a wind project because of the federal anti-double dipping rules.

  6. Aesthetic and incentive salience of cute infant faces: studies of observer sex, oral contraception and menstrual cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiner Sprengelmeyer

    Full Text Available Infant cuteness can influence adult-infant interaction and has been shown to activate reward centres in the brain. In a previous study, we found men and women to be differentially sensitive to small differences in infant facial cuteness, with reproductive hormone status as the potential underlying cause. It is unclear, however, whether reproductive hormone status impacts on the aesthetic and incentive salience of infant faces. To address this question, we conducted two interlinked studies. We used static images of the same smiling and neutral-looking infant faces in both a rating task, in which participants had to rate the cuteness of infant faces (aesthetic salience - 'liking', and a key-press task, in which participants could prolong or shorten viewing time of infant faces by rapid alternating key-presses (incentive salience - 'wanting'. In a first study, we compared the performance of men, women who are taking oral contraceptives, and regularly cycling women. In this study, we found a significant correlation between cuteness ratings within and between groups, which implies that participants had the same concept of cuteness. Cuteness ratings and effort to look at faces was linked regardless of sex and reproductive hormone status, in that cute faces were looked at for longer than less cute faces. A happy facial expression contributed only marginally to the incentive salience of the face. To explore the potential impact of reproductive hormone status in more detail, we followed a subset of regularly cycling women during the menstrual, follicular and luteal phases of their cycle. The aesthetic and incentive salience of infant faces did not change across the menstrual cycle. Our findings suggest that reproductive hormone status does not modulate the aesthetic and incentive value of infant faces.

  7. Inhibition of glucose turnover by 3-bromopyruvate counteracts pancreatic cancer stem cell features and sensitizes cells to gemcitabine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isayev, Orkhan; Rausch, Vanessa; Bauer, Nathalie; Liu, Li; Fan, Pei; Zhang, Yiyao; Gladkich, Jury; Nwaeburu, Clifford C; Mattern, Jürgen; Mollenhauer, Martin; Rückert, Felix; Zach, Sebastian; Haberkorn, Uwe; Gross, Wolfgang; Schönsiegel, Frank; Bazhin, Alexandr V; Herr, Ingrid

    2014-07-15

    According to the cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis, the aggressive growth and early metastasis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is due to the activity of CSCs, which are not targeted by current therapies. Otto Warburg suggested that the growth of cancer cells is driven by a high glucose metabolism. Here, we investigated whether glycolysis inhibition targets CSCs and thus may enhance therapeutic efficacy. Four established and 3 primary PDA cell lines, non-malignant cells, and 3 patient-tumor-derived CSC-enriched spheroidal cultures were analyzed by glucose turnover measurements, MTT and ATP assays, flow cytometry of ALDH1 activity and annexin positivity, colony and spheroid formation, western blotting, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, xenotransplantation, and immunohistochemistry. The effect of siRNA-mediated inhibition of LDH-A and LDH-B was also investigated. The PDA cells exhibited a high glucose metabolism, and glucose withdrawal or LDH inhibition by siRNA prevented growth and colony formation. Treatment with the anti-glycolytic agent 3-bromopyruvate almost completely blocked cell viability, self-renewal potential, NF-κB binding activity, and stem cell-related signaling and reverted gemcitabine resistance. 3-bromopyruvate was less effective in weakly malignant PDA cells and did not affect non-malignant cells, predicting minimal side effects. 3-bromopyruvate inhibited in vivo tumor engraftment and growth on chicken eggs and mice and enhanced the efficacy of gemcitabine by influencing the expression of markers of proliferation, apoptosis, self-renewal, and metastasis. Most importantly, primary CSC-enriched spheroidal cultures were eliminated by 3-bromopyruvate. These findings propose that CSCs may be specifically dependent on a high glucose turnover and suggest 3-bromopyruvate for therapeutic intervention.

  8. Inhibition of glucose turnover by 3-bromopyruvate counteracts pancreatic cancer stem cell features and sensitizes cells to gemcitabine

    OpenAIRE

    Isayev, Orkhan; Rausch, Vanessa; Bauer, Nathalie; Liu, Li; Fan, Pei; Zhang, Yiyao; Gladkich, Jury; Nwaeburu, Clifford C.; Mattern, Jürgen; Mollenhauer, Martin; Rückert, Felix; Zach, Sebastian; Haberkorn, Uwe; Gross, Wolfgang; Schönsiegel, Frank

    2014-01-01

    According to the cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis, the aggressive growth and early metastasis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is due to the activity of CSCs, which are not targeted by current therapies. Otto Warburg suggested that the growth of cancer cells is driven by a high glucose metabolism. Here, we investigated whether glycolysis inhibition targets CSCs and thus may enhance therapeutic efficacy. Four established and 3 primary PDA cell lines, non-malignant cells, and 3 patien...

  9. Les incentives dans les enquêtes en ligne

    OpenAIRE

    Solène Guillemot

    2013-01-01

    Ce mémoire présente les recherches antérieures d'auteurs s'intéressant aux incentives dans les études marketing et une expérimentation cherchant à vérifier les impacts, à la fois positifs et négatifs, des incentives dans les enquêtes quantitatives en ligne. Ainsi, un questionnaire a été administré par emailing à deux groupes, l'un recevant la possibilité de participer à un tirage au sort (incentive de l'étude), et l'autre n'ayant pas cette possibilité. Il s'agissait dans un premier temps de v...

  10. Reputation-based Incentive Protocols in Crowdsourcing Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yu

    2011-01-01

    Crowdsourcing websites (e.g. Yahoo! Answers, Amazon Mechanical Turk, and etc.) emerged in recent years that allow requesters from all around the world to post tasks and seek help from an equally global pool of workers. However, intrinsic incentive problems reside in crowdsourcing applications as workers and requester are selfish and aim to strategically maximize their own benefit. In this paper, we propose to provide incentives for workers to exert effort using a novel game-theoretic model based on repeated games. As there is always a gap in the social welfare between the non-cooperative equilibria emerging when workers pursue their self-interests and the desirable Pareto efficient outcome, we propose a novel class of incentive protocols based on social norms which integrates reputation mechanisms into the existing pricing schemes currently implemented on crowdsourcing websites, in order to improve the performance of the non-cooperative equilibria emerging in such applications. We first formulate the exchange...

  11. An incentive-based architecture for social recommendations

    KAUST Repository

    Bhattacharjee, Rajat

    2009-01-01

    We present an incentive-based architecture for providing recommendations in a social network. We maintain a distinct reputation system for each individual and we rely on users to identify appropriate correlations and rate the items using a system-provided recommendation language. The key idea is to design an incentive structure and a ranking system such that any inaccuracy in the recommendations implies the existence of a profitable arbitrage opportunity, hence making the system resistant to malicious spam and presentation bias. We also show that, under mild assumptions, our architecture provides users with incentive to minimize the Kullback-Leibler divergence between the ratings and the actual item qualities, quickly driving the system to an equilibrium state with accurate recommendations. Copyright 2009 ACM.

  12. Analysing Incentive and Cost Sharing Issues in Livestock Disease Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biira, Juliet

    This PhD thesis tackles two main issues in livestock health management: a) the incentives for animal disease prevention on Danish livestock farms and b) allocation of costs of animal disease outbreaks and animal disease preparedness, among stakeholders involved in the livestock sector. The main...... be arranged and lastly, a theoretical contribution to how disease preparedness costs could be shared. An exploration of literature on issues regarding animal disease prevention in the Danish livestock sector is used in paper 1, while an empirical approach is used in paper 2, 3 and 4. A theoretical approach...... to elaborate on the private and public incentives that influence Danish farmers to prevent animal diseases. The paper reveals that public incentives could be improved by clearly stating repercussions for not following certain regulations and the current compensation strategy could be adjusted in a way...

  13. The Impact of Tax Incentives on Research and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Svoboda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to analyze the impact of tax incentives on research and development and compare its effectiveness to direct government support of research and development. The analysis is based on regression analysis, which compares effect of tax incentives for research and development and direct government support (as percentage of GDP in 28 countries of OECD in 2013 on innovative effectiveness of these countries measured by number of registered triadic patent families per billion GDP in the same year. Results suggest that tax incentives are more effective form of research and development support than direct government funding. Research also revealed interesting case of Switzerland’s research and development performance backed by almost none government support, which should be subject to future study.

  14. Incentive salience attribution under reward uncertainty: A Pavlovian model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselme, Patrick

    2015-02-01

    There is a vast literature on the behavioural effects of partial reinforcement in Pavlovian conditioning. Compared with animals receiving continuous reinforcement, partially rewarded animals typically show (a) a slower development of the conditioned response (CR) early in training and (b) a higher asymptotic level of the CR later in training. This phenomenon is known as the partial reinforcement acquisition effect (PRAE). Learning models of Pavlovian conditioning fail to account for it. In accordance with the incentive salience hypothesis, it is here argued that incentive motivation (or 'wanting') plays a more direct role in controlling behaviour than does learning, and reward uncertainty is shown to have an excitatory effect on incentive motivation. The psychological origin of that effect is discussed and a computational model integrating this new interpretation is developed. Many features of CRs under partial reinforcement emerge from this model.

  15. A Study on the Self-Adaption Incentive Performance Salary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanming; Wang, Yang

    In project managing, the performance salary management mode is often used to motivate project managers and other similar staff to improve performance or reduce the cost. But the engineering activities who own a lot of internal and external uncertain factors can not be known by the principle. It is difficult for to develop a suitable incentive target to project managers etch. This paper thinks that the manager self master the maximum of information on engineering activities. So this paper sets up an incentive model: the project managers themselves report performance objectives; owner gives the managers reward or punishment combined with their reported performance and actual performance. The model to ensure that the project manager is only accurate self reported its results to get the maximum profit. At the same time, it cans incentive managers to improve performance or reduce the cost. This paper focuses on setting up the model, analyzing the model parameters. And cite an example analyze them.

  16. Designing incentive market mechanisms for improving restructured power system reliabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob; Wu, Qiuwei

    2011-01-01

    In a restructured power system, the monopoly generation utility is replaced by different electricity producers. There exists extreme price volatility caused by random failures by generation or/and transmission systems. In these cases, producers' profits can be much higher than those in the normal...... mechanisms for improving the restructured power system reliabilities have been designed in this paper. In the proposed incentive mechanisms, penalty will be implemented on a producer if the failures of its generator(s) result in the variation of electricity prices. Incentive market mechanisms can motivate...... state. The reliability management of producers usually cannot be directly controlled by the system operators in a restructured power system. Producers may have no motivation to improve their reliabilities, which can result in serious system unreliability issues in the new environment. Incentive market...

  17. Game Theoretic Analysis of Carbon Emission Abatement in Fashion Supply Chains Considering Vertical Incentives and Channel Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfei He

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We study an emission-dependent dyadic fashion supply chain made up of a supplier and a manufacturer, both of which can reduce their own component/product emissions to serve the carbon-footprint sensitive consumers. With Carbon Tax regulation, we consider four scenarios resulting from two ways in form of adopting transfer price contract and/or introducing third-party emission-reduction service (TPERS to enhance the efficiency of systematic emission reductions. We refine four models from these corresponding scenarios, which in turn constitute a decision-making framework composed of determining vertical incentives and choosing supply chain structures. By exploiting Stackelberg games in all models, we compare their emission reduction efficiencies and profitability for each pair of settings. Theoretic analysis and numerical studies show that adopting vertical transfer payment schemes can definitely benefit channel carbon footprint reduction and Pareto improvement of supply chain profitability, regardless of whether the emission-reduction service exists or not. However, whether introducing TPERS or not is heavily depending on systematic parameters when the transfer payment incentive is adopted there. We also provide insights on the sensitivity of carbon tax parameters with respect to the supply chain performance, overall carbon emission reduction, vertical incentive and TPERS adopting decision-makings.

  18. Quantitative Financial Analysis of Alternative Energy Efficiency Shareholder Incentive Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Chait, Michele; Edgar, George; Schlegel, Jeff; Shirley, Wayne

    2008-08-03

    Rising energy prices and climate change are central issues in the debate about our nation's energy policy. Many are demanding increased energy efficiency as a way to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lower the total cost of electricity and energy services for consumers and businesses. Yet, as the National Action Plan on Energy Efficiency (NAPEE) pointed out, many utilities continue to shy away from seriously expanding their energy efficiency program offerings because they claim there is insufficient profit-motivation, or even a financial disincentive, when compared to supply-side investments. With the recent introduction of Duke Energy's Save-a-Watt incentive mechanism and ongoing discussions about decoupling, regulators and policymakers are now faced with an expanded and diverse landscape of financial incentive mechanisms, Determining the 'right' way forward to promote deep and sustainable demand side resource programs is challenging. Due to the renaissance that energy efficiency is currently experiencing, many want to better understand the tradeoffs in stakeholder benefits between these alternative incentive structures before aggressively embarking on a path for which course corrections can be time-consuming and costly. Using a prototypical Southwest utility and a publicly available financial model, we show how various stakeholders (e.g. shareholders, ratepayers, etc.) are affected by these different types of shareholder incentive mechanisms under varying assumptions about program portfolios. This quantitative analysis compares the financial consequences associated with a wide range of alternative incentive structures. The results will help regulators and policymakers better understand the financial implications of DSR program incentive regulation.

  19. A primer on incentive regulation for electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, L.J.

    1995-10-01

    In contemplating a regulatory approach, the challenge for regulators is to develop a model that provides incentives for utilities to engage in socially desirable behavior. In this primer, we provide guidance on this process by discussing (1) various models of economic regulation, (2) problems implementing these models, and (3) the types of incentives that various models of regulation provide electric utilities. We address five regulatory models in depth. They include cost-of-service regulation in which prudently incurred costs are reflected dollar-for-dollar in rates and four performance-based models: (1) price-cap regulation, in which ceilings are placed on the average price that a utility can charge its customers; (2) revenue-cap regulation, in which a ceiling is placed on revenues; (3) rate-of-return bandwidth regulation, in which a utility`s rates are adjusted if earnings fall outside a {open_quotes}band{close_quotes} around equity returns; and (4) targeted incentives, in which a utility is given incentives to improve specific components of its operations. The primary difference between cost-of-service and performance-based approaches is the latter sever the tie between costs and prices. A sixth, {open_quotes}mixed approach{close_quotes} combines two or more of the five basic ones. In the recent past, a common mixed approach has been to combine targeted incentives with cost-of-service regulation. A common example is utilities that are subject to cost-of-service regulation are given added incentives to increase the efficiency of troubled electric-generating units.

  20. Effectiveness of Financial Incentives in a Worksite Diabetes Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghri, Pouran D; Li, Rui

    To evaluate the effect of financial incentive in a diabetes prevention weight loss program at worksites. Group-level randomized intervention study. Four long-term care facilities, randomly assigned to "incentive-IG" or "non incentive-NIG" groups. Ninety-nine employees, all overweight or obese (BMI= mean 34.8±7.4 kg/m(2)) and at risk for type 2 diabetes. A 16 week weight loss program (diabetes prevention program) with a 3 month follow up. IG could either choose a "standard incentive" to receive cash award when achieving the projected weight loss or to participate in a "standard plus deposit incentive" to get additional money matched with their deposit for projected weight loss. All of the participants received a one-hour consultation for a healthy weight loss at the beginning. Weight-loss, diabetes risk score (DRS), and cardiovascular risk outcomes. Linear and logistic regressions for completed cases with adjustments for clustering effect at group level. IG lost on average more pounds (p=0.027), reduced BMI (p=0.04), and reduced in DRS (p=0.011) compared to NIG at week 16. At the 12-week follow-up period, those in IG plus deposit subgroup had twice the odds (OR=2.2, p=0.042) and those in the standard IG had three times the odds of achieving weight loss goals than NIG; those in the IG plus deposit group reduced DRS by 0.4 (p=0.045). Monetary incentives appear to be effective in reducing weight and diabetes risk.

  1. Autofrettage to Counteract Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Mismatch in Cryogenic Pressurized Pipes with Metallic Liners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ed; Barbero, Ever; Tygielski, Phlip; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Composite feedlines with metal liners have the potential to reduce weight/cost while providing the same level of permeation resistance and material compatibility of all-metal feedlines carrying cryogenic propellants in spacecraft. The major technical challenges are the large difference in Coefficient of Thermal Expansion between the liner and the composite, and the manufacturing method required to make a very thin liner with the required strength and dimensional tolerance. This study investigates the use of autofrettage (compressive preload) to counteract Coefficient of Thermal Expansion when pre-pressurization procedures cannot be used to solve this problem. Promising materials (aluminum 2219, Inconel 718, nickel, nickel alloy) and manufacturing techniques (chemical milling, electroplating) are evaluated to determine the best liner candidates. Robust, autofrettaged feedlines with a low Coefficient of Thermal Expansion liner (Inconel 718 or nickel alloy) are shown to successfully counteract mismatch at LOX temperature. A new concept, autofrettage by temperature, is introduced for high Coefficient of Thermal Expansion materials (aluminum and pure nickel) where pressure cannot be used to add compressive preload.

  2. Piracetam counteracts the effects of amitriptyline on inhibitory avoidance in CD1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everss, Estrella; Arenas, M Carmen; Vinader-Caerols, Concepción; Monleón, Santiago; Parra, Andrés

    2005-04-30

    The purpose of the present work was to study the effects of amitriptyline on animal cognition in relation to some characteristics of its therapeutic effects. The modulation of acute and chronic effects of amitriptyline on inhibitory avoidance in male and female mice by piracetam was investigated. In Experiment 1, mice were subjected to the training phase of inhibitory avoidance conditioning 60 min after acute piracetam (100 mg/kg) or physiological saline administration. Immediately after the behavioural task, they received a single injection of the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline (30 mg/kg) or physiological saline. Twenty-four hours later, subjects were tested for avoidance. In Experiment 2, the same doses of amitriptyline and piracetam were chronically administered. Mice were subjected to the training phase of inhibitory avoidance on the 22nd day, and to the test phase 24 h later. Forty-five minutes after test, subjects explored the elevated plus-maze for 5 min in order to assess whether the effects of amitriptyline on avoidance performance may reflect general behavioural changes. Results obtained were that: (a) acute and chronic amitriptyline impaired inhibitory avoidance of male and female mice, (b) piracetam counteracted the effect of acutely administered amitriptyline on inhibitory avoidance, and (c) piracetam counteracted the effects of chronically administered amitriptyline in males but not females in the same learning task. These effects do not seem to be mediated by non-specific drug effects on spontaneous motor activity or anxiety.

  3. Effect of IR Laser on Myoblasts: Prospects of Application for Counteracting Microgravity-Induced Muscle Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monici, Monica; Cialdai, Francesca; Romano, Giovanni; Corsetto, Paola Antonia; Rizzo, Angela Maria; Caselli, Anna; Ranaldi, Francesco

    2013-02-01

    Microgravity-induced muscle atrophy is a problem of utmost importance for the impact it may have on the health and performance of astronauts. Therefore, appropriate countermeasures are needed to prevent disuse atrophy and favour muscle recovery. Muscle atrophy is characterized by loss of muscle mass and strength, and a shift in substrate utilization from fat to glucose, that leads to a reduced metabolic efficiency and enhanced fatigability. Laser therapy is already used in physical medicine and rehabilitation to accelerate muscle recovery and in sports medicine to prevent damages produced by metabolic disturbances and inflammatory reactions after heavy exercise. The aim of the research we present was to get insights on possible benefits deriving from the application of an advanced infrared laser system to counteract deficits of muscle energy metabolism and stimulate the recovery of the hypotrophic tissue. The source used was a Multiwave Locked System (MLS) laser, which combines continuous and pulsed emissions at 808 nm and 905 nm, respectively. We studied the effect of MLS treatment on morphology and energy metabolism of C2C12 cells, a widely accepted myoblast model, previously exposed to microgravity conditions modelled by a Random Positioning Machine. The MLS laser treatment was able to restore basal levels of serine/threonine protein phosphatase activity and to counteract cytoskeletal alterations and increase in glycolytic enzymes activity that occurred following the exposure to modelled microgravity. In conclusion, the results provide interesting insights for the application of infrared laser in the treatment of muscle atrophy.

  4. Tamoxifen counteracts estradiol induced effects on striatal and hypophyseal dopamine receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferretti, C.; Blengio, M.; Ghi, P.; Racca, S.; Genazzani, E.; Portaleone, P.

    1988-01-01

    We investigated the ability of Tamoxifen (TAM), an antiestrogen drug, to counteract the modification induced by estrogens on dopamine (DA) receptors on striatum and on adenohypophysis of ovex female rats. Subacute treatment with 17..beta..-estradiol (E/sub 2/) at both low (0.1 ..mu..g/kg) and high (20 ..mu..g/kg) doses confirmed its ability to increase the number of striatal /sup 3/H-Spiperone (/sup 3/H-SPI) binding sites in a dose dependent manner. By contrast in the pituitary, only high doses of estrogen were effective in reducing the number of DA receptors. We treated ovex female rats for 15 days with TAM alone or associated with E/sub 2/, to see if these estrogenic effects could be suppressed by an antiestrogenic drug. TAM did not affect the number of striatal DA receptors, but significantly increased the adenohypophy-seal DA binding sites, without varying their affinity. No changes were observed in pituitary and striatal DA receptor density, even when TAM was injected in association with estradiol. In conclusions: TAM is able to counteract the effects estrogens have on DA receptors. However there is some evidence that it could influence the pituitary DA systems independently of it antiestrogenic activity.

  5. Ghrelin counteracts insulin-induced activation of vagal afferent neurons via growth hormone secretagogue receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yusaku; Dezaki, Katsuya; Kumari, Parmila; Kakei, Masafumi; Yada, Toshihiko

    2015-08-01

    Vagal afferent nerves sense meal-related gastrointestinal and pancreatic hormones and convey their information to the brain, thereby regulating brain functions including feeding. We have recently demonstrated that postprandial insulin directly acts on the vagal afferent neurons. Plasma concentrations of orexigenic ghrelin and anorexigenic insulin show reciprocal dynamics before and after meals. The present study examined interactive effects of ghrelin and insulin on vagal afferent nerves. Cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in isolated nodose ganglion (NG) neurons was measured to monitor their activity. Insulin at 10(-7)M increased [Ca(2+)]i in NG neurons, and the insulin-induced [Ca(2+)]i increase was inhibited by treatment with ghrelin at 10(-8)M. This inhibitory effect of ghrelin was attenuated by [D-Lys(3)]-GHRP-6, an antagonist of growth hormone-secretagogue receptor (GHSR). Des-acyl ghrelin had little effect on insulin-induced [Ca(2+)]i increases in NG neurons. Ghrelin did not affect [Ca(2+)]i increases in response to cholecystokinin (CCK), a hormone that inhibits feeding via vagal afferent neurons, indicating that ghrelin selectively counteracts the insulin action. These results demonstrate that ghrelin via GHSR suppresses insulin-induced activation of NG neurons. The action of ghrelin to counteract insulin effects on NG might serve to efficiently inform the brain of the systemic change between fasting-associated ghrelin-dominant and fed-associated insulin-dominant states for the homeostatic central regulation of feeding and metabolism.

  6. Leishmania amazonensis exhibits phosphatidylserine-dependent procoagulant activity, a process that is counteracted by sandfly saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Cadaxo Rochael

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania parasites expose phosphatidylserine (PS on their surface, a process that has been associated with regulation of host's immune responses. In this study we demonstrate that PS exposure by metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis favours blood coagulation. L. amazonensis accelerates in vitro coagulation of human plasma. In addition, L. amazonensis supports the assembly of the prothrombinase complex, thus promoting thrombin formation. This process was reversed by annexin V which blocks PS binding sites. During blood meal, Lutzomyia longipalpis sandfly inject saliva in the bite site, which has a series of pharmacologically active compounds that inhibit blood coagulation. Since saliva and parasites are co-injected in the host during natural transmission, we evaluated the anticoagulant properties of sandfly saliva in counteracting the procoagulant activity of L. amazonensis . Lu. longipalpis saliva reverses plasma clotting promoted by promastigotes. It also inhibits thrombin formation by the prothrombinase complex assembled either in phosphatidylcholine (PC/PS vesicles or in L. amazonensis . Sandfly saliva inhibits factor X activation by the intrinsic tenase complex assembled on PC/PS vesicles and blocks factor Xa catalytic activity. Altogether our results show that metacyclic promastigotes of L. amazonensis are procoagulant due to PS exposure. Notably, this effect is efficiently counteracted by sandfly saliva.

  7. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 counteracts glucolipotoxicity in the pancreatic β-cell line INS-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hong-wei; ZHU Han-yu; WANG Jian-zhong; FU Bo; L(U) Yang; HONG Quan; XIE Yuan-sheng; CHEN Xiang-mei

    2011-01-01

    Background Glucolipotoxicity might play an important role in the β cell decompensation stage during the development of obesity-associated type 2 diabetes.Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) inhibits matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and regulates proliferation and apoptosis of a variety of cell types,including pancreatic β-cells.In the present study,we investigated whether TIMP-1 counteracts glucolipotoxicity in the pancreatic β-cell line INS-1.Methods INS-1 cells were incubated in normal or high glucose,with or without palmitate (0.4 mmol/L),in the presence of TIMP-1 or MMP inhibitor GM60001.In some experiments,cells were pretreated with phosphatidylinositol-3 (Pl-3) kinase inhibitor,LY294002 or wortmannin.The amount of dead INS-1 cells was determined by HO342 and propidium iodide staining.Akt phosphorylation was evaluated by Western blotting analysis to investigate a possible mechanism of TIMP-1's action.Results TIMP-1 protected INS-1 cells from glucolipotoxicity independent of MMP inhibition.TIMP-1 stimulated Akt phosphorylation.Inhibition of the PI-3 kinase pathway abolished the survival effect of TIMP-1.Conclusion TIMP-1 may counteract glucolipotoxicity induced β-cell death via a PI-3 kinase pathway.

  8. Gemcitabine-induced CXCL8 expression counteracts its actions by inducing tumor neovascularization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yao; Baba, Tomohisa [Division of Molecular Bioregulation, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Li, Ying-Yi [Cancer Research Institute, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Furukawa, Kaoru; Tanabe, Yamato [Division of Molecular Bioregulation, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); School of Natural System Bioengineering Course, College of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan); Matsugo, Seiichi [School of Natural System Bioengineering Course, College of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan); Sasaki, Soichiro [Division of Molecular Bioregulation, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Mukaida, Naofumi, E-mail: mukaida@staff.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Division of Molecular Bioregulation, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan)

    2015-03-06

    Patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are frequently complicated with metastatic disease or locally advanced tumors, and consequently need chemotherapy. Gemcitabine is commonly used for PDAC treatment, but with limited efficacy. The capacity of gemcitabine to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human pancreatic cancer cells, prompted us to examine its effects on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We observed that gemcitabine enhanced selectively the expression of CXCL8 in human pancreatic cancer cells through ROS generation and NF-κB activation. In vitro blocking of CXCL8 failed to modulate gemcitabine-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation in human pancreatic cancer cells. Gemcitabine also enhanced CXCL8 expression in pancreatic cancer cells in xenografted tumor tissues. Moreover, anti-CXCL8 antibody treatment in vivo attenuated tumor formation as well as intra-tumoral vascularity in nude mice, which were transplanted with Miapaca-2 cells and treated with gemcitabine. Thus, gemcitabine-induced CXCL8 may counteract the drug through inducing neovascularization. - Highlights: • Gemcitabine induced CXCL8 expression in human pancreatic cancer cells. • CXCL8 expression required ROS generation and NF-κB activation. • CXCL8 did not affect in vitro proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cells. • CXCL8 in vivo counteracted gemcitabine by inducing neovascularization.

  9. Support Mechanisms for Renewables: How Risk Exposure Influences Investment Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena; Weber, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    and the Capital Asset Pricing Model as well as through active liquidity management. Applying the model to a specific case, a German offshore wind park, we find that the support levels required to give adequate investment incentives are for a feed-in tariff scheme approximately 4-10% lower than for a feed......We analyse quantitatively how risk exposure from different support mechanisms, such as feed-in tariffs and premiums, can influence the investment incentives for private investors. We develop a net cash flow approach that takes systematic and unsystematic risks into account through cost of capital...

  10. Support Mechanisms for Renewables: How Risk Exposure Influences Investment Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena; Weber, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    and the Capital Asset Pricing Model as well as through active liquidity management. Applying the model to a specific case, a German offshore wind park, we find that the support levels required to give adequate investment incentives are for a feed-in tariff scheme approximately 4-10% lower than for a feed......We analyse quantitatively how risk exposure from different support mechanisms, such as feed-in tariffs and premiums, can influence the investment incentives for private investors. We develop a net cash flow approach that takes systematic and unsystematic risks into account through cost of capital...

  11. When and why do university managers use publication incentive payments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opstrup, Niels

    2017-01-01

    in Denmark that use publication incentive payments. Most often it is used when heads of department outside the humanities think it is a good idea to reward scholars financially for publications. In-depth analysis of the cases reveals, however, that department heads cannot only be divided between ‘believers......’ and ‘non-believers’. Almost half expressed confidence in that publication incentive payments motivate researchers to perform better, not because of the monetary reward, but because of the positive feedback signalled by the pay supplement...

  12. Private versus Public Feedback - The Incentive Effects of Symbolic Awards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhards, Leonie; Siemer, Neele

    subjects' performance compared to the control treatment. Also high ability and a positive interim feedback increase performance. Competitive preferences matter only in the less prestigious task. Subjects' gender and overconfidence can in neither of the tasks explain performance. In a supplementary field......We experimentally compare the incentive effects of rewarding individuals for outstanding performance publicly versus privately. We implement two real-effort tasks, which differ in how prestigious subjects perceive working on them. In both tasks private and public feedback similarly enhances...... experiment at a secondary school we furthermore compare the incentive effects of different forms of public recognition....

  13. Tax incentives or subsidies for R&D?

    OpenAIRE

    Busom, I.; Corchuelo, B.; Martínez-Ros, E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies whether firms' use of R&D subsidies and R&D tax incentives are correlated to two sources of underinvestment in R&D, financing constraints and appropriability. We find that financially constrained SMEs are less likely to use R&D tax credits and more likely to obtain subsidies. SMEs using legal methods to protect their intellectual property are more likely to use tax incentives. Results are ambiguous for large firms. For both having previous experience in R&D increases the li...

  14. Behavioral implications of providing real incentives in stated choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Campbell, Danny

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the potential impacts of introducing real economic incentives in choice experiments (CE). While many others have investigated such impacts before, the majority of the literature has focused solely on mitigation of hypothetical bias. We contribute to this literature by widening...... the scope of research to other behavioral aspects where consumers in CE are often found to deviate from homo economicus. We develop a theoretical model where not only Willingness to pay (WTP) measures but also decision processing can be affected by the introduction of an economic incentive. Specifically...

  15. Environmental manipulations alter age differences in attribution of incentive salience to reward-paired cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rachel I; Bush, Peter C; Spear, Linda P

    2013-11-15

    Cues repeatedly paired with rewards often themselves become imbued with enhanced motivational value, or incentive salience. During Pavlovian conditioned approach procedures, a cue repeatedly preceding reward delivery often elicits conditioned responses at either the reward delivery location ("goal-tracking") or the cue itself ("sign-tracking"). Sign-tracking behavior is thought to reflect the individual differences in attribution of incentive salience to reward-paired cues that may contribute to addiction vulnerability. Adolescent rats typically demonstrate less sign-tracking behavior than adult rats, a surprising finding given that adolescence is hypothesized to be a time of heightened addiction vulnerability. Given evidence that adult sign-tracking behavior can be influenced by environmental conditions, the present study compared the effects of isolate housing and food deprivation on expression of sign-tacking and goal-tracking behavior in adolescent and adult male rats across eight days of a Pavlovian conditioned approach procedure. Pair-housed adults exhibited more sign-tracking behavior than pair-housed adolescents; however, this age difference was not apparent in isolate-housed subjects. Adolescents often appeared more sensitive than adults to both food restriction- and isolate housing-induced changes in behavior, with food restriction promoting an increase in sign-tracking among isolate-housed adolescents and an increase in goal-tracking among pair-housed adolescents. For adults, food restriction resulted in a modest increase in overall expression of both sign- and goal-tracking behavior. To the extent that sign-tracking behavior reflects attribution of incentive salience to reward-paired cues, results from the present study provide evidence that reactivity to rewards during adolescence is strongly related to the nature of the surrounding environment.

  16. Metabolic adaptations may counteract ventilatory adaptations of intermittent hypoxic exposure during submaximal exercise at altitudes up to 4000 m.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Faulhaber

    Full Text Available Intermittent hypoxic exposure (IHE has been shown to induce aspects of altitude acclimatization which affect ventilatory, cardiovascular and metabolic responses during exercise in normoxia and hypoxia. However, knowledge on altitude-dependent effects and possible interactions remains scarce. Therefore, we determined the effects of IHE on cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses at different simulated altitudes in the same healthy subjects. Eight healthy male volunteers participated in the study and were tested before and 1 to 2 days after IHE (7 × 1 hour at 4500 m. The participants cycled at 2 submaximal workloads (corresponding to 40% and 60% of peak oxygen uptake at low altitude at simulated altitudes of 2000 m, 3000 m, and 4000 m in a randomized order. Gas analysis was performed and arterial oxygen saturation, blood lactate concentrations, and blood gases were determined during exercise. Additionally baroreflex sensitivity, hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory response were determined before and after IHE. Hypoxic ventilatory response was increased after IHE (p<0.05. There were no altitude-dependent changes by IHE in any of the determined parameters. However, blood lactate concentrations and carbon dioxide output were reduced; minute ventilation and arterial oxygen saturation were unchanged, and ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide was increased after IHE irrespective of altitude. Changes in hypoxic ventilatory response were associated with changes in blood lactate (r = -0.72, p<0.05. Changes in blood lactate correlated with changes in carbon dioxide output (r = 0.61, p<0.01 and minute ventilation (r = 0.54, p<0.01. Based on the present results it seems that the reductions in blood lactate and carbon dioxide output have counteracted the increased hypoxic ventilatory response. As a result minute ventilation and arterial oxygen saturation did not increase during submaximal exercise at simulated altitudes between 2000 m and 4000 m.

  17. ASPECTS OF THE PROBLEM OF INCENTIVES FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF HEAT PUMPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berzan V.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available There were identified reasons for incentives of the implementation of heat pumps by the Governement of industial developped countries. It is considered scheme of obtaining of benefits for the Governement as a result of heat pump incentives.

  18. A comparison of small monetary incentives to convert survey non-respondents: a randomized control trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Griffin, Joan M; Simon, Alisha Baines; Hulbert, Erin; Stevenson, John; Grill, Joseph P; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Partin, Melissa R

    2011-01-01

    .... Monetary incentives are often used to improve response rates, but little is known about whether larger incentives improve response rates in those who previously have been unenthusiastic about participating in research...

  19. Tax Incentives for R&D in Canada: A Review of the Recent Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Grady, Patrick

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the Canadian experience in the early 1980s with tax incentives for R&D.It presents some issues concerning the efficiency and cost effectiveness of the various government tax incentives in stimulating R&D.

  20. 75 FR 42745 - Production Incentives for Cellulosic Biofuels: Notice of Program Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Production Incentives for Cellulosic Biofuels: Notice of..., biofuels producers and other interested parties are invited to submit pre-auction eligibility information..., ``Production Incentives for Cellulosic Biofuels; Reverse Auction Procedures and Standards,'' (74 FR...

  1. Incentives versus sorting in tournaments: evidence from a field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuven, E.; Oosterbeek, H.; Sonnemans, J.; van der Klaauw, B.

    2011-01-01

    Existing field evidence on rank-order tournaments typically does not allow disentangling incentive and sorting effects. We conduct a field experiment illustrating the confounding effect. Students in an introductory microeconomics course selected themselves into tournaments with low, medium, or high

  2. 45 CFR 96.87 - Leveraging incentive program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., budget counseling, case management, and energy conservation education; (19) Training; (20) Installation... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Leveraging incentive program. 96.87 Section 96.87 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Low-income...

  3. Wage structure and the incentive effect of promotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herpen, M.; Cools, K.; van Praag, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies wage structure characteristics and their consequent incentive effects empirically. Based on personnel records and an employee survey, we provide evidence that wages are attached to jobs and that promotions play a dominant role as a wage determinant. Our findings indicate furthermo

  4. Stricter Employment Protection and Firms' Incentives to Sponsor Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messe, Pierre-Jean; Rouland, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a difference-in-differences approach, combined with propensity score matching, to identify the effect of older workers employment protection on French firms' incentives to sponsor training. Between 1987 and 2008, French firms laying off workers aged over 50 had to pay a tax...

  5. Incentives for cocoa bean production in Ghana: Does quality matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quarmine, W.; Haagsma, R.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Asante, F.; Huis, van A.; Obeng-Ofori, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the institutional factors that constrain farmers’ incentives to enhance the quality of cocoa beans in Ghana. Data were collected at three levels of aggregation in the cocoa bean value chain: village, district, and national level. Multi-stage cluster sampling was employed to

  6. Reducing High Absenteeism through Low-Cost Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Chaplik, Barbara D.; Engel, Ross A.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a study of the effects of a low-cost incentive program--including daily, weekly, and monthly reinforcements such as attention, approval, and inexpensive awards--on the absenteeism of high-absence employees in an urban school district's transportation department. A 20-percent reduction in absenteeism was achieved. (TE)

  7. Proposed Legislation for Teacher Incentives for School Excellence and Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauries, Scott R.

    2012-01-01

    Pursuant to the recommendations and findings in Dr. Barnett Berry's policy brief, the proposed set of legislative enactments presented in this paper offers both monetary incentives and positive working conditions requirements likely to further three goals: (a) cause more effective teachers to choose to work in high-need schools and fields, (b)…

  8. Why do people postpone parenthood? Reasons and social policy incentives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, Melinda; Rindfuss, Ronald R.; McDonald, Peter; Velde, Egbert Te

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Never before have parents in most Western societies had their first children as late as in recent decades. What are the central reasons for postponement? What is known about the link between the delay of childbearing and social policy incentives to counter these trends? This review engag

  9. Public Service Motivation and Monetary Incentives: Substitutes or Motivation Crowding?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher

    2011-01-01

    motivation is the most important type of motivation in the delivery of public service, because it substitutes for egoistic motivation. Organizations whose members have high levels of PSM are therefore expected to be less dependent on utilitarian motivators such as monetary incentives. Motivation crowding...

  10. 7 CFR 250.68 - Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). 250.68 Section 250.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION DONATION OF...

  11. 48 CFR 1852.216-83 - Fixed price incentive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Price Incentive (OCT 1996) The target cost of this contract is $___. The Target profit of this contract is $___. The target price (target cost plus target profit) of this contract is $___. The cost sharing for target cost underruns is: Government ___percent; Contractor ___percent. The cost sharing for...

  12. Energy Education Incentives: Evaluating the Impact of Consumer Energy Kits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Sarah D.; Guin, Autumn; Langham, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the energy and environmental impact of residential energy education efforts is difficult. The E-Conservation residential energy management program uses consumer energy kits to document the impact of energy-efficient improvements. The consumer energy kit provides an incentive for individuals attending energy education workshop, helps…

  13. Economic incentives for improving mango quality in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuniga Arias, G.; Ruben, R.; Verkerk, R.; Boekel, van T.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose

    – The purpose of the paper is to present an integrated methodology for identifying effective economic incentives to enhance quality performance by mango producers in Costa Rica.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – The study analyses the relationship between intrinsic

  14. Incentives May Spur Poor Families to Buy More Fruits, Veggies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 18, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A quick chat with low-income families about financial incentives to eat more fruits ... say. "Diet-related disease is disproportionately concentrated in low-income communities where fruit and vegetable consumption is far ...

  15. Rational Choice: The Prevailing Incentive System in the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagon, Mark P.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that the tenure system has resulted in departments that are hierarchal, intellectually stagnant, and self- serving. Advocates reforming the current system by introducing merit evaluations and more flexible career paths. Refutes the basic arguments supporting tenure and recommends free market incentives as a cure-all for academic…

  16. Cost Incentives for Doctors : A Double-Edged Sword

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schottmuller, C.

    2011-01-01

    Incentivicing doctors to take the costs of treatment into account in their prescription decision could lead to lower health care expenditures and higher welfare. This paper shows that also the opposite effects can result. The reason is a misalignment of doctor and patient incentives: Because of

  17. Incentives and Workers' Motivation in the Public Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Delfgaauw (Josse); A.J. Dur (Robert)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractCivil servants have a bad reputation of being lazy. However, citizens' personal experiences with civil servants appear to be significantly better. We develop a model of an economy in which workers differ in laziness and in public service motivation, and characterise optimal incentive

  18. Dynamic Incentive Effects of Relative Performance Pay: A Field Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Delfgaauw (Josse); A.J. Dur (Robert); J.A. Non (Arjan); W.J.M.I. Verbeke (Willem)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe conduct a field experiment among 189 stores of a retail chain to study dynamic incentive effects of relative performance pay. Employees in the randomly selected treatment stores could win a bonus by outperforming three comparable stores from the control group over the course of four w

  19. Incentives versus sorting in tournaments: evidence from a field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuven, E.; Oosterbeek, H.; Sonnemans, J.; van der Klaauw, B.

    2009-01-01

    A vast body of empirical studies lends support to the incentive effects of rankorder tournaments. Evidence comes from experiments in laboratories and non-experimental studies exploiting sports or firm data. Selection of competitors across tournaments may bias these non-experimental studies, whereas

  20. Incentives versus sorting in tournaments : evidence from a field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuven, E.; Oosterbeek, H.; Sonnemans, J.; van der Klauw, B.

    2007-01-01

    A vast body of empirical studies lends support to the incentive effects of rankorder tournaments. Direct evidence comes from experiments in laboratories or from non-experimental sports events (golf, tennis). The short duration of the tasks at hand or the lack of distractors may, however, limit the e

  1. The Social Security Earnings Test and Work Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez-Silva, Hugo; Heiland, Frank

    2007-01-01

    The labor supply and benefit claiming incentives provided by the early retirement rules of the Social Security Old Age benefits program are of growing importance as the Normal Retirement Age (NRA) increases to 67, the labor force participation of Older Americans rises, and a variety of reforms to the Social Security system are considered. Any…

  2. Entrenchment and incentives: How governance influences REIT capital structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, C.; Giambona, E.; Harding, J.P.; Sirmans, C.F.

    2008-01-01

    We examine the influence of managerial incentives, traditional managerial monitoring mechanisms and managerial entrenchment on the capital structure of Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs). Using panel data, we estimate a system of simultaneous equations for leverage and maturity and find that firm

  3. Do Early Outs Work Out? Teacher Early Retirement Incentive Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Herb R.; Repa, J. Theodore

    1993-01-01

    School districts offer teacher early retirement incentive plans (TERIPs) as an opportunity to hire less expensive teachers, reduce fringe benefits costs, and eliminate teaching positions. Discusses reasons for teachers to accept TERIP, and describes a computer model that allows school officials to calculate and compare costs incurred if an…

  4. Incentives for cocoa bean production in Ghana: Does quality matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quarmine, W.; Haagsma, R.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Asante, F.; Huis, van A.; Obeng-Ofori, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the institutional factors that constrain farmers’ incentives to enhance the quality of cocoa beans in Ghana. Data were collected at three levels of aggregation in the cocoa bean value chain: village, district, and national level. Multi-stage cluster sampling was employed to s

  5. The incenter of a triangle as a cone isoperimetric center

    CERN Document Server

    O'Hara, Jun

    2010-01-01

    We show that the the image of the regular projection of a vertex of a cone over a triangle that minimizes the ratio of the cube of the area of the boundary of the cone and the square of the volume of the cone coincides with the incenter.

  6. Can Financial Incentives Enhance Educational Outcomes? Evidence from International Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a revival of interest in financial incentives to encourage students to attend school and to improve their academic achievement, graduation rates, and other outcomes. Conditional cash transfers programmes in developing countries, especially PROGRESA in Mexico, have found positive effects on attendance in large-scale…

  7. A consideration of user financial incentives to address health inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Adam; Brown, Lawrence D

    2012-04-01

    Health inequalities and user financial incentives to encourage health-related behavior change are two topical issues in the health policy discourse, and this article attempts to combine the two; namely, we try to address whether the latter can be used to reduce the former in the contexts of the United Kingdom and the United States. Payments for some aspects of medical adherence may offer a promising way to address, to some extent, inequalities in health and health care in both countries. However, payments for more sustained behavior change, such as that associated with smoking cessation and weight loss, have thus far shown little long-term effect, although more research that tests the effectiveness of different incentive mechanism designs, informed by the findings of behavioral economics, ought to be undertaken. Many practical, political, ethical, and ideological objections can be waged against user financial incentives in health, and this article reviews a number of them, but the justifiability of and limits to these incentives require more academic and public discourse so as to gain a better understanding of the circumstances in which they can legitimately be used.

  8. 77 FR 60956 - State Graduated Driver Licensing Incentive Grant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... program under the amended Section 405 program. The statute sets forth minimum qualification criteria... provisions under 5 U.S.C. 553. Accordingly, this notice seeks public comment on the minimum qualification... qualification criteria for the State Graduated Driver Licensing Incentive Grant program authorized under...

  9. Wage structure and the incentive effects of promotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herpen, M.; Cools, C.; van Praag, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies wage structure characteristics and their incentive effects within one firm. Based on personnel records and an employee survey, we provide evidence that wages are attached to jobs and that promotions play a dominant role as a wage determinant. We furthermore show that a promotion a

  10. Sellers' hedging incentives at EPA's emission trading auction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, BR; Haan, M

    2001-01-01

    Cason (1993, J. Environ. Econom, Management 25, 177-195, doi:10.1006/jeem 1993.1041) argued that the auction which the EPA used in order to start the market for sulfur allowances may reduce the efficiency of the market since it gives sellers an incentive to understate their valuation. In this paper

  11. Hospital responses to pay-for-performance incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Kristin L; Nahra, Tammie A; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Wheeler, John R C

    2006-05-01

    Not-for-profit hospitals are complex organizations and, therefore, may face unique challenges in responding to financial incentives for quality. In this research, we explore the types of behavioural changes made by not-for-profit Michigan hospitals in response to a pay-for-performance system for quality. We also identify factors that motivate or facilitate changes in effort. We apply a conceptual framework based on agency theory to motivate our research questions. Using data derived from structured interviews and surveys administered to 86 hospitals participating in a pay-for-performance system, we compare hospitals reporting and not reporting behavioural changes. Separate analyses are performed for hospitals reporting structure-related changes and hospitals reporting process-related changes. Our findings confirm that hospitals respond to incentive payments; however, our findings also reveal that hospital responses are not universal. Rather, involvement by boards of trustees, willingness to exert leverage with physicians, and financial and competitive motivations are all associated with hospitals' behavioural responses to incentives. Results of this research will help inform payers and hospital managers considering the use of incentives about the nature of hospitals' responses.

  12. Divestment, Entrepreneurial Incentives and the Decision to go Public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper develops a theory of the life cycle of the firm based on incentive constraints.The optimal sale of the firm is restricted by entrepreneurial moral hazard and a lack of commitment regarding future divestment.This leads to a dynamic inefficiency that causes the entrepreneur to delay and to

  13. Incentives versus sorting in tournaments: evidence from a field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuven, E.; Oosterbeek, H.; Sonnemans, J.; van der Klaauw, B.

    2009-01-01

    A vast body of empirical studies lends support to the incentive effects of rankorder tournaments. Evidence comes from experiments in laboratories and non-experimental studies exploiting sports or firm data. Selection of competitors across tournaments may bias these non-experimental studies, whereas

  14. Incentives, Selection, and Teacher Performance: Evidence from IMPACT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Thomas S.; Wyckoff, James

    2015-01-01

    Teachers in the United States are compensated largely on the basis of fixed schedules that reward experience and credentials. However, there is a growing interest in whether performance-based incentives based on rigorous teacher evaluations can improve teacher retention and performance. The evidence available to date has been mixed at best. This…

  15. Incentives a Priority for New Secretary of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Alyson

    2009-01-01

    U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan says he is eager to use a proposed $15 billion federal incentive-grant fund in part to reward states, districts, and even nonprofit organizations that have set high standards for the students they serve. Duncan's comments came in an interview in which he named as priorities reauthorization of the federal No…

  16. Incentives and Their Dynamics in Public Sector Performance Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Carolyn J.; Marschke, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    We use the principal-agent model as a focal theoretical frame for synthesizing what we know, both theoretically and empirically, about the design and dynamics of the implementation of performance management systems in the public sector. In this context, we review the growing body of evidence about how performance measurement and incentive systems…

  17. Cartels and the Incentive to Cheat: Evidence from the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudill, Steven B.; Mixon, Franklin G., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that members of cartels have tremendous incentives to cheat on production limits to maximize profits. Describes a classroom activity in which grading an examination using a "curve" permits students to establish "cartels." Provides instructions on how the activity is used in the classroom. (CFR)

  18. The Social Security Earnings Test and Work Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez-Silva, Hugo; Heiland, Frank

    2007-01-01

    The labor supply and benefit claiming incentives provided by the early retirement rules of the Social Security Old Age benefits program are of growing importance as the Normal Retirement Age (NRA) increases to 67, the labor force participation of Older Americans rises, and a variety of reforms to the Social Security system are considered. Any…

  19. 48 CFR 52.216-10 - Incentive Fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incentive Fee. 52.216-10 Section 52.216-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED...) Inconsistencies. In the event of any language inconsistencies between this clause and provisioning documents...

  20. Setting the right incentives for global planning and operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norde, Henk; Ozen, Ulas; Slikker, Marco

    2016-01-01

    We study incentive issues seen in a firm performing global planning and manufacturing, and local demand management. The stochastic demands in local markets are best observed by the regional business units, and the firm relies on the business units’ forecasts for planning of global manufacturing oper

  1. HEFCE Staff Recruitment Incentives: Consultation on "Golden Hellos".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

    This "consultation" notifies interested parties of the plans by the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) to introduce recruitment incentives for teaching staff in higher education, also known as "golden hellos." These are being introduced from 2003-2004 to encourage new entrants to teaching in higher education…

  2. Financial incentives enhance adaptation to a sensorimotor transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, Kathrin; Sülzenbrück, Sandra; Heuer, Herbert

    2016-10-01

    Adaptation to sensorimotor transformations has received much attention in recent years. However, the role of motivation and its relation to the implicit and explicit processes underlying adaptation has been neglected thus far. Here, we examine the influence of extrinsic motivation on adaptation to a visuomotor rotation by way of providing financial incentives for accurate movements. Participants in the experimental group "bonus" received a defined amount of money for high end-point accuracy in a visuomotor rotation task; participants in the control group "no bonus" did not receive a financial incentive. Results showed better overall adaptation to the visuomotor transformation in participants who were extrinsically motivated. However, there was no beneficial effect of financial incentives on the implicit component, as assessed by the after-effects, and on separately assessed explicit knowledge. These findings suggest that the positive influence of financial incentives on adaptation is due to a component which cannot be measured by after-effects or by our test of explicit knowledge. A likely candidate is model-free learning based on reward-prediction errors, which could be enhanced by the financial bonuses.

  3. The Impacts of Seed Grants as Incentives for Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuiches, James J.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on an assessment of North Carolina State University's Extension, Engagement, and Economic Development Seed Grant Program (2004-2009). The research questions addressed the extent to which the grants (1) stimulated faculty interest in the engagement and outreach mission of the university; (2) served as incentives for faculty…

  4. Optimal Incentive Contracts when Workers envy their Boss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Dur (Robert); A. Glazer (Amihai)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractA worker's utility may increase in his own income, but envy can make his utility decline with his employer's income. Such behavior may call for high-powered incentives, so that increased effort by the worker little increases the income of his employer. This paper employs a principal-agen

  5. Using Tests as an Incentive To Motivate Procrastinators To Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckman, Bruce W.

    1998-01-01

    Providing an incentive to make procrastinators study by giving a test on each chapter was compared with providing a learning strategy by requiring students to outline each chapter, with 82 students classified by level of procrastination. There was an advantage of almost 12% for the test condition among high procrastinators. (SLD)

  6. Incentives and Workers' Motivation in the Public Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Delfgaauw (Josse); A.J. Dur (Robert)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractCivil servants have a bad reputation of being lazy. However, citizens' personal experiences with civil servants appear to be significantly better. We develop a model of an economy in which workers differ in laziness and in public service motivation, and characterise optimal incentive con

  7. Cartels and the Incentive to Cheat: Evidence from the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudill, Steven B.; Mixon, Franklin G., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that members of cartels have tremendous incentives to cheat on production limits to maximize profits. Describes a classroom activity in which grading an examination using a "curve" permits students to establish "cartels." Provides instructions on how the activity is used in the classroom. (CFR)

  8. Energy Education Incentives: Evaluating the Impact of Consumer Energy Kits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Sarah D.; Guin, Autumn; Langham, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the energy and environmental impact of residential energy education efforts is difficult. The E-Conservation residential energy management program uses consumer energy kits to document the impact of energy-efficient improvements. The consumer energy kit provides an incentive for individuals attending energy education workshop, helps…

  9. HEFCE Staff Recruitment Incentives: Consultation on "Golden Hellos".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

    This "consultation" notifies interested parties of the plans by the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) to introduce recruitment incentives for teaching staff in higher education, also known as "golden hellos." These are being introduced from 2003-2004 to encourage new entrants to teaching in higher education in subject areas…

  10. Peaks, Cliffs and Valleys: The Peculiar Incentives of Teacher Pensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costrell, Robert M.; Podgursky, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Pensions have long been an important part of compensation for teachers in public schools. However, the incentive structures of teacher pension systems are not widely understood, even though they can have powerful effects on the composition of the teaching force and on public finance. In their research, the authors have found that teacher pension…

  11. Public survey of financial incentives for kidney donation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.W. Kranenburg (Leonieke); A. Schram (Andre); W.C. Zuidema (Wilij); W. Weimar (Willem); M.T. Hilhorst (Medard); E. Hessing (Ellen); J. Passchier (Jan); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground. One of the most fiercely debated strategies to increase the number of kidneys for transplantation is the introduction of financial incentives. As the success of such strategy largely depends on public support, we performed a public survey on this topic. Methods. We developed

  12. Welfare regimes and the incentives to work and get educated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez-Pose, Andres; Tselios, Vassilis

    This paper examines whether differences in welfare regimes shape the incentives to work and get educated. Using microeconomic data for more than 100 ON European individuals, we show that welfare regimes make a difference for wages and education. First, people-based and household-based effects

  13. Welfare regimes and the incentives to work and get educated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez-Pose, Andres; Tselios, Vassilis

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines whether differences in welfare regimes shape the incentives to work and get educated. Using microeconomic data for more than 100 ON European individuals, we show that welfare regimes make a difference for wages and education. First, people-based and household-based effects (inter

  14. HEFCE Staff Recruitment Incentives: Consultation on "Golden Hellos".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

    This "consultation" notifies interested parties of the plans by the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) to introduce recruitment incentives for teaching staff in higher education, also known as "golden hellos." These are being introduced from 2003-2004 to encourage new entrants to teaching in higher education…

  15. Optimal Incentive Contracts when Workers envy their Boss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Dur (Robert); A. Glazer (Amihai)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractA worker's utility may increase in his own income, but envy can make his utility decline with his employer's income. Such behavior may call for high-powered incentives, so that increased effort by the worker little increases the income of his employer. This paper employs a principal-agen

  16. Incentive motivation in first-episode psychosis: A behavioural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blackwell Andrew D

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: It has been proposed that there are abnormalities in incentive motivational processing in psychosis, possibly secondary to subcortical dopamine abnormalities, but few empirical studies have addressed this issue. Methods: We studied incentive motivation in 18 first-episode psychosis patients from the Cambridge early psychosis service CAMEO and 19 control participants using the Cued Reinforcement Reaction Time Task, which measures motivationally driven behaviour. We also gathered information on participants' attentional, executive and spatial working memory function in order to determine whether any incentive motivation deficits were secondary to generalised cognitive impairment. Results: We demonstrated the anticipated "reinforcement-related speeding" effect in controls (17 out of 19 control participants responded faster during an "odd-one-out" task in response to a cue that indicated a high likelihood of a large points reward. Only 4 out of 18 patients showed this effect and there was a significant interaction effect between reinforcement probability and diagnosis on reaction time (F1,35 = 14.2, p = 0.001. This deficit was present in spite of preserved executive and attentional function in patients, and persisted even in antipsychotic medication free patients. Conclusion: There are incentive motivation processing abnormalities in first-episode psychosis; these may be secondary to dopamine dysfunction and are not attributable to generalised cognitive impairment.

  17. 78 FR 18954 - Incentives To Adopt Improved Cybersecurity Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... challenges encountered by small businesses and/or multinational companies, respectively? If so, what are the... adapted for multinational companies in various jurisdictions? What incentives are there to ensure that... infrastructure companies to join the Program? In answering these questions, commenters should not limit their...

  18. Wage structure and the incentive effect of promotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herpen, M.; Cools, K.; van Praag, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies wage structure characteristics and their consequent incentive effects empirically. Based on personnel records and an employee survey, we provide evidence that wages are attached to jobs and that promotions play a dominant role as a wage determinant. Our findings indicate

  19. Wage structure and the incentive effects of promotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herpen, M.; Cools, C.; van Praag, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies wage structure characteristics and their incentive effects within one firm. Based on personnel records and an employee survey, we provide evidence that wages are attached to jobs and that promotions play a dominant role as a wage determinant. We furthermore show that a promotion

  20. 75 FR 36395 - Guidance on Sound Incentive Compensation Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ..., (202) 452- 2784, Division of International Finance; Kieran J. Fallon, Associate General Counsel, (202..., Corporate and International Activities, (202) 906-6068; Office of Thrift Supervision, 1700 G Street, NW... soundness. Thus, a review of incentive compensation arrangements and related corporate governance practices...

  1. Peripheral Pain Enhances the Effects of Incentive Downshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Leonardo A.; Daniel, Alan M.; Davis, Jessica B.; Fuchs, Perry N.; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2011-01-01

    Physical pain (induced by tissue damage) and psychological pain (induced by surprising incentive loss) share a set of common neural substrates, but little is known about their interactions. The present research studied such interactions using the formalin test to induce physical pain and consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC) to induce…

  2. Political freedom and the response to economic incentives: labor migration in Africa, 1972-1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, A P; Mcmillan, J

    1994-12-01

    This study examines the thesis that political institutions and the freedoms and civil rights generated by these institutions affect migration decisions. The hypothesis is based on one stated by Adam Smith in 1776, that economic conditions that reflect greater political freedoms and civil liberties harbor higher levels of resource mobility in response to economic incentives. Pooled cross-sectional and time-series analysis is based on data from the World Bank for 32 African countries during 1972-87. Findings support the hypothesis that migration rate is more affected by the expected returns ratio to labor in countries where civil liberties are greater than in nations with fewer civil liberties. The implication, from the inclusion of institutional factors in the model, is that civil liberties have an indirect impact on the rate of labor migration out of agriculture in Africa. The impact is a mix of economic incentives and civil liberties. In the political rights model, the most free countries had the largest migration elasticity. The findings on political rights impacts support findings by Friedman and McMillan that civil liberties are a more important determinant of economic growth than political rights. Further testing for measurement error confirmed that the data were flawed, but not so greatly that the basic findings were overturned. The migration out of African agriculture was found to be sensitive to the effect of price signals, which were conditioned by the degree of political rights and civil liberties. Policy makers are urged to consider both changes in pricing and institutions.

  3. Physicians' responses to financial and social incentives: A medically framed real effort experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarde, Mylène; Blaauw, Duane

    2017-04-01

    Because compensation policies have critical implications for the provision of health care, and evidence of their effects is limited and difficult to study in the real world, laboratory experiments may be a valuable methodology to study the behavioural responses of health care providers. With this experiment undertaken in 2013, we add to this new literature by designing a new medically framed real effort task to test the effects of different remuneration schemes in a multi-tasking context. We assess the impact of different incentives on the quantity (productivity) and quality of outputs of 132 participants. We also test whether the existence of benefits to patients influences effort. The results show that salary yields the lowest quantity of output, and fee-for-service the highest. By contrast, we find that the highest quality is achieved when participants are paid by salary, followed by capitation. We also find a lot of heterogeneity in behaviour, with intrinsically motivated individuals hardly sensitive to financial incentives. Finally, we find that when work quality benefits patients directly, subjects improve the quality of their output, while maintaining the same levels of productivity. This paper adds to a nascent literature by providing a new approach to studying remuneration schemes and modelling the medical decision making environment in the lab.

  4. The rewarding value of good motor performance in the context of monetary incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Kai; Pedroni, Andreas; Nadig, Karin; Luechinger, Roger; Jäncke, Lutz

    2012-07-01

    Whether an agent receives positive task feedback or a monetary reward, neural activity in their striatum increases. In the latter case striatal activity reflects extrinsic reward processing, while in the former, striatal activity reflects the intrinsically rewarding effects of performing well. There can be a "hidden cost of reward", which is a detrimental effect of extrinsic on intrinsic reward value. This raises the question how these two types of reward interact. To address this, we applied a monetary incentive delay task: in all trials participants received feedback depending on their performance. In half of the trials they could additionally receive monetary reward if they performed well. This resulted in high performance trials, which were monetarily rewarded and high performance trials that were not. This made it possible to dissociate the neural correlates of performance feedback from the neural correlates of monetary reward that comes with high performance. Performance feedback alone elicits activation increases in the ventral striatum. This activation increases due to additional monetary reward. Neural response in the dorsal striatum on the other hand is only significantly increased by feedback when a monetary incentive is present. The quality of performance does not significantly influence dorsal striatum activity. In conclusion, our results indicate that the dorsal striatum is primarily sensitive to optional or actually received external rewards, whereas the ventral striatum may be coding intrinsic reward due to positive performance feedback. Thus the ventral striatum is suggested to be involved in the processing of intrinsically motivated behavior.

  5. Financial incentives for smoking cessation in pregnancy: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappin, David; Bauld, Linda; Purves, David; Boyd, Kathleen; Sinclair, Lesley; MacAskill, Susan; McKell, Jennifer; Friel, Brenda; McConnachie, Alex; de Caestecker, Linda; Tannahill, Carol; Radley, Andrew; Coleman, Tim

    2015-01-27

    To assess the efficacy of a financial incentive added to routine specialist pregnancy stop smoking services versus routine care to help pregnant smokers quit. Phase II therapeutic exploratory single centre, individually randomised controlled parallel group superiority trial. One large health board area with a materially deprived, inner city population in the west of Scotland, United Kingdom. 612 self reported pregnant smokers in NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde who were English speaking, at least 16 years of age, less than 24 weeks pregnant, and had an exhaled carbon monoxide breath test result of 7 ppm or more. 306 women were randomised to incentives and 306 to control. The control group received routine care, which was the offer of a face to face appointment to discuss smoking and cessation and, for those who attended and set a quit date, the offer of free nicotine replacement therapy for 10 weeks provided by pharmacy services, and four, weekly support phone calls. The intervention group received routine care plus the offer of up to £400 of shopping vouchers: £50 for attending a face to face appointment and setting a quit date; then another £50 if at four weeks' post-quit date exhaled carbon monoxide confirmed quitting; a further £100 was provided for continued validated abstinence of exhaled carbon monoxide after 12 weeks; a final £200 voucher was provided for validated abstinence of exhaled carbon monoxide at 34-38 weeks' gestation. The primary outcome was cotinine verified cessation at 34-38 weeks' gestation through saliva (incentives were documented. Significantly more smokers in the incentives group than control group stopped smoking: 69 (22.5%) versus 26 (8.6%). The relative risk of not smoking at the end of pregnancy was 2.63 (95% confidence interval 1.73 to 4.01) Pincentives need to be offered to achieve one extra quitter in late pregnancy) was 7.2 (95% confidence interval 5.1 to 12.2). The mean birth weight was 3140 g (SD 600 g) in the incentives group

  6. Regulatory Incentives and Disincentives for Utility Investments in Grid Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihm, Steve [Seventhware, Madison, WI (United States); Beecher, Janice [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Inst. of Public Utilities; Lehr, Ronald L.

    2017-05-31

    Electric power is America's most capital-intensive industry, with more than $100 billion invested each year in energy infrastructure. Investment needs are likely to grow as electric utilities make power systems more reliable and resilient, deploy advanced digital technologies, and facilitate new services to meet some consumers' expectations for greater choice and control. But do current regulatory approaches provide the appropriate incentives for grid modernization investments? This report presents three perspectives: -Financial analyst Steve Kihm begins by explaining that any major investor-owned electric utility that wants to raise capital today can do so at a reasonable cost. The question is whether utility managers want to raise capital for grid modernization. Specifically, they look for investments that create the most value for their existing shareholders. In cases where grid modernization investments are not the best choice in terms of shareholder value, Kihm describes shareholder incentive mechanisms that regulators could consider to encourage such investments when they are in the public interest. -From an institutional perspective, Dr. Janice Beecher finds that the traditional rate-base/rate of return regulatory model provides powerful incentives for utilities to pursue investments, cost control, efficiency and even innovation, and it is well suited to the policy objectives of grid modernization. Prudence of grid modernization investments (fair returns) depends on careful evaluation of the specific asset, and any special incentives (bonus returns) should be used only if they promote economic efficiency consistent with the core goals of economic regulation. According to Beecher, realizing the promises of grid modernization depends on effective implementation of the traditional regulatory model and ratemaking tools to serve the public interest. -Conversely, former commissioner and clean energy consultant Ron Lehr says that rapid electric industry

  7. IMPLEMENTATION OF GREEN BUILDING INCENTIVES FOR CONSTRUCTION KEY PLAYERS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SITI ZUBAIDAH HASHIM

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A Green Building Index (GBI is a pioneer in a building grading system to promote sustainability and increase awareness upon environmental issue in Malaysia. The GBI was first established by Malaysia Architect Association (PAM and Association of Consulting Engineers Malaysia (ACEM in February 2009. As a green building contribution on sustainable development and energy efficiency, government has introduced incentives to parties who involve in obtaining Green Building Index Certificate to inculcate vgreen technology. The present paper articulates various categories of incentives introduced by government for construction key players in Malaysia and compare those incentives implies worldwide including countries such as United States, United Kingdom, Australia and Singapore. The incentives are categories into three; financial incentives, fiscal incentives and structure incentives. In a case of financial incentives the financial grants, loans, fund, vouchers, rebates and etc. attract building developers to adopt green elements and apply for certification in their new building project. Obviously, most developers more engrossed to the incentives which has a direct impact on the project financial cash flow. Fiscal incentive however is a privilege by the government, in term of tax exemption granted to respective green building project. Structural incentives are much common incentives offered by government because it would not require expenditure of fund and not reduce the income of city and county. By comparing few successful model of incentives by several countries, the present research reveals that the structure of incentives for green building in Malaysia should have more focused on structural incentive especially those involves technical support, expedited building permit and Gross Floor Area (GFA equivalent incentive scheme.

  8. Institutional incentives for altruism: gifting blood in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In mainland China, the motivation behind voluntary blood donation is a relatively new and understudied behavior. In recent times provincial governments in China have implemented various institutional incentive measures. However, little is known regarding the effectiveness of such measures. This qualitative study investigated the nature and outcomes of some identified institutionalized mechanisms, in particular how these were created and distributed in the form of incentives for voluntary blood donation. Methods Participatory observations were conducted at two blood donation stations and four blood collecting vehicles in Changsha city, China. In-depth interviews were conducted with 17 staff and 58 blood donors at the aforementioned venues from May to October 2008 in Changsha. Results Thematic analysis revealed the operation of four primary type incentives: policy-driven, symbolic, information feedback and role models, which constituted the system of institutional incentives. The current blood reimbursement system was not the primary motivation for blood donation; instead this system was a subtheme of future assurance for emergency blood needs. It was evident that symbolic incentives stressed the meaning and value of blood donation. Furthermore, post-donation information services and the inherent mechanisms of communication, enhanced by some public role models, served to draw the public to donate blood. Conclusions At the institutional level, blood donation was not only informed by altruism, but also carried a system of benefit and reward for the donors and their family members. We would recommend that such arrangements, if accommodated effectively into China’s health promotion strategies, would increase the likelihood of blood donation. PMID:23721212

  9. Economic incentive in community nursing: attraction, rejection or indifference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingma Mireille

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is hard to imagine any period in time when economic issues were more visible in health sector decision-making. The search for measures that maximize available resources has never been greater than within the present decade. A staff payroll represents 60%-70% of budgeted health service funds. The cost-effective use of human resources is thus an objective of paramount importance. Using incentives and disincentives to direct individuals' energies and behaviour is common practice in all work settings, of which the health care system is no exception. The range and influence of economic incentives/disincentives affecting community nurses are the subject of this discussion paper. The tendency by nurses to disregard, and in many cases, deny a direct impact of economic incentives/disincentives on their motivation and professional conduct is of particular interest. The goal of recent research was to determine if economic incentives/disincentives in community nursing exist, whether they have a perceivable impact and in what areas. Conclusion Understanding the value system of community nurses and how they respond to economic incentives/disincentives facilitates the development of reward systems more likely to be relevant and strategic. If nurse rewards are to become more effective organizational tools, the data suggest that future initiatives should: • Improve nurses' salary/income relativities (e.g. comparable pay/rates; • Provide just compensation for job-related expenses (e.g. petrol, clothing; • Introduce promotional opportunities within the clinical area, rewarding skill and competence development; • Make available a range of financed rewards. - Direct (e.g. subsidized education, additional leave, insurance benefits; - Indirect (e.g. better working conditions, access to professional support network, greater participation in decision-making bodies.

  10. Structuring economic incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation within Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Jonah; Lubowski, Ruben N; Godoy, Fabiano; Steininger, Marc; Yusuf, Arief A; Austin, Kemen; Hewson, Jenny; Juhn, Daniel; Farid, Muhammad; Boltz, Frederick

    2012-01-24

    We estimate and map the impacts that alternative national and subnational economic incentive structures for reducing emissions from deforestation (REDD+) in Indonesia would have had on greenhouse gas emissions and national and local revenue if they had been in place from 2000 to 2005. The impact of carbon payments on deforestation is calibrated econometrically from the pattern of observed deforestation and spatial variation in the benefits and costs of converting land to agriculture over that time period. We estimate that at an international carbon price of $10/tCO(2)e, a "mandatory incentive structure," such as a cap-and-trade or symmetric tax-and-subsidy program, would have reduced emissions by 163-247 MtCO(2)e/y (20-31% below the without-REDD+ reference scenario), while generating a programmatic budget surplus. In contrast, a "basic voluntary incentive structure" modeled after a standard payment-for-environmental-services program would have reduced emissions nationally by only 45-76 MtCO(2)e/y (6-9%), while generating a programmatic budget shortfall. By making four policy improvements--paying for net emission reductions at the scale of an entire district rather than site-by-site; paying for reductions relative to reference levels that match business-as-usual levels; sharing a portion of district-level revenues with the national government; and sharing a portion of the national government's responsibility for costs with districts--an "improved voluntary incentive structure" would have been nearly as effective as a mandatory incentive structure, reducing emissions by 136-207 MtCO(2)e/y (17-26%) and generating a programmatic budget surplus.

  11. Structuring economic incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation within Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Jonah; Lubowski, Ruben N.; Godoy, Fabiano; Steininger, Marc; Yusuf, Arief A.; Austin, Kemen; Hewson, Jenny; Juhn, Daniel; Farid, Muhammad; Boltz, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    We estimate and map the impacts that alternative national and subnational economic incentive structures for reducing emissions from deforestation (REDD+) in Indonesia would have had on greenhouse gas emissions and national and local revenue if they had been in place from 2000 to 2005. The impact of carbon payments on deforestation is calibrated econometrically from the pattern of observed deforestation and spatial variation in the benefits and costs of converting land to agriculture over that time period. We estimate that at an international carbon price of $10/tCO2e, a “mandatory incentive structure,” such as a cap-and-trade or symmetric tax-and-subsidy program, would have reduced emissions by 163–247 MtCO2e/y (20–31% below the without-REDD+ reference scenario), while generating a programmatic budget surplus. In contrast, a “basic voluntary incentive structure” modeled after a standard payment-for-environmental-services program would have reduced emissions nationally by only 45–76 MtCO2e/y (6–9%), while generating a programmatic budget shortfall. By making four policy improvements—paying for net emission reductions at the scale of an entire district rather than site-by-site; paying for reductions relative to reference levels that match business-as-usual levels; sharing a portion of district-level revenues with the national government; and sharing a portion of the national government's responsibility for costs with districts—an “improved voluntary incentive structure” would have been nearly as effective as a mandatory incentive structure, reducing emissions by 136–207 MtCO2e/y (17–26%) and generating a programmatic budget surplus. PMID:22232665

  12. Counteracting the climate effects of volcanic eruptions using short-lived greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Samset, Bjørn H.; Shine, Keith P.

    2014-12-01

    A large volcanic eruption might constitute a climate emergency, significantly altering global temperature and precipitation for several years. Major future eruptions will occur, but their size or timing cannot be predicted. We show, for the first time, that it may be possible to counteract these climate effects through deliberate emissions of short-lived greenhouse gases, dampening the abrupt impact of an eruption. We estimate an emission pathway countering a hypothetical eruption 3 times the size of Mount Pinatubo in 1991. We use a global climate model to evaluate global and regional responses to the eruption, with and without counteremissions. We then raise practical, financial, and ethical questions related to such a strategy. Unlike the more commonly discussed geoengineering to mitigate warming from long-lived greenhouse gases, designed emissions to counter temporary cooling would not have the disadvantage of needing to be sustained over long periods. Nevertheless, implementation would still face significant challenges.

  13. In-vivo experimental demonstration that hyperhistaminism counteracts tumor-growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellarovere, F; Broccio, G; Granata, A; Fimiani, V

    1994-01-01

    Induction of hyperhistaminism in peritoneum of rats by daily intraperitoneal supply of 0.005 mu g of histamine, counteracts the growth of 10(3) Yoshida ascite sarcoma cells only if administration precedes inoculation of tumor cells and has a long duration. Treating animals for two weeks before tumor cell inoculation we observed significant 70% survival, that was increased to 80% continuing the supply for 20-days after the inoculation; treatment for 3 days before or 20 days after the inoculation did not show significant results. The condition created in rat peritoneum is similar to that in allergic people, and our data in animals confirm statistical data observed in allergic people showing decreased incidence of neoplastic disease due to histamine, that appears to be integrated in a highly potent immunoregulatory circuit.

  14. Malaysian adolescent students' needs for enhancing thinking skills, counteracting risk factors and demonstrating academic resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuldas, Seffetullah; Hashim, Shahabuddin; Ismail, Hairul Nizam

    2015-01-01

    The adolescence period of life comes along with changes and challenges in terms of physical and cognitive development. In this hectic period, many adolescents may suffer more from various risk factors such as low socioeconomic status, substance abuse, sexual abuse and teenage pregnancy. Findings indicate that such disadvantaged backgrounds of Malaysian adolescent students lead to failure or underachievement in their academic performance. This narrative review scrutinises how some of these students are able to demonstrate academic resilience, which is satisfactory performance in cognitive or academic tasks in spite of their disadvantaged backgrounds. The review stresses the need for developing a caregiving relationship model for at-risk adolescent students in Malaysia. Such a model would allow educators to meet the students' needs for enhancing thinking skills, counteracting risk factors and demonstrating academic resilience. PMID:25663734

  15. Malaysian adolescent students' needs for enhancing thinking skills, counteracting risk factors and demonstrating academic resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuldas, Seffetullah; Hashim, Shahabuddin; Ismail, Hairul Nizam

    2015-01-02

    The adolescence period of life comes along with changes and challenges in terms of physical and cognitive development. In this hectic period, many adolescents may suffer more from various risk factors such as low socioeconomic status, substance abuse, sexual abuse and teenage pregnancy. Findings indicate that such disadvantaged backgrounds of Malaysian adolescent students lead to failure or underachievement in their academic performance. This narrative review scrutinises how some of these students are able to demonstrate academic resilience, which is satisfactory performance in cognitive or academic tasks in spite of their disadvantaged backgrounds. The review stresses the need for developing a caregiving relationship model for at-risk adolescent students in Malaysia. Such a model would allow educators to meet the students' needs for enhancing thinking skills, counteracting risk factors and demonstrating academic resilience.

  16. Desalted duck egg white peptides promote calcium uptake by counteracting the adverse effects of phytic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tao; Liu, Weiwei; Shi, Wen; Ma, Zhili; He, Hui

    2017-03-15

    The structure of the desalted duck egg white peptides-calcium chelate was characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering. Characterization results showed structural folding and aggregation of amino acids or oligopeptides during the chelation process. Desalted duck egg white peptides enhanced the calcium uptake in the presence of oxalate, phosphate and zinc ions in Caco-2 monolayers. Animal model indicated that desalted duck egg white peptides effectively enhanced the mineral absorption and counteracted the deleterious effects of phytic acid. These findings suggested that desalted duck egg white peptides might promote calcium uptake in three pathways: 1) desalted duck egg white peptides bind with calcium to form soluble chelate and avoid precipitate; 2) the chelate is absorbed as small peptides by enterocyte; and 3) desalted duck egg white peptides regulate the proliferation and differentiation of enterocytes through the interaction with transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 calcium channel.

  17. Disentangling the counteracting effects of water content and carbon mass on zooplankton growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mcconville, Kristian; Atkinson, Angus; Fileman, Elaine S.

    2017-01-01

    Zooplankton vary widely in carbon percentage (carbon mass as a percentage of wet mass), but are often described as either gelatinous or non-gelatinous. Here we update datasets of carbon percentage and growth rate to investigate whether carbon percentage is a continuous trait, and whether its...... time series at station L4 off Plymouth, UK. This showed separate biomass peaks for gelatinous and crustacean taxa, however, carbon percentage varied 8-fold within the gelatinous group. Species with high carbon mass had lower carbon percentage, allowing separation of the counteracting effects...... of these two variables on growth rate. Specific growth rates, g (d -1) were negatively related to carbon percentage and carbon mass, even in the gelatinous taxa alone, suggesting that the trend is not driven by a categorical difference between these groups. The addition of carbon percentage doubled...

  18. A Single Pair of Serotonergic Neurons Counteracts Serotonergic Inhibition of Ethanol Attraction in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; He, Jianzheng; Kaiser, Andrea; Gräber, Nikolas; Schläger, Laura; Ritze, Yvonne; Scholz, Henrike

    2016-01-01

    Attraction to ethanol is common in both flies and humans, but the neuromodulatory mechanisms underlying this innate attraction are not well understood. Here, we dissect the function of the key regulator of serotonin signaling-the serotonin transporter-in innate olfactory attraction to ethanol in Drosophila melanogaster. We generated a mutated version of the serotonin transporter that prolongs serotonin signaling in the synaptic cleft and is targeted via the Gal4 system to different sets of serotonergic neurons. We identified four serotonergic neurons that inhibit the olfactory attraction to ethanol and two additional neurons that counteract this inhibition by strengthening olfactory information. Our results reveal that compensation can occur on the circuit level and that serotonin has a bidirectional function in modulating the innate attraction to ethanol. Given the evolutionarily conserved nature of the serotonin transporter and serotonin, the bidirectional serotonergic mechanisms delineate a basic principle for how random behavior is switched into targeted approach behavior.

  19. Sorbitol production in the lens: a means of counteracting glucose-derived osmotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chylack, L T; Tung, W; Harding, R

    1986-01-01

    Heretofore, the intracellular accumulation of sorbitol has been associated exclusively with deleterious (cataractogenic) changes in the lens. This study demonstrates a beneficial role for the sorbitol pathway in the rabbit lens, namely that of counteracting extracellular, glucose-derived, osmotic stress with the intracellular production of osmotically active sorbitol. Large and sudden increases in the extracellular glucose concentration lead to dehydration of the lens, a response that can be diminished by intracellular sorbitol and fructose production. These results are discussed in light of the impact (beneficial/detrimental) of aldose reductase inhibitors on the lens. Sugar cataract formation appears to result from continuous, rather than cyclical, activity of a pathway which normally may have a protective function in the lens.

  20. Agrin promotes synaptic differentiation by counteracting an inhibitory effect of neurotransmitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misgeld, Thomas; Kummer, Terrance T; Lichtman, Jeff W; Sanes, Joshua R

    2005-08-02

    Synaptic organizing molecules and neurotransmission regulate synapse development. Here, we use the skeletal neuromuscular junction to assess the interdependence of effects evoked by an essential synaptic organizing protein, agrin, and the neuromuscular transmitter, acetylcholine (ACh). Mice lacking agrin fail to maintain neuromuscular junctions, whereas neuromuscular synapses differentiate extensively in the absence of ACh. We now demonstrate that agrin's action in vivo depends critically on cholinergic neurotransmission. Using double-mutant mice, we show that synapses do form in the absence of agrin provided that ACh is also absent. We provide evidence that ACh destabilizes nascent postsynaptic sites, and that one major physiological role of agrin is to counteract this "antisynaptogenic" influence. Similar interactions between neurotransmitters and synaptic organizing molecules may operate at synapses in the central nervous system.

  1. Stevioside counteracts the alpha-cell hypersecretion caused by long-term palmitate exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, J; Chen, L; Jeppesen, P B;

    2006-01-01

    Long-term exposure to fatty acids impairs beta-cell function in type 2 diabetes, but little is known about the chronic effects of fatty acids on alpha-cells. We therefore studied the prolonged impact of palmitate on alpha-cell function and on the expression of genes related to fuel metabolism. We......-activated receptor-gamma, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene expressions in the presence of palmitate (Pacids leads to a hypersecretion of glucagon and an accumulation of TG content in clonal alpha-TC1-6 cells. Stevioside was able to counteract the alpha......-cell hypersecretion caused by palmitate and enhanced the expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism. This indicates that stevioside may be a promising antidiabetic agent in treatment of type 2 diabetes....

  2. Voluntary exercise counteracts Aβ25-35-induced memory impairment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Xu, Zhiqiang; Tang, Jinrong; Sun, Jianguo; Gao, Junying; Wu, Ting; Xiao, Ming

    2013-11-01

    Exercise has been shown to enhance hippocampus-related cognition and slow the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, whether voluntary exercise directly decreases the neurotoxicity of amyloid peptide (Aβ) needs to be determined. In the present study, two-month old male C57bl/6 mice were intracerebroventricularly injected with Aβ25-35, and then allowed for voluntary exercise for 12 days. Y-maze test revealed that voluntary exercise mitigated spatial memory impairment induced by Aβ25-35. Consistently, Aβ25-35 treated mice with exercise showed reduced neuronal degeneration and synaptic protein loss in the hippocampus compared with sedentary controls. Moreover, voluntary exercise significantly ameliorated oxidative stress markers and increased vessel branches in the hippocampus of Aβ25-35 treated mice. Our results suggest that voluntary exercise counteracts the neurotoxicity of Aβ by reducing oxidative stress and increasing angiogenesis, which may underlie the beneficial effect of exercise on AD.

  3. Therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in counteracting chemotherapy-induced adverse effects: an exploratory review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostadhadi, Sattar; Rahmatollahi, Mahdieh; Dehpour, Ahmad-Reza; Rahimian, Reza

    2015-03-01

    Cannabinoids (the active constituents of Cannabis sativa) and their derivatives have got intense attention during recent years because of their extensive pharmacological properties. Cannabinoids first developed as successful agents for alleviating chemotherapy associated nausea and vomiting. Recent investigations revealed that cannabinoids have a wide range of therapeutic effects such as appetite stimulation, inhibition of nausea and emesis, suppression of chemotherapy or radiotherapy-associated bone loss, chemotherapy-induced nephrotoxicity and cardiotoxicity, pain relief, mood amelioration, and last but not the least relief from insomnia. In this exploratory review, we scrutinize the potential of cannabinoids to counteract chemotherapy-induced side effects. Moreover, some novel and yet important pharmacological aspects of cannabinoids such as antitumoral effects will be discussed.

  4. Incentives for Organ Donation : Proposed Standards for an Internationally Acceptable System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matas, Arthur J.; Satel, Sally; Munn, Stephen; Richards, Janet Radcliffe; Tan-Alora, Angeles; Ambagtsheer, Frederike J. A. E.; Asis, Micheal D. H.; Baloloy, Leo; Cole, Edward; Crippin, Jeff; Cronin, David; Daar, Abdallah S.; Eason, James; Fine, Richard; Florman, Sander; Freeman, Richard; Fung, John; Gaertner, Wulf; Gaston, Robert; Ghahramani, Nasrollah; Ghods, Ahad; Goodwin, Michelle; Gutmann, Thomas; Hakim, Nadey; Hippen, Benjamin; Huilgol, Ajit; Kam, Igal; Lamban, Arlene; Land, Walter; Langnas, Alan; Lesaca, Reynaldo; Levy, Gary; Liquette, RoseMarie; Marks, William H.; Miller, Charles; Ona, Enrique; Pamugas, Glenda; Paraiso, Antonio; Peters, Thomas G.; Price, David; Randhawa, Gurch; Reed, Alan; Rigg, Keith; Serrano, Dennis; Sollinger, Hans; Sundar, Sankaran; Teperman, Lewis; van Dijk, Gert; Weimar, Willem; Danguilan, Romina

    2012-01-01

    Incentives for organ donation, currently prohibited in most countries, may increase donation and save lives. Discussion of incentives has focused on two areas: (1) whether or not there are ethical principles that justify the current prohibition and (2) whether incentives would do more good than harm

  5. 48 CFR 216.405-1 - Cost-plus-incentive-fee contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost-plus-incentive-fee... Contracts 216.405-1 Cost-plus-incentive-fee contracts. See PGI 216.405-1 for guidance on the use of cost-plus-incentive-fee contracts. ...

  6. 48 CFR 16.304 - Cost-plus-incentive-fee contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost-plus-incentive-fee... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 16.304 Cost-plus-incentive-fee contracts. A cost-plus-incentive-fee contract is a cost-reimbursement contract that provides...

  7. Scientific Utopia: II. Restructuring incentives and practices to promote truth over publishability

    OpenAIRE

    Nosek, Brian A; Jeffrey R. Spies; Motyl, Matt

    2012-01-01

    An academic scientist's professional success depends on publishing. Publishing norms emphasize novel, positive results. As such, disciplinary incentives encourage design, analysis, and reporting decisions that elicit positive results and ignore negative results. Prior reports demonstrate how these incentives inflate the rate of false effects in published science. When incentives favor novelty over replication, false results persist in the literature unchallenged, reducing efficiency in knowle...

  8. 20 CFR 666.210 - How may Incentive Grant funds be used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How may Incentive Grant funds be used? 666.210 Section 666.210 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Performance § 666.210 How may Incentive Grant funds be used? Incentive grant funds are awarded to States...

  9. 20 CFR 666.410 - How may local incentive awards be used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How may local incentive awards be used? 666.410 Section 666.410 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Performance § 666.410 How may local incentive awards be used? The local incentive grant funds may be used...

  10. 78 FR 49359 - Pay Under the General Schedule and Recruitment, Relocation, and Retention Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... Incentives AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Office of... incentive determinations; add succession planning to the list of factors that an agency must consider before approving a retention incentive, if applicable; and make additional minor clarifications and corrections...

  11. 76 FR 30539 - Historic Preservation Certifications for Federal Income Tax Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... Tax Incentives AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The National Park... structures'' or ``certified rehabilitations'' for Federal income tax incentives. (3) This rule does not alter... rule are purely technical. Moreover, the tax incentives program involves purely domestic buildings and...

  12. 76 FR 1096 - Pay Under the General Schedule and Recruitment, Relocation, and Retention Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... Recruitment, Relocation, and Retention Incentives AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION... proposed regulations to improve oversight of group recruitment incentive determinations and all retention incentives; add succession planning to the list of factors that an agency may consider before approving a...

  13. 77 FR 23193 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program-Stage 2; Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program--Stage 2; Corrections AGENCY... Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program--Stage 2'' which appeared in the March 7... ``Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program--Stage 2'' there were a number...

  14. Incentives for Organ Donation : Proposed Standards for an Internationally Acceptable System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matas, Arthur J.; Satel, Sally; Munn, Stephen; Richards, Janet Radcliffe; Tan-Alora, Angeles; Ambagtsheer, Frederike J. A. E.; Asis, Micheal D. H.; Baloloy, Leo; Cole, Edward; Crippin, Jeff; Cronin, David; Daar, Abdallah S.; Eason, James; Fine, Richard; Florman, Sander; Freeman, Richard; Fung, John; Gaertner, Wulf; Gaston, Robert; Ghahramani, Nasrollah; Ghods, Ahad; Goodwin, Michelle; Gutmann, Thomas; Hakim, Nadey; Hippen, Benjamin; Huilgol, Ajit; Kam, Igal; Lamban, Arlene; Land, Walter; Langnas, Alan; Lesaca, Reynaldo; Levy, Gary; Liquette, RoseMarie; Marks, William H.; Miller, Charles; Ona, Enrique; Pamugas, Glenda; Paraiso, Antonio; Peters, Thomas G.; Price, David; Randhawa, Gurch; Reed, Alan; Rigg, Keith; Serrano, Dennis; Sollinger, Hans; Sundar, Sankaran; Teperman, Lewis; van Dijk, Gert; Weimar, Willem; Danguilan, Romina

    Incentives for organ donation, currently prohibited in most countries, may increase donation and save lives. Discussion of incentives has focused on two areas: (1) whether or not there are ethical principles that justify the current prohibition and (2) whether incentives would do more good than

  15. Effects of Strategy Training and Incentives on Students' Performance, Confidence, and Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Antonio P.; Schraw, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of strategy instruction and incentives on performance, confidence, and calibration accuracy. Individuals (N = 107) in randomly assigned treatment groups received a multicomponent strategy instruction intervention, financial incentives for high performance, or both. The authors predicted that incentives would improve…

  16. Propionyl-L-Carnitine Enhances Wound Healing and Counteracts Microvascular Endothelial Cell Dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giovanna Scioli

    Full Text Available Impaired wound healing represents a high cost for health care systems. Endothelial dysfunction characterizes dermal microangiopathy and contributes to delayed wound healing and chronic ulcers. Endothelial dysfunction impairs cutaneous microvascular blood flow by inducing an imbalance between vasorelaxation and vasoconstriction as a consequence of reduced nitric oxide (NO production and the increase of oxidative stress and inflammation. Propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC is a natural derivative of carnitine that has been reported to ameliorate post-ischemic blood flow recovery.We investigated the effects of PLC in rat skin flap and cutaneous wound healing. A daily oral PLC treatment improved skin flap viability and associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS reduction, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and NO up-regulation, accelerated wound healing and increased capillary density, likely favoring dermal angiogenesis by up-regulation for iNOS, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, placental growth factor (PlGF and reduction of NADPH-oxidase 4 (Nox4 expression. In serum-deprived human dermal microvascular endothelial cell cultures, PLC ameliorated endothelial dysfunction by increasing iNOS, PlGF, VEGF receptors 1 and 2 expression and NO level. In addition, PLC counteracted serum deprivation-induced impairment of mitochondrial β-oxidation, Nox4 and cellular adhesion molecule (CAM expression, ROS generation and leukocyte adhesion. Moreover, dermal microvascular endothelial cell dysfunction was prevented by Nox4 inhibition. Interestingly, inhibition of β-oxidation counteracted the beneficial effects of PLC on oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction.PLC treatment improved rat skin flap viability, accelerated wound healing and dermal angiogenesis. The beneficial effects of PLC likely derived from improvement of mitochondrial β-oxidation and reduction of Nox4-mediated oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. Antioxidant therapy and

  17. Impulse control in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex counteracts post-diet weight regain in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weygandt, Martin; Mai, Knut; Dommes, Esther; Ritter, Kerstin; Leupelt, Verena; Spranger, Joachim; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2015-04-01

    A variety of studies suggest that efficient treatments to induce short-term dietary success in obesity exist. However, sustained maintenance of reduced weight is rare as a large proportion of patients start to regain weight when treatment is discontinued. Thus, from a clinical perspective, it would be desirable to identify factors that counteract post-diet weight regain across longer time-scales. To address this question, we extended our previous work on neural impulse control mechanisms of short-term dietary success in obesity and now investigated the mechanisms counteracting long-term weight regain after a diet. Specifically, we measured neural impulse control during a delay discounting task with fMRI at two time points, i.e. the beginning ('T0') and the end ('T12') of a one-year follow-up interval after a 12-week diet. Then, we tested whether activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) at T0 and whether activity changes across the follow-up period (T0-T12) are linked to success in weight maintenance. The analyses conducted show that control-related DLPFC activity at T0 was coupled to the degree of success in weight maintenance. Consistently, also behavioral measures of control were linked to the degree of success in maintenance. A direct comparison of neural and behavioral control parameters for prognostic weight change modeling revealed that neural signals were more informative. Taken together, neural impulse control in the DLPFC measured with fMRI directly after a diet predicts real-world diet success in obese patients across extended time periods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Postactivation potentiation can counteract declines in force and power that occur after stretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmel, J; Kramer, A; Cronin, N J; Gruber, M

    2016-12-09

    Stretching can decrease a muscle's maximal force, whereas short but intense muscle contractions can increase it. We hypothesized that when combined, postactivation potentiation induced by reactive jumps would counteract stretch-induced decrements in drop jump (DJ) performance. Moreover, we measured changes in muscle twitch forces and ankle joint stiffness (KAnkle ) to examine underlying mechanisms. Twenty subjects completed three DJs and 10 electrically evoked muscle twitches of the triceps surae subsequent to four different conditioning activities and control. The conditioning activities were 10 hops, 20s of static stretching of the triceps surae muscle, 20s of stretching followed by 10 hops, and vice versa. After 10 hops, twitch peak torque (TPT) was 20% and jump height 5% higher compared with control with no differences in KAnkle . After stretching, TPT and jump height were both 9% and KAnkle 6% lower. When hops and stretching were combined as conditioning activities, jump height was not different compared with control but significantly higher (11% and 8%) compared with stretching. TPTs were 16% higher compared with control when the hops were performed after stretching and 9% higher compared with the reverse order. KAnkle was significantly lower when stretching was performed after the hops (6%) compared with control, but no significant difference was observed when hops were performed after stretching. These results demonstrate that conditioning hops can counteract stretch-related declines in DJ performance. Furthermore, the differences in TPTs and KAnkle between combined conditioning protocols indicate that the order of conditioning tasks might play an important role at the muscle-tendon level. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Arsenic-induced micronuclei formation in mammalian cells and its counteraction by tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Dona; Roy, Madhumita; Siddiqi, Maqsood; Bhattacharya, Rathin K

    2005-01-01

    The Gangetic plain of West Bengal, India, has been engulfed by a disastrous environmental calamity of arsenic contamination of the ground water. Chronic arsenic toxicity caused by drinking arsenic-contaminated water has been one of the worst health hazards gradually affecting nine districts of West Bengal since the early 1980s. Over and above hyperpigmentation and keratosis,weakness, burning sensation of the eyes, swelling of the legs, liver fibrosis, chronic lung disease, gangrene of the toes, neuropathy, and skin cancer are other manifestations. Induction of cancer is frequently associated with DNA damage, changes in ploidy of cells, and non-random chromosome aberrations. Counteraction of these genotoxic and cytogenetic abnormalities with natural dietary polyphenols could be a useful strategy to combat arsenic-induced DNA damage and thereby cancer. A review of the literature showed that it is the antioxidant property of tea polyphenols that affords protection against various types of cancer. The present study was conducted to investigate whether the extracts of green tea and black tea (Darjeeling and Assam) as well as their polyphenols could ameliorate this arsenic-induced genotoxicity. The normal mammalian cell culture derived from male Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells (V79) was used as the test system to assess the genotoxicity by micronucleus assay. The results showed that both green tea and black tea extracts have equal potential in modulating the arsenic-induced genotoxicity. This effect was perhaps induced by the constituent polyphenols present in green and black tea. In addition, the repair activity of the damaged cells was enhanced when treated with these tea extracts and their polyphenols. Thus, tea and its polyphenols may have a promising role in counteracting the devastating effects of arsenic.

  20. Docosahexaenoic acid counteracts attenuation of CD95-induced cell death by inorganic mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, Randall [Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Wayne State University, Detroit MI (United States); Lanni, Lydia; Jen, K.-L. Catherine [Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Wayne State University, Detroit MI (United States); McCabe, Michael J. [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester, Rochester NY (United States); Rosenspire, Allen, E-mail: arosenspire@wayne.edu [Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Wayne State University, Detroit MI (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In the United States the principal environmental exposure to mercury is through dietary consumption of sea food. Although the mechanism by which low levels of mercury affect the nervous system is not well established, epidemiological studies suggest that low level exposure of pregnant women to dietary mercury can adversely impact cognitive development in their children, but that Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the most prominent n-polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-PUFA) present in fish may counteract negative effects of mercury on the nervous system. Aside from effects on the nervous system, epidemiological and animal studies have also suggested that low level mercury exposure may be a risk factor for autoimmune disease. However unlike the nervous system where a mechanism linking mercury to impaired cognitive development remains elusive, we have previously suggested a potential mechanism linking low level mercury exposures to immune system dysfunction and autoimmunity. In the immune system it is well established that disruption of CD95 mediated apoptosis leads to autoimmune disease. We have previously shown in vitro as well as in vivo that in lymphocytes burdened with low levels of mercury, CD95 mediated cell death is impaired. In this report we now show that DHA counteracts the negative effect of mercury on CD95 signaling in T lymphocytes. T cells which have been pre-exposed to DHA are able to cleave pro-caspase 3 and efficiently signal programmed cell death through the CD95 signaling pathway, whether or not they are burdened with low levels of mercury. Thus DHA may lower the risk of autoimmune disease after low level mercury exposures. - Highlights: • Inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) interferes with CD95 mediated cell death in Jurkat T cells • DHA restores the ability of CD95 to signal cell death in Hg{sup 2+} intoxicated T cells • The restoration of CD95 mediated cell death by DHA is correlated with increased activation of Caspase 3.